WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring school attendance

  1. RFID and IOT for Attendance Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Irawan Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, RFID technology has been widely used in various sectors, such as in-education, transportation, agriculture, animal husbandry, store sales and other sectors. RFID utilization in education is student attendance monitoring system, by using Internet of Things (IoT and Cloud technology, it will produce a real time attendance monitoring system that can be accessed by various parties, such as lecturer, campus administration and parents. With this monitoring system if there are students who are not present can be immediately discovered and can be taken immediate action and the learning process can run smoothly.

  2. An Analysis of Florida's School Districts' Attendance Policies and their Relationship to High School Attendance Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Ryan Turner

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental correlational study was to determine the relationship between the type of attendance policies in the high schools of the 67 Florida school districts, the size of the school district (number of high school students), the socioeconomic status SES) of the school district, and the average daily attendance rate of…

  3. Physical Environmental Barriers to School Attendance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment were the major barriers to school attendance. Conclusion: To ... Key words: Parents/caregivers, children with disabilities, barriers. Introduction .... It is not safe to walk ... feeling, learning, behaviour, and fits or convulsions. [19] The ...

  4. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  5. A Comparison of Sexual Minority Youth Who Attend Religiously Affiliated Schools and Their Nonreligious-School-Attending Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brandon T.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are an at-risk group for negative health outcomes. The present study compares descriptive characteristics and outness of sexual minority youth who attend religious schools to sexual minorities who do not attend religious schools, and also investigates if attending religiously affiliated schools is associated with levels of…

  6. Management of School Attendance in the UK: A Strategic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Prior to 1997, managing school attendance was the sole responsibility of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). Since devolution, responsibility for school attendance has resided with each of the four UK-wide administrations. These are the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) in England; the Scottish Executive Education…

  7. Blood Pressure Home Monitoring in Hypertensive Patients Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood Pressure Home Monitoring in Hypertensive Patients Attending a Tertiary ... Sixty percent of the patients were aged 50 - 69 years. ... Patients with high BP readings reported that they exercise more and reduced their daily salt intake.

  8. Implementing Nunavut Education Act: Compulsory School Attendance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, E. Fredua

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of Nunavut compulsory school attendance policy as part of the Nunavut Education Act (2002). Using a bottom-up approach to policy implementation in the literature and the author's six years teaching experience in Nunavut, the paper argues that the compulsory school attendance policy may not achieve its…

  9. Influence of Peer Victimization on School Attendance among Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Senior Secondary School Students in Uromi Metropolis. Ojugo ... Key words: Peer victimization, Bullying, School Attendance, Students, Counselling ... challenges children face at school; as a growing number of students perceive their .... record in Secondary Schools in. Uromi Metropolis. Score Range. Grade. Interpretation.

  10. Exploring the school attendance of children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Piccin Zanni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The childhood epilepsy is a chronic disease that can have an impact in various spheres of life of the child, including academic performance and school attendance. This study aimed to describe and compare the school attendance of children with epilepsy who attend mainstream and special schools. Participants were 56 children aged between 7 and 14 years who attended regular or special schools located in two Brazilian cities of medium size. To collect the information we used two instruments: Data sheet of identification and characterization of the child and Data sheet to record the attendance school. The results showed that children in special schools had higher rates of absenteeism compared to students in regular schools. Additionally, we observed that these children use more drugs and have implications on health more severe than children in regular schools. Thus, it is the childhood epilepsy as a disease complex that brings substantial effects on various areas of children’s lives by reinforcing the need for studies that might expand the knowledge to and the experiences associated with the education of these children.

  11. The Educational Benefits of Attending Higher Performing Schools: Evidence from Chicago High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul T.; Sartain, Lauren; de la Torre, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers are implementing reforms with the assumption that students do better when attending high-achieving schools. In this article, we use longitudinal data from Chicago Public Schools to test that assumption. We find that the effects of attending a higher performing school depend on the school's performance level. At elite public schools…

  12. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  13. Students attendance monitoring using near field communication technology

    OpenAIRE

    Stakėnas, Tautvydas

    2017-01-01

    Today, near field communication technology (NFC) is one of the most popular automatic identification technologies. There is a lot of research and development in this area trying to make as much use of this technology as possible, and in coming years many new applications and research areas will continue to appear. In this paper the author examines NFC technology application for student’s attendance monitoring. In the first part of the thesis NFC uses, application methods and security levels a...

  14. An Evaluation of the Attendance Policy and Program and Its Perceived Effects on High School Attendance in Newport News Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Wayne Keith

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to determine the effects of the attendance policy and attendance program after one year of implementation in Newport News Public Schools with a total high school population of approximately 5,820 students. The school district recently implemented a new attendance policy and program to address high school student absenteeism. This multi-faceted study examined the effects of this new policy by conducting statistical analyses of attendance data, pro...

  15. Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific...... effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away...

  16. Idiosyncratic Shocks, Child Labor and School Attendance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharisma, Bayu

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of various idiosyncratic shocks against child labor, child labor hour and school attendance. Also, the role of the assets held by households as one of the coping strategies to mitigate the effects of shocks. The results show that various idiosyncratic shocks that encourage child labor is generally caused by crop…

  17. Family Integrants Obstructing Pupils' School Attendance and Girl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is hinged on finding out the family integrants obstructing pupils' school attendance, the girl – child education and proffering solution to it via counsellors' strategies. The samples were three hundred (300) parents and twenty (20) counsellors. This brought the total sample to three hundred and twenty (320).

  18. TEACHING, COEXISTENCE AND ATTENDANCE AT A TECHNOLOGICAL HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Carranza-Peña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, which stems from ethnographic research, shows the importance of faculty intervention in the classroom setting in encouraging student attendance. Our findings indicate that the habitus the educator establishes can either encourage youth to continue their studies, or lead them to drop out, thus placing them at risk of addictions, illegal activities, unemployment or low-paid jobs. The Pedagogy of Hope therefore provides an option for effecting large-scale changes in personal, school, family, community and socio-economic conditions. The paper’s conclusions include providing training to teaching faculties on coexistence issues; ensuring coordination between school and family, and emphasizing an integral approach to education as means of promoting school attendance.

  19. Birth Order, Child Labor and School Attendance in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick M. Emerson; Andre Portela Souza

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of birth order on the child labor incidence and school attendance of Brazilian children. Evidence from the psychology and sociology literature suggests that earlier-born children tend to have higher innate abilities. The economic implications of these findings are that earlier-born children may have more intra-household resources directed to them when they are young, and better outcomes as adults in areas such as education and earnings. However, in the context ...

  20. Sleep habits of students attending elementary schools, and junior and senior high schools in Akita prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Takaubu; Funaki, Kensaku; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Kawamoto, Kentaro; Tsutsui, Kou; Saito, Yasushi; Aizawa, Rika; Inomata, Shoko; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2002-06-01

    It is widely accepted that students in Japan sleep fewer hours than what they actually need. However, epidemiological data on sleep habits among students are scarce. The sleep habits and related problems among 1650 students in Akita prefecture were studied. The results revealed that schoolchildren attending elementary schools seemed to sleep for a sufficient number of hours, whereas students attending junior or senior high schools were not sleeping enough. In particular, approximately half of the students attending senior high schools answered that they slept 6 h or less on weekdays and nodded off during classes more than twice a week.

  1. High School Substance Use as a Predictor of College Attendance, Completion, and Dropout: A National Multi-cohort Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Schulenberg, John E; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2016-05-01

    National data from Monitoring the Future were used to examine patterns and predictors of college attendance. Samples of American 12 th -grade students from 1977-2003 were followed for seven years (modal ages 18-25; N =10,020). College attendance and graduation patterns varied considerably over historical time and based on family background. Substance use during high school predicted a greater likelihood of never attending (for cigarettes, illegal drugs), of graduating from a 2-year rather than a 4-year school (for cigarettes), and of dropping out versus graduating from a 4-year school (for cigarettes, marijuana, and other illegal drugs). High school binge drinking predicted lower college dropout, but only in models also controlling for cigarette, marijuana, and other illicit drug use. This study provides a needed overview of adolescent predictors of patterns of college attendance among American young adults over the past three decades.

  2. 34 CFR 200.78 - Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools. 200.78 Section 200.78 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE... for the Within-District Allocation of Lea Program Funds § 200.78 Allocation of funds to school...

  3. Factors Affecting Non-Attendance in Irish Primary Schools and Reasons for Differences between Urban and Rural levels of Non-attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Gurhy, Anne Marie; Perry, Glen; Farrell, Mark

    2018-01-01

    This study will investigative the factors that influence school non-attendance, in designated disadvantaged Irish primary schools (DEIS1). Currently, no comprehensive data exists on the factors contributing to the levels and types of non-attendance within the Irish context. Since 2003/2004, the National Educational Welfare Board (NEWB, Appendix A) the agency with responsibility for school attendance, has collected specific data on attendance levels and the frequency of non-attendance across a...

  4. Physical Fitness, Grit, School Attendance, and Academic Performance among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Jonathan M; Chen, Yen T; Castelli, Darla M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of grit as a construct representing perseverance to overcoming barriers and the total number of school absences to academic performance (AP) while controlling for sociodemographics, fitness (i.e., PACER), and Body Mass Index (BMI). Adolescents ( N = 397, SD = 1.85; 80.9% females; 77.1% Hispanic) from an urban, minority-majority city in the Southern United States completed the FitnessGram® assessment of physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity and Body Mass Index (BMI)) and the valid and reliable short grit survey. The schools provided sociodemographics, attendance, and AP data for the adolescents. Adolescents with higher grit scores ( r s = 0.21, P < 0.001) and less total absences ( r s = -0.35, P < 0.001) performed better on AP. Hierarchical multiple regression indicated that grit and absences were associated with AP ( β = 0.13, P < 0.01 and β = -0.35, P < 0.001, resp.). Grit and a total number of absences are significant contributors to academic success, particularly among Hispanic adolescents. Further, grit and school attendance may serve as a better measure of protective factors over proximal health measures of cardiovascular health and BMI.

  5. School attendance in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amy E; Tsangaris, Elena; Barrera, Maru; Guger, Sharon; Brown, Robert; Urbach, Stacey; Stephens, Derek; Nathan, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate school absenteeism among childhood cancer survivors and their siblings and examine factors related to absenteeism in survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive cancer survivors attending a large pediatric cancer survivor clinic. Absenteeism rates were obtained for survivors and their closest in age sibling from school report cards. Absenteeism was compared with a population control group of 167752 students using 1-sample t tests. The Child Vulnerability Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Behavior Assessment System for Children were administered to survivors. Univariate and multiple regression analyses assessed variables associated with days absent. One hundred thirty-one survivors (median age at assessment: 13.4 years, range 8.0-19.2; median age at diagnosis: 9.4 years, range 4.3-17.3) and 77 siblings (median age at assessment: 13 years, age range 7-18) participated. Survivors and siblings missed significantly more school days than the population control group (mean ± SD: 9.6 ± 9.2 and 9.9 ± 9.8 vs 5.0 ± 5.6 days, respectively, P sibling pairs (N = 77), there was no difference in absenteeism (9.6 ± 9.2 vs 9.9 ± 9.8 days, P = .85). Absenteeism in survivors was significantly associated with a low Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Physical Health Summary Score (P = .01). Parents' perception of their child's vulnerability and emotional and social functioning were not associated with absenteeism. Childhood cancer survivors and siblings miss more school than the general population. The only predictor of absenteeism in survivors is poor physical quality of health. More research should be devoted to school attendance and other outcomes in siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Barriers to School Attendance and Gender Inequality: Empirical Evidence from a Sample of Ghanaian Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sharon; McCoy, Dana C.; Godfrey, Erin B.

    2016-01-01

    Governments in sub-Saharan Africa have made marked efforts to increase school enrollment. Yet attendance and completion rates remain low, particularly for girls. This study examines the reasons that school children do not attend school in a sample of Ghanaian students. Girls were more likely to miss school because a family member was sick, whereas…

  7. A Response to Intervention Model to Promote School Attendance and Decrease School Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Graczyk, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Regular school attendance is foundational to children's success but school absenteeism is a common, serious, and highly vexing problem. Researchers from various disciplines have produced a rich yet diverse literature for conceptualizing problematic absenteeism that has led to considerable confusion and lack of consensus about a…

  8. Identification of dietary patterns of adolescents attending public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. METHODS: this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents provided demographic and economic data. The nutritional status (body mass index - BMI of the adolescents was determined at school, and their dietary habits were assessed though the administration of the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA. Based on 26 categories extracted from FFQA, dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis (PCA and associated to anthropometric and socioeconomic factors using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: the three dietary patterns identified, "junk food," "healthy," and "traditional", explained 23.26%, 6.90%, and 5.24% of data variability, respectively. Adolescents with per capita family income exceeding half a minimum wage were more likely to consume the "junk food" pattern (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.07-2.56, and overweight adolescents had lower chances of eating the "healthy" food pattern (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. CONCLUSIONS: deviations from the "healthy" patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the "healthy" dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them.

  9. 76 FR 61148 - Proposed Information Collection (Approval of School Attendance) Activity: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... marriages, a change in course of instruction and termination of school attendance. Affected Public... (Approval of School Attendance) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Titles: a. Request for Approval of School...

  10. 20 CFR 664.310 - When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is dropout status determined... INVESTMENT ACT Out-of-School Youth § 664.310 When is dropout status determined, particularly for youth attending alternative schools? A school dropout is defined as an individual who is no longer attending any...

  11. 78 FR 55121 - Submission for Review: Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14 and Information; and Instructions for Completing the Self...-0032, Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance For The School Year, RI 25-14; and Information... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic...

  12. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  13. School Attendance, Absenteeism, and Student Success. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Oregon Department of Education staff spoke with principals from five Oregon schools that had low rates of chronic absenteeism compared to schools with similar demographics during the 2014-15 school year: Echo Shaw Elementary School, Free Orchards Elementary School, Dayton Junior High School, Valor Middle School, and North Marion High School. Each…

  14. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  15. School absence and treatment in school children with respiratory symptoms in the Netherlands: Data from the Child Health Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee-van Der Wekke, J.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To assess the prevalence of respiratory problems, and the relation of these problems with school attendance, medicine use, and medical treatment. Design - The Child Health Monitoring System. Setting - Nineteen public health services across the Netherlands. Participants - 5186

  16. Successful Attendance Policies and Programs. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    What steps can be taken to assure that High School students have the best attendance possible? It is commonly believed and well supported by research that students who attend school regularly are more successful than those who do not. The challenge for high schools is to design and implement attendance policies and programs that monitor,…

  17. How Insecurity impacts on school attendance and school drop out among urban slum children in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimaraoke Izugbara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how perceptions of personal security can impact on school enrolment and attendance. It mainly focuses on threats of physical harm, crime, and community and domestic violence. These security fears can include insecurity that children suffer from as they go to school, maybe through the use of unsafe routes; insecurity that children feel at school; and the insecurity they suffer from in their homes. Although poverty can be a source and/or an indicator of insecurity, this paper does not focus solely on poverty as it is well covered elsewhere in the literature. The paper relies on qualitative data col- lected in Korogocho and Viwandani slum areas in Nairobi, Kenya between October and November 2004. The paper analyses data from individual interviews and focus group interviews and focuses on the narrative of slum dwellers on how insecurity impacts on educational attainment. The conclusion in this paper is that insecure neighbourhoods may have a negative impact on schooling. As a result policies that address insecurity in slum neighbourhoods can also improve school attendance and performance.

  18. School Attendance in Nigeria: Understanding the Impact and Intersection of Gender, Urban-Rural Residence, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Aramide; Jensen, Leif; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a research which examines the impact of religion, gender, and parental socioeconomic status on school attendance in Nigeria. Researchers found that both gender and parental socioeconomic status have significant impacts on school attendance. Although gender is an important determinant of school attendance, indicators of…

  19. The Relationship of School Uniforms to Student Attendance, Achievement, and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Russell Edward

    2012-01-01

    This causal-comparative study examined the relationship of school uniforms to attendance, academic achievement, and discipline referral rates, using data collected from two high schools in rural southwest Georgia county school systems, one with a uniforms program and one without a uniforms program. After accounting for race and students with…

  20. Time Series in Education: The Analysis of Daily Attendance in Two High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses the use of a time series approach to the analysis of daily attendance in two urban high schools over the course of one school year (2009-10). After establishing that the series for both schools were stationary, they were examined for moving average processes, autoregression, seasonal dependencies (weekly cycles),…

  1. Mind the Gap: How Students Differentially Perceive Their School's Attendance Policies in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelzer, Christine; Lenski, Anna Eva

    2016-01-01

    Truant student behavior can be due to various reasons. Some of these reasons are located in schools. So far, little is known about how student perception of school rules is related to truancy. This study aims to identify types of school attendance policies and how these policies are associated with individual truancy. Self-reports from the German…

  2. Abbott Students Attending Charter Schools: Funding Disparities and Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkley, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Most of New Jersey's charter schools are located in the state's poorer, urban school districts, or "Abbott" districts, and exclusively serve students from those communities. A number of other schools are located outside of the Abbott districts but enroll students from these districts. Specifically, of the 50 charter schools operating in…

  3. School Asthma Screening and Case Management: Attendance and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moricca, Michelle L.; Grasska, Merry A.; BMarthaler, Marcia; Morphew, Tricia; Weismuller, Penny C.; Galant, Stanley P.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is related to school absenteeism and underperformance in elementary students. This pilot study assessed whether school nurse case management (CM) in children identified with asthma impacts academic performance and school absenteeism in one school. A validated questionnaire was used to identify children at risk for asthma and CM was provided…

  4. School attendance, health-risk behaviors, and self-esteem in adolescents applying for working papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suss, A L; Tinkelman, B K; Freeman, K; Friedman, S B

    1996-01-01

    Since health-risk behaviors are often encountered in clusters among adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with poor school attendance would be associated with more health-risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, violence) than those who attend school regularly. This study assessed the relationship between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors, and described health-risk behaviors and self-esteem among adolescents seeking employment. In this cross-sectional study, school attendance (poor vs. regular attendance) was related to health-risk behaviors by asking 122 subjects seen at a New York City Working Papers Clinic to complete both a 72-item questionnaire about their health-risk behaviors and the 58-item Coopersmith Self-Esteem School Form Inventory. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were performed. The poor and regular attenders of school differed significantly in only 5 out of 44 items pertaining to health-risk behaviors. Self-esteem measures for the two groups did not differ from one another or from national norms. In this sample, depression "in general" (global) and "at home," but not "at school," were associated significantly with suicidal thoughts/attempts and serious past life events (e.g. family conflict, sexual abuse). There were no significant associations between depression or self-esteem and illicit substance or alcohol use. We found few associations between poor school attendance and health-risk behaviors in this sample of employment-seeking adolescents. The poor and regular attenders of school were similar in most aspects of their health-risk behaviors and self-esteem.

  5. Dietary habits and physical activity levels in Jordanian adolescents attending private versus public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O

    2014-07-08

    The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.

  6. Can Provision of Free School Uniforms harm Attendance? Evidence from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Hidalgo; Mercedes Onofa; Hessel Oosterbeek; Juan Ponce

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in an article in the Journal of Development Economics (2013). Volume 103, pages 43-51. To raise school attendance, many programs in developing countries eliminate orreduce private contributions to education. This paper documents an unintendednegative effect of such programs. Using data from a randomized experiment thatprovides free uniforms to primary school children in Ecuador, we find that the interventionhas a significantly negative impact on attendance. An e...

  7. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgroun...

  8. School Quality Signals and Attendance in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes school dropout in rural Guatemala using event history data and unusually detailed data on schools and teachers. Significant results for language of instruction, teacher education and fighting between students demonstrate the importance of accounting for school context influences on an outcome that has, historically, been…

  9. Monitoring student attendance, participation, and performance improvement: an instrument and forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosta, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    When students receive consistent and fair feedback about their behavior, program liability decreases. To help students to have a clearer understanding of minimum program standards and the consequences of substandard performance, the author developed attendance and participation monitoring and performance improvement instruments. The author discusses the tools that address absenteeism, tardiness, unprofessional, and unsafe clinical behaviors among students.

  10. Indicated Truancy Interventions: Effects on School Attendance among Chronic Truant Students. Campbell Systematic Reviews. 2012:10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; McCrea, Katherine Tyson; Pigott, Terri D.; Kelly, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to examine the effects of interventions on school attendance to inform policy, practice, and research. The questions guiding this study were: (1) Do truancy programs with a goal of increasing student attendance for truant youth affect school attendance behaviors of elementary and secondary students…

  11. Learning Strategies of Students Attending a "Second Chance" School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Sylvie C.; Langevin, Louise; Robert, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in Quebec with 608 students (aged 16-19) in four "second chance" schools of the greater Montreal area. The objectives were twofold: (a) to identify the strategies of these students in the context of five learning activities; and (b) to compare the strategies of students who had withdrawn from school after their…

  12. Patterns of and Influences on Elementary School Attendance in Early Victorian Industrial Monmouthshire 1839-1865

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David C.; Davies, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Issues associated with school absenteeism have attracted considerable attention and have long been one of the focal points of government strategies for school improvement. Pupil non-attendance is not a new phenomenon and featured prominently in Her Majesty's Inspectors' reports from 1839. This paper outlines the patterns of and influences on…

  13. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gloria

    Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…

  14. The Impact of Location Alteration on School Attendance of Chicano Gang Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Alan C.

    The study examined whether a change in school site affected the school attendance of 13 male Chicano gang members, 13 to 18 years of age, admitted to a community-based delinquency and gang violence prevention project. Since an active Alternative Studies Program, designed for students with special learning problems or for working students, already…

  15. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  16. Caring Teacher Qualities that Affect School Participation and Attendance: Student Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Helen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the perspectives of four high school students focusing on the identification of caring teacher qualities and the influence those characteristics have on school participation and attendance. Data was collected using interviews rather than survey in order to hear the often-unheard voices of students. Portraits of each student…

  17. School (Non-)Attendance and "Mobile Cultures": Theoretical and Empirical Insights from Indigenous Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prout Quicke, Sarah; Biddle, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians are significantly and substantially less likely to be attending school on a given day than their non-Indigenous counterparts. This has been shown to have long-term consequences for the development of the mainstream literacy and numeracy skills associated with formal schooling, as well…

  18. Deaf children attending different school environments: sign language abilities and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf children differed only in their school environment: One group attended a school with a teaching assistant (TA; Sign Language is offered only by the TA to a single deaf child), and the other group attended a bilingual program (Italian Sign Language and Italian). Linguistic abilities and understanding of false belief were assessed using similar materials and procedures in spoken Italian with hearing children and in Italian Sign Language with deaf children. Deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than deaf children attending school with the TA in tasks assessing lexical comprehension and ToM, whereas the performance of hearing children was in between that of the two deaf groups. As for lexical production, deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than the two other groups. No significant differences were found between early and late signers or between children with deaf and hearing parents.

  19. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Lauritzen, Lotte; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-o...

  20. Functional Assessment of School Attendance Problems : An Adapted Version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyne, D. A.; Vreeke, L. J.; Maric, M.; Boelens, H.; Van Widenfelt, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth’s school attendance problem (SAP), and thus be targeted for treatment. There is still limited support for the four-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). Recent studies

  1. Psychosocial Profile of Gifted Adolescents Attending a Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz-Villegas, Gabriela; Acle-Tomasini, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The current models in the study of giftedness such as the Triadic Interdependence define it as a favorable outcome of the interaction between intrinsic (intellectual capacity, creativity and motivation) and extrinsic (family, peers, and school) factors. Based on this, the purpose of this study was to identify and establish a profile…

  2. Compulsory School Attendance in Nigeria: What are the Reasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of analysis show that the problems of inadequate teachers; teachers' poor attitude to work; poverty; bullying unstable school calendar; poor supervision of teaching and learning including parents' wish are the significant reasons for wastage. The findings revealed further that male, old, poor and urban - resident ...

  3. Who attends recovery high schools after substance use treatment? A descriptive analysis of school aged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Finch, Andrew J; Hennessy, Emily A; Moberg, D Paul

    2018-06-01

    Recovery high schools (RHSs) are an alternative high school option for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs), designed to provide a recovery-focused learning environment. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of youth who choose to attend RHSs, and to compare them with local and national comparison samples of youth in recovery from SUDs who were not enrolled in RHSs. We conducted secondary analysis of existing data to compare characteristics of youth in three samples: (1) adolescents with SUDs who enrolled in RHSs in Minnesota, Texas, and Wisconsin after discharge from treatment (RHSs; n = 171, 51% male, 86% White, 4% African American, 5% Hispanic); (2) a contemporaneously recruited local comparison sample of students with SUDs who did not enroll in RHSs (n = 123, 60% male, 77% White, 5% African American, 12% Hispanic); and (3) a national comparison sample of U.S. adolescents receiving SUD treatment (n = 12,967, 73% male, 37% White, 15% African American, 30% Hispanic). Students enrolled in RHSs had elevated levels of risk factors for substance use and relapse relative to both the local and national comparison samples. For instance, RHS students reported higher rates of pre-treatment drug use, past mental health treatment, and higher rates of post-treatment physical health problems than adolescents in the national comparison sample. We conclude that RHSs serve a population with greater co-occurring problem severity than the typical adolescent in SUD treatment; programming offered at RHSs should attend to these complex patterns of risk factors. SUD service delivery policy should consider RHSs as an intensive recovery support model for the most high-risk students with SUDs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterizing Parents’ and School Staff’s Involvement with Student Attendance from the Perspective of School Staff in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Itakura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relations between parents and various school staff involvement, and student attendance across time from the viewpoint of school staff in Japan. In addition, student attendance characteristics were classified to investigate potential differences among students related to time and involvement of parents and staff. The research participants were Japanese elementary, junior, and senior high school staff (N = 206 who consented to participate in the survey. All participants were sampled from various areas of Japan and recruited through a web-based survey. Data were collected by the polling organization Internet Research Service MELLINKS (Tokyo, Japan, through their web panel (see www.mellinks.co.jp. The results indicated that during the early period of support, there was no positive correlation between class teachers’ involvement and students’ attendance. However, during the late period of support, it had a positive correlation. Surprisingly, the school nurses’ involvement was critical even in the early periods. Furthermore, in the late period, the results of ANOVAs assessing difference among the student attendance categories showed that maintaining and recovery types had higher scores of parents’ and class teachers’ involvement than non-maintaining and declining types. This study suggests that flexibility of collaboration among parents and various school staff across time is an important component to support student attendance.

  5. The Effect of E-Learning on Learning and Interest in School Attendance among Elementary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedehsahar Shafieiosgouei; Nava Nourdad; Robab Hassantofighi; Seyyedreza Shafieioskouei

    2018-01-01

    The technological advances of the 21st century have impacted all spheres of life, including education. The world of books and pens is being replaced by computers at young ages. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of technology on Iranian elementary school students’ learning and interest in school attendance. The participants were 47 sixth grade students selected from two schools with and without technological support. The results of the study revealed a higher level of interes...

  6. Does Improved Water Access Increase Child School Attendance? A Quasi-Experimental Approach From Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y.; Cook, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of improved water access on child school attendance using two years of primary panel data from a quasi-experimental study in Oromiya, Ethiopia. A predominant form of child labor in rural poor households in least developed countries is water collection. Girls are often the primary water collectors for households, and because of the time intensive nature of water collection improved water access may allow for time to be reallocated to schooling (Rosen and Vincent 1999; Nankhuni and Findeis 2004). Understanding how improved water access may increase schooling for girls has important development policy implications. Indeed, abundant research on returns to education suggests increased schooling for girls is tied to improved future child and maternal health, economic opportunities, and lower fertility rates (Handa 1996; Schultz 1998; Michaelowa 2000). The literature to date finds that improved water access leads to increased schooling; however, there still exists a clear gap in the literature for understanding this relationship for two reasons. First, only four studies have directly examined the relationship between improved water access and schooling in sub-Saharan Africa, and analyses have been limited due to the use of cross-sectional data and research designs (Nankhuni and Findeis 2004; Koolwal and Van de Walle 2010; Ndiritu and Nyangan 2011; Nauges and Strand 2011). Indeed, only two studies have attempted to control for the endogenous nature of water access. Second, all studies use a binary school enrollment indicator from household surveys, which may suffer from response bias and may be an imperfect measure for actual schooling. Respondents may feel pressured to report that their children are enrolled in school if, like in Ethiopia, there are compulsory education laws. This may result in an overestimation of school enrollment. In addition, most children from rural poor households combine work and school, and a binary indicator does

  7. Associations between usual school lunch attendance and eating habits and sedentary behaviour in French children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, C; Lioret, S; Dufour, A; Volatier, J L; Lafay, L; Turck, D

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether school lunch attendance was associated with overall eating habits and sedentary behaviour in a French sample of children and adolescents. Data for the study were taken from the second French cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2-2006-07). In total, 1413 school children aged 3-17 years old were classified according to their school type and their usual school lunch attendance. Eating habits included meal regularity, dietary diversity, purchase in vending machine, snacking habits and frequency of eating in fast-foods. Two composite indices of eating habits were derived from multiple correspondence analyses. Sedentary behaviour was assessed by the average daily screen times for TV and computer. The association between school lunch attendance and each variable was tested. Multivariate association between school lunch attendance and the composite indices of eating habits and sedentary behaviours was studied. In all, 69.0% (CI(95%): 64.2-73.9) of secondary school children and 63.0% (CI(95%): 58.5-67.5) of pre- and elementary school children usually attended school lunch at least once a week. Pre- and elementary school children attending school lunches showed a higher dietary diversity score (P=0.02) and ate morning snacks more frequently (P=0.02). In secondary school children, attending school canteen was related to a lower rate of skipping breakfast (P=0.04) and main meals (P=0.01). In all school children, school lunch attendance was simultaneously associated with healthier overall eating habits and less sedentary behaviour. In France, children attending school canteens seem to have healthier eating habits and display less sedentary behaviour, independently of their socio-economic and demographic background.

  8. The impact of family size on children’s school attendance in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Kezia C. Bansagan; Hazel Joyce C. Panganiban

    2008-01-01

    Much empirical work has been done to determine the effects of family size on the education of children. Using a sample from the October 2006 Labor Force Survey, this paper attempts to determine the impact of family size on children’s education as measured by school attendance while considering socioeconomic factors. Results have shown that family size is significantly and negatively correlated with children’s school enrollment. Even after controlling for family size and birth-order effect, th...

  9. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); K. van der Velde (Kelly); P. Joosten (Pieter); H. Rutten (Hans); J.M. Hulst (Jessie); K. Dulfer (Karolijn)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the

  10. Investigating Level of Mathematics Knowledge for Students Attending Vocational Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Nurdan

    2013-01-01

    Students attend mathematics courses in Turkey for totally 11 years, throughout education life ranging from primary school to university, including eight years in primary education and three years in secondary education (four years based on new arrangement); however, level of mathematic knowledge of students is upsetting when they reach university…

  11. Parental Involvement in Middle School Predicting College Attendance for First-Generation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Khanh; Rush, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this report examined the relationship between parental involvement in eighth grade and college attendance by eight years after high school for students whose parents have no college education (i.e., first-generation students; n = 1,358) in comparison to students whose parents have some…

  12. Effect of Religious Attendance on Years of Schooling in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhu S.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the USA, the study demonstrates that an individual's completed years of schooling later in life is positively related to his/her frequency of religious attendance during youth. Using the propensity score matching technique, the study shows that this relationship is causal. This conclusion remains valid for youths of different…

  13. AIDS Risk Among Students Attending Seventh-day Adventist Schools in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Gary L.; Hopp, Joyce W.; Marshak, Helen P. Hopp; Neish, Christine; Rhoads, Gayle

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of students attending Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) high schools assessed sexual and drug-use behaviors that placed them at risk for contracting or transmitting HIV. Comparison of the results with data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that SDA students had lower rates of sexual intercourse and substance use. Parental…

  14. Learning Barriers among Grade 6 Pupils Attending Rural Schools in Uganda: Implications to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Ngware, Moses; Mahuro, Gerald; Muhia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The paper uses multilevel analysis procedures to examine individual- and group-level learning barriers that have the greatest impact on pupil achievement in Uganda. The data for this study were collected in 2014 among 2711 Grade 6 pupils attending 82 schools in two rural districts of Iganga and Mayuge in Uganda. Data used in this paper are part of…

  15. Options for Educating Students Attending Department of Defense Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    student engagement , which has a detrimental effect on student achievement. School Inputs Teacher quality is an important determinant of student learning...Poor attendance can also indicate low student engagement , which has a detrimental effect on student achievement. Students who are chronically

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children Attending Special and Typical Education Greek Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, D.; Malliou, P.; Kofotolis, N.; Vlachopoulos, S. P.; Kellis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions about Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of typical education and special education students in Greece. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) was administered to the parents of 251 children from typical schools, 46 students attending integration classes (IC) within a…

  17. Parent-reported problem behavior among children with sensory disabilities attending elementary regular schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, B; Grietens, H

    2004-01-01

    Parent-reported problem behaviors of 94 children with visual and auditory disabilities, attending elementary regular schools, were compared with problems reported in a general population sample of nondisabled children. Both samples were matched by means of a pairwise matching procedure, taking into

  18. Primary School Principals' Self-Monitoring Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, Necdet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify primary school principals' self-monitoring skills. The study adopted the general survey model and its population comprised primary school principals serving in the city of Diyarbakir, Turkey, while 292 of these constituted the sample. Self-Monitoring Scale was used as the data collection instrument. In…

  19. Visible School Security Measures and Student Academic Performance, Attendance, and Postsecondary Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Fisher, Benjamin W

    2016-01-01

    Many U.S. schools use visible security measures (security cameras, metal detectors, security personnel) in an effort to keep schools safe and promote adolescents' academic success. This study examined how different patterns of visible security utilization were associated with U.S. middle and high school students' academic performance, attendance, and postsecondary educational aspirations. The data for this study came from two large national surveys--the School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (N = 38,707 students; 51% male, 77% White, MAge = 14.72) and the School Survey on Crime and Safety (N = 10,340 schools; average student composition of 50% male, 57% White). The results provided no evidence that visible security measures had consistent beneficial effects on adolescents' academic outcomes; some security utilization patterns had modest detrimental effects on adolescents' academic outcomes, particularly the heavy surveillance patterns observed in a small subset of high schools serving predominantly low socioeconomic students. The findings of this study provide no evidence that visible security measures have any sizeable effects on academic performance, attendance, or postsecondary aspirations among U.S. middle and high school students.

  20. Improving the Quantity and Quality of Attendance Data to Enhance Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Eleri; Price, Trevor; Lloyd, Steve; Thomas, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This article draws attention to local and global attendance monitoring in higher education. The paper outlines benefits of attendance monitoring for both the individual learner and university, and compares traditional paper-based attendance monitoring systems with an electronic system piloted in the Business School and School of Technology at the…

  1. An Investigation of Emotional Skills of Six-Year-Old Children Attending Nursery School According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmusoglu-Saltali, Neslihan; Arslan, Emel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is for the emotional skills of six-year-old children attending nursery school according to some variables. The participants were 306 (135 girls and 171 boys) six-year-old children attending nursery school. Data were collected from Assessment of Children's Emotional Skills and personal information form. In order to analyze…

  2. AIDS risk among students attending Seventh-day Adventist school, in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, G L; Hopp, J W; Marshak, H P; Neish, C; Rhoads, G

    1998-04-01

    In 1995, a survey was conducted among students attending 69 Seventh-day Adventist (SDA) high schools within the United States and Canada. The survey assessed the extent that these students practiced sexual and drug-use behaviors which place them at risk for contracting or transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A total of 1,748 respondents enrolled in grades 9 through 12 completed questionnaires similar to the instrument used in the 1993 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Data were collected and compared to results from the 1993 YRBS. Students who attended SDA parochial schools reported lower rates of sexual intercourse compared to YRBS school counterparts (16.3% vs. 53.1%) and lower rates of all substances measured. Furthermore, respondents were more likely to engage in substance use and sexual intercourse if they had at least one parent who used tobacco, alcohol, or marijuana, as reported by the students.

  3. Role development of nurses for technology-dependent children attending mainstream schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Fumie; Suzuki, Machiko

    2015-04-01

    To describe the role development of nurses caring for medical technology-dependent children attending Japanese mainstream schools. Semi-structured interviews with 21 nurses caring for technology-dependent children were conducted and analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. Nurses developed roles centered on maintaining technology-dependent children's physical health to support children's learning with each other, through building relationships, learning how to interact with children, understanding the children and the school community, and realizing the meaning of supporting technology-dependent children. These findings support nurses to build relationships of mutual trust with teachers and children, and learn on the job in mainstream schools. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. An evaluation of an attendance monitoring system for undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Louise; O'Brien, Frances; Timmins, Fiona; Tobin, Gerard; O'Rourke, Frank; Doherty, Lena

    2008-03-01

    Internationally the preparation and ongoing education of nurses continues to evolve in response the changing nature of both nursing and health care. The move into third level structures that has taken place in countries such as the UK and the Republic of Ireland, results in new challenges to the historical fabric of nurse education. One such challenge is monitoring of nursing students' attendance. Viewed by students as a patriarchal and draconian measure, the nursing profession historically value their ability to ensure the public and professional bodies that nursing students fully engage with educational programmes. University class sizes and the increased perception of student autonomy can negate against formalised monitoring systems. This paper reports on an evaluation of one such monitoring system. The findings revealed that attendance was recognised implicitly by nurse educators as an important learning activity within these programmes results and that current methods employed were less than reliable and so did little to appropriately control the phenomenon. Subsequent to the evaluation; a standardised approach to the measurement of absenteeism was employed. Deliberate short-term absence was a feature of this group. Reasons cited included travelling long distances, dissatisfaction with programme timetables and personal reasons. Preventative measures employed included improvement in student timetable delivery.

  5. Association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Koen; van der Velde, Kelly; Joosten, Pieter; Rutten, Hans; Hulst, Jessie; Dulfer, Karolijn

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized children with a chronic disease, malnutrition was associated with a lower subjective health status. In outpatient children with a chronic disease attending special schools, this association has never been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional status and subjective health status in chronically ill children attending special schools. Overall, 642 children, median age 9.8 years (IQR 7.7-11.5), 60 % male, 72 % Caucasian, were included in this prospective study in nine special schools for chronically ill children in the Netherlands. Overall malnutrition was assessed as: acute malnutrition (nutritional risk-screening tool STRONGkids. Subjective health status was assessed with EQ-5D. Overall, 16 % of the children had overall malnutrition: 3 % acute and 13 % chronic malnutrition. Nurses reported 'some/severe problems' on the health status dimensions mobility (15 %), self-care (17 %), usual activities (19 %), pain/discomfort (22 %), and anxiety/depression (22 %) in chronically ill children. Their mean visual analogue scale score (VAS) was 73.0 (SD 11.1). Malnutrition, medication usage, and younger age explained 38 % of the variance of the VAS score. The presence of overall malnutrition in chronically ill children attending special schools was associated with lower subjective health status, especially in younger children and in those with chronic medication usage. Therefore, it is important to develop and use profile-screening tools to identify these children.

  6. Student and staff experiences of attendance monitoring in undergraduate obstetrics and gynecology: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deane RP

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Richard P Deane, Deirdre J Murphy Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Coombe Women & Infants University Hospital, Dublin, Republic of Ireland  Background: Despite the widespread introduction of active learning strategies to engage students across modern medical curricula, student attendance and attendance monitoring remain a challenging issue for medical educators. In addition, there is little published evidence available to medical educators regarding the use of attendance monitoring systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the opinions of students and staff about the use of a paper-based student logbook to record student attendance across all clinical and classroom-based learning activities within an undergraduate clinical rotation in obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN. Methods: Each student undertaking the clinical rotation in OBGYN was required to complete a paper-based logbook in a booklet format that listed every clinical and classroom-based activity that the student was expected to attend. A cross-sectional survey evaluating the acceptability, practicality, and effect on access to learning opportunities of using the logbook was undertaken. The survey was conducted among all medical students who completed their OBGYN rotation over a full academic year and staff who taught on the program. Results: The response rate was 87% (n=128/147 among students and 80% (n=8/10 among staff. Monitoring attendance was widely acceptable to students (n=107/128, 84% and staff (n=8/8, 100%. Most students (n=95/128, 74% and staff (n=7/8, 88% recommended that attendance should be mandatory during rotations. Almost all staff felt that attendance should contribute toward academic credit (n=7/8, 88%, but students were divided (n=73/128, 57%. Students (n=94/128, 73% and staff (n=6/8, 75% reported that the use of the logbook to record attendance with tutor signatures was a satisfactory system, although

  7. Early-stage primary school children attending a school in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) have better reversal learning and lean muscle mass growth than those attending a non-SFP school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Owen W W; Duffy, Maresa E; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Davidson, Philip W; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; O'Brien, Gerard M

    2013-08-01

    In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6-8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction learning and catch-up growth in lean muscle mass in children in the SFP school compared with children in the non-SFP school. These findings suggest that the Malawian SFP, if well managed and ration sizes are sustained, may have the potential to improve nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children.

  8. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Seter Siziya; Adamson Sinjani Muula

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. Methods: The 2004 Zambia Gl...

  9. The relationship between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of French schoolchildren aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, Carine; Lioret, Sandrine; Dufour, Ariane; Calamassi-Tran, Gloria; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Lafay, Lionel; Turck, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Recently, school meal composition regulations have been implemented in France in order to improve the nutritional status of children. The present study investigated the link between school lunch attendance and the food intakes of schoolchildren aged 3-17 years. Second French cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Eating frequencies were assessed for twenty-four food groups with a 7 d food record. Eating locations were recorded for main meals. Food group intakes at weekday lunches were compared for the school canteen and for other locations. The children's overall dietary intake was compared based on school lunch attendance. Mainland France. Schoolchildren aged 3-17 years (n 1068). Lunchtime food intake differed between the school canteen and other locations. Some intakes at school canteens were more in accordance with the regulations (more fruit and vegetables, fish and dairy products, and less sandwiches, soft drinks, chocolate and confectionery), whereas others highlighted needs for improvement (more sweet biscuits and pastries, ice cream and dairy desserts, pizzas and salty pastries). Many of these differences were also observed in the children's overall diet: children regularly attending school lunches ate more mashed fruit, fish and sweet biscuits or pastries, and less sandwiches and soft drinks. The link between school lunch attendance and overall diet was less pronounced in secondary-school children. School canteen attendance is associated with both potentially beneficial and deleterious differences in the lunchtime and overall diets of French children. These findings are important to consider when setting national regulations for school meal composition.

