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Sample records for monitoring redox status

  1. Redox, iron, and nutritional status of children during swimming training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Kalitsis, Konstantinos; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Tsalis, George; Kouretas, Dimitris; Loupos, Dimitris; Mougios, Vassilis

    2009-11-01

    Effects of exercise training on important determinants of children's long-term health, such as redox and iron status, have not been adequately investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine changes in markers of the redox, iron and nutritional status of boy and girl swimmers during a prolonged period of training. 11 boys and 13 girls, aged 10-11 years, were members of a swimming club. They were assessed at the beginning of the training season, at 13 weeks and at 23 weeks through blood sampling and recording of the diet. Reduced glutathione increased at 13 and 23 weeks, whereas oxidised glutathione decreased at 13 weeks, resulting in an increase of the reduced/oxidised glutathione ratio at 13 and 23 weeks. Total antioxidant capacity, catalase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation and ferritin did not change significantly. Carbohydrate intake was below 50% of energy and fat intake was above 40% of energy. Intakes of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol were excessive. Iron intake was adequate but intakes of folate, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium did not meet the recommended daily allowances. No significant differences were found between sexes in any of the parameters measured. In conclusion, child swimmers improved the redox status of glutathione during training, although the intake of antioxidant nutrients did not change. The iron status was not impaired by training. Suboptimal intake of several nutrients suggests the need for nutritional monitoring and education of children athletes.

  2. In Vivo Monitoring of pH, Redox Status, and Glutathione Using L-Band EPR for Assessment of Therapeutic Effectiveness in Solid Tumors

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    Bobko, Andrey A.; Eubank, Timothy D.; Voorhees, Jeffrey L.; Efimova, Olga V.; Kirilyuk, Igor A.; Petryakov, Sergey; Trofimiov, Dmitrii G.; Marsh, Clay B.; Zweier, Jay L.; Grigor’ev, Igor A.; Samouilov, Alexandre; Khramtsov, Valery V.

    2011-01-01

    Approach for in vivo real-time assessment of tumor tissue extracellular pH (pHe), redox, and intracellular glutathione based on L-band EPR spectroscopy using dual function pH and redox nitroxide probe and disulfide nitroxide biradical, is described. These parameters were monitored in PyMT mice bearing breast cancer tumors during treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. It was observed that tumor pHe is about 0.4 pH units lower than that in normal mammary gland tissue. Treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor decreased the value of pHe by 0.3 units compared with PBS control treatment. Tumor tissue reducing capacity and intracellular glutathione were elevated compared with normal mammary gland tissue. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor treatment resulted in a decrease of the tumor tissue reducing capacity and intracellular glutathione content. In addition to spectroscopic studies, pHe mapping was performed using recently proposed variable frequency proton–electron double-resonance imaging. The pH mapping superimposed with MRI image supports probe localization in mammary gland/tumor tissue, shows high heterogeneity of tumor tissue pHe and a difference of about 0.4 pH units between average pHe values in tumor and normal mammary gland. In summary, the developed multifunctional approach allows for in vivo, noninvasive pHe, extracellular redox, and intracellular glutathione content monitoring during investigation of various therapeutic strategies for solid tumors. Magn Reson Med 000:000–000, 2011. PMID:22113626

  3. Monitoring thioredoxin redox with a genetically encoded red fluorescent biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yichong; Makar, Merna; Wang, Michael X; Ai, Hui-Wang

    2017-09-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is one of the two major thiol antioxidants, playing essential roles in redox homeostasis and signaling. Despite its importance, there is a lack of methods for monitoring Trx redox dynamics in live cells, hindering a better understanding of physiological and pathological roles of the Trx redox system. In this work, we developed the first genetically encoded fluorescent biosensor for Trx redox by engineering a redox relay between the active-site cysteines of human Trx1 and rxRFP1, a redox-sensitive red fluorescent protein. We used the resultant biosensor-TrxRFP1-to selectively monitor perturbations of Trx redox in various mammalian cell lines. We subcellularly localized TrxRFP1 to image compartmentalized Trx redox changes. We further combined TrxRFP1 with a green fluorescent Grx1-roGFP2 biosensor to simultaneously monitor Trx and glutathione redox dynamics in live cells in response to chemical and physiologically relevant stimuli.

  4. Safety system status monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide

  5. Safety system status monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  6. Nrf2 and Redox Status in Prediabetic and Diabetic Patients

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    Angélica S. Jiménez-Osorio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The redox status associated with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2 was evaluated in prediabetic and diabetic subjects. Total antioxidant status (TAS in plasma and erythrocytes, glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA content and activity of antioxidant enzymes were measured as redox status markers in 259 controls, 111 prediabetics and 186 diabetic type 2 subjects. Nrf2 was measured in nuclear extract fractions from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Nrf2 levels were lower in prediabetic and diabetic patients. TAS, GSH and activity of glutamate cysteine ligase were lower in diabetic subjects. An increase of MDA and superoxide dismutase activity was found in diabetic subjects. These results suggest that low levels of Nrf2 are involved in the development of oxidative stress and redox status disbalance in diabetic patients.

  7. Degree of glutathione deficiency and redox imbalance depend on subtype of mitochondrial disease and clinical status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Enns

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders are associated with decreased energy production and redox imbalance. Glutathione plays a central role in redox signaling and protecting cells from oxidative damage. In order to understand the consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction on in vivo redox status, and to determine how this varies by mitochondrial disease subtype and clinical severity, we used a sensitive tandem mass spectrometry assay to precisely quantify whole blood reduced (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione levels in a large cohort of mitochondrial disorder patients. Glutathione redox potential was calculated using the Nernst equation. Compared to healthy controls (n = 59, mitochondrial disease patients (n = 58 as a group showed significant redox imbalance (redox potential -251 mV ± 9.7, p<0.0001 with an increased level of oxidation by ∼ 9 mV compared to controls (-260 mV ± 6.4. Underlying this abnormality were significantly lower whole blood GSH levels (p = 0.0008 and GSH/GSSG ratio (p = 0.0002, and significantly higher GSSG levels (p<0.0001 in mitochondrial disease patients compared to controls. Redox potential was significantly more oxidized in all mitochondrial disease subgroups including Leigh syndrome (n = 15, electron transport chain abnormalities (n = 10, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (n = 8, mtDNA deletion syndrome (n = 7, mtDNA depletion syndrome (n = 7, and miscellaneous other mitochondrial disorders (n = 11. Patients hospitalized in metabolic crisis (n = 7 showed the greatest degree of redox imbalance at -242 mV ± 7. Peripheral whole blood GSH and GSSG levels are promising biomarkers of mitochondrial dysfunction, and may give insights into the contribution of oxidative stress to the pathophysiology of the various mitochondrial disorders. In particular, evaluation of redox potential may be useful in monitoring of clinical status or response to redox-modulating therapies in clinical trials.

  8. Optical imaging the redox status change during cell apoptosis

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    Su, Ting; Zhang, Zhihong; Lin, Juqiang; Luo, Qingming

    2007-02-01

    Many cellular events involve the alteration in redox equilibrium, globally or locally. In many cases, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is the underlying cause. Several green fluoresecence protein based indicators are constructed to measure redox status in cells, e.g, rxYFP and roGFPs, which allow real time detection. reduction and oxidization-sensitive GFP (RoGFPs) are more useful due to ratiometric variation by excitation, making the measurement more accurate. Utilizing one of those roGFPs called roGFP1, we establish a mitochondrial redox state probing platform in HeLa cells with laser scan confocal microscopy (LSCM) as detection system. Control experiments confirmed that our platform could produce stable ratiometric values, which made the data more accurately reflect the real environmental changes of redox status that roGFP1 probed. Using exogenous H IIO II and DTT, we evaluated the reactivity and reversibility of roGFP1. The minimal hydrogen peroxide concentration that roGFP1 could show detectable ratiometric changes in our system was about 200μM. Preliminarily applying our platform to exploring the redox status during apoptosis, we observed an increase in ratiometric, suggesting an excessive ROS production.

