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Sample records for monitoring sim mode

  1. Cluster SIMS Microscope Mode Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, András; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source is combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The mass spectral and imaging performance of the system is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. We show that the high secondary ion yield (with respect to traditional monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion ...

  2. A novel ToF-SIMS operation mode for sub 100 nm lateral resolution: Application and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Markus; Holzlechner, Gerald; Opitz, Alexander K; Larisegger, Silvia; Hutter, Herbert; Fleig, Jürgen

    2014-01-15

    A novel operation mode for time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is described for a TOF.SIMS 5 instrument with a Bi-ion gun. It features sub 100 nm lateral resolution, adjustable primary ion currents and the possibility to measure with high lateral resolution as well as high mass resolution. The adjustment and performance of the novel operation mode are described and compared to established ToF-SIMS operation modes. Several examples of application featuring novel scientific results show the capabilities of the operation mode in terms of lateral resolution, accuracy of isotope analysis of oxygen, and combination of high lateral and mass resolution. The relationship between high lateral resolution and operation of SIMS in static mode is discussed.

  3. A novel ToF-SIMS operation mode for sub 100 nm lateral resolution: Application and performance☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Markus; Holzlechner, Gerald; Opitz, Alexander K.; Larisegger, Silvia; Hutter, Herbert; Fleig, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    A novel operation mode for time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is described for a TOF.SIMS 5 instrument with a Bi-ion gun. It features sub 100 nm lateral resolution, adjustable primary ion currents and the possibility to measure with high lateral resolution as well as high mass resolution. The adjustment and performance of the novel operation mode are described and compared to established ToF-SIMS operation modes. Several examples of application featuring novel scientific results show the capabilities of the operation mode in terms of lateral resolution, accuracy of isotope analysis of oxygen, and combination of high lateral and mass resolution. The relationship between high lateral resolution and operation of SIMS in static mode is discussed. PMID:24748701

  4. The detection of Quasinormal Mode of Pop III Binary Black Hole merger with final $M \\sim 60M_\\odot$ and $a/M \\sim 0.7$ would confirm the strong gravity space-time around $\\sim 2M$ which is only $\\sim 1.17$ times the event horizon radius

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Takashi; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent population synthesis simulations of Pop III stars suggest that the event rate of coalescence of $\\sim 30M_\\odot$--$30M_\\odot$ binary black holes can be high enough for the detection by the second generation gravitational wave detectors. The frequencies of chirp signal as well as quasinormal modes are near the best sensitivity of these detectors so that it would be possible to confirm Einstein's general relativity. Using the WKB method, we suggest that for the typical value of spin parameter $a/M\\sim 0.7$ from numerical relativity results of the coalescence of binary black holes, the strong gravity of the black hole space-time at around the radius $2M$, which is just $\\sim 1.17$ times the event horizon radius, would be confirmed as predicted by general relativity. The expected event rate with the signal-to-noise ratio $> 35$ needed for the determination of the quasinormal mode frequency with the meaningful accuracy is $0.17$--$7.2$~${\\rm events~yr^{-1}~(SFR_p/(10^{-2.5}~M_\\odot~yr^{-1}~Mpc^{-3}))} \\cdot...

  5. In Situ Mass Spectrometric Monitoring of the Dynamic Electrochemical Process at the Electrode–Electrolyte Interface: a SIMS Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaoying; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Bingwen; Wu, Kui; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhu, Zihua; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Fuyi

    2017-01-03

    The in situ molecular characterization of reaction intermediates and products at electrode-electrolyte interfaces is central to mechanistic studies of complex electrochemical processes, yet a great challenge. The coupling of electrochemistry (EC) and mass spectrometry (MS) has seen rapid development and found broad applicability in tackling challenges in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. However, few truly in situ and real-time EC-MS studies have been reported at electrode-electrolyte interfaces. An innovative EC-MS coupling method named in situ liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was recently developed by combining SIMS with a vacuum compatible microfluidic electrochemical device. Using this novel capability we report the first in situ elucidation of the electro-oxidation mechanism of a biologically significant organic compound, ascorbic acid (AA), at the electrode-electrolyte interface. The short-lived radical intermediate was successfully captured, which had not been detected directly before. Moreover, we demonstrated the power of this new technique in real-time monitoring of the formation and dynamic evolution of electrical double layers at the electrode-electrolyte interface. This work suggests further promising applications of in situ liquid SIMS in studying more complex chemical and biological events at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  6. In Situ Mass Spectrometric Monitoring of the Dynamic Electrochemical Process at the Electrode-Electrolyte Interface: a SIMS Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoying; Zhang, Yanyan; Liu, Bingwen; Wu, Kui; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R; Zhu, Zihua; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Fuyi

    2017-01-03

    The in situ molecular characterization of reaction intermediates and products at electrode-electrolyte interfaces is central to mechanistic studies of complex electrochemical processes, yet a great challenge. The coupling of electrochemistry (EC) and mass spectrometry (MS) has seen rapid development and found broad applicability in tackling challenges in analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. However, few truly in situ and real-time EC-MS studies have been reported at electrode-electrolyte interfaces. An innovative EC-MS coupling method named in situ liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was recently developed by combining SIMS with a vacuum compatible microfluidic electrochemical device. Using this novel capability, we report the first in situ elucidation of the electro-oxidation mechanism of a biologically significant organic compound, ascorbic acid (AA), at the electrode-electrolyte interface. The short-lived radical intermediate was successfully captured, which had not been detected directly before. Moreover, we demonstrated the power of this new technique in real-time monitoring of the formation and dynamic evolution of electrical double layers at the electrode-electrolyte interface. This work suggests further promising applications of in situ liquid SIMS in studying more complex chemical and biological events at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  7. The detection of quasinormal mode with $a/M \\sim 0.95$ would prove a sphere $99\\%$ soaking in the ergoregion of the Kerr space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent numerical relativity simulations of mergers of binary black holes suggest that the maximum final value of $a/M$ is $\\sim 0.95$ for the coalescence of two equal mass black holes with aligned spins of the same magnitude $a/M=0.994$ which is close to the upper limit $a/M=0.998$ of accretion spin-up shown by Thorne. Using the WKB method, we suggest that if quasinormal modes with $a/M \\sim 0.95$ are detected by the second generation gravitational wave detectors, we could confirm the strong gravity space-time based on Einstein's general relativity up to $1.33M$ which is only $\\sim 1.014$ times the event horizon radius and within the ergoregion. One more message about black hole geometry is expected here. If the quasinormal mode is different from that of general relativity, we need to find the true theory of gravity which deviates from general relativity only near the black hole horizon.

  8. RNA 3D Structure Modeling by Combination of Template-Based Method ModeRNA, Template-Free Folding with SimRNA, and Refinement with QRNAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowski, Pawel; Kasprzak, Joanna M; Kumar, Deepak; Magnus, Marcin; Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2016-01-01

    RNA encompasses an essential part of all known forms of life. The functions of many RNA molecules are dependent on their ability to form complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, experimental determination of RNA 3D structures is laborious and challenging, and therefore, the majority of known RNAs remain structurally uncharacterized. To address this problem, computational structure prediction methods were developed that either utilize information derived from known structures of other RNA molecules (by way of template-based modeling) or attempt to simulate the physical process of RNA structure formation (by way of template-free modeling). All computational methods suffer from various limitations that make theoretical models less reliable than high-resolution experimentally determined structures. This chapter provides a protocol for computational modeling of RNA 3D structure that overcomes major limitations by combining two complementary approaches: template-based modeling that is capable of predicting global architectures based on similarity to other molecules but often fails to predict local unique features, and template-free modeling that can predict the local folding, but is limited to modeling the structure of relatively small molecules. Here, we combine the use of a template-based method ModeRNA with a template-free method SimRNA. ModeRNA requires a sequence alignment of the target RNA sequence to be modeled with a template of the known structure; it generates a model that predicts the structure of a conserved core and provides a starting point for modeling of variable regions. SimRNA can be used to fold small RNAs (models for larger RNAs that have a correctly modeled core. ModeRNA can be either downloaded, compiled and run locally or run through a web interface at http://genesilico.pl/modernaserver/ . SimRNA is currently available to download for local use as a precompiled software package at http://genesilico.pl/software/stand-alone/simrna and as a

  9. Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, C.

    1996-02-15

    A feasibility study to develop a requirements analysis and functional specification for a data management system for large-scale DNA sequencing laboratories resulted in a functional specification for a Sequencing Information Management System (SIMS). This document reports the results of this feasibility study, and includes a functional specification for a SIMS relational schema. The SIMS is an integrated information management system that supports data acquisition, management, analysis, and distribution for DNA sequencing laboratories. The SIMS provides ad hoc query access to information on the sequencing process and its results, and partially automates the transfer of data between laboratory instruments, analysis programs, technical personnel, and managers. The SIMS user interfaces are designed for use by laboratory technicians, laboratory managers, and scientists. The SIMS is designed to run in a heterogeneous, multiplatform environment in a client/server mode. The SIMS communicates with external computational and data resources via the internet.

  10. Simple extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selective ion monitoring mode for the determination of phenols in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, Lucio; Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Tesei, Ilaria

    2006-05-12

    The concentrations of 22 components of wine, including most of those that have been shown to possess significant biological properties, have been determined by a fast and simple analytical method based on gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in the selective ion monitoring mode (GC/MS-SIM). The procedure involves an easy liquid-liquid extraction and derivatization methods of flavanols, phenols and carboxylic acid, using a very small wine volume. The average recovery (Rcv) ranged from 73 to 107% and linear regression coefficients (r(2)) were in a range of 0.981or=0.999. The GC/MS-SIM technique gives good specificity and sensitivity, and can therefore be suitable for routine monitoring of the concentration of individual phenolic antioxidants during winemaking and the aging process.

  11. Fragmentation at and above surfaces in SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, Stefan L.; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2006-07-01

    Matrix-enhanced SIMS and metal-assisted SIMS are successfully employed to increase the organic ion yield in SIMS. In this study we compare kinetic energy distributions obtained for the SIMS, ME-SIMS and MetA-SIMS sputtering of molecular ions. In comparison to the SIMS kinetic energy distributions, those obtained for ME-SIMS display larger energy deficits, indicative of entrainment of analyte ions by matrix molecules or collisions taking place above the sample surface. In the case of MetA-SIMS high energy broadening of the distributions is observed, resulting from the high stopping power of the gold used. A selection of substituted benzylpyridinium salts is used to investigate the effect of internal energy reduction in ME-SIMS. Kinetic energy distributions were used to separate the daughter ions formed in the sample region from those resulting from unimolecular decay on nanosecond timescales, in the first tens of micrometers above the sample surface. The longer-timescale decay was monitored by changing the energy acceptance window of the mass spectrometer used. From the decay rate constants internal energies of the precursor ions decaying on nanosecond timescales were determined using RRKM theory. Within the framework of the precursor model the results indicate an extension of the collision cascade over a wider area than in SIMS.

  12. Monitoring Biological Modes in a Bioreactor Process by Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Semcheddine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the general framework of fermentation system modeling and monitoring, focusing on the fermentation of Escherichia coli. Our main objective is to develop an algorithm for the online detection of acetate production during the culture of recombinant proteins. The analysis the fermentation process shows that it behaves like a hybrid dynamic system with commutation (since it can be represented by 5 nonlinear models. We present a strategy of fault detection based on residual generation for detecting the different actual biological modes. The residual generation is based on nonlinear analytical redundancy relations. The simulation results show that the several modes that are occulted during the bacteria cultivation can be detected by residuals using a nonlinear dynamic model and a reduced instrumentation.

  13. Health monitoring of pipeline girth weld using empirical mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Davood; Taheri, Farid

    2010-05-01

    In the present paper the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), as a time-series analysis technique, has been combined with a local diagnostic approach in an effort to identify flaws in pipeline girth welds. This method is based on monitoring the free vibration signals of the pipe at its healthy and flawed states, and processing the signals through the HHT and its associated signal decomposition technique, known as empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The EMD method decomposes the vibration signals into a collection of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The deviations in structural integrity, measured from a healthy-state baseline, are subsequently evaluated by two damage sensitive parameters. The first is a damage index, referred to as the EM-EDI, which is established based on an energy comparison of the first or second IMF of the vibration signals, before and after occurrence of damage. The second parameter is the evaluation of the lag in instantaneous phase, a quantity derived from the HHT. In the developed methodologies, the pipe's free vibration is monitored by piezoceramic sensors and a laser Doppler vibrometer. The effectiveness of the proposed techniques is demonstrated through a set of numerical and experimental studies on a steel pipe with a mid-span girth weld, for both pressurized and nonpressurized conditions. To simulate a crack, a narrow notch is cut on one side of the girth weld. Several damage scenarios, including notches of different depths and at various locations on the pipe, are investigated. Results from both numerical and experimental studies reveal that in all damage cases the sensor located at the notch vicinity could successfully detect the notch and qualitatively predict its severity. The effect of internal pressure on the damage identification method is also monitored. Overall, the results are encouraging and promise the effectiveness of the proposed approaches as inexpensive systems for structural health monitoring purposes.

  14. Parasitic mode losses versus signal sensitivity in beam position monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denard, J. C.; Bane, K. L.; Bijleveld, J.; Hutton, A. M.; Pellegrin, J. I.; Rivkin, L.; Wang, P.; Weaver, J. N.

    1985-04-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) for a storage or damping ring may be subject to heating problems due to the parasitic mode (PM) losses, beam interception and synchrotron radiation interception. In addition, high PM losses can cause beam instabilities under some conditions. Recessing and/or masking the BPM may increase the PM losses in the process of solving the latter two problems. Three complementary methods for estimating the PM losses and for improving the design of a stripline directional coupler type of BPM: bench measurements, computer modeling (TBCI), and an equivalent circuit representation are presented. These methods lead to a decrease in PM losses without significant reduction in output signal for the north Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) damping ring BPMs.

  15. Mode of coniferous wood decay by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete carnosa as elucidated by FTIR and ToF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Sonam; Jeremic, Dragica; Goacher, Robyn E; Master, Emma R

    2012-06-01

    The softwood degrading white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, was investigated for its ability to degrade two coniferous woods: balsam fir and lodgepole pine. P. carnosa grew similarly on these wood species, and like the hardwood-degrading white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, P. carnosa demonstrated selective degradation of lignin, as observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Lignin degradation across cell walls of decayed pine samples was also evaluated by ToF-SIMS and was shown to be uniform. This study illustrates softwood lignin utilization by a white-rot fungus and reveals the industrial potential of the lignocellulolytic activity elicited by this fungus.

  16. The SIM Time Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Michael A; Novick, Andrew N; Lopez R, J Mauricio; Jimenez, Francisco; de Carlos Lopez, Eduardo; Boulanger, Jean-Simon; Pelletier, Raymond; de Carvalho, Ricardo J; Solis, Raul; Sanchez, Harold; Quevedo, Carlos Andres; Pascoe, Gregory; Perez, Daniel; Bances, Eduardo; Trigo, Leonardo; Masi, Victor; Postigo, Henry; Questelles, Anthony; Gittens, Anselm

    2011-01-01

    The Sistema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM) is a regional metrology organization (RMO) whose members are the national metrology institutes (NMIs) located in the 34 nations of the Organization of American States (OAS). The SIM/OAS region extends throughout North, Central, and South America and the Caribbean Islands. About half of the SIM NMIs maintain national standards of time and frequency and must participate in international comparisons in order to establish metrological traceability to the International System (SI) of units. The SIM time network (SIMTN) was developed as a practical, cost effective, and technically sound way to automate these comparisons. The SIMTN continuously compares the time standards of SIM NMIs and produces measurement results in near real-time by utilizing the Internet and the Global Positioning System (GPS). Fifteen SIM NMIs have joined the network as of December 2010. This paper provides a brief overview of SIM and a technical description of the SIMTN. It presents international comparison results and examines the measurement uncertainties. It also discusses the metrological benefits that the network provides to its participants.

  17. SIMS applications workshop. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The first ANSTO/AINSE SIMS Workshop drew together a mixture of Surface Analysis experts and Surface Analysis users with the concept that SIMS analysis has to be enfolded within the spectrum of surface analysis techniques and that the user should select the technique most applicable to the problem. With this concept in mind the program was structured as sessions on SIMS Facilities; Applications to Mineral Surfaces; Applications to Biological Systems, Applications to Surfaces as Semi- conductors, Catalysts and Surface Coatings; and Applications to Ceramics

  18. Progress in molecular SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borman, S.

    1987-04-15

    A review of sputtering and molecular ion emission is presented. New derivatization techniques have produced lower detection limits for molecular secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Spectra of representative organic compounds are presented.

  19. Multiresidue pesticide analysis of ginseng powders using acetonitrile- or acetone-based extraction, solid-phase extraction cleanup, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) or -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jon W; Zhang, Kai; Tech, Katherine; Hayward, Douglas G; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Cassias, Irene; Schenck, Frank J; Banerjee, Kaushik; Dasgupta, Soma; Brown, Don

    2010-05-26

    A multiresidue method for the analysis of 168 pesticides in dried powdered ginseng has been developed using acetonitrile or acetone mixture (acetone/cyclohexane/ethyl acetate, 2:1:1 v/v/v) extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup with octyl-bonded silica (C(8)), graphitized carbon black/primary-secondary amine (GCB/PSA) sorbents and toluene, and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) or -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The geometric mean limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 53 and 6 microg/kg for the acetonitrile extraction and 48 and 7 microg/kg for the acetone-based extraction for GC-MS/SIM and GC-MS/MS, respectively. Mean percent recoveries and standard deviations from the ginseng fortified at 25, 100, and 500 microg/kg using GC-MS/SIM were 87 +/- 10, 88 +/- 8, and 86 +/- 10% from acetonitrile extracts and 88 +/- 13, 88 +/- 12, and 88 +/- 14% from acetone mixture extracts, respectively. The mean percent recoveries from the ginseng at the 25, 100, and 500 microg/kg levels using GC-MS/MS were 83 +/- 19, 90 +/- 13, and 89 +/- 11% from acetonitrile extracts and 98 +/- 20, 91 +/- 13, and 88 +/- 14% from acetone extracts, respectively. Twelve dried ginseng products were found to contain one or more of the following pesticides and their metabolites: BHCs (benzene hexachlorides, alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-), chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane), dacthal, diazinon, iprodione, quintozene, and procymidone ranging from 4000 microg/kg. No significant differences were found between the two extraction solvents, and GC-MS/MS was found to be more specific and sensitive than GC-MS/SIM. The procedures described were shown to be effective in screening, identifying, confirming, and quantitating pesticides in commercial ginseng products.

  20. Coloring GPenSIM

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The object of this report is to present a solution on how to implement color functionality in GPenSIM. Current version of GPenSIM is based on Place/Transition nets (PT-nets). When creating systems with PT-nets there are some issues when modeling large real life systems. First of all PT-nets have no data concepts. This results in extremely large nets, because the data manipulation has to be represented in the net as places and transitions. The other issue concerns the hierarc...

  1. Binding properties of SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Christophe; Horn, Anselm H C; Sticht, Heinrich

    2015-03-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation and interaction play an essential role in many cellular processes. A large number of yeast proteins is known to interact non-covalently with SUMO via short SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs), but the structural details of this interaction are yet poorly characterized. In the present work, sequence analysis of a large dataset of 148 yeast SIMs revealed the existence of a hydrophobic core binding motif and a preference for acidic residues either within or adjacent to the core motif. Thus the sequence properties of yeast SIMs are highly similar to those described for human. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the binding preferences for four representative SIM peptides differing in the number and distribution of acidic residues. Furthermore, the relative stability of two previously observed alternative binding orientations (parallel, antiparallel) was assessed. For all SIMs investigated, the antiparallel binding mode remained stable in the simulations and the SIMs were tightly bound via their hydrophobic core residues supplemented by polar interactions of the acidic residues. In contrary, the stability of the parallel binding mode is more dependent on the sequence features of the SIM motif like the number and position of acidic residues or the presence of additional adjacent interaction motifs. This information should be helpful to enhance the prediction of SIMs and their binding properties in different organisms to facilitate the reconstruction of the SUMO interactome.

  2. Application Research of "3+1" Mode for Birth Defects Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong LIU; Cheng-liang XIONG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects and quality control measures based on the population,and to obtain the related information data for birth defects.Methods With the community population as the basis,adopting the unified monitoring scheme dominant by the leadership and administration of government,with districts(counties)as the monitoring sites,the "3+1" monitoring mode for birth defects was based on a complete monitoring team with the combination of villages/residents'committees,townships(towns),counties(districts)and the municipality.Demonstration research was carried out in the pilot districts/counties in Chongqing City.Results Birth defects population monitoring system based on population and family planning management and service network was established,and during 2005 and 2006,application research was carried out for the monitoring methods among birth deflects population in the pilot districts(counties),obtaining the relevant information in regional birth defects,with a monitoring coverage of over 99%.Conclusion Fully utilizing the birth management functions of Population and Family Planning System and the advantages of service networks,long term,dynamic birth defects monitoring system based on community population was established,with the integration of birth defects monitoring and regular reproductive health services,obtaining overall birth defects occurrence information in details,providing scientific basis for the government to formulate scientific,practical,economic and effective birth defects intervention policy,so as to improve the quality of the population.

  3. Social Impacts Module (SIM) Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    the agent constructor in the Java source code. Agents are SimEntities, as defined by the SimKit Java Libraries. An agent perceives events and seeks...technical overview of these key SIM components. For an in depth understanding of SIM components, refer to the JavaDocs and Dr. Buss’s Manual on...volume of data generated5, a combination of manual and batch-file processing methods were used to organize the outputs into similar dataset

  4. A Dual-Mode UWB Wireless Platform with Random Pulse Length Detection for Remote Patient Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes, Carlos; Bisbe, Sergi; Shen, Ming

    2013-01-01

    on a single hardware platform, but it is capable of both monitoring and data transmission. This is achieved by employing a new random pulse length detection method that allows data transmission by using a modulated monitoring signal. To prove the proposed concept a test system has been built, using commercial......This paper presents a dual-mode ultra-wideband platform for wireless Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM). Existing RPM solutions are typically based on two different hardware platforms; one responsible for medical-data monitoring and one to handle data transmission. The proposed RPM topology is based...

  5. Higher-order-mode damper as beam-position monitors; Higher-Order-Mode Daempfer als Stahllagemonitore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschke, C.

    2006-03-15

    In the framework of this thesis a beam-position monitor was developed, which can only because of the signals from the HOM dampers of a linear-accelerator structure determine the beam position with high accuracy. For the unique determination of the beam position in the plane a procedure was developed, which uses the amplitudes and the start-phase difference between a dipole mode and a higher monopole mode. In order tocheck the suitability of the present SBLC-HOM damper as beam position monitor three-dimensional numerical field calculations in the frequency and time range and measurements on the damper cell were performed. For the measurements without beam a beam simulator was constructed, which allows computer-driven measurements with variable depositions of the simulated beam with a resolution of 1.23 {mu}m. Because the complete 6 m long, 180-cell accelerator structure was not available for measurements and could also with the available computers not be three-dimensionally simulated simulated, a one-dimensional equivalent-circuit based model of the multi-cell was studied. The equivalent circuits with 879 concentrated components regards the detuning from cell to cell, the cell losses, the damper losses, and the beam excitation in dependence on the deposition. the measurements and simulations let a resolution of the ready beam-position monitor on the 180-cell in the order of magnitude of 1-10 {mu}m and a relative accuracy smaller 6.2% be expected.

  6. Mode Selective Actuator-Sensor System for Lamb Wave-Based Structural Health Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Daniel; Wierach, Peter; Sinapius, Michael

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) based on Lamb waves, a type of ultrasonic guided waves, is a promising method for in-service inspection of composite structures. In this study mode selective actuators and sensors are investigated to excite a particular Lamb wave mode in composite plates. The actuator and sensor exhibit an interdigital transducer design. In order to describe the complex displacement fields of

  7. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.

    2013-01-01

    signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...... single and multiple charges on the analyte. Afterwards the usage of the interface and its relative command line version is briefly shown. Finally, possible applications of the BioFET-SIM model are presented. Among the possible uses of the interface, the effects on the predicted signal of pH, buffer ionic...... strength, analyte concentration, and analyte relative orientation on nanowire surface are illustrated. Wherever possible, a comparison to experimental data available in literature is given, displaying the potential of BioFETSIM for interpreting experimental results....

  8. Improvements in SIMS continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winograd, Nicholas [Department of Chemistry, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)]. E-mail: nxw@psu.edu; Postawa, Zbigniew [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Cheng, Juan [Department of Chemistry, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Szakal, Christopher [Department of Chemistry, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kozole, Joseph [Department of Chemistry, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Garrison, Barbara J. [Department of Chemistry, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2006-07-30

    Cluster ion bombardment is at the forefront of current ToF-SIMS research, particularly when examining the feasibility of molecular depth profiling and three-dimensional imaging applications. It has become increasingly clear that secondary ion emission after cluster projectile impact results from a radically different sputtering mechanism than the linear collision cascades that dominate after atomic ion bombardment. The new physics involved with cluster ion impacts dramatically change the traditional approaches toward sample analysis with the SIMS technique. Several new ion bombardment properties have emerged from experimental and theoretical work involving cluster ions such as Au{sub 3} {sup +}, Bi{sub 3} {sup +}, SF{sub 5} {sup +}, and C{sub 60} {sup +}-all of which are commercially available ion sources. These new properties lead to new rules for traditional static SIMS experiments, provoking new methodologies, and introducing new applications-especially where high mass sensitivity and high-resolution imaging of organic and biological materials are necessary. This paper aims to elucidate recent experimental and theoretical work on these new cluster ion properties and offers insights into how these special properties can be used for future experiments and applications.

  9. Three Mode Interactions as a Precision Monitoring Tool for Advanced Laser Interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, L; Blair, D G; Susmithan, S; Fang, Q; Blair, C D

    2014-01-01

    Three-mode opto-acoustic interactions in advanced laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors have high sensitivity to thermally excited ultrasonic modes in their test masses. Three mode interaction signal gain can change by 100% for thermally induced radius of curvature variations ~ 10-5, allowing the monitoring of thermal distortions corresponding to wavefront changes ~2 x 10-13m. We show that the three-mode gain for single cavity interactions can be monitored by observing beat signals in the transmitted or reflected light due to the thermal excitation of the many hundreds of detectable acoustic modes. We show that three mode interaction signals can be used at low optical power to predict parametric instabilities that could occur at higher power. In addition, at any power, the observed mode amplitudes can be used to control the interferometer operating point against slow environmental perturbations. We summarize data on an 80m cavity that demonstrates these effects and propose testing on full scale in...

  10. Transmission (forward) mode, transcranial, noninvasive optoacoustic measurements for brain monitoring, imaging, and sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Richardson, C. Joan; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Robertson, Claudia S.; Asokan, C. Vasantha; Agbor, Adaeze; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2016-03-01

    We proposed to use transmission (forward) mode for cerebral, noninvasive, transcranial optoacoustic monitoring, imaging, and sensing in humans. In the transmission mode, the irradiation of the tissue of interest and detection of optoacoustic signals are performed from opposite hemispheres, while in the reflection (backward) mode the irradiation of the tissue of interest and detection of optoacoustic signals are performed from the same hemisphere. Recently, we developed new, transmission-mode optoacoustic probes for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for neonatal patients. The transmission mode probes have two major parts: a fiber-optic delivery system and an acoustic transducer (sensor). To obtain optoacoustic signals in the transmission mode, in this study we placed the sensor on the forehead, while light was delivered to the opposite side of the head. Using a medical grade, multi-wavelength, OPObased optoacoustic system tunable in the near infrared spectral range (680-950 nm) and a novel, compact, fiber-coupled, multi-wavelength, pulsed laser diode-based system, we recorded optoacoustic signals generated in the posterior part of the head of adults with TBI and neonates. The optoacoustic signals had two distinct peaks: the first peak from the intracranial space and the second peak from the scalp. The first peak generated by cerebral blood was used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation. Moreover, the transmission mode measurements provided detection of intracranial hematomas in the TBI patients. The obtained results suggest that the transmission mode can be used for optoacoustic brain imaging, tomography, and mapping in humans.

  11. SIM Configuration Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Kim M.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based 10 m baseline Michelson interferometer. Planned for launch in 2005 aboard a Delta III launch vehicle, or equivalent, its primary objective is to measure the positions of stars and other celestial objects with an unprecedented accuracy of 4 micro arc seconds. With such an instrument, tremendous advancement can be expected in our understanding of stellar and galactic dynamics. Using triangulation from opposite sides of the orbit around the sun (i.e. by using parallax) one can measure the distance to any observable object in our galaxy. By directly measuring the orbital wobble of nearby stars, the mass and orbit of planets can be determined over a wide range of parameters. The distribution of velocity within nearby galaxies will be measurable. Observations of these and other objects will improve the calibration of distance estimators by more than an order of magnitude. This will permit a much better determination of the Hubble Constant as well as improving our overall understanding of the evolution of the universe. SIM has undergone several transformations, especially over the past year and a half since the start of Phase A. During this phase of a project, it is desirable to perform system-level trade studies, so the substantial evolution of the design that has occurred is quite appropriate. Part of the trade-off process has addressed two major underlying architectures: SIM Classic; and Son of SIM. The difference between these two architectures is related to the overall arrangement of the optical elements and the associated metrology system. Several different configurations have been developed for each architecture. Each configuration is the result of design choices that are influenced by many competing considerations. Some of the more important aspects will be discussed. The Space Interferometry Mission has some extremely challenging goals: millikelvin thermal stability, nanometer stabilization of optics

  12. SIM2 NERO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    近期,SIM2推出了最新的NERO系列3D投影机,外壳涂层采用柔软的黑色塑料,造型典雅美观。NERO系列包括NERO 1、NERO 2、NERO HB和NERO 235四款型号。NERO 1是该系列产品的入门级型号,亮度为2000流明,具有PureMovie和PureMotion技术,支持HDMI 1.4版本;NERO 2在NERO 1基础上增加了sim2动态黑技术(加强方案)、极致色彩技术以及电动虹膜控制,对比度达30000:1;NERO HB具有更高的亮度,达3000流明;NERO 235具有新的WQXGA DMD芯片,分辨率为2560×1600像素,这样就可以在没有丢失像素、亮度及无需增加变形镜头的情况下,投射出2.35:1模式的影片。

  13. SIM PlanetQuest: Science with the Space Interferometry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen (Editor); Turyshev, Slava (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    SIM - the Space Interferometry Mission - will perform precision optical astrometry on objects as faint as R magnitude 20. It will be the first space-based astrometric interferometer, operating in the optical band with a 10-m baseline. The Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, in close collaboration with two industry partners, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space, and TRW Inc., Space and Electronics Group. Launch of SIM is currently planned for 2009. In its wide-angle astrometric mode, SIM will yield 4 microarcsecond absolute position and parallax measurements. Astrometric planet searches will be done in a narrow-angle mode, with an accuracy of 4 microarcseconds or better in a single measurement. As a pointed rather than a survey instrument, SIM will maintain.its astrometric accuracy down to the faintest, magnitudes, opening up the opportunity for astrometry of active galactic nuclei to better than 10 pas. SIM will define a new astrometric reference frame, using a grid of approximately 1500 stars with positions accurate to 4 microarcseconds. The SIM Science Team comprises the Principal Investigators of ten Key Projects, and five Mission Scientists contributing their expertise to specific areas of the mission. Their science programs cover a wide range of topics in Galactic and extragalactic astronomy. They include: searches for low-mass planets - including analogs to our own solar system - tlie formation and dynamics of our Galaxy, calibration of the cosmic distance scale, and fundamental stellar astrophysics. All of the science observing on SIM is competitively awarded; the Science Team programs total about 40% of the total available, and the remainder will be assigned via future NASA competitions. This report is a compilation of science summaries by members of the Science Team, and it illustrates the wealth of scientific problems that microarcsecond-precision astrometry can contribute to. More information on SIM

  14. Authentication of pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) fruit maturity stages by quantitative analysis of γ- and δ-lactones using headspace solid-phase microextraction and chirospecific gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-SIM-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, Christof B; Langen, Johannes; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-02-01

    Headspace solid phase microextraction and chirospecific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode (HS-SPME-GC-SIM-MS) allowed quantitative determination of δ-lactones (δ-C8, δ-C10) and γ-lactones (γ-C6, γ-C8, γ-C10). A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) with d7-γ-decalactone as internal standard was used for quantitative analysis of pineapple lactones that was performed at three progressing post-harvest stages of fully ripe air-freighted and green-ripe sea-freighted fruits, covering the relevant shelf-life of the fruits. Fresh pineapples harvested at full maturity were characterised by γ-C6 of high enantiomeric purity remaining stable during the whole post-harvest period. In contrast, the enantiomeric purity of γ-C6 significantly decreased during post-harvest storage of sea-freighted pineapples. The biogenetical background and the potential of chirospecific analysis of lactones for authentication and quality evaluation of fresh pineapple fruits are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Continuous monitoring of bacterial biofilm growth using uncoated Thickness-Shear Mode resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, P.; Resa, P.; Durán, C.; Maestre, J. R.; Mateo, M.; Elvira, L.

    2012-12-01

    Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) were used to nondestructively monitor in real time the microbial growth of the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) in a liquid broth. QCM, sometimes referred to as Thickness-Shear Mode (TSM) resonators, are highly sensitive sensors not only able to measure very small mass, but also non-gravimetric contributions of viscoelastic media. These devices can be used as biosensors for bacterial detection and are employed in many applications including their use in the food industry, water and environment monitoring, pharmaceutical sciences and clinical diagnosis. In this work, three strains of S. epidermidis (which differ in the ability to produce biofilm) have been continuously monitored using an array of piezoelectric TSM resonators, at 37 °C in a selective culturing media. Microbial growth was followed by measuring the changes in the crystal resonant frequency and bandwidth at several harmonics. It was shown that microbial growth can be monitored in real time using multichannel and multiparametric QCM sensors.

  16. Adaptive backstepping sliding mode control with fuzzy monitoring strategy for a kind of mechanical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhankui; Sun, Kaibiao

    2014-01-01

    A novel adaptive backstepping sliding mode control (ABSMC) law with fuzzy monitoring strategy is proposed for the tracking-control of a kind of nonlinear mechanical system. The proposed ABSMC scheme combining the sliding mode control and backstepping technique ensure that the occurrence of the sliding motion in finite-time and the trajectory of tracking-error converge to equilibrium point. To obtain a better perturbation rejection property, an adaptive control law is employed to compensate the lumped perturbation. Furthermore, we introduce fuzzy monitoring strategy to improve adaptive capacity and soften the control signal. The convergence and stability of the proposed control scheme are proved by using Lyaponov's method. Finally, numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  17. Monitoring young associations and open clusters with Kepler in two-wheel mode

    CERN Document Server

    Aigrain, S; Angus, R; Bouvier, J; Flaccomio, E; Gillen, E; Guzik, J; Hebb, L; Hodgkin, S; McQuillan, A; Micela, G; Moraux, E; Parviainen, H; Randich, S; Reece, S; Roberts, S; Zwintz, K

    2013-01-01

    We outline a proposal to use the Kepler spacecraft in two-wheel mode to monitor a handful of young associations and open clusters, for a few weeks each. Judging from the experience of similar projects using ground-based telescopes and the CoRoT spacecraft, this program would transform our understanding of early stellar evolution through the study of pulsations, rotation, activity, the detection and characterisation of eclipsing binaries, and the possible detection of transiting exoplanets. Importantly, Kepler's wide field-of-view would enable key spatially extended, nearby regions to be monitored in their entirety for the first time, and the proposed observations would exploit unique synergies with the GAIA ESO spectroscopic survey and, in the longer term, the GAIA mission itself. We also outline possible strategies for optimising the photometric performance of Kepler in two-wheel mode by modelling pixel sensitivity variations and other systematics.

  18. Monitoring and manipulating Higgs and Goldstone modes in a supersolid quantum gas

    OpenAIRE

    Léonard, Julian; Morales, Andrea; Zupancic, Philip; Donner, Tobias; Esslinger, Tilman

    2017-01-01

    Access to collective excitations lies at the heart of our understanding of quantum many-body systems. We study the Higgs and Goldstone modes in a supersolid quantum gas that is created by coupling a Bose-Einstein condensate symmetrically to two optical cavities. The cavity fields form a U(1)-symmetric order parameter that can be modulated and monitored along both quadratures in real time. This enables us to measure the excitation energies across the superfluid-supersolid phase transition, est...

  19. A 2013 Survey on Pressure Monitoring in Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits: Modes and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Laura; Searles, Bruce; Darling, Edward Morse

    2014-12-01

    Pressure data acquired from multiple sites of extracorporeal circuits can be an important parameter to monitor for the safe conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although previous surveys demonstrate that CPB circuit pressure monitoring is widely used, there are very little data cataloging specific applications of this practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to survey the perfusion community to catalog 1) primary CPB circuit site pressure monitoring locations; 2) type of manometers used; 3) pressure monitoring interface and servoregulation with pump console; and 4) the rationale and documentation associated with pressure monitoring during CPB. In June 2013, a validated 27-question online survey was sent directly through an e-mail link to the chief perfusionists in the northeast United States. Completed surveys were received from 75 of 117 surveys deployed yielding a 64% response rate. Arterial line pressure monitoring during CPB is reported by 99% with six distinct circuit site locations identified. Cardioplegia system pressure was monitored by 95% of the centers. For vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD) users, the venous pressure was measured by 72% of the responding centers. Arterial line pressure servoregulation of the arterial pump was indicated by 61% of respondents and 75% of centers record arterial line pressure in their perfusion record. Most centers (77%) report the use of a transducer that is integrated into the pump console providing a digital pressure display, whereas 20% combine an aneroid gauge manometer with the integrated digital transducer. This study demonstrates that the practice of arterial line pressure monitoring during CPB is nearly universal. However, the selection of the pressure monitoring site on the circuit, modes of monitoring pressure, and their applications are highly variable across the perfusion community.

  20. Stability study of the higher order mode beam position monitors at the Accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Jones., R M

    2014-01-01

    erating cavities at FLASH linac, DESY, are equipped with electronics for beam position monitoring, which are based on HOM signals from special couplers. These monitors provide the beam position without additional vacuum components and at low cost. Moreover, they can be used to align the beam in the cavities to reduce the HOM effects on the beam. However, the HOMBPM (Higher Order Mode based Beam Position Monitor) shows an instability problem over time. In this paper, we will present the status of studies on this issue. Several methods are utilized to calibrate the HOMBPMs. These methods include DLR (Direct Linear Regression), and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition). We found that SVD generally is more suitable for HOMBPM calibration. We focus on the HOMBPMs at 1.3 GHz cavities. Techniques developed here are applicable to 3.9 ...

  1. Functionality of novel black silicon based nanostructured surfaces studied by TOF SIMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Aranyosiova, M.; Orinak, A.

    2010-01-01

    depends on Ag layer thickness and measured ion mode (negative, positive). The best SIMS signal enhancement was obtained at BS2 surface coated with 400 nm of Ag layer. SIMS fragmentation schemes were developed for a model analyte deposited onto a silver and gold surface. Significant differences in pre...

  2. Trace element analysis in silicon by accelerator SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, R.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Doebeli, M.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The accelerator SIMS technique has been applied to Si samples implanted with different elements. It has been shown that concentrations of several trace elements can be analysed down to about 1 ppb in depth profiling mode. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  3. 20-MHz B-mode ultrasound in monitoring the course of localized scleroderma (morphea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K; Gerbaulet, U; el-Gammal, S; Altmeyer, P

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasonographic methods have recently provided us with the means for objective and non-invasive monitoring of the dynamics of chronic skin diseases. We examined 34 patients with localized scleroderma (morphea) using a 20-MHz B-mode ultrasound scanner (DUB 20, Taberna pro Medicum, Lüneburg). In patients with plaque-type and linear band-type localized scleroderma intraindividual comparison of sclerotic skin with corresponding areas of healthy skin showed thickening of the corium. The increase in corium thickness was between 2% and 251%. The extent of the difference in corium thickness between sclerotic and healthy skin depended on the location-originally thin skin showed a greater degree of sclerosis. We also frequently found enhanced reflexes in the lower corium and hyperechoic, widened bands of connective tissue traversing the subcutaneous fatty tissue from the corium-subcutis border in the direction of the muscle fascia. 20 patients were examined several times in the course of one year. In nine patients we found ultrasonographic evidence of regression (decrease in thickness 26%) and in nine the ultrasound examination showed progression (increase in thickness 28%). 20-MHz B-mode ultrasound imaging is a suitable non-invasive method for monitoring the course and treatment of localized scleroderma. Its routine use is strongly recommended.

  4. Linear friction weld process monitoring of fixture cassette deformations using empirical mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, O. J.; Gibson, C.; Wilson, P.; Lohse, N.; Popov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Due to its inherent advantages, linear friction welding is a solid-state joining process of increasing importance to the aerospace, automotive, medical and power generation equipment industries. Tangential oscillations and forge stroke during the burn-off phase of the joining process introduce essential dynamic forces, which can also be detrimental to the welding process. Since burn-off is a critical phase in the manufacturing stage, process monitoring is fundamental for quality and stability control purposes. This study aims to improve workholding stability through the analysis of fixture cassette deformations. Methods and procedures for process monitoring are developed and implemented in a fail-or-pass assessment system for fixture cassette deformations during the burn-off phase. Additionally, the de-noised signals are compared to results from previous production runs. The observed deformations as a consequence of the forces acting on the fixture cassette are measured directly during the welding process. Data on the linear friction-welding machine are acquired and de-noised using empirical mode decomposition, before the burn-off phase is extracted. This approach enables a direct, objective comparison of the signal features with trends from previous successful welds. The capacity of the whole process monitoring system is validated and demonstrated through the analysis of a large number of signals obtained from welding experiments.

  5. Condition monitoring of a wind turbine gearbox using the empirical mode decomposition method and outlier analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadou, Ifigeneia; Manson, G.; Dervilis, N.; Worden, K. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom); Barszcz, T.; Staszewski, W. [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2012-07-01

    Wind turbines are subject to variable aerodynamic loads and extreme environmental conditions. Wind turbine components fail frequently, resulting in high maintenance costs. For this reason, gearbox condition monitoring becomes important since gearboxes are among the wind turbine components with the most frequent failure observations. The major challenge here is the detection of faults under the time varying operating conditions prevailing in wind turbine systems. This paper analyses wind turbine gearbox vibration data using the empirical mode decomposition method and the statistical discipline of outlier analysis for the damage detection of gearbox tooth faults. The instantaneous characteristics of the signals are obtained with the application of the Hilbert transform. The lowest level of fault detection, the threshold value, is considered and Mahalanobis squared-distance is calculated for the novelty detection problem. (orig.)

  6. Sims, Christopher Albert (born 1942)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Christopher Sims is one of the leaders in time-series econometrics and empirical macroeconomics and is well known for introducing the VAR approach to econometrics and macroeconomic modelling. Sims’ main contribution to empirical macroeconomics was to show how macro-econometric modeling should be rev

  7. Sims, Christopher Albert (born 1942)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Christopher Sims is one of the leaders in time-series econometrics and empirical macroeconomics and is well known for introducing the VAR approach to econometrics and macroeconomic modelling. Sims’ main contribution to empirical macroeconomics was to show how macro-econometric modeling should be

  8. The default mode network as a biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic effects of meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rozalyn; Engström, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a group of anatomically separate regions in the brain found to have synchronized patterns of activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Mentation associated with the DMN includes processes such as mind wandering, autobiographical memory, self-reflective thought, envisioning the future, and considering the perspective of others. Abnormalities in the DMN have been linked to symptom severity in a variety of mental disorders indicating that the DMN could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis. These correlations have also led to the use of DMN modulation as a biomarker for assessing pharmacological treatments. Concurrent research investigating the neural correlates of meditation, have associated DMN modulation with practice. Furthermore, meditative practice is increasingly understood to have a beneficial role in the treatment of mental disorders. Therefore we propose the use of DMN measures as a biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic effects of meditation practices in mental disorders. Recent findings support this perspective, and indicate the utility of DMN monitoring in understanding and developing meditative treatments for these debilitating conditions.

  9. The default mode network as a biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic effects of meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalyn eSimon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The default mode network (DMN is a group of anatomically separate regions in the brain found to have synchronized patterns of activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Mentation associated with the DMN includes processes such as mind wandering, autobiographical memory, self-reflective thought, envisioning the future, and considering the perspective of others. Abnormalities in the DMN have been linked to symptom severity in a variety of mental disorders indicating that the DMN could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis. These correlations have also led to the use of DMN modulation as a biomarker for assessing pharmacological treatments. Concurrent research investigating the neurocorrelates of meditation have associated DMN modulation with practice. Furthermore, meditative practice is increasingly understood to have a beneficial role in the treatment of mental disorders. Therefore we propose the use of DMN measures as a biomarker for monitoring the therapeutic effects of meditation practices in mental disorders. Recent findings support this perspective, and indicate the utility of DMN monitoring in understanding and developing meditative treatments for these debilitating conditions.

  10. Multi-mode process monitoring based on a novel weighted local standardization strategy and support vector data description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵付洲; 宋冰; 侍洪波

    2016-01-01

    There are multiple operating modes in the real industrial process, and the collected data follow the complex multimodal distribution, so most traditional process monitoring methods are no longer applicable because their presumptions are that sampled-data should obey the single Gaussian distribution or non-Gaussian distribution. In order to solve these problems, a novel weighted local standardization (WLS) strategy is proposed to standardize the multimodal data, which can eliminate the multi-mode characteristics of the collected data, and normalize them into unimodal data distribution. After detailed analysis of the raised data preprocessing strategy, a new algorithm using WLS strategy with support vector data description (SVDD) is put forward to apply for multi-mode monitoring process. Unlike the strategy of building multiple local models, the developed method only contains a model without the prior knowledge of multi-mode process. To demonstrate the proposed method’s validity, it is applied to a numerical example and a Tennessee Eastman (TE) process. Finally, the simulation results show that the WLS strategy is very effective to standardize multimodal data, and the WLS-SVDD monitoring method has great advantages over the traditional SVDD and PCA combined with a local standardization strategy (LNS-PCA) in multi-mode process monitoring.

  11. Electrospray Droplet Impact/SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Kenzo

    A new type of cluster SIMS, named as electrospray droplet impact (EDI), has been developed in our laboratory. It was found that peptides deposited on the stainless steel substrate were ionized/desorbed without the accumulation of radiation products. The organic samples with film thickness thinner than 10 monolayers are desorbed/ionized with little damage underneath the surface. In general, rather strong negative ions as well as positive ions are generated. The mechanism for the ionization/desorption in EDI is much less complicated than those for MALDI and SIMS due to the fact that only very thin sample layers take part in the shock-wave excited selvedge and higher-order side reactions are largely suppressed.

  12. Optimized noninvasive monitoring of thermal changes on digital B-mode renal sonography during revascularization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhassani, Mohammad D; Tavakoli, Vahid; Sahba, Nima

    2009-11-01

    Noninvasive real-time thermal change monitoring of human internal organs can play a critical role in diagnosis and treatment of many disorders, including reperfusion of renal arteries during anticoagulation therapy. This article focuses on tissue temperature detection using ultrasound velocity changes in different structures and their related speckle shift from their primary locations on high-quality B-mode digital sonography. We evaluated different speckle-tracking techniques and optimized them using appropriate motion estimation methods to determine the best algorithm and parameters. Performing thermal detection methods on simulated phantoms showed a good correlation between speckle shifts and the ground truth temperature. For the simulated images, average thermal error was 0.5 degrees C with an SD of 0.5 degrees C, where lower errors can be obtained in noiseless (motionless) data. The proposed technique was evaluated on real in vivo cases during surgical occlusion and reopening of the renal segmental artery and showed the potential of the algorithm for observation of internal organ changes using only digital ultrasound systems for diagnosis and therapy. The adaptive Rood pattern search proved to be the best block-matching technique, whereas the multiresolution Horn-Schunck technique was the best gradient optical flow method. The extracted thermal change during in vivo revascularization therapy is promising. In addition, we present an evaluation of several block-matching and optical flow motion estimation techniques.

  13. A multi-residue method for pesticides analysis in green coffee beans using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzutti, Ionara R; de Kok, Andre; Dickow Cardoso, Carmem; Reichert, Bárbara; de Kroon, Marijke; Wind, Wouter; Weber Righi, Laís; Caiel da Silva, Rosselei

    2012-08-17

    In this study, a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, using the very selective negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode, was developed and applied in combination with a modified acetonitrile-based extraction method (QuEChERS) for the analysis of a large number of pesticide residues (51 pesticides, including isomers and degradation products) in green coffee beans. A previously developed integrated sample homogenization and extraction method for both pesticides and mycotoxins analysis was used. An homogeneous slurry of green milled coffee beans and water (ratio 1:4, w/w) was prepared and extracted with acetonitrile/acetic acid (1%), followed by magnesium sulfate addition for phase separation. Aliquots from this extract could be used directly for LC-MS/MS analysis of mycotoxins and LC-amenable pesticides. For GC-MS analysis, a further clean-up was necessary. C18- and PSA-bonded silica were tested as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) sorbents, separate and as a mixture, and the best results were obtained using C18-bonded silica. For the optimal sensitivity and selectivity, GC-MS detection in the NCI-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode had to be used to allow the fast analysis of the difficult coffee bean matrix. The validation was performed by analyzing recovery samples at three different spike concentrations, 10, 20 and 50 μg kg(-1), with 6 replicates (n=6) at each concentration. Linearity (r(2)) of calibration curves, estimated instrument and method limits of detection and limits of quantification (LOD(i), LOD(m), LOQ(i) and LOQ(m), respectively), accuracy (as recovery %), precision (as RSD%) and matrix effects (%) were determined for each individual pesticide. From the 51 analytes (42 parent pesticides, 4 isomers and 5 degradation products) determined by GC-MS (NCI-SIM), approximately 76% showed average recoveries between 70-120% and 75% and RSD ≤ 20% at the lowest spike concentration of 10 μg kg(-1), the target method LOQ. For the

  14. IN SITU SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF ULTRA-TRACE SYNTHETIC MUSKS IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE EFFLUENT USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY, FULL-SCAN MODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of 1-L samples. A 1-L sample, however, usually provides too little ana...

  15. QCD at $\\Theta \\sim \\pi$

    CERN Document Server

    Smilga, A V

    1999-01-01

    Taking into account the quadratic in quark mass terms in the effective chiral lagrangian, we show that, at \\theta \\sim \\pi, the theory with 2 light quarks of equal mass involves two degenerate vacuum states separated by a barrier. For three flavors, the energy barrier between two vacua appears already in the leading order in mass. This corresponds to the first order phase transition at different vacua is calculated. In the immediate vicinity of the phase transition point, two minima of the potential still exist, but one of them becomes metastable. The probability of the false vacuum decay is estimated.

  16. Front- and back-end process characterization by SIMS to achieve electrically matched devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budri, Thanas; Kouzminov, Dimitry

    2004-06-01

    Application of SIMS metrology in high volume wafer manufacturing allows comparison of important physical characteristics of devices and can address changes in the process during early stages of process flow, thus improving production yields and cycles. In the current paper, we investigate the correlation between wafer-level SIMS characterization and electrical characteristics of devices in a wide spectrum of front- and back-end applications: high precision SIMS analysis for implanter recipe development and monitoring is a technique that has provided major contributions to achieve electrically matched devices. SIMS analysis is also used widely on gate material selection and characterization. As SiGe/SiGeC is taking precedence over III-V materials for rf applications due to processing simplicity, SIMS analytical technique provides major metrology support on process targeting and development. The SIMS analytical technique has earned its reputation and is wide used as metrology solution on front-end semiconductor processing. Fluorine SIMS analysis investigation in TiN, W and its relation with increased via resistance and voids on the nucleation is an example of SIMS analysis application for back-end process support.

  17. Influence of different DXA acquisition modes on monitoring the changes in bone mineral density after hip resurfacing arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Mikko A; Borg, Håkan; Häkkinen, Arja; Parviainen, Tapani; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2012-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a technique enabling the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) around prostheses after hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA). In this study, we evaluated the consistency of different DXA acquisition modes with 33 patients who had undergone HRA. Patients were scanned with DXA immediately after surgery and at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo time points. All the patients were scanned with dual femur and orthopedic hip acquisition modes and analyzed using 10-region ROI model. With both acquisition modes, a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05, Wilcoxon's test) in BMD at 3mo was revealed in 3 ROIs, located to upper and lateral upper femur. Both acquisition modes detected similarly (p<0.01) preservation of the femoral bone stock within 12mo in all but 1 ROI. The applied acquisition protocols involved the use of different footplates for hip fixation. Because the differences between acquisition modes ranged between +1.6% and -7.1% and the reproducibility of BMD values can vary by as much as 28% due to hip rotation, it is proposed that both dual femur and orthopedic hip acquisition modes can be used to monitor the changes in BMD after HRA. However, the same hip rotation is recommended for all DXA measurements.

  18. SimProp v2r3

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, Roberto; di Matteo, Armando; Grillo, Aurelio; Petrera, Sergio; Salamida, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the a version of SimProp, a Monte Carlo code for simulating the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in intergalactic space. This version, SimProp v2r3, allows the choice of many more models for the extragalactic background light spectrum and evolution and photodisintegration cross sections and branching ratios than previous versions of SimProp.

  19. General demonstration of principal states of polarization and real-time monitoring of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hui; Wu Chong-Qing; Fu Song-Nian

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the general properties of polarization effects in optical fibres and demonstrated the existence of socalled principal states of polarization (PSP), which mean the fixed points in mathematics, in different polarization effects,such as birefringence and polarization mode dispersion, by using fixed point theory. Furthermore, a time evolution vector is defined to describe the time evolution of polarization state in optical fibres, which is used to investigate the time evolution of polarization mode dispersion vector (PDV), including differential group delay and PSP. The experimentalresults of real-time monitoring of PDV by using this method are reported. To our knowledge, this is the first report on monitoring PSP evolution in optical fibres.

  20. Monitoring recent lake level variations on the Tibetan Plateau using CryoSat-2 SARIn mode data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liguang; Nielsen, Karina; Andersen, Ole Baltazar;

    2017-01-01

    to monitor lake levels. In this study, Cryosat-2 SARIn mode data over the period 2010–2015 are used to investigate recent lake level variations. The estimated water levels of the 70 largest lakes (> 100 km2) on the TP show that 48 lakes reveal a rising trend (avg. 0.28 ± 0.06 m/yr) while the other 22 show...

  1. A 2013 Survey on Pressure Monitoring in Adult Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits: Modes and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rigg, Laura; Searles, Bruce; Darling, Edward Morse

    2014-01-01

    Pressure data acquired from multiple sites of extracorporeal circuits can be an important parameter to monitor for the safe conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although previous surveys demonstrate that CPB circuit pressure monitoring is widely used, there are very little data cataloging specific applications of this practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to survey the perfusion community to catalog 1) primary CPB circuit site pressure monitoring locations; 2) type of manomete...

  2. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry SIMS XI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, G.; Lareau, R.; Bennett, J.; Stevie, F.

    2003-05-01

    This volume contains 252 contributions presented as plenary, invited and contributed poster and oral presentations at the 11th International Conference on Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS XI) held at the Hilton Hotel, Walt Disney World Village, Orlando, Florida, 7 12 September, 1997. The book covers a diverse range of research, reflecting the rapid growth in advanced semiconductor characterization, ultra shallow depth profiling, TOF-SIMS and the new areas in which SIMS techniques are being used, for example in biological sciences and organic surface characterization. Papers are presented under the following categories: Isotopic SIMS Biological SIMS Semiconductor Characterization Techniques and Applications Ultra Shallow Depth Profiling Depth Profiling Fundamental/Modelling and Diffusion Sputter-Induced Topography Fundamentals of Molecular Desorption Organic Materials Practical TOF-SIMS Polyatomic Primary Ions Materials/Surface Analysis Postionization Instrumentation Geological SIMS Imaging Fundamentals of Sputtering Ion Formation and Cluster Formation Quantitative Analysis Environmental/Particle Characterization Related Techniques These proceedings provide an invaluable source of reference for both newcomers to the field and experienced SIMS users.

  3. Port-O-Sim Object Simulation Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Port-O-Sim is a software application that supports engineering modeling and simulation of launch-range systems and subsystems, as well as the vehicles that operate on them. It is flexible, distributed, object-oriented, and realtime. A scripting language is used to configure an array of simulation objects and link them together. The script is contained in a text file, but executed and controlled using a graphical user interface. A set of modules is defined, each with input variables, output variables, and settings. These engineering models can be either linked to each other or run as standalone. The settings can be modified during execution. Since 2001, this application has been used for pre-mission failure mode training for many Range Safety Scenarios. It contains range asset link analysis, develops look-angle data, supports sky-screen site selection, drives GPS (Global Positioning System) and IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) simulators, and can support conceptual design efforts for multiple flight programs with its capacity for rapid six-degrees-of-freedom model development. Due to the assembly of various object types into one application, the application is applicable across a wide variety of launch range problem domains.

  4. ON-SITE SOLID PHRASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF ULTRA-TRACE SYNTHETIC MUSKS IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE EFFLUENT USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY, FULL-SCAN MODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. A I -L sample, however, usually provides too little ana...

  5. ON-SITE SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF ULTRA-TRACE SYNTHETIC MUSKS IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE EFFLUENT USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE FULL-SCAN MODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. Full-scan mass spectra are requ...

  6. In situ, dual-mode monitoring of organ-on-a-chip with smartphone-based fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soohee; Islas-Robles, Argel; Nicolini, Ariana M; Monks, Terrence J; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2016-12-15

    The use of organ-on-a-chip (OOC) platforms enables improved simulation of the human kidney's response to nephrotoxic drugs. The standard method of analyzing nephrotoxicity from existing OOC has majorly consisted of invasively collecting samples (cells, lysates, media, etc.) from an OOC. Such disruptive analyses potentiate contamination, disrupt the replicated in vivo environment, and require expertize to execute. Moreover, traditional analyses, including immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot, and microplate immunoassay are essentially not in situ and require substantial time, resources, and costs. In the present work, the incorporation of fluorescence nanoparticle immunocapture/immunoagglutination assay into an OOC enabled dual-mode monitoring of drug-induced nephrotoxicity in situ. A smartphone-based fluorescence microscope was fabricated as a handheld in situ monitoring device attached to an OOC. Both the presence of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) on the apical brush-border membrane of 786-O proximal tubule cells within the OOC surface, and the release of GGT to the outflow of the OOC were evaluated with the fluorescence scatter detection of captured and immunoagglutinated anti-GGT conjugated nanoparticles. This dual-mode assay method provides a novel groundbreaking tool to enable the internal and external in situ monitoring of the OOC, which may be integrated into any existing OOCs to facilitate their subsequent analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic health monitoring in switch-mode power supplies with voltage regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, James P (Inventor); Judkins, Justin B (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The system includes a current injection device in electrical communication with the switch mode power supply. The current injection device is positioned to alter the initial, non-zero load current when activated. A prognostic control is in communication with the current injection device, controlling activation of the current injection device. A frequency detector is positioned to receive an output signal from the switch mode power supply and is able to count cycles in a sinusoidal wave within the output signal. An output device is in communication with the frequency detector. The output device outputs a result of the counted cycles, which are indicative of damage to an a remaining useful life of the switch mode power supply.

  8. A Study on the Temperature Correlation of B-mode Ultrasonic Image Gray for Noninvasive Temperature Monitoring in Hyperthermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shui-cai; Ren Xin-ying; Bai Yan-ping; Zeng Yi

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the temperature correlation of gray scale of Bmode ultrasound image from heated tissue. In this study, many in-vitro fresh pig livers are heated in a temperature range from 28℃ to 45℃, from which a series of B-mode ultrasonic images of livers were obtained. The gray-value is evaluated from the ultrasound images respectively. A correlation of the mean gray value of the selected regions (12×12 pixels) in B-mode ultrasonic images of liver and its temperature was pointed out. And the experiment results agreed the evaluation well. And it is possible to monitor the tissue temperature changing in hyperthermia using this correlation.

  9. Direct infusion-SIM as fast and robust method for absolute protein quantification in complex samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Looße

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative and absolute quantification of proteins in biological and clinical samples are common approaches in proteomics. Until now, targeted protein quantification is mainly performed using a combination of HPLC-based peptide separation and selected reaction monitoring on triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. Here, we show for the first time the potential of absolute quantification using a direct infusion strategy combined with single ion monitoring (SIM on a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. By using complex membrane fractions of Escherichia coli, we absolutely quantified the recombinant expressed heterologous human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 3A4 (CYP3A4 comparing direct infusion-SIM with conventional HPLC-SIM. Direct-infusion SIM revealed only 14.7% (±4.1 (s.e.m. deviation on average, compared to HPLC-SIM and a decreased processing and analysis time of 4.5 min (that could be further decreased to 30 s for a single sample in contrast to 65 min by the LC–MS method. Summarized, our simplified workflow using direct infusion-SIM provides a fast and robust method for quantification of proteins in complex protein mixtures.

  10. Grafisk presentasjon av GPenSim-simulering

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    GPenSim er et verktøy for modellering og simulering av diskret hendelsesystemer (DES). GPenSim er integrert i Matlab-plattformen, og har dermed tilgang til innebygde Matlabfunksjoner som plot etc. I GPenSim blir Petri net-grafen definert i Petri netdefinisjonsfiler. Resultatet av en simulering blir vist i tekst. Oppgaven gikk ut på å utvikle et verktøy som skulle presentere både Petri net-grafen og simuleringsresultatet grafisk. En grafisk presentasjon viser tydeligere sammenhe...

  11. Simultaneous chromatic dispersion, polarization-mode-dispersion and OSNR monitoring at 40Gbit/s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Meflah, Lamia; Thomsen, Benn; Mitchell, John; Bayvel, Polina

    2008-09-29

    A novel method for independent and simultaneous monitoring of chromatic dispersion (CD), first-order PMD and OSNR in 40Gbit/s systems is proposed and demonstrated. This is performed using in-band tone monitoring of 5GHz, optically down-converted to a low intermediate-frequency (IF) of 10kHz. The measurement provides a large monitoring range with good accuracies for CD (4742+/-100ps/nm), differential group delay (DGD) (200+/-4ps) and OSNR (23+/-1dB), independently of the bit-rate. In addition, the use of electro-absorption modulators (EAM) for the simultaneous down-conversion of all channels and the use of low-speed detectors makes it cost effective for multi-channel operation.

  12. Remote monitoring of building oscillation modes by means of real-time Mid Infrared Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Pasquale; Locatelli, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Eugenio; Delle Donne, Dario; Lacanna, Giorgio; Meucci, Riccardo; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Non-destructive measurements of deformations are a quite common application of holography but due to the intrinsic limits in the interferometric technique, those are generally confined only to small targets and in controlled environment. Here we present an advanced technique, based on Mid Infrared Digital Holography (MIR DH), which works in outdoor conditions and provides remote and real-time information on the oscillation modes of large engineering structures. Thanks to the long wavelength of the laser radiation, large areas of buildings can be simultaneously mapped with sub-micrometric resolution in terms of their amplitude and frequency oscillation modes providing all the modal parameters vital for all the correct prevention strategies when the functionality and the health status of the structures have to be evaluated. The existing experimental techniques used to evaluate the fundamental modes of a structure are based either on seismometric sensors or on Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GbSAR). Such devices have both serious drawbacks, which prevent their application at a large scale or in the short term. We here demonstrate that the MIR DH based technique can fully overcome these limitations and has the potential to represent a breakthrough advance in the field of dynamic characterization of large structures.