  10. DISASTER AND YOUTH VIOLENCE: THE EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOL ATTENDING YOUTH IN NEW ORLEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Clum, Gretchen A.; Brown, Lisanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although disaster exposure is linked with increased child aggression, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages 12-18) were assessed. Methods Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina) and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=5,267) were utilized. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with chi-square analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Results Age, gender and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups: dating violence and forced sex increased prior to the storm; weapon carrying and missing school due to feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Conclusions Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior among New Orleans school-attending youths post-Katrina. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. PMID:21783056

  11. Disaster and youth violence: the experience of school-attending youth in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey S; Johnson, Carolyn C; Clum, Gretchen A; Brown, Lisanne

    2011-08-01

    Although disaster exposure has been linked with increased child aggression by previous reports, population-level trends are unknown. Pre- to post-Katrina changes in violence-related behaviors among New Orleans high school youth (ages: 12-18 years) were assessed. Data from the 2003 (pre-Katrina), 2005 (pre-Katrina), and 2007 (post-Katrina) New Orleans Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 5,267) were used. Crude comparisons across years of population characteristics and violence behavior prevalence were made with χ(2) analyses. Changes in violence-related behaviors over time were assessed with logistic regression models including indicators for survey years and controls for compositional changes. Age, gender, and race/ethnicity of school-attending youth were stable across years. In models controlling for demographics, most behaviors were stable over time. Some changes were observed for all groups; dating violence and forced sex increased before the storm, whereas weapon-carrying and missing school as a result of feeling unsafe decreased after the storm. Among African American adolescents only, being threatened at school increased before Katrina. Results do not support significant population-level increases in violent behavior post-Katrina among school-attending youth in New Orleans. Factors that buffered New Orleans students from post-Katrina violence increases, such as population composition changes or increased supportive services, may explain these findings. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Bullying and School Attendance: A Case Study of Senior High School Students in Ghana. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mairead; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia; Sabates, Ricardo; Owusu, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This monograph analyses the effects of bullying on school attendance among senior high school students in Ghana. A strong correlation is found between being bullied and having poor attendance. The effects of emotional problems and of peer friendships on this correlation are then examined. For both boys and girls, having emotional problems is…

  13. Using Group Counseling to Improve the Attendance of Elementary School Students with High Rates of Absenteeism: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Landman, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The foundations of academic and social learning are laid in the early years of school, and attendance is critical to school success. However, research suggests that chronic absenteeism is a significant problem at the elementary school level (Chang & Romero, 2008; Romero & Lee, 2007). This paper presents the results of an action research…

  14. An Examination of Barriers to Physical Education for Christian and Muslim Girls Attending Comprehensive Secondary Schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dave; Hoyle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This study examined barriers to Physical Education (PE) in a sample of Christian and Muslim schoolgirls attending UK comprehensive secondary schools. Also assessed was whether religion and school year (age) had any impact upon barrier strength and if school year × religion interactions existed. A questionnaire was developed and exploratory factor…

  15. Daily Attendance Data. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 3 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Oregon Department of Education (ODE) partnered with 15 elementary schools to obtain and analyze student-level daily attendance records for 6,390 students. Schools ranged in size from just over 100 students to more than 600 students. Geographic locations also varied with 4 schools located in a city, 4 in a suburb, 4 in a town, and 3 in a rural…

  16. Effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates in Vikarabad town: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadde Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The school dental screening program has been in existence from the beginning of 20 th century. Its value in encouraging attendance among school children is not fully established. Aim: The aim was to determine the effectiveness of school dental screening on stimulating dental attendance rates among school children in Vikarabad town. Objectives: (a To compare the dental attendance rates between 6-9 and 10-13 years old age groups, among male and female school children in Vikarabad town. (b To identify the type of dental treatment received by the school children. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted among school children aged 6-13 years old from 16 schools that were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Eight schools had a dental screening program (study group = 300 children and had blanket referral cards and 8 schools that did not have the intervention (control group = 300. The dental attendance rates were determined after 3 months of follow-up period by evaluating the blanket referral cards for the study group and by an oral questionnaire for the control group. Results: The dental attendance rate was 27% for the study group and 18% for the control group which is statistically significant. The attendance rate was higher among 10-13 years of children both in test group and control groups. Among the children who visited the dentist, 53% in the control group and 69% from the test group got simple amalgam and glass ionomer cement restorations. Conclusion: The dental attendance rates were improved following school dental screening.

  17. Dental caries prevalence in children attending special needs schools in Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nqcobo, C B; Yengopal, V; Rudolph, M J; Thekiso, M; Joosab, Z

    2012-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence from clinical data in Johannesburg suggests that there is a high burden of dental caries among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in Johannesburg. To determine the prevalence of dental caries and Unmet Treatment Needs in children with cerebral palsy, hearing, learning and mental disabilities attending special needs schools in Johannesburg and to compare these with data from the National Children's Oral Health Survey (NCOHS) METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study comprised of 882 children attending five special needs schools in Johannesburg. Stratified randomised sampling of the participating schools was done and the schools were stratified by disability. Caries status was recorded via the dmft/DMFT index using WHO criteria and guidelines. The mean age of the participants was 10.5 years; with a caries prevalence of 27.55% and 33.56% in the primary and permanent dentition respectively. The highest unmet treatment need of 100% was found in the permanent dentition of the hearing impaired group followed by 90.77% in the primary dentition of the cerebral palsy group. In general no significant difference was found when the dmft/DMFT for CSHCN and NCOHS were compared except in the hearing impaired age groups four to five and six (both primary dentition) where significantly higher dmft scores (3.58 vs. 2.4; 3.85 vs. 2.9; p special health care needs had lower caries prevalence compared with the general population and higher unmet treatment needs regardless of the type of disability.

  18. Computerized Attendance Accounting and Emergency Assistance Communications: Viable Tools in Secondary School Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Vasel W.

    1971-01-01

    In the late 1968, the Space Technology Application Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) initiated a pilot study to determine whether technological aids could be developed that would help secondary school administrators cope with the volatile and chaotic situations that often accompany student activism, disorders, and riots. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD) and at the John F. Kennedy Senior High School (JFK) in Sacramento, California. The problems at JFK and in the SCUSD were identified and described to the JPL team by members of the Kennedy staff and personnel at various levels and departments within the school district. The JPL team of engineers restricted their scope to problems that appeared solvable, or at least partially solvable, through the use of technological systems. Thus far, two hardware systems have been developed for use in the school. The first, a personal emergency assistance communication system, has already been tested operationally at JFK and has met the objectives established for it. The second technological aid developed was a computerized attendance accounting system. This system has been fabricated, tested, and installed at JFK. Full-scale operational testing began in April 1971. While studies and hardware tests were in progress at JFK, contacts were made with several other schools in order that, insofar as practicable, hardware designs could allow for possible adaptation to schools other than JFK.

  19. Student and staff experiences of attendance monitoring in undergraduate obstetrics and gynecology: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Richard P; Murphy, Deirdre J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the widespread introduction of active learning strategies to engage students across modern medical curricula, student attendance and attendance monitoring remain a challenging issue for medical educators. In addition, there is little published evidence available to medical educators regarding the use of attendance monitoring systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the opinions of students and staff about the use of a paper-based student logbook to record student attendance across all clinical and classroom-based learning activities within an undergraduate clinical rotation in obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN). Each student undertaking the clinical rotation in OBGYN was required to complete a paper-based logbook in a booklet format that listed every clinical and classroom-based activity that the student was expected to attend. A cross-sectional survey evaluating the acceptability, practicality, and effect on access to learning opportunities of using the logbook was undertaken. The survey was conducted among all medical students who completed their OBGYN rotation over a full academic year and staff who taught on the program. The response rate was 87% (n=128/147) among students and 80% (n=8/10) among staff. Monitoring attendance was widely acceptable to students (n=107/128, 84%) and staff (n=8/8, 100%). Most students (n=95/128, 74%) and staff (n=7/8, 88%) recommended that attendance should be mandatory during rotations. Almost all staff felt that attendance should contribute toward academic credit (n=7/8, 88%), but students were divided (n=73/128, 57%). Students (n=94/128, 73%) and staff (n=6/8, 75%) reported that the use of the logbook to record attendance with tutor signatures was a satisfactory system, although students questioned the need for recording attendance at every classroom-based activity. Most students felt that the logbook facilitated access to learning experiences during the rotation (n=90/128, 71%). Staff felt that the process of signing

  20. Chronotype, Light Exposure, Sleep, and Daytime Functioning in High School Students Attending Morning or Afternoon School Shifts: An Actigraphic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeanne Sophie; Gaudreault, Michael M; Perron, Michel; Laberge, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent maturation is associated with delays of the endogenous circadian phase. Consequently, early school schedules may lead to a mismatch between internal and external time, which can be detrimental to adolescent sleep and health. In parallel, chronotype is known to play a role in adolescent health; evening chronotype adolescents are at higher risk for sleep problems and lower academic achievement. In the summer of 2008, Kénogami High School (Saguenay, Canada) was destroyed by fire. Kénogami students were subsequently relocated to Arvida High School (situated 5.3 km away) for the 2008-2009 academic year. A dual school schedule was implemented, with Arvida students attending a morning schedule (0740-1305 h) and Kénogami students an afternoon schedule (1325-1845 h). This study aimed to investigate the effects of such school schedules and chronotype on sleep, light exposure, and daytime functioning. Twenty-four morning and 33 afternoon schedule students wore an actigraph during 7 days to measure sleep and light exposure. Academic achievement was obtained from school. Subjects completed validated questionnaires on daytime sleepiness, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, alcohol, and chronotype. Overall, afternoon schedule students had longer sleep duration, lower sleepiness, and lower light exposure than morning schedule students. Evening chronotypes (E-types) reported higher levels of sleepiness than morning chronotypes (M-types) in both morning and afternoon schedules. Furthermore, M-types attending the morning schedule reported higher sleepiness than M-types attending the afternoon schedule. No difference was found between morning and afternoon schedule students with regard to academic achievement, psychological distress, social rhythms, school satisfaction, and alcohol consumption. However, in both schedules, M-type had more regular social rhythms and lower alcohol consumption. In summary, this study emphasizes that an early school

  1. Assessment of exposure to traffic related air pollution of children attending schools near motorways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Nicole A.H.; Vliet, Patricia H.N. van; Aarts, Francee; Harssema, Hendrik; Brunekreef, Bert

    2001-01-01

    To assess exposure to air pollution from traffic of children attending schools near motorways, traffic related air pollution (PM 2.5 , NO 2 and benzene) was measured in and outside 24 schools located within 400m of motorways in the Netherlands. Reflectance of PM 2.5 filters was measured as a proxy for elemental carbon (EC). The relationship between this proxy and measurements of EC was studied in a sub-sample and a high correlation was established. In both indoor and outdoor air, concentrations of PM 2.5 and 'soot' significantly increased with increasing truck traffic density and significantly decreased with increasing distance. Indoor NO 2 concentrations significantly increased with increasing car traffic. The percentage of time that the school was downwind of the motorway during the measurements was significantly associated with 'soot' and NO 2 , but no with PM 2.5 and benzene. Estimated yearly averaged concentrations, calculated after standardising for differences in the background concentrations during the measurements, showed an about 2.5 fold range in 'soot', benzene (indoors and outdoors) and NO 2 (indoors) concentrations. For PM 2.5 (indoors and outdoors) and NO 2 outdoors the range was smaller (1.4-1.7). Standardised concentrations were highly correlated with the results of two other approaches that were used to order the exposures at the schools. This study has shown that concentrations of air pollutants in and outside schools near motorways are significantly associated with distance, traffic density and composition, and percentage of time downwind. These variables can therefore be used to assess exposure to traffic related air pollution of subjects living near motorways. Furthermore, the yearly averaged concentrations of PM 2.5 , soot, NO 2 and benzene can be used as a more direct measure of long-term exposure in epidemiological studies of the children attending the 24 schools. (Author)

  2. School Choice: Education's Trickle Down Theory for Urban Students Attending Private Schools? Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapel, David E.; And Others

    This study investigated possible effects of school choice programs by surveying 200 private schools in large urban areas. The survey instrument requested information on school demography, possible effects of participation in a Choice program, costs, selection of students participating in Choice, and climate and parental involvement. Analysis of…

  3. Comparison of obesity, overweight and elevated blood pressure in children attending public and private primary schools in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoh, W E; Israel-Aina, Y T; Sadoh, A E; Uduebor, J E; Shaibu, M; Ogonor, E; Enugwuna, F C

    2017-07-01

    Overweight and obesity in children, and adolescents is on the rise globally. Affected children are prone to cardio-metabolic problems later in life, especially hypertension. The prevalence of obesity/overweight may differ depending on school type. Private schools are attended mostly by children of the affluent, while public schools are attended predominantly by those in the low and middle socio-economic classes. To compare the prevalence of overweight, obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) in pupils attending public and private primary schools in an urban community in Nigeria. In this cross sectional study, the BMI and BP of pupils in public and private primary schools, recruited by multistage sampling method, were measured. Their nutritional status was categorized using their BMI percentiles. Analysis was by SPSS. A total of 1466 pupils were recruited, 814(55.5%) were in public schools and 722(49.2%) were males. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in private schools 11.8% and 11.7% compared to public schools 3.3% and 0.9%. The mean systolic BP of pupils in public schools 96.8 ± 12.5 mmHg was higher than that in private schools 95.5 ± 10.2 mmHg, p = 0.032. Distribution of pupils with prehypertension and hypertension between private and public schools was not significantly different. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher in pupils attending private schools compared to those in public school. Urgent measures are needed to stem this tide through education, weight reduction and physical activity programs, especially in pupils attending private schools.

  4. The Impact of Attending Religious Schools on the Moral Competencies of Accounting Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaru Mustapha Zubairu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For over a century, scholars have argued that religious education is crucial for the developed of students' moral competencies. This study sought to empirically test this assertion by comparing the moral competencies of two sets of Muslim accounting students: those who had attended a religious secondary school and those who attended a public (secular secondary school in Malaysia. The focus on accounting students is quite important in an era where the moral competencies of accountants has been in the public eye due to their complicity in the rash of financial scandals that have plagued the business world over the last two decades. The Muslim Accountant Moral Competency Test (MAMOC was developed by a collaboration with Islamic accounting scholars and was used to measure the students' moral competencies. Although the results revealed that there was no difference in the moral competencies of both sets of students, they both displayed satisfactory levels of moral competency which vindicates the Malaysian government's policy of mandating Islamic education in all secondary schools, whether religious or secular. 

  5. The association between child and adolescent emotional disorder and poor attendance at school: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finning, Katie; Moore, Darren; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Danielsson-Waters, Emilia; Ford, Tamsin

    2017-06-28

    Anxiety and depression are common in young people and are associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Research has suggested a relationship between emotional disorder and poor school attendance, and thus poor attendance may serve as a red flag for children at risk of emotional disorder. This systematic review aims to investigate the association between child and adolescent emotional disorder and poor attendance at school. We will search electronic databases from a variety of disciplines including medicine, psychology, education and social sciences, as well as sources of grey literature, to identify any quantitative studies that investigate the relationship between emotional disorder and school attendance. Emotional disorder may refer to diagnoses of mood or anxiety disorders using standardised diagnostic measures, or measures of depression, anxiety or "internalising symptoms" using a continuous scale. Definitions for school non-attendance vary, and we aim to include any relevant terminology, including attendance, non-attendance, school refusal, school phobia, absenteeism and truancy. Two independent reviewers will screen identified papers and extract data from included studies. We will assess the risk of bias of included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random effects meta-analysis will be used to pool quantitative findings when studies use the same measure of association, otherwise a narrative synthesis approach will be used. This systematic review will provide a detailed synthesis of evidence regarding the relationship between childhood emotional disorder and poor attendance at school. Understanding this relationship has the potential to assist in the development of strategies to improve the identification of and intervention for this vulnerable group. PROSPERO CRD42016052961.

  6. Outcome of Doctors Attending the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Winter Schools 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Malcolm D C

    2017-01-01

    Since 1995, the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) has hosted Winter School (WS), a 5-day interactive meeting of 25 trainees and 7 teachers designed to cover all main endocrine topics. The aim of the present study was to determine subsequent outcome in ex-WS "students." A questionnaire was sent in August 2016 to all ESPE WS participants between 2008 and 2014. Information was requested on job/training status at WS attendance and in 2016, and subsequent involvement with ESPE. Of 174 participants (144 women, 30 men) including 5 attending two WS, 129 (74.5%) responded. At the time of WS/2016 survey 58/3 participants were junior trainees, 38/21 senior trainees, and 33/101 consultants. One hundred and seventeen (90.6%) responders were still involved with endocrinology, 107 (82%) rating WS as having a strong/very strong influence on their careers. Following WS, 80/174 (46%) participants had attended at least one ESPE main meeting, 28 (16%) had been awarded ESPE fellowships, and 34 (19%) had become ESPE members. The great majority of WS participants responding to the questionnaire are still involved with endocrinology and rated WS as influential. This favourable outcome supports the continuing funding of WS and similar educational programmes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Use of counselling services by school-attending adolescent girls in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfredrick, Ezinwanne Christiana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and barriers to the use of school counselling services by school attending adolescent girls in south-east Nigeria. The study used a cross-sectional survey of 3065 adolescent girls, using a self-report counselling utilisation scale. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. About 80% of the participants had school counsellors and nearly half of the participants utilised the service. Regression results showed that father's level of education, availability of a counselling laboratory/room, contentment with the counselling services rendered predicted the use of the counselling service. Some of the barriers for non-use of school counselling services were shyness, fear and lack of confidentiality. School authorities will encourage uptake of counselling services by adolescents when adequate counselling consulting rooms are provided. This will increase confidence in adolescent clients and reduce fear attached to use of these services. This will improve their mental health and their academic performance.

  8. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  9. Locating the Dropout Crisis. Which High Schools Produce the Nation's Dropouts? Where Are They Located? Who Attends Them? Report 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to locate the dropout crisis- to determine its scale and scope by identifying the number of high schools with severe dropout problems, detailing the states, cities, and locales where they are concentrated, and establishing who attends them. For this analysis of high schools across the country, two cut-points were…

  10. Examining Master Schedule Practices in Rio Grande Valley Schools: Effects on Student Attendance, Discipline, and Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriaga, Benito T.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of the master schedule design on student attendance, discipline, and grade point averages. Unexcused and excused absences, minor and major infraction, and grade point averages in three high schools during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 school years were included in the study. The purpose was to examine if any difference…

  11. Delayed high school start times later than 8:30am and impact on graduation rates and attendance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Pamela Malaspina; Clark, Linda

    2017-04-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate changes in high school graduation rates with a delayed school start time of later than 8:30am. The second aim of the study was to analyze the association between a delayed high school start time later than 8:30am and attendance rates. In the current study, a pre-post design using a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine changes in attendance and graduation rates 2 years after a delayed start was implemented. Public high schools from 8 school districts (n=29 high schools) located throughout 7 different states. Schools were identified using previous research from the Children's National Medical Center's Division of Sleep Medicine Research Team. A total membership of more than 30,000 high school students enrolled in the 29 schools identified by the Children's National Medical Center's Research Team. A pre-post design was used for a within-subject design, controlling for any school-to-school difference in the calculation of the response variable. This is the recommended technique for a study that may include data with potential measurement error. Findings from this study linked a start time of later than 8:30am to improved attendance rates and graduation rates. Attendance rates and graduation rates significantly improved in schools with delayed start times of 8:30am or later. School officials need to take special notice that this investigation also raises questions about whether later start times are a mechanism for closing the achievement gap due to improved graduation rates. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dental caries among disabled individuals attending special schools in Vhembe district, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemutandani, M S; Adedoja, D; Nevhuhlwi, D

    2013-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of dental caries among disabled individuals attending special schools in Vhembe districts. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from January to June 2012 among disabled individuals receiving special care in four specialised schools of Vhembe District. The research protocol had been approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Limpopo, Polokwane Campus. Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the participants and from the respective school principals. Oral health examinations took place at the school under natural light, with participants seated on an ordinary chair/wheelchair. Dental caries examinations were carried out, using a mirror and wooden spatula in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria and methods. Decayed, missing and filled primary and permanent teeth (dmft, DMFT) were recorded. All disabled individuals who were available during a screening period, were included. Those who were not available, as well as those whose health conditions could be compromised by dental examinations, were excluded. The number of decayed teeth ranged from 0-7 in children below 6 years, 0-12 in children below 11 years; and 0-17 among young adults. The mean decay scores and the numbers of missing teeth increased with age. Only 3 (0.04%) individuals had dental fillings. The mean dmft score of children under 6 years was 5.51 (+/- 2.1), ranging from zero to 8. The mean DMFT's of the 11-18 and 19 years and older groups were 7.38 (+/- 3.22) and 10.24 (+/- 2.97) respectively. Disabled individuals exhibited higher caries prevalence and unmet dental needs than the same age general population in Limpopo. Preventive measures and dental treatment should be considered urgent requirements at special needs schools in the Vhembe District.

  13. Intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of children attending primary schools in Wakiso District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwanga, Francis; Francis, Lwanga; Kirunda, Barbara Eva; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6-14 years were randomly selected from 23 schools. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, MUAC were undertaken and analyzed using AnthroPlus software. Stool samples were examined using a Kato-Katz method. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was 22.5%, 5.3% and 18.5% respectively. Males had a threefold risk of being underweight (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.17-9.4, p = 0.011) and 2 fold risk of suffering from MAM (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.48, p = 0.004). Children aged 10-14 years had a 2.9 fold risk of stunting (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.37-6.16, p = 0.002) and 1.9 risk of MAM (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.07-3.44, p = 0.019). Attending urban slum schools had 1.7 fold risk of stunting (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03-2.75, p = 0.027). Rural schools presented a twofold risk of helminth infection (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.12-3.32, p = 0.012). The prevalence of helminth infections was (10.9%), (3.1%), (1.9%), (0.2%) for hookworm, Trichuriatrichiura, Schistosomamansoni and Ascarislumbricoides, respectively. The study revealed that 26.6%, 46% and 10.3% of incidences of stunting, underweight and MAM respectively were attributable to helminth infections.

  14. Cataract in children attending schools for the blind and resource centers in eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msukwa, Gerald; Njuguna, Margaret; Tumwesigye, Cillasy; Shilio, Bernadeth; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe results of a representative sample of children who have undergone cataract surgery in schools for the blind in 4 African countries. Cross-sectional study. Children enrolled at schools for the blind in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. We used a population-proportional-to-size methodology to select a representative sample of schools for the blind and annexes and included all the children attending the selected schools. Trained teams using standardized examination methods and a modified World Health Organization form examined the children. The form was modified specifically to collect information on outcomes of cataract surgery. Operative status and postoperative visual acuity. Of 1062 children examined, 196 (18%) had undergone cataract surgery or had cataract as the major cause of visual impairment; 140 (71%) had bilateral surgery, 24 (12%) had unilateral surgery, and 32 (16%) had not had surgery. Of operated eyes, 118 (41%) had visual acuity > or =20/200. Intraocular lenses were implanted in 65% of the operated eyes. Eyes with intraocular lens were more likely to have better vision than those without (P for trend = 0.04). Amblyopia was the most common cause of poor visual acuity in children who had undergone cataract surgery. The number of children in the schools who receive cataract surgery has increased greatly since 1995. The high rate of amblyopia highlights the critical need for programs to find children earlier and to ensure adequate follow-up after surgery. Without such programs, the value of training pediatric surgeons will not be fully realized. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

  15. Knowledge of students attending a high school in Pretoria, South Africa, on diet, nutrition and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letlape, S V; Mokwena, K; Oguntibeju, O O

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the knowledge of students on the composition of a healthy diet, daily nutritional requirements and the importance of regular exercise. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions to assess students 'knowledge on diet, nutrition and exercise was conducted. The study group were students of Tswaing High School in Pretoria, South Africa, who were in attendance on a particular day when the study was conducted and who consented to participate in the study Only 500 students of the school participated in the study Results showed that 77% of the students do not have adequate knowledge on diet, nutrition and exercise while 23% of the students showed satisfactory knowledge. Approximately 26% and 16% of the students reported that they participated in rigorous and moderate exercise respectively The study also showed that the majority of the students were however not engaged in physical activities. Students at Tswaing High School do not have adequate knowledge on nutrition, diet and exercise. Their views on what exercise entails were found not to be satisfactory. Programmes/ information or seminars that could assist to inform students on the importance of diet and exercise are therefore suggested.

  16. Shiftworking families: parents' working schedule and sleep patterns of adolescents attending school in two shifts

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    Biserka Radoševic-Vidacek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore whether parents' engagement in shift work affects the sleep habits of their adolescent children who attend school in two shifts. METHODS: The data were drawn from an extensive survey of sleep and daytime functioning of adolescents attending school one week in the morning and the other in the afternoon. The participants were 1,386 elementary and high school students (11-18 years old whose parents were both employed. The data were analyzed using MANOVA, with parents' work schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school as between-subject factors. RESULTS: Parents' working schedule significantly affected the sleep patterns of high school adolescents. When attending school in the morning, adolescents whose parents were both day workers woke up somewhat later than adolescents with one shiftworking parent. In addition, they slept longer than adolescents whose parents were both shift workers. On weekends, adolescents whose parents both worked during the day went to bed earlier than adolescents whose parents were both shiftworkers. They also had smaller bedtime delay on weekends with respect to both morning and afternoon shifts than adolescents for whom one or both parents worked shifts. A significant interaction between parents' working schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school was found for sleep extension on weekends after afternoon shift school. CONCLUSIONS: Parental involvement in shift work has negative effects on the sleep of high school adolescents. It contributes to earlier wake-up time and shorter sleep in a week when adolescents attend school in the morning, as well as to greater bedtime irregularity.OBJETIVO: Investigar se a ocupação de pais com o trabalho em turnos interfere nos hábitos de sono dos filhos adolescentes que freqüentam a escola em dois períodos distintos. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados em uma extensa pesquisa sobre sono e atividades diurnas de adolescentes que freqüentavam a escola no

  17. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

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    Hannan Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also examined. Methods A convenience sample of adolescents (n = 145; 61% minority, 52% male attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed baseline surveys. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention pilot trial. Mixed model multivariate analyses procedures were used to assess associations of interest. Results Daily cigarette smoking was reported by 36% of students. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with consumption of regular soda (p = 0.019, high-fat foods (p = 0.037, and fast food restaurant use (p = 0.002. Alcohol (p = 0.005 and marijuana use (p = 0.035 were positively associated with high-fat food intake. With increasing numbers of substances, a positive trend was observed in high-fat food intake (p = 0.0003. There were no significant associations between substance use and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Alternative high school students who use individual substances as well as multiple substances may be at high risk of unhealthful dietary practices. Comprehensive health interventions in alternative high schools have the potential of reducing health-compromising behaviors that are prevalent among this group of students. This study adds to the limited research examining substance use and diet among at-risk youth. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01315743

  18. Kindergarten attendance may reduce developmental impairments in children: results from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniato, Riccardo N; Alvarenga, Marlies E; Stich, Heribert L; Jansen, Holger; Baune, Berhard T

    2010-08-01

    The relative risks and benefits of children attending kindergarten or pre-school remain uncertain and controversial. We used data from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey (BPMS) to look at the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children entering primary school and to assess if these were correlated with the duration of kindergarten attendance. We collected data from all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing, Bavaria from 2004 to 2007 (n = 4,005) and utilised a retrospective cross-sectional study design to review the information. The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardized medical assessment. Point prevalence of impairments of speech, cognition, motor functioning and psychosocial functioning were compared by chi(2)-test for the variable of time spent in kindergarten. We detected a high incidence of impairments, with boys showing higher rates than girls in all the areas assessed. Longer length of time spent in kindergarten was associated with reduced rates of motor, cognitive and psychosocial impairments. There was no clear correlation between length of kindergarten attendance and speech disorders. Kindergarten attendance may have a positive effect on a number of domains of development including motor, cognitive and psychosocial development, but no significant effect on speech impairments. Implications for public health policies are discussed.

  19. A prospective study of methamphetamine use as a predictor of high school non-attendance in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Parry Charles D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This prospective study investigated the association between life-long methamphetamine and other drug use and high school non-attendance, in a sample of high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A random sample of 1535 high school students completed a baseline questionnaire in 2006, and were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. The questionnaire included questions on substance use, including tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine and cannabis use, demographic factors, and questions relating to school attendance and performance. Results Forty-three percent of the students surveyed at baseline did not complete a follow-up questionnaire after 12 months. Compared with students who were not using selected substances, an adjusted logistic regression model showed that life-time methamphetamine use in addition to other substances was significantly associated with non-attendance (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24 - 5.36 when other non-substance use factors (repeating a year at school and being older than the norm for current grade were taken into account. Conclusions Early identification of students with methamphetamine and other substance use problems, and a supportive rather than punitive school policy, may be valuable in improving high school completion and student retention rates.

  20. A Dynamical View of High School Attendance: An Assessment of Short-term and Long-term Dependencies in Five Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    While school attendance is a critical mediator to academic achievement, its time dependent characteristics are rarely investigated. To remedy situation, this paper reports on the analysis of daily attendance rates in five urban high schools over a seven-year period. Traditional time series analyses were conducted to estimate short-range and cyclical dependencies in the data. An Autoregressive Fractional Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) approach was used to address long-range correlational patterns, and detect signs of self-organized criticality. The analysis reveals a strong cyclical pattern (weekly) in all five schools, and evidence for self-organized criticality in one of the five. These findings illustrate the insufficiency of traditional statistical summary measures to characterize the distribution of daily attendance, and they suggest that daily attendance is not necessarily the stable and predictable feature of school effectiveness it is conventionally assumed to be. While educational practitioners can probably attest to the many of the irregularities in attendance patterns as well as some of their sources, a systematic description of these temporal aspects needs to be included in our assessment of daily attendance behavior to inform policy decisions, if only to better align formal research in this area with existing local knowledge about those patterns.

  1. Knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Rahman, Azriani; Ab Rahman, Razlina; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Salleh, Halim; Ismail, Shaiful Bahri; Ali, Siti Hawa; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Ishak, Maizun; Ahmad, Amaluddin

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education.

  2. Depression and anxiety among Grade 11 and 12 learners attending schools in central Bloemfontein

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    M A A Strydom

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Anxiety disorders are the most common childhood psychiatric disorders. Previous research suggests that South African rates may be high. Our study examined the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression among Grade 11 and 12 learners attending schools in central Bloemfontein. Learners’ perception of the important stressors as well as the most relevant coping strategies were investigated. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted by using self-assessment rating scales and questionnaires. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to screen for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were provided with an additional list of possible stressors and coping skills, from which they identified those applicable to themselves. All students enrolled in Grades 11 and 12 at the selected schools during August 2009 were eligible for inclusion. Results. Five hundred and fifteen learners participated in the study, of whom 32.0% presented with moderate or severe anxiety and 5.3% with moderate or severe depressive symptoms. Mild symptoms were reported by an additional 29.0% on the anxiety subscale and 14% on the depression subscale of the HADS. Academic workload was reported as the main source of stress (81.4%. Conclusions. Although the study has limitations in terms of methodology and size, resulting in undetermined validity, it indicates possible higher prevalence rates for anxiety and depression than in previous South African studies and worldwide prevalence rates for adolescents. Pupils were generally hesitant to seek help from formal assistance structures provided by the schools, and preferred discussing problems with parents or friends.

  3. Hidden Gains: Effects of Early U.S. Compulsory Schooling Laws on Attendance and Attainment by Social Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Research on early compulsory schooling laws finds minimal effects on attendance but fails to investigate heterogeneous effects. Similarly, research proposes limited contexts in which expansion policies can increase equality but has difficulty separating policy and cohort effects. Capitalizing on within-country variation in timing of early…

  4. The Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among French Youths and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Education Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…

  5. Experiences of Caregivers in Healthcare for and Social Support of HIV Positive Children Attending Schools in Bangkok

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    Duangkamol Wattradul, DNS, RN

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our findings can inform the design of systems for educational and social support alongside adequate healthcare for children living with HIV/AIDS attending school. The Thai government needs to establish collaboration between the educational and health sectors to reduce the stigma of HIV, promote acceptance and provide support.

  6. 76 FR 29805 - Submission for Review: Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Verification of Full-Time School Attendance... Federal agencies the opportunity to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0215...

  7. Attendance, Performance and the Acquisition of Early Literacy Skills: A Comparison of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, John; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Helmer, Janet; Oteng, Georges; Lea, Tess; Bartlett, Claire; Smith, Heather; Emmett, Sue

    2010-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of a web-based early literacy intervention, ABRACADABRA, a small exploratory study was conducted over one term in three primary schools in the Northern Territory. Of particular concern was the relationship between attendance and the acquisition of early literacy skills of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. Using the…

  8. Comparing among the Experiences of Self-Cutting, Hitting, and Scratching in Chinese Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom

    2015-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…

  9. [Realities and professional expectations of medical students attending Guinea Bissau's medical school in 2007 school year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.

  10. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

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    Maddison Ralph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Methods/Design Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December. The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Trial Registration Number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry

  11. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Turley, Maria; Gorton, Delvina; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2010-11-29

    Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school) will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December). The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades), sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12609000854235.

  12. Improving Attendance and Retention in Out-of-School Time Programs. Research-to-Results Practitioner Insights. Publication # 2007-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Elena; Wilson, Brooke; Valladares, Sherylls; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta

    2007-01-01

    Regular participation in out-of-school time activities is associated with benefits for children. However, children cannot reap the benefits of program participation if they do not attend programs in the first place. This brief focuses on ways in which out-of-school time programs can improve the attendance and retention of children and youth in…

  13. The mental health of children of migrant workers in Beijing: the protective role of public school attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Li, Hong; Zou, Hong; Cross, Wendi; Bian, Ran; Liu, Yan

    2015-08-01

    The present study aims to understand the mental health status of an understudied group of migrant children - children of migrant workers in China. A total of 1,466 children from Beijing participated in the study that compared migrant children (n = 1,019) to their local peers (n = 447) in public and private school settings. Results showed that overall, migrant children reported more internalizing and externalizing mental health problems and lower life satisfaction than local peers. However, public school attendance served as a protective factor for migrant children's mental health. The mental health status of migrant children attending public schools, including externalizing problems as well as friend and school satisfaction, was not different from local children. In addition, our data indicates that the protective effect of public school attendance for migrant children may be even more salient among girls than boys, and for younger children than older children. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prevalence of dental caries in people attending special schools in Hyderabad-Secunderabad, India

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    Mahesh Kumar Duddu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the decayed, missing, filled primary and permanent teeth (dmft-DMFT indices and its association with the type of disability in 856 disabled individuals attending special schools in twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh State, India. Materials and Methods: Participants were grouped according to their disability such as: Mild, moderate, severe mental retardation, hearing and speech defect and others (39 (including Down′s syndrome [20], autism [9], hyperactive [4], microcephaly [2], border line cases [4]. Examination was carried out at their schools, with participants seated in ordinary chairs and examined under natural light with mouth mirror and probe. Subjects were of different age groups ranging from 1 to 55 years. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance with post-hoc Games-Howell test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean dmft; DMFT scores were as follows: 2-6 years: 1.58 ± 1.9; 2.18 ± 2.94, 7-12 years: 1.1 ± 2.4; 1.9 ± 2.13, 13-30 years: 2.38 ± 2.5, 30+ years: 2.13 ± 3.2. Overall only 23% of subjects were caries free. "dmft" was statistically higher among moderate mentally retarded group while DMFT was statistically higher in mild and moderate mentally retarded groups. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the need of educating parents and caregivers of disabled individuals in preventive dental procedures, especially those of the mild and moderate mentally challenged group.

  15. Dr. David Sawyer, Mickey Mouse and Dr. David Brown attend a ceremony at Ronald McNair Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. David Sawyer (left), Superintendent of the Brevard County School District, Mickey Mouse, and Dr. David Brown, a NASA astronaut, attend a tribute to NASA astronaut Ronald McNair held in the gymnasium of Ronald McNair Magnet School in Cocoa, Fla. During the tribute, Walt Disney World presented a portrait of McNair to the school, which had previously been renamed for the fallen astronaut. McNair was one of a crew of seven who lost their lives during an accident following launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger in January 1986.

  16. Family environment, coping, and mental health in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. Adolescents (N = 417; 30.2% female) ages 13-20 (M = 15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in exam performance between pupils attending selective and non-selective schools mirror the genetic differences between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Woolley, Emily; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Selzam, Saskia; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; von Stumm, Sophie; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S.; Young, Toby; Allen, Rebecca; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2018-03-01

    On average, students attending selective schools outperform their non-selective counterparts in national exams. These differences are often attributed to value added by the school, as well as factors schools use to select pupils, including ability, achievement and, in cases where schools charge tuition fees or are located in affluent areas, socioeconomic status. However, the possible role of DNA differences between students of different schools types has not yet been considered. We used a UK-representative sample of 4814 genotyped students to investigate exam performance at age 16 and genetic differences between students in three school types: state-funded, non-selective schools (`non-selective'), state-funded, selective schools (`grammar') and private schools, which are selective (`private'). We created a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) derived from a genome-wide association study of years of education (EduYears). We found substantial mean genetic differences between students of different school types: students in non-selective schools had lower EduYears GPS compared to those in grammar (d = 0.41) and private schools (d = 0.37). Three times as many students in the top EduYears GPS decile went to a selective school compared to the bottom decile. These results were mirrored in the exam differences between school types. However, once we controlled for factors involved in pupil selection, there were no significant genetic differences between school types, and the variance in exam scores at age 16 explained by school type dropped from 7% to <1%. These results show that genetic and exam differences between school types are primarily due to the heritable characteristics involved in pupil admission.

  18. Does breakfast-club attendance affect schoolchildren's nutrient intake? A study of dietary intake at three schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belderson, Pippa; Harvey, Ian; Kimbell, Rosemary; O'Neill, Jennifer; Russell, Jean; Barker, Margo E

    2003-12-01

    Lack of breakfast has been implicated as a factor contributing to children's poor diets and school performance. Breakfast-club schemes, where children are provided with breakfast in school at the start of the school day, have been initiated by the Department of Health in schools throughout England, UK. The aim of the present study was to compare the energy and nutrient intakes of schoolchildren who attended breakfast clubs (attendee subjects) with those who did not (control subjects). Three different schools were studied, involving a total of 111 children aged between 9 and 15 years. There were fifty-nine attendee and fifty-two control subjects. The two groups were matched for eligibility for school meals. All subjects completed a 3 d weighed food diary for estimation of nutrient intake. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Nutrient intake data were analysed using a general linear model with age as a covariate. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics of the attendee and control subjects were similar. Children who attended breakfast clubs had significantly greater intakes of fat (% energy), saturated fat (% energy) and Na than control subjects. Thus, in these schools breakfast-club participation was not associated with superior nutrient intake or improvements in dietary pattern.

  19. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia

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    Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS data among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 were obtained from the World Health Organization. We estimated the prevalence of victimization from bullying. We also conducted weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent factors associated with victimization from bullying, and report adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Of 2136 students who participated in the 2004 Zambia GSHS, 1559 had information on whether they were bullied or not. Of these, 1559 students, 62.8% (60.0% of male and 65.0% of female participants reported having been bullied in the previous 30 days to the survey. We found that respondents of age less than 14 years were 7% (AOR=0.93; 95%CI [0.91, 0.95] less likely to have been bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Being a male (AOR=1.07; 95%CI [1.06, 1.09], lonely (AOR=1.24; 95%CI [1.22, 1.26], worried (AOR=1.12; 95%CI [1.11, 1.14], consuming alcohol (AOR=2.59; 95%CI [2.55, 2.64], missing classes (AOR=1.30; 95%CI [1.28, 1.32], and considering attempting suicide (AOR=1.20; 95%CI [1.18, 1.22] were significantly associated with bullying victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Victimization from bullying is prevalent among in-school adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia, and interventions to curtail it should consider the factors that have been identified in this study.

  20. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Muula, Adamson S

    2012-01-01

    Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. The 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) data among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 were obtained from the World Health Organization. We estimated the prevalence of victimization from bullying. We also conducted weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent factors associated with victimization from bullying, and report adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of 2136 students who participated in the 2004 Zambia GSHS, 1559 had information on whether they were bullied or not. Of these, 1559 students, 62.8% (60.0% of male and 65.0% of female) participants reported having been bullied in the previous 30 days to the survey. We found that respondents of age less than 14 years were 7% (AOR=0.93; 95%CI [0.91, 0.95]) less likely to have been bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Being a male (AOR=1.07; 95%CI [1.06, 1.09]), lonely (AOR=1.24; 95%CI [1.22, 1.26]), worried (AOR=1.12; 95%CI [1.11, 1.14]), consuming alcohol (AOR=2.59; 95%CI [2.55, 2.64]), missing classes (AOR=1.30; 95%CI [1.28, 1.32]), and considering attempting suicide (AOR=1.20; 95%CI [1.18, 1.22]) were significantly associated with bullying victimization. Victimization from bullying is prevalent among in-school adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia, and interventions to curtail it should consider the factors that have been identified in this study.

  1. A Large-Scale Investigation into the Relationship between Attendance and Attainment: A Study Using an Innovative, Electronic Attendance Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Ford, Loretta; Fitzgibbon, Karen; Lloyd, Stephen; Thomas, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The literature available on the relationship between student attendance and attainment is inconsistent. Nevertheless, there is some empirical evidence to suggest that attendance is a determinant of academic performance and progression. Colby published results of a study which examined the relationship within a single year 1 undergraduate module,…

  2. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children? A cluster-randomised controlled study.