  9. Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial redox status in diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putt, David A.; Zhong, Qing; Lash, Lawrence H., E-mail: l.h.lash@wayne.edu

    2012-01-15

    Nephropathy is a serious and common complication of diabetes. In the streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rat model of diabetes, nephropathy does not typically develop until 30 to 45 days post-injection, although hyperglycemia occurs within 24 h. We tested the hypothesis that chronic hyperglycemia results in a modest degree of oxidative stress that is accompanied by compensatory changes in certain antioxidants and mitochondrial redox status. We propose that as kidneys progress to a state of diabetic nephropathy, further adaptations occur in mitochondrial redox status. Basic parameters of renal function in vivo and several parameters of mitochondrial function and glutathione (GSH) and redox status in isolated renal cortical mitochondria from STZ-treated and age-matched control rats were examined at 30 days and 90 days post-injection. While there was no effect of diabetes on blood urea nitrogen, measurement of other, more sensitive parameters, such as urinary albumin and protein, and histopathology showed significant and progressive worsening in diabetic rats. Thus, renal function is compromised even prior to the onset of frank nephropathy. Changes in mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities indicated existence of a hypermetabolic state. Higher mitochondrial GSH content and rates of GSH transport into mitochondria in kidneys from diabetic rats were only partially due to changes in expression of mitochondrial GSH carriers and were mostly due to higher substrate supply. Although there are few clear indicators of oxidative stress, there are several redox changes that occur early and change further as nephropathy progresses, highlighting the complexity of the disease. Highlights: ►Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial and redox status in diabetic rats. ►Modest renal dysfunction even prior to onset of nephropathy. ►Elevated concentrations of mitochondrial GSH in diabetic kidneys. ►Change in GSH due partly to increased protein expression of transporter.

  10. Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial redox status in diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putt, David A.; Zhong, Qing; Lash, Lawrence H.

    2012-01-01

    Nephropathy is a serious and common complication of diabetes. In the streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rat model of diabetes, nephropathy does not typically develop until 30 to 45 days post-injection, although hyperglycemia occurs within 24 h. We tested the hypothesis that chronic hyperglycemia results in a modest degree of oxidative stress that is accompanied by compensatory changes in certain antioxidants and mitochondrial redox status. We propose that as kidneys progress to a state of diabetic nephropathy, further adaptations occur in mitochondrial redox status. Basic parameters of renal function in vivo and several parameters of mitochondrial function and glutathione (GSH) and redox status in isolated renal cortical mitochondria from STZ-treated and age-matched control rats were examined at 30 days and 90 days post-injection. While there was no effect of diabetes on blood urea nitrogen, measurement of other, more sensitive parameters, such as urinary albumin and protein, and histopathology showed significant and progressive worsening in diabetic rats. Thus, renal function is compromised even prior to the onset of frank nephropathy. Changes in mitochondrial respiration and enzyme activities indicated existence of a hypermetabolic state. Higher mitochondrial GSH content and rates of GSH transport into mitochondria in kidneys from diabetic rats were only partially due to changes in expression of mitochondrial GSH carriers and were mostly due to higher substrate supply. Although there are few clear indicators of oxidative stress, there are several redox changes that occur early and change further as nephropathy progresses, highlighting the complexity of the disease. Highlights: ►Adaptive changes in renal mitochondrial and redox status in diabetic rats. ►Modest renal dysfunction even prior to onset of nephropathy. ►Elevated concentrations of mitochondrial GSH in diabetic kidneys. ►Change in GSH due partly to increased protein expression of transporter.

  11. Exercise-intensity dependent alterations in plasma redox status do not reflect skeletal muscle redox-sensitive protein signaling.

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    Parker, Lewan; Trewin, Adam; Levinger, Itamar; Shaw, Christopher S; Stepto, Nigel K

    2018-04-01

    Redox homeostasis and redox-sensitive protein signaling play a role in exercise-induced adaptation. The effects of sprint-interval exercise (SIE), high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE), on post-exercise plasma redox status are unclear. Furthermore, whether post-exercise plasma redox status reflects skeletal muscle redox-sensitive protein signaling is unknown. In a randomized crossover design, eight healthy adults performed a cycling session of HIIE (5×4min at 75% W max ), SIE (4×30s Wingate's), and CMIE work-matched to HIIE (30min at 50% of W max ). Plasma hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and catalase activity were measured immediately post, 1h, 2h and 3h post-exercise. Plasma redox status biomarkers were correlated with phosphorylation of skeletal muscle p38-MAPK, JNK, NF-κB, and IκBα protein content immediately and 3h post-exercise. Plasma catalase activity was greater with SIE (56.6±3.8Uml -1 ) compared to CMIE (42.7±3.2, pexercise plasma TBARS and SOD activity significantly (pexercise protocol. A significant positive correlation was detected between plasma catalase activity and skeletal muscle p38-MAPK phosphorylation 3h post-exercise (r=0.40, p=0.04). No other correlations were detected (all p>0.05). Low-volume SIE elicited greater post-exercise plasma catalase activity compared to HIIE and CMIE, and greater H 2 O 2 compared to CMIE. Plasma redox status did not, however, adequately reflect skeletal muscle redox-sensitive protein signaling. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Online monitoring of Mezcal fermentation based on redox potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Minakata, P; Ibarra-Junquera, V; Rosu, H C; De León-Rodríguez, A; González-García, R

    2009-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the continuous monitoring of the biomass and ethanol concentrations as well as the growth rate in the Mezcal fermentation process. The algorithm performs its task having available only the online measurements of the redox potential. The procedure combines an artificial neural network (ANN) that relates the redox potential to the ethanol and biomass concentrations with a nonlinear observer-based algorithm that uses the ANN biomass estimations to infer the growth rate of this fermentation process. The results show that the redox potential is a valuable indicator of the metabolic activity of the microorganisms during Mezcal fermentation. In addition, the estimated growth rate can be considered as a direct evidence of the presence of mixed culture growth in the process. Usually, mixtures of microorganisms could be intuitively clear in this kind of processes; however, the total biomass data do not provide definite evidence by themselves. In this paper, the detailed design of the software sensor as well as its experimental application is presented at the laboratory level.

  13. Monitoring electrolyte concentrations in redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, On Kok; Sopchak, David Andrew; Pham, Ai Quoc; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2015-03-17

    Methods, systems and structures for monitoring, managing electrolyte concentrations in redox flow batteries are provided by introducing a first quantity of a liquid electrolyte into a first chamber of a test cell and introducing a second quantity of the liquid electrolyte into a second chamber of the test cell. The method further provides for measuring a voltage of the test cell, measuring an elapsed time from the test cell reaching a first voltage until the test cell reaches a second voltage; and determining a degree of imbalance of the liquid electrolyte based on the elapsed time.