  13. G-SIMS of crystallisable organics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, I.S.; Seah, M.P

    2003-01-15

    In this study, the gentle SIMS (G-SIMS) concept has been applied to the crystallisable organic materials of Irganox 1010, caffeine, cholesterol, glucose, poly-L-lysine and bovine serum albumin. These are chosen to represent as wide a range of material types as possible. For each case, the G-SIMS spectra are considerably simpler than the static SIMS, enabling direct interpretation and identification. It is demonstrated that the amount of fragmentation in the mass spectrum may be controlled numerically and this information can be used to re-assemble the parent molecule. Wherever possible, the use of dual column ion beams is recommended to eliminate alignment requirements. Additionally, the total electron beam fluence should be kept below 6x10{sup 18} electrons/m{sup 2} to prevent electron damage.

  14. G-SIMS of crystallisable organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, I. S.; Seah, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the gentle SIMS (G-SIMS) concept has been applied to the crystallisable organic materials of Irganox 1010, caffeine, cholesterol, glucose, poly- L-lysine and bovine serum albumin. These are chosen to represent as wide a range of material types as possible. For each case, the G-SIMS spectra are considerably simpler than the static SIMS, enabling direct interpretation and identification. It is demonstrated that the amount of fragmentation in the mass spectrum may be controlled numerically and this information can be used to re-assemble the parent molecule. Wherever possible, the use of dual column ion beams is recommended to eliminate alignment requirements. Additionally, the total electron beam fluence should be kept below 6×10 18 electrons/m 2 to prevent electron damage.

  15. Se i Sims vanno su Facebook…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Meneghelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Subito dopo il lancio, la versione facebookiana di The Sims ha riscosso un enorme successo, ma a distanza di qualche mese si è registrato un significativo calo di interesse. L’articolo propone una possibile lettura di questo fenomeno, partendo da alcune caratteristiche della serie The Sims e mostrando come il gioco si sia modificato, sposandosi con le logiche 2.0 di Facebook, per diventare più social e in real time.

  16. Feasibility of A-mode ultrasound attenuation as a monitoring method of local hyperthermia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Noraida Abd; Aziz, Maizatul Nadwa Che; Ridzuan, Dzulfadhli Saffuan; Mohamad Salim, Maheza Irna; Wahab, Asnida Abd; Lai, Khin Wee; Hum, Yan Chai

    2016-06-01

    Recently, there is an increasing interest in the use of local hyperthermia treatment for a variety of clinical applications. The desired therapeutic outcome in local hyperthermia treatment is achieved by raising the local temperature to surpass the tissue coagulation threshold, resulting in tissue necrosis. In oncology, local hyperthermia is used as an effective way to destroy cancerous tissues and is said to have the potential to replace conventional treatment regime like surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. However, the inability to closely monitor temperature elevations from hyperthermia treatment in real time with high accuracy continues to limit its clinical applicability. Local hyperthermia treatment requires real-time monitoring system to observe the progression of the destroyed tissue during and after the treatment. Ultrasound is one of the modalities that have great potential for local hyperthermia monitoring, as it is non-ionizing, convenient and has relatively simple signal processing requirement compared to magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In a two-dimensional ultrasound imaging system, changes in tissue microstructure during local hyperthermia treatment are observed in terms of pixel value analysis extracted from the ultrasound image itself. Although 2D ultrasound has shown to be the most widely used system for monitoring hyperthermia in ultrasound imaging family, 1D ultrasound on the other hand could offer a real-time monitoring and the method enables quantitative measurement to be conducted faster and with simpler measurement instrument. Therefore, this paper proposes a new local hyperthermia monitoring method that is based on one-dimensional ultrasound. Specifically, the study investigates the effect of ultrasound attenuation in normal and pathological breast tissue when the temperature in tissue is varied between 37 and 65 °C during local hyperthermia treatment. Besides that, the total protein content measurement was also

  17. Optical monitoring of thin film electro-polymerization on surface of ITO-coated lossy-mode resonance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobaszek, Michał; Dominik, Magdalena; Burnat, Dariusz; Bogdanowicz, Robert; Stranak, Viteszlav; Sezemsky, Petr; Śmietana, Mateusz

    2017-04-01

    This work presents an optical fiber sensors based on lossy-mode resonance (LMR) phenomenon supported by indium tin oxide (ITO) thin overlay for investigation of electro-polymerization effect on ITO's surface. The ITO overlays were deposited on core of polymer-clad silica (PCS) fibers using reactive magnetron sputtering (RMS) method. Since ITO is electrically conductive and electrochemically active it can be used as a working electrode in 3-electrode cyclic voltammetry setup. For fixed potential applied to the electrode current flow decrease with time what corresponds to polymer layer formation on the ITO surface. Since LMR phenomenon depends on optical properties in proximity of the ITO surface, polymer layer formation can be monitored optically in real time. The electrodeposition process has been performed with Isatin which is a strong endogenous neurochemical regulator in humans as it is a metabolic derivative of adrenaline. It was found that optical detection of Isatin is possible in the proposed configuration.

  18. Stellar and Galactic Astrophysics with SIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A.

    2001-05-01

    SIM will revolutionize stellar and Galactic astrophysics by tackling new questions that could never previously be addressed and making order of magnitude improvements in key parameters. SIM will measure R0 and Theta0 to measurements of the Milky Way mass and rotation curve. It will probe the Galactic 3-D mass distribution by 2 independent methods. By calibrating the RR Lyrae MV-[Fe/H] relation as well as obtaining direct distances to clusters and halo field objects, SIM will precisely date halo and globular-cluster formation as a function of metallicity. SIM will obtain 1 measurements for 200 stars of all types ranging from brown dwarfs (BD) to O stars from a broad range of metallicities, including both binaries and single stars, and it will yield precision measurements of white dwarf (WD) and black hole (BH) remnants as well. SIM microlensing will take an unbiased census of all objects in the Galactic bulge, both dark (BD WD NS BH) and luminous, and will resolve the nature of the dark-halo (MACHO) candidates currently being detected toward the LMC.

  19. Status of Higher Order Mode Beam Position Monitors in 3.9 GHz Superconducting Accelerating Cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Flisgen, T; van Rienen, U; Jones, R M; Shinton, I R R

    2013-01-01

    Higher order mode (HOM) beam position monitors (BPM) are being developed for the 3.9 GHz third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. The transverse beam position in a cavity can be determined utilizing beam-excited HOMs based on dipole components. The existing couplers used for HOM suppression provide necessary signals. The diagnostics principle is similar to a cavity BPM, but requires no additional vacuum instruments on the linac. The challenges of HOM-BPM for 3.9 GHz cavities lie in the dense HOM spectrum arising from the coupling of the majority HOMs amongst the four cavities in the cryo-module ACC39. HOMs with particularly promising diagnostics features were evaluated using a spectrum analyzer and custom-built test electronics with various data analysis techniques, data reduction was focused on. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, multi-cavity modes in the region of 5 GHz were chosen to provide a global position over the complete module with superi...

  20. Status of higher order mode beam position monitors in 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M; Flisgen, T; Van Rienen, U; Shinton, I R R

    2013-01-01

    Higher order mode (HOM) beam position monitors (BPM) are being developed for the 3.9 GHz third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. The transverse beam position in a cavity can be determined utilizing beam-excited HOMs based on dipole components. The existing couplers used for HOM suppression provide necessary signals. The diagnostics principle is similar to a cavity BPM, but requires no additional vacuum instruments on the linac. The challenges of HOM-BPM for 3.9 GHz cavities lie in the dense HOM spectrum arising from the coupling of the majority HOMs amongst the four cavities in the cryo-module ACC39. HOMs with particularly promising diagnostics features were evaluated using a spectrum analyzer and custom-built test electronics with various data analysis techniques, data reduction was focused on. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, multi-cavity modes in the region of 5 GHz were chosen to provide a global position over the complete module with superi...

  1. Performance of a GM tube based environmental dose rate monitor operating in the Time-To-Count mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zickefoose, J.; Kulkarni, T.; Martinson, T.; Phillips, K.; Voelker, M. [Canberra Industries Inc. (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in the aftermath of a natural disaster underline the importance of a large array of networked environmental monitors to cover areas around nuclear power plants. These monitors should meet a few basic criteria: have a uniform response over a wide range of gamma energies, have a uniform response over a wide range of incident angles, and have a large dynamic range. Many of these criteria are met if the probe is qualified to the international standard IEC 60532 (Radiation protection instrumentation - Installed dose rate meters, warning assemblies and monitors - X and gamma radiation of energy between 50 keV and 7 MeV), which specifically deals with energy response, angle of incidence, dynamic range, response time, and a number of environmental characteristics. EcoGamma is a dual GM tube environmental gamma radiation monitor designed specifically to meet the requirements of IEC 60532 and operate in the most extreme conditions. EcoGamma utilizes two energy compensated GM tubes operating with a Time-To-Count (TTC) collection algorithm. The TTC algorithm extends the lifetime and range of a GM tube significantly and allows the dual GM tube probe to achieve linearity over approximately 10 decades of gamma dose rate (from the Sv/hr range to 100 Sv/hr). In the TTC mode of operation, the GM tube is not maintained in a biased condition continuously. This is different from a traditional counting system where the GM tube is held at a constant bias continuously and the total number of strikes that the tube registers are counted. The traditional approach allows for good sensitivity, but does not lend itself to a long lifetime of the tube and is susceptible to linearity issues at high count rates. TTC on the other hand only biases the tube for short periods of time and in effect measures the time between events, which is statistically representative of the total strike rate. Since the tube is not continually biased, the life of the tube

  2. Improvement of estradiol esters monitoring in bovine hair by dansylation and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis in multiple reaction monitoring and precursor ion scan modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichon, E; Béasse, A; Prevost, S; Christien, S; Courant, F; Monteau, F; Le Bizec, B

    2012-04-15

    The control of forbidden anabolic practices in cattle in the European Union has become challenging since endogenous compounds such as estradiol derivatives can potentially be used as growth promoters. Due to the great difficulty in establishing a reference threshold value for endogenous steroids, the direct detection of steroid esters in hair is an efficient strategy for the detection of 'natural' steroid abuse in cattle. The present study aimed to develop and validate according to the current European standards a specific liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analytical strategy to monitor estrogen esters in bovine hair. The analysis was performed by positive ion electrospray ionisation (ESI+) after dansylation. Two acquisition modes were then assessed: single reaction monitoring and precursor ion scanning. The results showed that the introduction of a dansylation step strongly improves the sensitivity of the detection of estradiol-17-esters by LC/(ESI+)-MS/MS. The CCα values are in the range 1-10 ng g(-1) after optimisation, except for estradiol decanoate for which the derivatisation is not efficient. In addition, this LC/MS/MS approach makes it possible to carry out a precursor ion scan to screen for the presence of these estradiol 17-esters in hair samples. Based on the specific product ions, i.e. m/z 255 in native conditions or m/z 171 after dansylation, this strategy has the advantage of detecting any (un)known estradiol ester and of giving access to the [M + H](+) ion of the suspected ester through only a single analysis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Validated LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of SIM and its acid form in human plasma and cell lysate: Pharmacokinetic application%Validated LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of SIM and its acid form in human plasma and cell lysate: Pharmacokinetic application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamer A. Ahmed; Jamie Horn; John Hayslip; Markos Leggas

    2012-01-01

    Simvastatin (SIM) is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor widely used in hyperlipidemia therapy. SIM has recently been studied for its anticancer activity at doses higher than those used for the hyperlipidemia therapy. This prompted us to study the pharmacokinetics of high-dose SIM in cancer patients. For this purpose, an LC-MS/MS method was developed to measure SIM and its acid form (SIMA) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from patients. Chromatographic analyte separation was carried out on a reverse-phase column using 75:25 (% v/v) acetonitrile:ammonium acetate (0.1 M, pH 5.0) mobile phase. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, equipped with a turbo ion spray source and operated in positive ionization mode. The assay was linear over a range 2.5-500 ng/mL for SIM and 5-500 ng/mL for SIMA in plasma and 2.5-250 ng/mL for SIM and 5-250 ng/mL for SIMA in cell lysate. Recovery was 〉 58% for SIM and 〉 75% for SIMA in both plasma and cell lysate. SIM and SIMA were stable in plasma, cell lysate and the reconstitution solution. This method was successfully applied for the determination of SIM and SIMA in plasma and PBMCs samples collected in the pharmacokinetic study of high-dose SIM in cancer patients.

  4. Radiation monitoring data of the HTTR rise-to-power test. Results up to 30 MW operation on the rated operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have completed the Rise-to-Power test of 9 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) in the rated operation mode, the rated operation mode and the high-temperature test operation mode with a thermal output of 20 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation). After that the Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode (the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850degC) with a thermal output of 30 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) were performed between October 20, 2001 and March 11, 2002. This report describes the radiation monitoring data carried out during the HTTR Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode with a thermal output of 30 MW. The dose equivalent rate the radioactive air concentration in the working place where the radiation workers enter during the reactor operation were respectively the back ground level and the lower detection limit. There were no release of the radioactive gaseous effluents to the environment through the stack. These radiation monitoring showed clearly the radiation level were very low. This report also describes the part of radiation monitoring data in the HTTR first cycle operation carried out during July 6, 2002 from March 20, 2002. (author)

  5. Radiation monitoring data of the HTTR rise-to-power test. Results up to 30 MW operation on the rated operation mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji; Sawa, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have completed the Rise-to-Power test of 9 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) in the rated operation mode, the rated operation mode and the high-temperature test operation mode with a thermal output of 20 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation). After that the Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode (the reactor outlet coolant temperature of 850degC) with a thermal output of 30 MW (the single and parallel loaded operation) were performed between October 20, 2001 and March 11, 2002. This report describes the radiation monitoring data carried out during the HTTR Rise-to-Power test in the rated operation mode with a thermal output of 30 MW. The dose equivalent rate the radioactive air concentration in the working place where the radiation workers enter during the reactor operation were respectively the back ground level and the lower detection limit. There were no release of the radioactive gaseous effluents to the environment through the stack. These radiation monitoring showed clearly the radiation level were very low. This report also describes the part of radiation monitoring data in the HTTR first cycle operation carried out during July 6, 2002 from March 20, 2002. (author)

  6. Analysis of volatile nanoparticles emitted from diesel engine using TOF-SIMS and metal-assisted SIMS (MetA-SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masae; Murase, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Masami; Kubo, Shuichi

    2006-07-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and metal-assisted SIMS (MetA-SIMS), which is TOF-SIMS analysis of metal-deposited sample surfaces, were applied to analyze small quantities of volatile nanoparticles emitted from a light-duty diesel engine under idling and deceleration conditions. We investigated nucleation materials, i.e., >C35 hydrocarbons, oxidation products, etc., which have lower volatility than the main components of volatile nanoparticles and control the formation of volatile nanoparticles. Oxygenated hydrocarbons were detected by TOF-SIMS in volatile nanoparticles under idling condition. Their relative intensities increased as particle diameter decreased. This resulted in the oxygenated hydrocarbons acting as nucleation materials for volatile nanoparticles under idling condition. High-molecular-weight hydrocarbons of greater than C35 were detected in volatile nanoparticles under deceleration condition by MetA-SIMS. It was concluded that the detected hydrocarbons originated in lubricants and acted as nucleation materials for volatile nanoparticles under deceleration condition. TOF-SIMS makes it possible to detect traces of low-volatility molecules due to its high-vacuum environment. MetA-SIMS is the only method of directly detecting high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons in small quantities of nanoparticles. TOF-SIMS and MetA-SIMS were proved to be useful tools for analyzing of the properties of volatile nanoparticles.

  7. 20-SIM code generation for PC/104 target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    From version 3.2, 20-Sim will contain a new tool, called C-code generation. With this tool it will be possible to generate C code from a 20-Sim model. This tool works on basis of templates. For each target, a target specific template has to be made. The goal of this project was to write a new 20-Sim

  8. TOF-SIMS investigation of Streptomyces coelicolor, a mycelial bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman [Surface Analytical Research Centre, Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: S.Vaidyanathan@manchester.ac.uk; Fletcher, John S.; Lockyer, Nicholas P.; Vickerman, John C. [Surface Analytical Research Centre, Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a mycelial microorganism that produces several secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. The physiology of the organism has largely been investigated in liquid cultures due to ease of monitoring different physiological parameters and more homogeneous culture conditions. However, solid cultures reflect the natural physiology of the microorganism better, given that in its natural state it grows in the soil. Imaging mass spectrometry with TOF-SIMS and C{sub 60}{sup +} primary ion beams offers a potential route to studying chemical changes at the molecular level, both intracellular and extracellular that can help in understanding the natural physiology of the microorganism. Here, we report the application of the technique for studying the lateral distribution of the chemical species detected in a population, grown in both liquid and solid cultures. The capability of the technique for studying biological systems with minimal system intervention is demonstrated.

  9. TOF-SIMS investigation of Streptomyces coelicolor, a mycelial bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Fletcher, John S.; Lockyer, Nicholas P.; Vickerman, John C.

    2008-12-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is a mycelial microorganism that produces several secondary metabolites, including antibiotics. The physiology of the organism has largely been investigated in liquid cultures due to ease of monitoring different physiological parameters and more homogeneous culture conditions. However, solid cultures reflect the natural physiology of the microorganism better, given that in its natural state it grows in the soil. Imaging mass spectrometry with TOF-SIMS and C 60+ primary ion beams offers a potential route to studying chemical changes at the molecular level, both intracellular and extracellular that can help in understanding the natural physiology of the microorganism. Here, we report the application of the technique for studying the lateral distribution of the chemical species detected in a population, grown in both liquid and solid cultures. The capability of the technique for studying biological systems with minimal system intervention is demonstrated.

  10. SIMS analysis: Development and evaluation program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the ``SIMS Analysis: Development and Evaluation Program``, which was executed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory from mid-FY-92 to the end of FY-96. It should be noted that prior to FY-1994 the name of the program was ``In-Situ SIMS Analysis``. This report will not go into exhaustive detail regarding program accomplishments, because this information is contained in annual reports which are referenced herein. In summary, the program resulted in the design and construction of an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer (IT-SIMS), which is capable of the rapid analysis of environmental samples for adsorbed surface contaminants. This instrument achieves efficient secondary ion desorption by use of a molecular, massive ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} primary ion particle. The instrument manages surface charge buildup using a self-discharging principle, which is compatible with the pulsed nature of the ion trap. The instrument can achieve high selectivity and sensitivity using its selective ion storage and MS/MS capability. The instrument was used for detection of tri-n-butyl phosphate, salt cake (tank cake) characterization, and toxic metal speciation studies (specifically mercury). Technology transfer was also an important component of this program. The approach that was taken toward technology transfer was that of component transfer. This resulted in transfer of data acquisition and instrument control software in FY-94, and ongoing efforts to transfer primary ion gun and detector technology to other manufacturers.

  11. The USNO SIM Grid Star Selection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B. D.; Corbin, T. E.; Hajian, A. R.; Hummel, C. A.; Rafferty, T. J.; Urban, S. E.; Zacharias, N.

    1999-09-01

    The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is in the process of preparing an input catalog of SIM grid stars by utilizing existing databases, observing capabilities, and instrumental development. The SIM grid should be astrometrically stable at the 4 mu as level over the five year life of the program, therefore, double and multiple stars must be avoided. Stars in the apparent magnitude range 6.5 Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer and wide-field CCD work. In addition, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), with a potential for sub-meter per second radial velocity determinations, is being developed to eliminate companions (both stellar and substellar). In total, 7,200 candidate stars, evenly distributed over the sky will be examined observationally. The combination of the four astrometric methods will remove double and multiple systems in the ~ 15 arcsec to ~ 1 milliarcsecond range with Delta m_v of 3.5 magnitudes, while the FTS is expected to detect companions with masses as low as Saturn in the range of 0.1 to 10 au. The first year of the program has thus far seen significant progress. The SIM grid candidate list has been prepared and speckle observations of these candidates have begun: in the northern hemisphere, by the USNO and the RIT/Yale group (Elliott Horch & Zoran Nikov, Rochester Institute of Technology and William van Altena, Yale).

  12. Monitoring tumor motion with on-line mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography imaging in a cine mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Bodo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States); Gayou, Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States); Parda, David S [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States)

    2008-02-21

    Accurate daily patient localization is becoming increasingly important in external-beam radiotherapy (RT). Mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) utilizing a therapy beam and an on-board electronic portal imager can be used to localize tumor volumes and verify the patient's position prior to treatment. MV-CBCT produces a static volumetric image and therefore can only account for inter-fractional changes. In this work, the feasibility of using the MV-CBCT raw data as a fluoroscopic series of portal images to monitor tumor changes due to e.g. respiratory motion was investigated. A method was developed to read and convert the CB raw data into a cine. To improve the contrast-to-noise ratio on the MV-CB projection data, image post-processing with filtering techniques was investigated. Volumes of interest from the planning CT were projected onto the MV-cine. Because of the small exposure and the varying thickness of the patient depending on the projection angle, soft-tissue contrast was limited. Tumor visibility as a function of tumor size and projection angle was studied. The method was well suited in the upper chest, where motion of the tumor as well as of the diaphragm could be clearly seen. In the cases of patients with non-small cell lung cancer with medium or large tumor masses, we verified that the tumor mass was always located within the PTV despite respiratory motion. However for small tumors the method is less applicable, because the visibility of those targets becomes marginal. Evaluation of motion in non-superior-inferior directions might also be limited for small tumor masses. Viewing MV-CBCT data in a cine mode adds to the utility of MV-CBCT for verification of tumor motion and for deriving individualized treatment margins.

  13. Monitoring tumor motion with on-line mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography imaging in a cine mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Bodo; Gayou, Olivier; Parda, David S.; Miften, Moyed

    2008-02-01

    Accurate daily patient localization is becoming increasingly important in external-beam radiotherapy (RT). Mega-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT) utilizing a therapy beam and an on-board electronic portal imager can be used to localize tumor volumes and verify the patient's position prior to treatment. MV-CBCT produces a static volumetric image and therefore can only account for inter-fractional changes. In this work, the feasibility of using the MV-CBCT raw data as a fluoroscopic series of portal images to monitor tumor changes due to e.g. respiratory motion was investigated. A method was developed to read and convert the CB raw data into a cine. To improve the contrast-to-noise ratio on the MV-CB projection data, image post-processing with filtering techniques was investigated. Volumes of interest from the planning CT were projected onto the MV-cine. Because of the small exposure and the varying thickness of the patient depending on the projection angle, soft-tissue contrast was limited. Tumor visibility as a function of tumor size and projection angle was studied. The method was well suited in the upper chest, where motion of the tumor as well as of the diaphragm could be clearly seen. In the cases of patients with non-small cell lung cancer with medium or large tumor masses, we verified that the tumor mass was always located within the PTV despite respiratory motion. However for small tumors the method is less applicable, because the visibility of those targets becomes marginal. Evaluation of motion in non-superior-inferior directions might also be limited for small tumor masses. Viewing MV-CBCT data in a cine mode adds to the utility of MV-CBCT for verification of tumor motion and for deriving individualized treatment margins.

  14. Monitoring recent lake level variations on the Tibetan Plateau using CryoSat-2 SARIn mode data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liguang; Nielsen, Karina; Andersen, Ole B.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are of great interest due to their value as water resources but also as an important indicator of climate change. However, in situ data in this region are extremely scarce and only a few lakes have gauge measurements. Satellite altimetry has been used successfully to monitor lake levels. In this study, Cryosat-2 SARIn mode data over the period 2010-2015 are used to investigate recent lake level variations. The estimated water levels of the 70 largest lakes (> 100 km2) on the TP show that 48 lakes reveal a rising trend (avg. 0.28 ± 0.06 m/yr) while the other 22 show a slightly decreasing trend (avg. -0.10 ± 0.04 m/yr). To compare with the change rates during 2003-2009, ICESat data which cover 42 of the 70 lakes are also used. When combining the data, the results show that during the period of 2003-2015, 28 lakes maintained a rising trend and the change rates are comparable. Lakes in the northern part of the TP experienced pronounced rising (avg. 0.37 ± 0.10 m/yr), while lakes in southern part were steady or decreasing even in glaciated basins with high precipitation. Factor analysis indicates that driving factors for lake change are variable due to high spatial heterogeneity. However, autumn/winter temperature plays an important role in lake level change. These results demonstrate that lakes on the TP are still rapidly changing under climate change, especially in northern part of the TP, but the driving factors are variable and more research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind observed changes.

  15. Magnetoencephalographic alpha band connectivity reveals differential Default Mode Network interactions during focused attention and open monitoring meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eMarzetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available According to several conceptualizations of meditation, the interplay between brain systems associated to self-related processing, attention and executive control is crucial for meditative states and related traits. We used magnetoencephalography to investigate such interplay in a highly selected group of virtuoso meditators (Theravada Buddhist monks, with long-term training in the two main meditation styles: focused attention (FA and open monitoring (OM meditation. Specifically, we investigated the differences between FA meditation, OM meditation and resting state in the coupling between the posterior cingulate cortex, core node of the Default Mode Network (DMN implicated in mind wandering and self-related processing, and the whole brain, with a recently developed phase coherence approach. Our findings showed a state dependent coupling of PCC to nodes of the DMN and of the executive control brain network in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz, related to different attentional and cognitive control processes in FA and OM meditation, consistently with the putative role of alpha band synchronization in the functional mechanisms for attention and consciousness. The coupling of posterior cingulate cortex with left medial prefrontal cortex and superior frontal gyrus characterized the contrast between the two meditation styles in a way that correlated with meditation expertise. These correlations may be related to a higher mindful observing ability and a reduced identification with ongoing mental activity in more expert meditators. Notably, different styles of meditation and different meditation expertise appeared to modulate the dynamic balance between fronto-parietal and DMN networks. Our results support the idea that the interplay between the DMN and the fronto-parietal network in the alpha band is crucial for the transition from resting state to different meditative states.

  16. Magnetoencephalographic alpha band connectivity reveals differential default mode network interactions during focused attention and open monitoring meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzetti, Laura; Di Lanzo, Claudia; Zappasodi, Filippo; Chella, Federico; Raffone, Antonino; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    According to several conceptualizations of meditation, the interplay between brain systems associated to self-related processing, attention and executive control is crucial for meditative states and related traits. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate such interplay in a highly selected group of "virtuoso" meditators (Theravada Buddhist monks), with long-term training in the two main meditation styles: focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) meditation. Specifically, we investigated the differences between FA meditation, OM meditation and resting state in the coupling between the posterior cingulate cortex, core node of the Default Mode Network (DMN) implicated in mind wandering and self-related processing, and the whole brain, with a recently developed phase coherence approach. Our findings showed a state dependent coupling of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to nodes of the DMN and of the executive control brain network in the alpha frequency band (8-12 Hz), related to different attentional and cognitive control processes in FA and OM meditation, consistently with the putative role of alpha band synchronization in the functional mechanisms for attention and consciousness. The coupling of PCC with left medial prefrontal cortex (lmPFC) and superior frontal gyrus characterized the contrast between the two meditation styles in a way that correlated with meditation expertise. These correlations may be related to a higher mindful observing ability and a reduced identification with ongoing mental activity in more expert meditators. Notably, different styles of meditation and different meditation expertise appeared to modulate the dynamic balance between fronto-parietal (FP) and DMN networks. Our results support the idea that the interplay between the DMN and the FP network in the alpha band is crucial for the transition from resting state to different meditative states.

  17. Linewidth broadening and emission saturation of a resonantly excited quantum dot monitored via an off-resonant cavity mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhaq, A.; Ates, Serkan; Weiler, S.;

    2010-01-01

    We report on the robustness of a detuned mode channel for reading out the relevant s-shell properties of a resonantly excited coupled quantum dot (QD) in a pillar microcavity. The line broadening of the QD s-shell is “monitored” by the mode signal with high conformity to the directly measured QD ...

  18. Rim Sim: A Role-Play Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Robert C.; Frew, Suzanne L.; Howell, David G.; Karl, Herman A.; Rudin, Emily B.

    2003-01-01

    Rim Sim is a 6-hour, eight-party negotiation that focuses on creating a framework for the long-term disaster-recovery efforts. It involves a range of players from five countries affected by two natural disasters: a typhoon about a year ago and an earthquake about 6 months ago. The players are members of an International Disaster Working Group (IDWG) that has been created by an international commission. The IDWG has been charged with drawing up a framework for managing two issues: the reconstruction of regionally significant infrastructure and the design of a mechanism for allocating funding to each country for reconstruction of local infrastructure and ongoing humanitarian needs. The first issue will involve making choices among five options (two harbor options, two airport options, and one rail-line option), each of which will have three levels at which to rebuild. The second issue will involve five starting-point options. Participants are encouraged to invent other options for both issues. The goal of Rim Sim is to raise questions about traditional approaches to disaster-preparedness planning and reconstruction efforts in an international setting, in this case the Pacific Rim. Players must confront the reverberating effects of disasters and the problems of using science and technical information in decisionmaking, and are introduced to a consensus-building approach emphasizing face-to-face dialog and multinational cooperation in dealing with humanitarian concerns, as well as long-term efforts to reconstruct local and regional infrastructure. The Rim Sim simulation raises four key points: ripple effects of disasters, role of science, multiparty negotiation, and building personal relationships.

  19. Interest of silver and gold metallization for molecular SIMS and SIMS imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcorte, A.; Bertrand, P.

    2004-06-01

    The metallization procedure, recently proposed for signal improvement in organic secondary ion mass spectrometry (metal assisted-SIMS or MetA-SIMS), has been quantitatively evaluated for Irganox 1010 and polystyrene fragment and quasimolecular ions. In addition to gold, we investigate the effect of silver evaporation as a sample treatment prior to static SIMS analysis. Ion yields and yield enhancement factors are compared for Ag and Au-metallized molecular films, pristine coatings on silicon and sub-monolayers of the same molecules adsorbed on silver and gold. The results are sample-dependent but, as an example, the yield enhancement calculated for metallized polymer additive (Irganox 1010) films with respect to untreated coatings is larger than two orders of magnitude for the quasimolecular ion and a factor between 1 and 10 for characteristic fragments. The interest of the method for imaging SIMS applications is illustrated by the study of a non-uniform coating of polystyrene oligomers on a 100 μm polypropylene film.

  20. CoaSim Guile Manual — Using the Guile-based CoaSim Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2006-01-01

    CoaSim is a tool for simulating the coalescent process with recombination and geneconversion, under either constant population size or exponential population growth. It effectively constructs the ancestral recombination graph for a given number of chromosomes and uses this to simulate samples...

  1. Getting Started with CoaSim — An Introduction to the Simulator CoaSim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2005-01-01

    CoaSim is a tool for simulating the coalescent process with recombination and geneconversion, under either constant population size or exponential population growth. It effectively constructs the ancestral recombination graph for a given number of chromosomes and uses this to simulate samples...

  2. CoaSim Guile Manual — Using the Guile-based CoaSim Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2006-01-01

    CoaSim is a tool for simulating the coalescent process with recombination and geneconversion, under either constant population size or exponential population growth. It effectively constructs the ancestral recombination graph for a given number of chromosomes and uses this to simulate samples of ...... of SNP and micro-satellite haplotypes or genotypes....

  3. Getting Started with CoaSim — An Introduction to the Simulator CoaSim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, T

    2005-01-01

    CoaSim is a tool for simulating the coalescent process with recombination and geneconversion, under either constant population size or exponential population growth. It effectively constructs the ancestral recombination graph for a given number of chromosomes and uses this to simulate samples of ...... of SNP and micro-satellite haplotypes or genotypes....

  4. Experimental Results for SimFuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Andrew M.; Skomurski, Frances N.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Wittman, Richard S.; Mcnamara, Bruce K.

    2012-08-22

    Assessing the performance of Spent (or Used) Nuclear Fuel (UNF) in geological repository requires quantification of time-dependent phenomena that may influence its behavior on a time-scale up to millions of years. A high-level waste repository environment will be a dynamic redox system because of the time-dependent generation of radiolytic oxidants and reductants and the corrosion of Fe-bearing canister materials. One major difference between used fuel and natural analogues, including unirradiated UO2, is the intense radiolytic field. The radiation emitted by used fuel can produce radiolysis products in the presence of water vapor or a thin-film of water that may increase the waste form degradation rate and change radionuclide behavior. To study UNF, we have been working on producing synthetic UO2 ceramics, or SimFuels that can be used in testing and which will contain specific radionuclides or non-radioactive analogs so that we can test the impact of radiolysis on fuel corrosion without using actual spent fuel. Although, testing actual UNF would be ideal for understanding the long term behavior of UNF, it requires the use of hot cells and is extremely expensive. In this report, we discuss, factors influencing the preparation of SimFuels and the requirements for dopants to mimic the behavior of UNF. We have developed a reliable procedure for producing large grain UO2 at moderate temperatures. This process will be applied to a series of different formulations.

  5. High resolution isotopic analysis of U-bearing particles via fusion of SIMS and EDS images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarolli, Jay G.; Naes, Benjamin E.; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Willingham, David

    2016-01-01

    Image fusion of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) images and X-ray elemental maps from energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was performed to facilitate the isolation and re-analysis of isotopically unique U-bearing particles where the highest precision SIMS measurements are required. Image registration, image fusion and particle micromanipulation were performed on a subset of SIMS images obtained from a large area pre-screen of a particle distribution from a sample containing several certified reference materials (CRM) U129A, U015, U150, U500 and U850, as well as a standard reference material (SRM) 8704 (Buffalo River Sediment) to simulate particles collected on swipes during routine inspections of declared uranium enrichment facilities by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In total, fourteen particles, ranging in size from 5 – 15 µm, were isolated and re-analyzed by SIMS in multi-collector mode identifying nine particles of CRM U129A, one of U150, one of U500 and three of U850. These identifications were made within a few percent errors from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) certified atom percent values for 234U, 235U and 238U for the corresponding CRMs. This work represents the first use of image fusion to enhance the accuracy and precision of isotope ratio measurements for isotopically unique U-bearing particles for nuclear safeguards applications. Implementation of image fusion is essential for the identification of particles of interests that fall below the spatial resolution of the SIMS images.

  6. Low Power Near Field Communication Methods for RFID Applications of SIM Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yicheng; Zheng, Zhaoxia; Gong, Mingyang; Yu, Fengqi

    2017-01-01

    Power consumption and communication distance have become crucial challenges for SIM card RFID (radio frequency identification) applications. The combination of long distance 2.45 GHz radio frequency (RF) technology and low power 2 kHz near distance communication is a workable scheme. In this paper, an ultra-low frequency 2 kHz near field communication (NFC) method suitable for SIM cards is proposed and verified in silicon. The low frequency transmission model based on electromagnetic induction is discussed. Different transmission modes are introduced and compared, which show that the baseband transmit mode has a better performance. The low-pass filter circuit and programmable gain amplifiers are applied for noise reduction and signal amplitude amplification. Digital-to-analog converters and comparators are used to judge the card approach and departure. A novel differential Manchester decoder is proposed to deal with the internal clock drift in range-controlled communication applications. The chip has been fully implemented in 0.18 µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, with a 330 µA work current and a 45 µA idle current. The low frequency chip can be integrated into a radio frequency SIM card for near field RFID applications. PMID:28420104

  7. Metrology Optical Power Budgeting in SIM Using Statistical Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Gary M

    2008-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based stellar interferometry instrument, consisting of up to three interferometers, which will be capable of micro-arc second resolution. Alignment knowledge of the three interferometer baselines requires a three-dimensional, 14-leg truss with each leg being monitored by an external metrology gauge. In addition, each of the three interferometers requires an internal metrology gauge to monitor the optical path length differences between the two sides. Both external and internal metrology gauges are interferometry based, operating at a wavelength of 1319 nanometers. Each gauge has fiber inputs delivering measurement and local oscillator (LO) power, split into probe-LO and reference-LO beam pairs. These beams experience power loss due to a variety of mechanisms including, but not restricted to, design efficiency, material attenuation, element misalignment, diffraction, and coupling efficiency. Since the attenuation due to these sources may degrade over time, an accounting of the range of expected attenuation is needed so an optical power margin can be book kept. A method of statistical optical power analysis and budgeting, based on a technique developed for deep space RF telecommunications, is described in this paper and provides a numerical confidence level for having sufficient optical power relative to mission metrology performance requirements.

  8. SimApp 1.8.x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-21

    System for converting DESIRE (Direct Executing Simulation in Real Time) simulation models to executable code models (C# / C++). These converted models are used as the basis for 2 products, one of which is the focus of this review: an engineering design interface for Fissile Solution Systems. ModelConverter.exe (C#) converts DESIRE model inputs to a C++ plug-in subclass. SimApp.exe (C# / C++) has a C++ dll that is a numerical integration engine that the Converted models plug into. The engineering design interface is a C# GUI that calls on the C++ dll to execute a particular converted model. The GUI allows the user to specify the length of a simulation, run the simulation, view data plots and data tables. Stability plots may also be produced and manipulated. The engineering design interface will be released as source code and executable; the model converter source is also intended for release.

  9. Tracking microbial interactions with NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musat, Niculina; Musat, Florin; Weber, Peter Kilian; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    The combination of stable isotope probing (SIP), NanoSIMS imaging and microbe identification via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is often used to link identity to function at the cellular level in microbial communities. Many opportunities remain for nanoSIP to identify metabolic interactions and nutrient fluxes within syntrophic associations and obligate symbioses where exchanges can be extremely rapid. However, additional data, such as genomic potential, gene expression or other imaging modalities are often critical to deciphering the mechanisms underlying specific interactions, and researchers must keep sample preparation artefacts in mind. Here we focus on recent applications of nanoSIP, particularly where used to track exchanges of isotopically labelled molecules between organisms. We highlight metabolic interactions within syntrophic consortia, carbon/nitrogen fluxes between phototrophs and their heterotrophic partners, and symbiont–host nutrient sharing.

  10. Analysis of Dual- and Full-Circular Polarimetric SAR Modes for Rice Phenology Monitoring: An Experimental Investigation through Ground-Based Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Izumi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized synthetic aperture radar (CP-SAR is known to be insensitive to polarization mismatch losses caused by the Faraday rotation effect and antenna misalignment. Additionally, the dual-circular polarimetric (DCP mode has proven to have more polarimetric information than that of the corresponding mode of linear polarization, i.e., the dual-linear polarimetric (DLP mode. Owing to these benefits, this paper investigates the feasibility of CP-SAR for rice monitoring. A ground-based CP-radar system was exploited, and C-band anechoic chamber data of a self-cultivated Japanese rice paddy were acquired from germination to ripening stages. Temporal variations of polarimetric observables derived from full-circular polarimetric (FCP and DCP as well as synthetically generated DLP data are analyzed and assessed with regard to their effectiveness in phenology retrieval. Among different observations, the H / α ¯ plane and triangle plots obtained by three scattering components (surface, double-bounce, and volume scattering for both the FCP and DCP modes are confirmed to have reasonable capability in discriminating the relevant intervals of rice growth.

  11. Biochemical imaging of tissues by SIMS for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Moon, Dae Won; Choi, Won Woo; Li, Kapsok; Chung, Jin Ho

    2008-12-01

    With the development of optimal surface cleaning techniques by cluster ion beam sputtering, certain applications of SIMS for analyzing cells and tissues have been actively investigated. For this report, we collaborated with bio-medical scientists to study bio-SIMS analyses of skin and cancer tissues for biomedical diagnostics. We pay close attention to the setting up of a routine procedure for preparing tissue specimens and treating the surface before obtaining the bio-SIMS data. Bio-SIMS was used to study two biosystems, skin tissues for understanding the effects of photoaging and colon cancer tissues for insight into the development of new cancer diagnostics for cancer. Time-of-flight SIMS imaging measurements were taken after surface cleaning with cluster ion bombardment by Bi n or C 60 under varying conditions. The imaging capability of bio-SIMS with a spatial resolution of a few microns combined with principal component analysis reveal biologically meaningful information, but the lack of high molecular weight peaks even with cluster ion bombardment was a problem. This, among other problems, shows that discourse with biologists and medical doctors are critical to glean any meaningful information from SIMS mass spectrometric and imaging data. For SIMS to be accepted as a routine, daily analysis tool in biomedical laboratories, various practical sample handling methodology such as surface matrix treatment, including nano-metal particles and metal coating, in addition to cluster sputtering, should be studied.

  12. CQI reporting strategy for Multi-SIM UEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buthler, Jakob Lindbjerg; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2016-01-01

    UEs which support simultaneous activity from Multiple Active Subscriber Identities (Multi-SIM) has gained popularity within the last years. Such UEs are forced to discard data on one of the SIMs when both try to access the Radio Frequency (RF) interface simultaneously, creating gaps in the data t...

  13. Design and development of a unified subscribers' SIM registration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 13, No 2 (2016) > ... The new system surpasses the existing one as it is able to register all SIM cards of the four (4) major ... It is recommended that SIM card availability/sales on the road side should be stopped or such SIM ...

  14. Chern-Simons theory in SIM(1) superspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vohanka, Jiri [Masaryk University, Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Brno (Czech Republic); Faizal, Mir [University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper,wewill analyze a three-dimensional supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory in SIM(1) superspace formalism. The breaking of the Lorentz symmetry down to the SIM(1) symmetry breaks half the supersymmetry of the Lorentz invariant theory. So, the supersymmetry of the Lorentz invariant Chern-Simons theory with N = 1 supersymmetry will break down to N = 1/2 supersymmetry, when the Lorentz symmetry is broken down to the SIM(1) symmetry. First, we will write the Chern-Simons action using SIM(1) projections ofN = 1 superfields. However, as the SIM(1) transformations of these projections are very complicated, we will define SIM(1) superfields which transform simply under SIM(1) transformations. We will then express the Chern-Simons action using these SIM(1) superfields. Furthermore, we will analyze the gauge symmetry of this Chern-Simons theory. This is the first time that a Chern-Simons theory with N = 1/2 supersymmetry will be constructed on a manifold without a boundary. (orig.)

  15. Chern–Simons theory in SIM(1) superspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vohánka, Jiří [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 267/2, 611 37, Brno (Czech Republic); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, N2L 3G1, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2015-12-14

    In this paper, we will analyze a three-dimensional supersymmetric Chern–Simons theory in SIM(1) superspace formalism. The breaking of the Lorentz symmetry down to the SIM(1) symmetry breaks half the supersymmetry of the Lorentz invariant theory. So, the supersymmetry of the Lorentz invariant Chern–Simons theory with N=1 supersymmetry will break down to N=1/2 supersymmetry, when the Lorentz symmetry is broken down to the SIM(1) symmetry. First, we will write the Chern–Simons action using SIM(1) projections of N=1 superfields. However, as the SIM(1) transformations of these projections are very complicated, we will define SIM(1) superfields which transform simply under SIM(1) transformations. We will then express the Chern–Simons action using these SIM(1) superfields. Furthermore, we will analyze the gauge symmetry of this Chern–Simons theory. This is the first time that a Chern–Simons theory with N=1/2 supersymmetry will be constructed on a manifold without a boundary.

  16. Playing with Sims as a space of one's own

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Sara Mosberg

    2014-01-01

    , this article analyses the articulated experiences of playing The Sims 2 and The Sims 3 in relation to how the players perceive the activity’s function in their everyday lives. Seven emic categories are identified and discussed in the inductive analysis, namely “relaxation and dealing with stress,” “playing...

  17. Characterizing Atacama B-mode Search Detectors with a Half-Wave Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, S M; Campusano, L E; Choi, S K; Crowley, K T; Essinger-Hileman, T; Gallardo, P; Ho, S P; Kusaka, A; Nati, F; Palma, G A; Page, L A; Raghunathan, S; Staggs, S T

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS) instrument is a cryogenic ($\\sim$10 K) crossed-Dragone telescope located at an elevation of 5190 m in the Atacama Desert in Chile that observed for three seasons between February 2012 and October 2014. ABS observed the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at large angular scales ($40<\\ell<500$) to limit the B-mode polarization spectrum around the primordial B-mode peak from inflationary gravity waves at $\\ell \\sim100$. The ABS focal plane consists of 480 transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers. They are coupled to orthogonal polarizations from a planar ortho-mode transducer (OMT) and observe at 145 GHz. ABS employs an ambient-temperature, rapidly rotating half-wave plate (HWP) to mitigate systematic effects and move the signal band away from atmospheric $1/f$ noise, allowing for the recovery of large angular scales. We discuss how the signal at the second harmonic of the HWP rotation frequency can be used for data selection and for monitoring the detector responsivities.

  18. In Situ Characterization of Hydrated Proteins in Water by SALVI and ToF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jiachao; Zhou, Yufan; Hua, Xin; Zhu, Zihua; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate in situ chemical imaging of protein biomolecules in the aqueous solution using System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The fibronectin protein film was immobilized on the silicon nitride (SiN) membrane forming the SALVI detection area. During ToF-SIMS analysis, three modes of analysis were conducted including high spatial resolution mass spectra, two-dimensional (2D) imaging, and depth profiling. Mass spectra were acquired in both positive and negative modes. Deionized water was also analyzed as a reference sample. Our results show that fibronectin film in water has more distinct and stronger water cluster peaks compared to water alone. Characteristic peaks of amino acid fragments are also observable in the hydrated protein ToF-SIMS spectra. These results illustrate that protein molecule adsorption on a surface can be studied dynamically using SALVI and ToF-SIMS in the liquid environment.

  19. Switchable 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene and 1-hexanol ionic liquid analyzed by liquid ToF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Juan; Zhou, Yufan; Sui, Xiao; Lao, David; Heldebrant, David; Zhu, Zihua; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2016-06-01

    Switchable ionic liquids (SWIL) play an important role in green chemistry. Due to the nature of SWIL chemistry, such as air sensitivity and pressure and temperature dependence, it is difficult to characterize SWIL using vacuum-based surface techniques. The fully CO2 loaded and none-loaded DBU and hexanol mixtures, a SWIL system, were analyzed in situ by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) coupled with the System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI), respectively. The DBU/Hexanol/CO2 SWIL was injected into the microchannel before liquid SIMS analysis. Bi3+ primary ion beam was used. The positive and negative spectra of the SWIL chemical components are presented. The characteristic peaks m/z 153 (reduced DBU) in the positive mode and m/z 101 (oxidized hexanol) in negative mode were observed. In addition, ion pair peaks including m/z 253, 319, 305, 451 in the positive mode and m/z 145, 223, 257 in the negative mode are first observed using this approach. These results demonstrate that the SALVI microfluidic reactor enables the vacuum-based surface technique (i.e., ToF-SIMS) for in situ characterization of challenging liquid samples such as ionic liquids.

  20. Molecular imaging of cannabis leaf tissue with MeV-SIMS method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenčič, Boštjan, E-mail: bostjan.jencic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeromel, Luka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); M4I, Maastricht University, Peter Debijelaan 25A, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Dept. of Biology, Večna pot 11, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovačec, Eva; Regvar, Marjana [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Dept. of Biology, Večna pot 11, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Siketić, Zdravko [Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Kelemen, Mitja; Kovač, Janez; Pelicon, Primož [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-03-15

    To broaden our analytical capabilities with molecular imaging in addition to the existing elemental imaging with micro-PIXE, a linear Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer for MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (MeV-SIMS) was constructed and added to the existing nuclear microprobe at the Jožef Stefan Institute. We measured absolute molecular yields and damage cross-section of reference materials, without significant alteration of the fragile biological samples during the duration of measurements in the mapping mode. We explored the analytical capability of the MeV-SIMS technique for chemical mapping of the plant tissue of medicinal cannabis leaves. A series of hand-cut plant tissue slices were prepared by standard shock-freezing and freeze-drying protocol and deposited on the Si wafer. We show the measured MeV-SIMS spectra showing a series of peaks in the mass area of cannabinoids, as well as their corresponding maps. The indicated molecular distributions at masses of 345.5 u and 359.4 u may be attributed to the protonated THCA and THCA-C4 acids, and show enhancement in the areas with opened trichome morphology.

  1. Molecular imaging of cannabis leaf tissue with MeV-SIMS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenčič, Boštjan; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Kovačec, Eva; Regvar, Marjana; Siketić, Zdravko; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Kelemen, Mitja; Kovač, Janez; Pelicon, Primož

    2016-03-01

    To broaden our analytical capabilities with molecular imaging in addition to the existing elemental imaging with micro-PIXE, a linear Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometer for MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (MeV-SIMS) was constructed and added to the existing nuclear microprobe at the Jožef Stefan Institute. We measured absolute molecular yields and damage cross-section of reference materials, without significant alteration of the fragile biological samples during the duration of measurements in the mapping mode. We explored the analytical capability of the MeV-SIMS technique for chemical mapping of the plant tissue of medicinal cannabis leaves. A series of hand-cut plant tissue slices were prepared by standard shock-freezing and freeze-drying protocol and deposited on the Si wafer. We show the measured MeV-SIMS spectra showing a series of peaks in the mass area of cannabinoids, as well as their corresponding maps. The indicated molecular distributions at masses of 345.5 u and 359.4 u may be attributed to the protonated THCA and THCA-C4 acids, and show enhancement in the areas with opened trichome morphology.

  2. How can BIM support Construction Safety Management? Development of SIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Isabelle Y S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BIM is continuously changing the way construction can be approached, from design, scheduling, costing to facilities management. However, even though construction safety is a worldwide issue, and though previous, yet limited, studies have proven its great potential, BIM has not been extended to include automated construction safety management functions, i.e., hazard identification, assessment and control for construction works. In fact, as many as 71% of safety incidents can be prevented by safety considerations at design stage. Automation via BIM is the key to enhance effectiveness and efficiency of safety management, but development of Safety Information Modelling (SIM is the key pre-requisite. This paper aims to outline a research project for developing both information and technical requirements for SIM via questionnaire survey, focus group, and real case studies. The project results, to be validated by real projects, will act as solid platform for developing:- i Practical guidance to construction and safety professionals on the types of safety management a SIM can conduct, and the ways of utilizing the safety information in a SIM model [based on the systematic SIM information requirements (e.g., object identification, geometry attributes, safety rules]; and ii Overall guidance to software developers to develop appropriate SIM tools for different scenarios [based on the systematic SIM technical requirements (e.g., model information exchange, visualization, conflict analysis process for risk assessment, reliability].

  3. VALIDATION OF THE MECG-DP-NS-01 MONITOR IN OSCILLOMETRY AND AUSCULTATION MODES IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS, ACCORDING TO ESH-IP2, BHS AND AAMI PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure in childhood and adolescence is associated with a 2 to 3-fold increase of the risk of arterial hypertension. According to the Russian guidelines, only devices that have been tested by international protocols can be used for the main diagnostic method of arterial hypertension in children and adolescents, i.e. ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring.Aim: To validate the MECG-DP-NS-01 upper arm BP monitor in oscillometry and auscultation modes within the “Soyuz” complex, in children and adolescents aged from 5 to 15 years according to the international protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH from 2010 (ESH-IP2, the protocol of the British Hypertension Society (BHS from 1993 and the standard of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI.Materials and methods: We recruited 99 children and adolescents (49 male, 50 female aged from 5 to 15 years (33 children, from 5 to 7 years, 33, from 8 to 11 years, 33, from 12 to 15 years. Expert and device blood pressure measurements were performed in each patient according to the protocols.Results: The MECG-DP-NS-01 upper arm blood pressure monitor was validated and its accuracy in blood pressure measurement in children and adolescents according to ESH-IP2, BHS and AAMI protocols confirmed. According to BHS 1993 protocol, its accuracy corresponded to A/A both in the oscillometry and auscultation modes.Conclusion: According to ESH-IP2, BHS and AAMI protocols, MEGC-DP-NS-01 within the “Soyuz” complex could be recommended for 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in children and adolescents aged from 5 to 15 years, both in the oscillometry and auscultation modes. According to the Declaration of blood pressure Measuring Device Equivalence signed by the manufacturer for the devices MDP-NS-02s “Voshod” and MEGCDPNS-01, and to the equivalence criteria for blood pressure measuring devices, the results of testing and its

  4. Electrotechnical systems simulation with Simulink and SimPowerSystems

    CERN Document Server

    Perelmuter, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Filling a gap in the literature, Electrotechnical Systems: Simulation with Simulink® and SimPowerSystems™ explains how to simulate complicated electrical systems more easily using SimPowerSystems™ blocks. It gives a comprehensive overview of the powerful SimPowerSystems toolbox and demonstrates how it can be used to create and investigate models of both classic and modern electrotechnical systems.Build from Circuit Elements and Blocks to System ModelsBuilding from simple to more complex topics, the book helps readers better understand the principles, features, and detailed functions of various

  5. Cosensitized Porphyrin System for High-Performance Solar Cells with TOF-SIMS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjun; Xiang, Huaide; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jinglin; Wang, Haifeng; Hua, Xin; Wang, Zhaohui; Long, Yitao; Tian, He; Zhu, Wei-Hong

    2017-05-17

    To date, development of organic sensitizers has been predominately focused on light harvesting, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels, and the electron transferring process. In contrast, their adsorption mode as well as the dynamic loading behavior onto nanoporous TiO2 is rarely considered. Herein, we have employed the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to gain insight into the competitive dye adsorption mode and kinetics in the cosensitized porphyrin system. Using novel porphyrin dye FW-1 and D-A-π-A featured dye WS-5, the different bond-breaking mode in TOF-SIMS and dynamic dye-loading amount during the coadsorption process are well-compared with two different anchoring groups, such as benzoic acid and cyanoacrylic acid. With the bombardment mode in TOF-SIMS spectra, we have speculated that the cyano group grafts onto nanoporous TiO2 as tridentate binding for the common anchoring unit of cyanoacrylic acid and confirmed it through extensive first-principles density functional theory calculation by anchoring either the carboxyl or cyano group, which shows that the cyano group can efficiently participate in the adsorption of the WS-5 molecule onto the TiO2 nanocrystal. The grafting reinforcement interaction between the cyano group and TiO2 in WS-5 can well-explain the rapid adsorption characteristics. A strong coordinate bond between the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen or oxygen atom and the Lewis acid sites of TiO2 can increase electron injection efficiencies with respect to those from the bond between the benzoic acid group and the Brønsted acid sites of the TiO2 surface. Upon optimization of the coadsorption process with dye WS-5, the photoelectric conversion efficiency based on porphyrin dye FW-1 is increased from 6.14 to 9.72%. The study on the adsorption dynamics of organic sensitizers with TOF-SIMS analysis might provide a new venue for improvement of cosensitized solar cells.

  6. Applying the data fusion method to evaluation of the performance of two control signals in monitoring polarization mode dispersion effects in fiber optic links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtbani Moghari, M.; Rezaei, P.; Habibalahi, A.

    2015-02-01

    With increasing distance and bit rate in fiber optic links the effects of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) have been highlighted. Since PMD has a statistical nature, using a control signal that can provide accurate information to dynamically tune a PMD compensator is of great importance. In this paper, we apply the data fusion method with the aim of introducing a method that can be used to evaluate more accurately the performance of control signals before applying them in a PMD compensation system. Firstly, the minimum and average degree of polarization (DOP_min and DOP_ave respectively) as control signals in monitoring differential group delay (DGD) for a system including all-order PMD are calculated. Then, features including the amounts of sensitivity and ambiguity in DGD monitoring are calculated for NRZ data format as DGD to bit time (DGD/T) varies. It is shown that each of the control signals mentioned has both positive and negative features for efficient DGD monitoring. Therefore, in order to evaluate features concurrently and increase reliability, we employ data fusion to fuse features of each control signal, which makes evaluating and predicting the performance of control signals possible, before applying them in a real PMD compensation system. Finally, the reliability of the results obtained from data fusion is tested in a typical PMD compensator.

  7. CQI reporting strategy for Multi-SIM UEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buthler, Jakob Lindbjerg; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    UEs which support simultaneous activity from Multiple Active Subscriber Identities (Multi-SIM) has gained popularity within the last years. Such UEs are forced to discard data on one of the SIMs when both try to access the Radio Frequency (RF) interface simultaneously, creating gaps in the data...... transfer. The discarded data due to Multi-SIM gaps, along with channel errors, significantly increase the probability of high latency data subframes. High latency increases the probability of data subframes being discarded. In this paper we present an algorithm with which it is possible to decrease...... the probability of discarded data subframes due to high latency. The algorithm takes advantage of the fact that the connections of each SIMs are unaligned and therefore gaps will only cover some timeslots partially. In such a case, it is possible to recover data using existing error correction coding...

  8. A method to synchronize signals from multiple patient monitoring devices through a single input channel for inclusion in list-mode acquisitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Connor, J. Michael; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Johnson, Karen; King, Michael A., E-mail: Michael.King@umassmed.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This technical note documents a method that the authors developed for combining a signal to synchronize a patient-monitoring device with a second physiological signal for inclusion into list-mode acquisition. Our specific application requires synchronizing an external patient motion-tracking system with a medical imaging system by multiplexing the tracking input with the ECG input. The authors believe that their methodology can be adapted for use in a variety of medical imaging modalities including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: The authors insert a unique pulse sequence into a single physiological input channel. This sequence is then recorded in the list-mode acquisition along with the R-wave pulse used for ECG gating. The specific form of our pulse sequence allows for recognition of the time point being synchronized even when portions of the pulse sequence are lost due to collisions with R-wave pulses. This was achieved by altering our software used in binning the list-mode data to recognize even a portion of our pulse sequence. Limitations on heart rates at which our pulse sequence could be reliably detected were investigated by simulating the mixing of the two signals as a function of heart rate and time point during the cardiac cycle at which our pulse sequence is mixed with the cardiac signal. Results: The authors have successfully achieved accurate temporal synchronization of our motion-tracking system with acquisition of SPECT projections used in 17 recent clinical research cases. In our simulation analysis the authors determined that synchronization to enable compensation for body and respiratory motion could be achieved for heart rates up to 125 beats-per-minute (bpm). Conclusions: Synchronization of list-mode acquisition with external patient monitoring devices such as those employed in motion-tracking can reliably be achieved using a simple method that can be implemented using

  9. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    OpenAIRE

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    System modeling is a vital tool for cost reduction and design process speed up in most engineering fields. The paper is focused on modeling of hydraulic arm as a part of intelligent prosthesis project, in the form of 2DOF open kinematic chain. The arm model combines mechanical, hydraulic and electric subsystems and uses Matlab as modeling tool. SimMechanics Matlab extension is used for mechanical part modeling, SimHydraulics toolbox is used for modeling of hydraulic circuit used for actuating...

  10. Compositional analysis in the nano-regime:A SIMS perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhendu Sarkar; Purushottam Chakraborty

    2005-01-01

    A serious problem in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis is its "matrix effect" that hinders the quantification of a certain species in a sample and consequently, appropriate corrective measures are taken to calibrate the secondary ion currents into respective concentrations for accurate compositional analysis. Use of "calibration standards" is necessary for this purpose. Detection of molecular MCsn+ ions (M-element to be analyzed, n=1, 2, 3,....) under Cs+ ion bombardment is a possible mean to minimize such matrix effect, enabling one to quantify without the need of calibration standards. Our recent studies on MCsn+ molecular ions aim towards the understanding of their formation mechanisms, which are important to know their effects on SIMS quantification.In-depth quantitative analysis is a major strength of SIMS for which 'depth resolution' is of significant relevance. The optimal choice of the impact parameters during SIMS analyses can play an effective role in obtaining data with ultra-high depth resolution. SIMS is possible at depth resolution in the nm or even sub-nm range, with quantifiable data obtained from the top monolayer onwards into the material. With optimized experimental conditions, like extremely low beam current (down to ~10 nA), and low bombarding energy (below 1 keV), ultra-high depth resolution SIMS has enabled interfacial composition analysis of ultra-thin films, quantum wells, heterostructures, etc. and complex low-dimensional structures with high precision and repeatability.

  11. Asyn-SimRank:An Asynchronous Large-Scale SimRank Algorithm%Asyn-SimRank:一种可异步执行的大规模 SimRank 算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春磊; 张岩峰; 鲍玉斌; 赵长宽; 于戈; 高立新

    2015-01-01

    SimRank 算法利用网络结构来评估网络中任意2点的相似性,它被广泛应用于社交网络和链接预测等诸多领域中.近年来,随着大数据技术的发展,SimRank 算法处理的数据不断增大,人们利用MapReduce 等分布式计算模型设计实现分布式的大规模 SimRank 算法来适应大数据处理的需求.但是,由于 SimRank 算法包含开销较大的迭代过程,每次迭代之后都需要一个全局同步,且每次迭代的计算复杂度高、通信量大,SimRank 算法不能在分布式环境下高效地实现.1)提出 Asyn‐SimRank 算法,该算法采用迭代‐累积的方式完成迭代计算,异步执行 SimRank 的核心迭代过程,避免了大规模分布式计算中的大量同步开销,同时有效降低计算量并减少通信开销;2)提出关键点优先调度计算,提升了 Asyn‐SimRank 算法的全局收敛速度;3)证明了 Asyn‐SimRank 算法的正确性和收敛性以及关键点优先调度计算的有效性;4)支持异步迭代的分布式框架 Maiter 上实现了 Asyn‐SimRank 算法.实验结果显示,相比较于 Hadoop ,Spark 上实现的 SimRank 算法和 Delta‐SimRank 算法,Asyn‐SimRank 算法大大提升了算法的计算效率,加速了算法收敛.%The SimRank algorithm , which exploits network structure to measure the similarity between node pairs ,has been widely used in many areas ,such as online social networks and link prediction .In recent years ,with the development of big data , the input data set of the SimRank algorithm is constantly increasing . People are utilizing distributed computing models , such as MapReduce ,to design large‐scale SimRank algorithm for solving the big data problems .However , since SimRank algorithm contains a high‐cost iterative process with synchronization barriers between iterations and the computational complexity is high in each iteration , the large‐scale Sim

  12. KEY COMPARISONS: Final report: SIM regional comparison of ac-dc voltage transfer difference (SIM.EM.K6a, SIM.EM-K9 and SIM.EM-K11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Sara; Filipski, Piotr; Izquierdo, Daniel; Afonso, Edson; Landim, Régis P.; Di Lillo, Lucas; Lipe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Three comparisons of ac-dc voltage transfer difference held from January to December 2004 are reported. Six NMIs in the SIM region took part: NRC (Canada), NIST (United States of America), CENAM (Mexico), INTI (Argentina), UTE (Uruguay) and INMETRO (Brazil). The comparisons were proposed to assess the measurement capabilities in ac-dc voltage transfer difference of the NMIs in the SIM region. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparisons, through three NMIs participating in both SIM and CCEM key comparisons. Additionally, a SIM.EM-Supplementary comparison was proposed, in support of the SIM NMIs' power/energy meter calibration capabilities. One technical protocol and one travelling standard were used, to economize on time and resources. The report shows the degree of equivalence in the SIM region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. The results of all participants support the values and uncertainties of the applicable CMC entries for ac-dc voltage transfer difference in the Key Comparison Database held at the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  13. Determination of the enantiomer ratio of PBB 149 by GC/NICI-tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recke, R. von der; Goetsch, A.; Vetter, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelchemie; Mariussen, E. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Berger, U.; Herzke, D. [NILU, The Polar Environmental Centre, Tromso (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    Technical mixtures of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) have been extensively used as flameretardants in textile and electronic industries and as additives in plastics. Despite a continuous reduction of the worldwide annual production in the last decade, the presence of PBBs in the environment was recently confirmed in a wide range of samples. PBBs exist in a theoretical variety of 209 congeners. Many di-ortho, tri-ortho, and tetra-ortho PBBs form stable pairs of enantiomers, which was experimentally confirmed by enantioselective HPLC separation of chiral PBB in a technical mixture. It is known from the literature, that chiral organohalogen compounds can be degraded enantioselectively. In this work we used a chiral GC stationary phase and developed a method using GC/NICI-MSMS in the single reaction monitoring mode for the determination of the enantioratio of PBB 149 in extracts from Norwegian bird of prey eggs.