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    Laursen, R P; Lauritzen, L; Ritz, C; Dyssegaard, C B; Astrup, A; Michaelsen, K F; Damsgaard, C T

    2015-05-01

    A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-old children. No comparable studies conducted in high-income settings have been identified. The OPUS School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial. Children from third and fourth grades at nine Danish schools received school meals or usual packed lunch (control) for two 3-month periods. Occurrence and duration of illnesses, asthma and allergies during the last 14 days were recorded by parental questionnaires at baseline and after each 3-month period. Self-reported well-being was assessed by visual analogue scales. The school meals did not affect school attendance, parent-reported occurrence or duration of asthma and allergies or self-reported well-being. The most common symptoms of illness were stomach pain (24%), headache (28%) and cold (24%). A slightly higher number of children experienced headaches in the school meal (27%) compared with the control period (22%) (P=0.02). However, subgroup analyses showed that this effect was only seen in children eating school meals in the classroom (P=0.007), and not in common dining areas (P=0.2). No effect was found on other symptoms of illness. Provision of nutritionally balanced school meals did not affect school attendance, asthma, allergies, illness or well-being in 8- to 11-year-old children. The slight increase in occurrence of headaches seems to be related to the physical eating environment.

  3. Preschool Attendance in Chicago Public Schools: Relationships with Learning Outcomes and Reasons for Absences

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    Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Gwynne, Julia A.; Stitziel Pareja, Amber; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul; Jagesic, Sanja; Sorice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Significant attention is currently focused on ensuring that children are enrolled in preschool. However, regular attendance is also critically important. Children with better preschool attendance have higher kindergarten readiness scores, this is especially true for students entering with low skills. Unfortunately, many preschool-aged children are…

  4. Self-Monitoring: A Behavioral Intervention for Children Attending Head Start

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    Riggleman, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the needs of preschoolers with behavioral problems is important, as these issues often have long-term impacts on the outcomes of students (Fox et al., 2002). Self-monitoring strategies and techniques have the potential to improve the outcomes of this population of children. Self-monitoring requires students to pay attention to a…

  5. Canada's residential school system: measuring the intergenerational impact of familial attendance on health and mental health outcomes.

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    Hackett, Christina; Feeny, David; Tompa, Emile

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the intergenerational relationship between the residential school (RS) attendance of an older generation family member and the physical and mental health of a younger generation. Data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) is used to examine the relationship between previous generational family RS attendance and the current physical and mental health of off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit Canadians. Five outcomes are considered (self-perceived health, mental health, distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). Direct (univariate) and indirect (multivariate) effects of family RS attendance are examined for each dependent variable. We draw from the general and indigenous-specific social determinants of health literature to inform the construction of our models. Familial RS attendance is shown to affect directly all five health and mental health outcomes, and is associated with lower self-perceived health and mental health, and a higher risk for distress and suicidal behaviours. Background, mediating and structural-level variables influence the strength of association. Odds of being in lower self-perceived health remain statistically significantly higher with the presence of familial attendance of RS when controlling for all covariates. The odds of having had a suicide attempt within the past 12 months remain twice as high for those with familial attendance of RS. Health disparities exist between indigenous and non-indigenous Canadians, an important source of which is a family history of RS attendance. This has implications for clinical practice and Canadian public health, as well as countries with similar historical legacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Climate warming causes declines in crop yields and lowers school attendance rates in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Trevon L; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Njabo, Kevin Y; Tróchez, Anthony; Morgan, Katy; Meñe, Demetrio Bocuma; Anthony, Nicola M; Gonder, Mary Katherine; Allen, Walter R; Hanna, Rachid; Smith, Thomas B

    2018-01-01

    Although a number of recent studies suggest that climate associated shifts in agriculture are affecting social and economic systems, there have been relatively few studies of these effects in Africa. Such studies would be particularly useful in Central Africa, where the impacts of climate warming are predicted to be high but coincide with an area with low adaptive capacity. Focusing on plantain (Musa paradisiaca), we assess whether recent climate change has led to reduced yields. Analysis of annual temperature between 1950 and 2013 indicated a 0.8°C temperature increase over this 63-year period - a trend that is also observed in monthly temperatures in the last twenty years. From 1991 to 2011, there was a 43% decrease in plantain productivity in Central Africa, which was explained by shifts in temperature (R 2 =0.68). This decline may have reduced rural household wealth and decreased parental investment in education. Over the past two decades, there was a six month decrease in the duration of school attendance, and the decline was tightly linked to plantain yield (R 2 =0.82). By 2080, mean annual temperature is expected to increase at least 2°C in Central Africa, and our models predict a concomitant decrease of 39% in plantain yields and 51% in education outcomes, relative to the 1991 baseline. These predictions should be seen as a call-to-action for policy interventions such as farmer training programs to enhance the adaptive capacity of food production systems to mitigate impacts on rural income and education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High school drinking mediates the relationship between parental monitoring and college drinking: A longitudinal analysis

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    Vincent Kathryn B

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background College drinking is a significant public health problem. Although parental monitoring and supervision reduces the risk for alcohol consumption among younger adolescents, few studies have investigated the impact of earlier parental monitoring on later college drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring indirectly exerts a protective effect on college drinking by reducing high school alcohol consumption. Methods A longitudinal cohort of 1,253 male and female students, ages 17 to 19, attending a large, public, mid-Atlantic university was studied at two time points. First, data on high school parental monitoring and alcohol consumption were gathered via questionnaire during the summer prior to college entry. Second, during the first year of college, past-year alcohol consumption was measured via a personal interview. Multiple regression models tested the relationship between parental monitoring and past year alcohol use (i.e., number of drinks per drinking day. Results Holding constant demographics, SAT score, and religiosity, parental monitoring had a significant protective effect on both high school and college drinking level. However, the association between parental monitoring and college drinking level became non-significant once high school drinking level was held constant. Conclusion While parental monitoring did not directly influence college alcohol consumption, evidence for mediation was observed, whereby parental monitoring had an indirect influence on college drinking through reductions in high school drinking. Initiatives that promote effective parenting might be an important strategy to curb high-risk drinking among older adolescents. More research is needed to understand the nature and degree of parent-child communication that is necessary to extend the protective influence of parents into the college years.

  8. Risk-associated health disorders occuring in junior schoolchildren who attend schools with higher stress and intensity of educational process

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    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed comparative sanitary-hygienic assessment of regime, stress and intensity of educational process in different educational establishments, a comprehensive secondary school and an innovative educational establishment - lyceum. We detected that studying regime tended to be tight, classes were longer and more intense than in an ordinary school, and educational process involved considerable intellectual, sensory and emotional loads for children; such loads reached "1st category intense" level. Schoolchildren attending lyceums are also busy with additional educational programs and it significantly increases length of total educational load on them. By the end of a school year 20% of lyceum pupils suffer from sympathoadrenal system overstress and it doesn't only determine emotional tonus level in children but also leads to disorders in concentration and decision-making speed, lower reading speed and articulation, slower motor reactions. 15% of lyceum pupils have higher activity of autonomous nervous system and lower adaptation of cardiovascular system to psycho emotional and physical loads. Lyceum pupils also run 2.5 times higher risk of chronic nervous system diseases evolvement than school children attending ordinary schools. Autonomous nervous system disorders, posture disorders and nutrition disorders are predominant nosologic pathology forms in lyceum pupils as they occur in them 1.6-2.9 times more frequent than in schoolchildren of the same age who attend an ordinary comprehensive school. We detected direct correlation between higher intellectual and emotional components of educational process, and total educational intensity as well, and frequency of autonomous system disorders and musculoskeletal system diseases in pupils.

  9. Investigation of a cluster of children with Down's syndrome born to mothers who had attended a school in Dundalk, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, G; Nevin, N C; Mikkelsen, M; Karadima, G; Petersen, M B; Kelly, M; O'Sullivan, J

    2000-12-01

    To investigate a reported cluster of Down's syndrome in offspring of former pupils of a girls' school in Ireland, to establish the prevalence of Down's syndrome among live births in the area around the school, and to review the literature on the possible causes of reported clusters of Down's syndrome. Questionnaire survey of obstetric and personal histories of women who had attended the girls' school at Dundalk, County Louth, Republic of Ireland, at some time during 1956-7, and also of women who had attended another, nearby, girls' school during the same period. Comparison of observed numbers of cases of Down's syndrome identified by these surveys with maternal age adjusted expected numbers for the reported live births. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify and characterise the cases of Down's syndrome constituting the cluster. Retrospective collection and collation of data on Down's syndrome occurring among live births, and the compilation of maternal age specific incidences, in County Louth and in Newry and Mourne District in neighbouring Northern Ireland, during 1961-80. These rates were compared with reference rates and rates for other areas of Ireland. Six children with Down's syndrome were confirmed among 387 reported live births to women who had been pupils at the girls' school in Dundalk during 1956-7, compared with 0.69 expected (nominal p<10(-4)). Five of the affected births were to mothers under 30 years of age, against 0.15 expected (nominal p<10(-6)), although only four of these mothers were attending the school at any one time. The origin of the non-disjunction was found to be maternal first meiotic in four children, mitotic after fertilisation in another (with the youngest mother), and in the remaining one could not be determined. The marked excess of Down's syndrome in births to young mothers did not extend to offspring of former pupils of the other Dundalk girls' school surveyed, or to live births in County Louth generally or in adjacent Newry

  10. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

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    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  11. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels among Ethnic Minority Children Attending School-Based Afterschool Programs in a High-Poverty Neighborhood

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    Youngdeok Kim, Marc Lochbaum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic minority children living in high poverty neighborhoods are at high risk of having insufficient physical activity (PA during school days and, thus, the importance of school as a place to facilitate PA in these underserved children has been largely emphasized. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA in minority children, with particular focus on the relative contributions of regular physical education (PE and school-based afterschool PA program in promoting moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA during school days. PA data were repeatedly measured using a Polar Active accelerometer across multiple school days (M = 5.3 days per child, from seventy-five ethnic minority children attending a Title I public elementary school in a high-poverty neighborhood in the US. The minutes and percentage of MVPA accumulated during school, PE, and afterschool PA program were compared to the current recommendations (≥30-min of MVPA during school hours; and ≥50% of MVPA during PE or afterschool PA program as well as by the demographic characteristics including sex, grade, ethnicity, and weight status using a general linear mixed model that accounts for repeated observations. On average, children spent 41.6 mins (SE = 1.8 of MVPA during school hours and of those, 14.1 mins (SE = 0.6 were contributed during PE. The average proportion of time spent in MVPA during PE was 31.3% (SE = 1.3, which was significantly lower than the recommendation (≥50% of MVPA, whereas 54.2% (SE = 1.2 of time in afterschool PA program were spent in MVPA. The percentage of monitoring days meeting current recommendations were 69.5% (SE = 0.03, 20.8% (SE = 0.02, and 59.6% (SE = 0.03 for during school, PE, and afterschool PA program, respectively. Our findings highlighted that school-based afterschool PA, in addition to regular PE classes, could be of great benefit to promote PA in minority children during school days. Further research and practice are still needed to

  12. School absenteeism among school-aged children with medically attended acute viral respiratory illness during three influenza seasons, 2012-2013 through 2014-2015.

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    McLean, Huong Q; Peterson, Siri H; King, Jennifer P; Meece, Jennifer K; Belongia, Edward A

    2017-05-01

    Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are common in school-aged children, but few studies have assessed school absenteeism due to specific respiratory viruses. To evaluate school absenteeism among children with medically attended ARI due to common viruses. We analyzed follow-up surveys from children seeking care for acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the influenza vaccine effectiveness study at Marshfield Clinic during the 2012-2013 through 2014-2015 influenza seasons. Archived influenza-negative respiratory swabs were retested using multiplex RT-PCR to detect 16 respiratory virus targets. Negative binomial and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between school absence and type of respiratory viruses; endpoints included mean days absent from school and prolonged (>2 days) absence. We examined the association between influenza vaccination and school absence among children with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza. Among 1027 children, 2295 days of school were missed due to medically attended ARIs; influenza accounted for 39% of illness episodes and 47% of days missed. Mean days absent were highest for influenza (0.96-1.19) and lowest for coronavirus (0.62). Children with B/Yamagata infection were more likely to report prolonged absence than children with A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 infection [OR (95% CI): 2.1 (1.0, 4.5) and 1.7 (1.0, 2.9), respectively]. Among children with influenza, vaccination status was not associated with prolonged absence. School absenteeism due to medically attended ARIs varies by viral infection. Influenza B infections accounted for the greatest burden of absenteeism. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Effect of a Monitoring Scheme on Tutorial Attendance and Assignment Submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Grainne; Mac an Bhaird, Ciaran; O'Shea, Ann

    2013-01-01

    We report on the implementation of a monitoring scheme by the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the National University of Ireland Maynooth. The scheme was introduced in an attempt to increase the level and quality of students' engagement with certain aspects of their undergraduate course. It is well documented that students with higher…

  14. Attended and Unattended Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurements Have Better Agreement With Ambulatory Monitoring Than Conventional Office Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Emmanuel A; Geladari, Charalampia V; Angelopoulos, Epameinondas T; Savva, Florentia S; Georgantoni, Anna I; Papademetriou, Vasilios

    2018-04-07

    Automated office blood pressure (AOBP) measurement is superior to conventional office blood pressure (OBP) because it eliminates the "white coat effect" and shows a strong association with ambulatory blood pressure. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 146 participants with office hypertension, and we compared AOBP readings, taken with or without the presence of study personnel, before and after the conventional office readings to determine whether their variation in blood pressure showed a difference in blood pressure values. We also compared AOBP measurements with daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and conventional office readings. The mean age of the studied population was 56±12 years, and 53.4% of participants were male. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias (ie, mean of the differences) of 0.6±6 mm Hg systolic for attended AOBP compared with unattended and 1.4±6 and 0.1±6 mm Hg bias for attended compared with unattended systolic AOBP when measurements were performed before and after conventional readings, respectively. A small bias was observed when unattended and attended systolic AOBP measurements were compared with daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (1.3±13 and 0.6±13 mm Hg, respectively). Biases were higher for conventional OBP readings compared with unattended AOBP (-5.6±15 mm Hg for unattended AOBP and oscillometric OBP measured by a physician, -6.8±14 mm Hg for unattended AOBP and oscillometric OBP measured by a nurse, and -2.1±12 mm Hg for unattended AOBP and auscultatory OBP measured by a second physician). Our findings showed that independent of the presence or absence of medical staff, AOBP readings revealed similar values that were closer to daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring than conventional office readings, further supporting the use of AOBP in the clinical setting. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. A survey of severe visual impairment and blindness in children attending thirteen schools for the blind in sri lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zoe; Muecke, James; Edussuriya, Kapila; Dayawansa, Ranasiri; Hammerton, Michael; Kong, Aimee; Sennanayake, Saman; Senaratne, Tissa; Marasinghe, Nirosha; Selva, Dinesh

    2011-02-01

    To identify the causes of blindness and severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) in children attending schools for the blind in Sri Lanka, and to provide optical devices and ophthalmic treatment where indicated. Two hundred and six children under 16 years from 13 schools for the blind in Sri Lanka were examined by a team of ophthalmologists and optometrists. Data were entered in the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Eye Examination Record for Childhood Blindness (WHO/PBL ERCB). Of the 206 children, 83.5% were blind (BL = Visual acuity [VA] schools for the blind in Sri Lanka had potentially avoidable causes of BL/SVI. Vision could also be improved in a third of children. The data support the need to develop specialized pediatric ophthalmic services, particularly in the face of advancing neonatal life support in Sri Lanka, and the need for increased provision of optical support.

  16. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1–7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h−1) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1–10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h−1) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4°C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding. PMID:24887441

  17. Who Attends Charter Schools and How Are Those Students Doing? Exploratory Analysis of NAEP Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Ginsburg, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This report examines what the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) can tell us about charter school enrollment and student performance compared to that of regular public schools. The study uses NAEP reading and mathematics data from 2011 and the earlier years when charter school data first became available (2003 for grade 4; 2005 for…

  18. Middle School Learning, Academic Emotions and Engagement as Precursors to College Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Pedro, Maria Ofelia Clarissa Z.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation research focuses on assessing student behavior, academic emotions, and knowledge within a middle school online learning environment, and analyzing potential effects on students' interests and choices related to decisions about going to college. Using students' longitudinal data ranging from their middle school, to high school, to…

  19. School Violence Prevention: Climate and Moral Perspectives of Sixth through Eighth Grade Students Attending a Southern California Catholic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Diane Diaz

    2010-01-01

    The need for U.S. teachers to better understand School Violence Prevention is growing. Evidence suggests however, that 10 years and 10 billion dollars after the Columbine High School massacre, our public schools are not safer (www.community-matters.org). There has been an "after the fact" approach to the problem of school violence. After…

  20. The Salience of Selected Variables on Choice for Movie Attendance among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    A questionnaire was designed for a study assessing both the importance of 28 variables in movie attendance and the importance of movie-going as a leisure-time activity. Respondents were 130 ninth and twelfth grade students. The 28 variables were broadly organized into eight categories: movie production personnel, production elements, advertising,…

  1. Ocular Morbidity among Children Attending Government and Private Schools of Kathmandu Valley

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    R K Shrestha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from the developing world are more prone to going blind from avoidable and preventable causes. In Nepal, children in private schools are reported to have a higher ocular morbidity than those in government schools, with myopia being the major cause of the morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate ocular morbidity in students from both types of school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, comparative study among students from government and private schools of Kathmandu. Eye examination was carried out evaluating visual acuity, color vision, refractive status, binocular vision status, and anterior and posterior segment findings. Results: A total of 4,228 students from government and private schools were evaluated. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 19.56 % with refractive error (11.9 % being the major cause of the morbidity, followed by strabismus and infective disorders. No signifi cant difference in the prevalence of ocular morbidity and refractive status was found in the students from government and private schools. Conclusions: A signifi cant number of children of school-going age have ocular morbidity with no signifi cant difference in the prevalence in the students from government and private schools. Research exploring the effect of various risk factors in the progression of myopia would be helpful to investigate the refractive status in children from these different types of schools. Keywords: Myopia, ocular morbidity, school Students

  2. Cyber-Truancy: Addressing Issues of Attendance in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Leanna; Kennedy, Kathryn; Bender, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    Although mandatory attendance is easily determined in a traditional, brick-and-mortar school, monitoring and enforcing attendance and truancy in an online environment is less obvious. Despite this challenge, virtual schools, especially those that are publicly funded, have a requirement to ensure that students who are enrolled are actually logging…

  3. Promoting Error Monitoring in Middle School Students with LD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Ted R.; Polloway, Edward A.

    1993-01-01

    Middle school students with learning disabilities were successfully taught the COPS monitoring strategy to revise and correct writing mistakes. Steps in the strategy include capitalization of appropriate letters, overall appearance of paper, punctuation used correctly, and spelling accuracy. (JDD)

  4. Ocular morbidity among children attending government and private schools of Kathmandu valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R K; Joshi, M R; Ghising, R; Rizyal, A

    2011-01-01

    Children from the developing world are more prone to going blind from avoidable and preventable causes. In Nepal, children in private schools are reported to have a higher ocular morbidity than those in government schools, with myopia being the major cause of the morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate ocular morbidity in students from both types of school. This was a cross-sectional, comparative study among students from government and private schools of Kathmandu. Eye examination was carried out evaluating visual acuity, color vision, refractive status, binocular vision status, and anterior and posterior segment findings. A total of 4,228 students from government and private schools were evaluated. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 19.56 % with refractive error (11.9 %) being the major cause of the morbidity, followed by strabismus and infective disorders. No significant difference in the prevalence of ocular morbidity and refractive status was found in the students from government and private schools. A significant number of children of school-going age have ocular morbidity with no significant difference in the prevalence in the students from government and private schools. Research exploring the effect of various risk factors in the progression of myopia would be helpful to investigate the refractive status in children from these different types of schools.

  5. The effect of attending steiner schools during childhood on health in adulthood: a multicentre cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Binting, Sylvia; Bockelbrink, Angelina; Heusser, Peter; Hueck, Christoph; Keil, Thomas; Roll, Stephanie; Witt, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    It is speculated that attending Steiner schools, whose pedagogical principles include an account for healthy psycho-physical development, may have long-term beneficial health effects. We examined whether the current health status differed between former attendees of German Steiner schools and adults from the general population. Furthermore, we examined factors that might explain those differences. We included former Steiner school attendees from 4 schools in Berlin, Hanover, Nuremberg and Stuttgart and randomly selected population controls. Using a self-report questionnaire we assessed sociodemographics, current and childhood lifestyle and health status. Outcomes were self-reports on 16 diseases: atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac insufficiency, angina pectoris, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, osteoarthritis, rheumatism, cancer, diabetes, depression and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, participants rated the symptom burden resulting from back pain, cold symptoms, headache, insomnia, joint pain, gastrointestinal symptoms and imbalance. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for each outcome. 1136 Steiner school attendees and 1746 controls were eligible for analysis. Both groups were comparable regarding sex, age and region, but differed in nationality and educational status. After adjusting for possible confounders, we found statistically significant effects of Steiner school attendance for osteoarthritis (OR 0.69 [0.49-0.97]) and allergic rhinitis (OR 0.77, [0.59-1.00]) as well as for symptom burden from back pain (OR 0.80, [0.64-1.00]), insomnia (OR 0.65, [0.50-0.84]), joint pain (OR 0.62, [0.48-0.82]), gastrointestinal symptoms (OR 0.76, [0.58-1.00]) and imbalance (OR 0.60, [0.38-0.93]). The risk of most examined diseases did not differ between former Steiner school attendees and the general population after adjustment for

  6. Use of ecstasy and other psychoactive substances among school-attending adolescents in Taiwan: national surveys 2004–2006

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    Huang Wei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the backdrop of a global ecstasy epidemic, this study sought to examine the trend, correlates, and onset sequence of ecstasy use among adolescents in Taiwan, where a well-established gateway drug such as marijuana is much less popular. Methods A multistage probability survey of school-attending adolescents in grades 7, 9, 10, and 12, aged 11–19 years, was conducted in 2004, 2005, and 2006. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire elicited response rates ranging from 94.3% to 96.6%. The sample sizes were 18232 respondents in 2004, 17986 in 2005, and 17864 in 2006. Results In terms of lifetime prevalence and incidence, ecstasy and ketamine by and large appeared as the first and second commonly used illegal drugs, respectively, among middle (grades 7 and 9 and high school students (grades 10 and 12 during the 3-year survey period; however, this order was reversed in the middle school-aged students starting in 2006. Having sexual experience, tobacco use, and betel nut use were factors consistently associated with the onset of ecstasy use across years. The majority of ecstasy users had been involved in polydrug use, such as the use of ketamine (41.4%–53.5%, marijuana (12.7%–18.7%, and methamphetamine (4.2%–9.5%. Conclusion From 2004 to 2006, a decline was noted in the prevalence and incidence rate of ecstasy, a leading illegal drug used by school-attending adolescents in Taiwan since the early 2000s. The emerging ketamine use trend may warrant more attention in the future.

  7. Alcohol and Drug Use among Gang Members: Experiences of Adolescents Who Attend School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahn, Monica H.; Bossarte, Robert M.; West, Bethany; Topalli, Volkan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Problems related to gangs have been noted in large cities and in many schools across the United States. This study examined the patterns of alcohol, drug use, and related exposures among male and female high school students who were gang members. Methods: Analyses were based on the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and…

  8. Estimating the Effects of Students' Social Networks: Does Attending a Norm-Enforcing School Pay Off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Brian V.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to forge tighter social relations, small school reformers advocate school designs intended to create smaller, more trusting, and more collaborative settings. These efforts to enhance students' social capital in the form of social closure are ultimately tied to improving academic outcomes. Using data derived from ELS: 2002, this study…

  9. Association of a full-day vs part-day preschool intervention with school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Richardson, Brandt A; Hayakawa, Momoko; Lease, Erin M; Warner-Richter, Mallory; Englund, Michelle M; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Sullivan, Molly

    2014-11-26

    Early childhood interventions have demonstrated positive effects on well-being. Whether full-day vs part-day attendance improves outcomes is unknown. To evaluate the association between a full- vs part-day early childhood program and school readiness, attendance, and parent involvement. End-of-preschool follow-up of a nonrandomized, matched-group cohort of predominantly low-income, ethnic minority children enrolled in the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for the full day (7 hours; n = 409) or part day (3 hours on average; n = 573) in the 2012-2013 school year in 11 schools in Chicago, Illinois. The Midwest CPC Education Program provides comprehensive instruction, family-support, and health services from preschool to third grade. School readiness skills at the end of preschool, attendance and chronic absences, and parental involvement. The readiness domains in the Teaching Strategies GOLD Assessment System include a total of 49 items with a score range of 105-418. The specific domains are socioemotional with 9 items (score range, 20-81), language with 6 items (score range, 15-54), literacy with 12 items (score range, 9-104), math with 7 items (score, 8-60), physical health with 5 items (score range, 14-45), and cognitive development with 10 items (score range, 18-90). Full-day preschool participants had higher scores than part-day peers on socioemotional development (58.6 vs 54.5; difference, 4.1; 95% CI, 0.5-7.6; P = .03), language (39.9 vs 37.3; difference, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.6-4.6; P = .01), math (40.0 vs 36.4; difference, 3.6; 95% CI, 0.5-6.7; P = .02), physical health (35.5 vs 33.6; difference, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.5-3.2; P = .006), and the total score (298.1 vs 278.2; difference, 19.9; 95% CI, 1.2-38.4; P = .04). Literacy (64.5 vs 58.6; difference, 5.9; 95% CI, -0.07 to 12.4; P = .08) and cognitive development (59.7 vs 57.7; difference, 2.0; 95% CI, -2.4 to 6.3; P = .38) were not significant. Full-day preschool graduates also had higher

  10. Solar Wind Monitor--A School Geophysics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Described is an established geophysics project to construct a solar wind monitor based on a nT resolution fluxgate magnetometer. Low-cost and appropriate from school to university level it incorporates elements of astrophysics, geophysics, electronics, programming, computer networking and signal processing. The system monitors the earth's field in…

  11. Parental concerns in parents of children attending pre- and primary school: analysis of the Portuguese population by District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Algarvio

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, our aim was to assess and analyze parental concerns by Portuguese District. Methods: The participants were 3842 parents of children between 3 and 10 years old, attending preschool and primary school, from 820 public schools in 18 Portuguese Districts. Parents completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, and a Parental Concerns Scale, composed by 5 subscales, family and school problems; feeding, sleep and physical complaints; preparation; fears; and negative behaviors. Results: Portuguese parents concerned about all the dimensions considered in this study. The highest level of concern was obtained in family and school problems, and the lowest level of concern about their children’s fears. There were significant differences between Districts, parents from Porto and Bragança showed the highest levels of concern. Parents from Coimbra, Évora, Beja e Portalegre, presented the lowest levels of concern. Conclusion: Parental concerns are an aspect of general parenting and must be considered by health professionals to promote healthier parents-children relationships. Geographic differences should be further investigated.

  12. Male gender, school attendance and sports participation are positively associated with health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with congenital bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limperg, P F; Joosten, M M H; Fijnvandraat, K; Peters, M; Grootenhuis, M A; Haverman, L

    2018-02-08

    This study assesses health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and variables associated with HRQOL, in children and adolescents with haemophilia and congenital bleeding disorders (CBD) in the Netherlands. Patients Differences and effect sizes in HRQOL compared to healthy peers, and between hemophilia severity groups, were tested using Mann Whitney U-tests. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess variables associated with HRQOL. Data of 145 patients (81%) were analyzed (N = 32 with severe haemophilia). Children (0-12 years) show no significant impairments in HRQOL compared to healthy peers. Adolescent boys (13-18 years) with CBD report a slightly higher HRQOL on the total and emotional functioning scales than healthy peers (small-moderate effect sizes). In contrast, adolescent girls experience lower HRQOL on total, social functioning and psychosocial health scales compared to healthy peers (moderate effect sizes). No differences between severity groups were found in HRQOL, but more problem behaviour was found in young boys (0-5 years) with severe haemophilia. Male gender, participation in sports and school attendance are positively associated with HRQOL. Parental country of birth, type of treatment and number of bleeds are not associated with HRQOL. Continuing monitoring HRQOL in daily clinical practice for children with CBD is important, since possible influencing psychosocial factors can change over time, with special focus on adolescent girls, sports participation and school absence. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparison of asthma prevalence among African American teenage youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia and urban Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Dennis R; Tingen, Martha S; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L; Johnson, Christine C; Joseph, Christine L M

    2015-09-01

    The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention, whereas the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. We sought to compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared with 1514 (60.0%) in Georgia. Average population density in high school postal codes was 5628 people/mile(2) in Detroit and 45.1 people/mile(2) in Georgia. The percentages of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and Georgia was similar: 15.0% (95% CI, 14.1-15.8) and 13.7% (95% CI, 12.0-17.1) (P = .22), respectively. The prevalence of undiagnosed asthma in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in Georgia (P = .56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit, whereas those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit, suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does the local food environment around schools affect diet? Longitudinal associations in adolescents attending secondary schools in East London

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    Smith Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The local retail food environment around schools may act as a potential risk factor for adolescent diet. However, international research utilising cross-sectional designs to investigate associations between retail food outlet proximity to schools and diet provides equivocal support for an effect. In this study we employ longitudinal perspectives in order to answer the following two questions. First, how has the local retail food environment around secondary schools changed over time and second, is this change associated with change in diet of students at these schools? Methods The locations of retail food outlets and schools in 2001 and 2005 were geo-coded in three London boroughs. Network analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS ascertained the number, minimum and median distances to food outlets within 400 m and 800 m of the school location. Outcome measures were ‘healthy’ and ‘unhealthy’ diet scores derived from adolescent self-reported data in the Research with East London Adolescents: Community Health Survey (RELACHS. Adjusted associations between distance from school to food retail outlets, counts of outlets near schools and diet scores were assessed using longitudinal (2001–2005 n=757 approaches. Results Between 2001 and 2005 the number of takeaways and grocers/convenience stores within 400 m of schools increased, with many more grocers reported within 800 m of schools in 2005 (p Conclusions The results provide some evidence that the local food environment around secondary schools may influence adolescent diet, though effects were small. Further research on adolescents’ food purchasing habits with larger samples in varied geographic regions is required to identify robust relationships between proximity and diet, as small numbers, because of confounding, may dilute effect food environment effects. Data on individual foods purchased in all shop formats may clarify the frequent, overly simple

  15. Pathways through Secondary School in a Comprehensive System: Does Parental Education and School Attended Affect Students' Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesters, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    As the Australian labour market restructured during the 1980s and 1990s, Year 12 retention rates more than doubled between 1983 and 1993 secondary schools diversified to include vocational education and training programs as alternative pathways through school. From a human capital perspective, the completion of vocational qualifications in school…

  16. Success in These Schools? Visual Counternarratives of Young Men of Color and Urban High Schools They Attend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of published scholarship on urban high schools in the United States focuses on problems of inadequacy, instability, underperformance, and violence. Similarly, across all schooling contexts, most of what has been written about young men of color continually reinforces deficit narratives about their educational possibility.…

  17. PROSPECTIVE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ FOREIGN LANGUAGE SOCIOCULTURAL COMPETENCE: MONITORING PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Ishutina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates the necessity and importance of the organization of prospective primary school teachers’ foreign language sociocultural competence monitoring in the educational process of high school. The author notes that prospective primary school teachers’ foreign language sociocultural competence is inseparably linked with linguomethodological competence. It is proved that the measurement of foreign language sociocultural competence of primary school foreign language teachers should be performed in the process of lingvomethodological training of the students as lingvomethodological competence occupies a dominant place and is a unifying and a backbone for other competencies of the future teacher’s professiogram. In this regard, the concept of “foreign language sociocultural competence of prospective primary school teacher” is clarified, the essence of lingvomethodological monitoring of foreign language sociocultural competence is revealed. It is emphasized that linguistic disciplines (“The practice of oral and written language”, “Practical grammar of a foreign language”, “Practical phonetics of a foreign language”, etc. and linguomethodological courses (“Methods of teaching English at primary school”, “ICT in learning foreign languages”, “Innovative technologies of learning foreign languages”, etc. play very important role in forming “foreign language sociocultural competence of prospective primary school teacher”. Specific principles of lingvomethodological monitoring of foreign language sociocultural competence are identified and characterized. They are complexity, lingvomethodological orientation, validity, multi-vector monitoring procedures.

  18. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  19. The Effect of Early Childhood Developmental Program Attendance on Future School Enrollment in Rural North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Gautam; Viren, Vejoya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of prior participation in early childhood developmental programs, considered endogenous, upon 7-18 years olds' school enrollment in rural North India. Analyses by age group of data from the World Bank's 1997-98 Survey of Living Conditions in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar reveal that 7-10 year olds, 11-14 year olds, and…

  20. Carnegie Units and High School Attendance Policies: An Absence of Thought?!?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outhouse, Craig Michael

    2012-01-01

    This case was developed as part of a doctoral course for educational administration students who were specializing in K-12 educational administration. It could be used in a leadership, special education, or policy course for future school leaders or teachers. Currently, most educational institutions use Carnegie Units to structure how students…

  1. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  2. Effects of Text Messaged Self-Monitoring on Class Attendance and Punctuality of At-Risk College Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicard, David F.; Lott, Valorie; Mills, Jessica; Bicard, Sara; Baylot-Casey, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of text messaging class arrival to an academic counselor on the attendance and punctuality of 4 college student athletes. Each participant had a history of class tardiness and was considered to be at risk for academic failure. Class attendance and punctuality improved for all participants. (Contains 1 figure.)

  3. Factors Associated with Tobacco Use in Students Attending Local Government Schools in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilesh; Todankar, Priyamvada; Mandal, Gauri; Gupte, Himanshu; Thawal, Vaibhav; Bhutia, Tshering; Choudhuri, Leni

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: Factors associated with ever-use and differences between ever-users and non-users of tobacco among adolescent school students from low income families in Mumbai were assessed. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire, completed by 1918 students from grades 7, 8 and 9 in 12 schools managed by the city municipal corporation in July 2015, gathered data on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use and tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Results: Although only 1% of respondents thought tobacco was cool, nearly 35% were unaware of associations between tobacco use and health problems. Male students were almost twice as likely (OR=2.5, P <= 0.05) to have ever used tobacco compared to females and Supari (areca nut) users were eight times more likely (OR=8.99, P < 0.001) than Supari non -users. Tobacco-users were more likely to agree with statements: ‘People who use tobacco have more friends’ (OR=2.8, P = 0.004), ‘Smoking relieves stress’ (OR=5.6, P = 0.002) and ‘It is possible to purchase any tobacco product within 100 yards of school’ (OR=10.8, P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study highlights the gains made by tobacco prevention campaigns in that almost all students did not consider tobacco as cool or a stress reliever. However, they still need education about health consequences of tobacco-use. In addition, Supari use has to be addressed in school-based tobacco prevention and cessation initiatives. Furthermore, programs must also address perceptions and norms related to peers and tobacco use and ensure active implementation of existing laws. Such integrated measures will help ensure tobacco-free spaces around schools. Creative Commons Attribution License

  4. Burns and scalds in pre-school children attending accident and emergency: accident or abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Benger, J; McCabe, S

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To assess how frequently and adequately information relating to the possibility of non-accidental injury (NAI) is documented and considered by doctors assessing pre-school children with burns and scalds in the accident and emergency (A&E) department, and to determine the effect of introducing a routine reminder mechanism into the A&E notes, coupled with an improved programme of NAI education and awareness.

  5. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also exa...

  6. The attendance of women in mammographic early detection programme and the results of the observation of the breast glands condition. 1. The attendance of higher schools female employees in mammography examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romejko, M.; Kleszczewska, J.; Liszek, A.; Tarlowska, L.; Wronkowski, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to assess the attendance in the early detection (mammography) in female employees of Warsaw-based higher schools aged 40-69. During the 4.5 year period (1985-1989) 1325 female employees of higher schools (23.5% of the schools' total employment) turned up to the Female Cancer Prevention Center of The Higher Schools' Medical Center (ZOZ) in Warsaw. Observation of this group continued until June 30, 1992. Majority of the women (56.5%) showed up only once, 21.7% came twice, and 21.8% at least three times. Out of the 1021 women (77% of all the examined female employees) who showed no symptoms in the first test, only 37% came again for the second checkup. Out of the 305 women who had changes detected in their X-ray images, 66% turned up for the second test. 23 women (1.7%) had suspicious mammography results or typical cancer symptoms in the first test. The present work shows that the reason of the insufficient attendance of higher schools' female employees in early detection programs need to be investigated and that a more efficient early detection system must be developed. (author)

  7. White Coat Hypertension and Masked Hypertension Among Omani Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Al-Hashmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our study aimed to estimate the rate of white coat hypertension (WCH and effect, and masked hypertension in patients attending a tertiary care hospital for 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM. Methods: A total of 231 adult patients were referred to the Department of Clinical Physiology at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, for ABPM, between January 2010 and June 2012. The following data were gathered and analyzed: demographic data, clinic blood pressure (BP measurements, and 24-h BP profile from ABPM. Thirty-two patients were excluded and the final analysis included 199 patients. Results: There were 105 (52.8% women and 94 (47.2% men studied. The mean age of patients was 46±15 years and most patients were overweight with a mean BMI of 29.6±5kg/m2. Around half of patients (53.8% were on one or more antihypertensive medications. WCH was found in 10.6% and white coat effect was found in 16% of patients. The majority of patients (57% with WCH were aged 40 years or above. Masked hypertension was present in 6% of patients and masked uncontrolled hypertension in 8.5% of patients. Conclusions: Our study showed that WCH and effect, and masked hypertension are common in hypertensive patients. Identifying these patients will have an impact on their management. However, the results of the study should be interpreted within the context of its limitations. Prospective randomized community and hospital-based studies should be conducted to estimate the true prevalence in the general population as well as in hypertensive patients.

  8. Survey of low vision among students attending schools for the blind in Nigeria: a descriptive and interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosuro, Adedamola L; Ajaiyeoba, Ayotunde I; Bekibele, Charles O; Eniola, Michael S; Adedokun, Babatunde A

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of low vision among students attending all the schools for the blind in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study set out to determine the proportion of students with low vision/severe visual impairment after best correction, to determine the causes of the low vision, to document the associated pathologies, to determine the types of treatment and visual aid devices required, and to provide the visual aids needed to the students in the schools. All schools students for the blind in Oyo State were evaluated between August 2007 and January 2008. All the students underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination that included measurement of visual acuity, retinoscopy and subjective refraction, tests for visual aids where indicated, and a structured questionnaire was administered. A total of 86 students were included in the study and the mean age was 19.4 ± 8.19 years. Twenty six (30%) were under 16 years of age. The most common cause of blindness was bilateral measles keratopathy/vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in 25 students (29.1%). The most common site affected was the cornea in 25 students (29.1%), the lens in 23 (26.7%), and the retina/optic nerve in 16 (18.6%). Preventable blindness was mainly from measles keratopathy/VAD (29.1%). Eleven students benefited from refraction and correction with visual aids; two having severe visual impairment (SVI), and nine having visual impairment (VI) after correction. The prevalence of low vision in the schools for the blind in Oyo State is 2.3%, while the prevalence of visual impairment is 10.5%. These results suggest that preventable and treatable ocular conditions are the source of significant childhood blindness in Oyo State.

  9. School Connectedness and Protection from Symptoms of Depression in Sexual Minority Adolescents Attending School in Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N.; Asbridge, Mark; Langille, Donald B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In examining associations of sexual orientation, school connectedness (SC), and depression, no studies have used a continuum of sexual orientation. Additionally, no study has examined whether individuals with higher SC within subgroups of the continuum of sexual orientation are protected from symptoms of depression when compared to…

  10. Nutritional status of adolescents attending the Iranian secondary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Maryam; Msl, Huang; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Zarei, Fatemeh

    2014-07-29

    The aim or this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status among Iranian adolescents in the two Secondary Schools run by the Embassy in Kuala Lumpur. A self administered questionnaire was used to assess socio demographic characteristics, physical activity, and body image. Dietary intake was recorded through individual interviews with the researcher. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for children (PAQ-C) was used to evaluate levels of physical activity of the adolescents. One-third (32.2%) of respondents were of normal weight, 14.5% and 11.1% were overweight and obese respectively, while 18.6% and 23.6% were severe thinness and thinness respectively. While the distribution of obese respondents by gender was almost the same, overweight females (16.4%) exceeded overweight males (12.7%) and although more females were in the thinness category (24.7% compared to 22.7%), more males were severely thin (20.0%) compared to 17.1% of the females. Body weight status was significantly associated with age (p school to design intervention programs to improve the body weight status of their students.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms in Children Attending School in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; George, Sanju; Thennarasu, K; Srinath, Shoba

    2016-09-02

    To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. Three hundred five (4.3%) self-reported symptoms for ADHD combined type, 131 (1.8%) for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type, and 102 (1.4%) for ADHD inattentive type with a male predominance. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that those with symptoms of ADHD (combined type) compared with the non-ADHD group had poorer academic performance, significantly higher substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and sexual abuse. The high prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms and its association with negative correlates previously reported in literature in those with a diagnosis of ADHD suggests that clinically significant self-reported ADHD symptoms could be as disabling as ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Gender differences in first-year dental students' motivation to attend dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarbecz, Mark; Ross, Judith A

    2002-08-01

    Women's role in the field of dentistry has historically been limited to the dental auxiliary fields, rather than that of D.D.S. or D.M.D. Today, women are nearly 38 percent of U.S. dental school students and 14 percent of active practitioners. The slow(er) influx of women into dentistry has been little studied by dental educators. During the 2000-01 academic year, we conducted a survey of first-year dental students at a sample of publicly funded U.S. dental schools. The purpose of the survey was to assess gender differences in motives for pursuing a dental career. The data show that male dental students rate self-employment and business-related motives as more important, while female dental students rate people-oriented motives more highly. Factor analysis revealed four distinct clusters of motives for pursuing a dental career: a financial motive, a business-oriented motive, a people-oriented or caring motive, and a flexibility motive. Women scored significantly higher than men on the caring factor, whereas the reverse was true on the business factor. Male and female students rated financial and flexibility motives equally. The implications of the results for attracting students to the profession of dentistry are discussed.