  14. Monitored retrievable storage status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal for Congressional consideration of the inclusion of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility as part of the Federal Nuclear Waste Management System. The DOE plans to submit the proposal package to the Congress by January 15, 1986. The proposed preferred location of the MRS facility is the former Clinch River Breeder site in the state of Tennessee. If the Congress approves implementation of the MRS proposal, it is estimated that the facility could be licensed and operational in ten years

  15. Redox hydrogel based bienzyme electrode for L-glutamate monitoring.

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    Belay, A; Collins, A; Ruzgas, T; Kissinger, P T; Gorton, L; Csöregi, E

    1999-02-01

    Amperometric bienzyme electrodes based on coupled L-glutamate oxidase (GlOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were constructed for the direct monitoring of L-glutamate in a flow injection (FI)-system. The bienzyme electrodes were constructed by coating solid graphite rods with a premixed solution containing GlOx and HRP crosslinked with a redox polymer formed of poly(1-vinylimidazole) complexed with (osmium (4-4'-dimethylbpy)2 Cl)II/III. Poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) was used as the crosslinker and the modified electrodes were inserted as the working electrode in a conventional three electrode flow through amperometric cell operated at -0.05 V versus Ag¿AgCl (0.1 M KCl). The bienzyme electrode was optimized with regard to wire composition, Os-loading of the wires, enzyme ratios, coating procedure, flow rate, effect of poly(ethyleneimine) addition, etc. The optimized electrodes were characterized by a sensitivity of 88.36 +/- 0.14 microA mM(-1) cm(-2), a detection limit of 0.3 microM (calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio), a response time of less than 10 s and responded linearly between 0.3 and 250 microM (linear regression coefficient = 0.999) with an operational stability of only 3% sensitivity loss during 8 h of continuous FI operation at a sample throughput of 30 injections h(-1).

  16. Direct determination of the redox status of cysteine residues in proteins in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Satoshi [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259-R1-8, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Tatenaka, Yuki; Ohuchi, Yuya [Dojindo Laboratories, 2025-5 Tabaru, Mashiki-machi, Kumamoto 861-2202 (Japan); Hisabori, Toru, E-mail: thisabor@res.titech.ac.jp [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259-R1-8, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • A new DNA-maleimide which is cleaved by UV irradiation, DNA-PCMal, was developed. • DNA-PCMal can be used like DNA-Mal to analyze the redox state of cysteine residues. • It is useful for detecting the thiol redox status of a protein in vivo by Western blotting method. • Thus, DNA-PCMal can be a powerful tool for redox proteomics analysis. - Abstract: The redox states of proteins in cells are key factors in many cellular processes. To determine the redox status of cysteinyl thiol groups in proteins in vivo, we developed a new maleimide reagent, a photocleavable maleimide-conjugated single stranded DNA (DNA-PCMal). The DNA moiety of DNA-PCMal is easily removed by UV-irradiation, allowing DNA-PCMal to be used in Western blotting applications. Thereby the state of thiol groups in intracellular proteins can be directly evaluated. This new maleimide compound can provide information concerning redox proteins in vivo, which is important for our understanding of redox networks in the cell.

  17. Investigation of a redox-sensitive predictive model of mouse embryonic stem cells differentiation using quantitative nuclease protection assays and glutathione redox status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation of a redox-sensitive predictive model of mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation via quantitative nuclease protection assays and glutathione redox status Chandler KJ,Hansen JM, Knudsen T,and Hunter ES 1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangl...

  18. Integration of the thiol redox status with cytokine response to physical training in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembron-Lacny, A; Slowinska-Lisowska, M; Ziemba, A

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the plasma markers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and cytokines, and their relationship with thiol redox status of basketball players during training. Sixteen professional players of the Polish Basketball Extraleague participated in the study. The study was performed during the preparatory period and the play-off round. Markers of ROS activity (lipid peroxidation TBARS, protein carbonylation PC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) demonstrated regularity over time, i.e. TBARS, PC and GSH were elevated at the beginning and decreased at the end of training periods. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was not affected by exercise training. Thiol redox status (GSH(total)-2GSSG/GSSG) correlated with TBARS and PC in both training periods. The level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was increased and positively correlated with thiol redox (r=0.423) in the preparatory period, whereas tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) was increased and inversely correlated with thiol redox (r= 0.509) in the play-off round. The present study showed significant shifts in markers of ROS activity, thiol redox status and inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNFalpha) following professional sport training as well as correlation between changes in thiol redox and cytokine response.

  19. Monitoring Intracellular Redox Changes in Ozone-exposed airway epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The toxicity of many compounds involves oxidative injury to cells. Direct assessment of mechanistic events involved in xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress is not easily achievable. Development of genetically-encoded probes designed for monitoring intracellular redox s...

  20. Monitor for status epilepticus seizures

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    Johnson, Mark; Simkins, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the sensor technology and associated electronics of a monitor designed to detect the onset of a seizure disorder called status epilepticus. It is a condition that affects approximately 3-5 percent of those individuals suffering from epilepsy. This form of epilepsy does not follow the typical cycle of start-peak-end. The convulsions continue until medically interrupted and are life threatening. The mortality rate is high without prompt medical treatment at a suitable facility. The paper describes the details of a monitor design that provides an inexpensive solution to the needs of those responsible for the care of individuals afflicted with this disorder. The monitor has been designed as a cooperative research and development effort involving the United States Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center's Benet Laboratories (Benet) and the Cerebral Palsy Center for the Disabled (Center), in association with the Department of Neurology at Albany Medical College (AMC). Benet has delivered a working prototype of the device for field testing, in collaboration with Albany Medical College. The Center has identified several children in need of special monitoring and has agreed to pursue commercialization of the device.

  1. Arabidopsis redox status in response to caterpillar herbivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamuna ePaudel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to insect herbivory are regulated through complex, hormone-mediated interactions. Some caterpillar species have evolved strategies to manipulate this system by inducing specific pathways that suppress plant defense responses. Effectors in the labial saliva (LS secretions of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars are believed to induce the salicylic acid (SA pathway to interfere with the jasmonic acid (JA defense pathway; however, the mechanism underlying this subversion is unknown. Since Noctuid caterpillar LS contains enzymes that may affect cellular redox balance, this study investigated rapid changes in cellular redox metabolites within 45 min after herbivory. Caterpillar LS is involved in suppressing the increase in oxidative stress that was observed in plants fed upon by caterpillars with impaired LS secretions. To further understand the link between cellular redox balance and plant defense responses, marker genes of SA, JA and ethylene (ET pathways were compared in wildtype, the glutathione-compromised pad2-1 mutant and the tga2/5/6 triple mutant plants. AtPR1 and AtPDF1.2 showed LS-dependent expression that was alleviated in the pad2-1 and tga2/5/6 triple mutants. In comparison, the ET-dependent genes ERF1 expression showed LS-associated changes in both wildtype and pad2-1 mutant plants and the ORA 59 marker AtHEL had increased expression in response to herbivory, but a LS-dependent difference was not noted. These data support the model that there are SA/NPR1-, glutathione-dependent and ET-, glutathione-independent mechanisms leading to LS-associated suppression of plant induced defences.

  2. Inflammatory cytokines and plasma redox status responses in hypertensive subjects after heat exposure

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    S.F. Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is characterized by a pro-inflammatory status, including redox imbalance and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may be exacerbated after heat exposure. However, the effects of heat exposure, specifically in individuals with inflammatory chronic diseases such as hypertension, are complex and not well understood. This study compared the effects of heat exposure on plasma cytokine levels and redox status parameters in 8 hypertensive (H and 8 normotensive (N subjects (age: 46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years old, body mass index: 25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure: 98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively. They remained at rest in a sitting position for 10 min in a thermoneutral environment (22°C followed by 30 min in a heated environmental chamber (38°C and 60% relative humidity. Blood samples were collected before and after heat exposure. Plasma cytokine levels were measured using sandwich ELISA kits. Plasma redox status was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. Hypertensive subjects showed higher plasma levels of IL-10 at baseline (P<0.05, although levels of this cytokine were similar between groups after heat exposure. Moreover, after heat exposure, hypertensive individuals showed higher plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR1 and lower TBARS (P<0.01 and FRAP (P<0.05 levels. Controlled hypertensive subjects, who use angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors, present an anti-inflammatory status and balanced redox status. Nevertheless, exposure to a heat stress condition seems to cause an imbalance in the redox status and an unregulated inflammatory response.