  14. Auxetic Foam-Based Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Highly Sensitive Self-Powered Strain Sensing Capabilities to Monitor Human Body Movement

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Steven L.

    2017-05-15

    The first contact-mode triboelectric self-powered strain sensor using an auxetic polyurethane foam, conductive fabric, and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) is fabricated. Utilizing the auxetic properties of the polyurethane foam, the auxetic polyurethane foam would expand into the PTFE when the foam is stretched, causing contact electrification. Due to a larger contact area between the PTFE and the foam as the foam is stretched, this device can serve effectively as a strain sensor. The sensitivity of this method is explored, and this sensor has the highest sensitivity in all triboelectric nanogenerator devices that are used previously as a strain sensor. Different applications of this strain sensor are shown, and this sensor can be used as a human body monitoring system, self-powered scale to measure weight, and a seat belt to measure body movements inside a car seat.

  15. Direct chemical-analysis of uv laser-ablation products of organic polymers by using selective ion monitoring mode in gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yirang; Lee, H.W.; Fountain, S.T.; Lubman, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Trace quantities of laser ablated organic polymers were analyzed by using commercial capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the instrument was modified so that the laser ablation products could be introduced into the capillary column directly and the constituents of each peak in the chromatogram were identified by using a mass spectrometer. The present study takes advantage of the selective ion monitoring mode for significantly improving the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer as a detector, which is critical in analyzing the trace quantities and confirming the presence or absence of the species of interest in laser ablated polymers. The initial composition of the laser ablated polymers was obtained by using an electron impact reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the possible structure of the fragments observed in the spectra was proposed based on the structure of the polymers.

  16. Spectroscopic monitoring of the Herbig Ae star HD 104237. II. Non-radial pulsations, mode analysis and fundamental stellar parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Fumel, Aurelie

    2011-01-01

    Herbig Ae/Be stars are intermediate-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stars showing signs of intense activity and strong stellar winds, whose origin is not yet understood in the frame of current theoretical models of stellar evolution for young stars. The evolutionary tracks of the earlier Herbig Ae stars cross a recently discovered PMS instability strip. Many of these stars exhibit pulsations of delta Scuti type. HD 104237 is a well-known pulsating Herbig Ae star. In this article, we reinvestigated an extensive high-resolution quasi-continuous spectroscopic data set in order to search for very faint indications of non-radial pulsations in the line profile. To do this, we worked on dynamical spectra of equivalent photospheric (LSD) profiles of HD 104237. A 2D Fourier analysis (F2D) was performed of the entire profile and the temporal variation of the central depth of the line was studied with the time-series analysis tools Period04 and SigSpec. We present a mode identification corresponding to the detected dominan...

  17. Evaluation of the airway of the SimMan full-scale patient simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, R; Kristensen, M S; Rasmussen, L S

    2005-01-01

    SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated.......SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated....

  18. Reducing the Matrix Effect in Organic Cluster SIMS Using Dynamic Reactive Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic reactive ionization (DRI) utilizes a reactive molecule, HCl, which is doped into an Ar cluster projectile and activated to produce protons at the bombardment site on the cold sample surface with the presence of water. The methodology has been shown to enhance the ionization of protonated molecular ions and to reduce salt suppression in complex biomatrices. In this study, we further examine the possibility of obtaining improved quantitation with DRI during depth profiling of thin films. Using a trehalose film as a model system, we are able to define optimal DRI conditions for depth profiling. Next, the strategy is applied to a multilayer system consisting of the polymer antioxidants Irganox 1098 and 1010. These binary mixtures have demonstrated large matrix effects, making quantitative SIMS measurement not feasible. Systematic comparisons of depth profiling of this multilayer film between directly using GCIB, and under DRI conditions, show that the latter enhances protonated ions for both components by 4- to 15-fold, resulting in uniform depth profiling in positive ion mode and almost no matrix effect in negative ion mode. The methodology offers a new strategy to tackle the matrix effect and should lead to improved quantitative measurement using SIMS.

  19. Cluster SIMS with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carado, A.; Kozole, J.; Passarelli, M.; Winograd, N.; Loboda, A.; Wingate, J.

    2008-12-01

    The new physics associated with cluster SIMS, i.e. reduced chemical damage enabling 3D dynamic imaging, and increased ion yields from organics samples, suggests that cluster sources may be suitable for use on commercial MALDI/electrospray (ESI) instruments. In efforts to investigate this approach to secondary ion analysis, a 20 keV C 60+ primary ion source by Ionoptika Ltd. was fitted to a commercial LC/MS/MS instrument; the QSTAR ® XL system by Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex. This instrument is capable of MS/MS, ion trapping, chemical imaging, and utilizes an orthogonal ToF, enabling use of a DC primary ion beam for imaging and data collection. The system employs high nitrogen pressure, typically several millitorr, in the sample region, as opposed to large extraction voltages, to facilitate the transmission of the secondary ions to the ToF region. In these initial experiments, it was demonstrated that ion signal generated by C 60+ bombardment can be enhanced by trapping in the collision cell and that secondary ions can fragment via collision induced dissociation (CID) to yield MS/MS information. In ToF-MS mode, efficiencies are comparable with pulsed primary beam ToF-SIMS instruments. Mass resolution of over 12,000 is routinely observed with mass accuracy in the 2 ppm range, which has important implications in accurate ion mapping in imaging mode.

  20. Cluster SIMS with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carado, A. [Pennsylvania State University, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: ajc161@psu.edu; Kozole, J.; Passarelli, M.; Winograd, N. [Pennsylvania State University, 104 Chemistry Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Loboda, A.; Wingate, J. [Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, 71 Four Valley Drive, Concord, Ontario, CA (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The new physics associated with cluster SIMS, i.e. reduced chemical damage enabling 3D dynamic imaging, and increased ion yields from organics samples, suggests that cluster sources may be suitable for use on commercial MALDI/electrospray (ESI) instruments. In efforts to investigate this approach to secondary ion analysis, a 20 keV C{sub 60}{sup +} primary ion source by Ionoptika Ltd. was fitted to a commercial LC/MS/MS instrument; the QSTAR XL system by Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex. This instrument is capable of MS/MS, ion trapping, chemical imaging, and utilizes an orthogonal ToF, enabling use of a DC primary ion beam for imaging and data collection. The system employs high nitrogen pressure, typically several millitorr, in the sample region, as opposed to large extraction voltages, to facilitate the transmission of the secondary ions to the ToF region. In these initial experiments, it was demonstrated that ion signal generated by C{sub 60}{sup +} bombardment can be enhanced by trapping in the collision cell and that secondary ions can fragment via collision induced dissociation (CID) to yield MS/MS information. In ToF-MS mode, efficiencies are comparable with pulsed primary beam ToF-SIMS instruments. Mass resolution of over 12,000 is routinely observed with mass accuracy in the 2 ppm range, which has important implications in accurate ion mapping in imaging mode.

  1. Chemical imaging on liver steatosis using synchrotron infrared and ToF-SIMS microspectroscopies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Le Naour

    Full Text Available Fatty liver or steatosis is a frequent histopathological change. It is a precursor for steatohepatitis that may progress to cirrhosis and in some cases to hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study we addressed the in situ composition and distribution of biochemical compounds on tissue sections of steatotic liver using both synchrotron FTIR (Fourier transform infrared and ToF-SIMS (time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry microspectroscopies. FTIR is a vibrational spectroscopy that allows investigating the global biochemical composition and ToF-SIMS lead to identify molecular species in particular lipids. Synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy demonstrated that bands linked to lipid contribution such as -CH(3 and -CH(2 as well as esters were highly intense in steatotic vesicles. Moreover, a careful analysis of the -CH(2 symmetric and anti-symmetric stretching modes revealed a slight downward shift in spectra recorded inside steatotic vesicles when compared to spectra recorded outside, suggesting a different lipid environment inside the steatotic vesicles. ToF-SIMS analysis of such steatotic vesicles disclosed a selective enrichment in cholesterol as well as in diacylglycerol (DAG species carrying long alkyl chains. Indeed, DAG C36 species were selectively localized inside the steatotic vesicles whereas DAG C30 species were detected mostly outside. Furthermore, FTIR detected a signal corresponding to olefin (C = C, 3000-3060 cm(-1 and revealed a selective localization of unsaturated lipids inside the steatotic vesicles. ToF-SIMS analysis definitely demonstrated that DAG species C30, C32, C34 and C36 carrying at least one unsaturated alkyl chain were selectively concentrated into the steatotic vesicles. On the other hand, investigations performed on the non-steatotic part of the fatty livers have revealed important changes when compared to the normal liver. Although the non-steatotic regions of fatty livers exhibited normal histological aspect, IR

  2. Characterization of polymer solar cells by TOF-SIMS depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulle-Lieuwma, C.W.T.; Gennip, W.J.H. van; Duren, J.K.J. van; Jonkheijm, P.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W

    2003-01-15

    Solar cells consisting of polymer layers sandwiched between a transparent electrode on glass and a metal top electrode are studied using dynamic time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) in dual-beam mode. Because depth profiling of polymers and polymer-metal stacks is a relatively new field the craters were thoroughly investigated by environmental SEM (ESEM), interferometry, surface profilometry and tapping mode AFM. A huge increase in crater bottom roughness was observed when starting from the aluminum top layer going in depth, resulting in a loss of depth resolution. It is shown that layer-to-layer diffusion and contaminants at buried interfaces can be extracted from the depth profiles when taking into account the loss of depth resolution.

  3. Depth profiling of fingerprint and ink signals by SIMS and MeV SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, M.J., E-mail: m.bailey@surrey.ac.u [University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jones, B.N. [University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Hinder, S.; Watts, J. [Surface Analysis Laboratory, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bleay, S. [Home Office Scientific Development Branch, St. Albans (United Kingdom); Webb, R.P. [University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Police institutions currently have no analytical method of knowing whether a fingerprint was deposited before or after the document was written or printed. The suitability of using MeV secondary ion mass spectrometry (i.e. SIMS with an MeV ion beam) to determine the order in which a fingerprint and written text were deposited on paper was therefore investigated. A 10 MeV O{sup 4+} beam was used to generate secondary ions from the surface of the samples and to map the molecular fragments from doped fingerprints and inks on paper. The images obtained and the sputtering behaviour of the samples was found to be indicative of the sequence of ink and fingerprint deposits.

  4. Evaluation of the SimPlate method for enumeration of Escherichia coli in swab samples from beef and lamb carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Sigrun J; Nesbakken, Truls; Skjerve, Eystein; Dommarsnes, Kari; Østensvik, Øyvin

    2010-08-15

    Abattoirs have to enumerate Escherichia coli on carcass surfaces as part of compulsory HACCP monitoring and they therefore need rapid and reliable methods. The objective of this study was to compare a conventional plating method with a faster, simpler method for detection and enumeration of E. coli in samples from naturally contaminated carcasses. The two methods were the conventional pour plate method of the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis; NMKL Method No. 125, and the enzymatic method of SimPlate Coliforms &E. coli. Materials were 588 cotton-cloth samples used for swabbing 100 cm(2) areas on four sites on cattle and lamb carcasses in three commercial abattoirs in Norway. E. coli was detected by at least one of the methods in 270 (46%) of the samples. Forty-five samples (8%) were positive only by SimPlate while 28 samples (5%) were positive only by NMKL125. Cohen's kappa value was 0.74 for detection/non-detection results, which showed a high level of agreement between the two methods. E. coli counts determined by the conventional NMKL125 method showed a high concordance correlation (ccc 0.80, slope 0.99) with most probable number (MPN) values obtained with SimPlate. SimPlate is a rapid and reliable method for detection and enumeration of E. coli and a suitable alternative method for use with swab samples from cattle and lamb carcasses.

  5. Monitoring of embryonic and fetal losses in different breeds of goats using real-time B-mode ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Haney; Karen, Aly; Ashmawy, Tarek; Abo-Ahmed, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Mohamed; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-15

    Compared to cattle and sheep, few studies had been undertaken to evaluate the incidence of embryonic and fetal losses (EFL) in goats. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the timing of EFL and to identify the factors that are associated with EFL in goats such as breed, age, parity, method of estrous synchronization, and breeding. Moreover, this study aimed to ensure whether a relationship existed between serum progesterone (P4) and EFL. Goats (n = 151) of different breeds (70 Zaraiebi, 42 Damascus, and 39 Cross goats [Baladi × Damascus]) were evaluated by ultrasonography to monitor EFL during different stages of gestation (D20-23, D26-29, D33-36, D40-45, and D47-54 after breeding). Blood samples were collected at D7, D20, and at each ultrasonographic scanning to clarify changes of serum P4 levels concurrently with EFL. Results revealed that 45 of 109 goats (41.28%) were exposed to EFL. A higher EFL % was observed between D20 to 23 and D47 to 54 (19.61%) compared with D47 to 54 to birth (11.76%). Moreover, a higher EFL % was observed in Zaraiebi goats compared with others. Age and goat parity had no significant effect on the EFL % in all goats. A high EFL % were observed in goats synchronized by P4 sponge, as well as artificially inseminated goats compared with goats with spontaneous estrus, and bred by natural mating, respectively. Serum P4 at D7 or D20 after breeding showed nonsignificant difference between normal pregnant goats and goats that experienced EFL. Unlike goats that experienced partial EFL, goats that experienced total EFL between D20 to 23 and D26 to 29 showed an abrupt P4 reduction (85.06%; P synchronization, breeding, and stage of pregnancy may be involved in EFL in goats. Therefore, improvement of the goat management in the early stage of pregnancy is important to decrease EFL % in goats. Although the P4 did not show any significant difference between normal pregnancy goats and goats that experienced EFL, CL disruption

  6. Description of Chiral Doublets in $A\\sim130$ Nuclei and the Possible Chiral Doublets in $A\\sim100$ Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, J; Zhang, S Q

    2003-01-01

    The chiral doublets for nuclei in $A\\sim100$ and $A\\sim130$ regions have been studied with the particle-rotor model. The experimental spectra of chiral partners bands for four N=75 isotones in $A\\sim130$ region have been well reproduced by the calculation with the configuration $\\pi h_{11/2}\\otimes\

  7. SIMS: addressing the problem of heterogeneity in databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Yigal

    1997-02-01

    The heterogeneity of remotely accessible databases -- with respect to contents, query language, semantics, organization, etc. -- presents serious obstacles to convenient querying. The SIMS (single interface to multiple sources) system addresses this global integration problem. It does so by defining a single language for describing the domain about which information is stored in the databases and using this language as the query language. Each database to which SIMS is to provide access is modeled using this language. The model describes a database's contents, organization, and other relevant features. SIMS uses these models, together with a planning system drawing on techniques from artificial intelligence, to decompose a given user's high-level query into a series of queries against the databases and other data manipulation steps. The retrieval plan is constructed so as to minimize data movement over the network and maximize parallelism to increase execution speed. SIMS can recover from network failures during plan execution by obtaining data from alternate sources, when possible. SIMS has been demonstrated in the domains of medical informatics and logistics, using real databases.

  8. NanoSIMS for Biological Applications: Current Practices and Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jamie R.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Cliff, John B.; Anderton, Christopher R.

    2017-09-27

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become an increasingly utilized tool in biologically-relevant studies. Of these, high lateral resolution methodologies using the NanoSIMS 50/50L have been especially powerful within many biological fields over the past decade. Here, we provide a review of this technology, sample preparation and analysis considerations, examples of recent biological studies, data analysis, and current outlooks. Specifically, we offer an overview of SIMS and development of the NanoSIMS. We describe the major experimental factors that should be considered prior to NanoSIMS analysis and then provide information on best practices for data analysis and image generation, which includes an in-depth discussion of appropriate colormaps. Additionally, we provide an open-source method for data representation that allows simultaneous visualization of secondary electron and ion information within a single image. Finally, we present a perspective on the future of this technology and where we think it will have the greatest impact in near future.

  9. TOF SIMS characterization of SEI layer on battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veryovkin, I. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Zinovev, A. V.; Baryshev, S. V.; Li, Y.; Abraham, D. P.

    2014-08-01

    In the last decade, many studies applied surface analysis techniques (SEM, XPS and SIMS) to understand the formation of SEI layers on Li-ion battery electrodes. This work was meant as a comparative model study of the SEI layer formation, which combined in situ SEM imaging with TOF SIMS depth profiling of four samples of the same graphite electrode material, which was subjected to different charge-discharge cycling schemes in a Li-ion battery. Besides comparing compositions of sub-surface regions of these differently processed electrodes, we wanted to know whether these compositions depend on after-cycling sample preparation, in particular if a brief exposure of these samples to air would affect the compositions measured by TOF SIMS. We found that the exposure to air (1) increases secondary ion yield for all species, and (2) changes shapes of SIMS depth profiles for some key species. For selected samples, we also conducted a comparison between the conventional single beam TOF-SIMS depth profiling and a high resolution dual beam depth profiling and found that the former approach can detect the same features in depth profiles as the latter one. We interpreted this as an indication that the sample surface morphology (high roughness) could be a limiting factor in this SEI study, suggesting that specially designed model samples with smooth surfaces are a better choice for future studies.

  10. SIMS: Single Interface to Multiple Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    on the interface design [ CARL 79]. The separation advantage works in the other direction as well. If the interface needs to be changed (e.g...Execution Monitoring. Proceedings of the Sixth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages 190-195, (1987). [ CARL 79] E. Carlson and W. Metz. A...4, (1987). [NEBE 87] Bernhard Nebel . Computational Complexity of Terminological Reasoning in BACK. S Technical Report Number 43, Technische

  11. BioFET-SIM Web Interface: Implementation and Two Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hediger, Martin R; De Vico, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We present a web interface for the BioFET-SIM program. The web interface allows to conveniently setup calculations based on the BioFET-SIM multiple charges model. As an illustration, two case studies are presented. In the first case, a generic peptide with opposite charges on both ends is inverted in orientation on a semiconducting nanowire surface leading to a corresponding change in sign of the computed sensitivity of the device. In the second case, the binding of an antibody/antigen complex on the nanowire surface is studied in terms of orientation and analyte/nanowire surface distance. We demonstrate how the BioFET-SIM web interface can aid in the understanding of experimental data and postulate alternative ways of antibody/antigen orientation on the nanowire surface.

  12. SimClust - A Program to Simulate Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Deveikis, V; Stonkute, R; Bridzius, A; Vansevicius, V

    2009-01-01

    We present a program tool, SimClust, designed for Monte-Carlo modeling of star clusters. It populates the available stellar isochrones with stars according to the initial mass function and distributes stars randomly following the analytical surface number density profile. The tool is aimed at simulating realistic images of extragalactic star clusters and can be used to: (i) optimize object detection algorithms, (ii) perform artificial cluster tests for the analysis of star cluster surveys, and (iii) assess the stochastic effects introduced into photometric and structural parameters of clusters due to random distribution of luminous stars and non-uniform interstellar extinction. By applying SimClust, we have demonstrated a significant influence of stochastic effects on the determined photometric and structural parameters of low-mass star clusters in the M31 galaxy disk. The source code and examples are available at the SimClust website: http://www.astro.ff.vu.lt/software/simclust/

  13. Intercalibration of FTIR and SIMS for Hydrogen Measurements in Garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Rossman, G.; Guan, Y.; Ma, C.

    2008-12-01

    The importance of understanding the hydrogen incorporated in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) that influences their physical and chemical properties significantly is well accepted, however, quantitatively experimental constraints between hydrogen concentration and physical and chemical properties are only meaningful if hydrogen concentration can be accurately determined. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) may be the most powerful technique since it provides information about both bulk concentration and local bonding environments, while Secondary Ion Mass Spec-trometry (SIMS) has held promise as an ideal method for hydrogen analyses for its advantages of high spatial resolution and insensitivity to crystal orientation. Great efforts have been made to establish experimental standards for these two techniques since they have no rigorous self-calibration. We here present new Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of 1H in 11 natural garnets (grossular, spessartite and pyrope). This set of garnets extends to a wider range of H2O contents (~4 to 6790 wt. ppm H2O) than previous studies and can be more reliable if more garnets can be investigated. We routinely achieve a less than 5 ppm by weight H2O with high vacuum quality, the use of a Cs+ primary beam, and carefully prepared samples using a resin-free mounting technique (described in Aubaud C. et al., 2007. Intercalibration of FTIR and SIMS for hydrogen measurements in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals. American Mineralogist, 92, 811-828). Although some scatter is observed, the straight line with a slope of 0.0722 defined by all garnets in a plot of (H)FTIR vs. (H+/Si+)SIMS* (SiO2)EMP suggests small matrix effects, while some previous efforts demonstrated the existence of such matrix effects. Discrepancies between FTIR and SIMS measurements can be partially distributed to the impurities, which have different hydrogen concentration as the

  14. Virus and Bacterial Cell Chemical Analysis by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P; Holt, J

    2008-07-28

    In past work for the Department of Homeland Security, the LLNL NanoSIMS team has succeeded in extracting quantitative elemental composition at sub-micron resolution from bacterial spores using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The purpose of this task is to test our NanoSIMS capabilities on viruses and bacterial cells. This initial work has proven successful. We imaged Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Bacillus anthracis Sterne cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then analyzed those samples by NanoSIMS. We were able resolve individual viral particles ({approx}18 nm by 300 nm) in the SEM and extract correlated elemental composition in the NanoSIMS. The phosphorous/carbon ratio observed in TMV is comparable to that seen in bacterial spores (0.033), as was the chlorine/carbon ratio (0.11). TMV elemental composition is consistent from spot to spot, and TMV is readily distinguished from debris by NanoSIMS analysis. Bacterial cells were readily identified in the SEM and relocated in the NanoSIMS for elemental analysis. The Ba Sterne cells were observed to have a measurably lower phosphorous/carbon ratio (0.005), as compared to the spores produced in the same run (0.02). The chlorine/carbon ratio was approximately 2.5X larger in the cells (0.2) versus the spores (0.08), while the fluorine/carbon ratio was approximately 10X lower in the cells (0.008) than the spores (0.08). Silicon/carbon ratios for both cells and spores encompassed a comparable range. The initial data in this study suggest that high resolution analysis is useful because it allows the target agent to be analyzed separate from particulates and other debris. High resolution analysis would also be useful for trace sample analysis. The next step in this work is to determine the potential utility of elemental signatures in these kinds of samples. We recommend bulk analyses of media and agent samples to determine the range of media compositions in use, and to determine how

  15. Study of the Pd-Rh interdiffusion by ToF-SIMS, RBS and PIXE: Semi-quantitative depth profiles with MCs + clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brison, J.; Hubert, R.; Lucas, S.; Houssiau, L.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, ToF-SIMS was used to study the Pd-Rh interdiffusion which has a great interest in brachytherapy, a cancer treatment. The secondary ion mass spectrometry was used in the semi-quantitative MCs + mode, by detecting the RhCs + and the PdCs + molecular ions under cesium bombardment. At first, different Rh xPd y (from pure Rh to pure Pd) layers were deposited by PVD and were subsequently characterized by ToF-SIMS, RBS and PIXE. A linear relationship between the relative CsPd + yields and the Pd concentration into the Rh matrices was found. Moreover, the total sputtering yield increases linearly with the Pd concentration. Those relationships permitted to calibrate the ToF-SIMS depth profiles of annealed Pd/Rh layers and were successfully used to quantify the Pd-Rh interdiffusion.

  16. The Study of Framework of Monitoring Mode for State-owned Enterprises%国有企业监控模式的框架研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震伟

    2012-01-01

    When the role of the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission is converted to the "clean investor", the design of the framework of the monitoring mode for state-owned enterprises should include several aspects. First aspect, the key elements of control environment, risk assessment, control activities, information communication and continuous monitoring should be contained. The second aspect is to straighten out the interface of power and responsibility and the implementation means of related subjects of state-owned assets. The last aspect is to mainly exercise the three main rights entitled to the investor institutions by the law, which are sharing the assets income, participating in major decisions and choosing administrator. At the same time, the SASAC role transition need to realize through deepening reform.%在国资委的角色转换为“干净的出资人”时,设计国有企业监控模式的框架要包括控制环境、风险评估、控制活动、信息沟通和持续监控几个方面的要素,理顺国有资产各相关主体的权责界面和行权方式,围绕法律赋予出资人机构的享有资产收益、参与重大决策、选择管理者等三大权利充分行权。同时,需要通过深化改革真正实现对于国资委的角色转换。

  17. Communication and Control Mode in Xiluodu Hydropower Station between Computer Monitoring System and GIS System%溪洛渡水电站监控系统与GIS通信控制模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峙允; 瞿卫华; 何宏江; 刘绍新

    2013-01-01

    溪洛渡水电站计算机监控系统与GIS开关站之间一改水电站常见的现地控制单元模式,借助新的GIS智能监控系统平台,在设计阶段确定采用计算机监控系统与GIS智能监控系统直接通信模式,成为电站GIS开关站控制的重要环节.采用了高冗余多通道的连接方式,在工厂试验中优化程序算法和设计,创新通信控制方式,开辟了巨型水电站GIS开关站控制新领域.%The control mode between computer monitoring system and GIS system in Xiluodu Hydropower Station is different from other power stations as they usually adopt common local control unit mode,in which,the computer monitoring system and GIS intelligent monitoring system are directly communicated by using GIS intelligent monitoring system platform.The control mode is designed as a high-redundancy and multi-channel connection type and its algorithm and design are optimized in manufacturing factory.The innovated control mode opens up a new area for the GIS control of giant hydropower stations.

  18. Landslide deformation monitoring using point-like target offset tracking with multi-mode high-resolution TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuguo; Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2015-07-01

    Many landslides in the Three Georges area have shown active deformations associated with water level fluctuations since the full operation of the Three Georges Dam. Such active deformations of landslide bodies need to be closely monitored for disaster prevention and warning. One way to do this is to employ SAR pixel offset tracking, a powerful technique that can be used for measuring two-dimensional large displacements. As an improvement of the original pixel offset tracking technique, the point-like target (PT) offset tracking method focuses on stable point-like targets and thus can obtain more reliable measurements. In this paper, the PT offset tracking method is employed to investigate historical evolution of the Shuping landslide, using time series TerraSAR-X data acquired in both Stripmap (SM) and High-resolution Spotlight (HS) modes. Artificial corner reflectors (CR) installed at/near the landslide are identified as PTs and used to analyze the spatial-temporal pattern of landslide deformations. Results showed that the maximum accumulative deformation of the Shuping landslide reached more than 1.5 m over a time span of two years. A correlation analysis between the deformation trends and the fluctuation of reservoir water level indicated that most deformations of the landslide happened during the water level declining period.

  19. Stable isotopic internal standard correction for quantitative analysis of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) in serum by on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Peralbo, M A; Ferreiro Vera, C; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the inclusion of a stable isotopic labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) on the quantitative analysis of hydroxyeicosatetranoic acids (HETEs) in human serum is evaluated in this research. A solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) platform, one of the preferred approaches for targeted analysis of biofluids through the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) operational mode, was used to determine HETEs. These compounds were chosen as targeted metabolites because of their involvement in cardiovascular disease, cancer and osteoporosis. 15HETE-d8 was chosen as internal standard to evaluate matrix effects. Thus, the physico-chemical properties of the SIL-IS were the basis to evaluate the analytical features of the method for each metabolite through four calibration models. Two of the models were built with standard solutions at different concentration levels, but one of the calibration sets was spiked with an internal standard (IS). The other two models were built with the serum pool from osteoporotic patients, which was spiked at different concentrations with the target analytes. In this case, one of the serum calibration sets was also spiked with the IS. The study shows that the IS allowed noticeable correction of matrix effects for some HETE isomers at certain concentration levels, while accuracy was decreased at low concentration (15ng/mL) of them. Therefore, characterization of the method has been properly completed at different concentration levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and validation of LC-MS/MS method with multiple reactions monitoring mode for quantification of vanillin and syringaldehyde in plum brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešević Vele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method with multiple reactions monitoring mode (MRM has been developed and validated for quantification of vanillin and syringaldehyde in plum brandy. The method showed good linearity (0.05 to 10 mgL−1 and low limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ were 11.6 µgL−1 and 38.2 µgL−1 for vanillin, and 12.7 µgL−1 and 42.0 µgL−1 for syringaldehyde, respectively. The overall intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 4.21%, and the overall recovery over 93.0%. The correlation coefficients (R2 of the calibration curves were higher than 0.9999. In order to evaluate if the method is suitable for use as a routine analytical tool, in 31 Serbian plum brandy samples vanillin and syringaldehide were determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172053

  1. Use of ENVISAT ASAR Global Monitoring Mode to complement optical data in the mapping of rapid broad-scale flooding in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O'Grady

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Envisat ASAR Global Monitoring Mode (GM data are used to produce maps of the extent of the flooding in Pakistan which are made available to the rapid response effort within 24 h of acquisition. The high temporal frequency and independence of the data from cloud-free skies makes GM data a viable tool for mapping flood waters during those periods where optical satellite data are unavailable, which may be crucial to rapid response disaster planning, where thousands of lives are affected. Image differencing techniques are used, with pre-flood baseline image backscatter values being deducted from target values to eliminate regions with a permanent flood-like radar response due to volume scattering and attenuation, and to highlight the low response caused by specular reflection by open flood water. The effect of local incidence angle on the received signal is mitigated by ensuring that the deducted image is acquired from the same orbit track as the target image. Poor separability of the water class with land in areas beyond the river channels is tackled using a region-growing algorithm which seeks threshold-conformance from seed pixels at the center of the river channels. The resultant mapped extents are tested against MODIS SWIR data where available, with encouraging results.

  2. TOF-SIMS studies of yttria-stabilised zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karin Vels; Norrman, Kion; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    The surface of an as-polished and an as-sintered yttria-stabilised zirconia pellet was analysed with XPS and TOF-SIMS (depth profiling and imaging) in order to study the distribution of impurities. The polished sample was slightly contaminated with Na, K, Mg and Ca. The sintered sample showed...

  3. ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of Myrtus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, F. M.; Dettori, M. F.; Magnani, A.

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays there is a growing interest of researchers for the application of sophisticated analytical techniques in conjunction with statistical data analysis methods to the characterization of natural products to assure their authenticity and quality, and for the possibility of direct analysis of food to obtain maximum information. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) in conjunction with principal components analysis (PCA) are applied to study the chemical composition and variability of Sardinian myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) through the analysis of both berries alcoholic extracts and berries epicarp. ToF-SIMS spectra of berries epicarp show that the epicuticular waxes consist mainly of carboxylic acids with chain length ranging from C20 to C30, or identical species formed from fragmentation of long-chain esters. PCA of ToF-SIMS data from myrtle berries epicarp distinguishes two groups characterized by a different surface concentration of triacontanoic acid. Variability in antocyanins, flavonols, α-tocopherol, and myrtucommulone contents is showed by ToF-SIMS PCA analysis of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts.

  4. 20-Sim ANSI-C code on a 8051 target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Joël

    2001-01-01

    In the forth-coming version of 20-sim the option code-generation for targets will be available. After selection of a template, it’s filled in with model specific information. Then this adapted template can be compiled and linked such that it can be run on the target. Theo Lammerink designed around t

  5. Non primary standards SIM force comparison up to 10 kn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Santo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This force comparison was performed among IDIC (Chile, LATU (Uruguay and CENAM (Mexico, national laboratories within the Interamerican Metrology System (SIM region. Each laboratory used its national standard for the established measuring range. The comparison started in August 2002 and finished in September 2004. This comparison is the second part of a SIM primary standards comparison carried out with the participation of INMETRO (Brazil, INTI (Argentina and SIC (Colombia, having CENAM as pilot laboratory, (SIM comparison number SIM 7.7. This comparison has an overlap with the force steps used in the CIPM Key Comparison CCM.F-K1.a and CCM.F-K1.b., force points 5 kN and 10 kN.The objective of the comparison was to estimate the level of agreement for the realization of the quantity force and the uncertainty associated to its measurement in the range up to 10 kN. Two transducers (load cells were used as transfer standards, to obtain its maximum accuracy, thecomparison range was selected from 4 kN to 10 kN (starting at 40% of the full load cells range. The results obtained by the participating laboratories were in agreement according to the analysis of comparability performed by the normalized error equation and the Youden plot techniques used.

  6. Development practices and lessons learned in developing SimPEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockett, R.; Heagy, L. J.; Kang, S.; Rosenkjaer, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modelling provides a mathematical framework for constructing a model of physical property distributions in the subsurface that are consistent with the data collected in geophysical surveys. The geosciences are increasingly moving towards the integration of geological, geophysical, and hydrological information to better characterize the subsurface. This integration must span disciplines and is not only challenging scientifically, but additionally the inconsistencies between conventions often makes implementations complicated, non­ reproducible, or inefficient. SimPEG is an open-source, multi-university effort aimed at providing a generalized framework for solving forward and inverse problems. SimPEG includes finite volume discretizations on structured and unstructured meshes, interfaces to standard numerical solver packages, convex optimization algorithms, model parameterizations, and visualization routines. The SimPEG package (http://simpeg.xyz) supports an ecosystem of forward and inverse modelling applications, including electromagnetics, vadose zone flow, seismic, and potential­ fields, that are all written with a common interface and toolbox. The goal of SimPEG is to support a community of researchers with well-tested, extensible tools, and encourage transparency and reproducibility both of the SimPEG software and the geoscientific research it is applied to. In this presentation, we will share some of the lessons we have learned in designing the modular infrastructure, testing and development practices of SimPEG. We will discuss our use of version control, extensive unit-testing, continuous integration, documentation, issue tracking, and resources that facilitate communication between existing team members and allows new researchers to get involved. These practices have enabled the use of SimPEG in research, industry, and education as well as the ability to support a growing number of dependent repositories and applications. We hope that sharing our

  7. AlphaSim: Software for Breeding Program Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, Anne-Michelle; Gorjanc, Gregor; Gaynor, R Chris; Battagin, Mara; Edwards, Stefan M; Wilson, David L; Hearne, Sarah J; Gonen, Serap; Hickey, John M

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes AlphaSim, a software package for simulating plant and animal breeding programs. AlphaSim enables the simulation of multiple aspects of breeding programs with a high degree of flexibility. AlphaSim simulates breeding programs in a series of steps: (i) simulate haplotype sequences and pedigree; (ii) drop haplotypes into the base generation of the pedigree and select single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN); (iii) assign QTN effects, calculate genetic values, and simulate phenotypes; (iv) drop haplotypes into the burn-in generations; and (v) perform selection and simulate new generations. The program is flexible in terms of historical population structure and diversity, recent pedigree structure, trait architecture, and selection strategy. It integrates biotechnologies such as doubled-haploids (DHs) and gene editing and allows the user to simulate multiple traits and multiple environments, specify recombination hot spots and cold spots, specify gene jungles and deserts, perform genomic predictions, and apply optimal contribution selection. AlphaSim also includes restart functionalities, which increase its flexibility by allowing the simulation process to be paused so that the parameters can be changed or to import an externally created pedigree, trial design, or results of an analysis of previously simulated data. By combining the options, a user can simulate simple or complex breeding programs with several generations, variable population structures and variable breeding decisions over time. In conclusion, AlphaSim is a flexible and computationally efficient software package to simulate biotechnology enhanced breeding programs with the aim of performing rapid, low-cost, and objective in silico comparison of breeding technologies. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  8. A critical assessment of the performance criteria in confirmatory analysis for veterinary drug residue analysis using mass spectrometric detection in selected reaction monitoring mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Bjorn J A; Meijer, Thijs; Wegh, Robin; Mol, Hans G J; Smyth, Wesley G; Armstrong Hewitt, S; van Ginkel, Leen; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-05-01

    Besides the identification point system to assure adequate set-up of instrumentation, European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC includes performance criteria regarding relative ion abundances in mass spectrometry and chromatographic retention time. In confirmatory analysis, the relative abundance of two product ions, acquired in selected reaction monitoring mode, the ion ratio should be within certain ranges for confirmation of the identity of a substance. The acceptable tolerance of the ion ratio varies with the relative abundance of the two product ions and for retention time, CD 2002/657/EC allows a tolerance of 5%. Because of rapid technical advances in analytical instruments and new approaches applied in the field of contaminant testing in food products (multi-compound and multi-class methods) a critical assessment of these criteria is justified. In this study a large number of representative, though challenging sample extracts were prepared, including muscle, urine, milk and liver, spiked with 100 registered and banned veterinary drugs at levels ranging from 0.5 to 100 µg/kg. These extracts were analysed using SRM mode using different chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometers from different vendors. In the initial study, robust data was collected using four different instrumental set-ups. Based on a unique and highly relevant data set, consisting of over 39 000 data points, the ion ratio and retention time criteria for applicability in confirmatory analysis were assessed. The outcomes were verified based on a collaborative trial including laboratories from all over the world. It was concluded that the ion ratio deviation is not related to the value of the ion ratio, but rather to the intensity of the lowest product ion. Therefore a fixed ion ratio deviation tolerance of 50% (relative) is proposed, which also is applicable for compounds present at sub-ppb levels or having poor ionisation efficiency. Furthermore, it was observed that retention time

  9. SORCE SIM Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V019

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SIM Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SIMD is constructed using measurements from the SIM instruments, which are combined into merged daily...

  10. SORCE SIM Level 3 Solar Spectral Irradiance Daily Means V020

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SORCE SIM Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) data product SOR3SIMD is constructed using measurements from the SIM instruments, which are combined into merged daily...

  11. Quantification of emerging micropollutants in an amphipod crustacean by nanoliquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using multiple reaction monitoring cubed mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordet, Martin; Berlioz-Barbier, Alexandra; Buleté, Audrey; Garric, Jeanne; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2016-07-22

    An innovative analytical method has been developed to quantify the bioaccumulation in an amphipod crustacean (Gammarus fossarum) of three micropollutants regarded as anthropic-pollution markers: carbamazepine, oxazepam, and testosterone. A liquid-liquid extraction assisted by salts, known as QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) was miniaturised and optimised, so it could be adapted to the low mass samples (approximatively 5mg dry weight). For this same reason and in order to obtain good sensitivity, ultra-trace analyses were carried out by means of nanoliquid chromatography. A preconcentration system by on-column trapping was optimised to increase the injection volume. In order to improve both sensitivity and selectivity, the multiple reaction monitoring cubed mode analyses (MRM(3)) were carried out, validated and compared to the classic MRM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that MRM(3) is coupled to nanoliquid chromatography for the analysis and detection of organic micropollutants <300Da. The optimised extraction method exhibited recoveries superior to 80%. The limits of quantification of the target compounds were 0.3, 0.7 and 4.7ng/g (wet weight) for oxazepam, carbamazepine and testosterone, respectively and the limits of detection were 0.1, 0.3 and 2.2ng/g (wet weight), respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were inferior to 7.7% and 10.9%, respectively, for the three levels of concentration tested. The analytical strategy developed allowed to obtain limits of quantification lower than 1ng/g (wet weight) and to establish the kinetic bioconcentration of contaminants within G. fossarum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface components of PM2.5 during clear and hazy days in Shanghai by ToF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di; Xiu, Guangli; Li, Meng; Hua, Xin; Long, Yitao

    2017-01-01

    The compositions of atmospheric particles change greatly on hazy days and could threaten human health. In this study, fine mode particles (PM2.5) were collected and divided according to hazy and non-hazy days in Shanghai from December 8th, 2015 to January 12th, 2016. Versatile ToF-SIMS was performed on the samples to reveal chemical information from the surface of PM2.5. Normalized intensities of Na, Mn, K, V, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Cl, NOx and ammonia were higher on clear days while peak intensities of detected bromine and sulfur-contained species were much higher on hazy days. Some hazardous species (Pb, Cr, Ni, As, CHS, SO2) and high-mass aromatic hydrocarbon fractions could only be detected by ToF-SIMS from PM2.5 collected on hazy days. Comparison of metallic elements and phthalates implied that haze pollution in Shanghai was mainly the mixing of coal combustion with vehicle emission. In addition, comparison of different haze pollution was also exhibited. Some nitrogen-containing organic compounds were detected only from PM2.5 of December 15th, and ToF-SIMS ion signals of N2H5+, NH4+, CN-, NO2- and NO3- from PM2.5 of December 15th were much more intense, compared with PM2.5 collected on December 25th.

  13. Paraventricular nucleus Sim1 neuron ablation mediated obesity is resistant to high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xi

    Full Text Available Single minded 1 (SIM1 is a transcription factor involved in brain patterning and control of energy balance. In humans, haploinsufficiency of SIM1 causes early-onset obesity. Mice deficient in the homologous gene, SIM1, also exhibit early onset obesity and increased sensitivity to a high fat diet. SIM1 is expressed in several areas of the brain implicated in control of energy balance including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, the supraoptic nucleus (SON, the medial amygdala and nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract. We have previously shown that mice with global Sim1 neuron ablation exhibit obesity with hyperphagia as the primary defect. The PVN has a critical role in feeding and in high-fat appetite, thus, we sought to determine the effect of Sim1 neuron ablation limited to the PVN. We achieved PVN-SIM1 limited ablation through stereotactic injection of diphtheria toxin into the PVN of Sim1Cre-iDTR mice. The specificity of this ablation was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR of the PVN, supraoptic nucleus and the amygdala. Mice with PVN Sim1 neuron ablation, similar to mice with global Sim1 neuron ablation, exhibit early onset obesity with hyperphagia as the primary defect. However, PVN-Sim1 neuron ablated mice have a decreased response to fasting-induced hyperphagia. Consistent with this decrement, PVN-Sim1 neuron ablated mice have a decreased hyperphagic response to PVN injection of agouti-related peptide (AgRP. When PVN-Sim1 neuron ablated mice are placed on a high fat diet, surprisingly, their intake decreases and they actually lose weight. When allowed ad lib access to high fat diet and normal chow simultaneously, PVN-Sim1 neuron ablated mice exhibit overall decreased intake. That is, in PVN-Sim1 neuron ablated mice, access to fat suppresses overall appetite.

  14. Using ToF-SIMS to study industrial surface phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smentkowski, Vincent S.; Keenan, Michael R.; Arlinghaus, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is frequently used to analyze industrial samples since it offers high (ppb) detection sensitivity, very high surface specificity (analysis of the top 1-3 surface layers during a spectral/image acquisition), high mass resolution (allowing the analyst the ability to separate Cu from C5H3 for instance), the ability to detect hydrogen, high depth resolution for depth profile measurements, and detection of high-mass fragments associated with molecular species/additives. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the advantages of ToF-SIMS including the ability to measure trace quantities of unexpected species on the surfaces of devices, and the ability to extract high-mass resolution information from data sets which were collected at degraded mass resolution. The importance of applying unbiased multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) to the complete set of measured data is also demonstrated.

  15. Type Ia supernova rate at $z \\sim 0.1$

    CERN Document Server

    Hardin, D P; Alard, C; Albert, J N; Amadon, A; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Bareyre, P; Bauer, F; Beaulieu, J P; Blanc, G; Bouquet, A; Char, S; Charlot, X; Couchot, F; Coutures, C; Derue, F; Ferlet, R; Glicenstein, J F; Goldman, B; Gould, A; Graff, D; Gros, M H; Haïssinski, J; Hamilton, J C; Kat, J; Kim, A; Lasserre, T; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Mansoux, B; Marquette, J B; Maurice, E; Milshtein, A I; Moniez, M; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perdereau, O; Prévôt, L; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Spiro, Michel; Vidal-Madjar, A; Vigroux, L; Zylberajch, S

    2000-01-01

    We present the EROS nearby supernova ($z \\sim 0.02 - 0.2$) search and the analysis of the first year of data (1997). A total of 80 square degrees were surveyed. Eight supernov{\\ae} were detected, four of which were spectroscopically identified as type Ia supernov{\\ae}. The search efficiency was determined with a Monte-Carlo simulation taking into account the efficiencies for both supernova detection and host galaxy identification. Assuming that for a given galaxy the supernova rate is proportional to the galactic luminosity, we compute a type Ia supernova explosion rate of: ${\\cal R} = 0.44 {}_{-0.21}^{+0.35} {}_{-0.07}^{+0.13} h^2: / 10^{10} \\lbsun / 100 {\\rm yrs}$ at an average redshift of $\\sim 0.1$ where the errors are respectively statistical and systematic (type misidentification included).

  16. TOF-SIMS imaging of protein adsorption on dialysis membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Satoka; Hayama, Msayo; Hasegawa, Urara; Sakai, Kiyotaka; Hoshi, Takahiro; Kudo, Masahiro

    2004-06-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is capable of chemical imaging of proteins on insulated samples such as hollow-fiber dialysis membranes. Albumin loss and a lowering of diffusive permeability caused by protein adsorption on dialysis membranes should be reduced in order to enhance dialysis adequacy of the patients. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-adsorbed hollow-fiber dialysis membranes were tested in the present study. TOF-SIMS images and spectra of both native membranes and BSA-adsorbed membranes were compared in order to identify secondary ions related to BSA and membranes. Peaks of secondary ions related to BSA and each membrane were selected by means of information theory, and they are characterized by principal component analysis (PCA). Chemical images of BSA adsorption on both native and treated membranes were obtained to find that BSA permeability and interaction between the membranes and BSA definitely depend on the properties of a membrane. TOF-SIMS imaging obtained with information theory is a powerful tool to estimate protein adsorption on the dialysis membranes.

  17. SIMS analysis: Development and evaluation 1995 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was evaluated for characterizing Hg salts. It was found that sulfate and chloride species could be identified directly without sample preparation. Mercuric oxide could be identified by complexation with formic acid. Hg nitrates could be identified by complexation with cyclohexylamine (CHA). Laser desorption ion trap MS was evaluated for characterizing EDTA on environmental samples. No intact EDTA ions were observed, but a series of EDTA fragment ions were visible, particularly on basalt and soil. An ion trap SIMS was developed: a perrhenate ion gun was interfaced to a Teledyne ion trap spectrometer, and the entire device was mounted on a cart. The technology was demonstrated using a prototype ion trap SIMS instrument for detecting Hg{center_dot}CHA complexes formed from nitrate salts. Intensity of the ion gun was improved, and the surface damage of the particle was small, and ion gun technology transfer to Phi-Evans, Inc. is being considered. Two technology end users are at INEL`s Central Facilities Area 674 pond and acid pit of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex; target problem at both sites is the need for Hg speciation on soil samples.

  18. SimVascular: An Open Source Pipeline for Cardiovascular Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegrove, Adam; Wilson, Nathan M; Merkow, Jameson; Lan, Hongzhi; Marsden, Alison L; Shadden, Shawn C

    2017-03-01

    Patient-specific cardiovascular simulation has become a paradigm in cardiovascular research and is emerging as a powerful tool in basic, translational and clinical research. In this paper we discuss the recent development of a fully open-source SimVascular software package, which provides a complete pipeline from medical image data segmentation to patient-specific blood flow simulation and analysis. This package serves as a research tool for cardiovascular modeling and simulation, and has contributed to numerous advances in personalized medicine, surgical planning and medical device design. The SimVascular software has recently been refactored and expanded to enhance functionality, usability, efficiency and accuracy of image-based patient-specific modeling tools. Moreover, SimVascular previously required several licensed components that hindered new user adoption and code management and our recent developments have replaced these commercial components to create a fully open source pipeline. These developments foster advances in cardiovascular modeling research, increased collaboration, standardization of methods, and a growing developer community.

  19. SIM-Lite Mission Spectral Calibration Sensitivities and Refinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, C.; An, X.; Goullioud, R.; Nemati, B.; Shao, M.; Shen, J.; Wehmeier, U.; Wang, X.; Weiler, M.; Werne, T.; Wu, J.

    2010-01-01

    SIM-Lite missions will perform astrometry at microarcsecond accuracy using star light interferometry. For typical baselines that are shorter than 10 meters, this requires to measure optical path difference (OPD) accurate to tens of picometers calling for highly accurate calibration. A major challenge is to calibrate the star spectral dependency in fringe measurements -- the spectral calibration. Previously, we have developed a spectral calibration and estimation scheme achieving picometer level accuracy. In this paper, we present the improvements regarding the application of this scheme from sensitivity studies. Data from the SIM Spectral Calibration Development Unit (SCDU) test facility shows that the fringe OPD is very sensitive to pointings of both beams from the two arms of the interferometer. This sensitivity coupled with a systematic pointing error provides a mechanism to explain the bias changes in 2007. Improving system alignment can effectively reduce this sensitivity and thus errors due to pointing errors. Modeling this sensitivity can lead to further improvement in data processing. We then investigate the sensitivity to a model parameter, the bandwidth used in the fringe model, which presents an interesting trade between systematic and random errors. Finally we show the mitigation of calibration errors due to system drifts by interpolating instrument calibrations. These improvements enable us to use SCDU data to demonstrate that SIM-Lite missions can meet the 1pm noise floor requirement for detecting earth-like exoplanets.

  20. Comparison of pharmacokinetic behavior of two iridoid glycosides in rat plasma after oral administration of crude Cornus officinals and its jiuzhipin by high performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry combined with multiple reactions monitoring mode

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaocheng Chen; Gang Cao; Jianping Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the pharmacokinetic profiles of two iridoid glycosides named morroniside and loganin in rat plasma after oral administration of crude and processed Cornus officinals. Materials and Methods: A rapid, selective and specific high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reactions monitoring mode was developed to simultaneously investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of morroniside and loganin in rat pl...

  1. Advance in Measurement and Wireless Monitoring Mode of Dissolved Oxygen of Aquaculture Water%养殖水体溶氧量测定方法及其无线监测模式的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭孟彩; 王宏坡; 李唯民; 张达娟

    2015-01-01

    The research progress of the principles, methods and the application scopes of iodimetry method, spectrophotometry method, oxygen electrode method and fiber optical oxygen sensor method were mainly discussed. On the basis of above, the wireless monitoring modes of dissolved oxygen of aquaculture water, such as ZigBee system mode, GSM system mode and WiFi system mode were introduced in order to provide references for grasping and applying the appropriate monitoring technologies.%综述了碘量法、分光光度法、氧电极法和光纤氧电极传感器法等养殖水体溶氧量测定法的原理、方法、应用及适用范围。在此基础上,比较了基于ZigBee无线通信系统模式、GSM系统模式以及WiFi系统模式3种养殖水体溶解氧无线监测模式的研究进展及应用实例,以期为掌握和应用相应的监测技术提供参考。

  2. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the

  3. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the

  4. ToF-SIMS and principal component analysis of lipids and amino acids from inflamed and dysplastic human colonic mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbini, Marco; Petito, Valentina; de Notaristefani, Francesco; Scaldaferri, Franco; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Tortora, Luca

    2017-08-03

    Here, time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and multivariate analysis were combined to study the role of ulcerative colitis (UC), a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in the colon cancer progression. ToF-SIMS was used to obtain mass spectra and chemical maps from the mucosal surface of human normal (NC), inflamed (IC), and dysplastic (DC) colon tissues. Chemical mapping with a lateral resolution of ≈ 1 μm allowed to evaluate zonation of fatty acids and amino acids as well as the morphological condition of the intestinal glands. High mass resolution ToF-SIMS spectra showed chemical differences in lipid and amino acid composition as a function of pathological state. In positive ion mode, mono- (MAG), di- (DAG), and triacylglycerol (TAG) signals were detected in NC tissues, while in IC and DC tissues, the only cholesterol was present as lipid class representative. Signals from fatty acids, collected in negative ion mode, were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA showed a strict correlation between IC and DC samples, due to an increase of stearic, arachidonic, and linoleic acid. In the same way, differences in the amino acid composition were highlighted through multivariate analysis. PCA revealed that glutamic acid, leucine/isoleucine, and valine fragments are related to IC tissues. On the other hand, tyrosine, methionine, and tryptophan peaks contributed highly to the separation of DC tissues. Finally, a classification of NC, IC, and DC patients was also achieved through hierarchical cluster analysis of amino acid fragments. In this case, human colonic inflammation showed a stronger relationship with normal than dysplastic condition. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  5. CalSimHydro Tool - A Web-based interactive tool for the CalSim 3.0 Hydrology Prepropessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Stough, T.; Vu, Q.; Granger, S. L.; Jones, D. J.; Ferreira, I.; Chen, Z.

    2011-12-01

    CalSimHydro, the CalSim 3.0 Hydrology Preprocessor, is an application designed to automate the various steps in the computation of hydrologic inputs for CalSim 3.0, a water resources planning model developed jointly by California State Department of Water Resources and United States Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region. CalSimHydro consists of a five-step FORTRAN based program that runs the individual models in succession passing information from one model to the next and aggregating data as required by each model. The final product of CalSimHydro is an updated CalSim 3.0 state variable (SV) DSS input file. CalSimHydro consists of (1) a Rainfall-Runoff Model to compute monthly infiltration, (2) a Soil moisture and demand calculator (IDC) that estimates surface runoff, deep percolation, and water demands for natural vegetation cover and various crops other than rice, (3) a Rice Water Use Model to compute the water demands, deep percolation, irrigation return flow, and runoff from precipitation for the rice fields, (4) a Refuge Water Use Model that simulates the ponding operations for managed wetlands, and (5) a Data Aggregation and Transfer Module to aggregate the outputs from the above modules and transfer them to the CalSim SV input file. In this presentation, we describe a web-based user interface for CalSimHydro using Google Earth Plug-In. The CalSimHydro tool allows users to - interact with geo-referenced layers of the Water Budget Areas (WBA) and Demand Units (DU) displayed over the Sacramento Valley, - view the input parameters of the hydrology preprocessor for a selected WBA or DU in a time series plot or a tabular form, - edit the values of the input parameters in the table or by downloading a spreadsheet of the selected parameter in a selected time range, - run the CalSimHydro modules in the backend server and notify the user when the job is done, - visualize the model output and compare it with a base run result, - download the output SV file to be

  6. SIMS: a hybrid method for rapid conformational analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Gipson

    Full Text Available Proteins are at the root of many biological functions, often performing complex tasks as the result of large changes in their structure. Describing the exact details of these conformational changes, however, remains a central challenge for computational biology due the enormous computational requirements of the problem. This has engendered the development of a rich variety of useful methods designed to answer specific questions at different levels of spatial, temporal, and energetic resolution. These methods fall largely into two classes: physically accurate, but computationally demanding methods and fast, approximate methods. We introduce here a new hybrid modeling tool, the Structured Intuitive Move Selector (sims, designed to bridge the divide between these two classes, while allowing the benefits of both to be seamlessly integrated into a single framework. This is achieved by applying a modern motion planning algorithm, borrowed from the field of robotics, in tandem with a well-established protein modeling library. sims can combine precise energy calculations with approximate or specialized conformational sampling routines to produce rapid, yet accurate, analysis of the large-scale conformational variability of protein systems. Several key advancements are shown, including the abstract use of generically defined moves (conformational sampling methods and an expansive probabilistic conformational exploration. We present three example problems that sims is applied to and demonstrate a rapid solution for each. These include the automatic determination of "active" residues for the hinge-based system Cyanovirin-N, exploring conformational changes involving long-range coordinated motion between non-sequential residues in Ribose-Binding Protein, and the rapid discovery of a transient conformational state of Maltose-Binding Protein, previously only determined by Molecular Dynamics. For all cases we provide energetic validations using well

  7. CET exSim: mineral exploration experience via simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason C. 13Holden, Eun-Jung 1Kovesi, Peter 1McCuaig, T. Campbell 1Hronsky, Jon

    2013-08-01

    Undercover mineral exploration is a challenging task as it requires understanding of subsurface geology by relying heavily on remotely sensed (i.e. geophysical) data. Cost-effective exploration is essential in order to increase the chance of success using finite budgets. This requires effective decision-making in both the process of selecting the optimum data collection methods and in the process of achieving accuracy during subsequent interpretation. Traditionally, developing the skills, behaviour and practices of exploration decision-making requires many years of experience through working on exploration projects under various geological settings, commodities and levels of available resources. This implies long periods of sub-optimal exploration decision-making, before the necessary experience has been successfully obtained. To address this critical industry issue, our ongoing research focuses on the development of the unique and novel e-learning environment, exSim, which simulates exploration scenarios where users can test their strategies and learn the consequences of their choices. This simulator provides an engaging platform for self-learning and experimentation in exploration decision strategies, providing a means to build experience more effectively. The exSim environment also provides a unique platform on which numerous scenarios and situations (e.g. deposit styles) can be simulated, potentially allowing the user to become virtually familiarised with a broader scope of exploration practices. Harnessing the power of computer simulation, visualisation and an intuitive graphical user interface, the simulator provides a way to assess the user's exploration decisions and subsequent interpretations. In this paper, we present the prototype functionalities in exSim including: simulation of geophysical surveys, follow-up drill testing and interpretation assistive tools.

  8. StandsSIM-MD: a Management Driven forest SIMulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, S.; Rua, J.; Tomé, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. The existing stand level forest simulators available in Portugal were not developed with the aim of including up-to-date model versions and were limited in terms of accounting for forest management. The simulators’ platform, sIMfLOR was recently created to implement different growth models with a common philosophy. The objective was developing one easily-updatable, user-friendly, forest management and climate change sensitive simulator capable of projecting growth for the main tree species in Portugal. Area of the study: Portugal. Material and methods: The new simulator was programmed in a modular form consisting of several modules. The growth module integrates different forest growth and yield models (empirical and process-based) for the main wood production tree species in Portugal (eucalypt, umbrella and maritime pines); whereas the management module drives the growth projections along the planning horizon according to a range of forest management approaches and climate (at present only available for eucalypt). Main results: The main result is the StandsSIM-MD Management Driven simulator that overcomes the limitations of the existing stand level simulators. It is a step forward when compared to the models currently available in the sIMfLOR platform covering more tree species, stand structures and stand compositions. It is focused on end-users and it is based on similar concepts regarding the generation of required inputs and generated outputs. Research highlights: Forest Management Driven simulations approach. Multiple Prescriptions-Per-Stand functionality. StandsSIM-MD can be used to support landowners decisions on stand forest management. StandsSIM-MD simulations at regional level can be combined with optimization routines. (Author)

  9. StandsSIM-MD: a Management Driven forest SIMulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Barreiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The existing stand level forest simulators available in Portugal were not developed with the aim of including up-to-date model versions and were limited in terms of accounting for forest management. The simulators’ platform, sIMfLOR was recently created to implement different growth models with a common philosophy. The objective was developing one easily-updatable, user-friendly, forest management and climate change sensitive simulator capable of projecting growth for the main tree species in Portugal. Area of the study: Portugal. Material and methods: The new simulator was programmed in a modular form consisting of several modules. The growth module integrates different forest growth and yield models (empirical and process-based for the main wood production tree species in Portugal (eucalypt, umbrella and maritime pines; whereas the management module drives the growth projections along the planning horizon according to a range of forest management approaches and climate (at present only available for eucalypt. Main results: The main result is the StandsSIM-MD Management Driven simulator that overcomes the limitations of the existing stand level simulators. It is a step forward when compared to the models currently available in the sIMfLOR platform covering more tree species, stand structures and stand compositions. It is focused on end-users and it is based on similar concepts regarding the generation of required inputs and generated outputs. Research highlights: -          Forest Management Driven simulations approach -          Multiple Prescriptions-Per-Stand functionality -          StandsSIM-MD can be used to support landowners decisions on stand forest management -          StandsSIM-MD simulations at regional level can be combined with optimization routines Keywords: Forest simulator, Forest Management Approaches; StandsSIM-MD; forest management.

  10. The core competencies of James Marion Sims, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, J Michael; Gandy, Roy E; Rodning, Charles B

    2012-07-01

    The concept of core competencies in graduate medical education was introduced by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education of the American Medical Association to semiquantitatively assess the professional performance of students, residents, practitioners, and faculty. Many aspects of the career of J. Marion Sims, MD, are exemplary of those core competencies: MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE: Author of the first American textbook related to gynecology. MEDICAL CARE: Innovator of the Sims' Vaginal Speculum, Sims' Position, Sims' Test, and vesico-/rectovaginal fistulorrhaphy; advocated abdominal exploration for penetrating wounds; performed the first cholecystostomy. PROFESSIONALISM: Served as President of the New York Academy of Medicine, the American Medical Association, and the American Gynecologic Society. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS/COMMUNICATION: Cared for the indigent, hearthless, indentured, disenfranchised; served as consulting surgeon to the Empress Eugénie (France), the Duchess of Hamilton (Scotland), the Empress of Austria, and other royalty of the aristocratic Houses of Europe; accorded the National Order of the Legion of Honor. PRACTICE-BASED LEARNING: Introduction of silver wire sutures; adoption of the principles of asepsis/antisepsis; adoption of the principles of general anesthesia. SYSTEMS-BASED PRACTICE: Established the Woman's Hospital, New York City, New York, the predecessor of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center for the Treatment of Cancer and Allied Diseases; organized the Anglo-American Ambulance Corps under the patronage of Napoleon III. What led him to a life of clinical and humanitarian service? First, he was determined to succeed. His formal medical/surgical education was perhaps the best available to North Americans during that era. Second, he was courageous in experimentation and innovation, applying new developments in operative technique, asepsis/antisepsis, and general anesthesia. Third, his curiosity was not burdened by rigid

  11. SIM(1)-VSR Maxwell-Chern-Simons electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalo, R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose a very special relativity (VSR)-inspired generalization of the Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS) electrodynamics. This proposal is based upon the construction of a proper study of the SIM (1)-VSR gauge-symmetry. It is shown that the VSR nonlocal effects present a significant and healthy departure from the usual MCS theory. The classical dynamics is analysed in full detail, by studying the solution for the electric field and static energy for this configuration. Afterwards, the interaction energy between opposite charges is derived and we show that the VSR effects play an important part in obtaining a (novel) finite expression for the static potential.

  12. SIM$(1)$--VSR Maxwell-Chern-Simons electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a very special relativity (VSR)-inspired generalization of the Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS) electrodynamics. This proposal is based upon the construction of a proper study of the SIM$(1)$--VSR gauge-symmetry. It is shown that the VSR nonlocal effects present a significant and health departure from the usual MCS theory. The classical dynamics is analysed in full detail, by studying the solution for the electric field and static energy for this configuration. Afterwards, the interaction energy between opposite charges are derived and we show that the VSR effects play an important part in obtaining a (novel) finite expression for the static potential.