  13. Massage and Storytelling Reduce Aggression and Improve Academic Performance in Children Attending Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Voos, Mariana Callil; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors must be addressed in elementary schools. Massage and storytelling can be strategies to deal with aggression because both involve experience exchange and social interaction. Both can decrease stress and anxiety and increase self-esteem. To evaluate the effect of two interventions (massage and storytelling) on aggressive behaviors and academic performance of elementary school children. Three groups ( n = 35 children in each group) of the second grade participated (aged 6.5-8.1 years). One group received ten extra classes of massage (MG), another group received extra classes of storytelling (SG), and the control group received extra classes of random subjects (CG). Extra classes lasted for 50 minutes, once a week. Aggressive behaviors were recorded on diaries, by the teachers and the coordinator. The frequency of aggressive behaviors and the academic performance of MG, SG, and CG were observed for six months and the groups were compared. ANOVAs evidenced that MG and SG, but not CG, showed a reduction in aggressive behaviors registered by the teachers and coordinator, after the intervention. Academic performance of MG and SC improved after the intervention ( p < 0.05).

  14. Racial bullying and adolescent substance use: An examination of school-attending young adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Andrea L; Carlisle, Shauna K

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the association between race and racial bullying (bullying due to one's race), in relation to youth substance use in school attending young adolescents in the United States. Weighted unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were run to assess if racial bullying involvement was associated with youth substance use. Data for this study come from the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey (n = 7,585). An association between racial bullying status (not involve, bullying victim, bullying perpetrator, or mixed bullying victim/perpetrator) and youth substance was identified in this study. Racial bully perpetrators were most likely to have used cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana, followed by youth in the mixed victim/perpetrator group. When analyses were stratified by race, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic youth experienced an increased risk of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use if in the perpetrator or mixed group (compared to those not involved with racial bullying). Non-Hispanic White and Asian youth were also more likely to report marijuana use if in the victim group. Non-Hispanic Black youth were more likely to use alcohol and marijuana if they were a perpetrator or in the mixed group, but they were not more likely to use cigarettes. Differences appear to exist in relation to racial bullying experience and substance across racial/ethnic group among youth in grades 7-10. Implications for prevention and educational professionals are discussed.

  15. Smoking patterns among adolescents with asthma attending upper secondary schools: a community-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Keiding, Lis; Madsen, Mette

    2003-01-01

    adjusted for age, gender, parents' job and smoking, family type, body mass index, and exercise habits. RESULTS: In total, 37.7% smoked currently and 16.5% smoked daily; more girls than boys smoked. More pupils with asthma than without smoked daily (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.15; 95% confidence interval......OBJECTIVE: Smoking among people who have asthma may be a serious health problem. We studied the prevalence of smoking and the relations between smoking and asthma, symptoms, medicine, and gender differences among adolescents with asthma. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study on health...... and lifestyles was performed in 1996-1997 using a computerized questionnaire in upper secondary schools in Denmark. We included 1887 pupils with asthma (defined as self-reported asthma diagnosed by a physician) and 20 688 controls. Smoking was categorized as daily, occasional, ex-smokers, and never smoked. We...

  16. School attendance as a civic duty v. home education as a human right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Reimer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal situation of home education in Germany as a multi-level problem touching upon German constitutional law, State (Länder constitutional law as well as administrative law, and the liberties of the European Convention of Human Rights. Whereas the parents’ right to care for their children is explicitly granted by German Basic Law, the state’s mandate to educate is seen by the courts as a conflicting principle that usually prevails and justifies compulsory schooling. Exceptions are rarely accepted. The article argues that this mainstream interpretation of the law is unconvincing and not in line with legal reasoning in German constitutional law in general.

  17. EVALUATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE VO2 OF ATHLETES THAT ATTEND A SOCCER SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bittencourt Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the effects from technical and physical activities on the VO2, of male athletes aged 14 to 15, participants of a soccer school, in the municipality of Rio Pardo - RS. The semi-experimental research involved 10 male adolescents. For the VO2 evaluation the 12 minute Cooper test was used. Interval-training work was applied, at which the athletes exercised 75% of their maximum speed, in 60-meter runs. After training for two months (at least two sessions a week the Cooper post-test was applied to check the improvement of the VO2. As results of this study, we can draw the conclusion that all adolescents involved in this training showed considerable improvement in their maximum VO2, especially the 15-year-old teens, who managed to obtain a much higher percentage level.

  18. Severe hypertensive syndrome – descriptive study with adolescents attended at a maternity school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Gregório Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory and descriptive study with the objective of analyzing the clinical and obstetric data related to the severe hypertensive disorders in adolescents assisted at a maternity school of Recife. The population was consisted of 186 pregnant adolescents with severe preeclampsia and/or eclampsia between 2003 and 2008. The age ranged between 15 and 19 years; they were black, single and had low education. Most of them were primiparas but the pregnancy recurrence was configured at 16% of cases. They did six or more prenatal consultations. The pregnancy progressed to term and the most frequent type of delivery was cesarean section. The comorbidities identified were changes in amniotic fluid volume, hemorrhages and infections. There were also identified cases of intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, jaundice, hypoxia and low birth weight. It was concluded that teenage pregnancy associated with severe hypertensive syndrome is related to severe maternal, fetal and neonatal complications.

  19. Awareness, acceptability and uptake of human papilloma virus vaccine among Cameroonian school-attending female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayissi, Claudine Akono; Wamai, Richard G; Oduwo, Geofrey O; Perlman, Stacey; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Manga, Simon; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess awareness, knowledge and beliefs about HPV, cervical cancer HPV vaccine and willingness to vaccinate among adolescent females aged 12-26 years at clinics and schools in the North West Region of Cameroon where the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) conducted a sensitization and education campaign. A questionnaire survey was administered among female adolescents in schools and clinics. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages and proportions were generated for independent variables and bivariate analyses (Chi square test) were used to assess the relationship between independent and outcome variables. Data were analyzed using SAS Version 9.2. Out of a sample of 650 adolescent girls 553 willingly participated in this anonymous survey. Awareness of HPV (86.8%), cervical cancer (82.3%), and prevention of HPV infections through vaccination (75.9%) was significantly higher than in previous studies conducted in Cameroon and other developing countries. Higher perceptions of risk were associated with being sexually active (p = 0.0013), age (p = 0.0031) and level of education (p = 0.0274). Age and educational level were associated with HPV knowledge (p = 0.007 and p = 0.0008), respectively. The mean level of interest in HPV vaccination was 4.0 (SD = 1.27), which is above the mean. Our data indicate high awareness about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among adolescents, and interest in receiving the vaccine and learning about the disease. CBCHS' community education strategy effectively raised acceptability and generated demand for HPV vaccine, making it a potential model for HPV immunization in Cameroon and other developing countries.

  20. Obesity among children attending elementary public schools in São Paulo, Brazil: a case--control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabela da Costa, Ribeiro; Taddei, José Augusto A C; Colugnatti, Fernando

    2003-10-01

    To describe obesity among students of public schools in São Paulo and to identify risk factors for this nutritional and physical activity disorder. Case-control study of obese and non-obese schoolchildren to study risk factors for obesity. Anthropometric survey including 2519 children attending eight elementary public schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Schoolchildren aged 7-10 years, of whom 223 were obese (cases; weight-for-height greater than or equal to two standard deviations (>or=2SD) above the median of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population) and 223 were eutrophic (controls; weight-for-height +/-1SD from NCHS median). Parents or guardians of the 446 cases and controls were interviewed about the children's eating behaviours and habits. The prevalence of obesity (weight-for-height >or=2SD) in the surveyed population was 10.5%. A logistic regression model fitted to the case-control dataset showed that obesity was positively associated with the following factors: birth weight >or=3500 g (odds ratio (OR) 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.78), child's appetite at meals (OR 3.81, 95% CI 2.49-5.83), watching television for 4 h per day or longer (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.32-3.24), mother's schooling >4 years (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.25-2.75) and parents' body mass index >or=30 kg x m(-2) (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.43-4.37). The explanatory multivariate model points to preventive measures that would encourage knowledge of the children and their guardians in relation to a balanced diet and a less sedentary lifestyle, such as reducing television viewing. Schoolchildren with a birth weight of 3500 g or more or whose parents are obese should receive special attention in the prevention of obesity.

  1. Pre-existing adversity, level of child protection involvement, and school attendance predict educational outcomes in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Miriam J; Taylor, Catherine L; O'Donnell, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Maltreatment largely occurs in a multiple-risk context. The few large studies adjusting for confounding factors have raised doubts about whether low educational achievement results from maltreatment or co-occurring risk factors. This study examined prevalence, risk and protective factors for low educational achievement among children involved with the child protection system compared to other children. We conducted a population-based record-linkage study of children born in Western Australia who sat national Year 3 reading achievement tests between 2008 and 2010 (N=46,838). The longitudinal study linked data from the Western Australian Department of Education, Department of Child Protection and Family Support, Department of Health, and the Disability Services Commission. Children with histories of child protection involvement (unsubstantiated maltreatment reports, substantiations or out-of-home care placement) were at three-fold increased risk of low reading scores. Adjusting for socio-demographic adversity partially attenuated the increased risk, however risk remained elevated overall and for substantiated (OR=1.68) and unsubstantiated maltreatment (OR=1.55). Risk of low reading scores in the out-of-home care group was fully attenuated after adjusting for socio-demographic adversity (OR=1.16). Attendance was significantly higher in the out-of-home care group and served a protective role. Neglect, sexual abuse, and physical abuse were associated with low reading scores. Pre-existing adversity was also significantly associated with achievement. Results support policies and practices to engage children and families in regular school attendance, and highlight a need for further strategies to prevent maltreatment and disadvantage from restricting children's opportunities for success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Internalization of Jewish Values by Children Attending Orthodox Jewish Schools, and Its Relationship to Autonomy-Supportive Parenting and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lori R.; Milyavskaya, Marina; Koestner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the way in which children attending Orthodox Jewish schools internalize the value of both their Jewish studies and secular studies, as well as the value of Jewish cultural practices. A distinction was made between identified internalization, where children perceive Jewish studies and Jewish culture to be an important…

  3. Progression of impairment in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder through the transition out of high school: Contributions of parent involvement and college attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrea L; Strickland, Noelle J; Murray, Desiree W; Tamm, Leanne; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G

    2016-02-01

    Long-term, prospective follow-up studies of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show that symptoms tend to decline with age, but impairments in daily life functioning often persist into adulthood. We examined the developmental progression of impairments before and after the transition out of high school in relation to parent involvement during adolescence, parent support during adulthood, and college attendance, using 8 waves of data from the prospective 16-year follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study. Participants were 548 proband children diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) ADHD Combined Type and 258 age- and sex-matched comparison children (Local Normative Comparison Group; LNCG) randomly sampled from probands' schools. Impairment was assessed consistently by parent report from childhood through adulthood. Results showed that impairment worsens over time both before and after the transition to adulthood for those with ADHD histories, in contrast to non-ADHD peers, whose impairments remained stably low over time. However, impairment stabilized after leaving high school for young adults with ADHD histories who attended college. Involved parenting in adolescence was associated with less impairment overall. Attending college was associated with a stable post-high school trajectory of impairment regardless of parents' involvement during adolescence, but young adults with histories of involved parenting and who attended college were the least impaired overall. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The response of 1578 school leavers to a campaign combining commercial, Health Boards' and GDPs' sponsorship in an effort to improve dental attendance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, R; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L

    1993-01-01

    A dental health promotion campaign was developed by Forth Valley Health Board in conjunction with the Scottish Health Education Group and the Department of Marketing at Strathclyde University. The aim was to encourage dental attendance among early school leavers. The emphasis was on the contribut...

  5. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among 13-15-Year-Old Students Attending Catholic and Protestant Secondary Schools in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…

  6. A survey of visual impairment and blindness in children attending four schools for the blind in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, David I T; Muecke, James; Hammerton, Michael; Ngy, Meng; Kong, Aimee; Morse, Anna; Holmes, Martin; Piseth, Horm; Hamilton, Carolyn; Selva, Dinesh

    2010-08-01

    To identify the causes of blindness and severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) in children attending four schools for the blind in Cambodia and to provide spectacles, low vision aids, orientation and mobility training and ophthalmic treatment. Children schools for the blind in Cambodia. Causes of visual impairment and blindness were determined and categorized using World Health Organization methods. Of the 95 children examined, 54.7% were blind (BL) and 10.5% were severely visually impaired (SVI). The major anatomical site of BL/SVI was the lens in 27.4%, cornea in 25.8%, retina in 21% and whole globe in 17.7%. The major underlying etiologies of BL/SVI were hereditary factors (mainly cataract and retinal dystrophies) in 45.2%, undetermined/unknown (mainly microphthalmia and anterior segment dysgenesis) in 38.7% and childhood factors in 11.3%. Avoidable causes of BL/SVI accounted for 50% of the cases; 12.9% of the total were preventable with measles being the commonest cause (8.1% of the total); 37.1% were treatable with cataracts and glaucoma being the commonest causes (22.6% and 4.8% respectively). More than 35% of children required an optical device and 27.4% had potential for visual improvement with intervention. Half of the BL/SVI causes were potentially avoidable. The data support the need for increased coverage of measles immunization. There is also a need to develop specialized pediatric ophthalmic services for the management of surgically remediable conditions, to provide optometric, low vision and orientation and mobility services. Genetic risk counseling services also may be considered.

  7. Parents', nurses', and educators' perceptions of risks and benefits of school attendance by children who are medically fragile/technology-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Roberta S; Rohr, Julie A

    2002-10-01

    Few studies have focused on school activities of children who are medically fragile/technology-dependent. This article reports on an exploratory, interpretive study that examined the perceptions of parents, nurses, and educators with regard to their school concerns and strategies for ensuring the safety and health of these students. Informants all believed that attending school provided benefits to most children who are medically fragile/technology-dependent, including opportunities for skill acquisition, socialization, and respite care for families. However, they also perceived that there were real risks involved, including obtaining appropriate care, exposure to infection, and social isolation or teasing. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OF STUDENTS WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES IN A CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Garcia Gonçalves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to characterize the educational services offered to students with physical disabilities in a Municipal Education of a midsize city of São Paulo state. We gathered the data through document analysis and application of semi-structured interviews. We recorded the data on audio, transcribed and analyzed them. We categorized them into two categories, the first of which referred to the attendance policies and second, the organization of care for students with physical disabilities. The results showed that the system investigated showed accessibility policies supporting the use of assistive technology for students with disabilities enrolled in regular education, despite not indicate the need for specialized educational services when the student has no associated cognitive impairment. We concluded that there are myriad factors to contemplate the school inclusion of students with physical disabilities and that many actions are needed to ensure education and social participation of this target audience. Keywords: Special Education. Physical Disabilities. Specialized Educational Services. Assistive Technology.

  9. CBP Time and Attendance Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The TAMS, supports time and attendance (payroll), overtime cap monitoring, overtime scheduling functions, budget reporting, staffing level reporting, and a variety...

  10. Parents and the School Dropout Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Earl E.; Killingsworth, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    The school dropout problem is discussed, with suggestions for parents on ensuring that their children do not become part of the dropout population, including; monitoring children's school attendance patterns; making sure children understand how important school and attendance is; maintaining close contact with teachers; and helping children…

  11. AN EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND EMPATHIC TENDENCIES OF STUDENTS ATTENDING POLICE VOCATIONAL SCHOOL OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür DİNÇER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find out whether Police Vocational School of Higher Education students comprehend the duties and responsibilities of being a police correctly and practice what has to be done through correct methods within this context; to e valuate their empathy tendencies and communication skills; to find solutions if they have any shortcomings in communication skills; to make up for their shortcomings in showing empathy or to strengthen their existing skills. The study included a total of 9 09 students attending Samsun 19 Mayıs Police Vocational School of Higher Education. Of these 909 students, 207 (45,6% females and 247 (54,4% males were in their first year while 252 (55,4% males and 203 (%44,6 females were in their second year. The dat a was collected through a 25 - item 5 likert scale developed by Korkut (1996 in order to understand how individuals evaluate their communication skills. The scale is scored from (1 never to (5 always. To find out empathy tendencies, Empathic Tendencies Sc ale developed by Dökmen (1988 was used. The scale is a Likert type scale; it includes 20 questions which are scored from 1 to 5. The lowest score a person can get from the scale is 20 while the highest score is 100. Frequency percentage was used to find o ut the age distribution of the group. Mean and standard deviation were used to present the group’s communication skill levels and independent groups t - test was used to present the state of differentiation based on gender, age and question factor. General c ommunication skills of the research group were below the average communication level score while their empathy tendencies were high. There were significant differences in communication levels in terms of their year of study, gender and their department at high school (P<0,05. As a result, studies of individual development in the education of professional groups which are interlocked with humans will enable an increase in

  12. Shadow Education in Malaysia: Identifying the Determinants of Spending and Amount of Time Attending Private Supplementary Tutoring of Upper Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Da Wan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of spending and the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring, or commonly known as private tuition, in Malaysia. Based on 343 self-reported questionnaires with upper secondary students across three states in Malaysia and using multiple regression analysis, we identified ethnicity, father’s level of education and past academic performance as significant determinants of spending and amount of time attending private tuition. However, interestingly, we found that while geographical location and participation in internal tuition in schools were also determinants of spending, these two were not significant in determining the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring. The identification of determinants of spending and amount of time, and in addition, the differences between these two illustrates the economic and educational dimensions of shadow education. More importantly, the insight also contributes to the formulation of possible interventions that can improve quality and reduce inequality in the mainstream education system.

  13. Maternal alcohol use disorder and child school attendance outcomes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children in Western Australia: a population cohort record linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafekost, Katherine; Lawrence, David; O'Leary, Colleen; Bower, Carol; Semmens, James; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2017-07-11

    Examine the relationship between maternal alcohol use disorder and child school attendance outcomes for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children in Western Australia. Population cohort study. Routinely collected linked administrative health, education and child protection data. Those in-scope for the study were women with a birth recorded on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System (1989-2007). Women who had an alcohol-related diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases Revisions 9/10) recorded on the Hospital Morbidity, Mental Health Inpatients and Outpatients, and Drug and Alcohol Office data sets formed the exposed group. The comparison cohort was frequency-matched to the exposed cohort based on maternal age within Indigenous status and child's year of birth. Child's school attendance was obtained from the Department of Education (2008-2012). Poor attendance was defined as alcohol use disorder was significantly associated with increased odds of poor attendance (non-Indigenous: OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.50 to 1.74; Indigenous: OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.79). With adjustment for maternal and child factors, there was no significant difference between the timing of alcohol diagnosis relative to pregnancy and attendance outcomes. The population attributable fraction was higher in the Indigenous cohort than the non-Indigenous cohort (6.0% vs 1.3%). Maternal alcohol use disorder was associated with a significantly increased odds of poor school attendance for non-Indigenous and Indigenous children. There was no significant difference between the timing of diagnoses and odds of poor school attendance. This suggests that the effect of maternal alcohol use disorder may not be driven by the neurodevelopmental effects of alcohol exposure in utero, but may be mediated through family or social factors for which we were unable to adjust. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  14. Prevalence of hypodontia in nine- to fourteen-year-old children who attended the Mashhad School of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Behgat-al-molok; Shabzendedar, Mahboobeh; Mehrjerdian, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Hypodontia is defined as the congenital absence of one or a few teeth, and is also the most common anomaly in dental development. This condition occurs either individually or as part of the symptoms of a syndrome, and it is more common in permanent teeth than in deciduous teeth, reporting a prevalence of between 1.6 and 9.6%. The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence of hypodontia for permanent teeth in nine- to 14-year-old children who attended the Mashhad School of Dentistry in 2007. We conducted this descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study, to determine the mentioned aims. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, panoramic radiographs belonging to 600 children (351 girls and 249 boys), aged nine to 14 years, were available for examination. All related findings were recorded in the respective forms. The data were processed using Exact and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of hypodontia in the girls was 9.2%, in the boys 8.8%, and in both sexes combined 9%. The most and the least frequent cases of absent teeth were the mandibular second premolars and the maxillary central incisor (only one child), respectively. The most commonly absent teeth were the mandibular second premolars, the maxillary lateral incisors, the mandibular central incisor, and the maxillary second premolars, in that order. This study showed a high frequency of hypodontia among the understudied population. Thus, due to the complicated treatment, accurate examination of children for on-time diagnosis of this developmental anomaly is crucial.

  15. A Statewide Look at Attendance and Chronic Absenteeism in Elementary Schools in Oregon. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 1 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This brief highlights the importance of using a measure like chronic absenteeism, rather than average daily attendance, in order to identify concerning patterns in elementary attendance rates. The chronic absenteeism measurement is better able to shine a light on the number of individual students struggling with attendance. Subsequent briefs in…

  16. From kitchen to classroom: Assessing the impact of cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves on primary school attendance in Karonga district, northern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christine A; Crampin, Amelia C; Mortimer, Kevin; Dube, Albert; Malava, Jullita; Johnston, Deborah; Unterhalter, Elaine; Glynn, Judith R

    2018-01-01

    Household air pollution from burning solid fuels is responsible for an estimated 2.9 million premature deaths worldwide each year and 4.5% of global disability-adjusted life years, while cooking and fuel collection pose a considerable time burden, particularly for women and children. Cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves have the potential to lower exposure to household air pollution as well as reduce fuelwood demand by increasing the combustion efficiency of cooking fires, which may in turn yield ancillary benefits in other domains. The present paper capitalises on opportunities offered by the Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS), the largest randomised trial of biomass-fuelled cookstoves on health outcomes conducted to date, the design of which allows for the evaluation of additional outcomes at scale. This mixed methods study assesses the impact of cookstoves on primary school absenteeism in Karonga district, northern Malawi, in particular by conferring health and time and resource gains on young people aged 5-18. The analysis combines quantitative data from 6168 primary school students with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions carried out among 48 students in the same catchment area in 2016. Negative binomial regression models find no evidence that the cookstoves affected primary school absenteeism overall [IRR 0.92 (0.71-1.18), p = 0.51]. Qualitative analysis suggests that the cookstoves did not sufficiently improve household health to influence school attendance, while the time and resource burdens associated with cooking activities-although reduced in intervention households-were considered to be compatible with school attendance in both trial arms. More research is needed to assess whether the cookstoves influenced educational outcomes not captured by the attendance measure available, such as timely arrival to school or hours spent on homework.

  17. Budget Monitoring and Control in South African Township Schools: Democratic Governance at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Raj; Naidoo, Gans

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates budget monitoring and control in township schools in South Africa. The enactment of the Schools Act 1996 revolutionized school financial management in South Africa, making it part of the drive for democratic school governance. School governing bodies had to be established, whose responsibility it became to manage finances…

  18. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behaviors Using the MotivAider® by a Middle School Student with a Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, M. Alison; Knight, Victoria; Spriggs, Amy D.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation used an ABAB withdrawal design to determine the effect of self-monitoring using the MotivAider® (MotivAider, 2000) on percentage of intervals of on-task behavior by an 11-year old male with a moderate intellectual disability who attended a rural middle school. The MotivAider® is a small device, the size of a pager, which can be…

  20. An mHealth monitoring system for traditional birth attendant-led antenatal risk assessment in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroux, Lisa; Martinez, Boris; Coyote Ixen, Enma; King, Nora; Hall-Clifford, Rachel; Rohloff, Peter; Clifford, Gari D

    Limited funding for medical technology, low levels of education and poor infrastructure for delivering and maintaining technology severely limit medical decision support in low- and middle-income countries. Perinatal and maternal mortality is of particular concern with millions dying every year from potentially treatable conditions. Guatemala has one of the worst maternal mortality ratios, the highest incidence of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), and one of the lowest gross national incomes per capita within Latin America. To address the lack of decision support in rural Guatemala, a smartphone-based system is proposed including peripheral sensors, such as a handheld Doppler for the identification of foetal compromise. Designed for use by illiterate birth attendants, the system uses pictograms, audio guidance, local and cloud processing, SMS alerts and voice calling. The initial prototype was evaluated on 22 women in highland Guatemala. Results were fed back into the refinement of the system, currently undergoing RCT evaluation.

  1. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention designed to reduce rates of chronic student absenteeism in New York City public schools. The study authors reported that schools participating in the intervention experienced greater reductions in rates of student chronic absenteeism than the comparison schools. Students who attended the…

  2. ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS ATTENDING A FOOTBALL SCHOOL AND THOS WHO DO NOT DO SPORT WITH SPECIFIC-MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Molnar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject sample of 240 boys aged 7-14 was divided to two subsamples of 120 boys each (active participants of “ЯMR Vojvodina” football school since the age of 7, and boys involved in sports, who regularly attended classes of physical education at school. The sample was subjected to 11 tests for evaluation of specific–motor abilities. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are or there are not any differences in specific- motor abilities of subjects of the same age depending whether they play any sport or not. Analysis of results processed by discriminative analysis showed that the boys who attended football school achieved much better results in tests for evaluation of specific motor abilities than the boys who did not. At the age of 7-8, the differences can be attributed to efficient selection rather than the program contents due to the fact that they are beginners, whereas at older ages, these differences, being even higher in boys doing sports, can be attributed to the effects of program contents in the football school.

  3. The Impact of a Childhood Cancer Diagnosis on the Children and Siblings' School Attendance, Performance, and Activities: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimicalis, Argerie; Genest, Laurence; Stevens, Bonnie; Ungar, Wendy J; Barr, Ronald

    Families of children with cancer are confronted with unexpected out-of-pocket expenses and productivity costs associated with the diagnosis. One productivity cost that falls on children is the impact of cancer on children's school attendance, performance, and activities (eg, play, friendships, and socialization). Nested within the Childhood Cancer Cost Study, this qualitative descriptive study used convenience sampling to recruit and interview parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer. Content analysis techniques were used to inductively descriptive the semistructured interview data. Sixty-six parents of 65 children with cancer and of 73 siblings participated. The most commonly reported productivity loss in children with cancer was school absenteeism mainly due to cancer treatment. Children fell behind their classmates academically and lost important social time with peers. A few siblings also fell behind their peers primarily due to limited parental attention. Parents adopted various strategies to lessen the impact of the diagnosis on their children's school attendance, performance, and activities. Providing parents with additional resources and support may optimize their children's academic and social reintegration into school.

  4. Real-time monitoring of school absenteeism to enhance disease surveillance: a pilot study of a mobile electronic reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Liulark, Wongwat; Taweeseneepitch, Komchaluch; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Thongprarong, Wiraporn; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap

    2014-05-12

    School absenteeism is a common source of data used in syndromic surveillance, which can eventually be used for early outbreak detection. However, the absenteeism reporting system in most schools, especially in developing countries, relies on a paper-based method that limits its use for disease surveillance or outbreak detection. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic real-time reporting system on school absenteeism for syndromic surveillance. An electronic (Web-based) school absenteeism reporting system was developed to embed it within the normal routine process of absenteeism reporting. This electronic system allowed teachers to update students' attendance status via mobile tablets. The data from all classes and schools were then automatically sent to a centralized database for further analysis and presentation, and for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of absent students. In addition, the system also had a disease investigation module, which provided a link between absenteeism data from schools and local health centers, to investigate causes of fever among sick students. The electronic school absenteeism reporting system was implemented in 7 primary schools in Bangkok, Thailand, with total participation of approximately 5000 students. During May-October 2012 (first semester), the percentage of absentees varied between 1% and 10%. The peak of school absenteeism (sick leave) was observed between July and September 2012, which coincided with the peak of dengue cases in children aged 6-12 years being reported to the disease surveillance system. The timeliness of a reporting system is a critical function in any surveillance system. Web-based application and mobile technology can potentially enhance the use of school absenteeism data for syndromic surveillance and outbreak detection. This study presents the factors that determine the implementation success of this reporting system.

  5. Dental attendance, perceptions of cost and self-care of school year 12 and 13 students: A focus on Southland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Colleen; Densie, Ian Kenneth; Morgan, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents and emerging adults can provide dentists with many challenges. Little information is available on their perceptions of dental costs once they turn 18 and dentistry is no longer State-funded. The aim of this study was to explore the use of dental care by Southland students in years 12 and 13, their perceptions of the cost of four common dental procedures, self-related oral health and dental self-care habits, time off school related to dental problems, and knowledge and views regarding fluoride. After ethical approval, a 26-question survey was conducted of all Southland students in years 12 and 13. Data were statistically analysed in SPSS version 20 with the alpha value set at 0.05. The participation rate was 49.6%. Regular attendance for examinations was reported by 77.5% with non-attendance mainly related to attitudes around lack of importance or necessity. Reported dental attendance varied according to gender, ethnicity and decile rating of school attended. Although some were accurate in their estimations of dental costs, the standard deviation for all procedures was large. The majority thought that costs put people off going to the dentist. While 74.8% brushed their teeth at least twice daily, only 26.6% flossed regularly. Knowledge regarding fluoride was lacking. It may be advantageous to include education regarding costs of dental care with patients of this age. This may motivate them to improve their self-care and ensure that their oral health is of a high standard before their dental needs are no longer State-funded.

  6. Attendance at prenatal care and adverse birth outcomes in China: A follow-up study based on Maternal and Newborn's Health Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiqun; Wu, Keye; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Huanqing; Yang, Qi; Chen, Dafang

    2018-02-01

    to evaluate the independent association between attendance at prenatal care and adverse birth outcomes in China, measured either as the occurrence of preterm birth or low birth weight. a follow-up study. the data was collected from maternal and newborn's health monitoring system at 6 provinces in China. all pregnant women registered in the system at their first prenatal care visit. We included 40152 registered pregnant women who had delivered between October 2013 and September 2014. attendance at prenatal care was evaluated using Kessner index. χ 2 tests were used to examine the correlations between demographic characteristics and preterm birth or low birth weight. The associations between attendance at prenatal care and birth outcomes were explored using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models. the prevalence for preterm birth and low birth weight was 3.31% and 2.55%. The null models showed region clustering on birth outcomes. Compared with women who received adequate prenatal care, those with intermediate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.62, 95%CI 1.37-1.92) or inadequate prenatal care (adjusted OR 2.78, 95%CI 2.24-3.44) had significantly increased risks for preterm birth, and women with intermediate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.31, 95%CI 1.10-1.55) or inadequate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.70, 95%CI 1.32-2.19) had significantly increased risks for low birth weight. We found very significant dose-response patterns for both preterm birth (p-trendprenatal care in China has independent effects on both preterm birth and low birth weight. Appropriate timing and number of prenatal care visits can help to reduce the occurrence of preterm birth or low birth weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An examination of Indiana Early College High School students who attended Purdue University between 2006 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkham, Lisa P

    2016-01-01

    Early College High Schools (ECHS) are an educational intervention designed to promote rigor in high school education along with increased post-secondary access and success for disadvantaged students. Based on evidence, the Early College High School program is effective at helping students who traditionally are not in college-bound tracks find their way into that path. ECHSs provide a comprehensive, rigorous high school experience allowing students to earn an associate’s degree along with the ...

  8. Connecting Attendance and Academic Outcomes. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 2 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report highlights several trends in Oregon that show the correlation between chronic absenteeism and various academic outcomes. Oregon student patterns follow the national trend in that students with better attendance have better outcomes. Fifth-grade chronic absenteeism is a moderately strong predictor of chronic absenteeism in subsequent…

  9. [Low level auditory skills compared to writing skills in school children attending third and fourth grade: evidence for the rapid auditory processing deficit theory?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Meisen, R

    2008-01-01

    The rapid auditory processing defi-cit theory holds that impaired reading/writing skills are not caused exclusively by a cognitive deficit specific to representation and processing of speech sounds but arise due to sensory, mainly auditory, deficits. To further explore this theory we compared different measures of auditory low level skills to writing skills in school children. prospective study. School children attending third and fourth grade. just noticeable differences for intensity and frequency (JNDI, JNDF), gap detection (GD) monaural and binaural temporal order judgement (TOJb and TOJm); grade in writing, language and mathematics. correlation analysis. No relevant correlation was found between any auditory low level processing variable and writing skills. These data do not support the rapid auditory processing deficit theory.

  10. 76 FR 54810 - Submission for Review: 3206-0215, Verification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-49

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting... or faxed to (202) 395-6974. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 25-49, Verification of Full-Time School... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: 3206-0215, Verification of Full-Time School...

  11. A survey of severe visual impairment in children attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, S; Subba Rao, B; Lakshmi Narasamma, K; Amit, G

    2012-08-01

    To identify the major causes of severe childhood visual impairment and blindness among students attending schools for the blind in a coastal district of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in South India. Children ≤ 16 years of age attending six schools for the blind in the study area were interviewed and examined in the year 2009, and causes were classified according to the World Health Organization Program for Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) childhood blindness proforma. A total of 113 children underwent a detailed eye examination by an experienced ophthalmologist. The major causes of blindness were congenital eye anomalies in 46 children (41.4; 95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3-50.6), followed by retinal disorders in 21 children (18.9%; 95% CI: 11.6-26.2), cataract in 9 children (9.7%; 95% CI: 2.9-12.9), and corneal conditions (scar and Staphyloma) in 8 children (7.1%; 95% CI: 2.4-11.8). More than half the children (56.6%) were blind due to conditions that could have been treated or prevented. Congenital anomalies were found to be the most common cause of blindness. The majority of the cases were due to avoidable causes of blindness. Therefore, robust screening measures may help reduce the burden of visual impairment in children.

  12. Parental coping, depressive symptoms, and children's asthma control and school attendance in low-income, racially, and ethnically diverse urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Erin M; Kumar, Harsha; Alba-Suarez, Juliana; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Low-income urban children of color are at elevated risk for poor asthma control. This cross-sectional study examined associations among parents' coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement), parental depressive symptoms, and children's asthma outcomes (asthma control and school attendance) in a predominantly low-income, racially/ethnically diverse sample of families. Parents (N = 78; 90% female) of children (33% female; 46% Black; 38% Latino) aged 5-17 years (M = 9.5 years) reported on their own coping and depressive symptoms, their child's asthma control, and full and partial days of school missed due to asthma. Parents' secondary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to accommodate/adapt to asthma-related stressors) was negatively correlated, and disengagement coping (i.e. coping efforts to avoid/detach from stressors) was positively correlated, with their depressive symptoms. Secondary control coping was also correlated with fewer partial days of school missed. Primary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to change stressors) was not associated with depressive symptoms or asthma outcomes. Parents' depressive symptoms were also positively correlated with poorer asthma control and partial days of school missed. Regression models showed direct and indirect effects of secondary control and disengagement coping on asthma outcomes via depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors. Parents' secondary control and disengagement coping are related to children's asthma outcomes. Secondary control coping may support parents' mental health and children's asthma control in low-income urban families.

  13. Еvaluation of health status of children attending primary schools with different organization of physical education lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Oleksandra S.; Korshun, Maria M.; Garkavyi, Serhii I.; Garkavyi, Serhii S.

    2018-01-01

    The mandatory swimming lesson in primary schools, equipped with swimming pools, was introduced without studying of its health-saving effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health status of pupils studying in schools with different organization of physical education lessons. Cross-sectional study was organized in two schools with different organization of physical education lessons. The experimental group (E) consisted of 408 children of 1‑4 year of study (210 girls and 198 boys) who during one of the lessons of physical education were engaged in swimming in the school basin. Control group (C) consisted of 279 primary school children (210 girls and 156 boys) from a neighboring educational institution where all physical education lessons were organized in the gym. The health status was evaluated using classical method of complex assessment of the state of health with the subsequent assignment of each child to one of the health groups. In result of evaluation of state of health there was established that among pupils from E group the proportion of boys with harmonious anthropometric parameters is higher (pprimary school has positive effect on health status of children.

  14. Cheaper by the Dozen: Using Sibling Discounts at Catholic Schools to Estimate the Price Elasticity of Private School Attendance. NBER Working Paper No. 15461

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Gruber, Jonathan; Li, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The effect of vouchers on sorting between private and public schools depends upon the price elasticity of demand for private schooling. Estimating this elasticity is empirically challenging because prices and quantities are jointly determined in the market for private schooling. We exploit a unique and previously undocumented source of variation…

  15. Health behaviors and mental health of students attending alternative high schools: a review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen E; Taliaferro, Lindsay A

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe current knowledge about health-risk behaviors and mental health among alternative high school students. Substance use, diet and/or physical activity, sexual-risk behaviors, mental health, and violence were reviewed. Students were described as marginalized youth facing significant social environmental challenges. Findings from 43 studies published from 1997-2010 suggested a high prevalence of health-risk behaviors among alternative high school students. Very few studies were conducted by nurse researchers. Suggestions for future research include addressing social environmental factors, resiliency, and emotional/mental health outcomes. Alternative high schools offer a venue to conduct research and implement nursing interventions with high-risk, yet resilient, youth. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparative description of migrant farmworkers versus other students attending South Texas schools: demographic, academic, and health characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sharon P; Weller, Nancy F; Fox, Erin E; Cooper, Sara R; Shipp, Eva M

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about academic performance, health, and social functioning of youth from migrant farmworker families. This study was designed to compare demographic, academic, health, and social data between migrant and nonmigrant youth residing in South Texas. Anonymous cross-sectional survey data were collected from 6954 middle and 3565 high school students. About 5% of South Texas middle and high school students reported belonging to a migrant family. Compared with nonmigrant students, migrant youth were more likely to miss and arrive late to school, sleep in class, and study fewer hours weekly. Migrant students reported fewer hours of nightly sleep, fewer hours spent with their friends, and more minor illnesses than nonmigrant youth. These results demonstrate the need for interventions specifically targeted to this vulnerable adolescent population.

  17. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2005 Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn summer school at Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, V.H.; Fischer, U.

    2005-01-01

    The Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School annually organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarche, France, this year was held at the Karlsruhe Congress Center. In line with the mission of the School to disseminate nuclear competence an a broad basis among young scientists from all over the world, lectures covered reactor physics, nuclear fuels, and nuclear systems. Speakers from leading international research institutions presented introductions to their respective fields, outlined the current state of the art, and also highlighted areas in need of further development and, thus, likely to offer challenges to young scientists. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA and held at Cadarache, France. (orig.)

  18. Prevalence and Distribution of Oral Mucosal Lesions by Sex and Age Categories: A Retrospective Study of Patients Attending Lebanese School of Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami El Toum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions in a sample of Lebanese population attending the School of Dentistry of Lebanese University is necessary to evaluate their oral health situation. Objectives. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions of patients attending the School of Dentistry. Methods. A descriptive study was carried out by retrospectively examining a total of 231 medical and clinical examination record files of patients, attending the School of Dentistry Lebanese University for multidisciplinary dental treatments. 178 medical records were retained. Each medical and clinical examination record was done by an undergraduate student and then evaluated by a doctor. The record file included a civil status, chief complaint, medical history, and extraoral and intraoral clinical examination during the period between October 2014 and May 2015. Exclusion criteria were lack of written information in their medical and clinical examination record and being nonevaluated by a doctor. Data regarding age, gender, socioeconomic status, chief complaint, systemic diseases, and drugs intake were collected by using a questionnaire while the type of extraoral and oral mucosal lesions by clinical examination. Results. The sample consisted of 102 (57.3% females and 76 (42.7% males. The age ranged from 10 to 92 years with a mean age of 40.1 years. Among these subjects, 110 (61.8% presented with one or more lesions. All patients were Lebanese. The most common lesion diagnosed was coated/hairy tongue affecting 17.4% of the subjects, followed by melanotic macule (11.2%, gingivitis (9.6, linea alba (6.2%, tongue depapillation (5.1, leukoplakia (5.1, traumatic fibroma (4.5, frictional keratosis (3.9%, fissured tongue (3.9%, hemangiomas (3.9%, Fordyce granules (3.9%, dry mucosa (3.4, angular cheilitis (2.2, gingival hyperplasia (2.2, and crenulated tongue (1.7%. Overall, the prevalence

  19. The effects of problem-solving skills training based on metacognitive principles for children with acquired brain injury attending mainstream schools: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D Y K; Fong, K N K

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of an explicit problem-solving skills training programme based on metacognitive principles for children with acquired brain injury (ABI) who attend mainstream schools. Thirty-two children with moderate to severe ABI studying in mainstream schools were allocated randomly by matched pairs to either an experimental or a comparison group. The participants in the experimental group received problem-solving skills training based on metacognitive principles, while those in the comparison group were on a waiting list to receive the experimental intervention shortly after the intervention in the experimental group had been completed. All participants were measured pre- and post-intervention using measures of abstract reasoning, metacognition, problem-solving functional behaviour in the home environment or social situations and individual goal-directed behaviour. Significant differences in post-test scores were found for all measurements between children in the experimental group and those in the comparison group, using the baselines of dependent variables, years of schooling and the full IQ scores as the covariates. The results of this study supported the use of explicit problem-solving skills training to improve daily functioning for children with ABI, and the need for a larger-scale, randomised controlled study with long-term follow-up.

  20. High and low use of electronic media during nighttime before going to sleep: A comparative study between adolescents attending a morning or afternoon school shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrona-Palacios, Arturo

    2017-12-01

    This study compared the effects of time spent on electronic media devices during nighttime before going to sleep on the sleep-wake cycle, daytime sleepiness, and chronotype in 568 Mexican students (288 girls, mean age = 14.08) attending a double school shift system (287 from morning shift and 281 from afternoon shift). Students completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Results suggest that high exposure to an electronic media device may have an impact on their sleep-wake cycle, regardless of their school shift. Adolescents from the afternoon shift reported more time spent on devices. Those from the morning shift reported daytime sleepiness with the use of MP3 player, and from the afternoon shift with the use of computer, MP3 player, and television. Both school shifts reported an intermediate chronotype with all electronic media devices, but the afternoon shift with a tendency towards eveningness with the use of the computer, smartphone, and MP3 player. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Culturally Aligned Supports on Native Hawaiian High School Students' College Attendance: A Qualitative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kelly D.; Hitchcock, Caryl H.