  3. Redox status evaluation in dogs affected by mast cell tumour.

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    Finotello, R; Pasquini, A; Meucci, V; Lippi, I; Rota, A; Guidi, G; Marchetti, V

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress status has been evaluated in depth in human medicine and its role in carcinogenesis has been clearly established. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate antioxidant concentrations and oxidative stress in dogs with mast cell tumours (MCTs) that had received no previous treatments, and to compare them to healthy controls. In 23 dogs with mast cell tumour and 10 healthy controls, oxidative status was assessed using the Reactive Oxygen Metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) test, antioxidant activity was measured by the Biological Antioxidant Potential (BAP) test, and α-tocopherol levels were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet analysis. At baseline, dogs with MCT had significantly higher d-ROMs (P defence barrier are altered in dogs with newly diagnosed MCT compared with control dogs. Future studies are needed in order to assess the prognostic role of oxidative stress and to evaluate the impact of different therapeutic approaches. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Differential regulation of tissue thiol-disulfide redox status in a murine model of peritonitis

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    Benton Shana M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione (GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG and cysteine (Cys/cystine (CySS are major redox pools with important roles in cytoprotection. We determined the impact of septic peritonitis on thiol-disulfide redox status in mice. Methods FVB/N mice (6–12 week old; 8/group underwent laparotomy with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP or laparotomy alone (control. Sections of ileum, colon, lung and liver were obtained and GSH, GSSG, Cys and CySS concentrations determined by HPLC 24 h after laparotomy. Redox potential [Eh in millivolts (mV] of the GSH/GSSG and Cys/CySS pools was calculated using the Nernst equation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (mean ± SE. Results GSH/GSSG Eh in ileum, colon, and liver was significantly oxidized in septic mice versus control mice (ileum: septic −202±4 versus control −228±2 mV; colon: -195±8 versus −214±1 mV; and liver: -194±3 vs. -210±1 mV, all Ph was unchanged with CLP, while liver and lung Cys/CySS Eh became significantly more reducing (liver: septic = −103±3 versus control −90±2 mV; lung: -101±5 versus −81±1 mV, each P Conclusions Septic peritonitis induced by CLP oxidizes ileal and colonic GSH/GSSG redox but Cys/CySS Eh remains unchanged in these intestinal tissues. In liver, CLP oxidizes the GSH/GSSG redox pool and CyS/CySS Eh becomes more reducing; in lung, CLP does not alter GSH/GSSG Eh, and Cys/CySS Eh is less oxidized. CLP-induced infection/inflammation differentially regulates major thiol-disulfide redox pools in this murine model.

  5. Iron Supplementation Effects on Redox Status following Aseptic Skeletal Muscle Trauma in Adults and Children

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    Chariklia K. Deli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced skeletal muscle microtrauma is characterized by loss of muscle cell integrity, marked aseptic inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. We examined if iron supplementation would alter redox status after eccentric exercise. In a randomized, double blind crossover study, that was conducted in two cycles, healthy adults (n=14 and children (n=11 received daily either 37 mg of elemental iron or placebo for 3 weeks prior to and up to 72 h after an acute eccentric exercise bout. Blood was drawn at baseline, before exercise, and 72 h after exercise for the assessment of iron status, creatine kinase activity (CK, and redox status. Iron supplementation at rest increased iron concentration and transferrin saturation (p<0.01. In adults, CK activity increased at 72 h after exercise, while no changes occurred in children. Iron supplementation increased TBARS at 72 h after exercise in both adults and children; no changes occurred under placebo condition. Eccentric exercise decreased bilirubin concentration at 72 h in all groups. Iron supplementation can alter redox responses after muscle-damaging exercise in both adults and children. This could be of great importance not only for healthy exercising individuals, but also in clinical conditions which are characterized by skeletal muscle injury and inflammation, yet iron supplementation is crucial for maintaining iron homeostasis. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02374619.

  6. Iron Supplementation Effects on Redox Status following Aseptic Skeletal Muscle Trauma in Adults and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Tsiokanos, Athanasios; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced skeletal muscle microtrauma is characterized by loss of muscle cell integrity, marked aseptic inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. We examined if iron supplementation would alter redox status after eccentric exercise. In a randomized, double blind crossover study, that was conducted in two cycles, healthy adults ( n = 14) and children ( n = 11) received daily either 37 mg of elemental iron or placebo for 3 weeks prior to and up to 72 h after an acute eccentric exercise bout. Blood was drawn at baseline, before exercise, and 72 h after exercise for the assessment of iron status, creatine kinase activity (CK), and redox status. Iron supplementation at rest increased iron concentration and transferrin saturation ( p exercise, while no changes occurred in children. Iron supplementation increased TBARS at 72 h after exercise in both adults and children; no changes occurred under placebo condition. Eccentric exercise decreased bilirubin concentration at 72 h in all groups. Iron supplementation can alter redox responses after muscle-damaging exercise in both adults and children. This could be of great importance not only for healthy exercising individuals, but also in clinical conditions which are characterized by skeletal muscle injury and inflammation, yet iron supplementation is crucial for maintaining iron homeostasis. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02374619.

  7. THE THIOREDOXIN SYSTEM IN REGULATING MCF-7 CELL PROLIFERATION UNDER REDOX STATUS MODULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Stepovaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the available data on tumor cell functioning under the conditions of free radical-mediated oxidation, the mechanisms of redox regulation, cell proliferation management and apoptosis avoidance remain understudied.The objective of the study was to identify the role of the thioredoxin system in regulating MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation under redox status modulation with 1.4-dithioerythritol.Material and methods. The studies were conducted on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, grown in adherent cell culture. Cell redox status was modulated with5 mM N-ethylmaleimide – an SH group and peptide inhibitor and5 mM 1.4-dithioerythritol – a thiol group protector. The cell cycle was evaluated by flow cytometry, the same technique was used to measure the reactive oxygen species concentration. The levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione and the activity of thioredoxin reductase were identified by spectrophotometry. The intracellular concentrations of thioredoxin, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 were determined by Western blot analysis.Results and discussion. The essential role of the thioredoxin system in regulating MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation was exhibited. S-phase arrest under the effect of N-ethylmaleimide and G0/G1-phase arrest under the effect of 1.4-dithioerythritol are associated with the changes in the activity of redox-sensitive protein complexes (cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that regulate cell proliferation.Conclusion. Redoxdependent modulation of proliferation regulating intracellular protein activity occurs due to the thioredoxin system. This is a promising research area for seeking molecular targets of breast cell malignization. 

  8. Real-time monitoring of capacity loss for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Bhattarai, Arjun; Zou, Changfu; Meng, Shujuan; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2018-06-01

    The long-term operation of the vanadium redox flow battery is accompanied by ion diffusion across the separator and side reactions, which can lead to electrolyte imbalance and capacity loss. The accurate online monitoring of capacity loss is therefore valuable for the reliable and efficient operation of vanadium redox flow battery system. In this paper, a model-based online monitoring method is proposed to detect capacity loss in the vanadium redox flow battery in real time. A first-order equivalent circuit model is built to capture the dynamics of the vanadium redox flow battery. The model parameters are online identified from the onboard measureable signals with the recursive least squares, in seeking to keep a high modeling accuracy and robustness under a wide range of working scenarios. Based on the online adapted model, an observer is designed with the extended Kalman Filter to keep tracking both the capacity and state of charge of the battery in real time. Experiments are conducted on a lab-scale battery system. Results suggest that the online adapted model is able to simulate the battery behavior with high accuracy. The capacity loss as well as the state of charge can be estimated accurately in a real-time manner.