  13. Detection of surface mobility of poly (2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorostyrene) films by in situ variable-temperature ToF-SIMS and contact angle measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi; Lau, Yiu-Ting R; Weng, Lu-Tao; Ng, Kai-Mo; Chan, Chi-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Poly (2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorostyrene) (5FPS) was prepared by bulk radical polymerization. The spin-cast films of this polymer were analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) at various temperatures ranging from room temperature to 120°C. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the ToF-SIMS data revealed a transition temperature (T(T)) at which the surface structure of 5FPS was rearranged. A comparison between the results of the PCA of ToF-SIMS spectra obtained on 5FPS and polystyrene (PS) indicate that the pendant groups of 5FPS and PS moved in exactly opposite directions as the temperature increased. More pendant groups of 5FPS and PS migrated from the bulk to the surface and verse versa, respectively, as the temperature increased. These results clearly support the view that the abrupt changes in the normalized principal component 1 value was caused by the surface reorientation of the polymers and not by a change in the ion fragmentation mechanism at temperatures above the T(T). Contact angle measurement, which is another extremely surface sensitive technique, was used to monitor the change in the surface tension as a function of temperature. A clear T(T) was determined by the contact angle measurements. The T(T) values determined by contact angle measurements and ToF-SIMS were very similar.

  14. Spectroscopy and Thermometry of Drumhead Modes in a Mesoscopic Trapped-Ion Crystal using Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Brian C; Keith, Adam C; Wang, C -C Joseph; Freericks, James K; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J; Bollinger, John J

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate spectroscopy and thermometry of individual motional modes in a mesoscopic 2D ion array using entanglement-induced decoherence as a method of transduction. Our system is a $\\sim$400 $\\mu$m-diameter planar crystal of several hundred $^9$Be$^+$ ions exhibiting complex drumhead modes in the confining potential of a Penning trap. Exploiting precise control over the $^9$Be$^+$ valence electron spins, we apply a homogeneous spin-dependent optical dipole force to excite arbitrary transverse modes with an effective wavelength approaching the interparticle spacing ($\\sim$20 \

  15. Astrometric imaging of crowded stellar fields with only two SIM pointings

    CERN Document Server

    Dalal, N; Dalal, Neal; Griest, Kim

    2001-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will observe sources in crowded fields. Recent work has shown that source crowding can induce significant positional errors in SIM's astrometric measurements, even for targets many magnitudes brighter than all other crowding sources. Here we investigate whether the spectral decomposition of the fringe pattern may be used to disentangle the overlapping fringes from multiple blended sources, effectively by performing synthesis imaging with two baselines. We find that spectrally dispersed fringes enable SIM to identify and localize a limited number of field sources quite robustly, thereby removing their effect from SIM astrometry and reducing astrometry errors to near photon noise levels. We simulate SIM measurements of the LMC, and show that (a) SIM astrometry will not be corrupted by blending and (b) extremely precise imaging of mildly crowded fields may be performed using only two orthogonal baseline orientations, allowing microarcsecond positional measurements. We lastl...

  16. Elemental and isotopic imaging of biological samples using NanoSIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Matt R; Clode, Peta L

    2014-01-01

    With its low detection limits and the ability to analyze most of the elements in the periodic table, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) represents one of the most versatile in situ analytical techniques available, and recent developments have resulted in significant advantages for the use of imaging mass spectrometry in biological and biomedical research. Increases in spatial resolution and sensitivity allow detailed interrogation of samples at relevant scales and chemical concentrations. Advances in dynamic SIMS, specifically with the advent of NanoSIMS, now allow the tracking of stable isotopes within biological systems at subcellular length scales, while static SIMS combines subcellular imaging with molecular identification. In this chapter, we present an introduction to the SIMS technique, with particular reference to NanoSIMS, and discuss its application in biological and biomedical research.

  17. Climate responses to SATIRE and SIM-based spectral solar forcing in a 3D atmosphere-ocean coupled GCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guoyong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply two reconstructed spectral solar forcing scenarios, one SIM (Spectral Irradiance Monitor based, the other the SATIRE (Spectral And Total Irradiance REconstruction modeled, as inputs to the GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCMAM (Global Climate Middle Atmosphere Model to examine climate responses on decadal to centennial time scales, focusing on quantifying the difference of climate response between the two solar forcing scenarios. We run the GCMAM for about 400 years with present day trace gas and aerosol for the two solar forcing inputs. We find that the SIM-based solar forcing induces much larger long-term response and 11-year variation in global averaged stratospheric temperature and column ozone. We find significant decreasing trends of planetary albedo for both forcing scenarios in the 400-year model runs. However the mechanisms for the decrease are very different. For SATIRE solar forcing, the decreasing trend of planetary albedo is associated with changes in cloud cover. For SIM-based solar forcing, without significant change in cloud cover on centennial and longer time scales, the apparent decreasing trend of planetary albedo is mainly due to out-of-phase variation in shortwave radiative forcing proxy (downwelling flux for wavelength >330 nm and total solar irradiance (TSI. From the Maunder Minimum to present, global averaged annual mean surface air temperature has a response of ~0.1 °C to SATIRE solar forcing compared to ~0.04 °C to SIM-based solar forcing. For 11-year solar cycle, the global surface air temperature response has 3-year lagged response to either forcing scenario. The global surface air 11-year temperature response to SATIRE forcing is about 0.12 °C, similar to recent multi-model estimates, and comparable to the observational-based evidence. However, the global surface air temperature response to 11-year SIM-based solar forcing is insignificant and inconsistent with observation-based evidence.

  18. SIMS and NanoSIMS analyses of Mesoproterozoic individual microfossils indicating continuous oxygen-producing photosynthesis in Proterozoic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Guo, Z.; House, C. H.; Chen, S.; Ta, K.

    2015-12-01

    Well-preserved microfossils in the stromatolites from the Gaoyuzhuang Formation (~1500Ma), which is younger than the Gunflint Formation (~1880Ma) and older than the Bitter Springs Formation (~850Ma), may play key roles in systematizing information about the evolution of early life and environmental changes in the Proterozoic Ocean. Here, a combination of light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB), nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were employed to characterize the morphology, elemental distributions and carbon isotope values of individual microfossils in the stromatolites from the Gaoyuahzuang Formation. Light microscopy analyses show that abundant filamentous and coccoid microfossils are exceptionally well preserved in chert. NanoSIMS analyses show that metabolically important elements such as 12C-, 13C-, 12C14N-, 32S-, and 34S- are concentrated in these microfossils and that the variations in the concentrations of these elements are similar, establishing the elemental distributions in incontestably biogenic microstructures. Carbon isotope (δ13C) values of individual microfossils range from -32.2‰ ± 0.9‰ to -23.3‰ ± 1.0‰ (weighted mean= -28.9‰ ± 0.1‰), consistent with carbon fixation via the Calvin cycle. The elevated δ13C values of the microfossils from Early-, Meso- to Late Proterozoic Era, possibly indicate decreasing CO2 and increasing O2 concentrations in the Proterozoic atmosphere. Our results, for the first time, provided the element distributions and cell specific carbon isotope values on convincing Mesoproterozoic cyanobacterial fossils, supporting continuous oxygen-producing photosynthesis in the Proterozoic Ocean.

  19. Lagrangian Space Nonlinear $E$-mode clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hao-Ran; Zhu, Hong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonlinear $E$-mode clustering in Lagrangian space by using large scale structure (LSS) $N$-body simulations and use the displacement field information in Lagrangian space to recover the primordial linear density field. We find that, compared to Eulerian nonlinear density fields, the $E$-mode displacement fields in Lagrangian space improves the cross-correlation scale $k$ with initial density field by factor of 6 $\\sim$ 7, containing 2 orders of magnitude more primordial information. This illustrates ability of potential density reconstruction algorithms, to improve the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements from current and future large scale structure surveys.

  20. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  1. The influenza pandemic preparedness planning tool InfluSim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duerr Hans-Peter

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Planning public health responses against pandemic influenza relies on predictive models by which the impact of different intervention strategies can be evaluated. Research has to date rather focused on producing predictions for certain localities or under specific conditions, than on designing a publicly available planning tool which can be applied by public health administrations. Here, we provide such a tool which is reproducible by an explicitly formulated structure and designed to operate with an optimal combination of the competing requirements of precision, realism and generality. Results InfluSim is a deterministic compartment model based on a system of over 1,000 differential equations which extend the classic SEIR model by clinical and demographic parameters relevant for pandemic preparedness planning. It allows for producing time courses and cumulative numbers of influenza cases, outpatient visits, applied antiviral treatment doses, hospitalizations, deaths and work days lost due to sickness, all of which may be associated with economic aspects. The software is programmed in Java, operates platform independent and can be executed on regular desktop computers. Conclusion InfluSim is an online available software http://www.influsim.info which efficiently assists public health planners in designing optimal interventions against pandemic influenza. It can reproduce the infection dynamics of pandemic influenza like complex computer simulations while offering at the same time reproducibility, higher computational performance and better operability.

  2. Training of basic laparoscopy skills on SimSurgery SEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzink, Sonja N; Goossens, Richard H M; De Ridder, Huib; Jakimowicz, Jack J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance curve for novices training in bimanual tissue manipulation and angled laparoscope navigation, and compare those performances with the performances of experienced laparoscopic surgeons. The Camera Navigation task with a 30 degrees angled laparoscope and the Place Arrow task of the new SimSurgery SEP virtual reality simulator were used. Fourteen medical trainees (no laparoscopy experience) performed four training sessions within one week, including 15 repetitions of each task in total. The experienced participants (>50 procedures & familiar with angled laparoscope) performed each task twice. The performance on both tasks by the novices improved significantly over the training sessions. The experienced participants performed both tasks significantly better than the novices in repetition 3. After repetition 15, the performances of the novices on both tasks were of the same level as the performances of the experienced participants. By training on SimSurgery SEP, medical trainees can extensively improve their skills in navigation with 30 degrees angled laparoscope and bimanual tissue manipulation. Further research should focus on the transfer of skills acquired on the simulator to the clinical setting. Knowledge on proficiency thresholds and training end-points for pre-clinical criterion-based training of different laparoscopic tasks also needs to be extended.

  3. Multimodal image fusion with SIMS: Preprocessing with image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Jay Gage; Bloom, Anna; Winograd, Nicholas

    2016-06-14

    In order to utilize complementary imaging techniques to supply higher resolution data for fusion with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) chemical images, there are a number of aspects that, if not given proper consideration, could produce results which are easy to misinterpret. One of the most critical aspects is that the two input images must be of the same exact analysis area. With the desire to explore new higher resolution data sources that exists outside of the mass spectrometer, this requirement becomes even more important. To ensure that two input images are of the same region, an implementation of the insight segmentation and registration toolkit (ITK) was developed to act as a preprocessing step before performing image fusion. This implementation of ITK allows for several degrees of movement between two input images to be accounted for, including translation, rotation, and scale transforms. First, the implementation was confirmed to accurately register two multimodal images by supplying a known transform. Once validated, two model systems, a copper mesh grid and a group of RAW 264.7 cells, were used to demonstrate the use of the ITK implementation to register a SIMS image with a microscopy image for the purpose of performing image fusion.

  4. Analysis of TOF-SIMS spectra from fullerene compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, N. [Department of Materials and Life Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kichijoji-Kitamachi, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan)], E-mail: kato-nobuhiko@st.seikei.ac.jp; Yamashita, Y. [Department of Materials and Life Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kichijoji-Kitamachi, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Iida, S.; Sanada, N. [ULVAC-PHI, Inc., 370 Enzo, Chigasaki, Kanagawa 253-0084 (Japan); Kudo, M. [Department of Materials and Life Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kichijoji-Kitamachi, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    We analyzed TOF-SIMS spectra obtained from three different size of fullerenes (C{sub 60}, C{sub 70} and C{sub 84}) by using Ga{sup +}, Au{sup +} and Au{sub 3}{sup +} primary ion beams and investigated the fragmentation patterns, the enhancement of secondary ion yields and the restraint of fragmentation by using cluster primary ion beams compared with monoatomic primary ion beams. In the TOS-SIMS spectra from C{sub 70} and C{sub 84}, it was found that a fragment ion, identified as C{sub 60}{sup +} (m/z = 720), showed a relatively high intensity compared with that of other fragment ions related to C{sub 2} depletion. It was also found that the Au{sub 3}{sup +} bombardment caused intensity enhancement of intact molecules (C{sub 60}{sup +}, C{sub 70}{sup +} and C{sub 84}{sup +}) and restrained the fragmentation due to C{sub 2} depletion.

  5. MetaSim: a sequencing simulator for genomics and metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Richter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The new research field of metagenomics is providing exciting insights into various, previously unclassified ecological systems. Next-generation sequencing technologies are producing a rapid increase of environmental data in public databases. There is great need for specialized software solutions and statistical methods for dealing with complex metagenome data sets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To facilitate the development and improvement of metagenomic tools and the planning of metagenomic projects, we introduce a sequencing simulator called MetaSim. Our software can be used to generate collections of synthetic reads that reflect the diverse taxonomical composition of typical metagenome data sets. Based on a database of given genomes, the program allows the user to design a metagenome by specifying the number of genomes present at different levels of the NCBI taxonomy, and then to collect reads from the metagenome using a simulation of a number of different sequencing technologies. A population sampler optionally produces evolved sequences based on source genomes and a given evolutionary tree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MetaSim allows the user to simulate individual read datasets that can be used as standardized test scenarios for planning sequencing projects or for benchmarking metagenomic software.

  6. Chemical Imaging of the Cell Membrane by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Kraft, M L; Frisz, J F; Carpenter, K J; Hutcheon, I D

    2010-02-23

    The existence of lipid microdomains and their role in cell membrane organization are currently topics of great interest and controversy. The cell membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that can flow along the two-dimensional surface defined by the membrane. Microdomains, known as lipid rafts, are believed to play a central role in organizing this fluid system, enabling the cell membrane to carry out essential cellular processes, including protein recruitment and signal transduction. Lipid rafts are also implicated in cell invasion by pathogens, as in the case of the HIV. Therefore, understanding the role of lipid rafts in cell membrane organization not only has broad scientific implications, but also has practical implications for medical therapies. One of the major limitations on lipid organization research has been the inability to directly analyze lipid composition without introducing artifacts and at the relevant length-scales of tens to hundreds of nanometers. Fluorescence microscopy is widely used due to its sensitivity and specificity to the labeled species, but only the labeled components can be observed, fluorophores can alter the behavior of the lipids they label, and the length scales relevant to imaging cell membrane domains are between that probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging (<10 nm) and the diffraction limit of light. Topographical features can be imaged on this length scale by atomic force microscopy (AFM), but the chemical composition of the observed structures cannot be determined. Immuno-labeling can be used to study the distribution of membrane proteins at high resolution, but not lipid composition. We are using imaging mass spectrometry by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in concert with other high resolution imaging methods to overcome these limitations. The experimental approach of this project is to combine molecule-specific stable isotope labeling with high-resolution SIMS using a

  7. 关于建立环境监测质量管理体系模式的思考%Thinking About Mode Building of Environmental Monitoring Quality Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁海勤

    2011-01-01

    常州市环境监测中心站成立了30多年,通过自身的工作经验积累,初步建立了一套常州市环境监测质量管理体系模式.主要介绍质量管理体系模式的建立、运行控制、运行中遇到的问题以及质量管理体系运行取得的一些经验.%Changzhou environmental monitoring station established for over thirty years.Through its own work experiences,a set of changzhou environment monitoring quality management system mode was initially established.The quality management system model establishment, operation control, the problems in the operation of the quality management system operation and some experiences were mainly introduced.

  8. Morfoanatomia de folhas e caules de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Leaf and stem morphoanatomy of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josseara Beraldo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora edulis Sims, espécie vegetal empregada na medicina popular e amplamente cultivada no território nacional, tem suas folhas e seus caules, muitas vezes utilizados como adulterante de amostras comerciais da droga vegetal oficializada no país também conhecida como maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis. Caracteres morfoanatômicos de folhas e de caules de P. edulis, foram descritos e documentados. Dentre os caracteres auxiliares na distinção entre a droga oficial e os órgãos aéreos de P. edulis podem-se destacar o contorno da lâmina foliar, a forma da nervura mediana em secção transversal, o número e a localização de nectários extraflorais e, o indumentoPassiflora edulis Sims, vegetal species employed in the Brazilian traditional medicine and broadly cultivated across its territory, has its leaves and stems often used as an adulterant for commercial samples of the crude drug Passiflora alata Curtis, officially known in Brazil as "maracujá". Morphoanatomic data from leaves and stems in P. edulis were described and documented. Amongst these characteristics, the shape of the foliar blade, the shape of the midrib in transverse section, the number and the location of the extrafloral nectaries and the indumentum are all emphasized.

  9. The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H[2]Sim) technical description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Scott A.; Kamery, William; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.; Lutz, Andrew E.; Rosthal, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to become an integral part of our energy transportation and heat and power sectors in the coming decades and offers a possible solution to many of the problems associated with a heavy reliance on oil and other fossil fuels. The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H2Sim) was developed to provide a high level, internally consistent, strategic tool for evaluating the economic and environmental trade offs of alternative hydrogen production, storage, transport and end use options in the year 2020. Based on the model's default assumptions, estimated hydrogen production costs range from 0.68 $/kg for coal gasification to as high as 5.64 $/kg for centralized electrolysis using solar PV. Coal gasification remains the least cost option if carbon capture and sequestration costs ($0.16/kg) are added. This result is fairly robust; for example, assumed coal prices would have to more than triple or the assumed capital cost would have to increase by more than 2.5 times for natural gas reformation to become the cheaper option. Alternatively, assumed natural gas prices would have to fall below $2/MBtu to compete with coal gasification. The electrolysis results are highly sensitive to electricity costs, but electrolysis only becomes cost competitive with other options when electricity drops below 1 cent/kWhr. Delivered 2020 hydrogen costs are likely to be double the estimated production costs due to the inherent difficulties associated with storing, transporting, and dispensing hydrogen due to its low volumetric density. H2Sim estimates distribution costs ranging from 1.37 $/kg (low distance, low production) to 3.23 $/kg (long distance, high production volumes, carbon sequestration). Distributed hydrogen production options, such as on site natural gas, would avoid some of these costs. H2Sim compares the expected 2020 per mile driving costs (fuel, capital, maintenance, license, and registration) of current technology internal combustion engine (ICE

  10. Animal urine as painting materials in African rock art revealed by cluster ToF-SIMS mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Vincent; Richardin, Pascale; Touboul, David; Brunelle, Alain; Richard, Caroline; Laval, Eric; Walter, Philippe; Laprévote, Olivier

    2010-08-01

    The rock art site at the village of Songo in Mali is a very important Dogon ritual place where, since the end of the nineteenth century until today, takes place the ceremony of circumcision. During these ceremonies, paintings are performed on the walls of the shelter with mainly three colors: red, black and white. Ethnological literature mentions the use of animal urine of different species such as birds, lizards or snakes as a white pigment. Urine of these animals is mainly composed of uric acid or urate salts. In this article, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is used to compare uric acid, snake urine and a sample of a white pigment of a Dogon painting coming from the rock art site of Songo. ToF-SIMS measurements in both positive and negative ion modes on reference compounds and snake urine proved useful for the study of uric acid and urate salts. This method enables to identify unambiguously these compounds owing to the detection in negative ion mode of the ion corresponding to the deprotonated molecule ([M-H](-) at m/z 167.01) and its fragment ions. Moreover, the mass spectra obtained in positive ion mode permit to differentiate uric acid and urate salts on the basis of specific ions. Applying this method to the Dogon white pigments sample, we show that the sample is entirely composed of uric acid. This proves for the first time, that animal urine was used as a pigment by the Dogon. The presence of uric acid instead of urate salts as normally expected in animal urine could be explained by the preparation of the pigment for its application on the stone. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Migration of ions in cement paste as studied by SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, K.E.; Aldridge, L.P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Rougeron, P. [Electricite de France Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Les Renardiers (France)

    1998-06-01

    Cement is often used to condition and encapsulate low level radioactive waste before it is disposed of in a repository. Ground water can attack these waste-forms by transporting aggressive ions into the cement paste and by removing radioactive ions from the paste. The extent of the attack will be governed by the diffusion of the ions in the cement paste. In this study we examine the migration of aggressive carbonate ions and inactive Cs and Sr through cement pastes. The use of SIMS for establishing the penetration depths and diffusion profiles for Cs and Sr in cement will be explored. The penetration profiles of Cs and Sr in a non-zeolite cement paste were examined and compared to those of a paste made with zeolite. The effects of the non-homogeneous nature of the cement was most pronounced in the study of the zeolite rich cement; Cs being preferentially accumulated in the zeolite material. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Una mirada a los productos simétricos

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La Teoría de Hiperespacios de Continuos es una línea de investigación en topología que apareció aproximadamente en la década de 1910 a 1920. En México se ha trabajado en esta área en los últimos 20 años. El hiperespacio conocido como el n-ésimo producto simétrico fue introducido por K. Borsuk y S. Ulam en 1931. En este artículo enfocamos nuestra atención a los modelos geométricos de dichos hiperespacios y algunas de sus propiedades más importantes.

  13. SIM-Lite: status of the engineering progress toward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, Frank G.; Bloemhof, Eric E.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Eldred, Daniel; Goullioud, Renaud; Jeganathan, Muthu; Nicaise, Fabien; Zhao, Feng

    2008-07-01

    We present an overview of the ongoing progress towards flight readiness of the SIM project. We summarize the engineering milestones that have been completed in the last two years, namely: the Brass-Board Internal and External Metrology Beam Launchers, the Brass-Board Metrology Source, and the Instrument Communication Hardware/Software Architecture Demonstration. We also show other progress such as: the life test of the bass-screw and PZT actuators, building the Metrology Fiducials and the Single Strut Test Article. We status the ongoing work on the Brass-Board Fast Steering Mirror and the Brass-Board Astrometric Beam Combiner. We end with a proposed path towards finishing the Brass-Board suite.

  14. Una mirada a los productos simétricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Andablo-Reyes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Teoría de Hiperespacios de Continuos es una línea de investigación en topología que apareció aproximadamente en la década de 1910 a 1920. En México se ha trabajado en esta área en los últimos 20 años. El hiperespacio conocido como el n-ésimo producto simétrico fue introducido por K. Borsuk y S. Ulam en 1931. En este artículo enfocamos nuestra atención a los modelos geométricos de dichos hiperespacios y algunas de sus propiedades más importantes.

  15. Automatic safety monitoring system and warning modes for artificial islands in coastal areas%滩海人工岛工程安全监测自动化系统与预警模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦志斌; 李运辉; 娄炎; 何宁

    2012-01-01

    系统分析了滩海人工岛工程运营期安全监测的特点,确定了安全监测内容,开发建立了国内首个滩海人工岛工程安全监测自动化系统,首次分析提出了滩海人工岛运行期监测的预警模式和预警指标。运行期滩海人工岛的安全预警包括两方面的内容:设计环境因素预警和岛体安全监测预警。岛体安全监测预警指标为围堤水平位移和围堤沉降;预警模式为根据监测数据变化,结合海域冲淤、断面浅剖,以及边坡安全稳定分析,分级提出预警,并给出了工程应对措施,为滩海人工岛工程运行期阶段的安全建设和管理提供了技术依据和保障。%The characteristics of safety monitoring for artificial islands in coastal areas during the operation stage are systematically analyzed. The relevant monitoring items are determined. The first automatic safety monitoring system for the artificial islands in coastal areas in China has been developed. The warning indices and modes for the safety monitoring of the artificial islands in coastal areas during the operation stage are put forward. The warning for the safety of the artificial islands in coastal areas during the operation stage includes the following two aspects: warning of design environment and waming of safety monitoring of islands. The warning indices include the horizontal displacement and settlement of embankments. The warning modes are hierarchical ones according to the variation of monitoring data, deposition and erosion in sea areas, shallow cutting of sections and stability analysis of slopes. The relevant countermeasures for the engineering safety are put forward so as to provide the technical basis and support for the safe construction and management of the artificial islands in coastal areas during the operation stage.

  16. Cognitive Anatomy of Tutor Learning: Lessons Learned with SimStudent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Noboru; Yarzebinski, Evelyn; Keiser, Victoria; Raizada, Rohan; Cohen, William W.; Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an advanced learning technology used to investigate hypotheses about learning by teaching. The proposed technology is an instance of a teachable agent, called SimStudent, that learns skills (e.g., for solving linear equations) from examples and from feedback on performance. SimStudent has been integrated into an online,…

  17. Understanding IEC standard wind turbine models using SimPowerSystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and exemplifies the IEC 61400-27 generic wind turbine models through an interactive multimedia learning environment - Matlab SimPowerSystems. The article aims help engineers with different backgrounds to get a better understanding of wind turbine dynamics and control...... by easily conducting different study simulations in the SimPowerSystems platform ....

  18. WTA President Sim Jae-Duck and His Party Visit China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Sim Jae-Duck, president of the World Toilet Association (WTA), and his party visited Beijing, Shandong and Shanghai from May 19 to 23 at the invitation of the CPAFFC. Sim Jae-Duck is the founder of the WTA,

  19. Denitrification in the root zone using a simple empirical model SimDen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Finn Pilgaard

    2006-01-01

    Only by knowing soil type and amount of nitrogen applied, an estimate of the annual denitrification can be obtained with the simple empirical model SimDen.......Only by knowing soil type and amount of nitrogen applied, an estimate of the annual denitrification can be obtained with the simple empirical model SimDen....

  20. The Pedagogical Benefits of "SimCity" in Urban Geography Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Shin, Jungyeop

    2016-01-01

    This article investigated the pedagogical potential of the "SimCity" simulation game in an urban geography course. University students used "SimCity" to build their own cities and applied a wide range of theories to support their urban structures. Moreover, the students critically evaluated the logic and functioning of the…

  1. The role of the transcription factor SIM2 in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested a possible involvement of Single-minded homolog 2 (SIM2 in human solid cancers, including prostate cancer. However, the exact role of SIM2 in cancer in general, and in prostate cancer in particular, remains largely unknown. This study was designed to elucidate the role of SIM2 in prostate cancer using a shRNA-based approach in the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. METHODS: Lentiviral shRNAs were used to inhibit SIM2 gene and protein levels in PC3 cells. Quantitative RT-PCR and branched DNA were performed to evaluate transcript expression. SIM2 protein expression level was measured by western blot. Profiling of gene expression spanning the whole genome, as well as polar metabolomics of several major metabolic pathways was performed to identify major pathway dysregulations. RESULTS: SIM2 gene and protein products were significantly downregulated by lenti-shRNA in PC3 cell line. This low expression of SIM2 affected gene expression profile, revealing significant changes in major signaling pathways, networks and functions. In addition, major metabolic pathways were affected. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest an involvement of SIM2 in key traits of prostate tumor cell biology and might underlie a contribution of this transcription factor to prostate cancer onset and progression.

  2. Transformation of Printed Course Materials into Self Instructional Materials (SIMs): Some Basic Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausaria, R. R.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the use of self-instructional materials (SIMs) in distance learning at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) and State Open Universities (SOUs) in India. Focuses on the need for Correspondence Course Institutes in conventional Indian universities to transform printed course materials into SIMs. Discusses revision and…

  3. SimDelta global: Towards a standardised interactive model for water infrastructure development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, T.; Christopher, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    The research project ‘SimDelta’ builds on novel internet technology to support the development of the Rhine-Meuse delta water infrastructure. It has three goals: education, organisation of research and design studies, and stakeholder polling. A current question is how the SimDelta technology could b

  4. OpenSimRoot: widening the scope and application of root architectural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Johannes A; Kuppe, Christian; Owen, Markus R; Mellor, Nathan; Griffiths, Marcus; Bennett, Malcolm J; Lynch, Jonathan P; Watt, Michelle

    2017-08-01

    OpenSimRoot is an open-source, functional-structural plant model and mathematical description of root growth and function. We describe OpenSimRoot and its functionality to broaden the benefits of root modeling to the plant science community. OpenSimRoot is an extended version of SimRoot, established to simulate root system architecture, nutrient acquisition and plant growth. OpenSimRoot has a plugin, modular infrastructure, coupling single plant and crop stands to soil nutrient and water transport models. It estimates the value of root traits for water and nutrient acquisition in environments and plant species. The flexible OpenSimRoot design allows upscaling from root anatomy to plant community to estimate the following: resource costs of developmental and anatomical traits; trait synergisms; and (interspecies) root competition. OpenSimRoot can model three-dimensional images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of roots in soil. New modules include: soil water-dependent water uptake and xylem flow; tiller formation; evapotranspiration; simultaneous simulation of mobile solutes; mesh refinement; and root growth plasticity. OpenSimRoot integrates plant phenotypic data with environmental metadata to support experimental designs and to gain a mechanistic understanding at system scales. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Monitoring and evaluation of sustained clinical performance and tuberculosis management in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murray

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Advisory Committee Project Summary : SIM 02-08-02 Project Title: MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED CLINICAL PERFORMANCE AND TUBERCULOSIS MANAGEMENT IN THE SA MINING INDUSTRY (22 pages) Author(s): Dr Jill Murray Dr Michelle Wong...

  6. HR-Cosmos: Kinematics of Star-Forming Galaxies at z $\\sim$ 0.9

    CERN Document Server

    Pelliccia, D; Epinat, B; Ilbert, O; Scoville, N; Amram, P; Lemaux, B C; Zamorani, G

    2016-01-01

    We present the kinematic analysis of a sub-sample of 82 galaxies at $\\mathrm{0.75sim\\,$766 emission line galaxies using the multi-slit spectrograph ESO-VLT/VIMOS in high-resolution mode (R=2500). To better extract galaxy kinematics, VIMOS spectral slits have been carefully tilted along the major axis orientation of the galaxies, making use of the position angle measurements from the high spatial resolution ACS/HST COSMOS images. We constrained the kinematics of the sub-sample at $0.75

  7. Challenges of biological sample preparation for SIMS imaging of elements and molecules at subcellular resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subhash [Cornell SIMS Laboratory, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Snee Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: sc40@cornell.edu

    2008-12-15

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based imaging techniques capable of subcellular resolution characterization of elements and molecules are becoming valuable tools in many areas of biology and medicine. Due to high vacuum requirements of SIMS, the live cells cannot be analyzed directly in the instrument. The sample preparation, therefore, plays a critical role in preserving the native chemical composition for SIMS analysis. This work focuses on the evaluation of frozen-hydrated and frozen freeze-dried sample preparations for SIMS studies of cultured cells with a CAMECA IMS-3f dynamic SIMS ion microscope instrument capable of producing SIMS images with a spatial resolution of 500 nm. The sandwich freeze-fracture method was used for fracturing the cells. The complimentary fracture planes in the plasma membrane were characterized by field-emission secondary electron microscopy (FESEM) in the frozen-hydrated state. The cells fractured at the dorsal surface were used for SIMS analysis. The frozen-hydrated SIMS analysis of individual cells under dynamic primary ion beam (O{sub 2}{sup +}) revealed local secondary ion signal enhancements correlated with the water image signals of {sup 19}(H{sub 3}O){sup +}. A preferential removal of water from the frozen cell matrix in the Z-axis was also observed. These complications render the frozen-hydrated sample type less desirable for subcellular dynamic SIMS studies. The freeze-drying of frozen-hydrated cells, either inside the instrument or externally in a freeze-drier, allowed SIMS imaging of subcellular chemical composition. Morphological evaluations of fractured freeze-dried cells with SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed well-preserved mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and stress fibers. SIMS analysis of fractured freeze-dried cells revealed well-preserved chemical composition of even the most highly diffusible ions like K{sup +} and Na{sup +} in physiologically relevant concentrations. The high K

  8. B超监测羊水性状在孕晚期可疑羊水过少中的应用%B-mode ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid character in suspected oligohydramnios during late pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峥; 朱科俊

    2016-01-01

    目的::B超监测羊水性状在孕晚期可疑羊水过少中的应用,方法:2012年1月至2014年12月就诊我院系统产检300例患者,比较单纯可疑羊水过少组(150例)与合并羊水浑浊组(150例)的剖宫产率和新生儿窒息率。结果:可疑羊水过少且合并羊水浑浊组发生剖宫产分娩率、新生儿窒息率升高( P<0.01)。结论:B超监测羊水性状为孕晚期可疑羊水过少提供敏感指标,为临床分娩方式选择提供依据。%Objective:To investigate the value of B-mode ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid character in suspected oligohydramnios during late pregnancy. Methods:Included in this study were 300 patients subjected to systemic prenatal examination in our hospital between January 2012 and December 2014. These patients were with suspected oligohydramnios alone (n=150) or concomitant amniotic fluid turbidity (n=150). The rates of cesarean section and neonatal asphyxia in these patients were compared. Results: Patients with suspected oligohydramnios and concomitant amniotic fluid turbidity were more likely to have cesarean delivery (P<0.01) and neonatal asphyxia ( P<0.01) . Conclusion:B-mode ultrasound monitoring of amniotic fluid can offer sensitive indicators for suspected oligohydramnios during late pregnancy and evidence for selection of delivery mode.

  9. Multi-dimensional TOF-SIMS analysis for effective profiling of disease-related ions from the tissue surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Won; Jeong, Hyobin; Kang, Byeongsoo; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sang Yoon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Hark Kyun; Choi, Joon Sig; Hwang, Daehee; Lee, Tae Geol

    2015-06-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) emerges as a promising tool to identify the ions (small molecules) indicative of disease states from the surface of patient tissues. In TOF-SIMS analysis, an enhanced ionization of surface molecules is critical to increase the number of detected ions. Several methods have been developed to enhance ionization capability. However, how these methods improve identification of disease-related ions has not been systematically explored. Here, we present a multi-dimensional SIMS (MD-SIMS) that combines conventional TOF-SIMS and metal-assisted SIMS (MetA-SIMS). Using this approach, we analyzed cancer and adjacent normal tissues first by TOF-SIMS and subsequently by MetA-SIMS. In total, TOF- and MetA-SIMS detected 632 and 959 ions, respectively. Among them, 426 were commonly detected by both methods, while 206 and 533 were detected uniquely by TOF- and MetA-SIMS, respectively. Of the 426 commonly detected ions, 250 increased in their intensities by MetA-SIMS, whereas 176 decreased. The integrated analysis of the ions detected by the two methods resulted in an increased number of discriminatory ions leading to an enhanced separation between cancer and normal tissues. Therefore, the results show that MD-SIMS can be a useful approach to provide a comprehensive list of discriminatory ions indicative of disease states.

  10. Subcellular boron and fluorine distributions with SIMS ion microscopy in BNCT and cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Chandra

    2008-05-30

    The development of a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based technique of Ion Microscopy in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was the main goal of this project, so that one can study the subcellular location of boron-10 atoms and their partitioning between the normal and cancerous tissue. This information is fundamental for the screening of boronated drugs appropriate for neutron capture therapy of cancer. Our studies at Cornell concentrated mainly on studies of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The early years of the grant were dedicated to the development of cryogenic methods and correlative microscopic approaches so that a reliable subcellular analysis of boron-10 atoms can be made with SIMS. In later years SIMS was applied to animal models and human tissues of GBM for studying the efficacy of potential boronated agents in BNCT. Under this grant the SIMS program at Cornell attained a new level of excellence and collaborative SIMS studies were published with leading BNCT researchers in the U.S.

  11. 访Sim 2出口部经理Sergio Cadin先生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sim 2是意大利的投影机品牌,是1987年由意大利视丽(Seleco)电子集团分离出来的。Sim 2公司的投影机产品在世界上拥有良好的声誉,其特点是高品质与外观艺术的完美结合。对于Sim 2我国消费者知之较少,但对其前身视丽(Seleco)就不陌生了。为了多了解一些Sim 2的情况,本刊记者采访了Sim 2出口部经理Sergio Cadin。

  12. WEC-SIM Phase 1 Validation Testing -- Numerical Modeling of Experiments: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, Kelley; Michelen, Carlos; Bosma, Bret; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    The Wave Energy Converter Simulator (WEC-Sim) is an open-source code jointly developed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It is used to model wave energy converters subjected to operational and extreme waves. In order for the WEC-Sim code to be beneficial to the wave energy community, code verification and physical model validation is necessary. This paper describes numerical modeling of the wave tank testing for the 1:33-scale experimental testing of the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter. The comparison between WEC-Sim and the Phase 1 experimental data set serves as code validation. This paper is a follow-up to the WEC-Sim paper on experimental testing, and describes the WEC-Sim numerical simulations for the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter.

  13. WEC-Sim Phase 1 Validation Testing: Numerical Modeling of Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, Kelley; Michelen, Carlos; Bosma, Bret; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    2016-06-24

    The Wave Energy Converter Simulator (WEC-Sim) is an open-source code jointly developed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It is used to model wave energy converters subjected to operational and extreme waves. In order for the WEC-Sim code to be beneficial to the wave energy community, code verification and physical model validation is necessary. This paper describes numerical modeling of the wave tank testing for the 1:33-scale experimental testing of the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter. The comparison between WEC-Sim and the Phase 1 experimental data set serves as code validation. This paper is a follow-up to the WEC-Sim paper on experimental testing, and describes the WEC-Sim numerical simulations for the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter.

  14. SIM regional comparison SIM.L-K4.2009 on the calibration of internal and external diameter standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Theodore; Pires Alves, J. A.; Gastaldi, Bruno R.; Navarrete, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The Inter-American Metrology System (SIM) has carried out a key comparison of diameter measurements. The artifacts studied were four ring gages and four plug gages. The measurand was a specified diameter of each gauge at 20 °C and corrected to zero force. This report presents results obtained by the individual participants and an analysis of the results and their uncertainties. The results are in good agreement with one another, well within the range expected based on the measurement uncertainties claimed by the participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. AFM study of the SIMS beam induced roughness in monocrystalline silicon in presence of initial surface or bulk defects of nanometric size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fares, B. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere (UMR CNRS 5511), INSA de Lyon, 7 Avenue Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: boubker.fares@insa-lyon.fr; Dubois, C. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere (UMR CNRS 5511), INSA de Lyon, 7 Avenue Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Gautier, B. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere (UMR CNRS 5511), INSA de Lyon, 7 Avenue Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Dupuy, J.C. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere (UMR CNRS 5511), INSA de Lyon, 7 Avenue Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Cayrel, F. [Universite de Tours, Laboratoire de Micro-Electronique de Puissance, 16 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France); Gaudin, G. [Universite de Tours, Laboratoire de Micro-Electronique de Puissance, 16 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-37071 Tours Cedex 2 (France)

    2006-07-30

    In this paper, the SIMS beam induced roughness (BIR) in monocrystalline Si in presence of initial surface or bulk defects of nanometric size is studied. We follow the development of the BIR by monitoring the increase of Si{sup 2+} and SiO{sub 2} {sup +} signals during SIMS sputtering. The topography of the crater bottoms is measured at different steps of the evolution of the roughness using an atomic force microscope (AFM). We show that in presence of nanometric sized defects on the surface or in the bulk, the BIR develops far more rapidly than usual. It appears as soon as the crater reaches the defects and, as reported on Si free from any treatment, the same morphology evidencing waves perpendicular to the sputtering beam develops rapidly. This study of the behaviour of the BIR in presence of voluntarily introduced defects allows us to better understand the basic physical phenomena involved in its apparition.

  16. 多监测参数和控制方式的种子设备控制系统%A Control System of Seeds Processing Machine with Multiple Monitoring Parameters and Control Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯安东; 陈大跃; 赵春宇

    2014-01-01

    传统的种子处理设备还停留在以电气控制、手动操作为主的阶段,系统自动检测、控制的参量较少,控制过程的稳定性、可靠性和控制效果难以满足指标要求[1-2];且传统设备人机交互的接口单一,方式落后,用户使用过程中存在着很多不便[3]。为此,介绍了一种基于 ARM 平台的种子风力筛选机智能控制系统。该系统采用新型HMI 触摸屏为用户提供一个人性化的人机交互界面,并且设计了一款遥控器允许用户实现多角度远距离调试设备。系统可对多种参量进行实时动态监控,实现设备的精确自动控制。实践证明,该系统可靠性高,实用性强,且具有非常好的用户体验,已成功应用于种子风力筛选机。%Traditional control system of seeds processing machine still rests on the stage of electrical control and manual manipulation which doesn ’ s have enough parameters to monitor and control , so its stability , reliability and control effect can’t meet the previous guideposts[1-2].In addition, traditional machine’s man-machine interactive interface is sim-plex, behindhand and discommodious .It’ s difficult for users to operate equipments expediently [3] .This article intro-duces an intelligent control system of seeds wind-screening machine based on ARM .New type HMI touch screen could afford users a humanized human-machine interactive interface and wireless module allows users to control the machine from different angles.Enough control parameters ensure that automatic control of seeds processing machine could be rea lized .Practice indicates that this system is reliable and pragmatic and has a very good user experience which has been applied to seeds wind-screening machine succesfully .

  17. College Listening Teaching Mode Based on Self-monitoring Strategy%基于自我监控策略的大学听力教学模式构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丹

    2012-01-01

    以自我监控策略为基础的听力教学模式通过对听力各阶段进行目标、注意力、理解、策略等方面的监控,能促使听力更具有目的性和针对性,让学生在听力过程中实时监测听力理解的效果,在充分发挥学习的主动性和积极性的同时发展自主学习能力,从而有效提高学习效果。%College listening teaching mode based on self-monitoring strategy can make listening more goal-oriented and help students monitor comprehension in the process of listening through monitoring aims,attention,comprehension and strategies in different phases of listening.Moreover,it can motivate students’ activeness and develop their self-regulated learning competence so as to improve learning efficiency.

  18. Analysis of hydrogen isotope ratios by SIMS, and application to determining mineral-fluid isotope fractionation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riciputi, L.R.; Chacko, T.; Cole, D.R.; Horita, J.

    1997-09-01

    Due to the large mass difference between the two isotopes, D/H ratios can be strongly affected by chemical processes. Thus, they can be sensitive monitors of fluid source, temperature, and fluid-rock interactions in geologic settings. The lack of confidence in fractionation factors has significantly hindered realization of the potential of D/H ratios in geochemical studies. The authors describe a new experimental method, relying on SIMS analysis, that allows the precise determination of mineral-water D/H fractionation factors, and the analytical considerations that are required to make both precise and accurate measurements. The development of this method is based on the fact that diffusion rates are markedly anisotropic in many hydrous minerals, varying by over five orders of magnitude depending on the crystallographic orientation. The diffusion rates can be determined by conducting controlled exchange experiments of fixed duration using isotopically labeled waters that are enriched (strongly) with D, and then measuring the depth profile by SIMS.

  19. NanoSIMS analysis of Bacillus spores for forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Davisson, M L; Velsko, S P

    2010-02-23

    The threat associated with the potential use of radiological, nuclear, chemical and biological materials in terrorist acts has resulted in new fields of forensic science requiring the application of state-of-the-science analytical techniques. Since the anthrax letter attacks in the United States in the fall of 2001, there has been increased interest in physical and chemical characterization of bacterial spores. While molecular methods are powerful tools for identifying genetic differences, other methods may be able to differentiate genetically identical samples based on physical and chemical properties, as well as provide complimentary information, such as methods of production and approximate date of production. Microanalysis has the potential to contribute significantly to microbial forensics. Bacillus spores are highly structured, consisting of a core, cortex, coat, and in some species, an exosporium. This structure provides a template for constraining elemental abundance differences at the nanometer scale. The primary controls on the distribution of major elements in spores are likely structural and physiological. For example, P and Ca are known to be abundant in the spore core because that is where P-rich nucleic acids and Cadipicolinic acid are located, respectively. Trace elements are known to bind to the spore coat but the controls on these elements are less well understood. Elemental distributions and abundances may be directly related to spore production, purification and stabilization methodologies, which are of particular interest for forensic investigation. To this end, we are developing a high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry method using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to study the distribution and abundance of trace elements in bacterial spores. In this presentation we will review and compare methods for preparing and analyzing samples, as well as review results on the distribution and abundance of elements in bacterial spores. We use NanoSIMS to

  20. ToF-SIMS and SEM-EDS analysis of the surface of chosen bioindicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szynkowska, M.I. [Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)], E-mail: miszynk@p.lodz.pl; Pawlaczyk, A.; Rogowski, J. [Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2008-12-15

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and scanning electron microscopy with field emission equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) were applied in order to investigate the surface of chosen biological indicators such as bark, needles and hair. All samples were collected from the urban areas of the Lodz city region, recognized as one of the most polluted in Poland. The high resolution of the applied techniques provides good separation of signals from different chemical species. High detection sensitivity enables an analysis of crucial elements and/or molecules. It was found that the surface of the materials studied was in general covered by many exogenous particles, suggesting, from the monitoring purpose point of view, their possible anthropogenic origin. The preliminary results obtained revealed that these techniques can be successfully used in environmental analysis of various biological samples and can provide detailed information about distribution and composition of airborne pollutants within the sample surfaces studied as well as initiate a renewed interest in the exposure study.

  1. Characterization of drug-eluting stent (DES) materials with cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Christine M.; Patwardhan, Dinesh V.; Ken McDermott, M.

    2006-07-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) employing an SF 5+ polyatomic primary ion source was utilized to analyze several materials commonly used in drug-eluting stents (DES). Poly(ethylene- co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA), poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and various poly(urethanes) were successfully depth profiled using SF 5+ bombardment. The resultant molecular depth profiles obtained from these polymeric films showed very little degradation in molecular signal as a function of increasing SF 5+ primary ion dose when experiments were performed at low temperatures (signal was maintained for doses up to ˜5 × 10 15 ions/cm 2). Temperature was determined to be an important parameter in both the success of the depth profiles and the mass spectral analysis of the polymers. In addition to the pristine polymer films, paclitaxel (drug released in Taxus™ stent) containing PLGA films were also characterized, where it was confirmed that both drug and polymer signals could be monitored as a function of depth at lower paclitaxel concentrations (10 wt%).

  2. In situ carbon isotope analysis of Archean organic matter with SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, K. H.; Ushikubo, T.; Lepot, K.; Hallmann, C.; Spicuzza, M. J.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Summons, R. E.; Valley, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Spatiotemporal variability in the carbon isotope composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) preserves information about the evolution of the biosphere and of the exogenic carbon cycle as a whole. Primary compositions, and imprints of the post-depositional processes that obscure them, exist at the scale of individual sedimentary grains (mm to μm). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) (1) enables analysis at these scales and in petrographic context, (2) permits morphological and compositional characterization of the analyte and associated minerals prior to isotopic analysis, and (3) reveals patterns of variability homogenized by bulk techniques. Here we present new methods for in situ organic carbon isotope analysis with sub-permil precision and spatial resolution to 1 μm using SIMS, as well as new data acquired from a suite of Archean rocks. Three analytical protocols were developed for the CAMECA ims1280 at WiscSIMS to analyze domains of varying size and carbon concentration. Average reproducibility (at 2SD) using a 6 μm spot size with two Faraday cup detectors was 0.4%, and 0.8% for analyses using 1 μm and 3 μm spot sizes with a Faraday cup (for 12C) and an electron multiplier (for 13C). Eight coals, two ambers, a shungite, and a graphite were evaluated for μm-scale isotopic heterogeneity, and LCNN anthracite (δ13C = -23.56 ± 0.1%, 2SD) was chosen as the working standard. Correlation between instrumental bias and H/C was observed and calibrated for each analytical session using organic materials with H/C between 0.1 and 1.5 (atomic), allowing a correction based upon a 13CH/13C measurement included in every analysis and a 12CH measurement made immediately after every analysis. The total range of the H/C effect observed for the Archean samples analyzed was < 3%. Analyses of Archean OM domains for which 12C count rate varies with the proportions of organic carbon, carbonate carbon, and quartz suggest that instrumental bias is consistent for 12C count

  3. Outflowing atomic and molecular gas at $z \\sim 0.67$ towards 1504+377

    CERN Document Server

    Kanekar, Nissim

    2007-01-01

    We report the detection of OH 1667 MHz and wide HI 21cm absorption at $z \\sim 0.67$ towards the red quasar 1504+377, with the Green Bank Telescope and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. The HI 21cm absorption extends over a velocity range of $\\sim 600$ km/s blueward of the quasar redshift ($z=0.674$), with the new OH 1667 MHz absorption component at $\\sim -430$ \\kms, nearly coincident with earlier detections of mm-wave absorption at $z \\sim 0.6715$. The atomic and molecular absorption appear to arise from a fast gas outflow from the quasar, with a mass outflow rate ${\\dot M} \\sim 12 M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ and a molecular hydrogen fraction $f_{\\rm H_2} \\equiv (N_{\\rm H_2}/N_{\\rm HI}) \\sim 0.2$. The radio structure of 1504+377 is consistent with the outflow arising due to a jet-cloud interaction, followed by rapid cooling of the cloud material. The observed ratio of HCO$^+$ to OH column densities is $\\sim 20$ times higher than typical values in Galactic and high-$z$ absorbers. This could arise due to small-scale ...

  4. Exploration on Working Mode of Environmental Monitoring One- Stop Service Window%环境监测一站式窗口服务工作模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成国兴; 吴旻妍

    2012-01-01

    针对目前环保行业要求狠抓作风效能,提高办事效率,全心全意服务群众的现状,以苏州市环境监测中心站为例,从环境监测业务咨询、网络化业务流程管理、监测报告分类统计细化以及多种形式的群众满意度回访调查等方面探讨环境监测行业一站式窗口服务工作模式。从实际工作内容出发介绍环境监测行业一站式窗口服务方便客户实际需求、始终坚持首问负责制、简化办事流程、间接辅助质量管理的特点,充分发挥服务窗口的示范岗引导作用,为创建环境监测的优质品牌保驾护航。%Taking Suzhou Environmental Monitoring Center Station as an example, this study explored the working mode of one - stop service window in environmental protection industry in terms of environmental monitoring service consultation, network business process management, monitoring reports statistics classification and various forms of satisfaction survey, according to the present situation of promoting environmental protection efficiency, improving work efficiency and advancing devoted service for the public. The one - stop service window can satisfy the actual needs of customers, adhering to the first - asking duty system with simplified process and indirectly aided quality management. It gives full play to the guiding role of the model, and it was created for the high quality brand of environmental monitoring.

  5. Bioforensics: Characterization of biological weapons agents by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Ghosal, S; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-02-26

    The anthrax attacks of Fall 2001 highlight the need to develop forensic methods based on multiple identifiers to determine the origin of biological weapons agents. Genetic typing methods (i.e., DNA and RNA-based) provide one attribution technology, but genetic information alone is not usually sufficient to determine the provenance of the material. Non-genetic identifiers, including elemental and isotopic signatures, provide complementary information that can be used to identify the means, geographic location and date of production. Under LDRD funding, we have successfully developed the techniques necessary to perform bioforensic characterization with the NanoSIMS at the individual spore level. We have developed methods for elemental and isotopic characterization at the single spore scale. We have developed methods for analyzing spore sections to map elemental abundance within spores. We have developed rapid focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning techniques for spores to preserve elemental and structural integrity. And we have developed a high-resolution depth profiling method to characterize the elemental distribution in individual spores without sectioning. We used these newly developed methods to study the controls on elemental abundances in spores, characterize the elemental distribution of in spores, and to study elemental uptake by spores. Our work under this LDRD project attracted FBI and DHS funding for applied purposes.

  6. TOF SIMS Study on PAHs in Individual Particle from a Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁汉东; 于春海; 周强; 李艳芳

    2001-01-01

    The individual particles collected from a power station were analyzed by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS). The result indicates the presence of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) as well as the oxygenated one. They might be derived from the incomplete combustion of coals. SIMS has proved to be a rapid method for the qualitative analysis of PAHs and OPAHs absorbed on the aerosol particles. New perspectives for better understanding the SIMS spectra obtained from complex mixture such as environmental samples have been opened.

  7. Research on SWRO remote monitoring system based on B/S-mode%基于B/S模式反渗透海水淡化远程监测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兵; 姜周曙; 王剑; 陈震南

    2014-01-01

    针对日产10万吨级大型反渗透海水淡化工程,为解决海水淡化流程远程监测系统中实时性弱、可靠性差、操作复杂且资源不能有效共享等问题,研制开发了一套基于B/S技术的远程监测系统。该系统采用WCF通信模式实现本地监测系统与远程监测系统之间通信,同时使用Ajax和jQuery等网络前端新技术,实现了页面的局部刷新。用户可以通过浏览器终端远程访问监控中心服务器,对海水淡化进行实时数据监测,历史数据查询等操作。实际应用表明,系统运行可靠、稳定,能够有效地加强对海水淡化生产过程的实时监管。该系统具有较强的可移植性,可广泛应用子工业自动化、交通运输等各个行业,具有一定的实用价值。%To solve the problems of weak real⁃time performance,poor reliability,complex operation and low efficiency re⁃source sharing in the remote monitoring of the large⁃scale SWRO system whose daily production is 10 000 t,a remote monitoring system based on B/S technology was developed. WCF communication mode is used in this system to realize the communication between local and remote monitoring systems and the network leading technologies such as Ajax and jQuery are adopted to achieve the partial refresh in a page. The users can access the monitoring center server remotely,monitor the real⁃time data of the SWRO system and query the history data via browser terminal. Practical application shows that the system works reliable and stable,and can make the real⁃time monitoring of the SWRO process more efficient. This system has an excellent portability and can be widely applied to the industrial automation,transportation industry and so on. It is of high practical value.

  8. 基于经验模态分解与神经网络的在线状态监测%On-line Condition Monitoring Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢锋云

    2013-01-01

    在机械加工过程,为了提高加工稳定性和精度,在线状态监测具有十分重要的作用。基于经验模态分解与神经网络模型,提出了一个在线状态监测方法。该方法将EMD分解的本征模态函数均方根作为机械加工特征量。为识别实时加工状态,以加工特征为神经网络的目标输入,建立起将IMF作为特征参数及把3种加工状态作为输出的3层后向神经网络模型。识别的结果显示,提出的方法能有效地识别加工状态。%On-line condition monitoring in machining processes plays a significant role to improve the machining stability and precision.In this paper,an approach based on empirical mode de-composition (EMD)and neural network for on-line condition monitoring is proposed.The root mean square (RMS)of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs)by EMD is regarded as machining pro-cessing feature.The three layers Back-propagation (BP)neural network model taking the ma-chining feature as target input of neural network,the IMFs as characteristic parameter,and the 3 types of processing states as output are established to identify the processing state.The result shows that the proposed method can effectively identify the state of of process.

  9. SIM2PeD– Intelligent monitoring system for prevention of diabetic foot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... 2Engineering and Biomaterials Science Lab– BioEngLab®, .... (yes) and negative responses (no) to the days of the week - being 1 .... Bi variant distribution of data via histogram with matrix elements to a grid of 10 for 10 ...

  10. The 222 Rn Volume Radioactivity Response of AlphaGUARD Radon Monitor in Active/passive Mode%AlphaGUARD 在主/被动模式下对222 Rn体积活度的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆小军; 何林锋; 徐一鹤; 曹振; 孙训; 唐方东

    2014-01-01

    AlphaGUARD radon monitor is the most stable and accurate radon detector at present , widely used as radon measurement standard delivery device at home and abroad .This paper introduced the AlphaGUARD ra-don volume activity response from low to high volume of radio -activity based on the actual applications , and made a comparative analysis of AlphaGUARD measuring radon activity in two modes .the results showed that:Firstly, the volume activity response of AlphaGUARD at active mode is smaller than the response at passive mode ;secondly , AlphaGUARD volume activity response doesn't changes with flow rate of sampling pump obvi-ously;thirdly, the222 Rn measurement repeatability decreases with the increase of 222 Rn volume activity, but not varied with the sampling flow rate .%AlphaGUARD是目前技术性能最优的测氡仪之一,常用作氡测量传递标准。文章介绍了AlphaGUARD主动与被动测量模式的原理,对AlphaGUARD在主动和被动两种工作模式下和不同采样流速下的氡体积活度响应作了分析对比,实验结果表明:主动模式下AlphaGUARD体积活度响应小于在被动模式下,采样流速对AlphaGUARD的体积活度响应无明显影响;AlphaGUARD对222 Rn体积活度的测量重复性随222 Rn体积活度的增大而减小,但是尚得不到其重复性随采样流量的变化规律。

  11. MO-DE-210-04: Repositioning and Monitoring of Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy with a New 4D Ultrasound Intra-Modality IGRT Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargier-Voiron, M; Sarrut, D [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Universite 1, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Guillet, L; Pommier, P [Centre Leon Berard, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Biston, M [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Universite 1, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Centre Leon Berard, Lyon Cedex 08 (France)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We report our clinical experience using a non-invasive transperineal (TP) ultrasound (US) probe dedicated to pre-positioning and monitoring of prostate cancer patients. The accuracy of pre-treatment positioning was compared to CBCT for prostate and post-prostatectomy patients. Intrafraction motions were recorded for both localizations. The dosimetric impact of these displacements was finally investigated on prostate patients. Methods: Differences between CBCT/CT and TP-US/TP-US registrations were analyzed on 427 and 453 sessions for 13 prostate and 14 post-prostatectomy patients, respectively. Ten prostate patients’ dosimetries were retrospectively planned using 2 different protocols: 80Gy in 40 fractions and 36.25Gy in 5 fractions with a 5mm CTV- to- PTV margin. The delivery time was measured in order to analyze ranges of intrafraction motions related to each protocol. Mean prostate displacements were calculated for each patient and applied to the treatment isocenter coordinates to evaluate the dosimetric impact of these motions. Results: CBCT and TP-US shifts agreements at ±5mm were 76.6%, 95.1%, 96.3% and 90.3%, 85.0%, 97.6% in anterior- posterior, superior- inferior and left-right directions, for prostate and post-prostatectomy patients, respectively. Intrafraction motions were analyzed considering delivery times of 140 and 290s with an additional time of 120s for patient installation for doses of 2 and 7.25Gy, respectively. Intrafraction motions were patient-dependent and were larger as the irradiation time increased. Larger displacements were observed for prostate compared to post-prostatectomy localizations. Shifts above 3mm were observed on 17.6% and 4.5% of the 2Gy sessions against 30.6% and 7.3% of the 7.25Gy sessions in the anterior-posterior direction for prostate and post-prostatectomy localizations, respectively. Preliminary dosimetric results showed that intrafraction motions mainly impact the PTV coverage. Conclusion: 4D TP-US modality

  12. Simultaneous monitoring of the radial modes of the ion motion and their manipulation in Penning traps by FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Breitenfeldt, M; Herlert, A; Marxa, G; Schweikhard, L

    2007-01-01

    It is demonstrated how FT-ICR MS can be used to monitor both the coherent magnetron motion and the cyclotron motion of ions stored in a Penning trap. By use of the ICR signal intensity at the magnetron frequency, ν−, and the reduced cyclotron frequency, ν+, the manipulation of the ion motion by dipolar, quadrupolar, and octupolar excitation has been followed. In particular, the conversion between the magnetron and the cyclotron motion by quadrupolar and octupolar excitation at the corresponding resonance frequencies νc = ν+ + ν− and 2νc, respectively, has been observed by detection of the magnetron and the cyclotron signal. While the ion motion under the influence of a quadrupolar excitation has already been studied extensively, the octupolar excitation has been introduced only recently. As compared to other techniques, such as the time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance detection method, FT-ICR MS allows to simultaneously investigate the influence of an excitation on the cyclotron und the magnetron ...

  13. High-sensitivity capillary electrophoresis method for monitoring purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase reactions by a reversed electrode polarity switching mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Jamshed; Müller, Christa E

    2011-07-22

    A simple, efficient, and highly sensitive in-line CE method was developed for the characterization and for inhibition studies of the nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) present in membrane preparations of human 1539 melanoma cells. After filling the running buffer (50 mM borate buffer, 100 mM SDS, pH 9.10) into a fused-silica capillary (50 cm effective length × 75 μm), a large sample volume was loaded by hydrodynamic injection (5 psi, 36 s), followed by the removal of the large plug of sample matrix from the capillary using polarity switching (-20 kV). The current was monitored and the polarity was reversed when 95% of the current had been recovered. The separation of the neutral analytes (nucleosides and nucleobases) was performed by applying a voltage of 15 kV. An about 10-fold improvement of sensitivity for the five investigated analytes (adenosine, inosine, adenine, hypoxanthine, xanthine) was achieved by large-volume stacking with polarity switching when compared with CE without stacking. For inosine and adenine detection limits as low as 60 nM were achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest sensitivity for nucleoside and nucleobase analysis using CE with UV detection reported so far. The Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) for PNP and ADA and the inhibition constants (K(i)) for standard inhibitors determined with the new method were consistent with literature data.

  14. G-SIMS-FPM: Molecular structure at surfaces—a combined positive and negative secondary ion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, I. S.; Green, F. M.; Seah, M. P.

    2006-07-01

    G-SIMS is an easy to use method that considerably simplifies complex static SIMS spectra. The G-SIMS peaks relate directly to the parent molecular structure and so provide a library independent method for direct interpretation and identification. For larger molecules (>100 u) the mass alone may be insufficient to identify the molecule unambiguously. A development of G-SIMS, G-SIMS-fragmentation pathway mapping (FPM), solves this problem. G-SIMS-FPM allows the molecular structure to be re-assembled by following fragmentation pathways as the G-SIMS surface plasma temperature is varied. In this study, we develop the inclusion of negative secondary ion fragmentation data to provide a more complete analysis. This approach is exampled with data for complex molecules of Irganox 1010 and folic acid.

  15. Investigation of the drying process of linseed oil using FTIR and ToF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grehk, T. M.; Berger, R.; Bexell, U.

    2008-03-01

    The drying process of linseed oil, oxidized at 80 oC, has been investigated with rheology measurements, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The drying process can be divided into three main steps: initiation, propagation and termination. ToF-SIMS spectra show that the oxidation is initiated at the linolenic (three double bonds) and linoleic fatty acids (two double bonds). ToF-SIMS spectra reveal peaks that can be assigned to ketones, alcohols and hydroperoxides. In this article it is shown that FTIR in combination with ToF-SIMS are well suited tools for investigations of various fatty acid components and reaction products of linseed oil.

  16. Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy with distorted excitations using a filtered blind-SIM algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuk, R; Giovannini, H; Jost, A; Mudry, E; Girard, J; Mangeat, T; Sandeau, N; Heintzmann, R; Wicker, K; Belkebir, K; Sentenac, A

    2013-11-15

    Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is a powerful technique for obtaining super-resolved fluorescence maps of samples, but it is very sensitive to aberrations or misalignments affecting the excitation patterns. Here, we present a reconstruction algorithm that is able to process SIM data even if the illuminations are strongly distorted. The approach is an extension of the recent blind-SIM technique, which reconstructs simultaneously the sample and the excitation patterns without a priori information on the latter. Our algorithm was checked on synthetic and experimental data using distorted and nondistorted illuminations. The reconstructions were similar to that obtained by up-to-date SIM methods when the illuminations were periodic and remained artifact-free when the illuminations were strongly distorted.