    2018-01-01

    The contemporary education system in the United States is inadequate in the provision of services to assure that all students exit high school with the knowledge and skills necessary to enter postsecondary education or the workforce. This is particularly true for indigenous youth (Tanabe & Mobley, 2011). According to scholars, dual enrollment…

  2. Effects of school start time on students' sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and attendance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jennifer M; Moyer, Anne

    2017-12-01

    Research conducted over the past three decades finds that many children and adolescents do not meet recommended sleep guidelines. Lack of sleep is a predictor of a number of consequences, including issues at school such as sleepiness and tardiness. Considering the severity of this public health issue, it is essential to understand more about the factors that may compromise children's and adolescents' sleep. This meta-analysis examined the effects of school start time (SST) on sleep duration of students by aggregating the results of five longitudinal studies and 15 cross-sectional comparison group studies. Results indicated that later starting school times are associated with longer sleep durations. Additionally, later start times were associated with less daytime sleepiness (7 studies) and tardiness to school (3 studies). However, methodological considerations, such as a need for more longitudinal primary research, lead to a cautious interpretation. Overall, this systematic analysis of SST studies suggests that delaying SST is associated with benefits for students' sleep and, thus, their general well-being. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A survey of visual impairment and blindness in children attending seven schools for the blind in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, James; Hammerton, Michael; Aung, Yee Yee; Warrier, Sunil; Kong, Aimee; Morse, Anna; Holmes, Martin; Yapp, Michael; Hamilton, Carolyn; Selva, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    To determine the causes of visual impairment and blindness amongst children in schools for the blind in Myanmar; to identify the avoidable causes of visual impairment and blindness; and to provide spectacles, low vision aids, orientation and mobility training and ophthalmic treatment where indicated. Two hundred and eight children under 16 years of age from all 7 schools for the blind in Myanmar were examined and the data entered into the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Examination Record for Childhood Blindness (WHO/PBL ERCB). One hundred and ninety nine children (95.7%) were blind (BL = Visual Acuity [VA] schools for the blind in Myanmar had potentially avoidable causes of SVI/BL. With measles being both the commonest identifiable and commonest avoidable cause, the data supports the need for a measles immunization campaign. There is also a need for a dedicated pediatric eye care center with regular ophthalmology visits to the schools, and improved optometric, low vision and orientation and mobility services in Myanmar.

  4. 77 FR 33007 - Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School... and other federal agencies the opportunity to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR...

  5. 77 FR 71200 - Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School Attendance, RI 25-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ..., mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Initial Certification of Full-Time School... and other federal agencies the opportunity to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR...

  6. Music as Engaging, Educational Matrix: Exploring the Case of Marginalised Students Attending an "Alternative" Music Industry School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, David; Riddle, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    "Harmony High" is an alternative school where music functions as an educational magnet to attract marginalised students who have disengaged from the mainstream. Through an investigation of the student perspective, we discover that while acting as a magnet, music also becomes the educational matrix or "heart and soul" that helps…

  7. Social Justice Leadership: Advocating Equity, Access and Opportunity for Black Students Attending Urban High-Poverty Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounders, Cherise

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and describe the lived experiences and perspectives of 4 elementary school principals and 4 instructional leaders committed to social justice practices who have improved and sustained grade level performance in reading with Black students for the duration of 3 consecutive years.…

  8. Social and emotional difficulties in children with ADHD and the impact on school attendance and healthcare utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Classi Peter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to examine the impact of co-occurring social and emotional difficulties on missed school days and healthcare utilization among children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and were based on parental proxy responses to questions in the Sample Child Core, which includes questions on demographics, health, healthcare treatment, and social and emotional status as measured by questions about depression, anxiety, and phobias, as well as items from the brief version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between co-occurring social and emotional difficulties with missed school days and healthcare utilization, adjusting for demographics. Results Of the 5896 children aged 6–17 years in the 2007 NHIS, 432 (7.3% had ADHD, based on parental report. Children with ADHD and comorbid depression, anxiety, or phobias had significantly greater odds of experiencing > 2 weeks of missed school days, ≥ 6 visits to a healthcare provider (HCP, and ≥ 2 visits to the ER, compared with ADHD children without those comorbidities (OR range: 2.1 to 10.4. Significantly greater odds of missed school days, HCP visits, and ER visits were also experienced by children with ADHD who were worried, unhappy/depressed, or having emotional difficulties as assessed by the SDQ, compared with ADHD children without those difficulties (OR range: 2.2 to 4.4. Conclusions In children with ADHD, the presence of social and emotional problems resulted in greater odds of missed school days and healthcare utilization. These findings should be viewed in light of the limited nature of the parent-report measures used to assess social and emotional problems.

  9. Anti-Toxocara antibodies detected in children attending elementary school in Vitoria, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Paranhos Fragoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara antibodies in serum from 7-year-old children attending elementary school in Vitória-ES, Brazil and to correlate these antibodies with socio-demographic factors, the presence of intestinal helminths, blood eosinophil numbers, past history of allergy or asthma, and clinical manifestations of helminth infections. METHODS: The detection of anti-Toxocara antibodies was performed using an ELISA (Cellabs Pty Ltdon serum from 391 children who had already been examined by fecal examination and blood cell counts. Data from clinical and physical examinations were obtained for all children. RESULTS: The prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies was 51.6%, with no gender differences. No significant differences were observed between positive serology and the presence or absence of intestinal worms (60.3 and 51.7%, respectively; p = 0.286. The only variables significantly related to positive serology were onycophagy and the use of unfiltered water. Although eosinophilia (blood eosinophil count higher than 600/mm³ was significantly related to the presence of a positive ELISA result, this significance disappeared when we considered only children without worms or without a past history of allergy or asthma. No clinical symptoms related to Toxocara infection were observed. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in children attending elementary schools in Vitória, which may be partially related to cross-reactivity with intestinal helminths or to a high frequency of infection with a small number of Toxocara eggs.

  10. Performance of Low-Income Dual Language Learners Attending English-Only Schools on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Beatriz; Castilla-Earls, Anny; Martinez-Nieto, Lourdes; Restrepo, M Adelaida; Gray, Shelley

    2018-04-05

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a group of Spanish-speaking, dual language learners (DLLs) who were attending English-only schools and came from low-income and low-parental education backgrounds on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, Spanish (CELF-4S; Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2006). Spanish-speaking DLLs (N = 656), ages 5;0 (years;months) to 7;11, were tested for language impairment (LI) using the core language score of the CELF-4S and the English Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test (Dawson, Stout, & Eyer, 2003). A subsample (n = 299) was additionally tested using a Spanish language sample analysis and a newly developed Spanish morphosyntactic measure, for identification of children with LI and to conduct a receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Over 50% of the sample scored more than 1 SD below the mean on the core language score. In our subsample, the sensitivity of the CELF-4S was 94%, and specificity was 65%, using a cutoff score of 85 as suggested in the manual. Using an empirically derived cutoff score of 78, the sensitivity was 86%, and the specificity was 80%. Results suggest that the CELF-4S overidentifies low-income Spanish-English DLLs attending English-only schools as presenting with LI. For this sample, 1 in every 3 Latino children from low socioeconomic status was incorrectly identified with LI. Clinicians should be cautious when using the CELF-4S to evaluate low-income Spanish-English DLLs and ensure that they have converging evidence before making diagnostic decisions.

  11. Association of nursery and early school attendance with later health behaviours, biomedical risk factors, and mortality: evidence from four decades of follow-up of participants in the 1958 birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, G David; Ploubidis, George B; Goodman, Alissa; Bann, David

    2018-03-14

    Although early life education for improved long-term health and the amelioration of socioeconomically generated inequalities in chronic disease is advocated in influential policy statements, the evidence base is very modest. To address this dearth of evidence using data from a representative UK national birth cohort study. The analytical sample comprised men and women in the 1958 birth cohort study with prospectively gathered data on attendance at nursery or primary school before the age of 5 years who had gone on to participate in social survey at 42 years (n=11 374), or a biomedical survey at 44/5 years of age (n=9210), or had data on vital status from 18 to 55 years (n=17 657). Relative to study members who had not attended nursery, in those who had, there was in fact a higher prevalence of smoking and high alcohol intake in middle age. Conversely, nursery attenders had more favourable levels of lung function and systolic blood pressure in middle age. This apparent association between nursery attendance and lower systolic blood pressure was confined to study members from more deprived social backgrounds of origin (P value for interaction 0.030). There was no apparent link between early school attendance and any behavioural or biological risk factor. Neither nursery nor early school attendance was clearly related to mortality risk. We found no clear evidence for an association of either attendance at nursery or primary school before the age of 5 years and health outcomes around four decades later. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Effects of After-School Programs on Attendance and Externalizing Behaviors with Primary and Secondary School Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Sarteschi, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the number and types of after-school programs (ASPs) have increased substantially as a result of increased federal and private spending and because ASPs are perceived to provide wide-ranging and far-reaching benefits to students, families, schools and the public. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is…

  13. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. Methods and findings: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1...

  14. [Educational program had a positive effect on the intake of fat, fruits and vegetables and physical activity in students attending public elementary schools of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quizán-Plata, Trinidad; Villarreal Meneses, Liliana; Esparza Romero, Julián; Bolaños Villar, Adriana V; Díaz Zavala, R Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Poor diet and lack of physical activity are the most important risk factors of mortality and burden of disease in Mexico and many other countries around the world. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of an educational intervention on The consumption of fruits, vegetables, fat, physical activity and inactivity in students attending public primary school of Sonora Mexico. The intervention consisted of educational workshops on nutrition and physical activity aimed to the students and educational talks on nutrition and physical activity aimed to parents. Anthropometric, 24 hours recall, nutrition-knowledge, and physical-activity questionnaires pre- and post-intervention were applied in order to evaluate changes in both groups. 126 of the initial 129 students (97.7%) were evaluated at the end of the intervention. the consumption of fruits and vegetables was significantly higher after the intervention (p=0.0032) and the consumption of total fat decreased (p=0.02) in the intervention schools. Moreover, intervention increased physical activity (p=0.04) and decreased sedentary activities (p=0.006). Intervention students obtained higher knowledge in nutrition (p=0.05) at the end of intervention. The intervention had a positive effect on improve fruits, vegetables and fat consumption, physical activity and nutrition knowledge. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. [Prevalence of sexual intercourse and associated factors among adolescents attending schools in Goiânia in the state of Goiás, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Reinaldo Satoru Azevedo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the prevalence of sexual intercourse among adolescents in a Brazilian city and its association with sociodemographic factors, health-risk behaviors, and body image perception. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE), carried out in 2009. The sample comprised schoolchildren enrolled in the 9th year in the city of Goiânia, Goiás (n= 3,099), mostly aged between 13 and 15. The dependent variable was the reporting of sexual intercourse at least once. To identify variables associated with sexual activity, Poisson regression analysis was used. The prevalence of sexual intercourse at least once in the adolescents' lifetime was 26.5% (95% CI= 23.8-29.4). Prevalence was higher among males, those aged 14 years or older, who reported not living with their mother or with their father, who attended public schools, reported alcohol, tobacco or other drug use, and were involved in fights and family violence. The conclusion reached was that the prevalence of sexual intercourse was high and associated with poor sociodemographic conditions, health-risk behaviors and violence. These factors should be considered in the health promotion strategies seeking more safe and healthy sexual behavior during adolescence.

  16. Relationships between nutrition-related knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior for fifth grade students attending Title I and non-Title I schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a widely used theory for nutrition education programming. Better understanding the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among children of various income levels can help to form and improve nutrition programs, particularly for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among fifth grade students attending Title I (≥40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals) and non-Title I schools (students receiving free or reduced school meals). A validated survey was completed by 55 fifth grade students from Title I and 122 from non-Title I schools. Differences in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior scores between groups were assessed using t test and adjusted for variations between participating schools. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior. In adjusted models, the Title I group had significantly lower scores on several knowledge items and summary knowledge (P = 0.04). The Title I group had significantly lower scores on several behavior variables including intakes of fruits (P = 0.02), vegetables (P = 0.0005), whole grains (P = 0.0003), and lean protein (P = 0.047), physical activity (P = 0.002) and summary behavior (P = 0.001). However the Title I group scored higher on self-efficacy for meal planning (P = 0.04) and choosing healthy snacks (P = 0.036). Both self-efficacy (β = 0.70, P knowledge (β = 0.35, P = 0.002) strongly predicted behavior; however, only self-efficacy remained significant in the Title I group (self-efficacy, β = 0.82, P = 0.0003; knowledge, β = 0.11, P = 0.59). Results demonstrate disparities in nutrition knowledge and behavior outcomes between students surveyed from Title I and non-Title I schools, suggesting more resources may be necessary for lower income populations

  17. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  18. School-based mass distributions of mebendazole to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the Munshiganj and Lakshmipur districts of Bangladesh: an evaluation of the treatment monitoring process and knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Israt; Berhan, Meklit; Keller, Angela; Haq, Rouseli; Chesnaye, Nicholas; Koporc, Kim; Rahman, Mujibur; Rahman, Shamsur; Mathieu, Els

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh's national deworming program targets school-age children (SAC) through bi-annual school-based distributions of mebendazole. Qualitative and quantitative methods were applied to identify challenges related to treatment monitoring within the Munshiganj and Lakshmipur Districts of Bangladesh. Key stakeholder interviews identified several obstacles for successful treatment monitoring within these districts; ambiguity in defining the target population, variances in the methods used for compiling and reporting treatment data, and a general lack of financial and human resources. A treatment coverage cluster survey revealed that bi-annual primary school-based distributions proved to be an effective strategy in reaching school-attending SAC, with rates between 63.0% and 73.3%. However, the WHO target of regular treatment of at least 75% of SAC has yet to be reached. Particularly low coverage was seen amongst non-school attending children (11.4-14.3%), most likely due to the lack of national policy to effectively target this vulnerable group. Survey findings on water and sanitation coverage were impressive with the majority of households and schools having access to latrines (98.6-99.3%) and safe drinking water (98.2-100%). The challenge now for the Bangladesh control program is to achieve the WHO target of regular treatment of at least 75% of SAC at risk, irrespective of school-enrollment status. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodiversity in School Grounds: Auditing, Monitoring and Managing an Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using site biodiversity action plans to introduce biodiversity management initiatives into school grounds is outlined. Selected parts of a case study, involving the use of such an action plan to record, monitor and plan for biodiversity on a university campus, are described and ideas for applying a similar plan to a school setting are…

  20. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

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    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  1. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension in adolescents attending an art school. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p272

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    Patricia Torres

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analytical study involving the population of adolescent students attending the Nigelia Soria Public School and Art Institute (n=213, 24% boys, 76% girls in the two career paths (non-physical: visual arts and music, and physical artistic activities: dance was conducted. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (systolic, SBP, and diastolic, DBP, and heart rate were measured. A semi-structured questionnaire collecting personal data regarding non-communicable chronic diseases, trauma, menstrual cycle, non-school physical activity, inactivity, and sleep duration was administered. The participation rate was 70%. In boys (age 15.6±1.8 years, the prevalence rates of low weight, eutrophy, overweight, and obesity were 0%, 87.5%, 12.5% and 0%, respectively. In girls (age 15.5±1.7 years, these rates were 1.1%, 86%, 8.6%, and 4.3%. Body mass index was significantly associated with waist circumference and brachial circumference in both genders (p<0.001. In the overweight/obesity group, two students were diagnosed with isolated systolic hypertension (SBP 90th percentile. A eutrophic male student with SBP/DBP 90th percentile was confirmed as borderline by 24-h blood pressure measurement. In the group of overweight/obese girls, two students were identified with isolated SBP 90th percentile, one with isolated DBP 90th percentile, and two with SBP/DBP 90th percentile. The nutritional status of students is satisfactory, with a high proportion of young healthy adolescents of both genders. However, the implementation of this protocol permitted to identify adolescents with high blood pressure, overweight, and obesity. These factors may pose a health risk considering the school activity of these students.

  2. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension in adolescents attending an art school. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analytical study involving the population of adolescent students attending the Nigelia Soria Public School and Art Institute (n=213, 24% boys, 76% girls in the two career paths (non-physical: visual arts and music, and physical artistic activities: dance was conducted. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (systolic, SBP, and diastolic, DBP, and heart rate were measured. A semi-structured questionnaire collecting personal data regarding non-communicable chronic diseases, trauma, menstrual cycle, non-school physical activity, inactivity, and sleep duration was administered. The participation rate was 70%. In boys (age 15.6±1.8 years, the prevalence rates of low weight, eutrophy, overweight, and obesity were 0%, 87.5%, 12.5% and 0%, respectively. In girls (age 15.5±1.7 years, these rates were 1.1%, 86%, 8.6%, and 4.3%. Body mass index was significantly associated with waist circumference and brachial circumference in both genders (p<0.001. In the overweight/obesity group, two students were diagnosed with isolated systolic hypertension (SBP 90th percentile. A eutrophic male student with SBP/DBP 90th percentile was confirmed as borderline by 24-h blood pressure measurement. In the group of overweight/obese girls, two students were identified with isolated SBP 90th percentile, one with isolated DBP 90th percentile, and two with SBP/DBP 90th percentile. The nutritional status of students is satisfactory, with a high proportion of young healthy adolescents of both genders. However, the implementation of this protocol permitted to identify adolescents with high blood pressure, overweight, and obesity. These factors may pose a health risk considering the school activity of these students.

  3. WWC Review of the Report "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities", examined the impact of the strategies developed by an interagency task force in New York City to combat chronic absenteeism in…

  4. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Aurpibul

    Full Text Available The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups.This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1% were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9% were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01. A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003, or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001 compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%. The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex".A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  5. Validity and reliability of the South African health promoting schools monitoring questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, Patricia; Wegner, Lisa; de Koker, Petra; Lerebo, Wondwossen; Blignaut, Renette J

    2017-04-01

    Health promoting schools, as conceptualised by the World Health Organisation, have been developed in many countries to facilitate the health-education link. In 1994, the concept of health promoting schools was introduced in South Africa. In the process of becoming a health promoting school, it is important for schools to monitor and evaluate changes and developments taking place. The Health Promoting Schools (HPS) Monitoring Questionnaire was developed to obtain opinions of students about their school as a health promoting school. It comprises 138 questions in seven sections: socio-demographic information; General health promotion programmes; health related Skills and knowledge; Policies; Environment; Community-school links; and support Services. This paper reports on the reliability and face validity of the HPS Monitoring Questionnaire. Seven experts reviewed the questionnaire and agreed that it has satisfactory face validity. A test-retest reliability study was conducted with 83 students in three high schools in Cape Town, South Africa. The kappa-coefficients demonstrate mostly fair (κ-scores between 0.21 and 0.4) to moderate (κ-scores between 0.41 and 0.6) agreement between test-retest General and Environment items; poor (κ-scores up to 0.2) agreement between Skills and Community test-retest items, fair agreement between Policies items, and for most of the questions focussing on Services a fair agreement was found. The study is a first effort at providing a tool that may be used to monitor and evaluate students' opinions about changes in health promoting schools. Although the HPS Monitoring Questionnaire has face validity, the results of the reliability testing were inconclusive. Further research is warranted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Oral health status and treatment needs of hearing impaired children attending a special school in Bhimavaram, India

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    V Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: The study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in November 2012 at SVS special school for deaf, Bhimavaram, India. This study involved 180 CHI of both genders, aged 6-16 years, divided into Group-I (6-8 years, Group-II (9-12 years, and Group-III (13-16 years. Oral health status and treatment needs were recorded using methods and standards recommended by the WHO for Oral Health Surveys, 1997. Dental caries prevalence (decayed, missing, and filled teeth [DMFT/dmft], gingivitis levels (Lφe, Silness Gingival Index, plaque levels (Silness, Lφe Plaque index, and treatment needs were the parameters recorded and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Z-test for proportion, one-way analysis of variance, and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: Prevalence of dental caries in the sample was found to be 65% with a mean level of caries prevalence (DMFT of 1.6 ± 1.3 in Group-I, 1.9 ± 1.2 in Group-II, and 2.2 ± 1.2 in Group-III. About 91.7% of the total children examined needs treatment. The mean plaque and gingivitis scores of the sample were 1.70 ± 0.61 and 1.59 ± 0.58, respectively. Conclusion: These findings imply the overwhelming situation of CHI in oral health perspective. Hence, prevention-based educational and motivational programs should be targeted to this vital group to achieve adequate oral hygiene levels.

  7. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  8. MONITORING OF ATOMOXETINE EFFICIENCY IN CORRECTION OF THE SCHOOL DYSADAPTATION

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    O.A. Sobokar'

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the given article, the authors highlight the results of the research into the school dysadaptation of the children, who have undergone intracranial vascular injuries in neonatal period. Researchers also studied the efficiency of atomoxetine for the correction of this pathology. The authors demonstrated both its high efficiency and good tolerance and safety in the event of the attention deficiency and hyperactivity disorder.Key words: school dysadaptation, attention_deficit and hyper activity disorder, treatment, children.

  9. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; van de Gaar, Vivian M; Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children’s ethnic background. Method Cross-sectional data from the population-based ‘Water Campaign’ study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6–13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions (‘control over eating’, ‘emotional feeding’, ‘encouragement to eat’ and ‘instrumental feeding’), parenting style dimensions (‘involvement’ and ‘strictness’) and children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour. Result Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of ‘control over eating’ had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that ‘control over eating’ was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. ‘Encouragement to eat’ was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). ‘Instrumental feeding’ was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Conclusion Our results suggest that ‘control over eating’ may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic

  10. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; van de Gaar, Vivian M; Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2017-07-13

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children's ethnic background. Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions ('control over eating', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding'), parenting style dimensions ('involvement' and 'strictness') and children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of 'control over eating' had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that 'control over eating' was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. 'Encouragement to eat' was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). 'Instrumental feeding' was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Our results suggest that 'control over eating' may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic backgrounds. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  11. Contract Management Monitoring And Evaluation Of Ghana School Feeding Programme At Atwima Kwanwoma District

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    Andrews Osei Mensah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ghana School Feeding Programme was introduced at Atwima Kwanwoma District and other parts of the country in 2008 to alleviate hunger and to provide good nutrition for pupils in the public basic schools. Caterers were given contract to provide food to the school pupils on every school-going day under Ghana school feeding programme. Some years have lapsed and there is the need to look back and evaluate this programme taking into consideration the award and management of those contracts. The study also examined how the programme is monitored and evaluated. Data was collected from 80 respondents comprising 29 school pupils and 51 other actors through the use of questionnaire and interview guide It was realised that caterers who are well experience in catering services were awarded contracts based on their past experience and financial abilities through submission of their certificates but not necessarily through bidding. The main component of managing the caterers contract included monitoring payment of debt and problems solving as well as supervision through visiting the schools on quarterly basis. The programme has helped to increase enrolment and retaining pupils in school. It was found out that food giving to the pupils was not served on time not regularly bases and was not sufficient to the pupils as well. The health component of the programme has not been successful as expected. It is recommended that fruits and variety of foods need to be introduced together with de-worming the pupils.

  12. Does partner selection mediate the relationship between school attendance and HIV/HSV-2 among adolescent girls and young women in South Africa: An analysis of HPTN 068 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Marie Cd; Edwards, Jessie K; Miller, William C; Aiello, Allison E; Halpern, Carolyn T; Julien, Aimée; Rucinski, Katherine B; Selin, Amanda; Twine, Rhian; Hughes, James P; Wang, Jing; Agyei, Yaw; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Wagner, Ryan G; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Macphail, Catherine; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, Audrey

    2018-05-22

    Similar prior publications by the first author using the same data source include: Stoner M.C.D, Edwards J, Miller W, Aiello A, Halpern C, Selin A, Hughes J, Wang J, Laeyendecker O, Agyei Y, McPhail C, Kahn K, Pettifor A.(2017) The effect of schooling on incident HIV and HSV-2 infection in young South African women enrolled in HPTN 068. AIDS. 24;31(15):2127-213. PMC5599334. Stoner M.C.D, Edwards J, Miller W, Aiello A, Halpern C, Julien Suarez, Selin A, Hughes J, Wang J, McPhail C, Kahn K, Pettifor A. (2017) The effect of schooling on age-disparate relationships and number of sexual partners among young women in rural South Africa enrolled in HPTN 068. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 76 (5):e107-e114. PMC56801112This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.Abstract OBJECTIVE:: School attendance prevents HIV and HSV-2 in adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) but the mechanisms to explain this relationship remain unclear. Our study assesses the extent to which characteristics of sex partners, partner age and number, mediate the relationship between attendance and risk of infection in AGYW in South Africa. We use longitudinal data from the HPTN 068 randomized controlled trial in rural South Africa where girls were enrolled in early adolescence and followed in the main trial for over three years. We examined older partners and number of partners as possible mediators. We use the parametric g-formula to estimate 4-year risk differences for the effect of school attendance on cumulative incidence of HIV/HSV-2 overall and the controlled direct effect (CDE) for mediation. We examined mediation separately and jointly for the mediators of interest. We found that young women with high attendance in school had

  13. Understanding Barriers and Solutions Affecting Preschool Attendance in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman-Stillman, Amy; Englund, Michelle M.; Storm, Karen J.; Bailey, Ann E.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool attendance problems negatively impact children's school readiness skills and future school attendance. Parents are critical to preschoolers' attendance. This study explored parental barriers and solutions to preschool attendance in low-income families. School-district administrative data from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of…

  14. Assessment of Knowledge Regarding Oral Hygiene among Parents of Pre-School Children Attending Pediatric Out Patient Department in Dhulikhel Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, K; Shrestha, D; Ghimire, N; Younjan, R; Sanjel, S

    2015-01-01

    Level of knowledge regarding oral hygiene among the parents of pre-school children plays an important role on maintaining the good oral hygiene of their children. In Nepal, sufficient research has not been carried out on this area. Objective of this study is to assess the level of knowledge on oral hygiene of preschool children's parents attending pediatric outpatient department in Dhulikhel Hospital. A descriptive study was conducted from November 2012 to January 2013 among one hundred parents of preschool children visiting pediatrics outpatient department of Dhulikhel Hospital. Paper and pencil based semi structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Questions related to demographic information and knowledge were asked. Thirty questions were used for assessing knowledge level. Knowledge score was calculated by allocating one point for each correct answer and zero point for each wrong answer. Analyzed data were presented in terms of numbers and percentages. Total knowledge scores were categorized based on percentage. Knowledge score was categorized on four group - exclusive intervals - namely-poor (0-40%), moderate (40-60%), good (60-80%) and excellent (80-100%). Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied to check significance difference and chisquare test was used to check association among different background characteristic. It was found that 81% had moderate knowledge, 15% had poor knowledge and 4% had good knowledge about oral hygiene. Median knowledge score was found to be 15 with range 10 to 21. Following variables were found to be significant difference on knowledge category: Education status (poral health problem (p = 0.008), Further significant association was found between knowledge category and educational status (pknowledge category and past experience (pKnowledge regarding oral hygiene was found satisfactory among the parents of preschool children visiting pediatric OPD of Dhulikhel Hospital.

  15. Drug use and antisocial behavior among adolescents attending public schools in Brazil Uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial entre adolescentes de escolas públicas no Brasil

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    Fernanda Lüdke Nardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Drug use is a social and a public health problem that has been related with antisocial behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between drug use and antisocial behavior among adolescents attending public schools in Brazil. METHOD: A total of 7,176 adolescents from low-income neighborhoods and public schools aged 14 to 19 years were assessed in five geographical regions in Brazil. Data on biosociodemographic characteristics and on drug use and antisocial behavior were assessed from complete answers to a national survey on risk and protective factors among adolescents. RESULTS: Over 80% of the adolescents who used alcohol and cigarettes were between 14 and 17 years old. The percentage of participants with antisocial behaviors was significantly higher among users of marijuana, cocaine, or crack than among adolescents who were not drug users. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention programs aimed at reducing substance use might help to decrease antisocial behaviors.INTRODUÇÃO: O uso de drogas é um problema social e de saúde pública que tem sido relacionado a comportamentos antissociais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação entre uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial em adolescentes de escolas públicas no Brasil. MÉTODO: No total, 7.176 jovens com idades entre 14 e 19 anos estudantes de escolas públicas das cinco regiões geográficas do Brasil foram avaliados. Foram utilizados dados biossociodemográficos e sobre uso de drogas e comportamento antissocial obtidos na Pesquisa Nacional sobre Fatores de Risco e Proteção da Juventude Brasileira. RESULTADOS: Mais de 80% dos adolescentes que fizeram uso de bebidas alcoólicas e cigarro tinham entre 14 e 17 anos. O percentual de pacientes com comportamento antissocial foi significativamente maior entre usuários de maconha, cocaína ou crack do que entre adolescentes não usuários. CONCLUSÕES: Programas de prevenção direcionados à redução do uso de subst

  16. Um caminho para atender às diferenças na escola A pathway to attend to differences at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Portieri Monteiro

    2010-04-01

    atmosphere since the onset and implementation of the program at a Jewish school in Rio. The program's central idea is to work with the concepts of active learning and multiple intelligences as proposed by Piaget, Dewey, and Gardner. To analyze the PIE we used a qualitative approach with the participants of the study through semi-structured interviews and observations in classrooms of the 1st to 5th years of fundamental education. The analysis of the data was based on the theoretical framework. The results indicate that, after the implementation of the program, the professionals involved gained in motivation to search for information and refresh their knowledge in order to attend to the differences between the pupils, making use of diversified strategies and thus encouraging a more dynamic work that facilitates the development of students' autonomy. In terms of difficulties faced in the development of the program, there was mention to the need to revise timetables, and to the fact that teachers now have to go through more extensive curricula. The school is still in the process of adapting to this innovative program, and therefore it is very important that the professionals involved constantly reevaluate the development of the program, trying to identify modifications and alternatives as difficulties arise.

  17. Objectification of the school-related transport monitoring of the adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Kudláček

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School and school-related physical activity (PA are important for the total PA of children and youth. The total amount of PA is higher within school days compare to weekends. Children and youth, who use active transportation (to/from the school, confirm the higher PA per week compared to those without active transportation (using car, train, bus. There is a lack of available data in the Czech Republic about active transportation of children and adolescents. AIM: The main aim of the study is the objectification of the school-related transport monitoring of the adolescents. One of the additional outcomes is to enrich this relatively new scientific area in the Czech Republic. METHODS: There was one high school chosen for this project - Gymnázium Nový Jičín. Data were collected by using ActiGraph GT1M, pedometer YAMAX SW-700, NQLS questionnaire and internet system INDARES. RESULTS: By using the newly developer map module "tracker", within the system INDARES, we could compare the participants which active transport (AT was lower than 1000 m, with participants with the AT values higher than 1000 m. We found out significant differences between school days and weekends in the intensity of 1 to 3 MET. The statistical significance was supported by the coefficient effect size (d = 0.83. The participants recording AT values lower than 1000 m showing significantly higher level of PA in school days then during weekends (p = .003; F = 26.149; ω2 = 0.456. Similar results were found in participants recording AT values higher than 1000 m; the differences between school days and weekends are highly significant (p = .0004; F = 26.149; ω 2 = 0.456. CONCLUSIONS: We have contributed to the objectification of the school-related transport monitoring of the adolescents by the creation of the map module within the INDARES system. The usage of a triangulation approach (objective methods - subjective methods - system INDARES into the PA monitoring in

  18. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and maternal factors at birth as moderators of the association between birth characteristics and school attainment: a population study of children attending government schools in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacova, E; Li, J; Blair, E; Mattes, E; de Klerk, N; Stanley, F

    2009-10-01

    This article investigates whether reading and writing skills among children of equivalent perinatal characteristics differ by neighbourhood socioeconomic status and maternal factors. Notifications of births for all non-Aboriginal singletons born in 1990-7 in Western Australia subsequently attending government primary schools were linked to the State literacy tests in grade three and with information on socioeconomic status of the school and the residential area. Using multilevel modelling, the associations between birth characteristics (gestational age, intrauterine growth, birth order and Apgar score at 5 minutes) and literacy attainment in grade three were examined in models that included socioeconomic and demographic factors of the child, mother and community. Higher percentages of optimal head circumference and birth length and term birth were positively and independently associated with literacy scores. A higher percentage of optimal birth weight was associated with higher reading scores especially for children born to mothers residing in educationally advantaged areas. First birth was positively associated with reading and writing attainment: this association was stronger for children born to single mothers and additional advantage in writing was also associated with first birth in children living in disadvantaged areas. These findings suggest that having suboptimal growth in utero or an older sibling at birth increases vulnerability to poor literacy attainment especially among children born to single mothers or those in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. These data provide evidence for advocating lifestyles compatible with optimum fetal growth and socioeconomic conditions conducive to healthy lifestyles, particularly during pregnancy.

  19. Performance of Spot Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Pre-school and School Age Children Attending an Eye Clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Mu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors meeting 2013 the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS criteria in Chinese preschool and school-age children.One hundred and fifty-five children (310 eyes, aged between 4 to 7 years (5.74 ± 1.2 years underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, photoscreening, and cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction. The agreement of the results obtained with the photoscreening and retinoscopy was evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting amblyopia risk factors were calculated based on the AAPOS 2013 guidelines. The overall effectiveness of detecting amblyopia risk factors was analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves.The mean refractive errors measured with the Spot were: spherical equivalent (SE = 0.70 ± 1.99 D, J0 = 0.87 ± 1.01 D, J45 = 0.09 ± 0.60 D. The mean results from retinoscopy were: SE = 1.19 ± 2.22 D, J0 = 0.77 ± 1.00 D, J45 = -0.02 ± 0.45 D. There was a strong linear agreement between results obtained from those two methods (R2 = 0.88, P<0.01. Bland-Altman plot indicated a moderate agreement of cylinder values between the two methods. Based on the criteria specified by the AAPOS 2013 guidelines, the sensitivity and specificity (in respective order for detecting hyperopia were 98.31% and 97.14%; for detecting myopia were 78.50% and 88.64%; for detecting astigmatism were 90.91% and 80.37%; for detecting anisometropia were 93.10% and 85.25%; and for detection of strabismus was 77.55% and 88.18%.The refractive values measured from Spot photoscreener showed a moderate agreement with the results from cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction, however there was an overall myopic shift of -0.49D. The performance in detecting individual amblyopia risk factors was satisfactory, but could be further improved by optimizing criteria based on ROC curves.

  20. Family Relationships and Parental Monitoring during Middle School as Predictors of Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Winter, Charlotte E.

    2012-01-01

    The middle school years are a period of increased risk for youths' engagement in antisocial behaviors, substance use, and affiliation with deviant peers (Dishion & Patterson, 2006). This study examined the specific role of parental monitoring and of family relationships (mother, father, and sibling) that are all critical to the deterrence of…

  1. Impact of Middle School Student Energy Monitoring Activities on Climate Change Beliefs and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2018-01-01

    The Going Green! Middle Schoolers Out to Save the World project aims to direct middle school students' enthusiasm for hands-on activities toward interest in science and other STEM areas while guiding them to solve real-world problems. Students in this project are taught by their teachers to use energy monitoring equipment to audit standby power…

  2. Boosting Student Attendance: Beyond Stickers, Stars, and Candy Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Vicky; Lopez, Patrick; Stahlke, Tim; Stamp, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    We know that students cannot learn if they are not in school, and that students with economic challenges miss school more frequently than other students. What obstacles create this attendance gap, and how can school districts provide the supports to improve attendance for these students? The authors of this article, who work with the Texas…

  3. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems in the classroom/school environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Kari; Drobny, Jessica; Aye, Tandy

    2013-05-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) spend 4-7 h/day in school with very little supervision of their diabetes management. Therefore, families have become more dependent on technology, such as use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM), to provide increased supervision of their diabetes management. We sought to assess the impact of RT-CGM use in the classroom/school environment. Children with T1D using RT-CGM, their parents, and teachers completed a questionnaire about RT-CGM in the classroom/school environment. The RT-CGM was tolerated well in the classroom/school environment. Seventy percent of parents, 75% of students, and 51% of teachers found RT-CGM useful in the classroom/school environment. The students found the device to be more disruptive than did their parents and teachers. However, all three groups agreed that RT-CGM increased their comfort with diabetes management at school. Our study suggests that RT-CGM is useful and not disruptive in the classroom/school environment. The development of education materials for teachers could further increase its acceptance in the classroom/school environment.

  4. Shadow Education in Malaysia: Identifying the Determinants of Spending and Amount of Time Attending Private Supplementary Tutoring of Upper Secondary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Da Wan; Benedict Weerasena

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of spending and the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring, or commonly known as private tuition, in Malaysia. Based on 343 self-reported questionnaires with upper secondary students across three states in Malaysia and using multiple regression analysis, we identified ethnicity, father’s level of education and past academic performance as significant determinants of spending and amount of time attending private tuition. However, interestin...

  5. Special care with special child-oral health status of differently abled children attending special schools in Delhi: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Prasad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health is an essential component of overall health. Oral health maintenance is more complex for the physically challenged children; the essential problem is lack of cooperation and coordination because of their physical or mental inability. Thus, physically challenged children are considered as a high-risk group for having dental problems. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess dental caries experience, oral hygiene status, periodontal status, and prevalence of malocclusion among differently abled children attending special schools in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A total of 1060 (610 males and 450 females, differently abled children were included in the study. The children were grouped into visually impaired, hearing and speech impaired, and orthopedic physically challenged only. Clinical examination was recorded using Dentition Status and Treatment Need Index and periodontal status recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013 and examination for malocclusion was made according to the Dental Aesthetic Index as described by the WHO Oral Health Survey 1997. The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index introduced by John C Greene and Jack R Vermillion in 1964 was used to assess the oral hygiene status. Results: Out of 1060 physically challenged children, 56.4% (598 had dental caries with the mean index or decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT being 1.10 (standard deviation ±1.26. It was observed that prevalence of dental caries was high in visually impaired group (63.2% and least in hearing and speech impaired group (51.7%. The overall oral hygiene status recorded was good in 58.5%, fair in 40.8%, and poor in 0.7% of the study population. Conclusion: The cumulative neglect of oral health was seen among the physically challenged children. Children with visual impairment had much more poorer oral health when compared to the hearing and speech impairment and orthopedically physically challenged group. An improved accessibility

  6. If We Build It, We Will Come: Impacts of a Summer Robotics Program on Regular Year Attendance in Middle School. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Mac Iver, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of both keeping middle school students engaged and improving their math skills, Baltimore City Public Schools (City Schools) developed a summer school STEM program involving not only math and science instruction but also the experience of building a robot and competing with those robots in a city-wide tournament.…

  7. A Policy Analysis of Student Attendance Standards Related to State Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…

  8. EXPERT-ANALITICAL MONITORING OF LEARNING PROCESS QUALITY IN HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Korotun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The technological model is proposed for monitoring process of learning process quality in high school compliant with current European and home standards. The mathematical methods are elaborated for diverse activities as to learning process objects quality determination unified support. They self-consistently combine: automatic expert evaluation with Bayesian net and Value tree models; Delphi technique enhancement; best practices for education quality assessment. Quality estimates’ consistency index is introduced for their choice and acceptability analysis. Its permanent increasing over monitoring stages is guaranteed. The tools for these stages’ automatic support are described.

  9. Church attendance and self-esteem among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Williams, Emyr

    2007-01-01

    A total of 279 young people (123 males and 156 females) aged between 12 and 16 years of age attending one school in Wales completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory alongside a measure of frequency of church attendance. The data indicate a small positive correlation (r = .18) between self-esteem and church attendance.

  10. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Graduation, College Acceptance and Dropout Rates for Students Attending an Urban Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    High school graduation rates nationally have declined in recent years, despite public and private efforts. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether practice of the Quiet Time/Transcendental Meditation® program at a medium-size urban school results in higher school graduation rates compared to students who do not receive training…

  11. An Interpretive Framework for Assessing and Monitoring the Sustainability of School Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sottile

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available School gardens are, increasingly, an integral part of projects aiming to promote nutritional education and environmental sustainability in many countries throughout the world. In the late 1950s, FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization and UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund had already developed projects to improve the dietary intake and behavior through school and community gardens. However, notwithstanding decades of experience, real proof of how these programs contribute to improving sustainability has not been well-documented, and reported findings have mostly been anecdotal. Therefore, it is important to begin a process of collecting and monitoring data to quantify the results and possibly improve their efficiency. This study’s primary goal is to propose an interpretive structure—the “Sustainable Agri-Food Evaluation Methodology-Garden” (SAEMETH-G, that is able to quantifiably guide the sustainability evaluation of various school garden organizational forms. As a case study, the methodology was applied to 15 school gardens located in three regions of Kenya, Africa. This application of SAEMETH-G as an assessment tool based on user-friendly indicators demonstrates that it is possible to carry out sustainability evaluations of school gardens through a participatory and interdisciplinary approach. Thus, the hypothesis that the original SAEMETH operative framework could be tested in gardens has also been confirmed. SAEMETH-G is a promising tool that has the potential to help us understand school gardens’ sustainability better and to use that knowledge in their further development all over the world.

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of the Availability and Need of a Support Program for Students with Learning Difficulties Attending Elementary Schools in the Atlantic Union Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Lileth Althea

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study. Support programs have been known to be very effective in helping students succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of the availability and need of a support program for students with learning difficulties who attend elementary schools…

  13. The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School Attendance In ... and SFP were significant variables which affect attendance of children in school. ... the school-feeding programme [SFP] succeeded in increasing parent's income.