  9. Plant status monitor system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, W.A.; Sly, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    In today's regulatory and financial environment, improving plant efficiency and safety are necessary elements of plant operations. Public utility commissions are making rate rulings based, in part, on plant availability performance; and the NRC is putting more emphasis on plant operational aspects. This comes at a time when operating, maintaining, and managing a plant are becoming increasingly complex; moreover, the desired number of experienced plant personnel are becoming more difficult to find. This situation can be partially resolved by using computer software tools to assist operations, maintenance, engineering, and management personnel. These software tools provide information and interpretations based on plant and equipment status. They support improved plant availability, technical specification compliance, and administrative functions. A key element or computerization is the ability to operate on integrated information

  10. Overview of the Role of Vanillin on Redox Status and Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Daniel Pereira; Soares, Anne Karine Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive natural products play critical roles in modern drug development, especially anticancer agents. It has been widely reported that various pharmacological activities of such compounds are related to their antioxidant properties. Vanillin is a natural substance widely found in many plant species and often used in beverages, foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Antioxidant and anticancer potential have been described for this compound. Considering the importance of vanillin in the area of human health and food and pharmaceuticals sectors, in this review, we discuss the role of vanillin on redox status and its potential contribution to the prevention and the treatment of cancer. PMID:28077989

  11. Overview of the Role of Vanillin on Redox Status and Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pereira Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive natural products play critical roles in modern drug development, especially anticancer agents. It has been widely reported that various pharmacological activities of such compounds are related to their antioxidant properties. Vanillin is a natural substance widely found in many plant species and often used in beverages, foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Antioxidant and anticancer potential have been described for this compound. Considering the importance of vanillin in the area of human health and food and pharmaceuticals sectors, in this review, we discuss the role of vanillin on redox status and its potential contribution to the prevention and the treatment of cancer.

  12. Redox status affects the catalytic activity of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Assaf; Banerjee, Rajat; de Armas, Merly

    2010-01-01

    Glutamyl-tRNA synthetases (GluRS) provide Glu-tRNA for different processes including protein synthesis, glutamine transamidation and tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. Many organisms contain multiple GluRSs, but whether these duplications solely broaden tRNA specificity or also play additional roles in t...... inactivation by hemin plus hydrogen peroxide. The sensitivity to oxidation of A. ferrooxidans GluRS1 might provide a means to regulate tetrapyrrole and protein biosynthesis in response to extreme changes in both the redox and heme status of the cell via a single enzyme....

  13. Proliferation and differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi inside its vector have a new trigger: redox status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália P Nogueira

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi proliferate and differentiate inside different compartments of triatomines gut that is the first environment encountered by T. cruzi. Due to its complex life cycle, the parasite is constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS. We tested the influence of the pro-oxidant molecules H2O2 and the superoxide generator, Paraquat, as well as, metabolism products of the vector, with distinct redox status, in the proliferation and metacyclogenesis. These molecules are heme, hemozoin and urate. We also tested the antioxidants NAC and GSH. Heme induced the proliferation of epimastigotes and impaired the metacyclogenesis. β-hematin, did not affect epimastigote proliferation but decreased parasite differentiation. Conversely, we show that urate, GSH and NAC dramatically impaired epimastigote proliferation and during metacyclogenesis, NAC and urate induced a significant increment of trypomastigotes and decreased the percentage of epimastigotes. We also quantified the parasite loads in the anterior and posterior midguts and in the rectum of the vector by qPCR. The treatment with the antioxidants increased the parasite loads in all midgut sections analyzed. In vivo, the group of vectors fed with reduced molecules showed an increment of trypomastigotes and decreased epimastigotes when analyzed by differential counting. Heme stimulated proliferation by increasing the cell number in the S and G2/M phases, whereas NAC arrested epimastigotes in G1 phase. NAC greatly increased the percentage of trypomastigotes. Taken together, these data show a shift in the triatomine gut microenvironment caused by the redox status may also influence T. cruzi biology inside the vector. In this scenario, oxidants act to turn on epimastigote proliferation while antioxidants seem to switch the cycle towards metacyclogenesis. This is a new insight that defines a key role for redox metabolism in governing the parasitic life cycle.

  14. State of charge monitoring of vanadium redox flow batteries using half cell potentials and electrolyte density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressel, Simon; Bill, Florian; Holtz, Lucas; Janshen, Niklas; Chica, Antonio; Flower, Thomas; Weidlich, Claudia; Struckmann, Thorsten

    2018-02-01

    The operation of vanadium redox flow batteries requires reliable in situ state of charge (SOC) monitoring. In this study, two SOC estimation approaches for the negative half cell are investigated. First, in situ open circuit potential measurements are combined with Coulomb counting in a one-step calibration of SOC and Nernst potential which doesn't need additional reference SOCs. In-sample and out-of-sample SOCs are estimated and analyzed, estimation errors ≤ 0.04 are obtained. In the second approach, temperature corrected in situ electrolyte density measurements are used for the first time in vanadium redox flow batteries for SOC estimation. In-sample and out-of-sample SOC estimation errors ≤ 0.04 demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Both methods allow recalibration during battery operation. The actual capacity obtained from SOC calibration can be used in a state of health model.

  15. Status on contamination monitoring in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanlu, Gou [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan (China)

    1997-06-01

    The air contaminated by radioactive materials in nuclear enterprises and radioactive workplaces and forming radioactive aerosol and the leakage of radioactive materials in operation cause internal exposure damage in workers. It is necessary and important to monitor air and surface contaminations for the health of public and workers, and for protecting environment. At present, many institutes engage in the studies on surface contamination monitoring in China, and the government has formulated the control limits of surface contamination in the Regulations of Radiation Protection. The monitors for surface contamination monitoring are almost home-made. The methods being used often are smear test and placing surface sample test. Scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors and G-M counters have been used for detecting alpha surface contamination. Plastic scintillator meters and thin wall/window G-M counters are used for beta surface contamination. Special detectors have been designed for monitoring low energy nuclides. The status of airborne contamination monitoring in China is reported. As the studies for future, the development of the surface contamination monitor for low energy beta nuclides, especially H-3, the monitoring methods for the special shapes of surfaces, the technology of decontamination and the calibration method and device for on-line radioactive aerosol continuous monitors are taken up. (K.I.)

  16. In vivo EPR pharmacokinetic evaluation of the redox status and the blood brain barrier permeability in the SOD1G93A ALS rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Stefan; Pavićević, Aleksandra; Mojović, Miloš; Popović-Bijelić, Ana; Selaković, Vesna; Andjus, Pavle; Bačić, Goran

    2017-07-01

    changes in BBB permeability and for the unprecedented in vivo monitoring of the brain tissue redox status, as early markers of ALS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors that affect leaf extracellular ascorbic acid content and redox status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkey, K.O.; Fiscus, E.L. [North Carolina State Univ., United States dept. og Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service and Dept. of Crop Science, Raleigh, NC (United States); Eason, G. [North Carolina, State Univ., United States Dept. of Plant Pathology, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Leaf ascorbic acid content and redox status were compared in ozone-tolerant (Provider) and ozone-sensitive (S156) genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plants were grown in pots for 24 days under charcoal-filtered air (CF) conditions in open-top field chambers and then maintained as CF controls (29 nmol mol{sup 1} ozone) or exposed to elevated ozone (71 nmol mol{sup 1} ozone). Following a 10-day treatment, mature leaves of the same age were harvested early in the morning (06:00-08:00 h) or in the afternoon (13:00-15:00 h) for analysis of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). Vacuum infiltration methods were used to separate leaf AA into apoplast and symplast fractions. The total ascorbate content [AA + DHA] of leaf tissue averaged 28% higher in Provider relative to S156, and Provider exhibited a greater capacity to maintain [AA + DHA] content under ozone stress. Apoplast [AA + DHA] content was 2-fold higher in tolerant Provider (360 nmol g{sup 1} FW maximum) relative to sensitive S156 (160 nmol g1 FW maximum) regardless of sampling period or treatment, supporting the hypothesis that extracellular AA is a factor in ozone tolerance. Apoplast [AA + DHA] levels were significantly higher in the afternoon than early morning for both genotypes, evidence for short-term regulation of extracellular ascorbate content. Total leaf ascorbate was primarily reduced with AA/[AA + DHA] ratios of 0.81-0.90. In contrast, apoplast AA/[AA + DHA] ratios were 0.01-0.60 and depended on genotype and ozone treatment. Provider exhibited a greater capacity to maintain extracellular AA/[AA + DHA] ratios under ozone stress, suggesting that ozone tolerance is associated with apoplast ascorbate redox status. (au)

  18. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja E. Menger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT, to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster.