  17. SimCADO - an instrument data simulator package for MICADO at the E-ELT

    CERN Document Server

    Leschinski, Kieran; Köhler, Rainer; Mach, Michael; Zeilinger, Werner; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Alves, Joao; Kausch, Wolfgang; Przybilla, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    MICADO will be the first-light wide-field imager for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) and will provide difiraction limited imaging (7mas at 1.2mm) over a ~53 arcsecond field of view. In order to support various consortium activities we have developed a first version of SimCADO: an instrument simulator for MICADO. SimCADO uses the results of the detailed simulation efforts conducted for each of the separate consortium-internal work packages in order to generate a model of the optical path from source to detector readout. SimCADO is thus a tool to provide scientific context to both the science and instrument development teams who are ultimately responsible for the final design and future capabilities of the MICADO instrument. Here we present an overview of the inner workings of SimCADO and outline our plan for its further development.

  18. Rapid identification of phthalates in blood bags and food packaging using ToF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching Yuan; Ghule, Anil Vithal; Chen, Wen Yin; Wang, Chiung Chi; Chiang, Yi Shin; Ling, Yong Chien

    2004-06-01

    ToF-SIMS with Ga + ion as primary source is used to analyze plasticizers like bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from the inner surface of the blood bags and their migration into the blood. Food packing materials were also analyzed for the presence of DEHP. The simplicity of using ToF-SIMS with high mass resolution as an aid in the identification and analysis are discussed. The ToF-SIMS results, the fragmentation pattern, and the ratio of ions were comparable to those obtained from traditional GC-MS analysis. This indicates that ToF-SIMS could be a promising technique for direct detection of DEHP (and phthalates in general) in blood bags and food packaging polymeric materials.

  19. Synergistic Antimycobacterial Actions of Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f Sims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Labuschagné

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Euclea natalensis A.DC., Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f Sims, and Pelargonium sidoides DC. are South African plants traditionally used to treat tuberculosis. Extracts from these plants were used in combination with isoniazid (INH to investigate the possibility of synergy with respect to antimycobacterial activity. The ethanol extract of K. vesicatoria was subjected to fractionation to identify the active compounds. The activity of the Knowltonia extract remained superior to the fractions with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 625.0 μg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis and an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL against M. tuberculosis. The K. vesicatoria extract was tested against two different drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, which resulted in an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL on both strains. The combination of K. vesicatoria with INH exhibited the best synergistic antimycobacterial activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.25 (a combined concentration of 6.28 μg/mL. A fifty percent inhibitory concentration of this combination against U937 cells was 121.0 μg/mL. Two compounds, stigmasta-5,23-dien-3-ol (1 and 5-(hydroxymethylfuran-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from K. vesicatoria as the first report of isolation for both compounds from this plant and the first report of antimycobacterial activity. Compound (1 was active against drug-sensitive M. tuberculosis with an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL.

  20. Phase 1 Validation Testing and Simulation for the WEC-Sim Open Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehl, K.; Michelen, C.; Gunawan, B.; Bosma, B.; Simmons, A.; Lomonaco, P.

    2015-12-01

    WEC-Sim is an open source code to model wave energy converters performance in operational waves, developed by Sandia and NREL and funded by the US DOE. The code is a time-domain modeling tool developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using the multibody dynamics solver SimMechanics, and solves the WEC's governing equations of motion using the Cummins time-domain impulse response formulation in 6 degrees of freedom. The WEC-Sim code has undergone verification through code-to-code comparisons; however validation of the code has been limited to publicly available experimental data sets. While these data sets provide preliminary code validation, the experimental tests were not explicitly designed for code validation, and as a result are limited in their ability to validate the full functionality of the WEC-Sim code. Therefore, dedicated physical model tests for WEC-Sim validation have been performed. This presentation provides an overview of the WEC-Sim validation experimental wave tank tests performed at the Oregon State University's Directional Wave Basin at Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory. Phase 1 of experimental testing was focused on device characterization and completed in Fall 2015. Phase 2 is focused on WEC performance and scheduled for Winter 2015/2016. These experimental tests were designed explicitly to validate the performance of WEC-Sim code, and its new feature additions. Upon completion, the WEC-Sim validation data set will be made publicly available to the wave energy community. For the physical model test, a controllable model of a floating wave energy converter has been designed and constructed. The instrumentation includes state-of-the-art devices to measure pressure fields, motions in 6 DOF, multi-axial load cells, torque transducers, position transducers, and encoders. The model also incorporates a fully programmable Power-Take-Off system which can be used to generate or absorb wave energy. Numerical simulations of the experiments using WEC-Sim will be

  1. TOF-SIMS analysis: Application to ultra-thin AWA film on magnetic head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    F-containing polymer was coated on the magnetic head of hard disc drive (HDD) as theultra-thin (<20(?)) film of anti-wetting agent (AWA). A static TOF-SIMS method has been applied tomeasuring the thickness and coating uniformity of the ultra-thin film. TOF- SIMS is also used tostudy the micro-tribology and transfer of lubricant between the magnetic head and media interface.

  2. The scaler mode in the Pierre Auger Observatory to study heliospheric modulation of cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dasso, S

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the solar activity on the heliosphere has a strong influence on the modulation of the flux of low energy galactic cosmic rays arriving at Earth. Different instruments, such as neutron monitors or muon detectors, have been recording the variability of the cosmic ray flux at ground level for several decades. Although the Pierre Auger Observatory was designed to observe cosmic rays at the highest energies, it also records the count rates of low energy secondary particles (the scaler mode) for the self-calibration of its surface detector array. From observations using the scaler mode at the Pierre Auger Observatory, modulation of galactic cosmic rays due to solar transient activity has been observed (e.g., Forbush decreases). Due to the high total count rate coming from the combined area of its detectors, the Pierre Auger Observatory (its detectors have a total area greater than $16\\,000$\\,m$^2$) detects a flux of secondary particles of the order of $\\sim 10^8$\\,counts per minute. Time variations of...

  3. SimFlu: a simulation tool for predicting the variation pattern of influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Insung; Kim, Ha-Yeon; Jung, Sunghoon; Lee, Ji-Hae; Son, Hyeon Seok

    2014-09-01

    Since the first pandemic outbreak of avian influenza A virus (H5N1 subtype) in 1997, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) has provided a large number of influenza virus sequences with well-organized annotations. Using the time-series sequences of influenza A viruses, we developed a simulation tool for influenza virus, named SimFlu, to predict possible future variants of influenza viruses. SimFlu can create variants from a seed nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus using the codon variation parameters included in the SimFlu package. The SimFlu library provides pre-calculated codon variation parameters for the H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 subtypes of influenza A virus isolated from 2000 to 2011, allowing the users to simulate their own nucleotide sequences by selecting their preferred parameter options. SimFlu supports three operating systems - Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. SimFlu is publicly available at http://lcbb.snu.ac.kr/simflu. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Mass assembly and morphological transformations since $z\\sim3$ from CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Huertas-Company, M; Pérez-González, P G; Ashby, M L N; Barro, G; Conselice, C; Daddi, E; Dekel, A; Dimauro, P; Faber, S M; Grogin, N A; Kartaltepe, J S; Kocevski, D D; Koekemoer, A M; Koo, D C; Mei, S; Shankar, F

    2016-01-01

    [abridged] We quantify the evolution of the stellar mass functions of star-forming and quiescent galaxies as a function of morphology from $z\\sim 3$ to the present. Our sample consists of ~50,000 galaxies in the CANDELS fields ($\\sim880$ $arcmin^2$), which we divide into four main morphological types, i.e. pure bulge dominated systems, pure spiral disk dominated, intermediate 2-component bulge+disk systems and irregular disturbed galaxies. Our main results are: Star-formation: At $z\\sim 2$, 80\\% of the stellar mass density of star-forming galaxies is in irregular systems. However, by $z\\sim 0.5$, irregular objects only dominate at stellar masses below $10^9M\\odot$. A majority of the star-forming irregulars present at $z\\sim 2$ undergo a gradual transformation from disturbed to normal spiral disk morphologies by $z\\sim 1$ without significant interruption to their star-formation. Rejuvenation after a quenching event does not seem to be common except perhaps for the most massive objects. Quenching: We confirm th...

  5. The medical ethics of Dr J Marion Sims: a fresh look at the historical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, L L

    2006-06-01

    Vesicovaginal fistula was a catastrophic complication of childbirth among 19th century American women. The first consistently successful operation for this condition was developed by Dr J Marion Sims, an Alabama surgeon who carried out a series of experimental operations on black slave women between 1845 and 1849. Numerous modern authors have attacked Sims's medical ethics, arguing that he manipulated the institution of slavery to perform ethically unacceptable human experiments on powerless, unconsenting women. This article reviews these allegations using primary historical source material and concludes that the charges that have been made against Sims are largely without merit. Sims's modern critics have discounted the enormous suffering experienced by fistula victims, have ignored the controversies that surrounded the introduction of anaesthesia into surgical practice in the middle of the 19th century, and have consistently misrepresented the historical record in their attacks on Sims. Although enslaved African American women certainly represented a "vulnerable population" in the 19th century American South, the evidence suggests that Sims's original patients were willing participants in his surgical attempts to cure their affliction-a condition for which no other viable therapy existed at that time.

  6. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS regulates trichome branching by genetically interacting with SIM in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-li SUN; Zhong-jing ZHOU; Li-jun AN; Yan AN; Yong-qin ZHAO; Xiao-fang MENG; Clare STEELE-KING

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis trichomes are large branched single cells that protrude from the epidermis.The first morphological indication of trichome development is an increase in nuclear content resulting from an initial cycle of endoreduplication.Our previous study has shown that the C2H2 zinc finger protein GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for trichome initiation in the inflorescence organ and for trichome branching in response to gibberellic acid signaling,although GIS gene does not play a direct role in regulating trichome cell division.Here,we describe a novel role of GIS,controlling trichome cell division indirectly by interacting genetically with a key endoreduplication regulator SIAMESE (SIM).Our molecular and genetic studies have shown that GIS might indireclty control cell division and trichome branching by acting downstream of SIM.A loss of function mutation of SIM signficantly reduced the expression of GIS.Futhermore,the overexpression of GIS rescued the trichome cluster cell phenotypes of sim mutant.The gain or loss of function of GIS had no significant effect on the expression of SIM.These results suggest that GIS may play an indirect role in regulating trichome cell division by genetically interacting with SIM.

  7. The sim operon facilitates the transport and metabolism of sucrose isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John; Jakubovics, Nicholas; Abraham, Bindu; Hess, Sonja; Pikis, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels of two polypeptides with M(r)s of approximately 50,000 and approximately 17,500. Neither protein was present in cells grown on glucose, maltose or sucrose. Proteomic, enzymatic, and Western blot analyses identified the approximately 50-kDa protein as an NAD(+)- and metal ion-dependent phospho-alpha-glucosidase. The oligomeric enzyme was purified, and a catalytic mechanism is proposed. The smaller polypeptide represented an EIIA component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system. Phospho-alpha-glucosidase and EIIA are encoded by genes at the LSEI_0369 (simA) and LSEI_0374 (simF) loci, respectively, in a block of seven genes comprising the sucrose isomer metabolism (sim) operon. Northern blot analyses provided evidence that three mRNA transcripts were up-regulated during logarithmic growth of L. casei ATCC 334 on sucrose isomers. Internal simA and simF gene probes hybridized to approximately 1.5- and approximately 1.3-kb transcripts, respectively. A 6.8-kb mRNA transcript was detected by both probes, which was indicative of cotranscription of the entire sim operon.

  8. 基于SIM900A的全自动电饭煲系统的设计与实现%Research on and Realization of Automatic Rice Cooker System Based on SIM900 A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱超; 高祥

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the inconvenient remote control of ordinary rice cookers, a design scheme of automatic rice cooker based on SIM900A is proposed with improved mechanical structure.Remote communication is realized between the STM32F103 microcontroller and the user mobile phone by short messages and GPRS technology. STM32F103 controls the rice cooker according to user instructions to realize fully automated process from rice taking to cooking, real-time detection of the working states and intelligent alarm.The test results show that the system runs stably and realizes the remote control of rice cooker with a fast, smart, and timely cooking mode.%针对普通电饭煲不便远程控制问题,提出了一种基于SIM900A的全自动电饭煲设计方案。对普通电饭煲进行了机械机构的优化改进,采用短息和GPRS技术实现STM32F103单片机与用户手机远程通信, STM32F103单片机根据用户指令控制电饭煲从取米到煮饭的全自动化过程,实时检测电饭煲的工作状态并智能报警。测试结果表明,本系统运行稳定,实现了电饭煲的远程控制,形成了快捷、智能、及时的煮饭模式。

  9. Chemical abrasion-SIMS (CA-SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from the late Eocene Caetano caldera, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; Coble, Matthew A.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Colgan, Joseph P.; John, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Zircon geochronology is a critical tool for establishing geologic ages and time scales of processes in the Earth's crust. However, for zircons compromised by open system behavior, achieving robust dates can be difficult. Chemical abrasion (CA) is a routine step prior to thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) dating of zircon to remove radiation-damaged parts of grains that may have experienced open system behavior and loss of radiogenic Pb. While this technique has been shown to improve the accuracy and precision of TIMS dating, its application to high-spatial resolution dating methods, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is relatively uncommon. In our efforts to U-Pb date zircons from the late Eocene Caetano caldera by SIMS (SHRIMP-RG: sensitive high resolution ion microprobe, reverse geometry), some grains yielded anomalously young U-Pb ages that implicated Pb-loss and motivated us to investigate with a comparative CA and non-CA dating study. We present CA and non-CA 206Pb/238U ages and trace elements determined by SHRIMP-RG for zircons from three Caetano samples (Caetano Tuff, Redrock Canyon porphyry, and a silicic ring-fracture intrusion) and for R33 and TEMORA-2 reference zircons. We find that non-CA Caetano zircons have weighted mean or bimodal U-Pb ages that are 2–4% younger than CA zircons for the same samples. CA Caetano zircons have mean U-Pb ages that are 0.4–0.6 Myr older than the 40Ar/39Ar sanidine eruption age (34.00 ± 0.03 Ma; error-weighted mean, 2σ), whereas non-CA zircons have ages that are 0.7–1.3 Myr younger. U-Pb ages do not correlate with U (~ 100–800 ppm), Th (~ 50–300 ppm) or any other measured zircon trace elements (Y, Hf, REE), and CA and non-CA Caetano zircons define identical trace element ranges. No statistically significant difference in U-Pb age is observed for CA versus non-CA R33 or TEMORA-2 zircons. Optical profiler measurements of ion microprobe pits demonstrate consistent depths of ~ 1.6

  10. Controlling and Monitoring of Electric Feeders Using GSM Network Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED Afaz Uddin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of computer interfaced controlling devices is increasingly rapidly in modern age. Analogous wired systems are substituted by computer interfaced system alternatives in growingnumber of industries. Such control systems had been developed with complex and critical high-end stuffs. In this paper, we developed an automated system that controls the switching of electric feeder power supply featuring the existing GSM technology. The target is tooperate the device according to a preset sequence of on-off mode for three feeders after a particular time interval and to monitor the running condition. The device sends short message updating the status of every action. It also warns the consumers about load shedding using GSM module via sending message. Controlling the gate pulse of a MOSFET that operates the relay, it executes on-off operation of the circuit breaker of the respective feeders. Since GSM technology is used worldwide for communication, third world countries that are still struggling to meet the power demand can use this technology to operate and monitor the condition of power distribution. To operate the GSM device, AT command of GSM location operation for SIM900 is used. This paper targets to improve the power distribution system in developing countries like India, Bangladesh, Nepal where powercrisis and load shedding is quite a common phenomenon.

  11. Functioning condition monitoring of industrial equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, N. S.; Petrovan, A.; Ungureanu, M.; Alexandrescu, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper analyses the theoretical aspects related to monitoring industrial equipment. Are treated issues that concern the choosing of industrial equipment to be monitored, the parameters to be monitored, monitoring mode (local or remote) and the mode of collection and transmission of data.

  12. New highlights of phytolith structure and occluded carbon location: 3-D X-ray microscopy and NanoSIMS results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Delhaye, T.; Borshneck, D.; Mazur, J. C.; Reyerson, P.; Santos, G. M.

    2015-02-01

    Phytoliths contain occluded organic compounds called phytC. Recently, phytC content, nature, origin, paleoenvironmental meaning and impact in the global C cycle have been the subject of increasing debate. Inconsistencies were fed by the scarcity of in situ characterizations of phytC in phytoliths. Here we reconstructed at high spatial resolution the 3-D structure of harvested grass short cell (GSC) phytoliths using 3-D X-ray microscopy. While this technique has been widely used for 3-D reconstruction of biological systems it has never been applied in high-resolution mode to silica particles. Simultaneously, we investigated the location of phytC using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Our data evidenced that the silica structure contains micrometric internal cavities. These internal cavities were sometimes observed isolated from the outside. Their opening may be an original feature or may result from a beginning of dissolution of silica during the chemical extraction procedure, mimicking the progressive dissolution process that can happen in natural environments. The phytC that may originally occupy the cavities is thus susceptible to rapid oxidation. It was not detected by the NanoSIMS technique. However, another pool of phytC, continuously distributed in and protected by the silica structure, was observed. Its N/C ratio (0.27) is in agreement with the presence of amino acids. These findings constitute a basis to further characterize the origin, occlusion process, nature and accessibility of phytC, as a prerequisite for assessing its significance in the global C cycle.

  13. Joining NanoSIMS and STXM/NEXAFS to visualize soil biotic and abiotic processes at the nano-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Bougoure, J.; Weber, P. K.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the fate and residence time of organic matter in soils is important to natural resource management, including strategies to mitigate climate change. The time scales of carbon cycling, the relative importance of biotic and abiotic processes in organic matter stabilization in soils, and spatial factors in these processes are all critical characteristics that currently cannot be addressed by any single analytical approach. Here we demonstrate how many of these concerns can be approached by a combination of high-resolution secondary ion mass spectroscopy (NanoSIMS) and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) coupled with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). When used in concert, these analytical techniques have the capacity to yield quantitative, in situ information on the source, molecular class, and elemental quantity of organic matter. We: (i) discuss the rationale for the joined application of the two procedures, (ii) provide examples for the their combined application, (iii) point out some of the methodological caveats that warrant consideration, and (iv) provide some directions for future developmental efforts. To illustrate the synergies of this combined approach, we examined organic-mineral associations in samples from both an artificial well-defined mixture and an unconstrained natural soil decomposition experiment. Case 1 demonstrates how the joined techniques help to determine modes of interaction between 13C- and 15N-labeled microorganisms and a defined mineral phase;, in case 2 we examine the incorporation of a 15N label into mineral organic associations 12 years after application to a forest soil. This unique analytical combination, the simultaneous application of STXM/NEXAFS and NanoSIMS imaging, has the potential to contribute a mechanistic understanding of sorption, occlusion, and decomposition processes that operate at fine spatial scales in natural environments.

  14. New highlights on phytolith structure and occluded carbon location: 3-D X-ray microscopy and NanoSIMS results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, A.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Delhaye, T.; Borshneck, D.; Mazur, J. C.; Reyerson, P.; Santos, G. M.

    2014-10-01

    Phytoliths contain occluded organic compounds called phytC. Recently, phytC content, nature, origin, paleoenvironmental meaning and impact in the global C cycle has been the subject of increasing debate. Inconsistencies were fed by the scarcity of in-situ characterization of phytC in phytoliths. Here we reconstructed at high spatial resolution the 3-dimensional (3-D) structure of harvested grass short cell (GSC) phytoliths using 3-D X-ray microscopy. While this technic has been widely used for 3-D reconstruction of biological systems it has never been applied in high resolution mode to silica particles. Simultaneously, we investigated the location of phytC using Nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Our data evidenced that the silica structure contains micrometric internal cavities. These internal cavities were sometimes observed isolated from the outside. Their opening may be an original feature or may result from a beginning of dissolution of silica during the chemical extraction procedure, mimicking the progressive dissolution process that can happen in natural environments. The phytC that may originally occupy the cavities is thus susceptible to rapid oxidation. It was not detected by the nanoSIMS technique. To the contrary another pool of phytC, continuously distributed in and protected by the silica structure was evidenced. Its N/C ratio (0.27) is in agreement with the presence of amino acids. These findings allowed to discuss discrepancies in phytC quantification, evaluate phytC accessibility to oxidation, and reassess the paleo-environmental meaning of opaque features observed in phytoliths by natural light (NL) microcopy. They also should help to reappraise the significance of phytC in the global C cycle.

  15. [Cerebral paragonimiasis and Bo Sung Sim's hemispherectomy in Korea in 1950s-1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Miyagawa, Takuya; Hong, Jeonghwa; Kim, Ockjoo

    2011-06-30

    This paper deals with cerebral paragonimiasis and cerebral hemispherectomy conducted as a treatment of cerebral paragonimiasis by Bo Sung Sim in Korea in 1950s-1960s. He demonstrated that cerebral hemispherectomy could be used for unilateral diffuse cerebral paragonimiasis. Sim learned cerebral hemispherectomy from Dr. L. A. French. at the University of Minnesota from 1955 to 1957 in America. The authors argues that Bo Sung Sim's introduction of cerebral hemispherectomy to Korea was not a simple application of an advanced medical technology, but a complicated and active process in that Sim used the technique to intervene intractable complications from cerebral paragonimiasis such as generalized convulsions, spastic hemiplegia and mental deterioration. Bo Sung Sim, one of the neurosurgeons of the first generation in Korea, was trained in neurology, neuropathology, neuroradiology and animal experiments as well as in neurosurgery at the University of Minnesota. After returning to Korea, Sim faced parasitic diseases, one of the most serious public health problems at that time, which were far different from what he learned in America. As a neurosurgeon, Sim tackled with parasitic diseases of the central nervous system with various diagnostics and therapeutics. In 1950s, more than one million populations suffered from pulmonary paragonimiasis acquired by eating raw crabs or by feeding juice of crushed crayfish for the treatment of measles in Korea. About 26.6 percent of people with paragonimiasis had cerebral paragonimiasis. Before bithionol therapy was introduced in 1962, neurosurgery was the only available treatment to control increased intracranial pressures, intractable epilepsy, paralysis and mental deterioration. Between 1958 to 1962, Bo Sung Sim operated on 24 patients of cerebral paragonimiasis. In two of them, he performed cerebral hemispherectomy to control intractable convulsions when he found diffuse cerebral paragonimiasis and cerebral atrophy at the

  16. Multivariate analysis of TOF-SIMS spectra from self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel Jay

    Recently the concept of engineered biomaterial surfaces has started a revolution in the biomaterials community. These biomaterial surfaces are designed using knowledge from cell biology to produce a healing response that will integrate the biomaterials into the body. These surfaces will require specific, complex chemistries that will elicit the desired responses. Such complex surfaces will require an equally detailed surface characterization method. Due to its molecular specificity and high sensitivity, TOF-SIMS appears to be an ideal method for this challenge. Nevertheless TOF-SIMS spectra are complex and difficult to interpret. This complexity results from the shear number of peaks within the spectra, the inter-related nature of the peaks, and lack of fundamental understanding of TOF-SIMS fragmentation mechanisms. This work approaches addressing these problems through use of multivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis enables detailed spectral interpretation and provides insight into fragmentation mechanisms by extracting the salient information from within the complex spectral data set. Multivariate spectral interpretation was explored using a series of self-assembled monolayers that varied in surface order, surface functionality, formation method, and chain length. A multivariate SAM ratio was developed that correlates with thermodynamic properties of the surface. This ratio is the first to demonstrate a direct relationship between TOF-SIMS data and surface thermodynamic parameters. A model for TOF-SIMS fragmentation of SAMs was created and explored using multivariate analysis of a thiol containing a hydroxyl end group. This model explains the emission of fragments from the surface over a time course experiment. This is the first use of multivariate analysis with TOF-SIMS data to provide mechanistic information about the TOF-SIMS process. This methodology provides a technique for studying TOF-SIMS fragmentation using actual data without the need for molecular

  17. SIM_EXPLORE: Software for Directed Exploration of Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Michael; Wang, Esther; Enke, Brian; Merline, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Physics-based numerical simulation codes are widely used in science and engineering to model complex systems that would be infeasible to study otherwise. While such codes may provide the highest- fidelity representation of system behavior, they are often so slow to run that insight into the system is limited. Trying to understand the effects of inputs on outputs by conducting an exhaustive grid-based sweep over the input parameter space is simply too time-consuming. An alternative approach called "directed exploration" has been developed to harvest information from numerical simulators more efficiently. The basic idea is to employ active learning and supervised machine learning to choose cleverly at each step which simulation trials to run next based on the results of previous trials. SIM_EXPLORE is a new computer program that uses directed exploration to explore efficiently complex systems represented by numerical simulations. The software sequentially identifies and runs simulation trials that it believes will be most informative given the results of previous trials. The results of new trials are incorporated into the software's model of the system behavior. The updated model is then used to pick the next round of new trials. This process, implemented as a closed-loop system wrapped around existing simulation code, provides a means to improve the speed and efficiency with which a set of simulations can yield scientifically useful results. The software focuses on the case in which the feedback from the simulation trials is binary-valued, i.e., the learner is only informed of the success or failure of the simulation trial to produce a desired output. The software offers a number of choices for the supervised learning algorithm (the method used to model the system behavior given the results so far) and a number of choices for the active learning strategy (the method used to choose which new simulation trials to run given the current behavior model). The software

  18. Cluster SIMS and the Temperature Dependence of Molecular Depth Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dan; Wucher, Andreas; Brenes, Daniel A; Lu, Caiyan; Winograd, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The quality of molecular depth profiles created by erosion of organic materials by cluster ion beams exhibits a strong dependence upon temperature. To elucidate the fundamental nature of this dependence, we employ the Irganox 3114/1010 organic delta layer reference material as a model system. This delta-layer system is interrogated using a 40 keV C60+ primary ion beam. Parameters associated with the depth profile such as depth resolution, uniformity of sputtering yield and topography are evaluated between 90 K and 300 K using a unique wedge-crater beveling strategy that allows these parameters to be determined as a function of erosion depth from atomic force microscope measurements. The results show that the erosion rate calibration performed using the known Δ-layer depth in connection with the fluence needed to reach the peak of the corresponding SIMS signal response is misleading. Moreover, we show that the degradation of depth resolution is linked to a decrease of the average erosion rate and the buildup of surface topography in a thermally activated manner. This underlying process starts to influence the depth profile above a threshold temperature between 210 and 250 K for the system studied here. Below that threshold, the process is inhibited and steady-state conditions are reached with constant erosion rate, depth resolution and molecular secondary ion signals from both the matrix and the Δ-layers. In particular, the results indicate that further reduction of the temperature below 90 K does not lead to further improvement of the depth profile. Above the threshold, the process becomes stronger at higher temperature, leading to an immediate decrease of the molecular secondary ion signals. This signal decay is most pronounced for the highest m/z ions but is less for the smaller m/z ions, indicating a shift toward small fragments by accumulation of chemical damage. The erosion rate decay and surface roughness buildup, on the other hand, exhibit a rather sudden

  19. Beating the numbers through strategic intervention materials (SIMs): Innovative science teaching for large classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboruto, Venus M.

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to find out the effectiveness of using Strategic Intervention Materials (SIMs) as an innovative teaching practice in managing large Grade Eight Science classes to raise the performance of the students in terms of science process skills development and mastery of science concepts. Utilizing experimental research design with two groups of participants, which were purposefully chosen, it was obtained that there existed a significant difference in the performance of the experimental and control groups based on actual class observation and written tests on science process skills with a p-value of 0.0360 in favor of the experimental class. Further, results of written pre-test and post-test on science concepts showed that the experimental group with the mean of 24.325 (SD =3.82) performed better than the control group with the mean of 20.58 (SD =4.94), with a registered p-value of 0.00039. Therefore, the use of SIMs significantly contributed to the mastery of science concepts and the development of science process skills. Based on the findings, the following recommendations are offered: 1. that grade eight science teachers should use or adopt the SIMs used in this study to improve their students' performance; 2. training-workshop on developing SIMs must be conducted to help teachers develop SIMs to be used in their classes; 3. school administrators must allocate funds for the development and reproduction of SIMs to be used by the students in their school; and 4. every division should have a repository of SIMs for easy access of the teachers in the entire division.

  20. A platform for dynamic simulation and control of movement based on OpenSim and MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Misagh; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A

    2012-05-11

    Numerical simulations play an important role in solving complex engineering problems and have the potential to revolutionize medical decision making and treatment strategies. In this paper, we combine the rapid model-based design, control systems and powerful numerical method strengths of MATLAB/Simulink with the simulation and human movement dynamics strengths of OpenSim by developing a new interface between the two software tools. OpenSim is integrated with Simulink using the MATLAB S-function mechanism, and the interface is demonstrated using both open-loop and closed-loop control systems. While the open-loop system uses MATLAB/Simulink to separately reproduce the OpenSim Forward Dynamics Tool, the closed-loop system adds the unique feature of feedback control to OpenSim, which is necessary for most human movement simulations. An arm model example was successfully used in both open-loop and closed-loop cases. For the open-loop case, the simulation reproduced results from the OpenSim Forward Dynamics Tool with root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.03° for the shoulder elevation angle and 0.06° for the elbow flexion angle. MATLAB's variable step-size integrator reduced the time required to generate the forward dynamic simulation from 7.1s (OpenSim) to 2.9s (MATLAB). For the closed-loop case, a proportional-integral-derivative controller was used to successfully balance a pole on model's hand despite random force disturbances on the pole. The new interface presented here not only integrates the OpenSim and MATLAB/Simulink software tools, but also will allow neuroscientists, physiologists, biomechanists, and physical therapists to adapt and generate new solutions as treatments for musculoskeletal conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo;

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained...

  2. 脉搏指示连续心排血量技术对压力与容量控制模式机械通气容量参数的影响%Influence of pulse indicator continuous cardiac output in monitoring on the volume parameters of different tidal volume under pressure control ventilation mode and volume-controlled ventilation mode in sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 高心晶; 高艳颖; 卫俊涛; 秦英智

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of pulse indicator continuous cardiac output(PiCCO)in monitoring tidal volume(V_T)under pressure control ventilation mode and volume-controlled ventilation mode in sheep.Methods After anesthesia and tracheotomy,5 sheep,which were apneic and receiving mechanical ventilation.Twenty minutes later,central venous pressure(CVP)and cardiac function were monitored with different selected V_T levels of 6,10,15,20 ml/kg under bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP)mode by changing the pressure of inspiration,or under the synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation(SIMV)mode with the same ventilation conditions.Results In both modes,the increase in V_T led to an decrease of cardiac index(CI)and intrathoracic blood volume index(ITBVI),reaching a statistically significant difference at 15 ml/kg[SIMV mode:CI(3.94±1.03)L·min~(-1)·m~(-2),ITBVI (707±105)ml/m2;BiPAP mode:CI(4.11±1.11)L·min-1±m-2,ITBVI(715±122)ml/m2]and 20 ml/kg[SIMV mode:CI(3.87±1.04)L·min~(-1)·m~(-2),ITBVI(705±116)ml/m2;BiPAP mode:CI (3.64±0.96)L·min~(-1)·m~(-2),ITBVI(694±114)ml/m2]compared with 6 ml/kg[SIMV mode:CI (4.96±1.58)L·min~(-1)·m~(-2),ITBVI(811±169)ml/m2;BiPAP mode:CI(5.67±1.96)L·min~(-1)·m~(-2),ITBVI(8234-182)ml/m~2,all P<0.05];an increase in systemic vascular resistance index(SVRI)and mean airway pressure(Pmean)at 15 ml/kg[SIMV mode:SVRI(237.64±6.2)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1),Pmean(14.0±3.2)cm H2O(1 cm H2O=0.098 kPa);BiPAP mode:SVRI(230.8±32.9)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1),Pmean(13.0±2.2)cm H_2O]and 20 ml/kg[SIMV mode:SVRI(253.1±76.7)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1),Pmean(18.2±4.8)cm H_2O;BiPAP mode:SVRI(246.7±48.8)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1),Pmean(16.8±3.3)cm H_2O]compared with 6 ml/kg[SIMV mode:SVRI(184.8±47.5)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1);Pmean(8.8±1.6)cm H_2O;BiPAP mode:SVRI(184.5±51.5)kPa·s~(-1)·L~(-1),Pmean(8.6±0.5)cm H_2O,all P<0.05];but there was no significant effects on CVP,heart rate(HR),mean blood pressure(MBP).There was no significant difference of CI

  3. Implementation of Multi Mode AES Algorithm Using Verilog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Penchala Reddy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing need of high security in communication led to the development of several cryptographic algorithms hence sending data securely over a transmission link is critically important in many applications. NIST in the beginning selected Rijndael within October 2000 and formal adoption as being the AES standard started in December 2001. FIPS PUB 197 explains a 128-bit block cipher making Ause of a 128, 192, or 256-bit key. In cryptography, modes of operation enable the repeated and secure use of a block cipher under a single key. This paper presents implementation of multi mode AES algorithm with three modes ECB, CBC and CTR modes. All these three modes are implemented with 128-bit plain text and 128 bit, 192 bit and 256 bit key lengths. Each program results are verified with ModelSim PE and are synthesized in Xilinx ISE 9.2i. These results are also useful for implementing hardware.

  4. The development of a questionnaire on the subjective experience of teamwork, based on Salas, Sims and Burke’s "the big five of teamwork" and Hackman’s understanding of team effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    van Roosmalen, Therese Moen

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to develop a questionnaire on the subjective experience of teamwork, based on Burke, Salas, and Sims (2005) model "the big five of teamwork", and Hackman’s (1990) classification of team effectiveness. The model proposed by Salas et al. (2005) include eight teamwork process factors: mutual performance monitoring, backup behaviour, adaptability, team leadership, team orientation, shared mental models, mutual trust and closed loop communication. The three Hackman ...

  5. A Friendly-Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM for studying biological processes in wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological processes for wastewater treatments are inherently dynamic systems because of the large variations in the influent wastewater flow rate, concentration composition and the adaptive behavior of the involved microorganisms. Moreover, the sludge retention time (SRT is a critical factor to understand the bioreactor performances when changes in the influent or in the operation conditions take place. Since SRT are usually in the range of 10-30 days, the performance of biological reactors needs a long time to be monitored in a regular laboratory demonstration, limiting the knowledge that can be obtained in the experimental lab practice. In order to overcome this lack, mathematical models and computer simulations are useful tools to describe biochemical processes and predict the overall performance of bioreactors under different working operation conditions and variations of the inlet wastewater composition. The mathematical solution of the model could be difficult as numerous biochemical processes can be considered. Additionally, biological reactors description (mass balance, etc. needs models represented by partial or/and ordinary differential equations associated to algebraic expressions, that require complex computational codes to obtain the numerical solutions. Different kind of software for mathematical modeling can be used, from large degree of freedom simulators capable of free models definition (as AQUASIM, to closed predefined model structure programs (as BIOWIN. The first ones usually require long learning curves, whereas the second ones could be excessively rigid for specific wastewater treatment systems. As alternative, we present Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM, a MATLAB code for the simulation of sequencing batch reactors (SBR and rotating biological contactors (RBC as biological systems of suspended and attached biomass for wastewater treatment, respectively. This BioReSIM allows the evaluation of simple and complex

  6. Benchmarking Exercises To Validate The Updated ELLWF GoldSim Slit Trench Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G. A.; Hiergesell, R. A.

    2013-11-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) results of the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008) sensitivity/uncertainty analyses conducted for the trenches located in the EArea LowLevel Waste Facility (ELLWF) were subject to review by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) (LFRG, 2008). LFRG comments were generally approving of the use of probabilistic modeling in GoldSim to support the quantitative sensitivity analysis. A recommendation was made, however, that the probabilistic models be revised and updated to bolster their defensibility. SRS committed to addressing those comments and, in response, contracted with Neptune and Company to rewrite the three GoldSim models. The initial portion of this work, development of Slit Trench (ST), Engineered Trench (ET) and Components-in-Grout (CIG) trench GoldSim models, has been completed. The work described in this report utilizes these revised models to test and evaluate the results against the 2008 PORFLOW model results. This was accomplished by first performing a rigorous code-to-code comparison of the PORFLOW and GoldSim codes and then performing a deterministic comparison of the two-dimensional (2D) unsaturated zone and three-dimensional (3D) saturated zone PORFLOW Slit Trench models against results from the one-dimensional (1D) GoldSim Slit Trench model. The results of the code-to-code comparison indicate that when the mechanisms of radioactive decay, partitioning of contaminants between solid and fluid, implementation of specific boundary conditions and the imposition of solubility controls were all tested using identical flow fields, that GoldSim and PORFLOW produce nearly identical results. It is also noted that GoldSim has an advantage over PORFLOW in that it simulates all radionuclides simultaneously - thus avoiding a potential problem as demonstrated in the Case Study (see Section 2.6). Hence, it was concluded that the follow

  7. Developing integrated TOF-SIMS/MALDI IMS system in studying biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ligang

    Using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) techniques (including TOF-SIMS and MALDI IMS) to study biological systems is a relatively new concept and quickly gained popularity in recent years. Imaging mass spectrometry is a discovery technology that utilizes a focused ion beam or laser beam to desorb ions from sample surface. By detecting the desorbed ions, the chemical distributions and biological changes of a sample surface can be analyzed. These techniques offer a new analytical imaging approach to investigate biological processes at the cellular and tissue level. In this research, a novel integrated TOF-SIMS/MALDI IMS system as well as IMS based biological-sample-preparation techniques and data-reduction methods are developed. We then demonstrate the power of these techniques in studying different biological systems, including monosaccharides isomers, human breast cancer cell lines, mouse embryo tissues and mouse kidney sections. Using TOF-SIMS and statistical analysis methods, seven monosaccharide isomers are fully differentiated by analyzing their characteristic spectral pattern. In addition, a deep understanding of the fragmentation pathway of these isomers under ion bombardment is gained. In an application of TOF-SIMS to the differentiation of three human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231, we show that principal component analysis (PCA) data reduction of TOF-SIMS spectra can differentiate cellular compartments (cytosol, nuclear and particulate) within the cell types, as well as homogenates from among the three cell lines. In a tissue-specific application, we extend the analytical capabilities of TOF-SIMS and PCA by imaging and differentiating Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) mouse embryo tissues. We demonstrate reproducible differentiation of six tissue types based on the remaining small molecules after paraffin-embedding and the fragments of the cellular proteins. In a unique study of fresh frozen mouse kidney tissues, both TOF-SIMS

  8. SimAlba: a Spatial Microsimulation approach to the analysis of health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Campbell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents applied geographical research based on a Spatial Microsimulation model, SimAlba aimed at estimating geographically sensitive health variables in Scotland. SimAlba has been developed in order to answer a variety of 'what-if' policy questions pertaining to health policy in Scotland. Using the SimAlba model, it is possible to simulate the distributions of previously unknown variables at the small area level such as; smoking, alcohol consumption, mental well-being and obesity. The SimAlba microdataset has been created by combining Scottish Health Survey (SHS and Census data using a deterministic reweighting Spatial Microsimulation algorithm developed for this purpose. The paper presents SimAlba outputs for Scotland’s largest city, Glasgow and examines the spatial distribution of the simulated variables for small geographical areas in Glasgow as well as the effects on individuals of different policy scenario outcomes. In simulating previously unknown spatial data a wealth of new perspectives can be examined and explored. This paper explores a small set of those potential avenues of research and shows the power of spatial microsimulation modelling in an urban context.

  9. SimAlba: A Spatial Microsimulation Approach to the Analysis of Health Inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Malcolm; Ballas, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents applied geographical research based on a spatial microsimulation model, SimAlba, aimed at estimating geographically sensitive health variables in Scotland. SimAlba has been developed in order to answer a variety of "what-if" policy questions pertaining to health policy in Scotland. Using the SimAlba model, it is possible to simulate the distributions of previously unknown variables at the small area level such as smoking, alcohol consumption, mental well-being, and obesity. The SimAlba microdataset has been created by combining Scottish Health Survey and Census data using a deterministic reweighting spatial microsimulation algorithm developed for this purpose. The paper presents SimAlba outputs for Scotland's largest city, Glasgow, and examines the spatial distribution of the simulated variables for small geographical areas in Glasgow as well as the effects on individuals of different policy scenario outcomes. In simulating previously unknown spatial data, a wealth of new perspectives can be examined and explored. This paper explores a small set of those potential avenues of research and shows the power of spatial microsimulation modeling in an urban context.

  10. Graphene Oxide as a Novel Evenly Continuous Phase Matrix for TOF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lesi; Sheng, Linfeng; Xia, Mengchan; Li, Zhanping; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong; Chen, Hongyuan

    2016-12-01

    Using matrix to enhance the molecular ion signals for biomolecule identification without loss of spatial resolution caused by matrix crystallization is a great challenge for the application of TOF-SIMS in real-world biological research. In this report, graphene oxide (GO) was used as a matrix for TOF-SIMS to improve the secondary ion yields of intact molecular ions ([M + H]+). Identifying and distinguishing the molecular ions of lipids (m/z >700) therefore became straightforward. The spatial resolution of TOF-SIMS imaging could also be improved as GO can form a homogeneous layer of matrix instead of crystalline domain, which prevents high spatial resolution in TOF-SIMS imaging. Lipid mapping in presence of GO revealed the delicate morphology and distribution of single vesicles with a diameter of 800 nm. On GO matrix, the vesicles with similar shape but different chemical composition could be distinguished using molecular ions. This novel matrix holds potentials in such applications as the analysis and imaging of complex biological samples by TOF-SIMS.

  11. XCluSim: a visual analytics tool for interactively comparing multiple clustering results of bioinformatics data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Though cluster analysis has become a routine analytic task for bioinformatics research, it is still arduous for researchers to assess the quality of a clustering result. To select the best clustering method and its parameters for a dataset, researchers have to run multiple clustering algorithms and compare them. However, such a comparison task with multiple clustering results is cognitively demanding and laborious. Results In this paper, we present XCluSim, a visual analytics tool that enables users to interactively compare multiple clustering results based on the Visual Information Seeking Mantra. We build a taxonomy for categorizing existing techniques of clustering results visualization in terms of the Gestalt principles of grouping. Using the taxonomy, we choose the most appropriate interactive visualizations for presenting individual clustering results from different types of clustering algorithms. The efficacy of XCluSim is shown through case studies with a bioinformatician. Conclusions Compared to other relevant tools, XCluSim enables users to compare multiple clustering results in a more scalable manner. Moreover, XCluSim supports diverse clustering algorithms and dedicated visualizations and interactions for different types of clustering results, allowing more effective exploration of details on demand. Through case studies with a bioinformatics researcher, we received positive feedback on the functionalities of XCluSim, including its ability to help identify stably clustered items across multiple clustering results. PMID:26328893

  12. SimArray: a user-friendly and user-configurable microarray design tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meadows Lisa A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays were first developed to assess gene expression but are now also used to map protein-binding sites and to assess allelic variation between individuals. Regardless of the intended application, efficient production and appropriate array design are key determinants of experimental success. Inefficient production can make larger-scale studies prohibitively expensive, whereas poor array design makes normalisation and data analysis problematic. Results We have developed a user-friendly tool, SimArray, which generates a randomised spot layout, computes a maximum meta-grid area, and estimates the print time, in response to user-specified design decisions. Selected parameters include: the number of probes to be printed; the microtitre plate format; the printing pin configuration, and the achievable spot density. SimArray is compatible with all current robotic spotters that employ 96-, 384- or 1536-well microtitre plates, and can be configured to reflect most production environments. Print time and maximum meta-grid area estimates facilitate evaluation of each array design for its suitability. Randomisation of the spot layout facilitates correction of systematic biases by normalisation. Conclusion SimArray is intended to help both established researchers and those new to the microarray field to develop microarray designs with randomised spot layouts that are compatible with their specific production environment. SimArray is an open-source program and is available from http://www.flychip.org.uk/SimArray/.

  13. High Gas Surface Densities yet Low UV Attenuation in z $\\sim$ 1 Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nordon, Raanan

    2016-01-01

    The gas in galaxies is both the fuel for star formation and a medium that attenuates the light of the young stars. We study the relations between UV attenuation, spectral slope, star formation rates, and molecular gas surface densities in a sample of 28 z$\\sim$1 and a reference sample of 32 z$\\sim$0 galaxies that are detected in CO, far-infrared, and rest frame UV. The samples are dominated by disc-like galaxies close to the main SFR--mass relation. We find that the location of the z$\\sim$1 galaxies on the IRX-$\\beta$ plane is correlated with their gas-depletion time-scale $\\tau_{dep}$ and can predict $\\tau_{dep}$ with a standard deviation of 0.16 dex. We use IRX-$\\beta$ to estimate the mean total gas column densities at the locations of star formation in the galaxies, and compare them to the mean molecular gas surface densities as measured from CO. We confirm previous results regarding high $N_H/A_V$ in z$\\sim$1 galaxies. We estimate an increase in the gas filling factor by a factor of 4--6 from z$\\sim$0 to ...

  14. Exploring the progenitors of brightest cluster galaxies at $z\\sim 2$

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Dongyao; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Almaini, Omar; Hartley, William G; Lani, Caterina; Mortlock, Alice; Old, Lyndsay

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method for tracing the evolution of BCGs from $z\\sim 2$ to $z\\sim 0$. We conclude on the basis of semi-analytical models that the best method to select BCG progenitors at $z\\sim 2$ is a hybrid environmental density and stellar mass ranking approach. Ultimately we are able to retrieve 45\\% of BCG progenitors. We apply this method on the CANDELS UDS data to construct a progenitor sample at high redshift. We furthermore populate the comparisons in local universe by using SDSS data with statistically likely contamination to ensure a fair comparison between high and low redshifts. Using these samples we demonstrate that the BCG sizes have grown by a factor of $\\sim 3.2$ since $z\\sim 2$, and BCG progenitors are mainly late-type galaxies, exhibiting less concentrated profiles than their early-type local counterparts. We find that BCG progenitors have more disturbed morphologies. In contrast, local BCGs have much smoother profiles. Moreover, we find that the stellar masses of BCGs have grown by a fac...

  15. SimRNAweb: a web server for RNA 3D structure modeling with optional restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Marcin; Boniecki, Michał J; Dawson, Wayne; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2016-07-08

    RNA function in many biological processes depends on the formation of three-dimensional (3D) structures. However, RNA structure is difficult to determine experimentally, which has prompted the development of predictive computational methods. Here, we introduce a user-friendly online interface for modeling RNA 3D structures using SimRNA, a method that uses a coarse-grained representation of RNA molecules, utilizes the Monte Carlo method to sample the conformational space, and relies on a statistical potential to describe the interactions in the folding process. SimRNAweb makes SimRNA accessible to users who do not normally use high performance computational facilities or are unfamiliar with using the command line tools. The simplest input consists of an RNA sequence to fold RNA de novo. Alternatively, a user can provide a 3D structure in the PDB format, for instance a preliminary model built with some other technique, to jump-start the modeling close to the expected final outcome. The user can optionally provide secondary structure and distance restraints, and can freeze a part of the starting 3D structure. SimRNAweb can be used to model single RNA sequences and RNA-RNA complexes (up to 52 chains). The webserver is available at http://genesilico.pl/SimRNAweb.

  16. Investigation of the cosmetic ingredient distribution in the stratum corneum using NanoSIMS imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanji, N. [Kao Corporation, 1334 Minato, Wakayama-shi, Wakayama, 640-8580 (Japan)], E-mail: tanji.noriyuki@kao.co.jp; Okamoto, M. [Kao Corporation, 1334 Minato, Wakayama-shi, Wakayama, 640-8580 (Japan); Katayama, Y.; Hosokawa, M. [Kao Corporation, 2-1-3 Bunka, Sumida-ku, Tokyo, 131-8501 (Japan); Takahata, N.; Sano, Y. [Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-15-1 Minamidai, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    In order to understand the mechanisms of action of cosmetic ingredients, it is important to establish the distribution of the component agents within the epidermis of the skin. To date, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used to detect cosmetic ingredients in the skin. However, it is technically difficult to investigate the distribution of the agents in the stratum corneum using TOF-SIMS. Therefore, an analytical method with higher spatial resolution is required. In this study, we investigated an imaging analysis technique based on NanoSIMS to detect cosmetic ingredients in the skin. Pig skin was used as a model for human skin. The sample was treated with a cosmetic formulation containing {sup 15}N-labelled pseudo-ceramide (SLE). The sample was frozen with liquid nitrogen and cross-sections were cut using a cryomicrotome. As a result, the fine layer structure of the corneocytes was clearly observed by using NanoSIMS. Our studies indicate that SLE penetrates into the stratum corneum via an intercellular route. We conclude that application of NanoSIMS analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the function of cosmetic ingredients in the skin.

  17. Elemental imaging at the nanoscale: NanoSIMS and complementary techniques for element localisation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katie L; Lombi, Enzo; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Grovenor, Chris R M

    2012-04-01

    The ability to locate and quantify elemental distributions in plants is crucial to understanding plant metabolisms, the mechanisms of uptake and transport of minerals and how plants cope with toxic elements or elemental deficiencies. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is emerging as an important technique for the analysis of biological material at the subcellular scale. This article reviews recent work using the CAMECA NanoSIMS to determine elemental distributions in plants. The NanoSIMS is able to map elemental distributions at high resolution, down to 50 nm, and can detect very low concentrations (milligrams per kilogram) for some elements. It is also capable of mapping almost all elements in the periodic table (from hydrogen to uranium) and can distinguish between stable isotopes, which allows the design of tracer experiments. In this review, particular focus is placed upon studying the same or similar specimens with both the NanoSIMS and a wide range of complementary techniques, showing how the advantages of each technique can be combined to provide a fuller data set to address complex scientific questions. Techniques covered include optical microscopy, synchrotron techniques, including X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Some of the challenges associated with sample preparation of plant material for SIMS analysis, the artefacts and limitations of the technique and future trends are also discussed.

  18. 基于B/S模式的燃气管网安全隐患监控系统的研究%A Study of Gas Network Hidden danger Monitoring System Based on B/S Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余舒扬

    2016-01-01

    This paper designs a gas network hidden danger monitoring system to achieve the automatic detection and rapid deter-mination of gas network leakage combined with current situation of gas network in Chongqing in order to cope with the increas-ingly prominent security risks of various types of gas network and ensure the safe operation of it. This system uses three-tier ar-chitecture of the B/S mode. The manager can monitor the running state of the pipe network, query the history data and grasp the hidden danger in time. It achieves the full monitoring of 24 hours. Once the accident occurs, it can alarm quickly through short message and provide accurate location and accident status. Spot test and field operation indicate that the labor intensity of line patrol person is greatly reduced, the time of emergency response is shortened and the work efficiency is improved.%为应对日益凸显的各类燃气管网安全隐患,确保燃气管网安全运行,本文结合重庆市燃气管网的现状,设计了燃气管网安全隐患监控系统,实现了管网中燃气泄漏自动检测与速报。该系统采用三层B/S体系结构;管理人员可监测管网的运行状态,查询历史数据,及时掌握安全隐患;全天24小时监测,一旦发生事故,迅速通过短信报警,并提供准确的地点和事故状态。现场测试与使用表明,该系统减轻了巡线工劳动强度,缩短了应急响应的时间,提高工作效率。

  19. 建立HPLC-ESI-SIM法测定盐酸多奈哌齐在血浆中的含量%To establish an HPLC-ESI-SIM method for the determination of donepezil in human plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳翠; 辛华; 高丽

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究盐酸多奈哌齐口服制剂在健康人体的药动学特征及生物等效性,建立HPLC-ESI-SIM方法测定血浆中的盐酸多奈哌齐浓度.方法:以乙哌立松为内标,待测血浆经碱化处理后,经乙酸乙酯进行液-液萃取,采用0DS-2C18柱(250mm×2.0mm,5μm),以甲醇-20mmol/L醋酸溶液(60:40)为流动相,流速0.8mL/min,柱温35℃.采用质谱电喷雾离子源正源(ESI+)将样品离子化,选择性离子监测(SIM)准分子离子峰.结果:多奈哌齐在0.10~ 20.0ng/mL内线性关系良好(r=0.9997),最低定量限为0.1ng/ml.方法回收率为92.9%~98.4%,提取回收率均大于80%,批内与批间RSD均小于10%.结论:该方法简单、快速、灵敏度高、专属性强,适用于人血浆中多奈哌齐浓度的测定及药动学研究.%Objective To study the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of Donepezil Hydrochloride in healthy volunteers. To establish an HPLC-ESI-SIM method for the determination of donepezil in human plasma. Methods Alkalized plasma was extracted with ethyl acetate and Eperisone was used as internal standard .Solutes were separated on a ODS-2C18 column (250mm×2.0mm,5 μm)with a mobile phase of methanol-20mmol/L Acetic acid solution (60:40),The flow rate was 0.8mL/min and column was used with temperature of 35℃.Donepezil and internal standard were ionized in the eletrospray ionization (ESI+) with positive source of the mass spectrometer and detected in selected ioni2ation monitor (SIM) mode. Results The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.1-20.0ng/mL (r= 0.9997) with the lower limit of quantitation, accuracy was within 92.9%~98.4%. The recovery of the extraction was more than 80%, intra-and inter-batch precision (RSD) were less than 10%. Conclusion The method is proved to be suitable for pharmacokinetics and determination of donepezil in human plasma with simple.quickness,sensitive and specificity.

  20. Relaxation of Spin Polarized $^3$He in Mixtures of $^3$He and $^4$He at $\\sim$330 mK

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Q; Zheng, W; Dutta, D; Dubose, F; Golub, R; Huffman, P; Swank, C; Korobkina, E; 10.1103/PhysRevA.80.023403

    2009-01-01

    We report the measurements of depolarization probabilities of polarized $^3$He in a rectangular acrylic cell with a deuterated tetraphenyl butadiene-doped deuterated polystyrene coating filled with superfluid $^4$He at $\\sim$330 mk with a magnetic holding field of $\\sim$7.3 G. We achieve a wall depolarization probability of $\\sim1.0\\times10^{-7}$. Such a surface will find application in a new experiment searching for the neutron electric dipole moment and other applications.

  1. Execution of the SimSET Monte Carlo PET/SPECT simulator in the condor distributed computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Karl G; Helguera, María

    2007-11-01

    SimSET is a package for simulation of emission tomography data sets. Condor is a popular distributed computing environment. Simple C/C++ applications and shell scripts are presented which allow the execution of SimSET on the Condor environment. This is accomplished without any modification to SimSET by executing multiple instances and using its combinebin utility. This enables research facilities without dedicated parallel computing systems to utilize the idle cycles of desktop workstations to greatly reduce the run times of their SimSET simulations. The necessary steps to implement this approach in other environments are presented along with sample results.

  2. Operational modes, health, and status monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljaard, Corrie

    2016-08-01

    System Engineers must fully understand the system, its support system and operational environment to optimise the design. Operations and Support Managers must also identify the correct metrics to measure the performance and to manage the operations and support organisation. Reliability Engineering and Support Analysis provide methods to design a Support System and to optimise the Availability of a complex system. Availability modelling and Failure Analysis during the design is intended to influence the design and to develop an optimum maintenance plan for a system. The remote site locations of the SKA Telescopes place emphasis on availability, failure identification and fault isolation. This paper discusses the use of Failure Analysis and a Support Database to design a Support and Maintenance plan for the SKA Telescopes. It also describes the use of modelling to develop an availability dashboard and performance metrics.

  3. ROBO-SIM: a simulator for minimally invasive neurosurgery using an active manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzky, A; Rudolph, M; Starkie, S; Davies, B; Auer, L M

    2000-01-01

    This application report describes the software system ROBO-SIM, which is a planning and simulation tool for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Using actual patient's datasets, ROBO-SIM includes all planning steps necessary. These are; defining the trepanation point for entry into the skull and the target point within the depth of the brain, checking the surgical track, performing virtual trepanations (virtual craniotomy), and defining sanctioned volumes for use with an intra-operative active manipulator. With the additional simulation part, neurosurgeons are able to simulate whole surgical interventions directly on the patient's anatomy using the same instruments as for the real operation. First tests with ROBO-SIM are performed on actual patient's datasets with ventricular tumours.

  4. PowderSim: Lagrangian Discrete and Mesh-Free Continuum Simulation Code for Cohesive Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott; Walton, Otis; Settgast, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    PowderSim is a calculation tool that combines a discrete-element method (DEM) module, including calibrated interparticle-interaction relationships, with a mesh-free, continuum, SPH (smoothed-particle hydrodynamics) based module that utilizes enhanced, calibrated, constitutive models capable of mimicking both large deformations and the flow behavior of regolith simulants and lunar regolith under conditions anticipated during in situ resource utilization (ISRU) operations. The major innovation introduced in PowderSim is to use a mesh-free method (SPH-based) with a calibrated and slightly modified critical-state soil mechanics constitutive model to extend the ability of the simulation tool to also address full-scale engineering systems in the continuum sense. The PowderSim software maintains the ability to address particle-scale problems, like size segregation, in selected regions with a traditional DEM module, which has improved contact physics and electrostatic interaction models.

  5. Tracing the evolution of massive galaxies up to z \\sim 3

    CERN Document Server

    Longhetti, M; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Nonino, M; Saracco, P; Vanzella, E

    2003-01-01

    A census of massive galaxies at redshift increasingly higher than $z\\sim$1 may provide strong constraints on the history of mass assembly and of star formation. Here we report on the analysis of three galaxies selected in the Hubble Deep Field South on the basis of their unusually red near-IR color J-K$\\ge$3. These objects result to be massive (M$_{star}\\sim 10^{11}$M$_{\\odot}$) galaxies at redshift 2.5$5) at 1$$4) on the basis of which we identified 4 massive evolved galaxies at 1.5$sim$3 which evolves passively in time down to $z=0$.

  6. Comparison of low-temperature oxides on polycrystalline InP by AES, SIMS and XPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, L. L.; Ireland, P. J.; Sheldon, P.; Chu, T. L.; Chu, S. S.; Lin, C. L.

    1980-10-01

    Oxides and their interfaces with polycrystalline InP are examined using complementary high-resolution AES, SIMS and XPS. The oxides, grown by low-temperature dry and wet processes, are compared for composition and phase content. SIMS and AES depth-composition data are used to compare the uniformity of the oxide layers and the composition of the interfacial region. Confirmation of impurity accumulation at the oxide-InP interfaces is presented, including buildup of elemental P and InP dopant, S. Other impurities associated with the growth of the wet oxide are found to be localized at the interface. Some evidence of impurity accumulation at grain boundaries at the wet oxide-polycrystalline InP interface is provided by SIMS and EBIC.

  7. The Northwest Frontier: Spectroscopy of N sim Z Nuclei Below Mass 100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, R.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Steer, A. N.; Jenkins, D. G.; Bentley, M. A.; Brock, T.; Davies, P.; Glover, R.; Pattabiraman, N. S.; Scholey, C.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jones, P.; Jakobsson, U.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Perua, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Ruotslainen, P.; Sorri, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Lister, C. J.; Butler, P. A.; Dimmock, M.; Joss, D. T.; Thomson, J.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Cederwall, B.; Hadinia, B.; Sandzelius, M.; Atac, A.; Betterman, L.; Blazhev, A.; Braun, N.; Finke, F.; Geibel, K.; Ilie, G.; Iwasaki, H.; Jolie, J.; Reiter, P.; Scholl, C.; Warr, N.; Boutachkov, P.; Caceres, L.; Domingo, C.; Engert, T.; Farinon, F.; Gerl, J.; Goel, N.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Kurz, N.; Kojuharov, I.; Pietri, S.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Wollersheim, H.-J.; Eppinger, K.; Faestermann, T.; Hinke, C.; Hoischen, R.; Kruecken, R.; Gottardo, A.; Liu, Z.; Woods, P.; Grebosz, J.; Merchant, E.; Nyberg, J.; Soderstrom, P.-A.; Podolyak, Z.; Regan, P.; Steer, S.; Pfutzner, M.; Rudolph, D.

    2009-03-01

    The spectroscopy and structure of excited states of N sim Z nuclei in the mass 70-100 region has been investigated using two techniques. In the A sim 70-80 region fusion evaporation reactions coupled with the recoil- beta -tagging method have been employed at Jyvaskyla to study low-lying states in odd-odd N = Z nuclei. Results from these and other data for known odd-odd nuclei above mass 60 will be discussed. In the heavier mass 90 region a fragmentation experiment has been performed using the RISING/FRS setup at GSI. This experiment was primarily aimed at searching for spin gap isomers in nuclei around A sim 96. The objectives of the latter experiment will be discussed.

  8. Implementation of DSP Based Cost Effective Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive with VisSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Nalin K.; Muthu, Ranganath

    2012-03-01

    The implementation of a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) based high-performance cost effective fed Induction Motor drive with VisSim/Embedded Controls Developer (ECD) is presented in this paper. In the experimental work VisSim/ECD software automatically converts the in built block diagram to C code and compiles, links, and downloads the code to DSP processor TMS320F2812. The DSP processor generates the required PWM to a cost effective ie four switch 3-phase (FSTPI) inverter. The power circuit of FSTPI fed drive system consists of an IGBT based FSTPI bridge inverter module feeding to a 5 hp three-phase squirrel cage induction motor. In this work the speed of induction motor output is shown by the GUI of VisSim/ECD and SPWM pulses, line voltages and line current output curves are shown using digital storage oscilloscope to demonstrate the feasibility of the system.

  9. Imaging and differentiation of mouse embryo tissues by ToF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L; Lu, X; Kulp, K; Knize, M; Berman, E; Nelson, E; Felton, J; Wu, K J

    2006-06-16

    Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) equipped with a gold ion gun was used to image mouse embryos and differentiate tissue types (brain, spinal cord, skull, rib, heart and liver). Embryos were paraffin-embedded and then de-paraffinized. The robustness and repeatability of the method was determined by analyzing nine tissue slices from three different embryos over a period of several weeks. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to reduce the spectral data generated by ToF-SIMS, histopathologically identified tissue types of the mouse embryos can be differentiated based on the characteristic differences in their mass spectra. These results demonstrate the ability of ToF-SIMS to determine subtle chemical differences even in fixed histological specimens.

  10. SimWall: a practical user-friendly stereo tiled display wall system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Li-jun; ZHENG Yao; YANG Ting-jun; GAO Wen-xuan; PAN Ning-he

    2007-01-01

    Sim Wall is a user-friendly, stereo tiled display wall system composed of 18 commodity projectors operated by a Linux graphics cluster. Collaborating together, these projectors work as a single logical display capable of giving a high-resolution show,large-scale, and passive stereo scene. In order to avoid tedious system setup and maintenance, software-based automatic geometry and photometric calibration are used. The software calibration is integrated to the system seamlessly by an on-card transform method and is transparent to users. To end-users, Sim Wall works just as a common PC, but provides super computing, rendering and displaying ability. In addition, Sim Wall has stereoscopic function that gives users a semi-immersive experience in polarized passive way. This paper presents system architecture, implementation, and other technical issues such as hardware constraints,projectors alignment, geometry and photometric calibration, implementation of passive stereo, and development of overall software environment.