  14. Parental monitoring and rule-breaking behaviour in secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parental monitoring is recognised as one of the most important family factors that are associated with rule-breaking behaviour. The objective of this paper is to determine the nature of correlations between parental monitoring and its key components (parents’ knowledge, child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control and rule-breaking behaviour. Additionally, the prediction of the rule-breaking behaviour by parental monitoring variables, age and gender will be considered. The sample included 507 secondary school students from Belgrade, aged 15 to 18. The data on rule-breaking behaviour were collected through ASEBA YSR/11-18, and on parental monitoring via the Parental monitoring scale. The most important conclusions are the following: the strongest negative correlations are found between parental knowledge and child disclosure with rule-breaking behaviour; child disclosure is the most important source of parental knowledge; the variables of parental monitoring, gender and age explained 31.4% of the variance of rule-breaking behaviour; finally, parental control and age, unlike other variables, did not predict rule-breaking behaviour. Given that parents mostly know how children spend their free time only if the children tell this to them, it is recommended that the prevention programme of rule-breaking behaviour should be oriented towards the improvement of parent-child relationships instead of focusing on parental control and supervision. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 179017: Socijalna participacija osoba sa intelektualnom ometenošću

  15. The account system for students school‘s attendance

    OpenAIRE

    Birgėlienė, Raminta

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The account system for students school‘s attendance The purpose of the created students school‘s attendance account system is to assist teachers in registering, observing and making reports on students school‘s attendance. This work presents the of secondary school students���result attendance account transferred to the informatics system. The system includes the analysis, separable processes, adjustable structured analysis and projections‘methods, which allow dealing with a real prob...

  16. Attendance as control

    OpenAIRE

    Beckton, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Student attendance in higher education, particularly at lectures, is a topic that researchers have largely neglected, other than in relatively small scale studies. This paper reviews university attendance policies based on documentary research in university web sites. While there are acknowledged methodological limitations to this approach, some universities are beginning to implement automated recording of student attendance in UK higher education and others are debating the merits of doing ...

  17. The Effects of Self-Monitoring of Story Elements on the Reading Comprehension of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Tim; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Konrad, Moira

    2010-01-01

    This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of self-monitoring and active responding on the reading comprehension of three high school seniors with learning disabilities and significant attention problems. The self-monitoring intervention required the participants to read a story and stop reading at three…

  18. Self-Monitoring for High School Students with Disabilities: A Cross-Categorical Investigation of I-Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Lachelle L.; Mason, Benjamin A.; Garrison-Kane, Linda; Wills, Howard P.

    2016-01-01

    Self-monitoring interventions are well supported within the empirical literature as improving classroom engagement for students with disabilities. However, studies implementing self-monitoring interventions in high school settings are rarely conducted despite their potential to improve student academic and behavioral outcomes. In an investigation…

  19. Impact of influenza vaccination on respiratory illness rates in children attending private boarding schools in England, 2013-2014: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R

    2015-12-01

    Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings.

  20. School feeding, moving from practice to policy: reflections on building sustainable monitoring and evaluation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Espejo, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    To provide an overview of the status of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of school feeding across sub-Saharan Africa and to reflect on the experience on strengthening M&E systems to influence policy making in low-income countries. Literature review on the M&E of school feeding programmes as well as data from World Food Programme surveys. Sub-Saharan Africa. Countries implementing school feeding. Only two randomized controlled impact evaluations have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. Where M&E data collection is underway, the focus is on process and service delivery and not on child outcomes. M&E systems generally operate under the Ministry of Education, with other Ministries represented within technical steering groups supporting implementation. There is no internationally accepted standardized framework for the M&E of school feeding. There have been examples where evidence of programme performance has influenced policy: considering the popularity of school feeding these cases though are anecdotal, highlighting the opportunity for systemic changes. There is strong buy-in on school feeding from governments in sub-Saharan Africa. In response to this demand, development partners have been harmonizing their support to strengthen national programmes, with a focus on M&E. However, policy processes are complex and can be influenced by a number of factors. A comprehensive but simple approach is needed where the first step is to ensure a valid mandate to intervene, legitimizing the interaction with key stakeholders, involving them in the problem definition and problem solving. This process has been facilitated through the provision of technical assistance and exposure to successful experiences through South–South cooperation and knowledge exchange.

  1. Summer school on radio monitoring as a part of radioecological education and emergency preparedness program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyarkov, V.; Kadenko, I.; Jordynsky, D.; Nazarov, A.; Dubchak, S. [Ministry of Emergemcies, Kiev (Ukraine). Ukrainian Radiation Trainig Center

    1997-12-31

    The International Summer School is organized by the Ukrainian Radiation Training Centre of the Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe to provide training and experience in the techniques of environmental radiation monitoring and emergency preparedness training of students and to enhance knowledge`s of specialists in different fields of radioecology as well. It includes classroom instructions and training in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Within selected areas dose rates and gamma flux measurements have been conducted at two different heights. Ten measurements for dose rate and for gamma flux were done at each selected point of sites. The main results of summer school activities are briefly presented 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tab.

  2. Summer school on radio monitoring as a part of radioecological education and emergency preparedness program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyarkov, V.; Kadenko, I.; Jordynsky, D.; Nazarov, A.; Dubchak, S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Summer School is organized by the Ukrainian Radiation Training Centre of the Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe to provide training and experience in the techniques of environmental radiation monitoring and emergency preparedness training of students and to enhance knowledge's of specialists in different fields of radioecology as well. It includes classroom instructions and training in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Within selected areas dose rates and gamma flux measurements have been conducted at two different heights. Ten measurements for dose rate and for gamma flux were done at each selected point of sites. The main results of summer school activities are briefly presented

  3. How Many Central City High Schools Have A Severe Dropout Problem, Where Are They Located, and Who Attends Them? Initial Estimates Using the Common Core of Data

    OpenAIRE

    Balfanz, Robert; Legters, Nettie

    2001-01-01

    The analysis presented in this paper strongly suggests that about half of the high schools in the nation’s 35 largest cities have severe dropout rates. It further shows that high schools with weak promoting power and by implication high dropout rates are found in almost all of the largest cities but they are particularly concentrated in Midwestern and Northern industrial cities and Texas.

  4. [Comparison of health education and drug therapy monitoring interventions in patients with cardiovascular risk factors attending a community pharmacy (FISFTES-PM Study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofí Martínez, Patricia; García Jiménez, Emilio; Martínez Martínez, Fernando

    2015-03-01

    To compare health education (HE) and drug therapy monitoring (DTM) interventions in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Randomised experimental studys: 100 patients per group. Playa-Miramar pharmacy (Valencia, Spain). March 2010-November 2011. Patients with one or more CVRF detected based on medication they were taking or questions they asked when drugs were dispensed. Patients were assigned to one of the two groups (HE or DTM) using a random number table. 100 patients by group were included. Six months of DTM (DTMG) or health education (HEG) per patient. The primary variables were modifiable CVRF: hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, obesity and low physical activity. Secondary variables were non modifiable CVRF (age, sex, cardiovascular disease), heart rate, body mass index, waist measurement, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, body fat, treatment compliance. The differences in the reduction percentages were statistically greater in DTMG than in HEG for the following variables: systolic pressure 5.40% (p=0.001); heart rate 2.95%(p=0.015); weight 2.00% (p=0.002); BMI 2.24% (p=0.003); fasting glucose 8.65% (p=0.004); total cholesterol 6.45% (p=0.002); waist measurement 1.85% (p=0.010); and waist-to-height ratio 1.66% (p=0.002). Triglycerides and body fat were reduced by 12.78% (p<0.001) and 1.84% (p<0.001) more, respectively, in DTMG. These differences were not statistically significant. The reduction percentages were generally higher for all variables in DTMG except diastolic blood pressure, which decreased by 4.7% (P<.001) more in HEG because the baseline values were higher. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2007 - Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School on Nuclear Reactors, ''Physics, Fuels and Systems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H.

    2007-01-01

    For more than ten years, the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School has been organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache, in France. This year, the Summer School was held at the Center for Advanced Training in Technology and the Environment of the Karlsruhe Research Center on August 29 to September 7. The overarching topic of the event was the sustainability of nuclear power, including topical issues of generation-IV reactor concepts, transmutation and actinide separation, and geologic final storage. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA at Aix-en-Provence together with the Nuclear Safety Research Program of the Karlsruhe Research Center. (orig.)

  6. Potable water quality monitoring of primary schools in Magura district, Bangladesh: children's health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Hashem, Abul; Nur-A-Tomal, Shahruk

    2016-12-01

    Safe potable water is essential for good health. Worldwide, school-aged children especially in the developing countries are suffering from various water-borne diseases. In the study, drinking water supplies for primary school children were monitored at Magura district, Bangladesh, to ensure safe potable water. APHA standard analytical methods were applied for determining the physicochemical parameters of the water samples. For determination of the essential physicochemical parameters, the samples were collected from 20 randomly selected tube wells of primary schools at Magura. The metal contents, especially arsenic (As), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), in the water samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The range of physicochemical parameters found in water samples were as follows: pH 7.05-9.03, electrical conductivity 400-2340 μS/cm, chloride 10-640 mg/L, hardness 200-535 mg/L as CaCO 3 , and total dissolved solids 208-1216 mg/L. The level of metals in the tube well water samples were as follows: As 1 to 55 μg/L, Fe 40 to 9890 μg/L, and Mn 10 to 370 μg/L. Drinking water parameters of Magura district did not meet the requirement of the World Health Organization drinking water quality guideline, or the Drinking Water Quality Standards of Bangladesh.

  7. Clinic Attenders with Autism or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Cognitive Profile at School Age and Its Relationship to Preschool Indicators of Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi S.; Miniscalco, Carmela; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have had early indicators of language delay. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive profile of school age children referred to a specialist clinic for ASD, ADHD, or both, and relate this profile…

  8. "Coming Out" as Pregnant or Having a Baby While Attending School: Experiences and Challenges of Scottish Schoolgirl Mothers/Mothers-to-Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Concerns exist about schoolgirls disengaging from education, becoming pregnant, dropping out of school and having lower-level or fewer qualifications. Few studies have considered the experiences and challenges that schoolgirls who become mothers face when continuing in education. This article discusses the experiences and challenges of Scottish…

  9. Student and Teacher Attendance: The Role of Shared Goods in Reducing Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; King, Elizabeth; Orazem, Peter

    2012-01-01

    . Controlling for the endogeneity of teacher and student attendance, the most powerful factor raising teacher attendance is the attendance of the children in the school, and the most important factor influencing child attendance is the presence of the teacher. The results suggest that one important avenue...

  10. The ‘Friendship Dynamics of Religion,’ or the ‘Religious Dynamics of Friendship’? A Social Network Analysis of Adolescents Who Attend Small Schools*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Jacob E.; Schwadel, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal social network data on adolescents in seven schools are analyzed to reach a new understanding about how the personal and interpersonal social dimensions of adolescent religion intertwine together in small school settings. We primarily address two issues relevant to the sociology of religion and sociology in general: (1) social selection as a source of religious homophily and (2) friend socialization of religion. Analysis results are consistent with Collins’ interaction ritual chain theory, which stresses the social dimensions of religion, since network-religion autocorrelations are relatively substantial in magnitude and both selection and socialization mechanisms play key roles in generating them. Results suggest that socialization plays a stronger role than social selection in four of six religious outcomes, and that more religious youth are more cliquish. Implications for our understanding of the social context of religion, religious homophily, and the ways we model religious influence, as well as limitations and considerations for future research, are discussed. PMID:23017927

  11. Scientists from all over the world attend the ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Fischer, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School'' is organized each year alternately by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache. This year's Summer School, the 15th since its foundation, was run at the Advanced Training Center (FTU) of KIT Campus Nord on August 26 to September 4. The key topic this year was ''The Challenges in Implementing Fast Reactor Technology.'' These are the items discussed: Principles and challenges of future fast reactor designs, Fuels, fuel cycle, and recycling of minor actinides, Innovative cladding tube and structural materials, Special aspects of coolants and the challenges they pose, Fast reactor safety. Experts from 8 leading international research establishments and universities presented and discussed with the 58 participants from 16 countries the current state of the art and the latest development trends in the topics listed above. (orig.)

  12. POSSIBILITIES OF TEACHERS FOR MONITORING, DETECTING AND RECORDING OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS IN EARLY SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Koteva-mojsovska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and recording of the individual characteristics of children are very important for the development of quality education. Also the views of the teachers about the differences in the development, the potentials and the affinities of the children in the early school period are especially important. The quality education process in the modern school should be adapted to the individual potentials of the children. The children are individuals with their own integrity and characteristics. (Johnston and Halocha, 2010. They have individual pace and develop individual approaches in the learning process. This individual pace in the development of the children requires the teachers to regularly monitor and record the individual characteristics and differences of the children, monitoring the children’s interests, planning instruction which will adapt to the different learning approaches and the different pace of progress of the students.Setting out from this paradigm, this paper, which is based on a realized research, aims to offer findings about the treatment of the individual characteristics of the early school-age children in our country. According to this, we carried out a research in four primary schools in Skopje, which showed us that the teachers lack the appropriate conditions and possibilities to monitor and record the individual characteristics and the specific differences of the students in the early school period. 

  13. Computer program for the automated attendance accounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulson, P.; Rasmusson, C.

    1971-01-01

    The automated attendance accounting system (AAAS) was developed under the auspices of the Space Technology Applications Program. The task is basically the adaptation of a small digital computer, coupled with specially developed pushbutton terminals located in school classrooms and offices for the purpose of taking daily attendance, maintaining complete attendance records, and producing partial and summary reports. Especially developed for high schools, the system is intended to relieve both teachers and office personnel from the time-consuming and dreary task of recording and analyzing the myriad classroom attendance data collected throughout the semester. In addition, since many school district budgets are related to student attendance, the increase in accounting accuracy is expected to augment district income. A major component of this system is the real-time AAAS software system, which is described.

  14. Food and beverage environment analysis and monitoring system: a reliability study in the school food and beverage environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Craypo, Lisa; Clark, Sarah E; Barry, Jason; Samuels, Sarah E

    2010-07-01

    States and school districts around the country are developing policies that set nutrition standards for competitive foods and beverages sold outside of the US Department of Agriculture's reimbursable school lunch program. However, few tools exist for monitoring the implementation of these new policies. The objective of this research was to develop a computerized assessment tool, the Food and Beverage Environment Analysis and Monitoring System (FoodBEAMS), to collect data on the competitive school food environment and to test the inter-rater reliability of the tool among research and nonresearch professionals. FoodBEAMS was used to collect data in spring 2007 on the competitive foods and beverages sold in 21 California high schools. Adherence of the foods and beverages to California's competitive food and beverage nutrition policies for schools (Senate Bills 12 and 965) was determined using the data collected by both research and nonresearch professionals. The inter-rater reliability between the data collectors was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Researcher vs researcher and researcher vs nonresearcher inter-rater reliability was high for both foods and beverages, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .972 to .987. Results of this study provide evidence that FoodBEAMS is a promising tool for assessing and monitoring adherence to nutrition standards for competitive foods sold on school campuses and can be used reliably by both research and nonresearch professionals. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Attendance Policies on Course Attendance among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenneville, Tiffany; Jordan, Cary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate whether having a graded attendance policy would have an effect on course attendance among college students, and (b) to examine beliefs about education and attendance policies among college students. Results support the utility of graded attendance policies for increasing class attendance…

  16. 'WE CAN'T GET WORMS FROM COW DUNG': REPORTED KNOWLEDGE OF PARASITISM AMONG PASTORALIST YOUTH ATTENDING SECONDARY SCHOOL IN THE NGORONGORO CONSERVATION AREA, TANZANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rita Isabel; Hatfield, Jennifer; Kutz, Susan; Olemshumba, Saningo; Van Der Meer, Frank; Manyama, Mange; Bastien, Sheri

    2016-11-01

    Records at the Endulen Hospital in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania, reveal that soil-transmitted helminth infections and protozoa are consistently in the top ten diagnoses for Maasai pastoralists, indicating a significant public health concern. Nevertheless, Maasai pastoralist adaptations to life in close proximity to livestock and to unreliable access to water raise important questions about experiences of, and resiliency to, parasitic infections. Though these infections are particularly prevalent among youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a focus on resiliency highlights local capacity to recover from and prevent illness. For instance, how is human parasitism perceived and experienced among communities displaying behaviours that studies have associated with transmission of diarrhoeal diseases, such as open defecation? Among these communities, how is parasitism seen to impact the health and development of children? And, what resources are available to endure or mitigate this heavy disease burden among affected communities? This study draws on formative research carried out in May 2014 in anticipation of an innovative school-based and youth-driven water, sanitation and hygiene education intervention rolled out in two boarding schools in the NCA in subsequent months. The initiative is grounded in a One Health approach to health promotion, drawing on partnerships in medicine, public health and veterinary medicine to appreciate the unique interactions between humans, animals and the environment that shape well-being among pastoralist communities. Qualitative data generated through group discussions with secondary school youth (n=60), Maasai teachers (n=6) and a women's group (n=8) in the NCA convey existing knowledge of the prevalence, prevention and treatment of human parasitism. An underlying principle of the larger initiative is to engage youth as creative agents of change in developing and sustaining locally relevant health promotion

  17. Quantification of physical activity using the QAPACE Questionnaire: a two stage cluster sample design survey of children and adolescents attending urban school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Nicolas; Sanchez, Carlos E; Patino, Efrain; Lozano, Benigno; Thalabard, Jean C; LE Bozec, Serge; Rieu, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Quantification of physical activity as energy expenditure is important since youth for the prevention of chronic non communicable diseases in adulthood. It is necessary to quantify physical activity expressed in daily energy expenditure (DEE) in school children and adolescents between 8-16 years, by age, gender and socioeconomic level (SEL) in Bogotá. This is a Two Stage Cluster Survey Sample. From a universe of 4700 schools and 760000 students from three existing socioeconomic levels in Bogotá (low, medium and high). The random sample was 20 schools and 1840 students (904 boys and 936 girls). Foreshadowing desertion of participants and inconsistency in the questionnaire responses, the sample size was increased. Thus, 6 individuals of each gender for each of the nine age groups were selected, resulting in a total sample of 2160 individuals. Selected students filled the QAPACE questionnaire under supervision. The data was analyzed comparing means with multivariate general linear model. Fixed factors used were: gender (boys and girls), age (8 to 16 years old) and tri-strata SEL (low, medium and high); as independent variables were assessed: height, weight, leisure time, expressed in hours/day and dependent variable: daily energy expenditure DEE (kJ.kg-1.day-1): during leisure time (DEE-LT), during school time (DEE-ST), during vacation time (DEE-VT), and total mean DEE per year (DEEm-TY) RESULTS: Differences in DEE by gender, in boys, LT and all DEE, with the SEL all variables were significant; but age-SEL was only significant in DEE-VT. In girls, with the SEL all variables were significant. The post hoc multiple comparisons tests were significant with age using Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) test in all variables. For both genders and for all SELs the values in girls had the higher value except SEL high (5-6) The boys have higher values in DEE-LT, DEE-ST, DEE-VT; except in DEEm-TY in SEL (5-6) In SEL (5-6) all DEEs for both genders are highest. For SEL

  18. Body-esteem of pupils who attended single-sex versus mixed-sex schools: a cross-sectional study of intrasexual competition and peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Patra, Chanchala; Smith, Joshua H; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-10-01

    In intrasexual competition (competition for reproductive resources), bullying can be viewed as a tool to devalue competitors, gain a high status and a powerful, dominant position in the peer group which may lead to beneficial gains such as access to potential romantic partners. This study investigated the relationship between intrasexual competition, bullying victimization and body-esteem, in single-sex versus mixed-sex schools. 420 participants completed a body-esteem scale, a retrospective bullying questionnaire, and intrasexual competition scales. Our results showed that relational victimization was associated with low body-esteem for both females and males. Females in single-sex schools experienced higher intrasexual competition which in turn was associated with their body-esteem directly and indirectly via relational victimization. In males, intrasexual competition was indirectly associated with body-esteem via relational victimization. Interventions to improve body esteem may focus on reducing intrasexual competition and peer victimization. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Family and School Influences on Youths' Behavioral and Academic Outcomes: Cross-Level Interactions between Parental Monitoring and Character Development Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Namik; Liew, Jeffrey; Luo, Wen

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the joint (interactive) roles of the Second Step curriculum (a validated social-emotional learning and bullying prevention program; Committee for Children, Seattle, WA) and parenting practices on students' behavioral and academic outcomes in Grades 5-8. Participants were 763 parents and their children from 22 schools (8 control and 14 treatment). A 2-level random coefficient model was conducted to assess the effect of parental monitoring on school outcomes, as well as the interaction between character development curriculum and parental monitoring. Results indicated that parental monitoring was a significant predictor of school behaviors and school grades. Furthermore, the Second Step curriculum moderated the relationship between parental monitoring and problem behaviors, prosocial behaviors, and grades at school. Specifically, in schools without the Second Step curriculum parental monitoring predicted higher school grades but had no impact on students' school behaviors. By contrast, in schools with the Second Step curriculum, parental monitoring predicted fewer problem behaviors as well as more prosocial behaviors. The study results highlight the joint influences of the family and the school in children's behavioral and academic trajectories. Results have implications for education and intervention, including improving the school climate, student behaviors, and learning or achievement.

  20. Why September Matters: Improving Student Attendance. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines absences in September and students' attendance over the rest of the year. Attendance should be addressed before it becomes problematic. Chronic absenteeism, missing more than 20 days of a school year, is an early indicator of disengagement. High absence rates have negative consequences not only for individual students, but also…

  1. Point-Counterpoint: Should Attendance Be Required in Collegiate Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Jo Ann M.; Lohrey, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines two divergent viewpoints about whether or not class attendance should be mandatory in higher education. The authors, both accounting professors at the same institution, delineate their respective viewpoints citing school policy, federal regulations and academic freedom as factors which motivate their attendance policy.

  2. Indigenous Australians and Preschool Education: Who Is Attending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the individual, family, household and area level characteristics associated with preschool attendance for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians (aged three to five years who are not at school). Controlling for these factors explains all of the difference between Indigenous and non-Indigenous attendance rates for…

  3. Level ofnutrition and nutrition disorders as well as characteristics ofdietary habits and physical activity among 6–13-year-old children attending selected primary schools in Opole and Silesia Provinces in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Jonczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Analysis of nutrition disorders, learning about eating habits and characterising physical activity among primary school children at the age of 6–13, living in the rural areas of Silesia and Opole Provinces in Poland. Material and methods: The study included the parents of children at the age 6–13 attending selected primary schools and living in rural areas of Silesia (Wielowieś, Boruszowice, Wojska, Potępa, Świerklaniec and Opole (Kielcza Provinces. The research group comprised 410 pupils: 217 boys (52.93% and 193 girls (47.07%. On the basis of obtained data, BMI index was calculated and a nutritional level was assessed. Moreover, the statistical analysis of dietary habits and physical activity of studied children was also performed. Results: Nearly 38% of studied children are overweight or obese. Furthermore, 17% are malnourished Every second child has a proper number of meals per day. Above 60% of pupils eat first and second breakfast every day. Merely 3.66% of children eat five or more portions of fruit and vegetables daily. Less than 62% of students declare to drink milk or eat dairy products. Over 83% of the respondents declare that their children eat meat several times a week. Over 28% of children have sweets or salty snacks every day. As for physical activity, about 59% of children prefer spending free time outdoors but approximately 22% of pupils practise sport regularly. Conclusion: This study revealed that students attending primary schools in selected rural areas are characterised by improper dietary habits. Their way of eating is not balanced in a right way – it is mainly based on meat and snacks like sweets. Furthermore, children eat few fruit and vegetables, highfibre products and drink little milk. Behaviours connected with physical activity are also inappropriate – children dedicate too little time to physical activity a week.

  4. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service ... school in northern Uganda with a case of mass psychotic behavior. ... Methods: Data on post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, physical ...

  5. Scientists from all over the world attended the 'Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2011' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Victor H.; Fischer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Commissariat r leEnergie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Cadarache, alternate in organizing the annual 'Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School.' This year's event, the 17th since its inception, was held in Karlsruhe, Germany on August 25 to September 3. Its topic was 'High-fidelity Modeling for Nuclear Reactors: Challenges and Prospects.' Here is a list of the subjects covered: - Status and perspectives of modeling and its role in design, operation, and safety. - Thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactors and simulation of 2 phase flows. - Structural mechanics, structure? fluid interaction, and seismic safety. - Advanced simulation in neutronics and reactor physics. - Progress in simulating fuel and materials behavior. - Multiphysics and uncertainty analysis methods. Experts from eight leading international research institutions and universities presented, and discussed with the 59 participants from 19 countries, the current state of the art and most recent development trends in the subjects listed above. (orig.)

  6. Implementation of a Self-Monitoring Application to Improve On-Task Behavior: A High-School Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Howard P.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovations offer promise for improving intervention implementation in secondary, inclusive classrooms. A withdrawal design was employed with two high-school students in order to assess the effectiveness of a technologically delivered, self-monitoring intervention in improving on-task behavior in a science classroom. Two students…

  7. The Contribution of School-Related Parental Monitoring, Self-Determination, and Self-Efficacy to Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affuso, Gaetana; Bacchini, Dario; Miranda, Maria Concetta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of school-related parental monitoring (SR-PM), self-determined motivation, and academic self-efficacy to academic achievement across time. The authors hypothesized that SR-PM would affect academic achievement indirectly via its effects on self-determined motivation and academic self-efficacy…

  8. Connecting the Dots for English Language Learners: How Odds-Beating Elementary School Educators Monitor and Use Student Performance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Gregory, Karen; Yu, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a multiple case study investigating the nature of educators' approaches toward monitoring English language learners' (ELLs) performance and using data to improve instruction and apply appropriate interventions. Six New York elementary schools where ELLs' performance was better than predicted (i.e.…

  9. Mobile Phone-Based Mood Ratings Prospectively Predict Psychotherapy Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Aguilera, Adrian; Schueller, Stephen M

    2017-09-01

    Psychotherapy nonattendance is a costly and pervasive problem. While prior research has identified stable patient-level predictors of attendance, far less is known about dynamic (i.e., time-varying) factors. Identifying dynamic predictors can clarify how clinical states relate to psychotherapy attendance and inform effective "just-in-time" interventions to promote attendance. The present study examines whether daily mood, as measured by responses to automated mobile phone-based text messages, prospectively predicts attendance in group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Fifty-six Spanish-speaking Latino patients with elevated depressive symptoms (46 women, mean age=50.92years, SD=10.90years), enrolled in a manualized program of group CBT, received daily automated mood-monitoring text messages. Patients' daily mood ratings, message response rate, and delay in responding were recorded. Patients' self-reported mood the day prior to a scheduled psychotherapy session significantly predicted attendance, even after controlling for patients' prior attendance history and age (OR=1.33, 95% CI [1.04, 1.70], p=.02). Positive mood corresponded to a greater likelihood of attendance. Our results demonstrate the clinical utility of automated mood-monitoring text messages in predicting attendance. These results underscore the value of text messaging, and other mobile technologies, as adjuncts to psychotherapy. Future work should explore the use of such monitoring to guide interventions to increase attendance, and ultimately the efficacy of psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using...... a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes...... of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P

  11. Variation in obesity among American secondary school students by school and school characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Delva, Jorge; Bachman, Jerald G; Schulenberg, John E

    2007-10-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is known to vary by individual characteristics, but little is known about whether BMI varies by school and by school characteristics. Nationally representative samples of United States schools and students are used to determine the extent to which BMI and percent of students at or above the 85th percentile of BMI vary by school and by school characteristics. Data from the 1991-2004 Monitoring the Future (MTF) study were analyzed in 2006 and 2007. A relatively small proportion of variance in BMI lies between schools; intraclass correlations are on the order of 3%. Still, this is sufficient variation to provide very different environments for students attending schools that are low versus high in average BMI. There is some modest variation by school type (public, Catholic private, non-Catholic private); school size (number of students in the sampled grade); region of the country; and population density. There is more variation as a function of school socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic composition of the school. School SES in particular was negatively associated with BMI levels, even after controlling individual-level SES and racial/ethnic status. The residual differences in BMI by school suggest that some characteristic of the school and/or community environment--perhaps cultural factors or peer role modeling or differences in school food, beverage, or physical education policies--facilitate obesity in schools with a high concentration of lower socioeconomic students, beyond individual-level factors.

  12. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m -2 BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 ml · kg -1 · min -1 VO 2max ). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The intersubject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min -1 per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p = .026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p = .574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p = .032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p = .026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  13. Predicting Parental Monitoring Behaviours for Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Parents of School-Aged Children: An Application of the Integrative Behavioural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housely, Alexandra; Branscum, Paul; Cheney, Marshall; Hofford, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to identify theory-based psychosocial and environmental determinants of parental monitoring practices related to child sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Design: Cross-sectional design. Method: Data were obtained from a convenience sample of parents (n = 270) with children attending an after-school…

  14. Analysis and Monitoring of Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate in a School Before and After Deep Energy Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    kindergartens/institutions -- that will undergo deep energy renovation over the next fewyears.The seven buildings are being energy-renovated and monitored with support from the European Union- CONCERTO initiative as part of the project titled Cost-Effective Low-Energy Advanced Sustainable Solutions -- Class1...... ventilation systems with heat recovery, low-energy lighting, water-saving measures, improved insulation of piping, and improved control using building energy management systems. This paper presents preliminary results of the analysis and monitoring of energy consumption and indoor climate in one public school...

  15. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2005 Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn summer school at Karlsruhe; Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2005'' in Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, V.H.; Fischer, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School annually organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarche, France, this year was held at the Karlsruhe Congress Center. In line with the mission of the School to disseminate nuclear competence an a broad basis among young scientists from all over the world, lectures covered reactor physics, nuclear fuels, and nuclear systems. Speakers from leading international research institutions presented introductions to their respective fields, outlined the current state of the art, and also highlighted areas in need of further development and, thus, likely to offer challenges to young scientists. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA and held at Cadarache, France. (orig.)

  16. Effects of Peer Tutoring and Academic Self-Monitoring on the Mathematics Vocabulary Performance of Secondary Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, Brittany L.; Evmenova, Anya; Brigham, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring coupled with academic self-monitoring on the mathematics vocabulary acquisition of students with emotional or behavioral disabilities (EBD). Six middle school students from diverse backgrounds with EBD attending a public, urban middle school participated in the study. A rigorous multiple…

  17. Attending to auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Compulsory Attendance Policies: About Age or Intervention? SREB Focus Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, SREB state policy-makers have focused on actions to reduce dropout rates and increase high school graduation rates. Some policy-makers have suggested that raising their state's compulsory attendance age (often called the dropout age) to require students to stay in school until age 17 or 18 is an important step. However,…

  19. The International Study of Leadership in Education: Monitoring Decision Making by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Helen; Forster, Pat; Louden, William; Wallace, John

    2004-01-01

    School principals have difficulty embracing the competing demands of school restructuring. These demands include being accountable for the outcomes of other decision-making groups within, or external to, the school community; having strong views while making decisions collaboratively; and using group processes without wasting the time, commitment,…

  20. Increasing Student Attendance: A Study Comparing Superintendents' Knowledge of Best Practices to Enacted Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isom, Dena K.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focused on the information available to superintendents related to improving student attendance. This information has the potential to assist school districts in improving the attendance of each student as is required by attendance standards such as those of the fifth version of the Missouri…

  1. Favouring New Indigenous Leadership: Indigenous Students Attending Higher Education in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Manuel Lopez

    2016-01-01

    The opportunities to attend higher education in Mexico have traditionally been offered to the middle class population since around 30% of students who finish high school are able to attend higher education. The main reason for this low attendance is the poverty in which much of the population lives and the lack of higher education institutions in…

  2. The Value of Attending a Women's College: Education, Occupation, and Income Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Cornelius

    1994-01-01

    A study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 compared effects of attendance at a women's college for one to six years (n=125) with attendance at only coeducational colleges (n=1832). Findings indicated significant occupational achievement benefits were realized for each year of attendance at a women's…

  3. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  4. Rural/Nonrural Differences in College Attendance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Irvin, Matthew J; Meece, Judith L

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study documented college attendance patterns of rural youth in terms of the selectivity of first postsecondary institution of attendance, the timing of transition to postsecondary education, and the continuity of enrollment. The study also examined how these college attendance patterns among rural students differed from those among their non-rural counterparts and which factors explained these rural/nonrural differences. Results showed that rural youth were less likely than their nonrural counterparts to attend a selective institution. In addition, rural youth were more likely to delay entry to postsecondary education, compared to their urban counterparts. Finally, rural students were less likely than their urban counterparts to be continuously enrolled in college. Much of these rural/nonrural disparities in college attendance patterns were explained by rural/nonrural differences in socioeconomic status and high school preparation. Policy implications, limitations of the study, and future research directions are also discussed.

  5. Day-care attendance and child development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  6. Scientists from all over the world attend the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn summer school at the Karlsruhe Research Center; Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School im Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, V.

    2003-11-01

    The Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School organized jointly by the Karlsruhe Research Center and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique was held in Karlsruhe in 2003 for the third time. The main topics this year focused on recent developments and findings in the fields of fuels and materials for reactors. Applications of nuclear technology beyond the confines of electricity generation were covered in discussions shout methods of hydrogen production. Specialized seminars dealt with current aspects of fusion research and the activities of the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU). (orig.)

  7. Assessment of water consumptions in small mediterranean islands' primary schools by means of a long-term online monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Marco; De Gisi, Sabino; Farina, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    A key challenge of our society is improving schools through the sustainable use of resources especially in countries at risk of desertification. The estimation of water consumption is the starting point for the correct dimensioning of water recovery systems. To date, unlike the energy sector, there is a lack of scientific information regarding water consumption in school buildings. Available data refer roughly to indirect estimates by means of utility bills and therefore no information on the role of water leakage in the internal network of the school is provided. In this context, the aim of the work was to define and implement an on-line monitoring system for the assessment of water consumptions in a small Mediterranean island primary school to achieve the following sub-goals: (1) definition of water consumption profile considering teaching activities and secretarial work; (2) direct assessment of water consumptions and leakages and, (3) quantification of the behaviour parameters. The installed monitoring system consisted of 33 water metres (3.24 persons per water metre) equipped with sensors set on 1-L impulse signal and connected to a data logging system. Results showed consumptions in the range 13.6-14.2 L/student/day and leakage equal to 54.8 % of the total water consumptions. Considering the behavioural parameters, the consumptions related to toilet flushing, personal, and building cleaning were, respectively, 54, 43 and 3 % of the total water ones. Finally, the obtained results could be used for dimensioning the most suitable water recovery strategies at school level such as grey water or rainwater recovery systems.

  8. The Argument Is Not Compulsory Law, but How Attendance Is Recorded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael; Hemmer, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines attendance accounting policies and practices for students enrolled in public schools in Texas and in alternative schools of choice (ASC) in particular. Technology advancement allows students to complete their coursework virtually anywhere they have internet access; however, conventional state attendance policies still require…

  9. Improving children's behaviour and attendance through the use of parenting programmes: an examination of good practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Shaw, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    There is powerful evidence that attendance at school and academic performance are positively related and that those who are excluded and do not attend school regularly, whatever the reasons, are more likely to become involved in crime. Recently, much emphasis has been put on the role that parents can play in improving the attendance and behaviour of their children. The Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2003 introduced new powers for Local Education Authorities (LEAs) to apply for a parenting order to...

  10. The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruto eTakagishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6 - 12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed.

  11. Do young people attending addiction services differ from those attending youth mental health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Grant; Merry, Sally; Robinson, Elizabeth

    2010-07-01

    We aimed to describe and compare the self-reported substance use, psychopathology and psychosocial morbidity in adolescents attending two adolescent outpatient services, a triage-based mental health service and an engagement-focused addiction service in Auckland, New Zealand. A naturalistic cross-section of 131 (addiction service = 67, mental health service = 64) 14-18-year-old boys and girls attending each service completed a standardised screening and assessment instrument, the Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised. The Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised measures self-reported problems across 10 domains of functioning, including substance use, behaviour, psychiatric symptoms and school and family functioning. Descriptive statistics were used to provide an overview of the self-reported morbidity in each group and t-tests were used to determine differences between the two groups. Adolescents attending the addiction service reported significantly more problems with substance use, school performance and peer relationships than those attending the mental health service. There was no significant difference in reported psychiatric symptoms, behavioural problems, social competency, health problems, family problems, difficulties in work functioning or leisure time between the two groups. Young people presenting to engagement-focused substance use services report similar difficulties to those at mental health services across most areas of psychosocial functioning. Addiction services may require equivalent staffing expertise and workforce development to that in mental health to effectively meet young people's needs.

  12. Attendance, Employability, Student Performance and Electronic Course Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the possible detrimental effects of low attendance on the achievement of important learning outcomes in terms of "soft" employability-enhancing skills among undergraduate students in business schools, and explores how the use of learning technologies may contribute to high...... or low class attendance levels. The chapter describes the exploratory results of a survey carried out among final year bachelor students attending a strategic management course, the findings of which suggest that a significant number of students view virtual learning environments as a substitute...

  13. Design of Lightweight e Attendance Prototype Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Saaidi Ismail; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Nurbahyah Hamdan; Abdul Muin Abd Rahman

    2014-01-01

    E-Attendance is a system that has been extensively used to record attendance in most of the official ceremony of Nuclear Malaysia. Currently, a computer is used as the client to record the input from the proximity card. However, further study on Raspberry Pi, the single board computer that use system on a chip (SoC) in the current market, discover that it is capable of delivering a simple light task of the e-attendance. With a compact memory and in linux environment, a prototype for lightweight e-attendance is being developed. This prototype of Raspberry Pi is believe to have potential in computer based system of Nuclear Technology such as access control, monitoring system and even robotic assistance. This paper will discuss the design of the prototype that resemble e-attendance to improve the robustness of the system. (author)

  14. Attendance Policies, Student Attendance, and Instructor Verbal Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…

  15. Mapping, Measuring and Monitoring Achievement: Can a New Evaluation Framework Help Schools Challenge Inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gillean

    2017-01-01

    While mainstream schools have seen an increasing focus on performance and attainment in recent years, this focus has often been resisted by special and alternative educational provision in the United Kingdom. However, concern is now growing about the low levels of achievement for children and young people educated outside mainstream schools. This…

  16. Indoor Air Quality in Schools (IAQ): The Importance of Monitoring Carbon Dioxide Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundersingh, David; Bearg, David W.

    This article highlights indoor air quality and exposure to pollutants at school. Typical air pollutants within schools include environmental tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, allergens, pathogens, radon, pesticides, lead, and dust. Inadequate ventilation, inefficient…

  17. Parental monitoring and rule-breaking behaviour in secondary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina

    2017-01-01

    Parental monitoring is recognised as one of the most important family factors that are associated with rule-breaking behaviour. The objective of this paper is to determine the nature of correlations between parental monitoring and its key components (parents’ knowledge, child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control) and rule-breaking behaviour. Additionally, the prediction of the rule-breaking behaviour by parental monitoring variables, age a...

  18. Perceived parental monitoring and health risk behavior among public secondary school students in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-12-28

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  19. Development of a physical activity monitoring tool for Thai medical schools: a protocol for a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapisit, Apichai; Vijitpongjinda, Surasak; Saengow, Udomsak; Amaek, Waluka; Thanamee, Sanhapan; Petchuay, Prachyapan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) is important in promoting health, as well as in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, insufficient PA is still a global health problem and it is also a problem in medical schools. PA training in medical curricula is still sparse or non-existent. There is a need for a comprehensive understanding of the extent of PA in medical schools through several indicators, including people, places and policies. This study includes a survey of the PA prevalence in a medical school and development of a tool, the Medical School Physical Activity Report Card (MSPARC), which will contain concise and understandable infographics and information for exploring, monitoring and reporting information relating to PA prevalence. Methods and analysis This mixed methods study will run from January to September 2017. We will involve the School of Medicine, Walailak University, Thailand, and its medical students (n=285). Data collection will consist of both primary and secondary data, divided into four parts: general information, people, places and policies. We will investigate the PA metrics about (1) people: the prevalence of PA and sedentary behaviours; (2) place: the quality and accessibility of walkable neighbourhoods, bicycle facilities and recreational areas; and (3) policy: PA promotion programmes for medical students, education metrics and investments related to PA. The MSPARC will be developed using simple symbols, infographics and short texts to evaluate the PA metrics of the medical school. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Walailak University (protocol number: WUEC-16-005-01). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national or international conferences. The MSPARC and full report will be disseminated to relevant stakeholders, policymakers, staff and clients. PMID:28963299

  20. Development of a physical activity monitoring tool for Thai medical schools: a protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapisit, Apichai; Vijitpongjinda, Surasak; Saengow, Udomsak; Amaek, Waluka; Thanamee, Sanhapan; Petchuay, Prachyapan

    2017-09-27

    Physical activity (PA) is important in promoting health, as well as in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, insufficient PA is still a global health problem and it is also a problem in medical schools. PA training in medical curricula is still sparse or non-existent. There is a need for a comprehensive understanding of the extent of PA in medical schools through several indicators, including people, places and policies. This study includes a survey of the PA prevalence in a medical school and development of a tool, the Medical School Physical Activity Report Card (MSPARC), which will contain concise and understandable infographics and information for exploring, monitoring and reporting information relating to PA prevalence. This mixed methods study will run from January to September 2017. We will involve the School of Medicine, Walailak University, Thailand, and its medical students (n=285). Data collection will consist of both primary and secondary data, divided into four parts: general information, people, places and policies. We will investigate the PA metrics about (1) people: the prevalence of PA and sedentary behaviours; (2) place: the quality and accessibility of walkable neighbourhoods, bicycle facilities and recreational areas; and (3) policy: PA promotion programmes for medical students, education metrics and investments related to PA. The MSPARC will be developed using simple symbols, infographics and short texts to evaluate the PA metrics of the medical school. This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of Walailak University (protocol number: WUEC-16-005-01). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national or international conferences. The MSPARC and full report will be disseminated to relevant stakeholders, policymakers, staff and clients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  1. School Refusal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    School attendance is an ongoing concern for administrators, particularly in middle level and high school. Frequent absences affect student learning, test scores, and social development. Absenteeism is often the result of emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression. Administrators who understand the causes of school refusal behavior and are…

  2. Self-Monitoring Interventions for At-Risk Middle School Students: The Importance of Considering Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Donald E., III; Simonsen, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Self-monitoring is a popular, efficient, and effective intervention that is associated with improved academic and social behavior for students across age and ability levels. To date, this is the first study to directly compare the outcomes of self-monitoring functionally relevant and non-relevant replacement behaviors. Specifically, we used an…

  3. A call for parental monitoring to improve condom use among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlunde Linda B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of people newly infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been decreasing in sub-Saharan Africa, but prevalence of the infection remains unacceptably high among young people. Despite the alarming pervasiveness of the virus, young people in this region continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors including unprotected sexual intercourse. In developed countries, parents can play important roles in protecting young people from such behaviors, but evidence regarding the impact of parental involvement is still limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse among secondary school students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional study among 2,217 male and female students aged 15 to 24 years from 12 secondary schools in Dar es Salaam. From October to November 2011, we collected data using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of parental monitoring and parental communication with condom use at last sexual intercourse, adjusting for potential confounders. Results A total of 665 (30.3% secondary school students reported being sexually active within the year prior to data collection. Among them, 41.7% had multiple sexual partners, 10.5% had concurrent sexual partners, and 41.1% did not use a condom at last sexual intercourse. A higher level of parental monitoring was associated with increased likelihood of condom use at last sexual intercourse among male students (AOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05-2.32; p = 0.03 but not among female students (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.71-3.37; p = 0.28. The association between parental communication and condom use at last sexual intercourse among both male and female students was not statistically

  4. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Springer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982. After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, multilevel regression analyses indicated that students reporting low parental monitoring were between 2 to 3.5 times more likely to report risk behaviors examined. The promotion of specific parenting practices such as parental monitoring may hold promise for reducing adolescent risk behaviors in El Salvador.