  19. In vivo evaluation of different alterations of redox status by studying pharmacokinetics of nitroxides using magnetic resonance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačić, Goran; Pavićević, Aleksandra; Peyrot, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species (ROS), are involved in various pathologies, injuries related to radiation, ischemia-reperfusion or ageing. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to directly detect free radicals in vivo, but the redox status of the whole organism or particular organ can be studied in vivo by using magnetic resonance techniques (EPR and MRI) and paramagnetic stable free radicals – nitroxides. Here we review results obtained in vivo following the pharmacokinetics of nitroxides on experimental animals (and a few in humans) under various conditions. The focus was on conditions where the redox status has been altered by induced diseases or harmful agents, clearly demonstrating that various EPR/MRI/nitroxide combinations can reliably detect metabolically induced changes in the redox status of organs. These findings can improve our understanding of oxidative stress and provide a basis for studying the effectiveness of interventions aimed to modulate oxidative stress. Also, we anticipate that the in vivo EPR/MRI approach in studying the redox status can play a vital role in the clinical management of various pathologies in the years to come providing the development of adequate equipment and probes. PMID:26827126

  20. In vivo evaluation of different alterations of redox status by studying pharmacokinetics of nitroxides using magnetic resonance techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bačić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species (ROS, are involved in various pathologies, injuries related to radiation, ischemia-reperfusion or ageing. Unfortunately, it is virtually impossible to directly detect free radicals in vivo, but the redox status of the whole organism or particular organ can be studied in vivo by using magnetic resonance techniques (EPR and MRI and paramagnetic stable free radicals – nitroxides. Here we review results obtained in vivo following the pharmacokinetics of nitroxides on experimental animals (and a few in humans under various conditions. The focus was on conditions where the redox status has been altered by induced diseases or harmful agents, clearly demonstrating that various EPR/MRI/nitroxide combinations can reliably detect metabolically induced changes in the redox status of organs. These findings can improve our understanding of oxidative stress and provide a basis for studying the effectiveness of interventions aimed to modulate oxidative stress. Also, we anticipate that the in vivo EPR/MRI approach in studying the redox status can play a vital role in the clinical management of various pathologies in the years to come providing the development of adequate equipment and probes.

  1. The changes in redox status of ascorbate in stem tissue cells during Scots pine tree growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Antonova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of ascorbate (AsA and dehydroascorbate (DHA and their ratio, showing cellular redox state of AsA, were studied in the cells of the separate tissues at different levels of Pinus sylvestris L. stem during early- and latewood formation. Morphological status of the cells in the tissues and the content of soluble carbohydrates were also estimated. The cellular redox potential of AsA has been found to depend on the type of tissue, cell development degree, the level of stem and the type of forming wood. The content of AsA and AsA/DHA ratio in the cells of non-conducting phloem along the stem were higher than in mature xylem and less during earlywood than latewood formation. The cells of conducting phloem and forming xylem, as the principal tissues taking part in annual ring wood formation, differed in the content of acids in the course of early and late xylem formation. Along the stem, the content of AsA decreased in conducting phloem cells and increased in the cells of forming xylem during both early- and latewood formation. The AsA/DHA of conducting phloem during earlywood formation was greatest below the stem and diminished to the top of the tree, while in the course of latewood development it was similar at all levels. In forming xylem AsA/DHA increased to the top of tree during the early xylem formation and decreased in late xylem that indicates the differences in oxidation-reduction reactions into the cells of two type of forming wood. The data are discussed according to morphological development of cells and the content of carbohydrates.

  2. Real-time monitoring of intracellular redox changes in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) for efficient bioconversion of methane to methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Masahito; Tanaka, Yuya; Suzuki, Risa; Kimura, Kota; Tanaka, Kenya; Kamiya, Kazuhide; Ito, Hidehiro; Kato, Souichiro; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Hori, Katsutoshi; Nakanishi, Shuji

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel method for real-time monitoring of the intracellular redox states in a methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus, using Peredox as a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor of the NADH:NAD + ratio. As expected, the fluorescence derived from the Peredox-expressing M. capsulatus transformant increased by supplementation of electron donor compounds (methane and formate), while it decreased by specifically inhibiting the methanol oxidation reaction. Electrochemical measurements confirmed that the Peredox fluorescence reliably represents the intracellular redox changes. This study is the first to construct a reliable redox-monitoring method for methanotrophs, which will facilitate to develop more efficient methane-to-methanol bioconversion processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-term sleep deprivation leads to decreased systemic redox metabolites and altered epigenetic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Malav S; Holger, Dana; Bui, Anh Tuyet; Craddock, Travis J A; Tartar, Jaime L

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is critical for repair as well as the rejuvenation processes in the body and many of these functions are regulated via underlying cellular metabolic homeostasis. Changes in sleep pattern are reported to alter such metabolic function resulting in altered disease susceptibility or behavior. Here, we measured the extent to which overnight total sleep deprivation (SD) in young adult humans can influence systemic (plasma-derived) redox-metabolism including the major antioxidant, glutathione as well as DNA methylation levels. Nineteen participants (n = 19, μ age = 21, SD = 3.09) underwent morning testing before and after overnight total SD. Biochemical measures before and after SD revealed that glutathione, ATP, cysteine, and homocysteine levels were significantly reduced following one night of sleep deprivation (all p's sleep deprivation (maintaining wakefulness) uses up metabolic reserves, we observed that morning cortisol levels were blunted after sleep deprivation. There were no significant correlations between self-reported or actigraphy-measured sleep and the biochemical measurements, strongly indicating that prior sleep behavior did not have any direct influence on the biochemical measures taken at baseline or after sleep deprivation. Results from the current investigation supports the previous literature implicating the induction of oxidative stress and ATP depletion with sleep deprivation. Furthermore, such altered antioxidant status can also induce downstream epigenetic changes. Although we did not measure the specific genes that were altered under the influence of such sleep deprivation, such epigenetic changes could potentially contribute towards disease predisposition.

  4. Gsk3 Signalling and Redox Status in Bipolar Disorder: Evidence from Lithium Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Luca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To discuss the link between glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 and the main biological alterations demonstrated in bipolar disorder (BD, with special attention to the redox status and the evidence supporting the efficacy of lithium (a GSK3 inhibitor in the treatment of BD. Methods. A literature research on the discussed topics, using Pubmed and Google Scholar, has been conducted. Moreover, a manual selection of interesting references from the identified articles has been performed. Results. The main biological alterations of BD, pertaining to inflammation, oxidative stress, membrane ion channels, and circadian system, seem to be intertwined. The dysfunction of the GSK3 signalling pathway is involved in all the aforementioned “biological causes” of BD. In a complex scenario, it can be seen as the common denominator linking them all. Lithium inhibition of GSK3 could, at least in part, explain its positive effect on these biological dysfunctions and its superiority in terms of clinical efficacy. Conclusions. Deepening the knowledge on the molecular bases of BD is fundamental to identifying the biochemical pathways that must be targeted in order to provide patients with increasingly effective therapeutic tools against an invalidating disorder such as BD.