  11. Development and validation of TOF-SIMS and CLSM imaging method for cytotoxicity study of ZnO nanoparticles in HaCaT cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Pei-Ling; Chen, Bo-Chia; Gollavelli, Ganesh [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Shen, Sin-Yu [Graduate Institute of Medical Science, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Yin, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Shiu-Ling [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Jhang, Cian-Ling; Lee, Woan-Ruoh [Department of Dermatology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Ling, Yong-Chien, E-mail: ycling@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Medical Science, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • Assorted material, chemical, and toxicological analysis methods were used to confirm the shape, size, crystalline structure, and aggregation properties of ZnO NPS as well as their dissolution behavior and effect on HaCaT cell viability. • The developed TOF-SIMS and CLSM imaging method for rapid and sensitive study of ZnO NPs in HaCaT cells was validated by comparative and correlative analyses to aforementioned experimental results. • The imaging results demonstrate spatially-resolved cytotoxicity relationship between intracellular ZnO NPs concentration, {sup 40}Ca/{sup 39}K ratio, phosphocholine fragments, and glutathione fragments. CLSM images reveal the localization of ZnO NPs in cytoplasm and nuclei. • The trend of change in TOF-SIMS spectra and images of ZnO NPs treated HaCaT cells demonstrate the possible mode of actions by ZnO NP involves cell membrane disruption, cytotoxic response, and ROS mediated apoptosis. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) exhibit novel physiochemical properties and have found increasing use in sunscreen products and cosmetics. The potential toxicity is of increasing concern due to their close association with human skin. A time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging method was developed and validated for rapid and sensitive cytotoxicity study of ZnO NPs using human skin equivalent HaCaT cells as a model system. Assorted material, chemical, and toxicological analysis methods were used to confirm their shape, size, crystalline structure, and aggregation properties as well as dissolution behavior and effect on HaCaT cell viability in the presence of various concentrations of ZnO NPs in aqueous media. Comparative and correlative analyses of aforementioned results with TOF-SIMS and CLSM imaging results exhibit reasonable and acceptable outcome. A marked drop in survival rate was observed with 50 μg/ml ZnO NPs. The CLSM images reveal the

  12. Comparative assessment of bone pose estimation using Point Cluster Technique and OpenSim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Rebecca L; Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Siston, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Estimating the position of the bones from optical motion capture data is a challenge associated with human movement analysis. Bone pose estimation techniques such as the Point Cluster Technique (PCT) and simulations of movement through software packages such as OpenSim are used to minimize soft tissue artifact and estimate skeletal position; however, using different methods for analysis may produce differing kinematic results which could lead to differences in clinical interpretation such as a misclassification of normal or pathological gait. This study evaluated the differences present in knee joint kinematics as a result of calculating joint angles using various techniques. We calculated knee joint kinematics from experimental gait data using the standard PCT, the least squares approach in OpenSim applied to experimental marker data, and the least squares approach in OpenSim applied to the results of the PCT algorithm. Maximum and resultant RMS differences in knee angles were calculated between all techniques. We observed differences in flexion/extension, varus/valgus, and internal/external rotation angles between all approaches. The largest differences were between the PCT results and all results calculated using OpenSim. The RMS differences averaged nearly 5° for flexion/extension angles with maximum differences exceeding 15°. Average RMS differences were relatively small (techniques appeared to be a constant offset between the PCT and all OpenSim results, which may be due to differences in the definition of anatomical reference frames, scaling of musculoskeletal models, and/or placement of virtual markers within OpenSim. Different methods for data analysis can produce largely different kinematic results, which could lead to the misclassification of normal or pathological gait. Improved techniques to allow non-uniform scaling of generic models to more accurately reflect subject-specific bone geometries and anatomical reference frames may reduce differences

  13. Study and optimisation of SIMS performed with He{sup +} and Ne{sup +} bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillatsch, L.; Vanhove, N.; Dowsett, D. [Department “Science and Analysis of Materials” (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public – Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Sijbrandij, S.; Notte, J. [Carl Zeiss Microscopy LLC, One Corporation Way, Peabody, MA 01960 (United States); Wirtz, T., E-mail: wirtz@lippmann.lu [Department “Science and Analysis of Materials” (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public – Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2013-10-01

    The combination of the high-brightness He{sup +}/Ne{sup +} atomic level ion source with the detection capabilities of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) opens up the prospect of obtaining chemical information with high lateral resolution and high sensitivity on the Zeiss ORION helium ion microscope (HIM). A feasibility study with He{sup +} and Ne{sup +} ion bombardment is presented in order to determine the performance of SIMS analyses using the HIM. Therefore, the sputtering yields, useful yields and detection limits obtained for metallic (Al, Ni and W) as well as semiconductor samples (Si, Ge, GaAs and InP) were investigated. All the experiments were performed on a Cameca IMS4f SIMS instrument which was equipped with a caesium evaporator and oxygen flooding system. For most of the elements, useful yields in the range of 10{sup −4} to 3 × 10{sup −2} were measured with either O{sub 2} or Cs flooding. SIMS experiments performed directly on the ORION with a prototype secondary ion extraction and detection system lead to results that are consistent with those obtained on the IMS4f. Taking into account the obtained useful yields and the analytical conditions, such as the ion current and typical dwell time on the ORION HIM, detection limits in the at% range and better can be obtained during SIMS imaging at 10 nm lateral resolution with Ne{sup +} bombardment and down to the ppm level when a lateral resolution of 100 nm is chosen. Performing SIMS on the HIM with a good detection limit while maintaining an excellent lateral resolution (<50 nm) is therefore very promising.

  14. CystiSim – An Agent-Based Model for Taenia solium Transmission and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko; Magnussen, Pascal; Torgerson, Paul; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis. To assist in the attempt to regionally eliminate this parasite, we developed cystiSim, an agent-based model for T. solium transmission and control. The model was developed in R and available as an R package (http://cran.r-project.org/package=cystiSim). cystiSim was adapted to an observed setting using field data from Tanzania, but adaptable to other settings if necessary. The model description adheres to the Overview, Design concepts, and Details (ODD) protocol and consists of two entities—pigs and humans. Pigs acquire cysticercosis through the environment or by direct contact with a tapeworm carrier's faeces. Humans acquire taeniosis from slaughtered pigs proportional to their infection intensity. The model allows for evaluation of three interventions measures or combinations hereof: treatment of humans, treatment of pigs, and pig vaccination, and allows for customary coverage and efficacy settings. cystiSim is the first agent-based transmission model for T. solium and suggests that control using a strategy consisting of an intervention only targeting the porcine host is possible, but that coverage and efficacy must be high if elimination is the ultimate goal. Good coverage of the intervention is important, but can be compensated for by including an additional intervention targeting the human host. cystiSim shows that the scenarios combining interventions in both hosts, mass drug administration to humans, and vaccination and treatment of pigs, have a high probability of success if coverage of 75% can be maintained over at least a four year period. In comparison with an existing mathematical model for T. solium transmission, cystiSim also includes parasite maturation, host immunity, and environmental contamination. Adding these biological parameters to the model resulted in new insights in the potential

  15. The role of public policies in reducing smoking: the Minnesota SimSmoke tobacco policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B

    2012-11-01

    Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CystiSim - An Agent-Based Model for Taenia solium Transmission and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Speybroeck, Niko; Magnussen, Pascal; Torgerson, Paul; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2016-12-01

    Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1993, but remains a neglected zoonosis. To assist in the attempt to regionally eliminate this parasite, we developed cystiSim, an agent-based model for T. solium transmission and control. The model was developed in R and available as an R package (http://cran.r-project.org/package=cystiSim). cystiSim was adapted to an observed setting using field data from Tanzania, but adaptable to other settings if necessary. The model description adheres to the Overview, Design concepts, and Details (ODD) protocol and consists of two entities-pigs and humans. Pigs acquire cysticercosis through the environment or by direct contact with a tapeworm carrier's faeces. Humans acquire taeniosis from slaughtered pigs proportional to their infection intensity. The model allows for evaluation of three interventions measures or combinations hereof: treatment of humans, treatment of pigs, and pig vaccination, and allows for customary coverage and efficacy settings. cystiSim is the first agent-based transmission model for T. solium and suggests that control using a strategy consisting of an intervention only targeting the porcine host is possible, but that coverage and efficacy must be high if elimination is the ultimate goal. Good coverage of the intervention is important, but can be compensated for by including an additional intervention targeting the human host. cystiSim shows that the scenarios combining interventions in both hosts, mass drug administration to humans, and vaccination and treatment of pigs, have a high probability of success if coverage of 75% can be maintained over at least a four year period. In comparison with an existing mathematical model for T. solium transmission, cystiSim also includes parasite maturation, host immunity, and environmental contamination. Adding these biological parameters to the model resulted in new insights in the potential

  17. 基于SimMechanics的仿人机器人运动学仿真%Kinematics Simulation of Humanoid Robot Based on SimMechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江乐果; 朱华炳

    2014-01-01

    The SimMechanics of Matlab toolbox is used to build the simulation model of humanoid robot mechanism. According to the model diagram,the humanoid robot dynamic walking process was observed intuitively,and the angular acceleration of robot body center of gravity and torque variation map of hip joint were solved. A planner five-bar mechanism motion model simulating to the instan-taneous state of humanoid robot was established,based on Kane method to solve the dynamic equation of the mechanism. The SimMe-chanics simulation tools are applied in the mechanism analysis,which provides a convenient and simple method for the mechanical sys-tem simulation.%利用Matlab/SimMechanics机构仿真工具建立了仿人机器人机构的仿真模型,并由模型图直观地观察仿人机器人的动态步行过程,求出了机器人躯体重心的角加速度和髋关节的扭矩变化图。建立了仿人机器人的瞬时状态的平面五杆机构运动模型,根据Kane法求解出了机构的动力学方程。在机构分析中应用SimMechanics仿真工具,为机械系统的仿真提供一种十分简便的方法。

  18. Surface Characterization of Polymer Blends by XPS and ToF-SIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Ming Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of polymer blends are important for many industrial applications. The physical and chemical properties at the surface of polymer blends can be drastically different from those in the bulk due to the surface segregation of the low surface energy component. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and time-of-flight secondary mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS have been widely used to characterize surface and bulk properties. This review provides a brief introduction to the principles of XPS and ToF-SIMS and their application to the study of the surface physical and chemical properties of polymer blends.

  19. A ToF-SIMS study of linseed oil bonded to mercapto silane treated aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexell, U.; Olsson, M.; Sundell, P.-E.; Johansson, M.; Carlsson, P.; Hellsing, M.

    2004-06-01

    ToF-SIMS has been used to analyse an aluminium surface treated with a vegetable oil using a mercapto silane as a coupling agent between the aluminium substrate and the vegetable oil. The coupling between the vegetable oil and the mercapto silane was obtained through a photoinduced thiol-ene reaction using UV-radiation. The ToF-SIMS results show that the desired thiol-ene reaction has taken place between the unsaturated parts of the vegetable oil and the thiol groups of the mercapto silane via the thiol-ene reaction forming a surface film.

  20. CoaSim: A Flexible Environment for Simulating Genetic Data under Coalescent Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund; Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2005-01-01

    get insight into these. Results We have created the CoaSim application as a flexible environment for Monte various types of genetic data under equilibrium and non-equilibrium coalescent variety of applications. Interaction with the tool is through the Guile version scripting language. Scheme scripts...... for many standard and advanced applications these can easily be modified by the user for a much wider range of applications. interface with less functionality and flexibility is also included. It is primarily exploratory and educational tool. Conclusions CoaSim is a powerful tool because of its flexibility...

  1. CulSim: A simulator of emergence and resilience of cultural diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Roberto

    CulSim is an agent-based computer simulation software that allows further exploration of influential and recent models of emergence of cultural groups grounded in sociological theories. CulSim provides a collection of tools to analyze resilience of cultural diversity when events affect agents, institutions or global parameters of the simulations; upon combination, events can be used to approximate historical circumstances. The software provides a graphical and text-based user interface, and so makes this agent-based modeling methodology accessible to a variety of users from different research fields.

  2. High-resolution imaging of complex crack chemistry in reactor steels by NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano-Perez, S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Sergio.lozano-perez@materials.ox.ac.uk; Kilburn, M.R. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009 WA (Australia); Yamada, T.; Terachi, T. [Institute of Nuclear Safety Systems Inc, 64 Sata, Mikata-gun, Fukui 919-1205 (Japan); English, C.A. [Nexia Solutions, Harwell Business Centre, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Grovenor, C.R.M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-29

    High-resolution analysis using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 has been used to map the oxide chemistry in intergranular cracks in stainless steels. The technique has proven ideal for this type of sample, as it is able to discern between the different oxide layers and clarify the role of minor segregants such as boron and sulphur. Results are compared with analysis of the same sample by scanning auger microscopy and its interpretation discussed. The short time required to prepare and examine multiple regions present the NanoSIMS as an optimum tool for corrosion characterization.

  3. Taking the Measure of the Universe : Precision Astrometry with SIM PlanetQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Allen, Ronald J.; Beichman, Charles A.; Boboltz, David; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; Chaboyer, Brian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Edberg, Stephen J.; Fey, Alan L.; Fischer, Debra A.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Gould, Andrew P.; Grillmair, Carl; Henry, Todd J.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas M.; Majewski, Steven R.; Makarov, Valeri V.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Meier, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Precision astrometry at microarcsecond accuracy has application to a wide range of astrophysical problems. This paper is a study of the science questions that can be addressed using an instrument with flexible scheduling that delivers parallaxes at about 4 microarcsec (microns)as) on targets as faint as V = 20, and differential accuracy of 0.6 (microns)as on bright targets. The science topics are drawn primarily from the Team Key Projects, selected in 2000, for the Space Interferometry Mission PlanetQuest (SIM PlanetQuest). We use the capabilities of this mission to illustrate the importance of the next level of astrometric precision in modern astrophysics. SIM PlanetQuest is currently in the detailed design phase, having completed in 2005 all of the enabling technologies needed for the flight instrument. It will be the first space-based long baseline Michelson interferometer designed for precision astrometry. SIM will contribute strongly to many astronomical fields including stellar and galactic astrophysics, planetary systems around nearby stars, and the study of quasar and AGN nuclei. Using differential astrometry SIM will search for planets with masses as small as an Earth orbiting in the 'habitable zone' around the nearest stars, and could discover many dozen if Earth-like planets are common. It will characterize the multiple-planet systems that are now known to exist, and it will be able to search for terrestrial planets around all of the candidate target stars in the Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin mission lists. It will be capable of detecting planets around young stars, thereby providing insights into how planetary systems are born and how they evolve with time. Precision astrometry allows the measurement of accurate dynamical masses for stars in binary systems. SIM will observe significant numbers of very high- and low-mass stars, providing stellar masses to 1%, the accuracy needed to challenge physical models. Using precision proper motion

  4. Characterization of plasma-functionalized surfaces by means of Tof-SIMS and multivariate analysis methods; Charakterisierung von plasmafunktionalisierten Oberflaechen mittels ToF-SIMS und multivariaten Analysemethoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gradowski, M. von

    2006-11-13

    The basic principles and opportunities of surface characterisation of selected functionalised samples via ToF-SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) are presented. One major focus of the project was the investigation of non-cohesive surface layers which could exhibit either domain like structure or well defined single functionalised surfaces. By means of ToF-SIMS with the ability of displaying the lateral distribution of surface fragments information on the structure and surface density of specific fragments on the investigated film can be obtained. The combination of the ToF-SIMS experiment with a multivariate algorithm (partial least squares, PLS) provides an interesting opportunity to quantitatively determine surface properties such as elemental and molecular concentrations. Due to the fact that the ToF-SIMS spectrum consist of a huge amount of intensities, a single one-dimensional correlation (e.g. CF{sub 3} fragment intensity <-{yields} CF{sub 3} concentration) would disregard the rest of the spectral information. The large number of fragment intensities in the spectrum is representative for the chemical structure of the analysed surface. Therefore, it is crucial to consider this total information for the quantification of surface properties (element concentration, water contact angle etc.). Furthermore, this method allows the determination of surface properties with a lateral resolution of a few microns only. This can be used for chemically structured surfaces which for many applications show micrometer sized surface structures. Finally, a successful application of the multivariate models is presented for samples from the biological and medical area. Human fibroblasts and pancreas cells have been cultivated on plasma functionalised surfaces in order to study the influence of the functionalisation on the cell growth. The samples have been covered by TEM grids with meshes in the {mu}m range before the plasma treatment to generate structured

  5. Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Distribution A. Cleared for public release; unlimited distribution. USAFA-CN-2013-457 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART...457 This report, "Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)" is presented as a competent treatment of the subj ect, worthy of publication. The...Technical 20120810-20121215 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART MICHAEL WINSTEAD MARTIN CARLISLE RODNEY LYKINS MICHAEL

  6. Effects of Mode Shares on Mode Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Carrion; Nebiyou Tilahun; David Levinson

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the influence of the knowledge of existing mode shares on travelers mode choice. This contrasts with traditional mode choice models, where the main objective is to predict the overall mode shares as the aggregate of individual mode choices according to variables encompassing attributes of the modes, and characteristics of the travelers. In this study, a computer-administered adaptive stated preference survey is developed and applied to a sample of subjects selected from t...

  7. Molecular depth profiling of organic photovoltaic heterojunction layers by ToF-SIMS: comparative evaluation of three sputtering beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouhib, T.; Poleunis, C.; Wehbe, N.; Michels, J.J.; Galagan, Y.; Houssiau, L.; Bertrand, P.; Delcorte, A.

    2013-01-01

    With the recent developments in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), it is now possible to obtain molecular depth profiles and 3D molecular images of organic thin films, i.e. SIMS depth profiles where the molecular information of the mass spectrum is retained through the sputtering of the sample.

  8. Imaging by atomic force microscopy of the properties difference of the layers covering the facets created during SIMS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, B.; Gautier, B.; Albertini, D.; Mzerd, A.; Loghmarti, M.

    2014-07-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used in tapping mode in order to study the roughness created in the crater bottom during secondary ions mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis in silicon, using O2+ primary ions without flooding. Previous studies of the chemical composition of the facets created during the analysis have lead to the conclusion that the facets oriented toward the O2+ beam during the ionic bombardment were close to SiO2 in composition, while the facets hidden from the beam were covered with a sub-stoichiometric oxide SiOx (with x composition difference, revealing a sharp contrast between the facets. The observed contrast may arise from the different chemical composition of the facets, leading to a different energy dissipation of the tip/sample system over Si and SiO2 due to the different properties of the materials (hardness, adhesion, etc.). As a comparison, an observation of a surface covered with SiO2 and Si (SiO2 deposed with a 90 nm or 4 nm thickness, and partially removed from a Si surface) shows the same kind of contrast.

  9. SimSketch: multiagent simulations based on learner-created sketches for early science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, L.; Joolingen, van W.R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to create simulations of science phenomena based on sketches. SimSketch, an integrated drawing and modeling tool, allows students to create sketches and apply behaviors to elements of their drawing. A multiagent simulation engine interprets and executes the model, thu

  10. The narrative structure of the unconsciousness in The Story of Sim Cheong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, In Sun

    2014-01-01

    The narrative structure of The Story of Sim Cheong^1 exists on two levels: the narrative structure of the surface and the narrative structure of the unconscious ness in my terminology. The former is deduced from the content of the work corresponding to the concept of objective physical reality, and the other to the concept of psychic reality according to Freud. I see that the heroine Cheong was in an incestuous love relationship with her blind father nicknamed Sim Bongsa - Sim being his family name, Bongsa meaning the blind person - at the unconscious level. Their relationship became an incestuous symbiosis in which they are indispensable to each other. However, there is a break-up of their intimate relationship between father and daughter due to her abandonment by her father. This abandonment results in turn by her abandoning him; there is a mutual abandonment between the father and the daughter. A psychoanalytic study leads us to discover the narrative structure of the unconsciousness of The Story of Sim Cheong: being abandoned by her father and abandoning him from the perspective of the daughter.

  11. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  12. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  13. Hanford Soil Inventory Model (SIM) Rev. 1 Software Documentation – Requirements, Design, and Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Brett C.; Corbin, Rob A.; Anderson, Michael J.; Kincaid, Charles T.

    2006-09-25

    The objective of this document is to support the simulation results reported by Corbin et al. (2005) by documenting the requirements, conceptual model, simulation methodology, testing, and quality assurance associated with the Hanford Soil Inventory Model (SIM). There is no conventional software life-cycle documentation associated with the Hanford SIM because of the research and development nature of the project. Because of the extensive use of commercial- off-the-shelf software products, there was little actual software development as part of this application. This document is meant to provide historical context and technical support of Corbin et al. (2005), which is a significant revision and update to an earlier product Simpson et al. (2001). The SIM application computed waste discharges composed of 75 analytes at 377 waste sites (liquid disposal, unplanned releases, and tank farm leaks) over an operational period of approximately 50 years. The development and application of SIM was an effort to develop a probabilistic approach to estimate comprehensive, mass balanced-based contaminant inventories for the Hanford Site post-closure setting. A computer model capable of calculating inventories and the associated uncertainties as a function of time was identified to address the needs of the Remediation and Closure Science (RCS) Project.

  14. Why is SIMS underused in chemical and biological analysis? Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Amy V

    2008-12-01

    Improvements have led to many developments in SIMS, including better 2D MS imaging, the ability to perform molecular depth profiling, and the development of 3D MS imaging. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry website at pubs.acs.org/ac.).

  15. ToF-SIMS of tissues: "lessons learned" from mice and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Lara J; Graham, Daniel J; Bluestein, Blake; Whitehead, Nicholas P; Hockenbery, David; Morrish, Fionnuala; Porter, Peggy

    2015-03-13

    The ability to image cells and tissues with chemical and molecular specificity could greatly expand our understanding of biological processes. The subcellular resolution mass spectral imaging capability of time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has the potential to acquire chemically detailed images. However, the complexities of biological systems combined with the sensitivity of ToF-SIMS require careful planning of experimental methods. Tissue sample preparation methods of formalin fixation followed by paraffin embedding (FFPE) and OCT embedding are compared. Results show that the FFPE can potentially be used as a tissue sample preparation protocol for ToF-SIMS analysis if a cluster ion pre-sputter is used prior to analysis and if nonlipid related tissue features are the features of interest. In contrast, embedding tissue in OCT minimizes contamination and maintains lipid signals. Various data acquisition methodologies and analysis options are discussed and compared using mouse breast and diaphragm muscle tissue. Methodologies for acquiring ToF-SIMS 2D images are highlighted along with applications of multivariate analysis to better identify specific features in a tissue sections when compared to H&E images of serial sections. Identification of tissue features is necessary for researchers to visualize a molecular map that correlates with specific biological features or functions. Finally, lessons learned from sample preparation, data acquisition, and data analysis methods developed using mouse models are applied to a preliminary analysis of human breast tumor tissue sections.

  16. Simulation Study (SimStudy): A Simulation Tool for Engineers and Mission Planners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    meters of 0.065-inch Zylon Cable Tension Droop 8 The data tables input into the towed target input file for SimStudy are based on the towlines that...are most commonly used for each particular tow. For instance, the TIX-4 is most often towed with 5,000 feet of 0.050-inch diameter Zylon , while the

  17. SimLandScape, a sketching tool for collaborative spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, A.; Vries, de E.A.; Vreenegoor, R.; Bulens, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Interactive spatial planning requires the development of planning support systems (PSSs) that are specifically tailored to support the exchange of ideas and visions during the planning process. This article presents SimLandScape, a client-server-based PSS designed to combine sketching and geographic

  18. No Selling the Genie Lamp: A Game Literacy Practice in "The Sims"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Elisabeth R.; Gee, James Paul

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the New Literacy Studies, the authors argue that game literacy takes multiple forms and is embedded in different practices associated with particular games and gaming communities. They examine one specific game literacy practice that involves players of "The Sims" creating challenges for other players, and they identify how playing and…

  19. VO2sim 0.1: Using Simulation to Understand Measurement Error in Indirect Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Calorimetry by Matthew S Tenan Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOTICES Disclaimers...Simulation to Understand Measurement Error in Indirect Calorimetry by Matthew S Tenan Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL...VO2sim 0.1: Using Simulation to Understand Measurement Error in Indirect Calorimetry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  20. Continuos y el producto simétrico suspensión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barragán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos una breve introducción a la teoría de los continuos y sus hiperespacios. Nos enfocamos en algunos modelos geométricos del producto simétrico suspensión de un continuo y mostramos resultados acerca de conexidad local y arcoconexidad de este espacio.

  1. ToF-SIMS study of polycrystalline uranium after exposure to deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrall, P; Price, D; Nelson, A; Siekhaus, W; Nelson, E; Wu, K J; Stratman, M; McLean, B

    2006-01-19

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is employed to examine specific features observed on a polycrystalline depleted uranium sample after exposure to high purity D{sub 2} gas. The ToF-SIMS investigation, being the first of its kind on uranium, investigates a site where the deuterated form of uranium hydride (UD{sub 3}) is clearly observed to have broken through the thin, air-formed oxide. Density functional theory calculations have been performed, which confirm the stability of, and also assign structural geometries to, the various uranium containing fragments observed with SIMS. An inclusion site was also investigated using ToF-SIMS, and these data suggest that the edges of such inclusions exhibit increased D ion, and hence H ion, diffusion when compared to the surrounding surface oxide. These results offer support to the previously published hypotheses that inclusion sites on uranium surfaces exhibit an increased probability to form hydride sites under H{sub 2} exposure.

  2. I’d like to have a house like that : Female players of The Sims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vosmeer (Mirjam); J. Jansz (Jeroen); E.A. van Zoonen (Liesbet)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This qualitative interview study explores the practices of adult female gamers who play the videogame The Sims, focusing on the motivations they have for playing and how playing a video game might influence their digital competence. We address the wider context of leisure and

  3. ActivitySim: large-scale agent based activity generation for infrastructure simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gali, Emmanuel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mniszewski, Sue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Teuscher, Christof [PORTLAND STATE UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The United States' Department of Homeland Security aims to model, simulate, and analyze critical infrastructure and their interdependencies across multiple sectors such as electric power, telecommunications, water distribution, transportation, etc. We introduce ActivitySim, an activity simulator for a population of millions of individual agents each characterized by a set of demographic attributes that is based on US census data. ActivitySim generates daily schedules for each agent that consists of a sequence of activities, such as sleeping, shopping, working etc., each being scheduled at a geographic location, such as businesses or private residences that is appropriate for the activity type and for the personal situation of the agent. ActivitySim has been developed as part of a larger effort to understand the interdependencies among national infrastructure networks and their demand profiles that emerge from the different activities of individuals in baseline scenarios as well as emergency scenarios, such as hurricane evacuations. We present the scalable software engineering principles underlying ActivitySim, the socia-technical modeling paradigms that drive the activity generation, and proof-of-principle results for a scenario in the Twin Cities, MN area of 2.6 M agents.

  4. TOF-SIMS characterization of impurity enrichment and redistribution in solid oxide electrolysis cells during operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Norrman, Kion; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    TOF-SIMS analyses of state-of-the-art high temperature solid oxide electrolysis cells before and after testing under different operating conditions were performed. The investigated cells consist of an yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, a La1-xSrxMnO3-δ composite anode and a Ni-YSZ cerm...

  5. SimConcept: a hybrid approach for simplifying composite named entities in biomedical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2015-07-01

    One particular challenge in biomedical named entity recognition (NER) and normalization is the identification and resolution of composite named entities, where a single span refers to more than one concept (e.g., BRCA1/2). Previous NER and normalization studies have either ignored composite mentions, used simple ad hoc rules, or only handled coordination ellipsis, making a robust approach for handling multitype composite mentions greatly needed. To this end, we propose a hybrid method integrating a machine-learning model with a pattern identification strategy to identify the individual components of each composite mention. Our method, which we have named SimConcept, is the first to systematically handle many types of composite mentions. The technique achieves high performance in identifying and resolving composite mentions for three key biological entities: genes (90.42% in F-measure), diseases (86.47% in F-measure), and chemicals (86.05% in F-measure). Furthermore, our results show that using our SimConcept method can subsequently improve the performance of gene and disease concept recognition and normalization. SimConcept is available for download at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/SimConcept/.

  6. In situ molecular imaging of hydrated biofilm in a microfluidic reactor by ToF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Zhaoying; Yang, Li; Liu, Bingwen; Zhu, Zihua; Tucker, Abigail E.; Chrisler, William B.; Hill, Eric A.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Lin, Yuehe; Liu, Songqin; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2014-02-26

    The first results of using a novel single channel microfluidic reactor to enable Shewanella biofilm growth and in situ characterization using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) in the hydrated environment are presented. The new microfluidic interface allows direct probing of the liquid surface using ToF-SIMS, a vacuum surface technique. The detection window is an aperture of 2 m in diameter on a thin silicon nitride (SiN) membrane and it allows direct detection of the liquid surface. Surface tension of the liquid flowing inside the microchannel holds the liquid within the aperture. ToF-SIMS depth profiling was used to drill through the SiN membrane and the biofilm grown on the substrate. In situ 2D imaging of the biofilm in hydrated state was acquired, providing spatial distribution of the chemical compounds in the biofilm system. This data was compared with a medium filled microfluidic reactor devoid of biofilm and dried biofilm samples deposited on clean silicon wafers. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used to investigate these observations. Our results show that imaging biofilms in the hydrated environment using ToF-SIMS is possible using the unique microfluidic reactor. Moreover, characteristic biofilm fatty acids fragments were observed in the hydrated biofilm grown in the microfluidic channel, illustrating the advantage of imaging biofilm in its native environment.

  7. Cyclic Voltammetry Simulations with DigiSim Software: An Upper-Level Undergraduate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Stephania J.

    2014-01-01

    An upper-division undergraduate chemistry experiment is described which utilizes DigiSim software to simulate cyclic voltammetry (CV). Four mechanisms were studied: a reversible electron transfer with no subsequent or proceeding chemical reactions, a reversible electron transfer followed by a reversible chemical reaction, a reversible chemical…

  8. Trace Element Determination in Presolar Grains with the NRL SIMS-SSAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groopman, E. E.; Fahey, A. J.; Grabowski, K. S.

    2016-08-01

    With the NRL SIMS-SSAMS we measured trace element abundances down to a few ppb completely free of molecular isobars. We accurately measured 56Fe+ in the presence of Si2+, where 56Fe+ was only 10 ppm of the molecule signal.

  9. SimFuse: A Novel Fusion Simulator for RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance evaluation of fusion detection algorithms from high-throughput sequencing data crucially relies on the availability of data with known positive and negative cases of gene rearrangements. The use of simulated data circumvents some shortcomings of real data by generation of an unlimited number of true and false positive events, and the consequent robust estimation of accuracy measures, such as precision and recall. Although a few simulated fusion datasets from RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq are available, they are of limited sample size. This makes it difficult to systematically evaluate the performance of RNA-Seq based fusion-detection algorithms. Here, we present SimFuse to address this problem. SimFuse utilizes real sequencing data as the fusions’ background to closely approximate the distribution of reads from a real sequencing library and uses a reference genome as the template from which to simulate fusions’ supporting reads. To assess the supporting read-specific performance, SimFuse generates multiple datasets with various numbers of fusion supporting reads. Compared to an extant simulated dataset, SimFuse gives users control over the supporting read features and the sample size of the simulated library, based on which the performance metrics needed for the validation and comparison of alternative fusion-detection algorithms can be rigorously estimated.

  10. CPU SIM: A Computer Simulator for Use in an Introductory Computer Organization-Architecture Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrein, Dale

    1994-01-01

    CPU SIM, an interactive low-level computer simulation package that runs on the Macintosh computer, is described. The program is designed for instructional use in the first or second year of undergraduate computer science, to teach various features of typical computer organization through hands-on exercises. (MSE)

  11. SIM parameter-based security for mobile e-commerce settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Orlando Martínez Pabón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Security requirements are more demanding in the e-commerce domain. However, mobile e -commerce settings not only insist on security requirements, they also require balance between security levels and hardware and usability device ability. These features require designing models having simple authentication and authorisation scheme which also ensures information integrity for each e -transaction. The Mobile and Wireless Applications’ Development Interest Group W@Pcolombia thus developed the P3SIM platform so that mobile applications might include SIM parameter-based security features. The P3SIM platform’s framework and compilation and simulation settings combines the advantages of identification provided by the SIM module with the security features provided by SATSA and Java Card APIs for Java ME environments, one of the most-used platforms for mobile application development. Developing an m-commerce-based prototype not only shows the platform’s ability to operate in secure environments, it also shows its ability to comply with environmental security requirements.

  12. The Sim-SEQ Project: Comparison of Selected Flow Models for the S-3 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Doughty, Christine A.; Bacon, Diana H.; Li, Jun; Wei, Lingli; Yamamoto, Hajime; Gasda, Sarah E.; Hosseini, Seyyed; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-05-23

    Sim-SEQ is an international initiative on model comparison for geologic carbon sequestration, with an objective to understand and, if possible, quantify model uncertainties. Model comparison efforts in Sim-SEQ are at present focusing on one specific field test site, hereafter referred to as the Sim-SEQ Study site (or S-3 site). Within Sim-SEQ, different modeling teams are developing conceptual models of CO2 injection at the S-3 site. In this paper, we select five flow models of the S-3 site and provide a qualitative comparison of their attributes and predictions. These models are based on five different simulators or modeling approaches: TOUGH2/EOS7C, STOMP-CO2e, MoReS, TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N, and VESA. In addition to model-to-model comparison, we perform a limited model-to-data comparison, and illustrate how model choices impact model predictions. We conclude the paper by making recommendations for model refinement that are likely to result in less uncertainty in model predictions.

  13. MI-Sim: A MATLAB package for the numerical analysis of microbial ecological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Matthew J; Oakley, Jordan; Harbisher, Sophie; Parker, Nicholas G; Dolfing, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Food-webs and other classes of ecological network motifs, are a means of describing feeding relationships between consumers and producers in an ecosystem. They have application across scales where they differ only in the underlying characteristics of the organisms and substrates describing the system. Mathematical modelling, using mechanistic approaches to describe the dynamic behaviour and properties of the system through sets of ordinary differential equations, has been used extensively in ecology. Models allow simulation of the dynamics of the various motifs and their numerical analysis provides a greater understanding of the interplay between the system components and their intrinsic properties. We have developed the MI-Sim software for use with MATLAB to allow a rigorous and rapid numerical analysis of several common ecological motifs. MI-Sim contains a series of the most commonly used motifs such as cooperation, competition and predation. It does not require detailed knowledge of mathematical analytical techniques and is offered as a single graphical user interface containing all input and output options. The tools available in the current version of MI-Sim include model simulation, steady-state existence and stability analysis, and basin of attraction analysis. The software includes seven ecological interaction motifs and seven growth function models. Unlike other system analysis tools, MI-Sim is designed as a simple and user-friendly tool specific to ecological population type models, allowing for rapid assessment of their dynamical and behavioural properties.

  14. PhyloSim - Monte Carlo simulation of sequence evolution in the R statistical computing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massingham Tim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Monte Carlo simulation of sequence evolution is routinely used to assess the performance of phylogenetic inference methods and sequence alignment algorithms. Progress in the field of molecular evolution fuels the need for more realistic and hence more complex simulations, adapted to particular situations, yet current software makes unreasonable assumptions such as homogeneous substitution dynamics or a uniform distribution of indels across the simulated sequences. This calls for an extensible simulation framework written in a high-level functional language, offering new functionality and making it easy to incorporate further complexity. Results PhyloSim is an extensible framework for the Monte Carlo simulation of sequence evolution, written in R, using the Gillespie algorithm to integrate the actions of many concurrent processes such as substitutions, insertions and deletions. Uniquely among sequence simulation tools, PhyloSim can simulate arbitrarily complex patterns of rate variation and multiple indel processes, and allows for the incorporation of selective constraints on indel events. User-defined complex patterns of mutation and selection can be easily integrated into simulations, allowing PhyloSim to be adapted to specific needs. Conclusions Close integration with R and the wide range of features implemented offer unmatched flexibility, making it possible to simulate sequence evolution under a wide range of realistic settings. We believe that PhyloSim will be useful to future studies involving simulated alignments.

  15. Cyclic Voltammetry Simulations with DigiSim Software: An Upper-Level Undergraduate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Stephania J.

    2014-01-01

    An upper-division undergraduate chemistry experiment is described which utilizes DigiSim software to simulate cyclic voltammetry (CV). Four mechanisms were studied: a reversible electron transfer with no subsequent or proceeding chemical reactions, a reversible electron transfer followed by a reversible chemical reaction, a reversible chemical…

  16. Development of an Open Source Image-Based Flow Modeling Software - SimVascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegrove, Adam; Merkow, Jameson; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Wilson, Nathan; Marsden, Alison; Shadden, Shawn

    2014-11-01

    SimVascular (www.simvascular.org) is currently the only comprehensive software package that provides a complete pipeline from medical image data segmentation to patient specific blood flow simulation. This software and its derivatives have been used in hundreds of conference abstracts and peer-reviewed journal articles, as well as the foundation of medical startups. SimVascular was initially released in August 2007, yet major challenges and deterrents for new adopters were the requirement of licensing three expensive commercial libraries utilized by the software, a complicated build process, and a lack of documentation, support and organized maintenance. In the past year, the SimVascular team has made significant progress to integrate open source alternatives for the linear solver, solid modeling, and mesh generation commercial libraries required by the original public release. In addition, the build system, available distributions, and graphical user interface have been significantly enhanced. Finally, the software has been updated to enable users to directly run simulations using models and boundary condition values, included in the Vascular Model Repository (vascularmodel.org). In this presentation we will briefly overview the capabilities of the new SimVascular 2.0 release. National Science Foundation.

  17. NanoSIMS analysis of arsenic and selenium in cereal grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Katie L.; Schröder, Markus; Lombi, Enzo; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Shewry, Peter R.; Grovenor, Chris R.M. (Rothamsted); (UCopenhagen); (Oxford)

    2012-09-05

    Cereals are an important source of selenium (Se) to humans and many people have inadequate intakes of this essential trace element. Conversely, arsenic (As) is toxic and may accumulate in rice grain at levels that pose a health risk. Knowledge of the localization of selenium and arsenic within the cereal grain will aid understanding of their deposition patterns and the impact of processes such as milling. High-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) was used to determine the localization of Se in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and As in rice (Oryza sativa). Combined synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) and NanoSIMS analysis utilized the strengths of both techniques. Selenium was concentrated in the protein surrounding the starch granules in the starchy endosperm cells and more homogeneously distributed in the aleurone cells but with Se-rich hotspots. Arsenic was concentrated in the subaleurone endosperm cells in association with the protein matrix rather than in the aleurone cells. NanoSIMS indicated that the high intensity of As identified in the S-XRF image was localized in micron-sized hotspots near the ovular vascular trace and nucellar projection. This is the first study showing subcellular localization in grain samples containing parts per million concentrations of Se and As. There is good quantitative agreement between NanoSIMS and S-XRF.

  18. Making It Real: Sim-School[C] a Backdrop for Contextualizing Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jean Ann; McAllister, Gretchen

    2005-01-01

    Researchers and teacher educators have called for contextualizing the learning of pedagogy and content within the complex context of schools. This account provides an overview of a web-based simulation called Sim-School[C] that provides a realistic framework for students to contextualize curricular decisions, differentiate instruction and reflect…

  19. Role of p-induced population of medium mass(A $\\sim$ 150) neutron rich nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, D; Bhattacharjee, T; Guin, R; Das, S K; Das, P; Pandit, Deepak; Mukherjee, A; Chowdhury, A; Bhattacharya, Soumik; Gupta, S Das; Bhattacharyya, S; Mukhopadhyay, P; Banerjee, S R

    2014-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured by stacked-foil activation technique for the $^{150}$Nd(p, xpyn) reaction using 97.65$%$ enriched $^{150}$Nd target. Measurement up to $\\sim$50$%$ above barrier and down to 18$%$ below the barrier was performed using proton beam energy (E$_p$) of 7 - 15 MeV from VECC Cyclotron. The yield of suitable $\\gamma$ rays emitted following the decay of relevant evaporation residues was determined using a 50$%$ High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.(p,n) cross section was found to follow the expected trend with a maximum value of 63.7(4.9)mb at E$_p$ $\\sim$ 8.6 MeV. (p,2n) cross section gradually increased with E$_p$ and had maximum contribution to the total reaction cross section after E$_p$ $\\sim$ 9.0 MeV. (p, p$^{\\prime}$n) reaction channel also showed a reasonable yield with a threshold of E$_p$ $\\sim$ 12.0 MeV. The experimental data were corroborated with statistical model calculations using different codes, viz., CASCADE, ALICE/91 and EMPIRE3.1. All the calculations using a suit...

  20. SIM PlanetQuest: The TOM-3 (Thermo-Optical-Mechanical) Siderostat Mirror Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Charles J.

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) PlanetQuest mission. It describes the mission, shows diagrams of the instrument, the collector bays, the Siderostat mirrors, the COL bay thermal environment, the TOM-3 replicating COL Bay Environment, the thermal hardware for the SID heater control, and the results of the test are shown

  1. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  2. Si1- x Ge x /Si Interface Profiles Measured to Sub-Nanometer Precision Using uleSIMS Energy Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. J. H.; Hase, T. P. A.; Sanchez, A. M.; Rowlands, G.

    2016-10-01

    The utility of energy sequencing for extracting an accurate matrix level interface profile using ultra-low energy SIMS (uleSIMS) is reported. Normally incident O2 + over an energy range of 0.25-2.5 keV were used to probe the interface between Si0.73Ge0.27/Si, which was also studied using high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). All the SIMS profiles were linearized by taking the well understood matrix effects on ion yield and erosion rate into account. A method based on simultaneous fitting of the SIMS profiles measured at different energies is presented, which allows the intrinsic sample profile to be determined to sub-nanometer precision. Excellent agreement was found between the directly imaged HAADF-STEM interface and that derived from SIMS.

  3. On-line monitoring and tracking of multi-mode vibration signals based on SSI and PF%基于粒子滤波的多模态振动信号在线跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶庆卫; 袁德彬; 武冬星; 周宇

    2013-01-01

    针对多模态振动信号的在线监测和跟踪,提出基于随机子空间(SSI)和粒子滤波(PF)算法的仿真振动信号在线监测和跟踪方法.通过SSI算法提取得到振动系统的模态主频和阻尼比,根据振动系统模型模态主频和阻尼比的计算公式,得到系统的状态矩阵和输出矩阵.将计算所得状态矩阵和输出矩阵代入状态方程,利用PF算法进行信号的在线监测和跟踪,实现信号的降噪处理和预测分析.对于大型机械、桥梁等建筑物,对其进行在线监测保障其正常营运对社会经济发展具有深远影响.利用SSI算法提取系统的模态参数,进一步构建振动系统的状态矩阵和输出矩阵,并利用PF算法进行信号滤波抑噪和预测,在此基础上可以对结构状态实施在线监测及预警控制,实际大桥斜拉索振动信号测试也表明该算法可以提供稳定可靠的信号跟踪与预测技术.%Aiming at on-line monitoring and tracking of multi-mode vibration signals, a simulation method for online monitoring and tracking of vibration signals based on stochastic subspace identification (SSI) and particle filter (PF) techniques was proposed. Using SSI technique, the modal frequencies and damping ratios of a vibration system were extracted. Then, with the formulas of these modal frequencies and damping ratios, the state matrix and output one of the system could be obtained. Substituting these two matrices into the state equations of the vibration system, its vibration signals' filtering, denoising and predicting were performed with PF technique. Afterward, the on-line monitoring and early warning control for the state of the system could be conducted. The inclined cables' vibration signal measurement of a bridge indicated that the proposed method can provide a reliable and stable method for signal tracking and predicting.

  4. R-modes and neutron star recycling scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Gusakov, Mikhail E; Kantor, Elena M

    2016-01-01

    To put new constraints on the r-mode instability window, we analyse formation of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) within the recycling scenario, making use of three sets of observations: (a) X-ray observations of neutron stars (NSs) in low-mass X-ray binaries; (b) timing of millisecond pulsars (MSPs); and (c) X-ray and UV observations of MSPs. As shown in previous works, r-mode dissipation by shear viscosity is not sufficient to explain observational set (a), and enhanced r-mode dissipation at internal temperatures $T^\\infty\\sim 10^8$ K is required to stabilize the observed NSs. Here we argue, that models with enhanced bulk viscosity can hardly lead to a self-consistent explanation of observational set (a) due to strong neutrino emission, which is typical for these models (unrealistically powerful energy source is required to keep NSs at the observed temperatures). We also demonstrate that the observational set (b) requires enhanced r-mode dissipation at low temperatures, $T^\\infty\\sim(1-2)\\times 10^7$ K. Observati...

  5. Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors on Sim1-expressing neurons regulate energy expenditure in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Pierre; Bellocchio, Luigi; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; André, Caroline; Clark, Samantha; Elie, Melissa; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Gonzales, Delphine; Cannich, Astrid; Marsicano, Giovanni; Cota, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) regulates energy balance by modulating not only food intake, but also energy expenditure (EE) and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. To test the hypothesis that cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in PVN neurons might control these processes, we used the Cre/loxP system to delete CB1 from single-minded 1 (Sim1) neurons, which account for the majority of PVN neurons. On standard chow, mice lacking CB1 receptor in Sim1 neurons (Sim1-CB1-knockout [KO]) had food intake, body weight, adiposity, glucose metabolism, and EE comparable with wild-type (WT) (Sim1-CB1-WT) littermates. However, maintenance on a high-fat diet revealed a gene-by-diet interaction whereby Sim1-CB1-KO mice had decreased adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased EE, whereas feeding behavior was similar to Sim1-CB1-WT mice. Additionally, high-fat diet-fed Sim1-CB1-KO mice had increased mRNA expression of the β3-adrenergic receptor, as well as of uncoupling protein-1, cytochrome-c oxidase subunit IV and mitochondrial transcription factor A in the brown adipose tissue, all molecular changes suggestive of increased thermogenesis. Pharmacological studies using β-blockers suggested that modulation of β-adrenergic transmission play an important role in determining EE changes observed in Sim1-CB1-KO. Finally, chemical sympathectomy abolished the obesity-resistant phenotype of Sim1-CB1-KO mice. Altogether, these findings reveal a diet-dependent dissociation in the CB1 receptor control of food intake and EE, likely mediated by the PVN, where CB1 receptors on Sim1-positive neurons do not impact food intake but hinder EE during dietary environmental challenges that promote body weight gain.

  6. Intrashell δ13C SIMS measurements in the cultured planktic foraminifer Orbulina universa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, L.; Kozdon, R.; Valley, J. W.; Mora, C. I.; Spero, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we present experimental data from the planktic foraminifer Orbulina universa cultured in laboratory experiments. We demonstrate that the δ13C of calcite precipitated in 13C-labeled seawater for 24 h can be resolved and accurately measured using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Specimens maintained at 20°C were transferred from ambient seawater (δ13CDIC = +1.3‰) into 13C-enriched seawater with δ13CDIC = +51.5‰ and elevated [Ba] for 24 h. Specimens were then transferred into ambient seawater with elevated [87Sr] for 6-9 h of calcification, followed by a transfer back into unlabeled ambient seawater until gametogenesis. This technique produced O. universa shells with calcite layers of distinct geochemical signatures. We quantify the spatial positions of trace element labels in the shells using laser ablation ICP-MS depth profiling. Using fragments from the same shells, we quantify intrashell δ13Ccalcite using SIMS with a 6 or 8 μm spot (×1.1‰ (2 SD)). Measured δ13Ccalcite values in ambient O. universa shell layers are within 2‰ of predicted δ13Ccalcite values. In 13C-labeled bands of calcite, 6 μm SIMS spot measurements are within 2‰ of predicted δ13Ccalcite values, whereas 8 μm SIMS spots yield values that are intermediate between predicted values for ambient and spiked calcite. The spatial agreement between trace element and carbon isotope data suggest that δ13C, Ba, and Sr tracers are incorporated synchronously into shell calcite, within the resolution of the two analytical techniques. These results demonstrate the ability of SIMS δ13C measurements to resolve 6 μm features in foraminifer shell calcite, and highlight the potential of this technique for addressing questions about foraminifer ecology, biomineralization, and paleoceanography.

  7. SIMS measurements of intrashell δ13C in the cultured planktic foraminifer Orbulina universa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Lael; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.; Mora, Claudia I.; Spero, Howard J.

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we present experimental results from the planktic foraminifer Orbulina universa, cultured in the laboratory. We demonstrate that the δ13C of shell calcite precipitated in 13C-labeled seawater for 24 h can be resolved and accurately measured using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Specimens maintained at 20 °C were transferred from ambient seawater (δ13CDIC = +1.3‰) into seawater with δ13CDIC = +51.5‰ and enriched [Ba2+] for 24 h. Specimens were then transferred into ambient seawater with elevated [87Sr] for 6-9 h of calcification, followed by a transfer back into unlabeled ambient seawater until gametogenesis. This technique produced O. universa shells with calcite layers of distinct geochemical signatures. We quantify the spatial positions of trace element labels in the shells using laser ablation ICP-MS depth profiling. Using fragments from the same shells, we quantify intrashell δ13Ccalcite using SIMS with a 6 or 8 μm spot (2 SD range ±0.5‰ to 1.7‰). Measured δ13Ccalcite values in O. universa shell layers precipitated in ambient seawater are within 2‰ of predicted δ13Ccalcite values. In 13C-labeled bands of calcite, 6 μm SIMS spot measurements are within 2‰ of predicted δ13Ccalcite values, whereas 8 μm SIMS spots yield intermediate, mixed values. The spatial agreement between trace element and carbon isotope data suggests that 13C and cation tracers are synchronously incorporated into shell calcite. These results demonstrate the ability of SIMS δ13C measurements to resolve ∼10 μm features in foraminifer shell calcite using a 6 μm spot, and highlight the potential of this technique for addressing questions about ecology, biomineralization, and paleoceanography.

  8. The impact of detergents on the tissue decellularization process: A ToF-SIMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lisa J; Taylor, Adam J; Faulk, Denver M; Keane, Timothy J; Saldin, Lindsey T; Reing, Janet E; Swinehart, Ilea T; Turner, Neill J; Ratner, Buddy D; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-03-01

    Biologic scaffolds are derived from mammalian tissues, which must be decellularized to remove cellular antigens that would otherwise incite an adverse immune response. Although widely used clinically, the optimum balance between cell removal and the disruption of matrix architecture and surface ligand landscape remains a considerable challenge. Here we describe the use of time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) to provide sensitive, molecular specific, localized analysis of detergent decellularized biologic scaffolds. We detected residual detergent fragments, specifically from Triton X-100, sodium deoxycholate and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in decellularized scaffolds; increased SDS concentrations from 0.1% to 1.0% increased both the intensity of SDS fragments and adverse cell outcomes. We also identified cellular remnants, by detecting phosphate and phosphocholine ions in PAA and CHAPS decellularized scaffolds. The present study demonstrates ToF-SIMS is not only a powerful tool for characterization of biologic scaffold surface molecular functionality, but also enables sensitive assessment of decellularization efficacy. We report here on the use of a highly sensitive analytical technique, time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) to characterize detergent decellularized scaffolds. ToF-SIMS detected cellular remnants and residual detergent fragments; increased intensity of the detergent fragments correlated with adverse cell matrix interactions. This study demonstrates the importance of maintaining a balance between cell removal and detergent disruption of matrix architecture and matrix surface ligand landscape. This study also demonstrates the power of ToF-SIMS for the characterization of decellularized scaffolds and capability for assessment of decellularization efficacy. Future use of biologic scaffolds in clinical tissue reconstruction will benefit from the fundamental results described in this work. Copyright © 2016 Acta

  9. Image segmentation for uranium isotopic analysis by SIMS: Combined adaptive thresholding and marker controlled watershed approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willingham, David G.; Naes, Benjamin E.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Zimmer, Mindy M.; Barrett, Christopher A.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2016-05-31

    A novel approach to particle identification and particle isotope ratio determination has been developed for nuclear safeguard applications. This particle search approach combines an adaptive thresholding algorithm and marker-controlled watershed segmentation (MCWS) transform, which improves the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) isotopic analysis of uranium containing particle populations for nuclear safeguards applications. The Niblack assisted MCWS approach (a.k.a. SEEKER) developed for this work has improved the identification of isotopically unique uranium particles under conditions that have historically presented significant challenges for SIMS image data processing techniques. Particles obtained from five NIST uranium certified reference materials (CRM U129A, U015, U150, U500 and U850) were successfully identified in regions of SIMS image data 1) where a high variability in image intensity existed, 2) where particles were touching or were in close proximity to one another and/or 3) where the magnitude of ion signal for a given region was count limited. Analysis of the isotopic distributions of uranium containing particles identified by SEEKER showed four distinct, accurately identified 235U enrichment distributions, corresponding to the NIST certified 235U/238U isotope ratios for CRM U129A/U015 (not statistically differentiated), U150, U500 and U850. Additionally, comparison of the minor uranium isotope (234U, 235U and 236U) atom percent values verified that, even in the absence of high precision isotope ratio measurements, SEEKER could be used to segment isotopically unique uranium particles from SIMS image data. Although demonstrated specifically for SIMS analysis of uranium containing particles for nuclear safeguards, SEEKER has application in addressing a broad set of image processing challenges.

  10. Potential contribution of SIM2 and ETS2 functional polymorphisms in Down syndrome associated malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Arpita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper expression and functioning of transcription factors (TFs are essential for regulation of different traits and thus could be crucial for the development of complex diseases. Subjects with Down syndrome (DS have a higher incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL while solid tumors, like breast cancer (BC and oral cancer (OC, show rare incidences. Triplication of the human chromosome 21 in DS is associated with altered genetic dosage of different TFs. V-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2 and Single Minded 2 (SIM2 are two such TFs that regulate several downstream genes involved in developmental and neurological pathways. Here we studied functional genetic polymorphisms (fSNP in ETS2 and SIM2 encoding genes in a group of patients and control subjects to better understand association of these variants with DS phenotypes. Methods We employed an in silico approach to identify potential target pathways of ETS2 and SIM2. fSNPs in genes encoding for these two TFs were identified using available databases. Selected sites were genotyped in individuals with DS, their parents, ALL, BC, OC as well as ethnically matched control individuals. We further analyzed these data by population-based statistical methods. Results Allelic/genotypic association analysis showed significant (P  Conclusions We infer from the present investigation that the difference in frequencies of fSNPs and their independent as well as interactive effects may be the cause for altered expression of SIM2 and ETS2 in DS and malignant groups, which affects different downstream biological pathways. Thus, altered expression of SIM2 and ETS2 could be one of the reasons for variable occurrence of different malignant conditions in DS.

  11. Lamb wave propagation modeling for structure health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyue ZHANG; Shenfang YUAN; Tong HAO

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to model the propagation of Lamb waves used in structure health monitoring. A number of different numerical computational techniques have been developed for wave propagation studies. The local interaction simulation approach, used for modeling sharp interfaces and discontinuities in complex media (LISA/SIM theory), has been effectively applied to numerical simulations of elastic wave interaction. This modeling is based on the local interaction simulation approach theory and is finally accomplished through the finite elements software Ansys11. In this paper, the Lamb waves propagating characteristics and the LISA/SIM theory are introduced. The finite difference equations describing wave propagation used in the LISA/SIM theory are obtained. Then, an anisotropic metallic plate model is modeled and a simulating Lamb waves signal is loaded on. Finally, the Lamb waves propagation modeling is implemented.

  12. Changes in the molecular ion yield and fragmentation of peptides under various primary ions in ToF-SIMS and matrix-enhanced ToF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körsgen, Martin; Tyler, Bonnie J; Pelster, Andreas; Lipinsky, Dieter; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-01

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a powerful technique for the nanoanalysis of biological samples, but improvements in sensitivity are needed in order to detect large biomolecules, such as peptides, on the individual cell level at physiological concentrations. Two promising options to improve the sensitivity of SIMS to large peptides are the use of cluster primary ions to increase desorption of intact molecules or the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) matrices to increase the ionization probability. In this paper, the authors have combined these two approaches in order to improve understanding of the interaction between ionization and fragmentation processes. The peptides bradykinin and melittin were prepared as neat monolayers on silicon, in a Dextran-40 matrix and in two common MALDI matrices, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (HCCA). ToF-SIMS spectra of these samples were collected using a range of small Bi cluster primary ions and large Ar cluster primary ions. The trends observed in the molecular ion yield and the [M+H](+)/C4H8N(+) ratio with primary ion cluster size were sample system dependent. The molecular ion yield of the bradykinin was maximized by using 30 keV Bi3 (+) primary ions in a DHB matrix but in the HCCA matrix, the maximum molecular ion yield was obtained by using 30 keV Bi7 (+) primary ions. In contrast, the molecular ion yield for melittin in both matrices was greatest using 20 keV Ar2000 (+) primary ions. Improvements in the molecular ion yield were only loosely correlated with a decrease in small fragment ions. The data indicate a complex interplay between desorption processes and ion formation processes which mean that the optimal analytical conditions depend on both the target analyte and the matrix.

  13. A ToF-SIMS and XPS study of protein adsorption and cell attachment across PEG-like plasma polymer films with lateral compositional gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Donna J.; Jasieniak, Marek; Griesser, Hans J.; Forsythe, John S.; Johnson, Graham; McFarland, Gail A.; Muir, Benjamin W.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we report a detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) study of poly(ethylene glycol) PEG-like chemical gradients deposited via plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) at two different load powers using diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DG) as a monomer. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the ToF-SIMS data both before and after protein adsorption on the plasma polymer thin films. Results of the PCA loadings indicated a higher content of hydrocarbon fragments across the higher load power gradient, which adsorbed higher amounts of proteins. Gradients deposited at a lower load power retained a higher degree of monomer like functionality as did the central region directly underneath the knife edge electrode. Analysis of the adsorption of serum proteins (human serum albumin and fetal bovine serum) was monitored across the gradient films and increased with decreasing ether (PEG-like) film chemistries. The effect of protein incubation time on the levels adsorbed fetal bovine serum on the plasma polymer films was critical, with significantly more protein adsorbing after 24 hour incubation times on both gradient films. The attachment of HeLa cells on the gradients appeared to be dictated not only by the surface chemistry, but also by the adsorption of serum proteins. XPS analysis revealed that at surface ether concentrations of less than 70% in the gradient films, significant increases in protein and cell attachment were observed.

  14. SimBOX: a scalable architecture for aggregate distributed command and control of spaceport and service constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Guru; Jayaram, Sanjay; Ward, Jami; Gupta, Pankaj

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, Aximetric proposes a decentralized Command and Control (C2) architecture for a distributed control of a cluster of on-board health monitoring and software enabled control systems called SimBOX that will use some of the real-time infrastructure (RTI) functionality from the current military real-time simulation architecture. The uniqueness of the approach is to provide a "plug and play environment" for various system components that run at various data rates (Hz) and the ability to replicate or transfer C2 operations to various subsystems in a scalable manner. This is possible by providing a communication bus called "Distributed Shared Data Bus" and a distributed computing environment used to scale the control needs by providing a self-contained computing, data logging and control function module that can be rapidly reconfigured to perform different functions. This kind of software-enabled control is very much needed to meet the needs of future aerospace command and control functions.

  15. SimBox: a simulation-based scalable architecture for distributed command and control of spaceport and service constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Guru; Jayaram, Sanjay; Ward, Jami; Gupta, Pankaj

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, Aximetric proposes a decentralized Command and Control (C2) architecture for a distributed control of a cluster of on-board health monitoring and software enabled control systems called SimBOX that will use some of the real-time infrastructure (RTI) functionality from the current military real-time simulation architecture. The uniqueness of the approach is to provide a "plug and play environment" for various system components that run at various data rates (Hz) and the ability to replicate or transfer C2 operations to various subsystems in a scalable manner. This is possible by providing a communication bus called "Distributed Shared Data Bus" and a distributed computing environment used to scale the control needs by providing a self-contained computing, data logging and control function module that can be rapidly reconfigured to perform different functions. This kind of software-enabled control is very much needed to meet the needs of future aerospace command and control functions.

  16. HSA21 Single-Minded 2 (Sim2 Binding Sites Co-Localize with Super-Enhancers and Pioneer Transcription Factors in Pluripotent Mouse ES Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Letourneau

    Full Text Available The HSA21 encoded Single-minded 2 (SIM2 transcription factor has key neurological functions and is a good candidate to be involved in the cognitive impairment of Down syndrome. We aimed to explore the functional capacity of SIM2 by mapping its DNA binding sites in mouse embryonic stem cells. ChIP-sequencing revealed 1229 high-confidence SIM2-binding sites. Analysis of the SIM2 target genes confirmed the importance of SIM2 in developmental and neuronal processes and indicated that SIM2 may be a master transcription regulator. Indeed, SIM2 DNA binding sites share sequence specificity and overlapping domains of occupancy with master transcription factors such as SOX2, OCT4 (Pou5f1, NANOG or KLF4. The association between SIM2 and these pioneer factors is supported by co-immunoprecipitation of SIM2 with SOX2, OCT4, NANOG or KLF4. Furthermore, the binding of SIM2 marks a particular sub-category of enhancers known as super-enhancers. These regions are characterized by typical DNA modifications and Mediator co-occupancy (MED1 and MED12. Altogether, we provide evidence that SIM2 binds a specific set of enhancer elements thus explaining how SIM2 can regulate its gene network in neuronal features.

  17. Isophote Shapes of Early-Type Galaxies in Massive Clusters at $z\\sim1$ and 0

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsuda, Kazuma; Morokuma, Tomoki; Suzuki, Nao; Yasuda, Naoki; Perlmutter, Saul; Aldering, Greg; Meyers, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    We compare the isophote shape parameter $a_{4}$ of early-type galaxies (ETGs) between $z\\sim1$ and 0 as a proxy for dynamics to investigate the epoch at which the dynamical properties of ETGs are established, using cluster ETG samples with stellar masses of $\\log(M_{*}/M_{\\odot})\\geq10.5$ which have spectroscopic redshifts. We have 130 ETGs from the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey for $z\\sim1$ and 355 ETGs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey for $z\\sim0$. We have developed an isophote shape analysis method which can be used for high-redshift galaxies and has been carefully compared with published results. We have applied the same method for both the $z\\sim1$ and $0$ samples. We find similar dependence of the $a_{4}$ parameter on the mass and size at $z\\sim1$ and 0; the main population of ETGs changes from disky to boxy at a critical stellar mass of $\\log(M_{*}/M_{\\odot})\\sim11.5$ with the massive end dominated by boxy. The disky ETG fraction decreases with increasing stellar mass both at $z\\sim1...

  18. ArchSim: A System-Level Parallel Simulation Platform for the Architecture Design of High Performance Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qin Huang; Hong-Liang Li; Xiang-Hui Xie; Lei Qian; Zi-Yu Hao; Feng Guo; Kun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    High performance computer(HPC)is a complex huge system,of which the architecture design meets increasing difficulties and risks.Traditional methods,such as theoretical analysis,component-level simulation and sequential simulation,are not applicable to system-level simulations of HPC systems.Eyen the parallel simulation using large-scale parallel machines also have many difficulties in scalability,reliability,generality,as well as efficiency.According to the current needs of HPC architecture design,this paper proposes a system-level parallel simulation platform:ArchSim.We first introduce the architecture of ArchSim simulation platform which is composed of a global server(GS),local server agents(LSA)and entities.Secondly,we emphasize some key techniques of ArchSim,including the synchronization protocol,the communication mechanism and the distributed checkpointing/restart mechanism.We then make a synthesized test of some main performance indices of ArchSim with the phold benchmark and analyze the extra overhead generated by ArchSim.Finally,based on ArchSim.we construct a parallel event-driven interconnection network simulator and a system-level simulator for a small scale HPC system with 256 processors.The results of the performance test and HPC system simulations demonstrate that ArchSim can achieve high speedup ratio and high scalability on parallel host machine and support system-level simulations for the architecture design of HPC systems.