  5. QRAC-the-Code: a comprehension monitoring strategy for middle school social studies textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Sheri; Riccomini, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Requirements for reading and ascertaining information from text increase as students advance through the educational system, especially in content-rich classes; hence, monitoring comprehension is especially important. However, this is a particularly challenging skill for many students who struggle with reading comprehension, including students with learning disabilities. A randomized pre-post experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a comprehension monitoring strategy (QRAC-the-Code) for improving the reading comprehension of 323 students in grades 6 and 7 in inclusive social studies classes. Findings indicated that both general education students and students with learning disabilities who were taught a simple comprehension monitoring strategy improved their comprehension of textbook content compared to students who read independently and noted important points. In addition, students in the comprehension monitoring condition reported using more reading strategies after the intervention. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. School Segregation, Charter Schools, and Access to Quality Education*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R.; Burdick-Will, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Race, class, neighborhood, and school quality are all highly inter-related in the American educational system. In the last decade a new factor has come into play, the option of attending a charter school. We offer a comprehensive analysis of the disparities among public schools attended by white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American children in 2010–2011, including all districts in which charter schools existed. We compare schools in terms of poverty concentration, racial composition, and standardized test scores, and we also examine how attending a charter or non-charter school affects these differences. Black and Hispanic (and to a lesser extent Native American and Asian) students attend elementary and high schools with higher rates of poverty than white students. Especially for whites and Asians, attending a charter school means lower exposure to poverty. Children’s own race and the poverty and charter status of their schools affect the test scores and racial isolation of schools that children attend in complex combinations. Most intriguing, attending a charter school means attending a better performing school in high-poverty areas but a lower performing school in low-poverty areas. Yet even in the best case the positive effect of attending a charter school only slightly offsets the disadvantages of black and Hispanic students. PMID:27616813

  7. Perceived Parental Monitoring and Health Risk Behavior among Public Secondary School Students in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Andrew E.; Sharma, Shreela; de Guardado, Alba Margarita; Nava, Francisco Vázquez; Kelder, Steven H.

    2006-01-01

    Although parental monitoring has received considerable attention in studies of U.S. adolescents, few published studies have examined how parents' knowledge of their children's whereabouts may influence health risk behaviors in adolescents living in Latin America. We investigated the association between perceived parental monitoring and substance use, fighting, and sexual behaviors in rural and urban Salvadoran adolescents (n = 982). After adjusting for several sociodemographic covariates, mul...

  8. Day-care attendance and child development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...

  9. The Zulu traditional birth attendant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the important practices of Zulu traditional birth attendants ... the people as regards pregnancy and labour. This article docu- .... into account previous perinatal deaths. ... They were either widows or married to husbands unable to work.

  10. Monitoring Child Health: School Doctors at Work in a Dutch Rural Area (1930-1970)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2016-01-01

    From 1948 the World Health Organization expected child hygiene to include mental health. This article discusses the way school doctors adapted their activities and concerns accordingly in the mid-twentieth century in an agrarian-industrial area of the Netherlands. In spite of an improvement in pupils' physical health they shifted their attention…

  11. ¿Qué Efecto Tiene Asistir a Sala Cuna y Jardín Infantil Desde los Tres Meses Hasta los Cuatro Años de Edad?: Estudio Longitudinal en la Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles What Is the Effect of Attending Nursery School Between Three Months and Four Years of Age?: A Longitudinal Study in the National Preschool Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Seguel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio longitudinal cuasi-experimental con grupo de comparación examinó el efecto de asistir desde 1 a 4 años de edad a jardines de la Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles (JUNJI de Chile sobre el desarrollo/aprendizaje de los párvulos y el efecto diferencial de asistir a partir de los 3 años. El muestreo fue bietápico (41 jardines y 427 niños al inicio y estratificado por región del país. El grupo de comparación, con características socioeconómicas similares (184 niños al inicio, no asistía a sala cuna. Los niños fueron evaluados anualmente con el Inventario de Desarrollo Battelle. También se recogieron variables familiares y educativas con entrevistas semi-estructuradas y pautas de observación. Comparaciones usando Propensity Score Matching y análisis de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios arrojaron que alrededor del 80% de los niños cursa un desarrollo normal, independientemente de que asistan a los jardines infantiles JUNJI o permanezcan en sus casas. Asistir desde los 3 años tendría un efecto positivo en el desarrollo infantil. La calidad de las prácticas pedagógicas en lactantes y la actitud didáctica familiar explicarían mayormente el desarrollo de los párvulos.This quasi-experimental longitudinal study with comparison group examined the effect on the learning and developmental levels of infants attending the National Preschool Association (JUNJI nursery schools in Chile (between 3 months and 4 years of age and the differential effect of attending them from 3 years of age onward. A two-stage (41 nurseries and 427 children at the beginning and stratified sample by region was used. The comparison group, with similar socioeconomic characteristics (184 children at the beginning, did not attend a nursery school. Children were assessed yearly with the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Family and educational variables were collected using semi-structured interviews and an observational guideline. Comparisons using

  12. Aspects of birth history and outcome in diplegics attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. We aimed to study functional mobility and visual performance in spastic diplegic children and adolescents attending specialised schools. Methods. Spastic diplegia (SD) was confirmed by clinical examination. Birth and related history were added to explore relationships between SD, birth weight (BW) and duration of ...

  13. Impact of Attendance Policy on Adult College Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tracinal S.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative evaluation focused on the problem of student attrition at a northern California college, its attendance policy, the policy's impact on previous students' decisions to persist in school, and on administrators' attempts to increase retention. The purpose for this study was to evaluate the participants' perceptions about their…

  14. Linking Teacher Quality, Student Attendance, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of educational inputs, particularly research on teacher effectiveness, typically overlooks teachers' potential impact on behavioral outcomes, such as student attendance. Using longitudinal data on teachers and students in North Carolina I estimate teacher effects on primary school student absences in a value-added…

  15. Abdominal obesity in adolescent girls attending a public secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Deposition of excess fat in the abdominal region is strongly associated with the metabolic disturbances thought to underlie many obesity related complications. Aim: To determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity using waist circumference inadolescents' girls attending a public secondary school in Port ...

  16. Attending National Library Legislative Day: Why Is It Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Prior to this year, the National Library Legislative Day never really held much importance for the author as a school library media specialist. However, this feeling changed after she attended her first National Library Legislative Day in May of 2008. The goal of this day is to allow everyday practicing professionals to speak with their national…

  17. Teacher-Provided Positive Attending to Improve Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perle, Jonathan G.

    2016-01-01

    A teacher serves many important roles within a classroom, including an educator and a manager of child behavior. Inattention, overactivity, and noncompliance have long been cited as some of the most common areas of reported difficulty for schools (Axelrod & Zank, 2012; Goldstein, 1995). The evidence-based practice of positive attending (i.e.,…

  18. Student attendance and student achievement: a tumultuous and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2001-12-21

    Dec 21, 2001 ... students must be present in school in order to benefit from academic program in .... attend class but passed with sometimes very high scores (e.g. 83% in CBS ..... done outside class or interaction forms, through online learning plat-form. ... also has obliged all journalism students to possess either an iPhone.

  19. Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Edward

    2013-06-01

    As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

  20. Effects of an inconsistency-detection training aimed at improving comprehension monitoring in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenburg, S.I.; Bos, L.T.; de Koning, B.B.; van der Schoot, M.

    2015-01-01

    Grounded within the situation model framework, this study investigated the effectiveness of a reading comprehension strategy training aimed at improving children’s comprehension monitoring strategies. Sixty-four third and fourth graders received a 4-week training targeted at situation model

  1. Changing of the Guard: How Different School Leaders Change Organizational Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Ernestine K.; Conley, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    While providing stability and uniformity, organizational routines can foster continuous change. Using Feldman's (2000) performative model of routinized action theory, coupled with leadership succession research, we examined how three successive administrations in a California high school revised a student attendance (tardy-monitoring) routine over…

  2. Mapping area variability in social and behavioural difficulties among Glasgow pre-schoolers: linkage of a survey of pre-school staff with routine monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, S J E; Marryat, L; Thompson, L; Ellaway, A; White, J; McClung, M; Wilson, P

    2015-11-01

    Social, emotional and behavioural development in early to middle childhood impact upon many outcomes in future life and are influenced by home, neighbourhood and school environments. We used linked data to investigate differences between areas in Glasgow City in level of difficulties in pre-school age children, after consideration of demographics, including area-level deprivation. Pre-school education staff completed Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) on all children progressing to school from a local authority or partnership (local authority-funded private) pre-school in Glasgow City between 2010 and 2012. These data were linked to individual (age, gender) and area-level (deprivation) demographics from the City Council Education Services Department. Statistical models were fitted to the SDQ scores, adjusting for age, gender, area deprivation, year of school entry, pre-school establishment attended and electoral ward of residence. Correlation between neighbouring wards was incorporated to allow for clustering of scores. Boys and those living in more deprived areas had higher levels of difficulties. Children aged 5.0-5.5 years had fewest difficulties, while the oldest and youngest children had similar levels of difficulties. There were no significant secular trends by year of school entry. There remained differences among areas after adjusting for these variables, with children living in some areas having fewer difficulties than would be expected based on their socio-demographic characteristics. There remained differences in children's levels of difficulties between areas after adjusting for age, gender, area deprivation and year of school entry. Children in some very deprived areas had fewer difficulties than might be expected, while those in relatively affluent areas had more difficulties than expected based on their deprivation level. There may be other, unmeasured, individual- and area-level reasons for children's level of difficulties, and these

  3. Self care activities among patients with diabetes attending a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self care activities among patients with diabetes attending a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore Karnataka, India. ... Conclusions: Self‑care practices were found to be unsatisfactory in almost all aspects except for blood sugar monitoring and treatment adherence. As these practices are essential for prevention of ...

  4. Flight Attendant Fatigue: A Quantitative Review of Flight Attendant Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Hellesoy, 1994; Hunt & Space, 1994; Nagda & Koontz , 2003; Nesthus et al., 2007; Rayman, 1997; Smolensky, Lee, Mott, & Colligan, 1982; Tashkin...www.boeing. com/commercial/cabinair/ventilation.pdf Nagda, N.L., & Koontz , M.D. (2003). Review of studies on flight attendant health and comfort in

  5. Individual rights over public good? The future of anthropometric monitoring of school children in the fight against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Joanne M; Achat, Helen M

    2009-02-02

    Available evidence indicates that rates of childhood overweight and obesity have been increasing over the past two decades, but inconsistencies between study methods moderate the strength of this evidence. Concomitant health problems and associated costs make it imperative that primary prevention initiatives are introduced to combat the obesity epidemic. Fundamental to informed action is anthropometric monitoring, which if properly implemented will identify changes over time in specific populations to inform policies, practices and services aimed at prevention and treatment. Sample representativeness is essential for valid trend and prevalence data, but efforts to obtain population-based anthropometric data from school children with the required written parental consent have been thwarted by low participation rates. Notable improvements in participation rates when utilising opt-out consent, in which participation is assumed unless otherwise indicated, are evident from local as well as international studies. Opt-out consent can facilitate anthropometric monitoring, delivering a more informed, best-value-for-money response to the obesity epidemic. Health and education ethics committees need to acknowledge the benefits of opt-out consent for "low-risk" anthropometric measurement, which ultimately upholds the individual's rights.

  6. School Progress Report 2012. Montgomery County Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels. Montgomery County primary schools are…

  7. School Progress Report 2013. Montgomery County Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 School Progress Report for Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) provides state, county, and individual school performance data, as well as information on student attendance, high school graduation rates, and the professional qualifications of teachers at the state, district, and school levels for the 2012-2013 school year. Montgomery…

  8. Church Attendance and Religious Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Nilsen Kvande

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that gender may moderate the relationship between religiousness and mental health in most countries, but few studies have been conducted in Norway and Denmark. This study examined gender differences in religious experiences and church attendance as predictors of existential well-being among 295 women and 233 men from the general Norwegian population. Analyses showed that the structural equation models for women and men did not differ significantly on the global level. The models for women and men, however, showed different patterns. Among men, church attendance and negative religious experiences predicted existential well-being; among women, positive and negative religious experiences were related to existential well-being, but church attendance was not. The present findings suggest that men may benefit more from active religiousness, whereas women may benefit more from affective religiousness. Comparing these results with research in other cultural contexts, we find that different operationalizations of church attendance yield the same types of patterns across cultural contexts. Consequently, the benefits of religiousness may be similar for women and men irrespective of cultural context.

  9. Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…

  10. If You Build It, They Will Come: A Successful Truancy Intervention Program in a Small High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvul, John N.

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether a 5-month program involving attendance monitoring, sports participation, and a moral character class would reduce absenteeism, 40 students in a small transitional high school were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups and assessed pre- and postintervention on educational expectations, attitude toward education, and…

  11. Measured and perceived environmental comfort: field monitoring in an Italian school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giuli, Valeria; Zecchin, Roberto; Corain, Livio; Salmaso, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Microclimatic conditions were recorded in an Italian school and Fanger's indexes PMV and PPD were calculated under different conditions. Students' sensations were investigated four times by means of two surveys, one related to actual microclimatic conditions and one on overall satisfaction, interaction occupant-building and reactions to discomfort. Pupils' classroom position was considered to look for possible influence on thermal comfort: a difference emerged from PMV and the survey, but the results obtained from the two approaches differ for both the entity of discomfort and its distribution within each classroom. Innovative multivariate nonparametric statistical techniques were applied to compare and rank the classrooms in accordance with students' subjective perceptions; a global ranking has been also calculated, considering thermal and visual comfort and air quality. Comparing pupil-sensation-based ranking with environmental parameters no clear correspondence was found, except for mid-season, where PMV, CO2 concentration and desk illuminance were similar in all the classrooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 11532 - Notice of Attendance at ISO New England and NEPOOL Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Attendance at ISO New England... members of the Commission and Commission staff may attend upcoming ISO New England Inc. (ISO-NE) and New..., the Commission and Commission staff may monitor the various meetings posted on the ISO-NE Web site...

  13. Foods and beverages offered in US public secondary schools through the National School Lunch Program from 2011-2013: Early evidence of improved nutrition and reduced disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2015-09-01

    To present data on trends in foods and beverages offered through the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in public middle and high schools in the years immediately preceding and following implementation of new NSLP standards. From 2011 to 2013, primary data collection through the annual Youth, Education, and Society study involved use of mailed questionnaires to obtain data on NSLP meals from schools attended by nationally representative samples of US 8(th), 10(th), and 12(th) grade students (N=792 middle schools and 751 high schools). Each school was weighted to represent the percentage of target grade students enrolled, thus allowing analyses examining changes over time in the percentage of students enrolled in (attending) schools with specified NSLP measure outcomes, as well as disparities in NSLP measures based on school characteristics. Significantly more US secondary students attended schools with specified NSLP measures in 2013 than in 2011; increases were observed at both middle and high school levels. Increase rates for some NSLP measures were moderated by school characteristics; where this was the case, moderating associations decreased prior NSLP nutrition environment disparities that were especially evident in smaller schools and schools with higher percentages of minority students. Meaningful improvements have been made in the nutritional content of NSLP meals offered to US secondary students; these improvements have reduced prior NSLP meal disparities associated with school characteristics. Schools will need continued help with implementation and compliance monitoring in order to have the best opportunity to improve the nutrition environments for US students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Speech-based Class Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizel Amri, Umar; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif, Noor

    2017-11-01

    In the department of engineering, students are required to fulfil at least 80 percent of class attendance. Conventional method requires student to sign his/her initial on the attendance sheet. However, this method is prone to cheating by having another student signing for their fellow classmate that is absent. We develop our hypothesis according to a verse in the Holy Qur’an (95:4), “We have created men in the best of mould”. Based on the verse, we believe each psychological characteristic of human being is unique and thus, their speech characteristic should be unique. In this paper we present the development of speech biometric-based attendance system. The system requires user’s voice to be installed in the system as trained data and it is saved in the system for registration of the user. The following voice of the user will be the test data in order to verify with the trained data stored in the system. The system uses PSD (Power Spectral Density) and Transition Parameter as the method for feature extraction of the voices. Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances are used in order to verified the user’s voice. For this research, ten subjects of five females and five males were chosen to be tested for the performance of the system. The system performance in term of recognition rate is found to be 60% correct identification of individuals.

  15. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005.......The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005....

  16. School Outcomes of Children With Special Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Riley, Anne W.; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. RESULTS: Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. CONCLUSIONS: Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes. PMID:21788226

  17. School outcomes of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes.

  18. Automated attendance management and alert system | Rahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated attendance management and alert system. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... AAMAS provides various functions, from managing and recording students' attendance record, to sending automatic alerts to students ...

  19. Impact of conference attendance on librarians' leadership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... attendance to leadership developments hows approximately 0.370.m Conference attendance was highly recommended as a means of enhancing leadership development of academic librarians. Keywords: Experiential learning, self efficacy, attitude, Conference, Impact, Leadership, Teamwork, development, brainstorm, ...

  20. Attendance Control System based on RFID technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbek Saparkhojayev; Selim Guvercin

    2012-01-01

    In Kazakhstan, checking students' attendance is one of the important issues for universities, because many universities evaluate students attendance and while giving the final grade, professors consider their total number of appearances on classes during the whole semester. This brings to the idea of having some tool to control students attendance. Some universities prefer to use paper sheet for controlling attendance, whereas some universities prefer to use paper sheet for checking students'...

  1. 29 CFR 785.28 - Involuntary attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Involuntary attendance. 785.28 Section 785.28 Labor... POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.28 Involuntary attendance. Attendance is not voluntary, of...

  2. E-cigarette price sensitivity among middle- and high-school students: evidence from monitoring the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Huang, Jidong; Johnston, Lloyd D; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-05-01

    We estimated associations between e-cigarette prices (both disposable and refill) and e-cigarette use among middle and high-school students in the United States. We also estimated associations between cigarette prices and e-cigarette use. We used regression models to estimate the associations between e-cigarette and cigarette prices and e-cigarette use. In our regression models, we exploited changes in e-cigarette and cigarette prices across four periods of time and across 50 markets. We report the associations as price elasticities. In our primary model, we controlled for socio-demographic characteristics, cigarette prices, tobacco control policies, market fixed effects and year-quarter fixed effects. United States of America. A total of 24 370 middle- and high-school students participating in the Monitoring the Future Survey in years 2014 and 2015. Self-reported e-cigarette use over the last 30 days. Average quarterly cigarette prices, e-cigarette disposable prices and e-cigarette refill prices were constructed from Nielsen retail data (inclusive of excise taxes) for 50 US markets. In a model with market fixed effects, we estimated that a 10% increase in e-cigarette disposable prices is associated with a reduction in the number of days vaping among e-cigarette users by approximately 9.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) = -17.7 to 1.8%; P = 0.02] and is associated with a reduction in the number of days vaping by the full sample by approximately 17.9% (95% CI = -31.5 to -4.2%; P = 0.01). Refill e-cigarette prices were not statistically significant predictors of vaping. Cigarette prices were not associated significantly with e-cigarette use regardless of the e-cigarette price used. However, in a model without market fixed effects, cigarette prices were a statistically significant positive predictor of total e-cigarette use. Higher e-cigarette disposable prices appear to be associated with reduced e-cigarette use among adolescents in the US. © 2017 Society

  3. Using smart card technology to monitor the eating habits of children in a school cafeteria: 3. The nutritional significance of beverage and dessert choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, N; Plumb, J; Looise, B; Johnson, I T; Harvey, I; Wheeler, C; Robinson, M; Rolfe, P

    2005-08-01

    The consumption patterns of beverages and desserts features highly in the current debate surrounding children's nutrition. The aim of this study was to continuously monitor the choice of beverages and desserts made by nearly 1000 children in a school cafeteria. A newly developed smart card system was used to monitor the food choices of diners (7-16-year-old boys) in a school cafeteria over 89 days. A wide variety of beverages and desserts were on offer daily. Despite coming from an affluent, well-educated demographic group, the boys' choices of beverages and desserts mirrored those of children in general. Buns and cookies were over 10 times more popular than fresh fruits and yogurts. Sugary soft-drinks were over 20 times more popular than fresh fruit drinks and milk combined. Appropriate choices could, over a month, reduce intake of added sugar by over 800 g and fat by over 200 g. The smart card system was very effective at monitoring total product choices for nearly 1000 diners. In agreement with a recent national school meal survey, where choice is extensive, children show a preference for products high in fat and/or sugar. The consequences of these preferences are discussed.

  4. Perception of Sexuality Education amongst Secondary School

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school students attending a series of Schools debates in Port. Harcourt Metropolis. ... 31(2): 109–113. Keywords:Perceptions, sexuality education, secondary school, students. ..... implications for counseling practices. European Journal of ...

  5. More than just a meal: Breakfast club attendance and children’s social relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret (Greta Anne Defeyter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of school food have been widely promoted in recent years while the social opportunities that surround eating occasions at school have received little attention. Breakfast clubs, which take place at the start of the school day, offer a unique opportunity for children to consume a breakfast meal on their school premises in the company of their peers. Alternatively, after school clubs, which take place on school premises at the end of the school day, whilst also providing children with social opportunities tend to focus on sports engagement and skill development. The aim of the current paper is to investigate whether attendance at breakfast clubs and after school clubs has an impact on children’s friendship quality and experiences of peer victimization. Breakfast club attendees, after-school club attendees and non-attendees completed the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS and the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS at two time points. Time 1 data were collected two months after the introduction of school clubs. Time 2 data were then collected on the same measures again six months later. Results of the analyses of Time 1 data showed no significant differences between groups on any of the measures at Time 1. However, at Time 2 breakfast club attendees showed improved levels of friendship quality compared to the other two groups. Moreover, analysis of the MPVS data at Time 2 showed that children who attended breakfast club or after school club experienced a decline in victimization across time. The current findings suggest that breakfast club attendance facilitates the quality of children’s relationships with their best friend over time. Additionally, attendance at a breakfast or after school club was associated with a reduction in victimization over time. The results have implications for utilization of breakfast and after school clubs to aid children’s social relationships in school over time.

  6. Effect of weather on football attendances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, J A

    1984-01-01

    On the premise that weather should have an effect on spectator attendance at sports events in outdoor settings (a topic which has received surprisingly little formalized study), the author examined the record of home attendances for three football teams in Scotland. In general, it was found that the greater the rainfall on the day of the match the lower the attendance. Dividing spectators into different groups, it was further found that an additional hour of sunshine was associated 162 more adults attending Aberdeen matches, while high temperatures appeared to increase juvenile attendance (by 57 for ever 1 deg. C. rise in temperature). Weather disruption of football games is attended by a number of costs, both direct and indirect. Quantifying the impact of weather can shed substantial light on the problem of scheduling for the season. For example, since certain periods are, on average, wetter than others, rescheduling to drier periods might encourage greater attendance.

  7. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  8. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  9. Comparing resident cataract surgery outcomes under novice versus experienced attending supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puri S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sidharth Puri,1 Amanda E Kiely,2 Jiangxia Wang,3 Alonzo S Woodfield,4 Saras Ramanathan,5 Shameema Sikder21Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 3Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 4Kaiser Permanente South Sacramento Medical Center, Sacramento, 5San Francisco School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USAPurpose: To determine whether supervision by an attending new to surgical teaching or an experienced attending measurably influences intraoperative complications rates or outcomes in phacoemulsification performed by ophthalmology residents.Setting: Single tertiary hospital.Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Resident-performed phacoemulsification cases supervised by one novice attending (N=189 and experienced attending (N=172 over 1 year were included. Data included: resident year, patient age, sex, preoperative risk factors (4+ dense/white/brunescent cataracts, Flomax, zonular dialysis, pseudoexfoliation, glaucoma risk, post-vitrectomy, intraoperative risk factors (Trypan blue, iris hooks, and intraoperative complications (capsule tears, vitreous loss, zonular dialysis, zonular dehiscence, burns, nuclear fragment loss, Descemet’s tear. Experienced attending data were compared against those of the novice attending.Results: Regarding preoperative risks, experienced attending cases more likely involved 4+ cataract (P=0.005, Flomax (P<0.001, or glaucoma risk (P=0.001. For intraoperative risks, novice attending cases more likely involved Trypan blue (P<0.001. Regarding complications, novice attending cases were associated with vitreous loss (P=0.002 and anterior capsule tears (P<0.001. When comparing total complications, the novice attending was more likely to have both increased number of cases with complications and total complications than the experienced attending. The novice

  10. Blood Pressure Home Monitoring in Hypertensive Patients Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Two hundred and five hypertensive patients who practice HMBP were recruited into this study. Sixty percent of ... communicating BP readings to their physicians is needed. ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts .... to analyze relationships between continuous.

  11. Preschool Attendance: How Researchers and Practitioners Are Working Together to Understand and Address Absenteeism among Our Youngest Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Gwynne, Julia; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Fatani, Serah

    2016-01-01

    Consistent school attendance is a key foundation of student learning. While missing one or two school days each year is not likely to have serious consequences, chronic absenteeism (missing 10% or more of enrolled school days) can seriously undermine the learning process (Allensworth & Easton, 2007). Given national efforts to increase the…

  12. Missing School Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted by the Office for Civil Rights show that 6 million public school students (13%) are not attending school regularly. Chronic absenteeism--defined as missing more than 10% of school for any reason--has been negatively linked to many key academic outcomes. Evidence shows that students who exit chronic absentee status can…

  13. Clinic Attendance of Youth With Sickle Cell Disease on Hydroxyurea Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerski, Lisa M; Arnold, Trisha L; Banks, Gabrielle; Porter, Jerlym S; Wang, Winfred C

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to describe rates of clinic attendance of youth with sickle cell disease prescribed hydroxyurea and examine potential demographic and medical factors related to consistent clinic attendance. Participants included 148 youth diagnosed with sickle cell disease and prescribed hydroxyurea during a single calendar year. Clinic attendance and potential demographic and medical factors related to attendance were extracted via systematic retrospective medical chart review. Youth attended 90.3% of scheduled appointments and 85.1% of youth attended at least 80% of scheduled clinic appointments during the study window. Adjusting for other factors, multivariate analysis revealed families with fewer children in the household, families with private insurance, youth experiencing fever, and youth not experiencing pain during the calendar year were more likely to consistently attend clinic visits. Adherence to clinic appointments is critical to optimizing health outcomes for youth with sickle cell disease and integral for adequate monitoring of youth prescribed hydroxyurea, in particular. Findings may aid providers in appropriately identifying possible barriers to clinic attendance to develop attendance promotion interventions.

  14. The effect of phonics-enhanced Big Book reading on the language and literacy skills of 6-year-old pupils of different reading ability attending lower SES schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Laura; Nicholson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the literacy achievement of lower socioeconomic status (SES) children by combining explicit phonics with Big Book reading. Big Book reading is a component of the text-centered (or book reading) approach used in New Zealand schools. It involves the teacher in reading an enlarged book to children and demonstrating how to use semantic, syntactic, and grapho-phonic cues to learn to read. There has been little research, however, to find out whether the effectiveness of Big Book reading is enhanced by adding explicit phonics. In this study, a group of 96 second graders from three lower SES primary schools in New Zealand were taught in 24 small groups of four, tracked into three different reading ability levels. All pupils were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: a control group who received math instruction, Big Book reading enhanced with phonics (BB/EP), Big Book reading on its own, and Phonics on its own. The results showed that the BB/EP group made significantly better progress than the Big Book and Phonics groups in word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and phonemic awareness. In reading accuracy, the BB/EP and Big Book groups scored similarly. In basic decoding skills the BB/EP and Phonics groups scored similarly. The combined instruction, compared with Big Book reading and phonics, appeared to have no comparative disadvantages and considerable advantages. The present findings could be a model for New Zealand and other countries in their efforts to increase the literacy achievement of disadvantaged pupils. PMID:25431560

  15. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  16. Understanding the Effects of Rurality and Socioeconomic Status on College Attendance and Institutional Choice in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koricich, Andrew; Chen, Xi; Hughes, Rodney P.

    2018-01-01

    This study seeks to update past studies of rural youth by examining college attendance and choice decisions for students who graduated from rural high schools, while also conducting an examination of how the effects of socioeconomic status manifest differently by locale. Logistic regression is used to study the postsecondary attendance and…

  17. Ecological Concern Among High School Seniors: 1976-1979. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series, Paper 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John D.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    Examined are the environmental attitudes of United States high school senior classes of 1976-1979. Multi-item indices of concern about pollution, overpopulation, energy conservation, other people, and the importance of material things were administered to about 17,000 students in approximately 130 high schools each year. The four classes of…

  18. Correlations between attitude toward Christianity, prayer, and church attendance among 9- to 11-yr.-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mandy; Babington, Peter; Francis, Leslie J

    2004-02-01

    Data provided by 150 9- to 11-yr.-old primary school pupils in England showed scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity more highly correlated with (personal) prayer (r = .57) than with (public) church attendance (r = .23), providing support for the view that attitude scales access a deeper level of religiosity less contaminated by those contextual and social factors which may influence public church attendance more than personal prayer.

  19. The return of the Traditional Birth Attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub–Saharan Africa and Southern Asia lag behind other regions in the provision of antenatal care and skilled attendance at birth (although typically attended by a family member or villager and over 32 million of the 40 million births not attended by skilled health personnel in 2012 occurred in rural areas. Overall, one–quarter of women in developing nations still birth alone or with a relative to assist them.

  20. A systematic review of the routine monitoring of growth in children of primary school age to identify growth-related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayter, D; Nixon, J; Hartley, S; Rithalia, A; Butler, G; Rudolf, M; Glasziou, P; Bland, M; Stirk, L; Westwood, M

    2007-06-01

    To clarify the role of growth monitoring in primary school children, including obesity, and to examine issues that might impact on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such programmes. Electronic databases were searched up to July 2005. Experts in the field were also consulted. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed on studies meeting the review's inclusion criteria. The performance of growth monitoring to detect disorders of stature and obesity was evaluated against National Screening Committee (NSC) criteria. In the 31 studies that were included in the review, there were no controlled trials of the impact of growth monitoring and no studies of the diagnostic accuracy of different methods for growth monitoring. Analysis of the studies that presented a 'diagnostic yield' of growth monitoring suggested that one-off screening might identify between 1:545 and 1:1793 new cases of potentially treatable conditions. Economic modelling suggested that growth monitoring is associated with health improvements [incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of 9500 pounds] and indicated that monitoring was cost-effective 100% of the time over the given probability distributions for a willingness to pay threshold of 30,000 pounds per QALY. Studies of obesity focused on the performance of body mass index against measures of body fat. A number of issues relating to human resources required for growth monitoring were identified, but data on attitudes to growth monitoring were extremely sparse. Preliminary findings from economic modelling suggested that primary prevention may be the most cost-effective approach to obesity management, but the model incorporated a great deal of uncertainty. This review has indicated the potential utility and cost-effectiveness of growth monitoring in terms of increased detection of stature-related disorders. It has also pointed strongly to the need for further research. Growth monitoring does not currently meet all NSC

  1. The Community College Effect Revisited: The Importance of Attending to Heterogeneity and Complex Counterfactuals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jennie E.; Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Goldrick-Rab, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are controversial educational institutions, often said to simultaneously expand college opportunities and diminish baccalaureate attainment. We assess the seemingly contradictory functions of community colleges by attending to effect heterogeneity and to alternative counterfactual conditions. Using data on postsecondary outcomes of high school graduates of Chicago Public Schools, we find that enrolling at a community college penalizes more advantaged students who otherwise would have attended four-year colleges, particularly highly selective schools; however, these students represent a relatively small portion of the community college population, and these estimates are almost certainly biased. On the other hand, enrolling at a community college has a modest positive effect on bachelor's degree completion for disadvantaged students who otherwise would not have attended college; these students represent the majority of community college goers. We conclude that discussions among scholars, policymakers, and practitioners should move beyond considering the pros and cons of community college attendance for students in general to attending to the implications of community college attendance for targeted groups of students. PMID:25825705

  2. Clinic Attendance for Medication Refills and Medication Adherence amongst an Antiretroviral Treatment Cohort in Uganda: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setor Kunutsor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral (ARV drug refills is important for successful clinical outcomes in HIV management. Methods. Clinic attendance for ARV drug refills and medication adherence using a clinic-based pill count in 392 adult patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in a district hospital in Uganda were prospectively monitored over a 28-week period. Results. Of the 2267 total scheduled clinic visits, 40 (1.8% were missed visits. Among the 392 clients, 361 (92% attended all appointments for their refills (regular attendance. Clinic attendance for refills was statistically significantly associated with medication adherence with regular attendant clients having about fourfold greater odds of achieving optimal (≥95% medication adherence [odds ratio (OR=3.89, 95% CI: 1.48 to 10.25, exact P=.013]. In multivariate analysis, clients in age category 35 years and below were less likely to achieve regular clinic attendance. Conclusion. Monitoring of clinic attendance may be an objective and effective measure and could be a useful adjunct to an adherence measure such as pill counting in resource-constrained settings. Where human resource constraints do not allow pill counts or other time-consuming measures, then monitoring clinic attendance and acting on missed appointments may be an effective proxy measure.

  3. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana M. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children. All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. RESULTS: Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. CONCLUSION: The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers.

  4. Does a Link Exist Between Examination Performance and Lecture Attendance for First Year Engineering Students ?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer, Aidan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine if a link exists between lecture attendance and examination performance of Level 7, Year 1, Electrical Engineering students at Dublin Institute of Technology in the Electrical Systems subject. Lecture attendance was monitored and analysed over four academic years (2007-8, 2008-9, 2009-10 and 2010-11). The average lecture attendance for students in the three academic years from 2007-10 was 55%, increasing noticeably in the 2009-10 academic year. A stat...

  5. Development of a physical activity monitoring tool for Thai medical schools: a protocol for a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Wattanapisit, Apichai; Vijitpongjinda, Surasak; Saengow, Udomsak; Amaek, Waluka; Thanamee, Sanhapan; Petchuay, Prachyapan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) is important in promoting health, as well as in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, insufficient PA is still a global health problem and it is also a problem in medical schools. PA training in medical curricula is still sparse or non-existent. There is a need for a comprehensive understanding of the extent of PA in medical schools through several indicators, including people, places and policies. This study includes a survey of the PA prevale...

  6. Community College Attendance and Socioeconomic Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sueuk; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, 1988 (NELS: 88), this paper documents differences in the socioeconomic plans of students in two-year and four-year colleges. We found attendance at a two-year college led to a modest but statistically significant disadvantage in socioeconomic plans. However, the impact of attending a…

  7. The impact of thunderstorm asthma on emergency department attendances across London during July 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, A J; Hughes, H E; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Brown, R; Sarran, C; Clewlow, Y; Murray, V; Bone, A; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Smith, G E

    2014-08-01

    This study illustrates the potential of using emergency department attendance data, routinely accessed as part of a national syndromic surveillance system, to monitor the impact of thunderstorm asthma. The Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS) routinely monitors anonymised attendance data on a daily basis across a sentinel network of 35 emergency departments. Attendance data for asthma, wheeze and difficulty breathing are analysed on a daily basis. A statistically significant spike in asthma attendances in two EDSSS emergency departments in London was detected on 23 July 2013, coinciding with a series of large violent thunderstorms across southern England. There was also an increase in the reported severity of these attendances. This preliminary report illustrates the potential of the EDSSS to monitor the impact of thunderstorms on emergency department asthma attendances. Further work will focus on how this system can be used to quantify the impact on emergency departments, thus potentially improving resource planning and also adding to the thunderstorm asthma evidence-base. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. A Study on Attendance and Academic Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane

    In this study we attempt to answer Romer’s (1993) question: “Should attendance be mandatory?” Contrary to many existing studies, we conclude that in the case of business and management programs the answer is ‘no’. In a study of over 900 undergraduate strategy students, spanning four academic years......, we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over......-all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student...

  9. School Choice Outcomes in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jill M.; Vaughan, Debra Y.

    2013-01-01

    Today, over 80% of public school students in New Orleans attend charter schools, and just 37% of students attend school in their neighborhood (Louisiana Department of Education, 2011; Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives, 2011). This study examines school choice participation and outcomes in New Orleans by analyzing the extent…

  10. School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…

  11. Special Education Enrollment and Classification in Louisiana Charter Schools and Traditional Schools. REL 2018-288

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Patrick J.; Lasserre-Cortez, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    Charter schools are public schools authorized to operate with some independence from district or state public school regulations, while still being held accountable for student outcomes. Like traditional schools operated by school districts, charter schools are free and are intended to be open to all students who desire to attend. This study…

  12. Should Attendance Be Required in Lecture Classrooms in Dental Education? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Attendance in the Lecture Classroom Should Be Required and Viewpoint 2: Attendance Should Not Be Required in the Lecture Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Christopher W; Parise, Mary; Seminario, Ana Lucia; Mendez, Maria Jose Cervantes; Piskorowski, Wilhelm; Silva, Renato

    2016-12-01

    This Point/Counterpoint discusses the long-argued debate over whether lecture attendance in dental school at the predoctoral level should be required. Current educational practice relies heavily on the delivery of content in a traditional lecture style. Viewpoint 1 asserts that attendance should be required for many reasons, including the positive impact that direct contact of students with faculty members and with each other has on learning outcomes. In lectures, students can more easily focus on subject matter that is often difficult to understand. A counter viewpoint argues that required attendance is not necessary and that student engagement is more important than physical classroom attendance. This viewpoint notes that recent technologies support active learning strategies that better engage student participation, fostering independent learning that is not supported in the traditional large lecture classroom and argues that dental education requires assimilation of complex concepts and applying them to patient care, which passing a test does not ensure. The two positions agree that attendance does not guarantee learning and that, with the surge of information technologies, it is more important than ever to teach students how to learn. At this time, research does not show conclusively if attendance in any type of setting equals improved learning or ability to apply knowledge.

  13. The @school project : developmental considerations in the design and delivery of cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescent school refusal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, Floor Margriet

    2010-01-01

    School refusal is an attendance problem characterized by a young person’s difficulty in going to school, accompanied by emotional distress on the part of the young person and parental attempts to return the young person to regular school attendance. Prolonged absence from school has serious short-

  14. Binational school-based monitoring of traffic-related air pollutants in El Paso, Texas (USA) and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raysoni, Amit U.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Garcia, Jose Humberto; Holguin, Fernando; Flores Luevano, Silvia; Li, Wen-Whai

    2011-01-01

    Paired indoor and outdoor concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM), PM2.5 reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) were determined for sixteen weeks in 2008 at four elementary schools (two in high and two in low traffic density zones) in a U.S.-Mexico border community to aid a binational health effects study. Strong spatial heterogeneity was observed for all outdoor pollutant concentrations. Concentrations of all pollutants, except coarse PM, were higher in high traffic zones than in the respective low traffic zones. Black carbon and NO 2 appear to be better traffic indicators than fine PM. Indoor air pollution was found to be well associated with outdoor air pollution, although differences existed due to uncontrollable factors involving student activities and building/ventilation configurations. Results of this study indicate substantial spatial variability of pollutants in the region, suggesting that children's exposures to these pollutants vary based on the location of their school. - Highlights: → First binational investigation characterizing traffic air pollutants at four schools in El Paso, USA and Cd. Juarez, Mexico. → Paired in-outdoor sampling of PM 2.5 , PM 10-2.5 , reflectance [black carbon(BC)], and NO 2 for 16 weeks in 2008 at each school. → Two schools (one in each city) were located in high traffic density areas and the other two in areas of low traffic density. → Usage of spatially resolved environmental indictors of traffic pollutants in a range of exposure settings. → Substantial intra-urban spatial variability in pollutant concentrations observed between and within the two cities. - Spatial variability in traffic-mediated pollutant concentrations can exist at the intra-urban level and ambient monitoring sites may not accurately represent these concentration gradients.

  15. School Reform in a High Poverty Elementary School: A Grounded Theory Case Study of Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodman, Stephanie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    There is a persistent and significant gap in the achievement of students who attend high-poverty schools and those who attend low-poverty schools. Students in high-poverty schools, the majority of whom are African American and Hispanic, are not achieving the same levels of academic success as their low-poverty or White counterparts. Retention…

  16. Response to Intervention and Continuous School Improvement: How to Design, Implement, Monitor, and Evaluate a School-Wide Prevention System, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Victoria L.; Hébert, Connie L.