  5. Redox Status of β2GPI in Different Stages of Diabetic Angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We explored the redox status of beta 2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI in different stages of diabetic angiopathy. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM had a significantly lower proportion of reduced β2GPI as compared to healthy controls (p0.05. The mild-A-stenosis group and mild-diabetic retinopathy (DR groups had higher proportion of reduced β2GPI than their severely affected counterparts. The mild-slow nerve conduction velocity (NCVS group had higher proportion of reduced β2GPI than normal nerve conduction velocity (NCVN group and severe-NCVS groups. The proportion of reduced β2GPI was in positive correlation with 24 h urine microalbumin and total urine protein, and the proportion of reduced β2GPI was in negative correlation with serum and skin advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Taken together, our data implicate that the proportion of reduced β2GPI increased in the early stage of angiopathy and decreased with the aggravation of angiopathy.

  6. Cytotoxicity of Cerastes cerastes snake venom: Involvement of imbalanced redox status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebir-Chelghoum, Hayet; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2017-09-01

    Envenomation caused by Cerastes cerastes snake venom is characterized by a local and a systemic tissue damage due to myonecrosis, hemorrhage, edema and acute muscle damage. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the pro/anti-oxidants status and the cytotoxicity of C. cerastes snake venom. The in vivo cytotoxicity analysis was undertaken by the injection of C. cerastes venom (48μg/20g body weight) by i.p. route, mice were then sacrificed at 3, 24 and 48h post injection, organs were collected for further analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis was investigated on cultured PBMC, hepatocytes and isolated liver. The obtained results showed a significant cell infiltration characterized by a significant increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinoperoxidase (EPO) activities. These results showed also a potent oxidative activity of C. cerastes venom characterized by increased levels of residual nitrites and lipid peroxidation associated with a significant decrease of glutathione and catalase activity in sera and tissues (heart, lungs, liver and kidneys). The in vitro cytotoxicity of C. cerastes venom on PBMC seems to be dose-dependent (IC50 of 21μg/ml/10 6 cells) and correlated with an imbalanced redox status at high doses of venom. However, in the case of cultured hepatocytes, the LDH release and oxidative stress were observed only at high doses of the venom. The obtained results of in vivo study were confirmed by the culture of isolated liver. Therefore, these results suggest that the venom induces a direct cytotoxic effect which alters the membrane integrity causing a leakage of the cellular contents. This cytotoxic effect can lead indirectly to inflammatory response and oxidative stress. These data suggest that an early anti-inflammatory and antioxidant treatment could be useful in the management of envenomed victims. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The effect of pre-exercise ingestion of corinthian currant on endurance performance and blood redox status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Poulios, Athanasios; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Papanikolaou, Konstantinos; Papoutsis, Alexandros; Selemekou, Maria; Karathanos, Vaios T; Draganidis, Dimitris; Tsiokanos, Athanasios; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2018-02-22

    The present study investigated the effect of Corinthian currant pre-exercise supplementation on metabolism, performance and blood redox status during, and after prolonged exercise. Eleven healthy participants (21-45y) performed a 90-min constant-intensity (60-70% VO 2max ) submaximal-trial, plus a time-trial (TT) to exhaustion (95% VO 2max ) after consuming an isocaloric (1.5g CHO/kg BM) amount of randomly assigned Corinthian currant or glucose-drink, or water (control). Blood was drawn at baseline, pre-exercise, 30min, 60min, 90min of submaximal-trial, post-TT, and 1h post-TT. Post-ingestion blood glucose (GLU) under Corinthian currant was higher compared with water, and similar compared with glucose-drink throughout the study. Respiratory quotient under Corinthian currant was similar with glucose-drink and higher than water throughout the submaximal trial. Accordingly, higher CHO and lower fat oxidation were observed under Corinthian currant compared with water. The TT performance was similar between Corinthian currant, glucose-drink and water. Redox status were similar under all three conditions. Reduced glutathione (GSH) declined while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and uric acid increased during exercise. GSH and TAC returned to baseline, while uric acid remained increased the following 1h. Corinthian currant, although did not alter exercise-mediated redox status changes and performance, was equally effective to a glucose-drink in maintaining GLU levels during prolonged cycling.

  8. Silymarin protects PBMC against B(a)P induced toxicity by replenishing redox status and modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes-An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiruthiga, P.V.; Pandian, S. Karutha; Devi, K. Pandima

    2010-01-01

    PAHs are a ubiquitous class of environmental contaminants that have a large number of hazardous consequences on human health. An important prototype of PAHs, B(a)P, is notable for being the first chemical carcinogen to be discovered and the one classified by EPA as a probable human carcinogen. It undergoes metabolic activation to QD, which generate ROS by redox cycling system in the body and oxidatively damage the macromolecules. Hence, a variety of antioxidants have been tested as possible protectors against B(a)P toxicity. Silymarin is one such compound, which has high human acceptance, used clinically and consumed as dietary supplement around the world for its strong anti-oxidant efficacy. Silymarin was employed as an alternative approach for treating B(a)P induced damage and oxidative stress in PBMC, with an emphasis to provide the molecular basis for the effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced toxicity. PBMC cells exposed to either benzopyrene (1 μM) or silymarin (2.4 mg/ml) or both was monitored for toxicity by assessing LPO, PO, redox status (GSH/GSSG ratio), glutathione metabolizing enzymes GR and GPx and antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. This study also investigated the protective effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced biochemical alteration at the molecular level by FT-IR spectroscopy. Our findings were quite striking that silymarin possesses substantial protective effect against B(a)P induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes by restoring redox status, modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes, hindering the formation of protein oxidation products, inhibiting LPO and further reducing ROS mediated damages by changing the level of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that silymarin exhibits multiple protections and it should be considered as a potential protective agent for environmental contaminant induced immunotoxicity.

  9. Redox cycling-based amplifying electrochemical sensor for in situ clozapine antipsychotic treatment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Winkler, Thomas E.; Kim, Eunkyoung; Chocron, Sheryl E.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Payne, Gregory F.; Ghodssi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept for clozapine in situ sensing with minimal pre-treatment procedures. • A catechol-chitosan redox cycling system amplifies clozapine oxidation current. • The modified amplifier signal is 3 times greater than the unmodified system. • Differentiation between clozapine and its metabolite norclozapine has been shown. • The sensor has the capability to detect clozapine in human serum. - Abstract: Schizophrenia is a lifelong mental disorder with few recent advances in treatment. Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic for schizophrenia treatment. However, it remains underutilized since frequent blood draws are required to monitor adverse side effects, and maintain clozapine concentrations in a therapeutic range. Micro-system technology utilized towards real-time monitoring of efficacy and safety will enable personalized medicine and better use of this medication. Although work has been reported on clozapine detection using its electrochemical oxidation, no in situ monitoring of clozapine has been described. In this work, we present a new concept for clozapine in situ sensing based on amplifying its oxidation current. Specifically, we use a biofabricated catechol-modified chitosan redox cycling system to provide a significant amplification of the generated oxidizing current of clozapine through a continuous cycle of clozapine reduction followed by re-oxidation. The amplified signal has improved the signal-to-noise ratio and provided the required limit-of-detection and dynamic range for clinical applications with minimal pre-treatment procedures. The sensor reports on the functionality and sensitivity of clozapine detection between 0.1 and 10 μg/mL. The signal generated by clozapine using the catechol-modified chitosan amplifier has shown to be 3 times greater than the unmodified system. The sensor has the ability to differentiate between clozapine and its metabolite norclozapine, as well as the feasibility to detect clozapine in