  19. Development and validation of SIMS: an instrument for measuring quality of life of adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Graves, Patricia; Lamar, Kimberly; Johnson, Cage; Corley, Pat

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the assessment of quality of life (QOL) issues, particularly in chronic debilitating conditions. Several instruments have been developed, tested, and validated in the general population and in other chronic diseases; however, few studies have examined QOL issues in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). We developed Sickle Cell Impact Measurement Scale (SIMS), an instrument for measuring the QOL of adults with SCD. The 142-item multi-dimensional SIMS questionnaire was developed using 4 validated instruments and additional questions based upon recommendations of patient focus groups. The SIMS was self-administered to 106 SCD and 45 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients over 4 sites. SIMS was evaluated on measures of both internal consistency and construct validity. Item reduction was performed based on results of factor analysis. The SIMS achieved good internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient reported of 0.86, and distinguished between patients with SCD and RA. Overall, QOL did not differ significantly among SCD and RA patients. However, SCD patients scored higher in both physical and social domains, which was expected and reflected the differences in the pathophysiology of each disease. The SIMS is a reliable, valid, and responsive questionnaire, which functions well as a discriminative instrument for the measure of health-related QOL (HRQOL) of adults with SCD. The SIMS is currently being administered to adults with SCD across several centers for further validation to become a disease-specific, global QOL instrument.

  20. Spatially resolved quantification of organic matter in synthetic organo-mineral associations by NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurig, Christian; Schrank, Thomas; Müller, Carsten W.; Pohl, Lydia; Höschen, Carmen; Totsche, Kai-Uwe; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    Soil structure is resulting from soil forming processes at the molecular scale, but has feedbacks on soil functions on macroscopic or even global scales. In this framework, soil organic matter (SOM) is of special importance as a gluing agent for soil structure, besides being a carbon sink. Conventional bulk-scale analyses allows for quantification and for a characterisation of the chemical bonding types of OM. However, all information of the spatial distribution of OM on the relevant scale of few nano- to micrometres is lost during this kind of analyses. While nano-scale secondary ion mass-spectroscopy (NanoSIMS) delivers qualitative data on the spatial distribution of SOM at the nano-scale, receiving quantitative data from this method remains challenging due to matrix and charging effects. In order to overcome this problem, the aim of this study was to develop scaling factors between conventional bulk-scale methods and NanoSIMS. For developing these factors, dissolved organic matter (DOM) was extracted from organic material, which was sampled from a podzol. Subsequently, model minerals, such as boehmite and illite, were loaded with defined amounts of this DOM by means of sorption experiments. After the end of the experiments the liquid and solid phases were divided by means of centrifugation and the solid phase was subjected to freeze drying. Carbon and nitrogen content of the solid and liquid phases were measured via C/N and TOC analyses, respectively. The measured data was fitted with Freundlich-type adsorption isotherms. Samples for NanoSIMS analyses were distributed onto silicon wafers as individual particles. The following elements were analysed: C, N, O, Si, S and Al. Spatially resolved analysis of the NanoSIMS data yielded a increased detection of SOM on the minerals in higher concentration steps. Linear relationships with high correlation and low deviation were found when comparing the spatially resolved NanoSIMS data with the bulk scale methods. The

  1. Motion Simulation of 3-DOF Parallel Robot Based on SimMechanics%基于SimMechanics的三自由度并联机器人仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志斌; 董旭明; 钟德永

    2012-01-01

    Delta型机器人是一种三自由度纯平动并联机构,介绍了应用Simulink的SimMechanics模块集对Delta平台进行仿真研究的方法.运用SimMechanics模块对并联机器人进行建模,并根据机构的几何特性建立运动学逆解求取模块,给出动平台规划运动轨迹,通过运动学逆解求取模块生成机构驱动轴输入运动信号,对机构模型进行运动仿真.仿真结果表明,所建立的机械模型和逆解求取模块以及轨迹跟踪都符合实际系统特性,仿真方法高效、实用.

  2. Multilayer analysis using SIMS: interpretation of profiles at interfaces. Analyse de couches ou multicouches par SIMS : interpretation du profil aux interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucouturier, M. (CNRS, Labs. de Meudon-Bellevue, 92 Meudon (France)); Grattepain, C. (CNRS, Labs. de Meudon-Bellevue, 92 Meudon (France)); Tromson-Carli, A. (CNRS, Labs. de Meudon-Bellevue, 92 Meudon (France)); Barbe, M. (CNRS, Labs. de Meudon-Bellevue, 92 Meudon (France)); Cohen-Solal, G. (CNRS, Labs. de Meudon-Bellevue, 92 Meudon (France)); Marfaing, Y. (CNRS, Labs. de Meudon-Bellevue, 92 Meudon (France)); Chevrier, F. (CNRS, Labs. de Meudon-Bellevue, 92 Meudon (France)); Gall, H. le (CNRS, Labs. de Meudon-Bellevue, 92 Meudon (France)); Imhoff, D. (CNRS, Labs. de Meudon-Bellevue, 92 Meudon (France))

    1993-11-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a well adapted analytical method for the chemical characterization of concentration profiles in layered or multilayered materials, particularly concerning the more or less abrupt interfaces bounding those layers. It is known that the fiability and accuracy of the interface characterization may be affected by methodological factors, which alter the depth resolution such as: macroscopical or microscopical initial roughness of the substrate and/or of the layers, ion-induced roughening, effects of differential sputtering of the various elements, transitory stage of the primary ion beam implantation, ion beam induced accelerated diffusion, balistic mixing or segregation; etc.. This communication describes several examples of SIMS analysis performed on metal multilayers (Co/Cu) and on epitaxial semiconductor layers (CdTe/GaAs), focussing the interest on the particular analytical problems raised by the initial roughness and the ion induced roughening effect. The interpretation of the measured profiles, the influence of analytical parameters (such as the nature of the primary ion beam, sputtering conditions, detected ion species), and the limitations of profilometry roughness measurements, are discussed. Solutions are proposed in order to improve the depth resolution of interface characterization, including a tentative modelization of roughness effects. (orig.).

  3. 基于SIM900A儿童防丢器终端设计%Design of Children Anti-loss Device Terminal Based on SIM900A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺婷

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the single function of children anti-loss device in the market, a smart children anti-loss device is designed to meet with people's needs. The terminal contains the main control STM32F103C, the peripheral part and the SIM900A module. The main function is to realize station location and send the location information to the main control terminal or call the main con-trol terminal when the terminal identifies the AT command sending by the main control terminal.%针对市面儿童防丢器功能单一的情况,设计一款智能儿童防丢器满足人们需求。儿童防丢器的终端包含主控STM32F103C及外设部分和SIM900A模块。主要实现当终端识别主控端发送的AT指令信息,执行基站定位并将位置信息发送给主控端或拨打主控端电话等相关功能。

  4. FabSim: facilitating computational research through automation on large-scale and distributed e-infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Groen, Derek; Suter, James; Hetherington, James; Zasada, Stefan; Coveney, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We present FabSim, a toolkit developed to simplify a range of computational tasks for researchers in diverse disciplines. FabSim is flexible, adaptable, and allows users to perform a wide range of tasks with ease. It also provides a systematic way to automate the use of resourcess, including HPC and distributed resources, and to make tasks easier to repeat by recording contextual information. To demonstrate this, we present three use cases where FabSim has enhanced our research productivity. These include simulating cerebrovascular bloodflow, modelling clay-polymer nanocomposites across multiple scales, and calculating ligand-protein binding affinities.

  5. SIMS characterization of segregation in InAs/GaAs heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, S. [Electrical Engineer Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado postal 14470, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Kudriatsev, Y. [Electrical Engineer Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado postal 14470, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: yuriyk@cinvestav.mx; Villegas, A.; Ramirez, G.; Asomoza, R. [Electrical Engineer Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado postal 14470, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Hernandez, E.; Rojas-Ramirez, J.S.; Lopez-Lopez, M. [Physics Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado postal 14470, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    We performed a detailed study of in situ indium segregation in InAs/GaAs heterostructures during conventional MBE growth process. A set of heterostructures grown under different substrate temperatures was tested. We used in the study a recently developed equation for SIMS's Depth Resolution Function (DRF), which included Recoil Implantation, Cascade Mixing and Sputtering Induced Roughness phenomena (RMR model). Segregation process was included in this DRF as an exponentially increasing function. Then we found from experimental SIMS depth profiles segregation parameters for different growth temperatures and the energy activation for the segregation process. It was found equal to 0.27 eV that is close to values published in literature. A segregation free regime of the growth process was developed experimentally.

  6. Formation of oxides and segregation of mobile atoms during SIMS profiling of Si with oxygen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petravic, M.; Williams, J.S.; Svensson, B.G.; Conway, M. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences

    1993-12-31

    An oxygen beam is commonly used in secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis to enhance the ionization probability for positive secondary ions. It has been observed, however, that this technique produces in some cases a great degradation of depth resolution. The most pronounced effects have been found for impurities in silicon under oxygen bombardment at angles of incidence smaller than {approx} 30 deg from the surface normal. A new approach is described which involved broadening of SIMS profiles for some mobile atoms, such as Cu, Ni and Au, implanted into silicon. The anomalously large broadening is explained in terms of segregation at a SiO{sub 2}/Si interface formed during bombardment with oxygen at impact angles less than 30 deg. 2 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  7. SIMS ion microscopy as a novel, practical tool for subcellular chemical imaging in cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, S

    2003-01-15

    The development of cryogenic sample preparations, subcellular image quantification schemes, and correlative confocal laser scanning microscopy and ion microscopy have made dynamic SIMS a versatile tool in biology and medicine. For example, ion microscopy can provide much needed, novel information on calcium influx and intracellular calcium stores at organelle resolution in normal and transformed cells in order to better understand the altered calcium signaling in malignant cells. 3-D SIMS imaging of cells revealed dynamic gradients of calcium in cells undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis. Studies of subcellular localization of anticancer drugs is another area of research where ion microscopy can provide novel observations in many types of cancers. Ion microscopy is already an essential tool in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain cancer as it can be used to quantitatively image the subcellular location of boron in cells and tissues. This information is critically needed for testing the efficacy of boronated agents and for calculations of radiation dosimetry.

  8. La construcción de personajes en el videojuego SIMS 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Luisa García Guardia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo recoge el análisis del videojuego Sims2 como un universo simbólico en el que se establecen relaciones de género entre los personajes. Para ello, se aborda el papel del usuario como “inter-autor” en la construcción de los personaje, en la medida en que realiza una inmersión para conocer el mundo recreado de los Sims y  juega a crear un mundo perfecto. Un personaje plano y sin personalidad, reflejo del sujeto moderno tremendamente estereotipado: ideología utilitarista, individualización, fragmentación, diferenciación con respecto a la autoridad, competitividad; apariencia y consumismo.

  9. Analysis of multilayer film using RBS/channeling, sputtering/RBS and SIMS

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Guo Qing; Zhou Zhu Ying; Jiang Lei; Song Ling Gen; Yang Yu

    2002-01-01

    RBS/Channeling, Sputtering/RBS and SIMS analysis have been performed on the MBE-grown Si/Ge sub x Si sub 1 sub - sub x multilayer. The thickness, atomic ratio and crystalline perfectness of the epitaxial layer are determined by 2 MeV sup 4 He sup + RBS/Channeling analysis. By sputter etching of the sample with low energy Ar sup + ions, the thickness of epitaxial layer is reduced. Then RBS analysis of 2 MeV sup 4 He sup + ions on the etched sample yields information about the deeper layers, the interface of the multilayer samples and the concerned phenomena induced by sputter etching. The periodical structure of Si/Ge sub x Si sub 1 sub - sub x multilayer samples is clearly identified by the SIMS analysis before and after sputter etching

  10. MixSim : An R Package for Simulating Data to Study Performance of Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Melnykov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The R package MixSim is a new tool that allows simulating mixtures of Gaussian distributions with different levels of overlap between mixture components. Pairwise overlap, defined as a sum of two misclassification probabilities, measures the degree of interaction between components and can be readily employed to control the clustering complexity of datasets simulated from mixtures. These datasets can then be used for systematic performance investigation of clustering and finite mixture modeling algorithms. Among other capabilities of MixSim, there are computing the exact overlap for Gaussian mixtures, simulating Gaussian and non-Gaussian data, simulating outliers and noise variables, calculating various measures of agreement between two partitionings, and constructing parallel distribution plots for the graphical display of finite mixture models. All features of the package are illustrated in great detail. The utility of the package is highlighted through a small comparison study of several popular clustering algorithms.

  11. AlgaeSim: a model for integrated algal biofuel production and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Ivy L C; Joustra, Caryssa; Prieto, Ana; Bair, Robert; Yeh, Daniel H

    2014-02-01

    AlgaeSim, a dynamic multiple-systems (C, N, P) mass balance model, was developed to explore the potential for algae biomass production from wastewater by coupling two photobioreactors into the main treatment train at a municipal wastewater resource recovery facility (WRRF) in Tampa, Florida. The scoping model examined the synergy between algae cultivation and wastewater treatment through algal growth and substrate removal kinetics, as well as through macroeconomic analyses of biomass conversion to bioproducts. Sensitivity analyses showed that biomass production is strongly dependent on Monod variables and harvesting regime, with sensitivity changing with growth phase. Profitability was sensitive to processing costs and market prices of products. Under scenarios based on current market conditions and typical algae production, AlgaeSim shows that a WRRF can potentially generate significant profit if algae are processed for biodiesel, biogas, or fertilizer. Wastewater resource recovery facilities could similarly save on operating costs resulting from the reduction in aeration (for nitrification) and chemicals (for denitrification).

  12. An investigation of the oxidation behaviour of zirconium alloys using isotopic tracers and high resolution SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yardley, Sean S., E-mail: sean.yardley@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Moore, Katie L. [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Ni, Na [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wei, Jang Fei; Lyon, Stuart; Preuss, Michael [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Materials Performance Centre, Manchester, Lancashire M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Grovenor, Chris R.M. [Department of Materials, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Zr alloys were oxidised for various times in an autoclave to simulate PWR conditions. •Isotopic tracers {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H were added to reveal active oxidation sites by NanoSIMS analysis. •Hydrides were present in all samples, even those with short oxidation times. •Porosity mediated transitions between corrosion regimes occur at critical oxide thicknesses. -- Abstract: High resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis has been used to study the oxidation mechanisms when commercial low tin ZIRLO™ and Zircaloy 4 materials are exposed to corroding environments containing both {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H isotopes. Clear evidence has been shown for different characteristic distributions of {sup 18}O before and after the kinetic transitions, and this behaviour has been correlated with the development of porosity in the oxide which allows the corroding medium to penetrate locally to the metal/oxide interface.

  13. A shielded SIMS in CEA: a new tool for the low abundant isotopes characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgranges, L.; Pasquet, B

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of studies on long term behaviour of nuclear fuel, the inventory of some isotopes with a low abundance is necessary (iodine 129 or carbon 14 for example). Up to now little attention was paid to these isotopes in the nuclear fuel because they have nearly no influence on the nuclear fuel behavior in irradiation conditions, despite their interest for waste studies. Recently a shielded SIMS was installed in the LECA-STAR facility which enables the detection of some isotopes up to the ppb. Its capabilities were tested with iodine and carbon in irradiated nuclear fuel. It is demonstrated that these elements can have different chemical forms and non homogeneous distribution within the UO{sub 2} ceramics. These results can provide a more realistic description of the behaviour of these elements. The SIMS characterization can be applied on numerous low abundant radio-nuclide and different solid materials. (authors)

  14. SimTrack: A compact c++ code for particle orbit and spin tracking in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun

    2015-11-01

    SimTrack is a compact c++ code of 6-d symplectic element-by-element particle tracking in accelerators originally designed for head-on beam-beam compensation simulation studies in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It provides a 6-d symplectic orbit tracking with the 4th order symplectic integration for magnet elements and the 6-d symplectic synchro-beam map for beam-beam interaction. Since its inception in 2009, SimTrack has been intensively used for dynamic aperture calculations with beam-beam interaction for RHIC. Recently, proton spin tracking and electron energy loss due to synchrotron radiation were added. In this paper, I will present the code architecture, physics models, and some selected examples of its applications to RHIC and a future electron-ion collider design eRHIC.

  15. Análisis de un cifrador simétrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Manuel Mancilla Herrera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Matt Blaze, un sobresaliente investigador de los laboratorios AT&T y con mucha experiencia en el campo de la criptografía, realizó una propuesta sobre un cifrador de clave simétrica basado en un subproblema NP-completo. El autor describe una primitiva de seguridad sencilla y eficiente que tiene como base las redes Feistel. Además, propone dos criptosistemas de clave simétrica que usan dicha primitiva: Turtle y Hare. El propósito fundamental de este artículo fue estudiar la propuesta de los cifradores Turtle y Hare. Nos apoyamos en la implementación expuesta por el autor con algunas modificaciones que realizamos, para el trabajo con archivos

  16. SimTrack: A compact c++ library for particle orbit and spin tracking in accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yun [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    SimTrack is a compact c++ library of 6-d symplectic element-by-element particle tracking in accelerators originally designed for head-on beam-beam compensation simulation studies in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It provides a 6-d symplectic orbit tracking with the 4th order symplectic integration for magnet elements and the 6-d symplectic synchro-beam map for beam-beam interaction. Since its inception in 2009, SimTrack has been intensively used for dynamic aperture calculations with beam-beam interaction for RHIC. Recently, proton spin tracking and electron energy loss due to synchrotron radiation were added. In this article, I will present the code architecture, physics models, and some selected examples of its applications to RHIC and a future electron-ion collider design eRHIC.

  17. Effects of uncertainties in simulations of extragalactic UHECR propagation, using CRPropa and SimProp

    CERN Document Server

    Batista, Rafael Alves; di Matteo, Armando; van Vliet, Arjen; Walz, David

    2015-01-01

    The results of simulations of the extragalactic propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have intrinsic uncertainties due to poorly known physical quantities and approximations used in the codes. We quantify the uncertainties in the simulated UHECR spectrum and composition due to different models for the extragalactic background light (EBL), different photodisintegration setups, approximations concerning photopion production and the use of different simulation codes. We discuss the results for several representative source scenarios with proton, nitrogen or iron at injection. For this purpose we used SimProp and CRPropa, two publicly available codes for Monte Carlo simulations of UHECR propagation. CRPropa is a detailed and extensive simulation code, while SimProp aims to achieve acceptable results using a simpler code. We show that especially the choices for the EBL model and the photodisintegration setup can have a considerable impact on the simulated UHECR spectrum and composition.

  18. Chemical differences between sapwood and heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa detected by ToF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, K.; Mitsutani, T.; Imai, T.; Matsushita, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Fukushima, K.

    2008-12-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to investigate the distribution of elements, Na, Mg, Al, K, and Ca, and lignin, in the contiguous growth rings including the sapwood/heartwood boundary in Hinoki cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa). Lignin was distributed almost uniformly from sapwood to heartwood. The concentrations of most of the elements showed a drastic increase or decrease in the transition zone between sapwood and heartwood. The ToF-SIMS mapping analysis showed that most of the elements predominantly localized in the ray parenchyma cells in the inner transition zone and heartwood, while the elements showed no localization and distributed almost uniformly in the outer transition zone near sapwood. The result suggests that the ray parenchyma cells play a role in behaviors of elements during the transition from sapwood to heartwood.

  19. Zircon SIMS ages and chemical compositions from Northern Dabie Terrain: Its implication for pyroxenite genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed micro-scale investigation of zircons from pyroxenites, Daoshicong Northern Dabie using a combination of SIMS and ICPMS. The SIMS measurements gave ages of 134-159 Ma. Its average of (144.5±6.2) Ma is interpreted as the best estimate of the pyroxenite intrusion. The crystallization of zircons continued for quite a long time and underwent slow cooling. The py-roxenites are products of post-collision magmatism. The REE pattern is HREE-enriched, and its HREE concentra-tions fall between the magmatic and metamorphic range of gneissic zircons from the Dabie area, which indicate the involvement of crust material in its mantle source.

  20. 'I can do the child no good': Dr Sims and the enslaved infants of Montgomery, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Stephen C

    2007-08-01

    This article examines the influence of slavery and race on medical education, practice and research in the American South. Drawing on the published autobiography, case-histories, and correspondence of American slave surgeon and 'pioneer' gynaecologist, James Marion Sims, the contribution highlights a lesser known episode from his early career, namely his surgical treatment of enslaved infants suffering from trismus nascentium (neonatal tetanus). Sims became a highly prestigious figure in his later medical career, but the foundations of his success relied on the use of slave bodies and enslaved patients. These were typically distinctive features of the life of an ambitious medical professional in the slave South, where the profession profited from the institution of slavery, and human experimentation and medical research were advanced specifically through the exploitation of the region's enslaved population.

  1. Distinguishing Monosaccharide Stereo- and Structural Isomers with ToF-SIMS and Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E F; Kulp, K S; Knize, M G; Wu, L; Nelson, E J; Nelson, D O; Wu, K J

    2006-05-04

    Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is utilized to examine the mass spectra and fragmentation patterns of seven isomeric monosaccharides. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA), allow discrimination of the extremely similar mass spectra of stereoisomers. Furthermore, PCA identifies those fragment peaks which vary significantly between spectra. Heavy isotope studies confirm that these peaks are indeed sugar fragments, allow identification of the fragments, and provide clues to the fragmentation pathways. Excellent reproducibility is shown by multiple experiments performed over time and on separate samples. This study demonstrates the combined selectivity and discrimination power of ToF-SIMS and PCA, and suggests new applications of the technique including differentiation of subtle chemical changes in biological samples that may provide insights into cellular processes, disease progress, and disease diagnosis.

  2. Modeling Multi-Wavelength Stellar Astrometry. I. SIM Lite Observations of Interacting Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Jeffrey L; Harrison, Thomas E; Hoard, D W; Ciardi, David R; Benedict, G Fritz; Howell, Steve B; McArthur, Barbara E; Wachter, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    Interacting binaries consist of a secondary star which fills or is very close to filling its Roche lobe, resulting in accretion onto the primary star, which is often, but not always, a compact object. In many cases, the primary star, secondary star, and the accretion disk can all be significant sources of luminosity. SIM Lite will only measure the photocenter of an astrometric target, and thus determining the true astrometric orbits of such systems will be difficult. We have modified the Eclipsing Light Curve code (Orosz & Hauschildt 2000) to allow us to model the flux-weighted reflex motions of interacting binaries, in a code we call REFLUX. This code gives us sufficient flexibility to investigate nearly every configuration of interacting binary. We find that SIM Lite will be able to determine astrometric orbits for all sufficiently bright interacting binaries where the primary or secondary star dominates the luminosity. For systems where there are multiple components that comprise the spectrum in the op...

  3. Oxygen bleed-in during SIMS depth profiling: curse or blessing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalm, P. C.; Vriezema, C. J.

    1992-02-01

    Oxygen flooding of the target during SIMS depth profiling finds widespread application foranumber of reasons. Among others it enhances the (positive) secondary ionization efficiency, helps in suppressing bombardment-induced surface topography development and reduces the transition time to steady-state erosion conditions. These attractive properties are offset by a number of artefacts that may be introduced by O 2 inlet. A summary of vices and virtues, largely based on existing knowledge, is presented. Then one of the few open questions is addressed, namely to what extent O 2 bleed-in ffects depth resolution. This is examined in some detail by studying ultrashallow dopant profiles of B, P, Ga or Sb in Si by SIMS with and without O 2 leak.

  4. Teoría de gravitación no simétrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rojas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se efectúa la revisión de la Teoría de gravitación no simétrica desarrollada por el profesor John Moffat, como una alternativa que permite solucionar problemas de la Relatividad General al describir la estructura del universo a gran escala. Algunos aspectos relacionados con el carácter físico y geométrico de las estructuras de campo espacio-temporal no simétricas, son discutidos. También, el problema de explicar la expansión acelerada del universo, y algunos inconvenientes teóricos relacionados con energía y materia oscura, son tratados.

  5. User Guide for GoldSim Model to Calculate PA/CA Doses and Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-31

    A model to calculate doses for solid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and corresponding disposal limits has been developed using the GoldSim commercial software. The model implements the dose calculations documented in SRNL-STI-2015-00056, Rev. 0 “Dose Calculation Methodology and Data for Solid Waste Performance Assessment (PA) and Composite Analysis (CA) at the Savannah River Site”.

  6. Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Buah Markisa Ungu (Passiflora edulis Sims) Menjadi Pewarna Lipstik

    OpenAIRE

    Monalisa S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipstick is a cosmetic preparation used for coloring the lips by artistic touch in improving the esthetic of the facial make-up. Lip color crayons form is better known by the name lipstick from made of oil, wax, fats and dyestuffs. Purple passion fruit plant (Passiflora edulis Sims) has attractive colors that is red purplish comes from anthocyanin, which is derived flavonoid compounds. Anthocyanins have a variety of benefits such as natural dyes so that can become alternative in c...

  7. Characterization of mineral-associated organic matter: a combined approach of AFM and NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Lydia; Schurig, Christian; Eusterhues, Karin; Mueller, Carsten W.; Höschen, Carmen; Totsche, Kai-Uwe; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneous spatial distribution and amount of organic matter (OM) in soils, especially at the micro- or submicron-scale, has major consequences for the soil microstructure and for the accessibility of OM to decomposing microbial communities. Processes occurring at the microscale control soil properties and processes at larger scales, such as macro-aggregation and carbon turnover. Since OM acts as substrate and most important driver for biogeochemical processes, particular attention should be paid to its spatial interaction with soil minerals. In contrast to bulk analysis, Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS) offers the possibility to examine the composition and spatial distribution of OM within the intact organo-mineral matrix. Nevertheless, the yield of secondary electrons is influenced by the individual topography of the analysed particles, which aggravated the quantitative interpretation of the data. A combination of NanoSIMS and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), enabled us to visualize and quantify the topographical features of individual particles and correct the NanoSIMS data for this effect. We performed adsorption experiments with water-soluble soil OM in 6 concentration steps, which was extracted from forest floor layer of a Podzol, and adsorbed to illite. Upon the end of the sorption experiments the liquid phase and the solid phase were separated and the carbon content was analysed with TOC- and C/N-measurement, respectively. For the spatially resolved analyses, the samples were applied as thin layers onto silicon wafers and individual particles were chosen by means of the AFM. Subsequently, the identical particles were analysed with NanoSIMS to investigate the distribution of C, N, O, Si, P and Al. The recorded data were analysed for differences in elemental distribution between the different concentration steps. Additionally, we performed a correlation of the detectable counts with the topography of the particle within one

  8. SIM Editor复制编辑手机个人资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波勇; 曾水有; 谭赞良

    2004-01-01

    SIME ditor软件是与“一卡多号”SIM卡号码复制软件SIM Scanner一并同时安装的,其主要作用是复制SIM卡的电话簿、短消息和进行待机图案与铃声的编辑写入,此外还具有一定的SIM卡密码管理功能:

  9. Subcellular SIMS imaging of isotopically labeled amino acids in cryogenically prepared cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subhash

    2004-06-15

    Ion microscopy is a potentially powerful technique for localization of isotopically labeled molecules. In this study, L-arginine and phenylalanine amino acids labeled with stable isotopes {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N were localized in cultured cells with the ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution. Cells were exposed to the labeled amino acids and cryogenically prepared. SIMS analyses were made in fractured freeze-dried cells. A dynamic distribution was observed from labeled arginine-treated LLC-PK{sub 1} kidney cells at mass 28 ({sup 13}C{sup 15}N) in negative secondaries, revealing cell-to-cell heterogeneity and preferential accumulation of the amino acid (or its metabolite) in the nucleus and nucleolus of some cells. The smaller nucleolus inside the nucleus was clearly resolved in SIMS images and confirmed by correlative light microscopy. The distribution of labeled phenylalanine contrasted with arginine as it was rather homogeneously distributed in T98G human glioblastoma cells. Images of {sup 39}K, {sup 23}Na and {sup 40}Ca were also recorded to confirm the reliability of sample preparation and authenticity of the observed amino acid distributions. These observations indicate that SIMS techniques can provide a valuable technology for subcellular localization of nitrogen-containing molecules in proteomics since nitrogen does not have a radionuclide tracer isotope. Amino acids labeled with stable isotopes can be used as tracers for studying their transport and metabolism in distinct subcellular compartments with SIMS. Further studies of phenylalanine uptake in human glioblastoma cells may have special significance in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a boron analogue of phenylalanine, boronophenylalanine is a clinically approved compound for the treatment of brain tumors.

  10. Subcellular SIMS imaging of isotopically labeled amino acids in cryogenically prepared cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash

    2004-06-01

    Ion microscopy is a potentially powerful technique for localization of isotopically labeled molecules. In this study, L-arginine and phenylalanine amino acids labeled with stable isotopes 13C and 15N were localized in cultured cells with the ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution. Cells were exposed to the labeled amino acids and cryogenically prepared. SIMS analyses were made in fractured freeze-dried cells. A dynamic distribution was observed from labeled arginine-treated LLC-PK 1 kidney cells at mass 28 ( 13C15N) in negative secondaries, revealing cell-to-cell heterogeneity and preferential accumulation of the amino acid (or its metabolite) in the nucleus and nucleolus of some cells. The smaller nucleolus inside the nucleus was clearly resolved in SIMS images and confirmed by correlative light microscopy. The distribution of labeled phenylalanine contrasted with arginine as it was rather homogeneously distributed in T98G human glioblastoma cells. Images of 39K, 23Na and 40Ca were also recorded to confirm the reliability of sample preparation and authenticity of the observed amino acid distributions. These observations indicate that SIMS techniques can provide a valuable technology for subcellular localization of nitrogen-containing molecules in proteomics since nitrogen does not have a radionuclide tracer isotope. Amino acids labeled with stable isotopes can be used as tracers for studying their transport and metabolism in distinct subcellular compartments with SIMS. Further studies of phenylalanine uptake in human glioblastoma cells may have special significance in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a boron analogue of phenylalanine, boronophenylalanine is a clinically approved compound for the treatment of brain tumors.

  11. VN-Sim: A Way to Keep Core Concepts in a Crowded Computing Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raymond Lang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary computer science curricula must accommodate a broad array of developments important to the field. Tough choices have to be made between introducing newer topics and retaining fundamentals that ground the discipline as a whole. All too frequently, understanding of low level coding and its relation to basic hardware is sacrificed to make room for newer material. VN-Sim, a von Neumann machine simulator, provides a mechanism for streamlined coverage of low level coding and hardware topics.

  12. Using NanoSIMS to map trace elements in stainless steels from nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano-Perez, S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Sergio.lozano-perez@materials.ox.ac.uk; Schroeder, M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Yamada, T.; Terachi, T. [Institute of Nuclear Safety Systems Inc., 64 Sata, Mikata-gun, Fukui 919-1205 (Japan); English, C.A. [Nexia Solutions, Harwell Business Centre, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Grovenor, C.R.M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    A Cameca NanoSIMS 50 has been used to map trace elements in stainless steels from nuclear reactors. The results prove that it is an ideal technique to map elements in small concentrations such as boron, sulphur or phosphorous which remain inaccessible to conventional microanalysis techniques. Especially remarkable is the ability to map boron, revealing segregation to grain boundaries or to carbides in sensitized samples.

  13. Convenciones en juegos puros de coordinación simétrica 2 x 2

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Jhon James

    2009-01-01

    Este ensayo analiza la formación de convenciones en juegos de coordinación simétrica 2 × 2. En particular, el análisis se restringe a juegos con iguales niveles de seguridad y se discute que tanto puede explicar la teoría de juegos la formación de convenciones.

  14. Assimilation of ASCAT near-surface soil moisture into the SIM hydrological model over France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Draper

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the assimilation of remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture observations might benefit an operational hydrological model, specifically Météo-France's SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM model. Soil moisture data derived from ASCAT backscatter observations are assimilated into SIM using a Simplified Extended Kalman Filter (SEKF over 3.5 years. The benefit of the assimilation is tested by comparison to a delayed cut-off version of SIM, in which the land surface is forced with more accurate atmospheric analyses, due to the availability of additional atmospheric observations after the near-real time data cut-off. However, comparing the near-real time and delayed cut-off SIM models revealed that the main difference between them is a dry bias in the near-real time precipitation forcing, which resulted in a dry bias in the root-zone soil moisture and associated surface moisture flux forecasts. While assimilating the ASCAT data did reduce the root-zone soil moisture dry bias (by nearly 50%, this was more likely due to a bias within the SEKF, than due to the assimilation having accurately responded to the precipitation errors. Several improvements to the assimilation are identified to address this, and a bias-aware strategy is suggested for explicitly correcting the model bias. However, in this experiment the moisture added by the SEKF was quickly lost from the model surface due to the enhanced surface fluxes (particularly drainage induced by the wetter soil moisture states. Consequently, by the end of each winter, during which frozen conditions prevent the ASCAT data from being assimilated, the model land surface had returned to its original (dry-biased climate. This highlights that it would be more effective to address the precipitation bias directly, than to correct it by constraining the model soil moisture through data assimilation.

  15. SimUVEx v2 : a numeric tool to predict anatomical solar ultraviolet exposure

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has a dual effect on human health: low UV doses promote the photosynthesis of vitamin D and regulate calcium and phosphorus metabolism, while an excessive UV exposure is the main cause of skin cancer, along with eye diseases and premature skin ageing. The link between UV radiation levels and UV exposure is not fully understood since exposure data are limited and individual anatomical variations in UV doses are significant. SimUVEx is a numeric simulation tool ...

  16. Molecular imaging of alkaloids in khat (Catha edulis) leaves with MeV-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenčič, Boštjan; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potočnik, Nina; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Vavpetič, Primož; Rupnik, Zdravko; Bučar, Klemen; Vencelj, Matjaž; Kelemen, Mitja; Matsuo, Jiro; Kusakari, Masakazu; Siketić, Zdravko; Al-Jalali, Muhammad A.; Shaltout, Abdallah; Pelicon, Primož

    2017-08-01

    Imaging Mass Spectroscopy (IMS) is a unique research tool providing localization and identification of a wide range of biomolecules as essential data to understand biochemical processes in living organisms. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with high-energy heavy ions (MeV-SIMS) is emerging as a promising IMS technique for chemical imaging of biological tissue. We measured the molecular mass spatial distributions in leaves of khat (Catha edulis). Khat is a natural drug plant, native to eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. In these countries, fresh leaves are being chewed by significant part of population. It was reported that 80% of the adult population in Yemen chew the khat leaves. The main stimulating effects of khat are induced by a monoamine alkaloid called cathinone. During leaf ageing, cathinone is further metabolised to cathine and norephedrine. Earlier studies identified the alkaloids in khat, however little is known on their spatial distribution, reflecting the biosynthesis and accumulation in the tissue. Chemical mapping of alkaloids on cross-sections of khat leaves by MeV-SIMS was done at JSI by a pulsed 5.8 MeV 35Cl6+ beam, focused to a diameter of 15 μm, using a linear time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer with a mass resolution of 500. In addition, measurements of MeV-SIMS mass spectra were performed at Kyoto University by a continuous broad beam of 6 MeV 63Cu4+ ions at an orthogonal TOF spectrometer with a high mass resolution of 11,000. Sections of leaves were analysed and mass spectra obtained at both MeV-SIMS setups were compared. Tissue-level distributions of detected alkaloids are presented and discussed.

  17. SuReSim: simulating localization microscopy experiments from ground truth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Varun; Herrmannsdörfer, Frank; Heilemann, Mike; Kuner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become a widely used tool in many areas of research. However, designing and validating super-resolution experiments to address a research question in a technically feasible and scientifically rigorous manner remains a fundamental challenge. We developed SuReSim, a software tool that simulates localization data of arbitrary three-dimensional structures represented by ground truth models, allowing users to systematically explore how changing experimental parameters can affect potential imaging outcomes.

  18. Generating optimal control simulations of musculoskeletal movement using OpenSim and MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Leng-Feng; Umberger, Brian R

    2016-01-01

    Computer modeling, simulation and optimization are powerful tools that have seen increased use in biomechanics research. Dynamic optimizations can be categorized as either data-tracking or predictive problems. The data-tracking approach has been used extensively to address human movement problems of clinical relevance. The predictive approach also holds great promise, but has seen limited use in clinical applications. Enhanced software tools would facilitate the application of predictive musculoskeletal simulations to clinically-relevant research. The open-source software OpenSim provides tools for generating tracking simulations but not predictive simulations. However, OpenSim includes an extensive application programming interface that permits extending its capabilities with scripting languages such as MATLAB. In the work presented here, we combine the computational tools provided by MATLAB with the musculoskeletal modeling capabilities of OpenSim to create a framework for generating predictive simulations of musculoskeletal movement based on direct collocation optimal control techniques. In many cases, the direct collocation approach can be used to solve optimal control problems considerably faster than traditional shooting methods. Cyclical and discrete movement problems were solved using a simple 1 degree of freedom musculoskeletal model and a model of the human lower limb, respectively. The problems could be solved in reasonable amounts of time (several seconds to 1-2 hours) using the open-source IPOPT solver. The problems could also be solved using the fmincon solver that is included with MATLAB, but the computation times were excessively long for all but the smallest of problems. The performance advantage for IPOPT was derived primarily by exploiting sparsity in the constraints Jacobian. The framework presented here provides a powerful and flexible approach for generating optimal control simulations of musculoskeletal movement using OpenSim and MATLAB. This

  19. Generating optimal control simulations of musculoskeletal movement using OpenSim and MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng-Feng Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer modeling, simulation and optimization are powerful tools that have seen increased use in biomechanics research. Dynamic optimizations can be categorized as either data-tracking or predictive problems. The data-tracking approach has been used extensively to address human movement problems of clinical relevance. The predictive approach also holds great promise, but has seen limited use in clinical applications. Enhanced software tools would facilitate the application of predictive musculoskeletal simulations to clinically-relevant research. The open-source software OpenSim provides tools for generating tracking simulations but not predictive simulations. However, OpenSim includes an extensive application programming interface that permits extending its capabilities with scripting languages such as MATLAB. In the work presented here, we combine the computational tools provided by MATLAB with the musculoskeletal modeling capabilities of OpenSim to create a framework for generating predictive simulations of musculoskeletal movement based on direct collocation optimal control techniques. In many cases, the direct collocation approach can be used to solve optimal control problems considerably faster than traditional shooting methods. Cyclical and discrete movement problems were solved using a simple 1 degree of freedom musculoskeletal model and a model of the human lower limb, respectively. The problems could be solved in reasonable amounts of time (several seconds to 1–2 hours using the open-source IPOPT solver. The problems could also be solved using the fmincon solver that is included with MATLAB, but the computation times were excessively long for all but the smallest of problems. The performance advantage for IPOPT was derived primarily by exploiting sparsity in the constraints Jacobian. The framework presented here provides a powerful and flexible approach for generating optimal control simulations of musculoskeletal movement using

  20. SIM PlanetQuest Key Project Precursor Observations to Detect Gas Giant Planets Around Young Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Angelle; Beichman, Charles; Akeson, Rachel; Ghez, Andrea; Grankin, Konstantin N.; Herbst, William; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Huerta, Marcos; Konopacky, Quinn; Metchev, Stanimir; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Prato, L.; Simon, Michal

    2008-01-01

    We present a review of precursor observing programs for the SIM PlanetQuest Key project devoted to detecting Jupiter mass planets around young stars. In order to ensure that the stars in the sample are free of various sources of astrometric noise that might impede the detection of planets, we have initiated programs to collect photometry, high contrast images, interferometric data and radial velocities for stars in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. We have completed a high contrast imaging survey of target stars in Taurus and the Pleiades and found no definitive common proper motion companions within one arcsecond (140 AU) of the SIM targets. Our radial velocity surveys have shown that many of the target stars in Sco-Cen are fast rotators and a few stars in Taurus and the Pleiades may have sub-stellar companions. Interferometric data of a few stars in Taurus show no signs of stellar or sub-stellar companions with separations of 0.1 mag) that would degrade the astrometric accuracy achievable for that star. While the precursor programs are still a work in progress, we provide a comprehensive list of all targets ranked according to their viability as a result of the observations taken to date. By far, the observable that removes the most targets from the SIM-YSO program is photometric variability.

  1. Energy Integration for 2050 - A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Collins

    2011-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economic in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gas. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This report discusses the Draft Strategic Impact Model (SIM), an initial version of which was created during the later part of FY-2010. SIM was developed to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand and to provide an overall system understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This report also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rationale for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing the SIM.

  2. Energy Integration for 2050 - A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economic in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gas. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This report discusses the Draft Strategic Impact Model (SIM), an initial version of which was created during the later part of FY-2010. SIM was developed to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand and to provide an overall system understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This report also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rationale for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing the SIM.

  3. Understanding Earthquake Fault Systems Using QuakeSim Analysis and Data Assimilation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay; Glasscoe, Margaret; Granat, Robert; Rundle, John; McLeod, Dennis; Al-Ghanmi, Rami; Grant, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    We are using the QuakeSim environment to model interacting fault systems. One goal of QuakeSim is to prepare for the large volumes of data that spaceborne missions such as DESDynI will produce. QuakeSim has the ability to ingest distributed heterogenous data in the form of InSAR, GPS, seismicity, and fault data into various earthquake modeling applications, automating the analysis when possible. Virtual California simulates interacting faults in California. We can compare output from long time history Virtual California runs with the current state of strain and the strain history in California. In addition to spaceborne data we will begin assimilating data from UAVSAR airborne flights over the San Francisco Bay Area, the Transverse Ranges, and the Salton Trough. Results of the models are important for understanding future earthquake risk and for providing decision support following earthquakes. Improved models require this sensor web of different data sources, and a modeling environment for understanding the combined data.

  4. SIM and PALM: high-resolution microscopy methods and their consequences for cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampert, Gerhard; Kleppe, Ingo; Kalkbrenner, Thomas; Weisshart, Klaus; Wolleschensky, Ralf; Kempe, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The diffraction limit in traditional fluorescence microscopy (approximately 200 and 600 nanometers in lateral and axial directions, respectively) has restricted the applications in bio-medical research. However, over the last 10 years various techniques have emerged to overcome this limit. Each of these techniques has its own characteristics that influence its application in biology. This paper will show how two of the techniques, Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) and PhotoActivated Localization Microscopy (PALM), complement each other in imaging of biological samples beyond the resolution of classical widefield fluorescence microscopy. As a reference the properties of two well known standard imaging techniques in this field, confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) and Total Internal Reflection (TIRF) microscopy, are compared to the properties of the two high resolution techniques. Combined SIM/PALM imaging allows the extremely accurate localization of individual molecules within the context of various fluorescent structures already resolved in 3D with a resolution of up to 100nm using SIM. Such a combined system provides the biologist with an unprecedented view of the sub-cellular organization of life.

  5. NanoSIMS50 analyses of Ar/18O2 plasma-treated Escherichia coli bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, F.; Lecoq, E.; Duday, D.; Belmonte, T.; Audinot, J.-N.; Lentzen, E.; Penny, C.; Cauchie, H.-M.; Choquet, P.

    2011-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be produced by electrical discharges and can be transported in uncharged regions by gas flows, in the so-called afterglows. These species are well known to have bactericidal effects but interaction mechanisms that occur with living micro-organisms remain misunderstood. In order to better understand these interactions, new analysis approaches are necessary. High-lateral-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is one of the most promising ways of retrieving additional information on bacteria plasma inactivation mechanisms by combining isotopic imaging of plasma-treated bacteria and the use of 18O2 as process gas. Indeed, this technology combines a lateral resolution of a few tens of nanometres that is sufficient to image the interior of bacteria, and a high mass resolution allowing detection of isotopes present in low quantities (a few ppm or lower) within the bacteria. The present paper deals with Ar-18O2 (2%) plasma treatment, through low-pressure microwave late afterglows, of Escherichia coli bacteria and their elemental and isotopic imaging by NanoSIMS. E. coli bacteria have been exposed to this reactive medium for varying treatment duration while keeping all other parameters unchanged. Our main goal is to determine whether the quantity of 18O fixed in treated bacteria and the NanoSIMS50 lateral resolution are sufficient to give additional information on E. coli bacteria-plasma interaction.

  6. Understanding Earthquake Fault Systems Using QuakeSim Analysis and Data Assimilation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay; Glasscoe, Margaret; Granat, Robert; Rundle, John; McLeod, Dennis; Al-Ghanmi, Rami; Grant, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    We are using the QuakeSim environment to model interacting fault systems. One goal of QuakeSim is to prepare for the large volumes of data that spaceborne missions such as DESDynI will produce. QuakeSim has the ability to ingest distributed heterogenous data in the form of InSAR, GPS, seismicity, and fault data into various earthquake modeling applications, automating the analysis when possible. Virtual California simulates interacting faults in California. We can compare output from long time history Virtual California runs with the current state of strain and the strain history in California. In addition to spaceborne data we will begin assimilating data from UAVSAR airborne flights over the San Francisco Bay Area, the Transverse Ranges, and the Salton Trough. Results of the models are important for understanding future earthquake risk and for providing decision support following earthquakes. Improved models require this sensor web of different data sources, and a modeling environment for understanding the combined data.

  7. SimCommSys: taking the errors out of error-correcting code simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann A. Briffa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present SimCommSys, a simulator of communication systems that we are releasing under an open source license. The core of the project is a set of C + + libraries defining communication system components and a distributed Monte Carlo simulator. Of principal interest is the error-control coding component, where various kinds of binary and non-binary codes are implemented, including turbo, LDPC, repeat-accumulate and Reed–Solomon. The project also contains a number of ready-to-build binaries implementing various stages of the communication system (such as the encoder and decoder, a complete simulator and a system benchmark. Finally, SimCommSys also provides a number of shell and python scripts to encapsulate routine use cases. As long as the required components are already available in SimCommSys, the user may simulate complete communication systems of their own design without any additional programming. The strict separation of development (needed only to implement new components and use (to simulate specific constructions encourages reproducibility of experimental work and reduces the likelihood of error. Following an overview of the framework, we provide some examples of how to use the framework, including the implementation of a simple codec, the specification of communication systems and their simulation.

  8. Improving the Molecular Ion Signal Intensity for In Situ Liquid SIMS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufan; Yao, Juan; Ding, Yuanzhao; Yu, Jiachao; Hua, Xin; Evans, James E.; Yu, Xiaofei; Lao, David B.; Heldebrant, David J.; Nune, Satish K.; Cao, Bin; Bowden, Mark E.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Xue-Lin; Zhu, Zihua

    2016-12-01

    In situ liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) enabled by system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface (SALVI) has proven to be a promising new tool to provide molecular information at solid-liquid and liquid-vacuum interfaces. However, the initial data showed that useful signals in positive ion spectra are too weak to be meaningful in most cases. In addition, it is difficult to obtain strong negative molecular ion signals when m/z>200. These two drawbacks have been the biggest obstacle towards practical use of this new analytical approach. In this study, we report that strong and reliable positive and negative molecular signals are achievable after optimizing the SIMS experimental conditions. Four model systems, including a 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene (DBU)-base switchable ionic liquid, a live Shewanella oneidensis biofilm, a hydrated mammalian epithelia cell, and an electrolyte popularly used in Li ion batteries were studied. A signal enhancement of about two orders of magnitude was obtained in comparison with non-optimized conditions. Therefore, molecular ion signal intensity has become very acceptable for use of in situ liquid SIMS to study solid-liquid and liquid-vacuum interfaces.

  9. Improving the Molecular Ion Signal Intensity for In Situ Liquid SIMS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufan; Yao, Juan; Ding, Yuanzhao; Yu, Jiachao; Hua, Xin; Evans, James E.; Yu, Xiaofei; Lao, David B.; Heldebrant, David J.; Nune, Satish K.; Cao, Bin; Bowden, Mark E.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Xue-Lin; Zhu, Zihua

    2016-09-01

    In situ liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) enabled by system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface (SALVI) has proven to be a promising new tool to provide molecular information at solid-liquid and liquid-vacuum interfaces. However, the initial data showed that useful signals in positive ion spectra are too weak to be meaningful in most cases. In addition, it is difficult to obtain strong negative molecular ion signals when m/z>200. These two drawbacks have been the biggest obstacle towards practical use of this new analytical approach. In this study, we report that strong and reliable positive and negative molecular signals are achievable after optimizing the SIMS experimental conditions. Four model systems, including a 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene (DBU)-base switchable ionic liquid, a live Shewanella oneidensis biofilm, a hydrated mammalian epithelia cell, and an electrolyte popularly used in Li ion batteries were studied. A signal enhancement of about two orders of magnitude was obtained in comparison with non-optimized conditions. Therefore, molecular ion signal intensity has become very acceptable for use of in situ liquid SIMS to study solid-liquid and liquid-vacuum interfaces.

  10. Improving the Molecular Ion Signal Intensity for In Situ Liquid SIMS Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yufan; Yao, Juan; Ding, Yuanzhao; Yu, Jiachao; Hua, Xin; Evans, James E.; Yu, Xiaofei; Lao, David B.; Heldebrant, David J.; Nune, Satish K.; Cao, Bin; Bowden, Mark E.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Xue-Lin; Zhu, Zihua

    2016-09-06

    In situ liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) enabled by system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface (SALVI) has proven to be a promising new tool to provide molecular information at solid–liquid and liquid–vacuum interfaces. However, the initial data showed that useful signals in positive ion spectra are too weak to be meaningful in most cases. In addition, it is difficult to obtain strong negative molecular ion signals when m/z>200. These two drawbacks have been the biggest obstacle towards practical use of this new analytical approach. In this study, we report that strong and reliable positive and negative molecular signals are achievable after optimizing the SIMS experimental conditions. Four model systems, including a 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene (DBU)-base switchable ionic liquid, a live Shewanella oneidensis biofilm, a hydrated mammalian epithelia cell, and an electrolyte popularly used in Li ion batteries were studied. A signal enhancement of about two orders of magnitude was obtained in comparison with non-optimized conditions. Therefore, molecular ion signal intensity has become very acceptable to use for in situ liquid SIMS to study solid–liquid and liquid–vacuum interfaces.

  11. Analysis of carious dentine using FTIR and ToF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almhöjd, Ulrica S; Norén, Jörgen G; Arvidsson, Anna; Nilsson, Åke; Lingström, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Apart from the Maillard reaction, other processes, such as esterification, take place in carious tissue. The aim of the present study was to analyse sound and carious dentine in terms of ester groups and their reaction with hydrazine derivate using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Carious and sound dentine from human premolars were excavated in three series (Experimental Parts I-III) and separated into inner and outer layers of carious dentine. The excavated tooth material was analysed with FTIR (Part I). Carious and sound dentine were also exposed to different chemical treatments and analysed with FTIR-Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR; Part II) and ToF-SIMS (Part III). The FTIR absorption spectra showed that the carious tissue contained ester groups, not detected in sound dentine. The results also indicated a higher occurrence of ester groups in the inner dental caries layer than in the outer ones. Potential binding to these ester groups by hydrazine derivative was observed after different chemical treatments with both FTIR-ATR and ToF-SIMS. The results of the present study revealed ester groups unique to the carious dentine which, after reaction with hydrazine derivative, form a covalent bond not found in sound dentine. The staining of carious unique groups would be clinically helpful in detection and prevention unnecessary removal of sound dentine.

  12. Nanoscale imaging of alteration layers of corroded international simple glass particles using ToF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiandong; Neeway, James J.; Zhang, Yanyan; Ryan, Joseph V.; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Tieshan; Zhu, Zihua

    2017-08-01

    Glass particles with dimensions typically ranging from tens to hundreds of microns are often used in glass corrosion research in order to accelerate testing. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional nanoscale imaging techniques are badly needed to characterize the alteration layers at the surfaces of these corroded glass particles. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) can provide a lateral resolution as low as ~100 nm, and, compared to other imaging techniques, is sensitive to elements lighter than carbon. In this work, we used ToF-SIMS to characterize the alteration layers of corroded international simple glass (ISG) particles. At most particle surfaces, inhomogeneous or no alteration layers were observed, indicating that the thickness of the alterations layers may be too thin to be observable by ToF-SIMS imaging. Relatively thick (e.g., 1-10 microns) alteration layers were inhomogeneously distributed at a small portion of surfaces. More interestingly, some large-size (tens of microns) glass particles were fully altered. Above observations suggest that weak attachment and the defects on ISG particle surfaces play an important role in ISG glass corrosion.

  13. Detection and quantification of benzodiazepines in hair by ToF-SIMS: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audinot, J.-N.; Yegles, M.; Labarthe, A.; Ruch, D.; Wennig, R.; Migeon, H.-N.

    2003-01-01

    Successful results have been obtained in detection and quantification of buprenorphine in urine and hemolysed blood by time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The present work is focused on four molecules of the benzodiazepine's family: nordiazepam, aminoflunitrozepam, diazepam and oxazepam. These drugs remain difficult to analyse in routine clinical and forensic toxicology because of their thermal instability and low therapeutic range (0.5-5 ng/ml). Internal standards are prepared by means of deuterated molecules. The benzadiazepine and their deuterated form (nordiazepam-D5, amino-flunitrazepam-D3, diazepam-D5 and oxazepam-D5) were added, in known concentration, in urine. These molecules were then extracted with several methods (pH, solvent, etc.) and, after adsorption on a noble metal, analysed by ToF-SIMS. The paper will focus for the different molecules on the comparison of the different preparation procedures, the optimisation of the SIMS conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification.

  14. 导模共振效应光子晶体滤波器光谱检测稳定性的研究%Real-Time Stability Monitoring of Photonic Crystal Sensing System Based on Guided-Mode Resonance Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶春先; 王琦; 李业; 王振云; 卢忠荣; 张大伟

    2015-01-01

    The detection limit of antibody content has reached level of nanograms per milliliter due to high sensitivity and ex-tremely narrow band of photonic crystal (PC) filter .The PC filter based on guided-mode resonance (GMR) effect can also be ap-plied to detecting the molecular interactions .As the transducing element ,one-dimensional PC filters transform biological infor-mation to photoelectric signal on optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) .The main sensing performance is the change of peak-wave-length of PC filter .The sensing system using PC filter is restricted to the system stability which determines the effectiveness of detecting data .So in this paper ,a detecting system we designed is briefly addressed .The morphology and the spectrum of PC filter we fabricated are tested .Considering the coupling light loss and integration of the system ,noise signal in spectrum is going to affect the detecting results .To monitor the influence ,realization of real-time monitoring the changes of the peak wavelength of PC filter is mainly illustrated .The monitoring is realized by transferring detecting data to computer in time and the results can represent the stability of the system .The program is compiled by Lab VIEW .In our experiment ,the shift of 0.25 nm of the peak wavelength caused by vibration of platform or unsteadiness of light source is within the sensitivity of the PC filter obtained by simulation ,so we proposed this system we mentioned can be used in sensing most kind of bulk reagents .%由于光子晶体滤波器带宽窄和高灵敏度的特点,检测抗体含量极限可以达到ng・m L -1。可以应用于生物传感器监测生物大分子内部反应过程。一维光子晶体滤波器作为生物传感器换能元件将生物信息转化为可检测的光电信号信息,主要反应在光谱仪测得共振波峰所在波长的变化。精确测试时,检测传感系统的稳定性是首要考虑的关键因素。稳定性决定实验数据的有

  15. Ion Landau Damping on Drift Tearing Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, J W; Zocco, A

    2012-01-01

    The equations governing the ion Landau damping (ILD) layers for a drift tearing mode are derived and solved to provide a matching to ideal MHD solutions at large $x$ and to the drift tearing solution emerging from the ion kinetic region, $k\\rho_{i}\\sim1$, at small $x,$ the distance from the rational surface. The ILD layers lie on either side of the mode rational surface at locations defined by $k_{y}xV_{Ti}/L_{s}=\\omega_{*e}(1+0.73\\eta_{e})$ and have been ignored in many previous analyses of linear drift tearing stability. The effect of the ILD layer on the drift tearing mode is to introduce an additional stabilizing contribution, requiring even larger values of the stability index, $\\Delta^{\\prime}$ for instability, than predicted by Connor Hastie and Zocco [PPCF,54, 035003, (2012)] and Cowley, Kulsrud and Hahm [Phys. Fluids,29, 3230, (1986)]. The magnitude and scaling of the new stabilizing effect in slab geometry is discussed.

  16. Voltage Mode-to-Current Mode Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejmal S. Rathore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure for converting a class of Op Amp-, FTFN-, CC- and CFAbased voltage mode circuits to corresponding current mode circuits without requiring any additional circuit elements and finally from Op Amp-based voltage mode circuits to any of the FTFN, CC and CFA current mode circuits. The latter circuits perform better at high frequency than the former ones. The validity of the transformation has been checked on simulated circuits with PSPICE.

  17. WinSim: A simple simulation program for evaluating the influence of windows on heating demand and risk of overheating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1998-01-01

    A two-node model of a room has been implemented in a computer program, WinSim, devel-oped for evaluation of thermal performance of windows in new buildings and in case of retro-fitting. The program calculates the annual heating demand and the number of hours with in-door temperatures higher than...... a user defined limit. WinSim is characterised by the limited amount of required input data. Guide-lines for calculation of the effective thermal capacity of the room is given, and results obtained with WinSim have been compared to results from an advanced building simulation program. Good agreement has...... been found between the two programs with respect to calculated annual heating demand and energy savings due to win-dow exchange, and also the calculated number of hours with overtemperature is similar. Based on the limited examples used for the comparison it can be concluded that WinSim is well suited...

  18. Astrometric Detection of Terrestrial Planets in the Habitable Zones of Nearby Stars with SIM PlanetQuest

    CERN Document Server

    Catanzarite, J; Tanner, A; Unwin, S; Yu, J; Catanzarite, Joseph; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle; Unwin, Stephen; Yu, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    SIM PlanetQuest (Space Interferometry Mission) is a space-borne Michelson interferometer for precision stellar astrometry, with a nine meter baseline, currently slated for launch in 2015. One of the principal science goals is the astrometric detection and orbit characterization of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of nearby stars. Differential astrometry of the target star against a set of reference stars lying within a degree will allow measurement of the target star's reflex motion with astrometric accuracy of 1 micro-arcsecond in a single measurement. We assess SIM's capability for detection (as opposed to characterization by orbit determination) of terrestrial planets in the habitable zones of nearby solar-type stars. We compare SIM's performance on target lists optimized for the SIM and Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronograph (TPF-C) missions. Performance is quantified by three metrics: minimum detectable planet mass, number and mass distribution of detected planets, and completeness of detections...

  19. Characterizing Intra-cluster light at $z\\sim0.5$ in the Hubble Frontier Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Morishita, Takahiro; Treu, Tommaso; Schmidt, Kasper B; Vulcani, Benedetta; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the intra-cluster light (ICL) in 4 Hubble Frontier Fields clusters at $0.310.5$) and the cores of the brightest cluster galaxies, implying that the ICL and more-massive cluster galaxies are built-up via distinct processes. The stellar mass of the ICL ranges from $11.1< \\logmicl <11.9$, implying an ICL stellar mass fraction of $\\sim10$-$20\\%$, about half of the local value. Hence, we posit that the amount of ICL has rapidly increased since $z\\sim1$, and is still being constructed, at a rate of $\\sim200\\, \\Msun\\, {\\rm yr^{-1}}$ at $z\\sim0.5$ by cluster specific mechanisms such as galaxy interactions and the stripping of low-mass galaxies.

  20. Preliminary Verification and Validation of WEC-Sim, an Open-Source Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, K.; Michelen, C.; Kanner, S.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2014-03-01

    To promote and support the wave energy industry, a wave energy converter (WEC) design tool, WEC-Sim, is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. In this paper, the WEC-Sim code is used to model a point absorber WEC designed by the U.S. Department of Energy's reference model project. Preliminary verification was performed by comparing results of the WEC-Sim simulation through a code-to-code comparison, utilizing the commercial codes ANSYS-AQWA, WaveDyn, and OrcaFlex. A preliminary validation of the code was also performed by comparing WEC-Sim simulation results to experimental wave tank tests.

  1. MeV-SIMS yield measurements using a Si-PIN diode as a primary ion current counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoytschew, Valentin; Bogdanović Radović, Iva [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Demarche, Julien [University of Surrey, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jakšić, Milko [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Matjačić, Lidija [University of Surrey, Surrey (United Kingdom); Siketić, Zdravko [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Webb, Roger [University of Surrey, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Megaelectronvolt-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (MeV-SIMS) is an emerging Ion Beam Analysis technique for molecular speciation and submicron imaging. Various setups have been constructed in the recent years. Still a systematic investigation on the dependence of MeV-SIMS yields on different ion beam parameters is missing. A reliable measurement method of the beam current down to the attoampere range is needed for this investigation. Therefore, a new detector has been added to the MeV-SIMS setup at the Ruđer Bošković Institute (RBI), which measures the current directly using a Si PIN-diode. In this work, we present the constructed system, its characteristics, and results of the first yield measurements. These measurements have already identified important factors that have to be considered while constructing a MeV SIMS setup.

  2. Visualizing Microbial Biogeochemistry: NanoSIMS and Stable Isotope Probing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Weber, P. K.