    2017-01-01

    Experts Bernhardt and Hébert's latest book demonstrates strategies to ensure your entire staff works together to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate a schoolwide prevention system with integrity and fidelity. Each step in this important resource is designed to help administrators, teachers, and other educators improve the learning of every…

  17. Improving service delivery of water, sanitation, and hygiene in primary schools: a cluster-randomized trial in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kelly T; Dreibelbis, Robert; Freeman, Matthew C; Ojeny, Betty; Rheingans, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs in schools have been shown to improve health and reduce absence. In resource-poor settings, barriers such as inadequate budgets, lack of oversight, and competing priorities limit effective and sustained WASH service delivery in schools. We employed a cluster-randomized trial to examine if schools could improve WASH conditions within existing administrative structures. Seventy schools were divided into a control group and three intervention groups. All intervention schools received a budget for purchasing WASH-related items. One group received no further intervention. A second group received additional funding for hiring a WASH attendant and making repairs to WASH infrastructure, and a third group was given guides for student and community monitoring of conditions. Intervention schools made significant improvements in provision of soap and handwashing water, treated drinking water, and clean latrines compared with controls. Teachers reported benefits of monitoring, repairs, and a WASH attendant, but quantitative data of WASH conditions did not determine whether expanded interventions out-performed our budget-only intervention. Providing schools with budgets for WASH operational costs improved access to necessary supplies, but did not ensure consistent service delivery to students. Further work is needed to clarify how schools can provide WASH services daily.

  18. An evaluation of the impact of 'Lifeskills' training on road safety, substance use and hospital attendance in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhan, Alison; Cornish, Rosie; Macleod, John; Boyd, Andy; Doerner, Rita; Sissons Joshi, Mary

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate if attendance at Lifeskills, a safety education centre for children in Year 6 (10-11 years), is associated with engagement in safer behaviours, and with fewer accidents and injuries, in adolescence. The sample are participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who attended school in the Lifeskills catchment area in Year 6; 60% attended Lifeskills. At 14-15 years, participants (n approximately 3000, varies by outcome) self-reported road safety behaviours and accidents, and perceived health effects and use of alcohol, cannabis, and tobacco. Additional outcomes from linkage to Hospital Episodes Statistics were available for a sub-sample (n=1768): hospital admittance (for accident-related reason, from 11-16 years) and A&E attendance (for any reason, from approximately 14-16 years). Children who attended Lifeskills were more likely to report using pedestrian crossings on their way to school than children who did not attend (59% versus 52%). Lifeskills attendance was unrelated to the ownership of cycle helmets, or the use of cycle helmets, seat belts, or reflective/fluorescent clothing, or to A&E attendance. Use of cycle helmets (37%) and reflective/fluorescent clothing (<4%) on last cycle was low irrespective of Lifeskills attendance. Lifeskills attendance was associated with less reported smoking and cannabis use, but was generally unrelated to perceptions of the health impact of substance use. Lifeskills attendance was associated with some safer behaviours in adolescence. The overall low use of cycle helmets and reflective/fluorescent clothing evidences the need for powerful promotion of some safer behaviours at Lifeskills and at follow-up in schools. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. More than Just a Meal: Breakfast Club Attendance and Children's Social Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Graham, Pamela Louise; Russo, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The health benefits of school food have been widely promoted in recent years while the social opportunities that surround eating occasions at school have received little attention. Breakfast clubs (BCs), which take place at the start of the school day, offer a unique opportunity for children to consume a breakfast meal on their school premises in the company of their peers. Alternatively, after-school clubs (ASCs), which take place on school premises at the end of the school day, whilst also providing children with social opportunities tend to focus on sports engagement and skill development. The aim of the current paper is to investigate whether attendance at BCs and ASCs has an impact on children's friendship quality and experiences of peer victimization. BC attendees, ASC attendees, and non-attendees completed the Friendship Qualities Scale and the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS) at two time points. Time-1 data were collected 2 months after the introduction of school clubs. Time-2 data were then collected on the same measures again 6 months later. Results of the analyses of Time-1 data showed no significant differences between groups on any of the measures at Time-1. However, at Time-2, BC attendees showed improved levels of friendship quality compared to the other two groups. Moreover, analysis of the MPVS data at Time-2 showed that children who attended BC or ASC experienced a decline in victimization across time. The current findings suggest that BC attendance facilitates the quality of children's relationships with their best friend over time. Additionally, attendance at a breakfast or ASC was associated with a reduction in victimization over time. The results have implications for utilization of breakfast and ASCs to aid children's social relationships in school over time.

  20. The influence of school choice policy on active school commuting: a case study of a middle-sized school district in Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Yizhao Yang; Steve Abbott; Marc Schlossberg

    2012-01-01

    School choice policy has implications for school travel as it allows students to attend schools farther from their residence than their neighborhood schools. This paper uses a case study from Oregon to investigate how school choice affects parents’ school travel decision making and the degree to which school choice affects children’s walking or biking to school. The research shows that school choice is associated with lengthened school travel distance and parents’ greater willingness to drive...

  1. Using smart card technology to monitor the eating habits of children in a school cafeteria: 1. Developing and validating the methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, N; Plumb, J; Looise, B; Johnson, I T; Harvey, I; Wheeler, C; Robinson, M; Rolfe, P

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of using smart card technology to track the eating behaviours of nearly a thousand children in a school cafeteria. Within a large boys' school a smart card based system was developed that was capable of providing a full electronic audit of all the individual transactions that occurred within the cafeteria. This dataset was interfaced to an electronic version of the McCance and Widdowson composition of foods dataset. The accuracy of the smart card generated data and the influence of portion size and wastage were determined empirically during two 5-day trials. The smart card system created succeeded in generating precise data on the food choices made by hundreds of children over an indefinite time period. The data was expanded to include a full nutrient analysis of all the foods chosen. The accuracy of this information was only constrained by the limitations facing all food composition research, e.g. variations in recipes, portion sizes, cooking practices, etc. Although technically possible to introduce wastage correction factors into the software, thereby providing information upon foods consumed, this was not seen as universally practical. The study demonstrated the power of smart card technology for monitoring food/nutrient choice over limitless time in environments such as school cafeterias. The strengths, limitations and applications of such technology are discussed.

  2. Creating a peaceful school learning environment: the impact of an antibullying program on educational attainment in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W; Vernberg, Eric; Sacco, Frank C; Little, Todd D

    2005-07-01

    The impact of a bullying and violence prevention program on education attainment was studied in five elementary schools (K-5), over a 5-year period. A multiple baseline design was used and academic attainment test scores of 1,106 students were monitored before and after the introduction of the program across the school district. This sample was contrasted with an equivalent control sample of 1,100 students from the school district who attended schools that did not join the program. Program participation was associated with pronounced improvements in the students' achievement test scores. Notable reductions in the scores of those students who left schools with active programs were also observed. This simple, low-cost anti-violence intervention, involves all those who work in schools, not just students. It appears to significantly benefit educational performance of children in the participating elementary schools. The program focuses attention on the interaction between the bully, victim and audience of bystanders who are seen as pivotal in either promoting or ameliorating violence. Buy in to the philosophy by teachers & administration is high, because the format allows each school to create materials with its own personal stamp, and since there is no classroom curriculum add on, the burden to teachers is vastly reduced. Psychiatrists who work with schools could easily assist a school to put the program in place as part of their consultation work.

  3. Monitoring Technology Misuse & Abuse: A Five-Step Plan for Creating a Digital Citizenship Program in Your School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribble, Mike S.; Bailey, Gerald D.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last two years, it has become evident that a behavior pattern of misuse and abuse with respect to technology is beginning to emerge in society. This outbreak of technology misuse and abuse is documented in continual news coverage on TV, in newspapers and on the Internet--both inside and outside of schools. The endless list of misuse and…

  4. Association between attendance and overall academic performance on a module within a professional pharmacy degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Nigel; Burnett, Kathryn M; McCarron, Paul A

    2018-03-01

    As the higher education (HE) classroom begins to adopt newer internet-based technologies, the relationship between attendance and performance needs to be re-evaluated, particularly for professional degree courses such as pharmacy. In the present study, we aimed to establish if an association exists between attendance at all timetabled classes and academic performance, in a Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (CPT) module, as part of the Master of Pharmacy (MPharm) degree course at Ulster University. Data on attendance, final examination and coursework performance were collected over two academic years (2013-14 and 2014-15) of the CPT module at Ulster. In total 67 students were analysed. The MPharm degree at Ulster University implements an attendance policy, both as a pastoral support tool and to reinforce the need for professional conduct as a pharmacist. Student (2013-14 and 2014-15, n = 35 and 32, respectively) attendance on the module across both year groups was approximately 80%. We observed positive, and statistically significant relationships between attendance and performance on the examination, and especially in the coursework elements of the module. Student failure (below 40%) in the final examination was linked to attendance below an 80% threshold in nine of 12 cases. Reasons for not attending class varied, but illness was unquestionably the most commonly cited extenuation. Taken together, these data confirm a convincing association between student attendance and academic achievement. Our studies promote the use of attendance monitoring policies for professional degree courses such as pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome among Undergraduate Students Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of 384 first-year students attending university medical clinics for obligatory medical ... Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, Obesity, Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, ..... requires the attention of all health professionals.

  6. Employee Lounge Attendant | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Under the direction of the Chief, Conference Management, the Employee Lounge Attendant is responsible to prepare coffee, beverages, and ... The incumbent also assists with food preparation for daily meals as well as ensure ...

  7. Faculty and student perceptions about attendance policies in baccalaureate nursing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A; Schneider, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    To understand perceptions of faculty and students about attendance policies in baccalaureate nursing programs. Classroom attendance is an issue of debate across academic disciplines. A mixed-methods study was conducted using qualitative data from a stratified random sample of 65 accredited baccalaureate nursing programs; 591 students and 91 faculty from 19 schools responded. Sixty-two percent of faculty thought students who missed class exhibited unprofessional behavior; 69 percent believed students who missed class were less successful in the clinical setting. Students (57 percent) and faculty (66 percent) believed there should be an attendance policy. Twenty-nine students reported needing a break in workload (16.8 percent) or did not find class time valuable (11.8 percent). Variability exists in student and faculty beliefs regarding attendance policies. Understanding these viewpoints and utilizing creative teaching approaches will facilitate learning and create an environment of teamwork and mutual respect.

  8. Attendance and Exam Performance at University

    OpenAIRE

    David O. Allen; Don J. Webber

    2006-01-01

    Marburger (2006) explored the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact on absenteeism of removing a university wide policy of mandatory attendance for a single class. His results indicate that while an attendance policy has a strong impact on reducing absenteeism the link between absenteeism and exam performance is weak.This paper presents an alternative exploration into the link between absenteeism and exam performance by assessing the impact of implementing a mo...

  9. Motivating Struggling Middle School Readers: Digital Images as an Aid for Self-Monitoring and Enhancing Retellings of Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenti, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of motivation, mental imagery, self-monitoring and guided retellings on reading comprehension have long been lauded as effective methods for improving reading achievement. At a time when technology continues to flourish, yet secondary reading performance remains at a level far below proficiency, identifying strategies that assist in…

  10. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2010. Volume I, Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study involves an ongoing series of national surveys of American adolescents and adults that has provided the nation with a vital window into the important, but largely hidden, problem behaviors of illegal drug use, alcohol use, tobacco use, anabolic steroid use, and psychotherapeutic drug use. For more than a third…

  11. Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2016. Volume I, Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miech, Richard A.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.; Patrick, Megan E.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is designed to give sustained attention to substance use among the nation's youth and adults. It is an investigator-initiated study that originated with and is conducted by a team of research professors at the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research. Since its onset in 1975, MTF has been continuously…

  12. A campaign encouraging dental attendance among adolescents in Scotland: the barriers to behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, R C; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative consumer research was used to develop a health promotion campaign for school pupils aged 15-17 years to encourage them to attend a dentist for examination. The campaign used a combination of conventional health education about the benefits of dental care together with incentives...... for attending. The emphasis throughout was to establish an association with young style and group norms of social attractiveness. This study was part of the evaluation of the campaign. The aim was to identify the characteristics of those who responded positively to the campaign and to identify barriers...... to behaviour change. Those who responded were mainly female, intended to stay on at school beyond the age of 16 years and were more likely to be frequent attenders. Apathy and a lack of felt need were the main barriers to responding. Easier access to care and targeting a younger age group might enhance...

  13. The Relationship between Teacher Regard and College Attendance Expectations: Socioeconomic and Racial-Ethnic Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchak, Nicolo P.

    2018-01-01

    This study uses data from wave one of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health to analyze the relationship between middle and secondary school students' perceptions of their teachers, or "teacher regard," and students' expectations for college attendance. Variation in this relationship is further examined by…

  14. A Randomized Experiment Using Absenteeism Information to "Nudge" Attendance. REL 2017-252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Duncan, Teresa; Wolford, Tonya; Ternovski, John; Subramanyam, Shruthi; Reitano, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Reducing student absenteeism is a key part of the School District of Philadelphia's plan to boost graduation rates. One of the district's goals is to increase guardians' awareness of absenteeism, with the hope that greater awareness will lead to guardians' taking a more active role in improving their student's attendance and academic performance.…

  15. Divergent Urban-Rural Trends in College Attendance: State Policy Bias and Structural Exclusion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Tony; Jiang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the massive expansion of higher education in China since 1998, the cohort trends of urban and rural "hukou" holders in college attendance have widened sharply. Prevailing explanations emphasize the advantages of urban students over rural students in school quality and household financial resources. We propose the structural…

  16. Student Motivation for Learning in Ghana: Relationships with Caregivers' Values toward Education, Attendance, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Wolf, Sharon; Godfrey, Erin B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role that Ghanaian caregivers' values toward education play in shaping students' intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for learning, and the ways these values and motivational orientations predict school attendance and achievement. Study participants included 88 students (M?=?11.63 years; 48% female) from two primary…

  17. Minimum Wage and Community College Attendance: How Economic Circumstances Affect Educational Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    How do changes in minimum wages affect community college enrollment and employment? In particular, among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum wage, do endowment effects of a higher minimum wage encourage school attendance? Among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum…

  18. Kinvolved: Utilizing Technology to Communicate, Evaluate, and Advocate for Improved Attendance and Family and Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Miriam; Meis, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The American K-12 grade education system is experiencing a truancy crisis. Nationally, 15%, or 7.5 million students, miss an entire month of school annually [1], with that rate frequently doubling or even tripling among students from underserved communities [2]. Research has identified attendance as one of three primary indicators of high school…

  19. The One-Child Policy and School Attendance in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juhua

    2007-01-01

    In addition to its goal of limiting China's population growth, a key purpose of China's one-child policy is to improve children's well-being. The government has made a strenuous effort to limit parents' childbearing in exchange for the greater opportunities it provides for their only children, including educational opportunities. In this article,…

  20. Suicidal ideation among school-attending adolescents in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 2,176 students aged 11-16 years participated. ... well-being including: depression (Cash & Bridge, 2009), loneliness .... the past 30 days, how often did your parents or guardians understand your problems and worries?".

  1. Identification of dietary patterns of adolescents attending public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: deviations from the “healthy” patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the “healthy” dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them.

  2. Where There Are (Few) Skilled Birth Attendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Rowen, Tami; Bell, Suzanne; Walsh, Julia; Potts, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Recent efforts to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries have focused primarily on two long-term aims: training and deploying skilled birth attendants and upgrading emergency obstetric care facilities. Given the future population-level benefits, strengthening of health systems makes excellent strategic sense but it does not address the immediate safe-delivery needs of the estimated 45 million women who are likely to deliver at home, without a skilled birth attendant. There are currently 28 countries from four major regions in which fewer than half of all births are attended by skilled birth attendants. Sixty-nine percent of maternal deaths in these four regions can be attributed to these 28 countries, despite the fact that these countries only constitute 34% of the total population in these regions. Trends documenting the change in the proportion of births accompanied by a skilled attendant in these 28 countries over the last 15-20 years offer no indication that adequate change is imminent. To rapidly reduce maternal mortality in regions where births in the home without skilled birth attendants are common, governments and community-based organizations could implement a cost-effective, complementary strategy involving health workers who are likely to be present when births in the home take place. Training community-based birth attendants in primary and secondary prevention technologies (e.g. misoprostol, family planning, measurement of blood loss, and postpartum care) will increase the chance that women in the lowest economic quintiles will also benefit from global safe motherhood efforts. PMID:21608417

  3. Epidemiology of frequent attenders: a 3-year historic cohort study comparing attendance, morbidity and prescriptions of one-year and persistent frequent attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Riet Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General Practitioners spend a disproportionate amount of time on frequent attenders. So far, trials on the effect of interventions on frequent attenders have shown negative results. However, these trials were conducted in short-term frequent attenders. It would be more reasonable to target intervention at persistent frequent attenders. Typical characteristics of persistent frequent attenders, as opposed to 1-year frequent attenders and non-frequent attenders, may generate hypotheses regarding modifiable factors on which new randomized trials may be designed. Methods We used the data of all 28,860 adult patients from 5 primary healthcare centers. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age and sex adjusted top 10 percent during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders. All other patients on the register over the 3-year period were referred to as non-frequent attenders. The lists of medical problems coded by the GP using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC were used to assess morbidity. First, we determined which proportion of 1-year frequent attenders was still a frequent attender during the next two consecutive years and calculated the GPs' workload for these patients. Second, we compared morbidity and number of prescriptions for non-frequent attenders, 1-year frequent attenders and persistent frequent attenders. Results Of all 1-year frequent attenders, 15.4% became a persistent frequent attender equal to 1.6% of all patients. The 1-year frequent attenders (3,045; 10.6% were responsible for 39% of the face-to-face consultations; the 470 patients who would become persistent frequent attenders (1.6% were responsible for 8% of all consultations in 2003. Persistent frequent attenders presented more social problems, more psychiatric problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms, but also more chronic somatic diseases (especially diabetes

  4. Can the theory of planned behavior help explain attendance to follow-up care of childhood cancer survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenziger, Julia; Roser, Katharina; Mader, Luzius; Christen, Salome; Kuehni, Claudia E; Gumy-Pause, Fabienne; Tinner, Eva Maria; Michel, Gisela

    2018-06-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at high risk for late effects. Regular attendance to long-term follow-up care is recommended and helps monitoring survivors' health. Using the theory of planned behavior, we aimed to (1) investigate the predictors of the intention to attend follow-up care, and (2) examine the associations between perceived control and behavioral intention with actual follow-up care attendance in Swiss childhood cancer survivors. We conducted a questionnaire survey in Swiss childhood cancer survivors (diagnosed with cancer aged theory of planned behavior-related predictors (attitude, subjective norm, perceived control), intention to attend follow-up care, and actual attendance. We applied structural equation modeling to investigate predictors of intention, and logistic regression models to study the association between intention and actual attendance. Of 299 responders (166 [55.5%] females), 145 (48.5%) reported attending follow-up care. We found that subjective norm, ie, survivors' perceived social pressure and support (coef = 0.90, P < 0.001), predicted the intention to attend follow-up; attitude and perceived control did not. Perceived control (OR = 1.58, 95%CI:1.04-2.41) and intention to attend follow-up (OR = 6.43, 95%CI:4.21-9.81) were positively associated with attendance. To increase attendance, an effort should be made to sensitize partners, friends, parents, and health care professionals on their important role in supporting survivors regarding follow-up care. Additionally, interventions promoting personal control over the follow-up attendance might further increase regular attendance. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Uniforms in the Middle School: Student Opinions, Discipline Data, and School Police Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jafeth E.; Yoxsimer, Andrew; Hill, George C.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated public middle school students' opinions on the benefits of wearing a school uniform. A review of related literature is provided along with results of the opinions obtained from 604 seventh- and eighth-grade middle school students attending a public school in Nevada that had recently initiated a school uniform policy.…

  6. The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Louis-Philippe; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools' test scores, enrollment, number of teachers, graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences…

  7. Associations between classroom CO2 concentrations and student attendance in Washington and Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, D G; Prill, R; Fisk, W J; Apte, M G; Blake, D; Faulkner, D

    2004-10-01

    Student attendance in American public schools is a critical factor in securing limited operational funding. Student and teacher attendance influence academic performance. Limited data exist on indoor air and environmental quality (IEQ) in schools, and how IEQ affects attendance, health, or performance. This study explored the association of student absence with measures of indoor minus outdoor carbon dioxide concentration (dCO(2)). Absence and dCO(2) data were collected from 409 traditional and 25 portable classrooms from 22 schools located in six school districts in the states of Washington and Idaho. Study classrooms had individual heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, except two classrooms without mechanical ventilation. Classroom attributes, student attendance and school-level ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) were included in multivariate modeling. Forty-five percent of classrooms studied had short-term indoor CO(2) concentrations above 1000 p.p.m. A 1000 p.p.m. increase in dCO(2) was associated (P student absence. Annual ADA was 2% higher (P student attendance, and occupant health and student performance, with longer term indoor minus outdoor CO(2) concentrations and more accurately measured ventilation rates. If our findings are confirmed, improving classroom ventilation should be considered a practical means of reducing student absence. Adequate or enhanced ventilation may be achieved, for example, with educational training programs for teachers and facilities staff on ventilation system operation and maintenance. Also, technological interventions such as improved automated control systems could provide continuous ventilation during occupied times, regardless of occupant thermal comfort demands.

  8. Attendance and alcohol use at parties and bars in college: a national survey of current drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C; Wechsler, Henry; Seibring, Mark

    2002-11-01

    This study examines attendance and alcohol use at parties and bars among college students by gender, residence, year in school and legal drinking age. The study participants were respondents in the 1997 and 1999 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS). The combined sample consisted of 12,830 students (61% women) who reported use of alcohol in the past 30 days prior to interview. Their responses provided information on attendance and alcohol use at parties (dormitory, fraternity, off campus) and off-campus bars. Logistic regression analyses examined the influence of gender, residence, year in school and legal drinking age related to attendance, drinking/non-drinking and heavy drinking (5 or more drinks) at each select setting. Consistent with the literature, fraternity/ sorority parties were occasions of heavy drinking (49%) among drinkers in those settings, yet they drew upon smaller proportions of students (36%) when compared to off-campus parties (75%) and off-campus bars (68%). Off-campus parties (45%) and bars (37%) were also occasions for heavy drinking among drinkers in these settings. College residence was shown to relate to differential exposure to drinking settings, but residence had less impact on the decision to drink and the level of heavy drinking. Attendance at parties decreased with advance in school years, but attendance at off-campus bars increased. Although heavy drinking at off-campus bars decreased with advancing grade year in school, slightly higher proportions of under-age students (41%) compared to students of legal drinking age (35%) exhibited heavy drinking at off-campus bars. The identification of high-risk settings and their correlates serves to better understand the development of heavy drinking on college campuses. Off-campus parties, as compared to campus parties and bars, may pose greater difficulties related to successful intervention.

  9. Father Attendance in Nurse Home Visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, John R.; Olds, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707

  10. Scientists from all over the world attend the 2007 - Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School on Nuclear Reactors, 'Physics, Fuels and Systems'; Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der 2007 Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School on Nuclear Reactors 'Physics, Fuels and Systems'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U.; Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Reaktorsicherheit

    2007-12-15

    For more than ten years, the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School has been organized alternately by the Karlsruhe Research Center in Germany and the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache, in France. This year, the Summer School was held at the Center for Advanced Training in Technology and the Environment of the Karlsruhe Research Center on August 29 to September 7. The overarching topic of the event was the sustainability of nuclear power, including topical issues of generation-IV reactor concepts, transmutation and actinide separation, and geologic final storage. Next year's Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School will be organized by CEA at Aix-en-Provence together with the Nuclear Safety Research Program of the Karlsruhe Research Center. (orig.)

  11. The Surveillance of Learning: A Critical Analysis of University Attendance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Universities have recently strengthened their class attendance policies along with associated practices that intensify the surveillance of learning: a series of administrative and pedagogic strategies that monitor the extent to which students conform with behavioural expectations associated with learning. Drawing on university policy statements,…

  12. School-Within-A-School (Hawaii Nui High) Hilo High School Report 1969-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Social Welfare Development and Research Center.

    The second year of operation of Hilo High School's "School-Within-A-School" [SWS] program is evaluated in this paper. Planning, training, and program implementation are described in the document. The following are the results of the program: There was an improvement in attendance among project students when compared to their record in…

  13. Bullying in German Boarding Schools: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Jens P.; Pinquart, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who attend boarding schools share more time with peers than do students from day schools which, in turn, could provide more opportunities for bullying. Furthermore, some students attend boarding schools because of former social problems. In order to analyse the role of these factors, we examined the bullying behaviour of 706 German…

  14. After-School Academic Enrichment Programs. Information Capsule. Volume 1509

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2016-01-01

    The number of U.S. children attending after-school programs has been steadily increasing. In 2014, the most recent year for which data were available, approximately 10.2 million students, representing about 23 percent of U.S. families, were enrolled in an after-school program. Of the students attending after-school programs, the majority do so at…

  15. Does Attendance Matter? An Examination of Student Attitudes, Participation, Performance and Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingham, Peter; Herrington, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Non attendance of lectures and tutorials appears to be a growing trend. The literature suggests many possible reasons including students' changing lifestyle, attitudes, teaching and technology. This paper looks at the reasons for non attendance of students in the Faculty of Commerce at the University of Wollongong and identifies relationships…

  16. Psychosocial Interventions for School Refusal with Primary and Secondary School Students: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brandy Maynard; Kristen E. Brendel; Jeffery J. Bulanda; David Heyne; Aaron M. Thompson; Therese D. Pigott

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND School refusal is a psychosocial problem characterized by a student’s difficulty attending school and, in many cases, substantial absence from school (Heyne & Sauter, 2013). It is often distinguished from truancy, in part because of the severe emotional distress associated with having to attend school and the absence of severe antisocial behavior. Truancy, on the other hand, is not typically associated with emotional distress and is commonly associated with severe externalizing ...

  17. Post-Secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada: What Role for Financial Aid Policy? NBER Working Paper No. 17218

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belley, Philippe; Frenette, Marc; Lochner, Lance

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of tuition and need-based financial aid policies for family income--post-secondary (PS) attendance relationships. We first conduct a parallel empirical analysis of the effects of parental income on PS attendance for recent high school cohorts in both the U.S. and Canada using data from the 1997 Cohort of the…

  18. Perda precoce de molares permanentes e fatores associados em escolares de 9, 12 e 15 anos da rede pública municipal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil = Early loss of permanent molars and associated factors in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francineide Guimarães Carneiro de Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a perda precoce de molares permanentes em escolares da rede pública de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, com idades de nove, 12 e 15 anos. A amostra compreendeu 873 escolares, aleatoriamente selecionados. O instrumento de coleta consistiu de um questionário e de uma ficha clínica. As variáveis do estudo compreenderam os aspectos relativos à perda dentária (tipo de elemento dental, localização na arcada dentária e a região do arco, à prevenção e à autopercepção em saúde bucal. A análise estatística compreendeu a distribuição de frequências e os testes do Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher. Os resultados revelaram a prevalência de 17,2% de perda dentária, sem diferenças entre os sexos, frequência de escovação e palestra educativa (p > 0,05. Os elementos dentários 36 (42,5% e 46 (33,9% foram os mais frequentemente perdidos. Observou-se a associação positiva entre perda dentária e as variáveis idade, visita ao cirurgião-dentista (OR = 2,19; IC95%: 1,35-3,59, satisfação com o sorriso (OR = 0,40; IC95%: 0,24-0,65 e a dificuldade na mastigação (OR = 2,16; IC95%: 1,48- 3,16. Conclui-se que a prevalência da perda precoce de molares permanentes foi elevada, sendo necessária a imediata adoção de ações curativas a fim de reduzir a perda precoce desses elementos dentários.This study evaluate the early loss of permanent molars in schoolchildren aged 9, 12 and 15 years attending public schools in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil. The sample was composed of 873 randomly selected schoolchildren. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire and a clinical chart. The following variables were analyzed: tooth loss (tooth type, localization in the dental arch and region of the arch, prevention and selfperception of oral health. The statistical analysis was done by frequency distribution and the chisquare and fisher’s exact tests were used. The results showed a prevalence of

  19. Catholic High Schools and Rural Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1997-01-01

    A study of national longitudinal data examined effects of rural Catholic high schools on mathematics achievement, high school graduation rates, and the likelihood that high school graduates attend college. Findings indicate that rural Catholic high schools had a positive effect on mathematics test scores and no effect on graduation rates or rates…

  20. Swaziland's traditional birth attendants survey | Lech | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms ...

  1. Differential campsite pricing and campground attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage; Paula L. Cormier; George T. Hamilton; Alan D. Cormier

    1975-01-01

    Several changes in the characteristics of campers' visits were discovered by comparing camping permit data before and after the start of differential campsite pricing at a New Hampshire state park campground in 1973. Differentials included a premium charge for waterfront sites and a preferential rate for New Hampshire residents. Attendance by state residents...

  2. Service Station Attendant. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 24 terminal objectives for a basic secondary level service station attendant course. The materials were developed for a two-semester course (2 and 3 hours daily). The specialized classroom and shop experiences are designed to enable the student…

  3. Vaginal Trichomoniasis among Patients Attending Primary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis is widely distributed all over the world and remains a common infection among female patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of trichomonal infection in HIV/AIDS and non-HIV control groups of patients in a population of women.

  4. Electronic Attendance Application Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Saaidi Ismail; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a cheap mini-computer that officially runs on a Linux distribution Operating System (OS) such as Raspbian. It has many input and output mechanisms simulating a computer which make it useful replacement for a computer system. SimpleCV, an open source python-based image processing software and Telegram, a popular social application provide API that allow communication trough a device such as Raspberry Pi. Combining these two, an electronic attendance has been developed using open source basis, and the electronic attendance also provide enhancement of current system that is to record the person face and sending information through Telegram application. The methodology include gathering requirements on remaining system and test it on Linux which will discuss further. This project is serve as a prototype for enhancement of current Commersial Of The Shelf (COTS) electronic attendance that only record ID of the attendees. In the future, the electronic attendance can be enhanced with many features and should be make in-a-box for commercialization. (author)

  5. Attendance at NHS mandatory training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Darren

    2015-02-17

    To identify factors that affect NHS healthcare professionals' attendance at mandatory training sessions. A quantitative approach was used, with a questionnaire sent to 400 randomly selected participants. A total of 122 responses were received, providing a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data were analysed using statistical methods. Open-ended responses were reviewed using thematic analysis. Clinical staff value mandatory training sessions highly. They are aware of the requirement to keep practice up-to-date and ensure patient safety remains a priority. However, changes to the delivery format of mandatory training sessions are required to enable staff to participate more easily, as staff are often unable to attend. The delivery of mandatory training should move from classroom-based sessions into the clinical area to maximise participation. Delivery should be assisted by local 'experts' who are able to customise course content to meet local requirements and the requirements of different staff groups. Improved arrangements to provide staff cover, for those attending training, would enable more staff to attend training sessions.

  6. Psychological distress and symptoms among patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was carried out to investigate the manifestations of psychological distress and symptoms among individuals receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases and to compare them with individuals who were not suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. Methods: Patients attending the sexually ...

  7. Malaria parasitemia amongst pregnant women attending selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to determine malaria parasitemia amongst 300 randomly selected pregnant women attending government and private healthcare facilities in Rivers State was carried out. Blood samples were obtained through venous procedure and the presence or absence of Plasmodium was determined ...

  8. Scientists from all over the world attend the ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT); Wissenschaftler aus aller Welt bei der ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School 2009'' am Karlsruhe Institute of Technologie (KIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (KIT), Campus Nord/Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Tech. (INR), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The ''Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School'' is organized each year alternately by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache. This year's Summer School, the 15th since its foundation, was run at the Advanced Training Center (FTU) of KIT Campus Nord on August 26 to September 4. The key topic this year was ''The Challenges in Implementing Fast Reactor Technology.'' These are the items discussed: Principles and challenges of future fast reactor designs, Fuels, fuel cycle, and recycling of minor actinides, Innovative cladding tube and structural materials, Special aspects of coolants and the challenges they pose, Fast reactor safety. Experts from 8 leading international research establishments and universities presented and discussed with the 58 participants from 16 countries the current state of the art and the latest development trends in the topics listed above. (orig.)

  9. Culture, Motivation, and Vocational Decision-Making of Australian Senior High School Students in Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John; Gregory, Gary; Barnett, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of culture and motivation in the occupational decisions of senior high school students attending private schools. A theoretical framework guided the study. A questionnaire was administered to 492 Grade 11 students attending a stratified random sample of six independent (private) schools…

  10. Type II decompression sickness in a hyperbaric inside attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Arbor, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) of an inside attendant (IA) is rarely encountered in hyperbarics. This report describes an IA who developed Type II DCS after a routine hyperbaric exposure. A 50-year-old male complained of lower extremity weakness and paresthesias after serving as an IA during a hyperbaric treatment to 40 fsw (122.52 kPa). Within 10 minutes after the conclusion of the treatment, the IA experienced irritability and confusion, and was unable to walk. Physical examination revealed decreased sensation below the T7 level, and decreased strength in the lower extremities. Type II DCS was diagnosed, and the IA was recompressed to 60 fsw (183.78 kPa) on a U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6, which resulted in improvement of his symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography with bubble study performed 16 months after the event demonstrated a large patent foramen ovale (PFO). Increased age, decreased physical fitness and the undiagnosed PFO may have predisposed this attendant to developing DCS. Although rare, DCS may occur in IAs. Routine monitoring and reporting of the long-term health of hyperbaric IAs should be considered by hyperbaric facilities and medical directors in order to further understand the characteristics of DCS and other hyperbaric-related conditions in these workers.

  11. The effects of medical school on health outcomes: Evidence from admission lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; de Wolf, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of attending medical school on health outcomes by exploiting that admission to medical school in the Netherlands is determined by a lottery. Among the applicants for medical school, people who attended medical school have on average 1.5 more years of completed

  12. Prevalência e fatores associados a indicadores negativos de saúde mental em adolescentes estudantes do ensino médio em Pernambuco, Brasil The prevalence of and factors associated with negative mental health indicators in adolescents attending high school in the Brazilian State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Diniz de Carvalho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a prevalência e fatores associados a indicadores negativos de saúde mental em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se um questionário previamente validado para coletar dados de 4.207 adolescentes (14-19 anos estudantes do ensino médio, selecionados através de amostragem por conglomerados em dois estágios. RESULTADOS: as prevalências de tristeza, sentimento de solidão, pensamento de suicídio, dificuldade para dormir devido à preocupação e planos de suicídio foram, respectivamente, 29,7%, 15,8%, 11,2%, 10,0% e 7,8%. A prevalência de todos os indicadores foi superior entre as moças, sendo a tristeza o indicador mais prevalente. Identificou-se que a cor da pele não foi um fator associado à ocorrência dos indicadores negativos de saúde mental, enquanto não morar com os pais apresentou associação significativa com sentimento de solidão e pensamento em suicídio. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência de sentimento de solidão e de tristeza é alta e as moças representam um subgrupo de maior risco em relação a todos os indicadores negativos de saúde mental.OBJECTIVES: to identify the prevalence of and factors associated with negative mental health indicators among adolescents. METHODS: a previously validated questionnaire was used to gather data on 4,207 adolescents (aged between 14 and 19 years attending high school, selected by way of conglomerate sampling in two stages. RESULTS: the prevalence of sadness, feelings of loneliness, thoughts of suicide, difficulty sleeping because of anxiety, and plans to commit suicide was 29.7%, 15.8%, 11.2%, 10.0% and 7.8% respectively. The prevalence for all indicators was higher among girls, with sadness being the most prevalent indicator. It was identified that skin-color was not a factor associated with the occurrence of negative mental health indicators, while not living with parents showed a significant degree of association with feeling of loneliness and thoughts of suicide

  13. School accidents to children: time to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of injuries sustained by children in school accidents and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN: A five month prospective study of children attending an urban accident and emergency (A&E) department. SUBJECTS: 500 children who sustained injuries in school due to a variety of activities. RESULTS: 10 and 12 year old pupils suffered most injuries in school grounds/playgrounds, on concrete, or on grass/soil surfaces due to random activities resulting in striking or being struck by objects/persons, tripping or slipping, and sports (mainly football); 65.5% of these activities were not supervised and 67.4% occurred "out of lessons"; 22% sustained fractures or dislocations, 28.2% needed follow up treatment, and 1.4% were admitted. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries to children in school are a cause for concern. Effective preventive measures should concentrate on (a) specific target areas using schemes based on individual school, and (b) establishing a credible system of monitoring of their effectiveness. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9248914

  14. Variability of benzene exposure among filling station attendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carere, A.; Iacovella, N.; Turrio Baldassarri, L.; Fuselli, S.; Iavarone, I.; Lagorio, S.; Proietto, A.R.

    1996-12-01

    A monitoring survey of filling station attendants aimed at identifying sources of variability of exposure to benzene and other aromatics was carried out. Concurrent samples of the worker's breathing zone air, atmospheric air in the service station proximity, and gasoline were collected, along with information about daily workloads and other exposure-related factors. Benzene personal exposure was characterised by a small between-worker variability and a predominant within-worker variance component. Such elevated day-to-day variability yields to imprecise estimates of mean personal exposure. Almost 70% of the overall personal exposure variance was explained by a model including daily benzene from dispensed fuel, presence of a shelter over the refueling area, amount of fuel supplied to the station if a delivery occurred, and background atmospheric benzene concentration

  15. Physical activity and motor skills in children attending 43 preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Line Grønholt; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about health characteristics and the physical activity (PA) patterns in children attending preschools. The objective of this study was to describe the gender differences in relation to body mass index (BMI), motor skills (MS) and PA, including PA patterns by the day type......-referenced classification of MS, the Danish sample distribution was significantly well for aiming and catching but poorer for the motor coordination test.The total sample and the least active children were most active on weekdays, during preschool time and in the late afternoon at the weekend. However, a relatively larger...... provide a valuable reference material for studies monitoring future trends in obesity, MS and PA behaviour in Denmark and other countries.Knowledge about sources of variation in PA among preschool children is scarce and our findings need to be replicated in future studies. A potentially important finding...

  16. A qualitative study on why did the poorly-educated Chinese elderly fail to attend nurse-led case manager clinic and how to facilitate their attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Susanna Lok Lam; Fu, Sau Nga; Lau, Po Shan; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan

    2015-01-31

    This study explored the views, barriers and facilitators of the poorly-educated elderly who were non-attendee of the nurse-led case manager clinic. The case managers provide assessment for diabetes complication screening and can refer patients to the appropriate multidisciplinary team in public outpatient primary care setting. We adopted qualitative research method by individual semi-structured face to face interviews. Nineteen Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects aged ≥ 60 who failed to attend the nurse-led case manager clinic were interviewed. They all came from a socially deprived urban district in Hong Kong. Content and thematic analysis was performed. Seven men and twelve women aged 60 to 89 were interviewed. Nine of them received no formal education and ten of them attended up to primary school. The reasons for non-attendance included attitude and poor knowledge towards diabetes complication screening and confusion of the nurse-led clinic as an educational talk. Most respondents could not understand the reason for the screening of diabetic complications, the concept of multidisciplinary care and the procedure and outcomes of nurse assessment. Five respondents were unable to follow multiple appointments because they could not read. Other reasons included physical barriers and comorbidity, family and financial constraint. They either had a tight daily schedule because of the need to take care of family members, or the family members who brought them to clinic had difficulty in attending multiple appointments. Enhanced understanding of the importance and procedure of diabetes multidisciplinary management, a flexible appointment system and a single clear appointment sheet may facilitate their attendance. Poorly-educated Chinese elderly with DM and their care givers faced physical, social and psychological barriers when attending the nurse-led case manager clinic. Strategies targeting on their low literacy include effective communication and education

  17. The Experiences of Host Country Nationals in International Schools: A Case-Study from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been considerable research into expatriate children attending international schools, there has been little investigation into children who attend international schools within their own nation. Seeking to redress this imbalance, this article analyses interview data from a small-scale study of host country nationals attending an…

  18. Details from the Dashboard: Estimated Number of Public Charter Schools & Students, 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2015

    2015-01-01

    During the 2014-15 school year, almost 500 new public charter schools opened. An estimated 348,000 additional students were attending public charter schools in the 2014-15 school year compared with the previous school year. With the addition of new charter schools and students, there are now more than 6,700 public charter schools enrolling about…

  19. How the integration of traditional birth attendants with formal health systems can increase skilled birth attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison

    2011-11-01

    Forty years of safe motherhood programming has demonstrated that isolated interventions will not reduce maternal mortality sufficiently to achieve MDG 5. Although skilled birth attendants (SBAs) can intervene to save lives, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are often preferred by communities. Considering the value of both TBAs and SBAs, it is important to review strategies for maximizing their respective strengths. To describe mechanisms to integrate TBAs with the health system to increase skilled birth attendance and examine the components of successful integration. A systematic review of interventions linking TBAs and formal health workers, measuring outcomes of skilled birth attendance, referrals, and facility deliveries. Thirty-three articles met the selection criteria. Mechanisms used for integration included training and supervision of TBAs, collaboration skills for health workers, inclusion of TBAs at health facilities, communication systems, and clear definition of roles. Impact on skilled birth attendance depended on selection of TBAs, community participation, and addressing barriers to access. Successful approaches were context-specific. The integration of TBAs with formal health systems increases skilled birth attendance. The greatest impact is seen when TBA integration is combined with complementary actions to overcome context-specific barriers to contact among SBAs, TBAs, and women. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emergency department attendance patterns during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Taimur; Khan, Hameed Ullah; Ahmed, Israr; Eldali, Abdelmoneim

    2016-01-01

    Patient attendance in the emergency department (ED) is inherently variable and unpredictable. Resources might be better allocated if use of the ER could be predicted during the month of fasting (Ramadan), healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink from dawn to sunset and in the Middle East, social activities occur mostly during night. There is no published data that has reported changes in local ED attendance pattern during Ramadan. Determine if there are differences in tertiary care ed attendance during Ramadan compared to other times of the year. Retrospective, using data from the hospital integrated clinical information system. Tertiary care institution in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All ED visits during the Islamic calendar years of 1431-1434 (December 18, 2009-October 13, 2013) were analyzed. Patient volume, acuity, demographics and admission rate variability between Ramadan and other months. During the study period of 4 years, of 226075 ED patients, 129178 (57.14%) patients were seen during the day shift (07:00 to 18:59). During Ramadan, 10 293 (60%) patients presented during the night shift compared with the day shift (P many ED patients were actually fasting during the study period. This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and the patient population presenting to our ed is predominantly Muslim; therefore, the results may not be generalized to populations that are not predominantly Muslim.