    2009-12-01

    Linking phylogenetic information to function in microbial communities is a key challenge for microbial ecology. Isotope-labeling experiments provide a useful means to investigate the ecophysiology of microbial populations and cells in the environment and allow measurement of nutrient transfers between cell types, symbionts and consortia. The combination of Nano-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analysis, in situ labeling and high resolution microscopy allows isotopic analysis to be linked to phylogeny and morphology and holds great promise for fine-scale studies of microbial systems. In NanoSIMS analysis, samples are sputtered with an energetic primary beam (Cs+, O-) liberating secondary ions that are separated by the mass spectrometer and detected in a suite of electron multipliers. Five isotopic species may be analyzed concurrently with spatial resolution as fine as 50nm. A high sensitivity isotope ratio ‘map’ can then be generated for the analyzed area. NanoSIMS images of 13C, 15N and Mo (a nitrogenase co-factor) localization in diazotrophic cyanobacteria show how cells differentially allocate resources within filaments and allow calculation of nutrient uptake rates on a cell by cell basis. Images of AM fungal hyphae-root and cyanobacteria-rhizobia associations indicate the mobilization and sharing (stealing?) of newly fixed C and N. In a related technique, “El-FISH”, stable isotope labeled biomass is probed with oligonucleotide-elemental labels and then imaged by NanoSIMS. In microbial consortia and cyanobacterial mats, this technique helps link microbial structure and function simultaneously even in systems with unknown and uncultivated microbes. Finally, the combination of re-engineered universal 16S oligonucleotide microarrays with NanoSIMS analyses may allow microbial identity to be linked to functional roles in complex systems such as mats and cellulose degrading hindgut communities. These newly developed methods provide correlated

  3. THE INTRA- AND INTER-RATER RELIABILITY OF THE SOCCER INJURY MOVEMENT SCREEN (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    aus der Fünten, Karen; Govus, Andrew; Julian, Ross; Schimpchen, Jan; Meyer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background/purpose The growing volume of movement screening research reveals a belief among practitioners and researchers alike that movement quality may have an association with injury risk. However, existing movement screening tools have not considered the sport-specific movement and injury patterns relevant to soccer. The present study introduces the Soccer Injury Movement Screen (SIMS), which has been designed specifically for use within soccer. Furthermore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the SIMS and determine its suitability for use in further research. Methods The study utilized a test-retest design to discern reliablility. Twenty-five (11 males, 14 females) healthy, recreationally active university students (age 25.5 ± 4.0 years, height 171 ± 9 cm, weight 64.7 ± 12.6 kg) agreed to participate. The SIMS contains five sub-tests: the anterior reach, single-leg deadlift, in-line lunge, single-leg hop for distance and tuck jump. Each movement was scored out of 10 points and summed to produce a composite score out of 50. The anterior reach and single-leg hop for distance were scored in real-time while the remaining tests were filmed and scored retrospectively. Three raters conducted the SIMS with each participant on three occasions separated by an average of three and a half days (minimum one day, maximum seven days). Rater 1 re-scored the filmed movements for all participants on all occasions six months later to establish the ‘pure’ intra-rater (intra-occasion) reliability for those movements. Results Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values for intra- and inter-rater composite score reliability ranged from 0.66-0.72 and 0.79-0.86 respectively. Weighted kappa values representing the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the individual sub-tests ranged from 0.35-0.91 indicating fair to almost perfect agreement. Conclusions Establishing the reliability of the SIMS is a

  4. Cuticular and internal n-alkane composition of Lucilia sericata larvae, pupae, male and female imagines: application of HPLC-LLSD and GC/MS-SIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, M; Paszkiewicz, M; Grubba, A; Gąsiewska, D; Boguś, M I; Włóka, E; Wieloch, W; Stepnowski, P

    2012-08-01

    The composition of cuticular and internal n-alkanes in Lucilia sericata larvae, pupae, and male and female imagines were studied. The cuticular and internal lipid extracts were separated by HPLC-LLSD, after which the hydrocarbon fraction was identified by GC/MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) and total ion current (TIC) modes. The cuticular lipids of the larvae contained seven n-alkanes from C23 to C31. The major n-alkane in L. sericata larvae was C29 (42.1%). The total cuticular n-alkane content in the cuticular lipids was 31.46 μg g-1 of the insect body. The internal lipids of L. sericata larvae contained five n-alkanes ranged from C25 to C31. The most abundant compound was C27 (61.71 μg g-1 of the insect body). Eighteen n-alkanes from C14 to C31 were identified in the cuticular lipids of the pupae. The most abundant n-alkanes ranged from C25 to C31; those with odd-numbered carbon chains were particularly abundant, the major one being C29:0 (59.5%). Traces of eight cuticular n-alkanes were present. The internal lipids of L. sericata pupae contained five n-alkanes, ranging from C25 to C31. The cuticular lipids of female imagines contained 17 n-alkanes from C12 to C30. Among the cuticular n-alkanes of females, C27 (47.5%) was the most abundant compound. Four n-alkanes, with only odd-numbered carbon chains, were identified in the internal lipids of females. The lipids from both sexes of L. sericata had similar n-alkane profiles. The cuticular lipids of adult males contained 16 n-alkanes ranging from C13 to C31. C27 (47.9%) was the most abundant cuticular n-alkanes in males. The same n-alkanes only with odd-numbered carbon chains and in smaller quantities of C27 (0.1%) were also identified in the internal lipids of males. The highest amounts of total cuticular n-alkanes were detected in males and females of L. sericata (330.4 and 158.93 μg g-1 of the insect body, respectively). The quantities of total cuticular alcohols in larvae and pupae were smaller (31.46

  5. 妊娠高危因素监测及管理模式转变探讨%Exploration on monitoring and management mode transformation for pregnancy high risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘凯斯

    2014-01-01

    Objective To commit a transformation of monitoring and management mode for pregnancy high risk factors.We expanded the high risk pregnancy supervision net to community hospitals and village committees including all childbearing-aged women who wanted to have a baby as subjects,and manage basic diseases and high risks actively.We supervised and urged the high risky pregnant women to receive antenatal care regularly.Methods We took the pregnant women who received antenatal care in the high risk pregnancy management area of our hospital from June 2010 to September 2011 as the control group.We took the pregnant women who received antenatal care in the same area from November 2011 to January 2013 as the observation group,following the expansion of high risk pregnancy supervision net to community hospitals and village committees.We performed retrospective analysis for the high risk pregnancy management of the two groups.Results The rate of high risk pregnancy,rate of regular antenatal care record establishment,rate of early record establishment,rate of regular antenatal care,rate of in-hospital delivery,and rate of postpartum follow-up visit in the observation group were all higher than those of control group.The rate of cesarean section,rate of postpartum hemorrhage,rate of preterm birth,rate of disabled newborns,and rate of neonate death in the observation group were all lower than those of control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion This management mode transformation greatly raises the rate of regular antenatal care record establishment,rate of early record establishment,rate of regular antenatal care,rate of in-hospital delivery,and rate of postpartum follow-up visit.Further more,the rate of cesarean section,rate of postpartum hemorrhage,rate of preterm birth,rate of disabled newborns,and rate of neonate death are greatly decreased,and pregnancy outcomes are greatly improved.%目的 转变妊娠高危因素监测及管理模式,将高危妊娠监测网络延伸至社区

  6. The sim Operon Facilitates the Transport and Metabolism of Sucrose Isomers in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John; Jakubovics, Nicholas; Abraham, Bindu; Hess, Sonja; Pikis, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Inspection of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 revealed two operons that might dissimilate the five isomers of sucrose. To test this hypothesis, cells of L. casei ATCC 334 were grown in a defined medium supplemented with various sugars, including each of the five isomeric disaccharides. Extracts prepared from cells grown on the sucrose isomers contained high levels of two polypeptides with Mrs of ∼50,000 and ∼17,500. Neither protein was present in cells grown on glucose, maltose or sucrose. Proteomic, enzymatic, and Western blot analyses identified the ∼50-kDa protein as an NAD+- and metal ion-dependent phospho-α-glucosidase. The oligomeric enzyme was purified, and a catalytic mechanism is proposed. The smaller polypeptide represented an EIIA component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system. Phospho-α-glucosidase and EIIA are encoded by genes at the LSEI_0369 (simA) and LSEI_0374 (simF) loci, respectively, in a block of seven genes comprising the sucrose isomer metabolism (sim) operon. Northern blot analyses provided evidence that three mRNA transcripts were up-regulated during logarithmic growth of L. casei ATCC 334 on sucrose isomers. Internal simA and simF gene probes hybridized to ∼1.5- and ∼1.3-kb transcripts, respectively. A 6.8-kb mRNA transcript was detected by both probes, which was indicative of cotranscription of the entire sim operon. PMID:18310337

  7. Simulation of Welding Assembly Fixture Based on Sim Pro%基于Sim Pro的焊装夹具机构的仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健强; 戴洪光

    2008-01-01

    首先,文章以概述性的语言着重介绍了Sire Pro仿真平台以及Python语言.接着,将被研究对象抽象出来,以平面连杆机构为仿真模型,建立了其运动学及逆运动学方程.该方程是仿真算法的基础.最后,在Sire Pro平台上建立三维模型,以Python语言为工具编写了脚本文件.通过在Sim Pro平台的仿真.可以看出Python的功能足以满足要求,效果良好.

  8. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The electric utility companies worldwide suffer, in greater or lesser degree, electrical energy losses. A great percentage of these losses is mostly due to illegal appropriations of energy. The consumers, by means of illicit practices such as clandestine connections and alteration of the operation of electricity meters, carry out the energy robbery. In order to try to alleviate the problematic of electric energy losses, in their majority by illicit, the electric utility companies have implemented one or more actions. Among the most important are: Visual inspection of the metering facilities. Its purpose is to verify the condition of the traditional protections of the metering installations, such as the seals and safety rings. Detection Equipment: These are recorders of energy consumption and of faults in conductors and are used to detect illicit connections and deviations in the consumption patterns and to the electrical energy connection or to the secondary distribution network. Statistical analysis of consumption: Many electric facility companies have adapted their processing consumption reading systems to detect deviations in the of consumption patterns of their clients. This could correspond to abnormal situations. Since this country is not extraneous to the problematic of energy losses, in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas it was developed a System of Measurement and Detection of Losses of Electrical Energy (SIM-IV) as a result of the knowledge of the problematic obtained from the projects in the metering area and of the interaction through work meetings with personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and of Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), in which concepts of advanced technology were applied for the measurement of electrical variables. The SIM-IV is a system oriented to the metering of consumption and the detection of robberies of electrical energy caused by clandestine connections and non-allowed interventions to the energy meters. Since

  9. Centrality Dependent Particle Production at $y=0$ and $y \\sim1$ in Au+Au Collisions at $y=0$ and $y \\sim1$ in Au+Au Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Arsene, I; Beavis, D; Besliu, C; Budick, B; Bøggild, H; Chasman, C; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Cibor, J; Debbe, R; Enger, E; Gaardhøje, J J; Germinario, M; Hagel, K; Ito, H; Jipa, A; Jundt, F; Jordre, J I; Jorgensen, C E; Karabowicz, R; Kim, E J; Kozik, T; Larsen, T M; Lee, J H; Lee, Y K; Lindal, S; Lystad, R; Løvhøiden, G; Majka, Z; Makeev, A; Mikelsen, M; Murray, M; Natowitz, J B; Neumann, B; Nielsen, B S; Ouerdane, D; Planeta, R; Rami, F; Ristea, C; Ristea, O; Röhrich, D; Samset, B H; Sandberg, D; Sanders, S J; Scheetz, R A; Staszel, P; Tveter, T S; Videbaek, F; Wada, R; Yin, Z; Zgura, I S

    2005-01-01

    Particle production of identified charged hadrons, $\\pi^{\\pm}$, $K^{\\pm}$, $p$, and $\\bar{p}$ in Au+Au collisions at $\\snn =$ 200 GeV has been studied as a function of transverse momentum and collision centrality at $y=0$ and $y\\sim1$ by the BRAHMS experiment at RHIC. Significant collective transverse flow at kinetic freeze-out has been observed in the collisions. The magnitude of the flow rises with the collision centrality. Proton and kaon yields relative to the pion production increase strongly as the transverse momentum increases and also increase with centrality. Particle yields per participant nucleon show a weak dependence on the centrality for all particle species. Hadron production remains relatively constant within one unit around midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\\snn =$ 200 GeV.

  10. SIM / SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Portes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans les États-Unis de 2006, la chanson contestataire n’est pas celle qui hante le plus les ondes : elle n’encombre pas les présentoirs des magasins de disque et ne mobilise pas le MP3. Une des seules exceptions est celle de « Strange Fruits », chantée pour la première fois par Billie Holliday en 1939 : elle a souvent été reprise et même été classée dans un bilan de l’an 2000 comme la meilleure chanson du XXe siècle.Certaines légendes attribuent rapidement à un chanteur une couronne de contes...

  11. Long term pipeline monitoring in geomechanically sensitive environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir-Jones, I.; Sun, M. [Weir-Jones Engineering Consultants Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, monitoring pipeline structural integrity is necessary for both regulatory and environmental purposes. Weir-Jones Engineering Consultants developed an automated structural integrity monitoring (SIM) system, data on strain, displacement and temperature are continuously acquired and automatically transmitted to the monitoring personnel. The aim of this paper is to present this technology and its implementation on one of Inter Pipeline Fund's lines as well. The automated SIM equipment was installed on a new 42'' line at the crossing of the Clearwater River close to Fort McMurray. Results showed that this technology is a good way to monitor pipelines in remote locations, environmentally sensitive areas, river and embankment crossings and in locations where external forces can put the pipeline at risk; but it should not be used otherwise as that would not be cost effective. This paper described the developed automated SIM and showed that it should only be used in specific locations to be cost effective.

  12. SimOS-Goodson: A Goodson-Processor Based Multi-Core Full-System Simulator%基于龙芯CPU的多核全系统模拟器SimOS-Goodson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔; 张福新; 汤彦; 章隆兵; 胡伟武; 唐志敏

    2007-01-01

    随着片上多核结构成为当前高性能微处理器发展的趋势,目标工作负载也变得多样化,传统的用户级模拟器已不能适应未来体系结构的研究需要.基于SimOS全系统模拟环境,设计并实现了龙芯CPU的片上多核全系统模拟器SimOS-Goodson.在SimOS-Goodson的设计中运用了时序与功能分离的组织形式,并采用了一种新的值预测校验算法来解决模拟环境中的存储一致性问题.经过与真实硬件环境进行交叉校正,保证了模拟器的可信度与准确度.与用户级模拟器相比,SimOS-Goodson保持了高速、灵活的优点,又具备精确、全系统和易使用的特征.通过对完整Linux操作系统的移植,可在SimOS-Goodson所模拟的全系统环境中进行各类微体系结构和应用负载的分析与评估.在3.0GHz的Pentium4微机上,SimOS-Goodson的指令模拟速度超过300K/秒.SimOS-Goodson将会在基于龙芯CPU的片上多核体系结构研究中发挥重要作用.

  13. Local measurement for structural health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Z.Qi; Guo Xun; Qi Xiaozhai; W. Dong; P.Chang

    2005-01-01

    Localized nature of damage in structures requires local measurements for structural health monitoring. The local measurement means to measure the local, usually higher modes of the vibration in a structure. Three fundamental issues about the local measurement for structural health monitoring including (1) the necessity of making local measurement, (2) the difficulty of making local measurement and (3) how to make local measurement are addressed in this paper. The results from both the analysis and the tests show that the local measurement can successfully monitor the structural health status as long as the local modes are excited. Unfortunately, the results also illustrate that it is difficult to excite local modes in a structure.Therefore, in order to carry structural health monitoring into effect, we must (1) ensure that the local modes are excited, and (2) deploy enough sensors in a structure so that the local modes can be monitored.

  14. Climate and anthropogenic factors influencing an estuarine ecosystem from NW Iberia: new high resolution multiproxy analyses from San Simón Bay (Ría de Vigo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Sobrino, Castor; García-Moreiras, Iria; Castro, Yoel; Martínez Carreño, Natalia; de Blas, Esther; Fernandez Rodríguez, Carlos; Judd, Alan; García-Gil, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    Two sedimentary sequences (coastal and subtidal) were studied in San Simón Bay (Ría de Vigo), situated on the Atlantic coast of NW Iberia. The coastal record is a shallowing upward sequence which evidences a locally-developed low marsh, situated below the current beach, and dated at the second half of the 4th century. During the following decades this low marsh was progressively replaced by an alder swamp which formed on it. This suggests an apparent stabilisation or slow-down of the relative sea-level (RSL), in this site, at the beginning of the Dark Ages (DA). The subtidal sequence studied reflects the main changes in the landscape, the hydrological conditions, climate and RSL affecting this part of NW Iberia during the last 1250 years. Evidence of changing dinocysts content in the sediment reveals that two centennial or decadal-scale episodes existed of shelf marine waters more intensely penetrating inside the bay: between the 15th-18th centuries and at ca 1800-1930 AD. Besides, we related different proxies with the occurrence of four main climatic stages, namely the previously described Dark Ages (DA, ca 350-750 AD), the Mediaeval Climatic Anomaly (MCA, ca 750-1100 AD) and the Little Ice Age (LIA. ca 1500-1930 AD); in addition we propose a regional MCA/LIA transition (ca 1100-1500 AD) that it has not been previously described. Our environmental characterization indicates a persistent North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) negative mode domain in Ría de Vigo during the MCA, but this became weaker during the LIA and, probably, also during the earlier DA. NAO mode become more irregular during the MCA/LIA transition, generally persisting in dominant negative mode except for a phase of minor upwelling intensification, at ca 1150-1350 AD, which mainly affected the external parts of the ria. We postulate that an almost simultaneous phase (ca 1100-1350 AD) of stronger continental contribution in the sediments may be related to increasing storm intensities, probably linked

  15. Aroma composition of red wines by different extraction methods and Gas Chromatography-SIM/MASS spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Dimaggio, Rosa; Lisanti, Maria Tiziana; Piombino, Paola; Moio, Luigi

    2005-06-01

    One hundred and one volatile compounds, reported in literature as powerful odorants of wine, were quantified by Gas Chromatography-Selective Ion Monitoring/Mass Spectrometry (GC-SIM/MS) in Primitivo, Aglianico, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon red wines. Wine samples were extracted by 3 different extraction methods: 1) separation of the alcoholic fraction from the aqueous phase by salting-out and subsequent extraction by liquid-liquid micro-extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113); 2) extraction by liquid-liquid micro-extraction with dichloromethane; 3) solid phase extraction (SPE cartridge: 800 mg of LiChrolut EN resin) with pentane-dichloromethane (20:1) and dichloromethane. The selection of the ion fragments used for quantification was directly performed on a red wine sample. For each compound the area of the corresponding peak was normalized respect to the peak of the internal standard and then interpolated in a calibration curve obtained analysing a model wine solution (water, ethanol, tartaric acid and known amounts of analytes and of internal standard). The methods showed a good linearity: r2>0.990, except for farnesol (isomer a and c), octanal, decanal, furaneol and phenylacetic acid with 0.966 sotolon. The Aglianico wines were characterised by the major fermentation compounds (esters, fatty acids and 2-phenylethanol), beta-damascenone, beta-ionone and linalool. The Primitivo wines were characterized by furaneol, methoxypyrazine, gamma-nonalactone and acetaldehyde, while Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines principally by cask derivates (vanillin, (Z) 3-methyl-gamma-octalactone [(Z) wiskylactone], maltol and eugenol), some aldehydes and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine.

  16. Pseudo-$C_\\ell$ estimators which do not mix E and B modes

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, K M

    2005-01-01

    Pseudo-$C_\\ell$ quadratic estimators for CMB temperature and polarization power spectra have been used in the analysis pipelines of many CMB experiments, such as WMAP and Boomerang. In the polarization case, these estimators mix E and B modes, in the sense that the estimated B-mode power is nonzero for a noiseless CMB realization which contains only E-modes. Recently, Challinor & Chon showed that for moderately sized surveys ($f_{sky} \\sim 0.01$), this mixing limits the gravity wave B-mode signal which can be detected using pseudo-$C_\\ell$ estimators to $T/S \\sim 0.05$. We modify the pseudo-$C_\\ell$ construction, defining ``pure'' pseudo-$C_\\ell$ estimators, which do not mix E and B modes in this sense. We study these estimators in detail for a survey geometry similar to that which has been proposed for the QUIET experiment, for a variety of noise levels, and both homogeneous and inhomogeneous noise. For noise levels $\\simle 20$ $\\mu$K-arcmin, our modification significantly improves the B-mode power spect...

  17. Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

  18. [Application of FISH-NanoSIMS technique in environmental microbial ecology study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Bai, Yao-hui; Liang, Jin-song; Yuan, Lin-jiang

    2015-01-01

    With the development of microbial ecology techniques, it is possible to analyze the distribution and function of microorganisms simultaneously in complex ecosystems. To explore the application of FISH-NanoSIMS in environmental microbial ecology study, our study used the stable isotope labeled compounds 13C-C6H12O6, and 15N-NH4Cl as C and N sources for cultivating the pure culture (manganese oxidizing bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) and environmental samples (the shallow soil and anaerobic sludge). FISH-NanoSIMS was used to detect the distribution of microorganisms and relatively quantify secondary ions (12C-, 13C-, 12C(14)N-, 12C15N-) in cultivated samples, in order to explore the utilization of C and N isotopes sources by the pure culture and microorganisms in environment samples. The results showed that the contents of 13C and 5N in the area of bacteria were significantly greater than the natural abundance in all samples. It indicated that Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1 and some specific bacteria in environmental samples could metabolize 13C-C6H12O6 and 15N-NH4C1. Furthermore, this study revealed that for Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1, the manganese oxidation only occurred when the carbon and nitrogen were consumed to a low level. For environmental samples, the bacterial nitrification and denitrification were both observed in the shallow soil and anaerobic sludge. In a word, our study demonstrated that the combination of FISH and NanoSIMS could simultaneously examine microbial distribution and microbial metabolic activity in environmental samples, which will help us to obtain the eco-physiology information of microbial community.

  19. Chemometric and Statistical Analyses of ToF-SIMS Spectra of Increasingly Complex Biological Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E S; Wu, L; Fortson, S L; Nelson, D O; Kulp, K S; Wu, K J

    2007-10-24

    Characterizing and classifying molecular variation within biological samples is critical for determining fundamental mechanisms of biological processes that will lead to new insights including improved disease understanding. Towards these ends, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to examine increasingly complex samples of biological relevance, including monosaccharide isomers, pure proteins, complex protein mixtures, and mouse embryo tissues. The complex mass spectral data sets produced were analyzed using five common statistical and chemometric multivariate analysis techniques: principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and decision tree analysis by recursive partitioning. PCA was found to be a valuable first step in multivariate analysis, providing insight both into the relative groupings of samples and into the molecular basis for those groupings. For the monosaccharides, pure proteins and protein mixture samples, all of LDA, PLSDA, and SIMCA were found to produce excellent classification given a sufficient number of compound variables calculated. For the mouse embryo tissues, however, SIMCA did not produce as accurate a classification. The decision tree analysis was found to be the least successful for all the data sets, providing neither as accurate a classification nor chemical insight for any of the tested samples. Based on these results we conclude that as the complexity of the sample increases, so must the sophistication of the multivariate technique used to classify the samples. PCA is a preferred first step for understanding ToF-SIMS data that can be followed by either LDA or PLSDA for effective classification analysis. This study demonstrates the strength of ToF-SIMS combined with multivariate statistical and chemometric techniques to classify increasingly complex biological samples

  20. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from the Fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Lin, Sheng-Jun; Li, Ya; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-02-18

    The fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims is an edible and sweet wild fruit. In our previous study, the fruit was found to have a strong antioxidant property. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was developed to extract natural antioxidants from the fruit of Melastoma sanguineum Sims, and a response surface methodology was used to optimize the conditions of UAE to maximize the extraction efficiency. The influence of five independent extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extracting time, temperature, and ultrasound power) on the extraction efficiency were investigated using a single factor experiment, and then a central composite rotatable design was used to investigate the interaction of three key parameters. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 42.98% ethanol, 28.29 mL/g solvent/material ratio, 34.29 min extracting time, 60 °C temperature, and 600 W ultrasound power. Under these conditions, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of the extracts was 1074.61 ± 32.56 μmol Trolox/g dry weight (DW). Compared with conventional maceration (723.27 ± 11.61 μmol Trolox/g DW) and Soxhlet extraction methods (518.37 ± 23.23 μmol Trolox/g DW), the UAE method improved the extraction efficiency, in a shorter period of time. In addition, epicatechin gallate, epicatechin, rutin, epigallocatechin, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin, were identified and quantified in the fruit extracts of Melastoma sanguineum Sims by UPLC-MS/MS.

  1. SimITK: visual programming of the ITK image-processing library within Simulink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Andrew W L; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Gobbi, David G; Mousavi, Parvin

    2014-04-01

    The Insight Segmentation and Registration Toolkit (ITK) is a software library used for image analysis, visualization, and image-guided surgery applications. ITK is a collection of C++ classes that poses the challenge of a steep learning curve should the user not have appropriate C++ programming experience. To remove the programming complexities and facilitate rapid prototyping, an implementation of ITK within a higher-level visual programming environment is presented: SimITK. ITK functionalities are automatically wrapped into "blocks" within Simulink, the visual programming environment of MATLAB, where these blocks can be connected to form workflows: visual schematics that closely represent the structure of a C++ program. The heavily templated C++ nature of ITK does not facilitate direct interaction between Simulink and ITK; an intermediary is required to convert respective data types and allow intercommunication. As such, a SimITK "Virtual Block" has been developed that serves as a wrapper around an ITK class which is capable of resolving the ITK data types to native Simulink data types. Part of the challenge surrounding this implementation involves automatically capturing and storing the pertinent class information that need to be refined from an initial state prior to being reflected within the final block representation. The primary result from the SimITK wrapping procedure is multiple Simulink block libraries. From these libraries, blocks are selected and interconnected to demonstrate two examples: a 3D segmentation workflow and a 3D multimodal registration workflow. Compared to their pure-code equivalents, the workflows highlight ITK usability through an alternative visual interpretation of the code that abstracts away potentially confusing technicalities.

  2. SIMS Studies of Allende Projectiles Fired into Stardust-type Aluminum Foils at 6 km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Peter; Stadermann, Frank J.; Stephan, Thomas; Floss, Christine; Leitner, Jan; Marhas, Kuljeet; Horz, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    We have explored the feasibility of C-, N-, and O-isotopic measurements by NanoSIMS and of elemental abundance determinations by TOF-SIMS on residues of Allende projectiles that impacted Stardust-type aluminum foils in the laboratory at 6 km/s. These investigations are part of a consortium study aimed at providing the foundation for the characterization of matter associated with micro-craters that were produced during the encounter of the Stardust space probe with comet 81P/Wild 2. Eleven experimental impact craters were studied by NanoSIMS and eighteen by TOF-SIMS. Crater sizes were between 3 and 190 microns. The NanoSIMS measurements have shown that the crater morphology has only a minor effect on spatial resolution and on instrumental mass fractionation. The achievable spatial resolution is always better than 200 nm, and C- and O-isotopic ratios can be measured with a precision of several percent at a scale of several 100 nm, the typical size of presolar grains. This clearly demonstrates that presolar matter, provided it survives the impact into the aluminum foil partly intact, is recognizable even if embedded in material of Solar System origin. TOF-SIMS studies are restricted to materials from the crater rim. The element ratios of the major rockforming elements in the Allende projectiles are well characterized by the TOF-SIMS measurements, indicating that fractionation of those elements during impact can be expected to be negligible. This permits information on the type of impactor material to be obtained. For any more detailed assignments to specific chondrite groups, however, information on the abundances of the light elements, especially C, is crucial.

  3. ImaSim, a software tool for basic education of medical x-ray imaging in radiotherapy and radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    guillaume elandry

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: X-ray imaging is an important part of medicine and plays a crucial role in radiotherapy. Education in this field is mostly limited to textbook teaching due to equipment restrictions. A novel simulation tool, ImaSim, for teaching the fundamentals of the x-ray imaging process based on ray-tracing is presented in this work. ImaSim is used interactively via a graphical user interface (GUI.Materials and methods: The software package covers the main x-ray based medical modalities: planar kilo voltage (kV, planar (portal mega voltage (MV, fan beam computed tomography (CT and cone beam CT (CBCT imaging. The user can modify the photon source, object to be imaged and imaging setup with three-dimensional editors. Objects are currently obtained by combining blocks with variable shapes. The imaging of three-dimensional voxelized geometries is currently not implemented, but can be added in a later release. The program follows a ray-tracing approach, ignoring photon scatter in its current implementation. Simulations of a phantom CT scan were generated in ImaSim and were compared to measured data in terms of CT number accuracy. Spatial variations in the photon fluence and mean energy from an x-ray tube caused by the heel effect were estimated from ImaSim and Monte Carlo simulations and compared.Results: In this paper we describe ImaSim and provide two examples of its capabilities. CT numbers were found to agree within 36 Hounsfield Units (HU for bone, which corresponds to a 2% attenuation coefficient difference. ImaSim reproduced the heel effect reasonably well when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Discussion: An x-ray imaging simulation tool is made available for teaching and research purposes. ImaSim provides a means to facilitate the teaching of medical x-ray imaging.

  4. Simulation-Based e-Learning Tools for Science,Engineering, and Technology Education(SimBeLT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Doyle V.; Cherner, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The focus of Project SimBeLT is the research, development, testing, and dissemination of a new type of simulation-based integrated e-learning set of modules for two-year college technical and engineering curricula in the areas of thermodynamics, fluid physics, and fiber optics that can also be used in secondary schools and four-year colleges. A collection of sophisticated virtual labs is the core component of the SimBeLT modules. These labs will be designed to enhance the understanding of technical concepts and underlying fundamental principles of these topics, as well as to master certain performance based skills online. SimBeLT software will help educators to meet the National Science Education Standard that "learning science and technology is something that students do, not something that is done to them". A major component of Project SimBeLT is the development of multi-layered technology-oriented virtual labs that realistically mimic workplace-like environments. Dynamic data exchange between simulations will be implemented and links with instant instructional messages and data handling tools will be realized. A second important goal of Project SimBeLT labs is to bridge technical skills and scientific knowledge by enhancing the teaching and learning of specific scientific or engineering subjects. SimBeLT builds upon research and outcomes of interactive teaching strategies and tools developed through prior NSF funding (http://webphysics.nhctc.edu/compact/index.html) (Project SimBeLT is partially supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation DUE-0603277)

  5. ImaSim, a software tool for basic education of medical x-ray imaging in radiotherapy and radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Guillaume; deBlois, François; Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-11-01

    Introduction: X-ray imaging is an important part of medicine and plays a crucial role in radiotherapy. Education in this field is mostly limited to textbook teaching due to equipment restrictions. A novel simulation tool, ImaSim, for teaching the fundamentals of the x-ray imaging process based on ray-tracing is presented in this work. ImaSim is used interactively via a graphical user interface (GUI). Materials and methods: The software package covers the main x-ray based medical modalities: planar kilo voltage (kV), planar (portal) mega voltage (MV), fan beam computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging. The user can modify the photon source, object to be imaged and imaging setup with three-dimensional editors. Objects are currently obtained by combining blocks with variable shapes. The imaging of three-dimensional voxelized geometries is currently not implemented, but can be added in a later release. The program follows a ray-tracing approach, ignoring photon scatter in its current implementation. Simulations of a phantom CT scan were generated in ImaSim and were compared to measured data in terms of CT number accuracy. Spatial variations in the photon fluence and mean energy from an x-ray tube caused by the heel effect were estimated from ImaSim and Monte Carlo simulations and compared. Results: In this paper we describe ImaSim and provide two examples of its capabilities. CT numbers were found to agree within 36 Hounsfield Units (HU) for bone, which corresponds to a 2% attenuation coefficient difference. ImaSim reproduced the heel effect reasonably well when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Discussion: An x-ray imaging simulation tool is made available for teaching and research purposes. ImaSim provides a means to facilitate the teaching of medical x-ray imaging.

  6. Simulation of multi-photon emission isotopes using time-resolved SimSET multiple photon history generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Hsin-Hon; Lin, Chang-Shiun; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-HuaUniversity, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Jan, Meei-Ling [Health Physics Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-01

    Abstract-Multiple-photon emitters, such as In-111 or Se-75, have enormous potential in the field of nuclear medicine imaging. For example, Se-75 can be used to investigate the bile acid malabsorption and measure the bile acid pool loss. The simulation system for emission tomography (SimSET) is a well-known Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) code in nuclear medicine for its high computational efficiency. However, current SimSET cannot simulate these isotopes due to the lack of modeling of complex decay scheme and the time-dependent decay process. To extend the versatility of SimSET for simulation of those multi-photon emission isotopes, a time-resolved multiple photon history generator based on SimSET codes is developed in present study. For developing the time-resolved SimSET (trSimSET) with radionuclide decay process, the new MCS model introduce new features, including decay time information and photon time-of-flight information, into this new code. The half-life of energy states were tabulated from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database. The MCS results indicate that the overall percent difference is less than 8.5% for all simulation trials as compared to GATE. To sum up, we demonstrated that time-resolved SimSET multiple photon history generator can have comparable accuracy with GATE and keeping better computational efficiency. The new MCS code is very useful to study the multi-photon imaging of novel isotopes that needs the simulation of lifetime and the time-of-fight measurements. (authors)

  7. TelluSim: A Python Plug-in Based Computational Framework for Spatially Distributed Environmental and Earth Sciences Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgoose, G. R.

    2008-12-01

    TelluSim is a python-based computational framework for integrating and manipulating modules written in a variety of computer languages. TelluSim consists of a main program that dynamically, at run time, assembles a series of modules. These modules can be written in any language that can be accessed by Python. Currently we have modules in Fortran and Python, with C to be supported soon. New modules are incorporated as plug-ins like done for a browser or Photoshop, simply by copying the module binary into a plug-in directory. TelluSim automatically generates a GUI for parameter and state I/O, and automatically creates the intermodule communication mechanisms needed for the computations. A decision to use Python was arrived at after detailed trials using other languages including C, Tcl/Tk and Fortran. An important aspect of the design of TelluSim was to minimise the overhead in interfacing the modules with TelluSim, and minimise any requirement for recoding of existing software, so eliminating a major disadvantage of more complex frameworks (e.g. JAMS, openMI). Several significant Fortran codes developed by the author have been incorporated as part of the design process and as proof of concept. In particular the SIBERIA landform evolution code (a high performance F90 code, including parallel capability) has been broken up into a series of TelluSim modules, so that the SIBERIA now consists of a Python script of 20 lines. These 20 lines assemble and run the underlying modules (about 50,000 lines of Fortran code). The presentation will discuss in more detail the design of TelluSim, and our experiences of the advantages and disadvantages of using Python relative to other approaches.

  8. Performance of BICM-based QAM-SIM OWC over gamma-gamma turbulence channels

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Muhammad Talha

    2015-05-01

    We derive a series expression for the pair-wise error probability (PEP) of bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM)-based subcarrier intensity modulation (SIM) optical wireless communication (OWC) system employing M^{2}-ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( M^{2} -QAM) over the Gamma-Gamma turbulence channels. Using this expression, we develop an upper bound (UB) to predict the bit-error rate performance of such system. Simulation results are presented to verify the analytical results. We also develop an asymptotic UB which reveals that the diversity order depends on the smaller channel parameter and the free distance of the convolutional code. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  9. Ecofisiología del cultivo de la gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Martínez, Laura Victoria; MELGAREJO, LUZ MARINA; Flórez Gutiérrez, Laura Marcela; Cruz Aguilar, Marisol; Hernández, María Soledad; Hoyos Carvajal, Liliana María; Guerrero, Eugenio; Potosí, Carmen Tulia; Valeryevich Magnitskiy , Stanislav; Velásquez Villamil, Juan David; Nates Parra, María Guiomar; Ospina Torres, Rodolfo; Amaya Márquez, Marisol; Ángel Coca, Catalina; Medina, Julián

    2012-01-01

    Este libro muestra los resultados de la investigación realizada en gulupa (Passiflora edulis Sims), la cual es una de las especies incluidas en la apuesta exportadora de Colombia en la vigencia 2019. En Colombia se cultiva en los departamentos de Risaralda, Quindío, Cundinamarca y Boyacá, entre otros. La demanda por esta fruta se ha incrementado y el sector productivo frutícola colombiano se beneficia con los precios alcanzados en la ventana de exportación cuando no se provee de otras partes ...

  10. Microscopic study of chiral rotation in odd-odd A $\\sim$ 100 nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, W A; Bhat, G H; Palit, R; Frauendorf, S

    2013-01-01

    A systematic study of the doublet bands observed in odd-odd mass $\\sim$ 100 is performed using the microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. This mass region has depicted some novel features which are not observed in other mass regions, for instance, it has been observed that two chiral bands cross diabatically in $^{106}$Ag. It is demonstrated that this unique feature is due to crossing of the two 2-quasiparticle configurations having different intrinsic structures. Further, we provide a complete set of transition probabilities for all the six-isotopes studied in this work and it is shown that the predicted transitions are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

  11. Role of SimMan in teaching clinical skills to preclinical medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy Meenakshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation training has potential in developing clinical skills in pre-clinical medical students, but there is little evidence on its effectiveness. Methods Twenty four first year graduate entry preclinical medical students participated in this crossover study. They were divided into two groups, one performed chest examination on each other and the other used SimMan. The groups then crossed over. A pretest, midtest and post-test was conducted in which the students answered the same questionnaire with ten questions on knowledge, and confidence levels rated using a 5 point Likert scale. They were assessed formatively using the OSCE marking scheme. At the end of the session, 23 students completed a feedback questionnaire. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and independent t-test. Results When the two groups were compared, there was no significant difference in the pretest and the post-test scores on knowledge questions whereas the midtest scores increased significantly (P Mean confidence ratings increased from the pretest to midtest and then further in the post-test for both groups. Their confidence ratings increased significantly in differentiating between normal and abnormal signs [Group starting with SimMan, between pretest and midtest (P= 0.01 and group starting with peer examination, between midtest and post-test (P=0.02]. When the students’ ability to perform examination on each other for both groups was compared, there was a significant increase in the scores of the group starting with SimMan (P=0.007. Conclusions This pilot study demonstrated a significant improvement in the students’ knowledge and competence to perform chest examination after simulation with an increase in the student’s perceived levels of confidence. Feedback from the students was extremely positive. SimMan acts as a useful adjunct to teach clinical skills to preclinical medical students by providing a simulated safe environment and thus aids

  12. Continuos y el producto simétrico suspensión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barragán

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos una breve introducción a la teoría de los continuos y sus hiperespacios. Nos enfocamos en algunos modelos geomé- tricos del producto simétrico suspensión de un continuo y mostramos resultados acerca de conexidad local y arcoconexidad de este espacio. Abstract. In this paper we present a short introduction to continuum theory and its hyperspaces. We focus our attention on some geometric models of the symmetric product suspensions of a continuum and we show results on local connectedness and arcwise connectedness of this space.

  13. Continuos y el producto simétrico suspensión

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo presentamos una breve introducción a la teoría de los continuos y sus hiperespacios. Nos enfocamos en algunos modelos geomé- tricos del producto simétrico suspensión de un continuo y mostramos resultados acerca de conexidad local y arcoconexidad de este espacio. Abstract. In this paper we present a short introduction to continuum theory and its hyperspaces. We focus our attention on some geometric models of the symmetric product suspensions of a continuu...

  14. Simón Bolívar y la cultura iberoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis López de Mesa

    1979-08-01

    Full Text Available Simón Bolívar -en cuanto héroe de la historia de América- nació en Cartagena del Caribe en 1812 y murió en Lima hacia 1926. Comparando esos catorce años de prodigiosa actividad pública con el promedio de "realizaciones " que en el decurso de su vida lleva a cabo el hombre común, resultaría de longevidad casi milenaria: prueba de ello es que su pensamiento actúa aún en el continente americano, y que sus obras siguen creciendo a la faz del mundo.

  15. ToF-SIMS imaging of PE/PP polymer using multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Toyomitsu; Ikemoto, Takashi; Kohno, Teiichiro

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in PE/PP blended-polymer film was determined by applying principal components analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) imaging, together with preprocessing by pixel binning, normalization, and autoscaling to increase image contrast by reducing topographic and charge-distribution effects. The PE/PP distribution was confirmed by MVA conducted on the image data over static limit. The MCR score with normalized-autoscaling was found to give the PE/PP distribution distinctly.

  16. Floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of the Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ocimum genus (Lamiaceae presents essential oils used in the pharmaceutical, perfume, cosmetics and culinary industries. The aim of this paper was to study the fl oral biology and breeding mechanisms of Ocimum canum Sims. in relation to improved plant breeding. Ocimum canum has inflorescences with white, protandrous and hermaphoditic flowers. The osmophores are located at the anthers and stigma. Anthesis occurs between 10:30 and 11:30 a.m. The main fl oral visitors were bees of the Apis and Augochloropsis genuses. Ocimum canum presents a breeding system with a predominance of outcrossing that possibly demonstrates the wide reproductive flexibility of this species.

  17. Real time wind farm emulation using SimWindFarm toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a wind farm emulation solution using an open source Matlab/Simulink toolbox and the National Instruments cRIO platform. This work is based on the Aeolus SimWindFarm (SWF) toolbox models developed at Aalborg university, Denmark. Using the Matlab Simulink models developed in SWF, the modeling code can be exported to a real time model using the NI Veristand model framework and the resulting code is integrated as a hardware in the loop control on the NI 9068 platform.

  18. Postharvest of golden showers (Oncidium flexuosum Sims) by quimic treatment and cold storage

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Resumo: A parte experimental da tese foi efetuada em três fases para avaliar o comportamento do Oncidium flexuosum Sims sob diferentes condições visando estender a qualidade pós-colheita durante a comercialização. Os testes foram realizados no Laboratório de Pós-colheita e Laboratório de Pré-processamento e de Termodinâmica e Energia da FEAGRI, UNICAMP, em Campinas, SP. Os fatores testados foram: temperatura, período de armazenamento, uso de soluções conservantes e tipo de retentor de umidade...

  19. Computer-assisted learning and simulation lab with 40 DentSim units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, A; Maggio, M P; Simon, J F; Scarbecz, M; Harrison, J A; Wicks, R A; Gilpatrick, R O

    2008-01-01

    There are an increasing number of studies about the computer-assisted dental patient simulator DentSim (DenX, Israel), by which dental students can acquire cognitive motor skills in a multimedia environment. However, only a very few studies have been published dealing with efficient ways to use and to manage a computer-assisted dental simulation lab with 40 DentSim units. The current approach and optimization steps of the College of Dentistry at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center were evaluated based on theoretical and practical tests and by questionnaires (partial 5-point Likert scale). Half of the D1 (first-year) students (2004/05) already had experience with computer-assisted learning at their undergraduate college and most of the students even expected to be taught via computer-assisted learning systems (83.5%) at the dental school. 87.3% of the students working with DentSim found the experience to be very interesting or interesting. Before the students carried out the preparation exercises, they were trained in the skills they needed to work with the sophisticated technology, eg, system-specific operation skills (66.6% attained maximal reachable points) and information searching skills (79.5% attained maximal reachable points). The indirect knowledge retention rate / incidental learning rate of the preparation exercises in the sense of computer-assisted problem-oriented learning regarding anatomy, preparation procedures, and cavity design was promising. The wide- ranging number of prepared teeth needed to acquire the necessary skills shows the varied individual learning curves of the students. The acceptance of, and response to, additional elective training time in the computer-assisted simulation lab were very high. Integrating the DentSim technology into the existing curriculum is a way to improve dental education, but it is also a challenge for both teachers and the students. It requires a shift in both curriculum and instructional goals that

  20. Another Existence and Uniqueness Proof for the Higman-Sims Simple Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerhard O. Michler; Andrea Previtali

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we give a short proof for the existence and uniqueness of the Higman-Sims sporadic simple group HS by means of the first author's algorithm [17] and uniqueness criterion [18], respectively. We realize HS as a subgroup of GL22(11), and determine its automorphism group Aut(HS). We also give a presentation for Aut(HS) in terms of generators and relations. Furthermore, the character table of HS is determined and representatives of its conjugacy classes are given as short words in its generating matrices inside GL22(11).

  1. PetroSim - a system to simulate crowd behaviors in emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musse, Soraia R.; Silva, Andre T. da; Hardt, Katia; Barros, Leandro M.; Tonietto, Leandro [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao; Roth, Bruno [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Rolim, Tuerte Amaral; Melo, Ricardo U.M.; Felipe, Luiz A.B. [PETROBRAS, Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios RN/CE

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a framework to simulate the behaviors of crowds in panic situations. The main motivation for this work is to provide to safety engineers the possibility of simulating several aspects of panic situations involving crowds in real time. To accomplish this, we propose a complete framework to model the semantically informed environment as well as the intelligent virtual agents (IVA), which form the crowd who lives in the simulated virtual city. This work includes the integration of many knowledge areas such as VR, behavioral and visualization aspects required to the development of PetroSim. (author)

  2. Propagation of UHECRs in cosmological backgrounds: some results from SimProp

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, R; Di Matteo, A; Grillo, A F; Petrera, S; Salamida, F

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) nuclei propagating in cosmological radiation backgrounds produce secondary particles detectable at Earth. SimProp is a one dimensional code for extragalactic propagation of UHECR nuclei, inspired by the kinetic approach of Aloisio et al. As in this approach, only a subset of nuclei and nuclear channels are used as representative. We discuss the validation of the code and present applications to UHECR experimental results. In particular we present the expected fluxes of neutrinos produced in some astrophysical scenario.

  3. Isotopic imaging of refractory inclusions in meteorites with the NanoSIMS 50L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Motoo [Robert M. Walker Laboratory for Space Science, ARES, NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77573 (United States)], E-mail: motoo.ito-1@nasa.gov; Messenger, Scott [Robert M. Walker Laboratory for Space Science, ARES, NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77573 (United States)], E-mail: scott.r.messenger@nasa.gov

    2008-12-15

    Oxygen isotopic micro-distributions within and among silicate and oxide minerals in a meteorite were measured with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L by isotopic imaging. High precision isotopic images with micrometer-scale resolution revealed detailed O isotope distributions within CAI minerals. Small-scale heterogeneous distributions of O isotopes constrain the history of isotopic exchange mechanisms in the CAI during and since its formation in the early solar system. We describe the development O isotopic imaging of insulating minerals with high precision of {+-}6 and 3 per mille for {delta}{sup 17}O and {delta}{sup 18}O, respectively.

  4. El concepto de ciudadano en el pensamiento de Simón Rodríguez: igualdad y universalidad The concept of citizenship in the thought of Simón Rodríguez: equality and universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Durán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se propone explorar el concepto de ciudadano implícito en el proyecto político pedagógico desarrollado por Simón Rodríguez en la escuela de primeras letras de Chuquisaca. Para ello dividiremos nuestro trabajo en dos partes. En la primera de ellas desarrollaremos un breve análisis de la evolución histórica del concepto de ciudadano. La última parte de nuestra exposición la centraremos en la propuesta específica de Simón Rodríguez. El propósito de esta segunda sección es mostrar la originalidad del concepto de ciudadano impulsado por Simón Rodríguez en relación al contexto de su aplicación.This paper aims to explore the concept of citizen implicit in the political pedagogical project developed by Simón Rodríguez in Chuquisaca. The paper will be divided into two parts. In the first of which will develop a brief analysis of the historical evolution of the concept of citizen. The last part of our discussion will focus on the specific proposal of Simón Rodríguez. The purpose of this second section is to show the originality of the concept of citizen led by Rodríguez within the context of its application.

  5. Scaler Mode Technique for the ARGO-YBJ Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G

    2008-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been designed to study the Extensive Air Showers with an energy threshold lower than that of the existing arrays by exploiting the high altitude location(4300 m a.s.l. in Tibet, P.R. China) and the full ground plane coverage. The lower energy limit of the detector (E $\\sim$ 1 GeV) is reached by the scaler mode technique, i.e. recording the counting rate at fixed time intervals. At these energies, transient signals due to local (e.g. Forbush Decreases) and cosmological (e.g. Gamma Ray Bursts) phenomena are expected as a significant variation of the counting rate compared to the background. In this paper the performance of the ARGO-YBJ detector operating in scaler mode is described and discussed.

  6. Alternative uses of a megavolt tandem accelerator for few-keV studies with ion-source SIMS monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, S. L. A.; Codeço, C. F. S.; Magnani, B. F.; Sant'Anna, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    We increase the versatility of a tandem electrostatic accelerator by implementing simple modifications to the standard operation procedure. While keeping its ability to deliver MeV ion beams, we show that the experimental setup can (i) provide good quality ion beams in the few-keV energy range and (ii) be used to study ion-beam surface modification with simultaneous secondary ion mass spectrometry. This latter task is accomplished without using any chamber connected to the accelerator exit. We perform mass spectrometry of the few-keV anions produced in the ion source by measuring their neutral counterparts at the accelerator exit with energies up to 1.7 MeV. With an additional modification, a high-current few-keV regime is obtained, using the ion source as an irradiation chamber and the accelerator itself only as a mass spectrometer. As an example of application, we prepare a sample for the study of ion-beam assisted dewetting of a thin Au film on a Si substrate.

  7. Development of a Computed Tomography Simulator: SimCT, Application to Health Monitoring and Remaining Life Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this activity is to develop a quantitative NDE simulation tool for computed tomography suitable for desktop work using realistic geometry...

  8. SIMS as a new methodology to depth profile helium in as-implanted and annealed pure bcc metals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorondy-Novak, S.; Jomard, F.; Prima, F.; Lefaix-Jeuland, H.

    2017-05-01

    Reliable He profiles are highly desirable for better understanding helium behavior in materials for future nuclear applications. Recently, Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) allowed the characterization of helium distribution in as-implanted metallic systems. The Cs+ primary ion beam coupled with CsHe+ molecular detector appeared to be a promising technique which overcomes the very high He ionization potential. In this study, 4He depth profiles in pure body centered cubic (bcc) metals (V, Fe, Ta, Nb and Mo) as-implanted and annealed, were obtained by SIMS. All as-implanted samples exhibited a projected range of around 200 nm, in agreement with SRIM theoretical calculations. After annealing treatment, SIMS measurements evidenced the evolution of helium depth profile with temperature. The latter SIMS results were compared to the helium bubble distribution obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). This study confirmed the great potential of this experimental procedure as a He-depth profiling technique in bcc metals. Indeed, the methodology described in this work could be extended to other materials including metallic and non-metallic compounds. Nevertheless, the quantification of helium concentration after annealing treatment by SIMS remains uncertain probably due to the non-uniform ionization efficiency in samples containing large bubbles.

  9. SIMS as a new methodology to depth profile helium in as-implanted and annealed pure bcc metals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorondy-Novak, S. [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jomard, F. [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée, CNRS, UVSQ, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles cedex (France); Prima, F. [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, 75005 Paris (France); Lefaix-Jeuland, H., E-mail: helene.lefaix@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-05-01

    Reliable He profiles are highly desirable for better understanding helium behavior in materials for future nuclear applications. Recently, Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) allowed the characterization of helium distribution in as-implanted metallic systems. The Cs{sup +} primary ion beam coupled with CsHe{sup +} molecular detector appeared to be a promising technique which overcomes the very high He ionization potential. In this study, {sup 4}He depth profiles in pure body centered cubic (bcc) metals (V, Fe, Ta, Nb and Mo) as-implanted and annealed, were obtained by SIMS. All as-implanted samples exhibited a projected range of around 200 nm, in agreement with SRIM theoretical calculations. After annealing treatment, SIMS measurements evidenced the evolution of helium depth profile with temperature. The latter SIMS results were compared to the helium bubble distribution obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). This study confirmed the great potential of this experimental procedure as a He-depth profiling technique in bcc metals. Indeed, the methodology described in this work could be extended to other materials including metallic and non-metallic compounds. Nevertheless, the quantification of helium concentration after annealing treatment by SIMS remains uncertain probably due to the non-uniform ionization efficiency in samples containing large bubbles.

  10. The mutation of the SIM2 gene in Northern China children with Hirschsprung's disease%中国北方地区先天性巨结肠SIM2基因突变特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红; 弭杰; 陈东; 吕良英; 肖楠; 王维林

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对SIM2基因SNPs基因型与先天性巨结肠症(Hirschsprung disease,HSCR)的关联分析,探索可能潜在的致病基因,从遗传学上丰富HSCR临床表型的内容.方法 采集107例临床确诊的HSCR患儿(病例组)和107例正常对照(对照组)的外周静脉血,提取白细胞基因组DNA,PCR扩增SIM2基因2个位点(rs2073416和rs2073601),将PCR产物测序进行突变筛选,明确突变位点和类型,并进一步结合病例-对照和生物信息学分析探讨变异的功能意义.结果 病例组与对照组SIM2rs2073601AA和AC基因型频率无显著性差异(P>0.05);而病例组与对照组SIM2 rs2073416 AA、AG和GG基因型频率及A和G等位基因频率差异显著(P<0.05),AA和GG基因型及G等位基因的患病风险分别为0.021,0.080和0.002.SIM2基因rs2073416测序共检出2种单碱基的替换,第437位密码子核苷酸CTT→CAG突变和第437位密码子核苷酸CTT→AAG突变.结论 中国HSCR人群存在着SIM2基因突变,具有一定的遗传性.%Objective To identify the correlation of SIM2 SNPs genotypes to the clinical phenotypes of Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR).Methods Genomic DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes was abstracted from 107 cases with HSCR and 107 normal control children.PCR amplification of SIM2 gene (rs2073416 and rs2073601),PCR products were sequenced for mutation screening.Case-control study and bioinformatic analysis were utilized to explore the potential functional roles of the variations detected.Results No significant differences were found in SIM2 gene rs2073601 allele and genotype frequencies of CC and CT between patients with HSCR and the control group (P > 0.05).The allele and genotype frequencies in SIM2 gene rs2073416 as well as the genotypes of AA,AG and GG were found to be significantly different between patient and control groups (P<0.05).A/G polymorphism was detected in HSCR patients.The genotypic of AA and GG and the allelic gene of G with diseases risk were 0

  11. A Look at the U.S. Energy System – A Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne Pincock; John W. Collins

    2011-06-01

    The United States (U.S.) energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible, and economical in the world. On the other hand, it is also excessively reliant on foreign energy sources, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not always practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources, and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases. The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting research and development on advanced nuclear reactor concepts and technologies, including High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technologies, directed at helping the United States meet its current and future energy challenges. This paper discusses the systematic approach used to develop the 2050 Strategic Impact Model (2050 SIM), which allows the user to analyze and depict the benefits of various energy sources in meeting the energy demand. It also provides an overall systems understanding of the tradeoffs between building and using HTGRs versus other existing technologies for providing energy (heat and electricity) to various energy-use sectors in the United States. This paper also provides the assumptions used in the model, the rational for the methodology, and the references for the source documentation and source data used in developing 2050 SIM.

  12. MuSim, a graphical user interface for multiple simulation programs

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Thomas J; Johnson, Rolland Paul; Neuffer, David Vincent

    2016-01-01

    MuSim is a new user-friendly program designed to interface to many different particle simulation codes, regardless of their data formats or geometry descriptions. It presents the user with a compelling graphical user interface that includes a flexible 3-D view of the simulated world plus powerful editing and drag-and-drop capabilities. All aspects of the design can be parameterized so that parameter scans and optimizations are easy. It is simple to create plots and display events in the 3-D viewer (with a slider to vary the transparency of solids), allowing for an effortless comparison of different simulation codes. Simulation codes: G4beamline 3.02 and MCNP 6.1; more are coming. Many accelerator design tools and beam optics codes were written long ago, with primitive user interfaces by today's standards. MuSim is specifically designed to make it easy to interface to such codes, providing a common user experience for all, and permitting the construction and exploration of models with very little overhead. For...

  13. MuSim, a Graphical User Interface for Multiple Simulation Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Thomas [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Cummings, Mary Anne [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, Rolland [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neuffer, David [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    MuSim is a new user-friendly program designed to interface to many different particle simulation codes, regardless of their data formats or geometry descriptions. It presents the user with a compelling graphical user interface that includes a flexible 3-D view of the simulated world plus powerful editing and drag-and-drop capabilities. All aspects of the design can be parametrized so that parameter scans and optimizations are easy. It is simple to create plots and display events in the 3-D viewer (with a slider to vary the transparency of solids), allowing for an effortless comparison of different simulation codes. Simulation codes: G4beamline, MAD-X, and MCNP; more coming. Many accelerator design tools and beam optics codes were written long ago, with primitive user interfaces by today's standards. MuSim is specifically designed to make it easy to interface to such codes, providing a common user experience for all, and permitting the construction and exploration of models with very little overhead. For today's technology-driven students, graphical interfaces meet their expectations far better than text-based tools, and education in accelerator physics is one of our primary goals.

  14. Subcellular imaging of freeze-fractured cell cultures by TOF-SIMS and Laser-SNMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fartmann, M.; Dambach, S.; Kriegeskotte, C.; Lipinsky, D.; Wiesmann, H.P.; Wittig, A.; Sauerwein, W.; Arlinghaus, H.F

    2003-01-15

    We have examined atomic and molecular distributions in freeze-fractured freeze-dried primary osteoblasts and cancer cells using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and non-resonant laser secondary neutral mass spectrometry (NR-Laser-SNMS). A pulsed Ga primary ion beam with a diameter of approximately 200 nm was employed to bombard the sample. Ion-induced electron-images were used to identify individual cells. High resolution elemental and molecular images were obtained from cell cultures. From these data the K/Na ratio was determined. It shows a higher K-concentration inside individual cells demonstrating that the chemical and structural integrity of living cells were preserved by the applied preparation technique. Consecutive presputtering of the sample with different primary ion dose densities was used to move the analysis plane toward the inside of the cell. It can be concluded that TOF-SIMS and Laser-SNMS are well suited for imaging trace element and molecule concentrations in biological samples.

  15. Lipid analysis of eight human breast cancer cell lines with ToF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Graham, Daniel J; Morrish, Fionnuala; Hockenbery, David; Gamble, Lara J

    2015-06-28

    In this work, four triple negative (TN) cell lines, three ER+ and PR+ receptor positive (RP) cell lines, and one ER+, PR+, and HER2+ cell line were chemically distinguished from one another using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA). PCA scores separation was observed between the individual cell lines within a given classification (TN and RP) and there were distinctly different trends found in the fatty acid and lipid compositions of the two different classifications. These trends indicated that the RP cell lines separated out based on the carbon chain length of the lipids while the TN cell lines showed separation based on cholesterol-related peaks (in the positive ion data). Both cell types separated out by trends in fatty acid chain length and saturation in the negative ions. These chemical differences may be manifestations of unique metabolic processes within each of the different cell lines. Additionally, the HER2+ cell line was distinguished from three other RP cell types as having a unique distribution of fatty acids including anticorrelation to 18-carbon chain fatty acids. As these cell lines could not be grown in the same growth media, a combination of chemical fixation, rinsing, C60 (+) presputtering, and selection of cellular regions-of-interest is also presented as a successful method to acquire ToF-SIMS data from cell lines grown in different media.

  16. Un San Juan Bautista firmado por Juan Simón Gutiérrez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Requena Bravo de Laguna, José Luis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de la pintura sevillana de la segunda mitad del siglo XVII supone uno de los grandes retos de nuestra historiografía artística. Efectivamente, el amplio abanico de discípulos e imitadores del arte de Murillo necesita una profunda revisión metodológica que sepa clarificar la nada fácil tarea de aislar las distintas personalidades que constituyen este importante grupo de artistas. En este sentido la personalidad de Juan Simón Gutiérrez (h. 1634-1724 continua siendo bastante confusa si bien con algunos interrogantes se le van atribuyendo ciertas obras que puedan responder al todavía escaso conocimiento de su estilo frente al amplio grupo de pintores pertenecientes a la escuela de Murillo. Este inédito San Juan Bautista predicando en el desierto (fig. 1, firmado por Juan Simón Gutiérrez (figs. 2-3 procedente de una colección cordobesa…

  17. Prospects of Detecting HI using Redshifted 21-cm Radiation at $z \\sim 3$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bharat Kumar Gehlot; J. S. Bagla

    2017-03-01

    Distribution of cold gas in the post-reionization era provides an important link between distribution of galaxies and the process of star formation. Redshifted $21$-cm radiation from the hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen allows us to probe the neutral component of cold gas, most of which is to be found in the interstellar medium of galaxies. Existing and upcoming radio telescopes can probe the large scale distribution of neutral hydrogen via HI intensity mapping. In this paper, we use an estimate of the HI power spectrum derived using an ansatz to compute the expected signal from the large scale HI distribution at $z \\sim 3$. We find that the scale dependence of bias at small scales makes a significant difference to the expected signal even at large angular scales. We compare the predicted signal strength with the sensitivity of radio telescopes that can observe such radiation and calculate the observation time required for detecting neutral hydrogen at these redshifts. We find that OWFA (Ooty Wide Field Array) offers the best possibility to detect neutral hydrogen at $z \\sim 3$ before the SKA (Square Kilometer Array) becomes operational. We find that the OWFA should be able to make a $3 \\sigma$ or a more significant detection in $2000$ hours of observations at several angular scales. Calculations done using the Fisher matrix approach indicate that a $5\\sigma$ detection of the binned HI power spectrum via measurement of the amplitude of the HI power spectrum is possible in $1000$ h (Sarkar et al. 2017).

  18. CoaSim: A flexible environment for simulating genetic data under coalescent models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Christian NS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coalescent simulations are playing a large role in interpreting large scale intra-specific sequence or polymorphism surveys and for planning and evaluating association studies. Coalescent simulations of data sets under different models can be compared to the actual data to test the importance of different evolutionary factors and thus get insight into these. Results We have created the CoaSim application as a flexible environment for Monte Carlo simulation of various types of genetic data under equilibrium and non-equilibrium coalescent processes for a variety of applications. Interaction with the tool is through the Guile version of the Scheme scripting language. Scheme scripts for many standard and advanced applications are provided and these can easily be modified by the user for a much wider range of applications. A graphical user interface with less functionality and flexibility is also included. It is primarily intended as an exploratory and educational tool Conclusion CoaSim is a powerful tool because of its flexibility and ease of use. This is illustrated through very varied uses of the application, e.g. evaluation of association mapping methods, parametric bootstrapping, and design and choice of markers for specific questions

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Supported Membrane Composition using the NanoSIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, M; Foster, S; Marxer, C G; Weber, P; Hutcheon, I; Boxer, S

    2005-08-28

    We have improved methods reported earlier [1] for sample preparation, imaging and quantifying components in supported lipid bilayers using high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry performed with the NanoSIMS 50. By selectively incorporating a unique stable isotope into each component of interest, a component-specific image is generated from the location and intensity of the unique secondary ion signals exclusively produced by each molecule. Homogeneous supported lipid bilayers that systematically varied in their isotopic enrichment levels were freeze-dried and analyzed with the NanoSIMS 50. The molecule-specific secondary ion signal intensities had an excellent linear correlation to the isotopically labeled lipid content. Statistically indistinguishable calibration curves were obtained using different sample sets analyzed months apart. Fluid bilayers can be patterned using lithographic methods and the composition of each corralled region varied systematically by simple microfluidic methods. The resulting composition variations can be imaged and quantified. This approach opens the possibility of imaging and quantifying the composition of microdomains within membranes, including protein components, without using bulky labels and with very high lateral resolution and sensitivity.

  20. CS-DRM: A Cloud-Based SIM DRM Scheme for Mobile Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development and growth of the mobile industry, a considerable amount of mobile applications and services are available, which involve Internet scale data collections. Meanwhile, it has a tremendous impact on digital content providers as well as the mobile industry that a large number of digital content have been pirated and illegally distributed. Digital Rights Management (DRM aims at protecting digital contents from being abused through regulating their usage. Unfortunately, to the best of our knowledge, fewer of these DRM schemes are concerned with the cost of the servers in a DRM system when the number of users scales up, and consider benefits of content providers who can be seen as tenants of a content server. In this paper, we propose CS-DRM, a cloud-based SIM DRM scheme, for the mobile Internet. The SIM card is introduced into CS-DRM to both reduce the cost and provide higher security. Also, the characteristics of cloud computing enable CS-DRM to bring benefits for content providers, and well satisfy the performance requirements with low cost when the number of users increases significantly. Furthermore, we have implemented a prototype of our DRM scheme, which demonstrates that CS-DRM is efficient, secure, and practicable.