  10. EFFECT OF THIOPROPANOL ON AMINO ACID TURNOVER AND REDOX STATUS IN ALLOXAN DIABETIC RAT LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Decreased cellular thiol levels seen in diabetes mellitus (DM may be in part attributed to increased free radical generation. The free radical mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DM and its complications. The relative deficiency or non-availability of insulin in DM affects the metabolism of biomolecules, specifically the carbohydrate metabolism. The insulin-mimicking actions of various thiols have been studied. In our previous study, we have documented that 3-mercapto- 1-propanol (Thiopropanol, a low molecular weight thiol, at the dosage employed has increased glucose utilisation in alloxandiabetic rat liver tissue probably by favouring utilisation of glucose through glycolysis and HMP pathway. It is known that insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis by inhibiting the key enzymes of the same and by controlling the channelling of amino acids for the glucose biosynthesis through gluconeogenic pathway. A study was undertaken to assess the effects of thiopropanol (TP on amino acid turnover and the redox status in alloxan diabetic rat liver. METHODS Male albino rats weighing 150-250 g were used. Diabetes was induced using alloxan monohydrate. Rats were divided into normal and diabetic groups. Levels of amino acid nitrogen (AAN, alanine, total thiol (-SH groups, TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST were estimated in liver specimens of normal, control-alloxan diabetic and TP-exposed-alloxan-diabetic rats. RESULTS The results showed a significant increase (p<0.001 in AAN levels, alanine levels, and total -SH groups concentration; and a significant decrease (p<0.001 in TBARS levels, ALT and AST activities in TP-exposed-alloxan diabetic liver slices as compared to control-alloxan diabetic liver slices. CONCLUSIONS Hence, it may be concluded that TP, at the concentration employed, inhibits gluconeogenesis from amino acids probably by

  11. Short-term sleep deprivation leads to decreased systemic redox metabolites and altered epigenetic status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malav S Trivedi

    Full Text Available Sleep is critical for repair as well as the rejuvenation processes in the body and many of these functions are regulated via underlying cellular metabolic homeostasis. Changes in sleep pattern are reported to alter such metabolic function resulting in altered disease susceptibility or behavior. Here, we measured the extent to which overnight total sleep deprivation (SD in young adult humans can influence systemic (plasma-derived redox-metabolism including the major antioxidant, glutathione as well as DNA methylation levels. Nineteen participants (n = 19, μ age = 21, SD = 3.09 underwent morning testing before and after overnight total SD. Biochemical measures before and after SD revealed that glutathione, ATP, cysteine, and homocysteine levels were significantly reduced following one night of sleep deprivation (all p's < 0.01. Parallel to the well-recognized fact that sleep deprivation (maintaining wakefulness uses up metabolic reserves, we observed that morning cortisol levels were blunted after sleep deprivation. There were no significant correlations between self-reported or actigraphy-measured sleep and the biochemical measurements, strongly indicating that prior sleep behavior did not have any direct influence on the biochemical measures taken at baseline or after sleep deprivation. Results from the current investigation supports the previous literature implicating the induction of oxidative stress and ATP depletion with sleep deprivation. Furthermore, such altered antioxidant status can also induce downstream epigenetic changes. Although we did not measure the specific genes that were altered under the influence of such sleep deprivation, such epigenetic changes could potentially contribute towards disease predisposition.

  12. A novel ultrasonic velocity sensing approach to monitoring state of charge of vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yi-Sin; Hsu, Ning-Yih; Jeng, King-Tsai; Chen, Kuan-Hsiang; Yen, Shi-Chern

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first to apply ultrasonic sensing technique to monitor SOC of VRB. • Ultrasound velocity is affected by concentration and temperature of a solution. • The ultrasonic sensing is applicable to both positive and negative sides of VRB. • An empirical model equation fits the results of this two-component system well. • The SOC of a VRB can be properly measured using ultrasonic sensing. - Abstract: A novel ultrasonic velocity sensing approach is proposed and investigated to monitor the state of charge (SOC) of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB, or VRFB). The positive electrode is designated as the energy storage capacity-limiting one so that the molar ratio of the V"5"+ ion in the positive electrolyte solution determines the SOC of a VRB. The tested single-cell VRB is connected to an ultrasonic sensor and charged/discharged almost to its two extremes at a constant current of 2 A under various operating temperatures. It is found that the ultrasound velocity exhibits distinct variations in accordance with changes of vanadium ion compositions in the positive electrolyte solution as the SOC of the VRB varies. The SOC obtained can be depicted in a 3D plot in terms of ultrasound velocity and operating temperature. An empirical model equation is proposed and found to fit the experimental results of both charging and discharging stages quite well. The advantages of this SOC sensing approach are that it is totally independent of VRB operations and can be readily applied to both sides of the electrodes. It is expected to develop into a dependable method for accurate and real-time monitoring of SOC for VRB.

  13. Electrochemical study of quinone redox cycling: A novel application of DNA-based biosensors for monitoring biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Jamei, Hamid Reza; Heydari-Bafrooei, Esmaeil; Rezaei, B

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of voltammetric and impedimetric DNA-based biosensors for monitoring biological and chemical redox cycling reactions involving free radical intermediates. The concept is based on associating the amounts of radicals generated with the electrochemical signals produced, using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For this purpose, a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and poly-diallydimethlammonium chloride decorated with double stranded fish sperm DNA was prepared to detect DNA damage induced by the radicals generated from a redox cycling quinone (i.e., menadione (MD; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone)). Menadione was employed as a model compound to study the redox cycling of quinones. A direct relationship was found between free radical production and DNA damage. The relationship between MD-induced DNA damage and free radical generation was investigated in an attempt to identify the possible mechanism(s) involved in the action of MD. Results showed that DPV and EIS were appropriate, simple and inexpensive techniques for the quantitative and qualitative comparisons of different reducing reagents. These techniques may be recommended for monitoring DNA damages and investigating the mechanisms involved in the production of redox cycling compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Materials and Systems for Organic Redox Flow Batteries: Status and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiaoliang [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pan, Wenxiao [Department; Duan, Wentao [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Hollas, Aaron [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Yang, Zheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Li, Bin [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Nie, Zimin [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Liu, Jun [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Reed, David [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Wang, Wei [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Sprenkle, Vincent [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States

    2017-08-14

    Redox flow batteries are propitious stationary energy storage technologies with exceptional scalability and flexibility to improve the stability, efficiency and sustainability of our power grid. The redox-active materials are the central component to RFBs for achieving high energy density and good cyclability. Traditional inorganic-based materials encounter critical technical and economic limitations such as low solubility, inferior electrochemical activity, and high cost. Redox-active organic materials (ROMs) are promising alternative “green” candidates to push the boundaries of energy storage because of the significant advantages of molecular diversity, structural tailorability, and natural abundance. Here the recent development of a variety of ROM families and associated battery designs in both aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes are reviewed. Moreover, the critical challenges and potential research opportunities for developing practically relevant organic flow batteries are discussed.

  15. Redox-based epigenetic status in drug addiction: a potential contributor to gene priming and a mechanistic rationale for metabolic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Malav S; Deth, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants and opioids, can induce epigenetic changes: a contributing factor for drug addiction, tolerance, and associated withdrawal symptoms. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism and it is one of more than 200 methylation reactions supported by methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Levels of SAM are controlled by cellular redox status via the folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS). For example, under oxidative conditions MS is inhibited, diverting its substrate homocysteine (HCY) to the trans sulfuration pathway. Alcohol, dopamine, and morphine, can alter intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH)-based cellular redox status, subsequently affecting SAM levels and DNA methylation status. Here, existing evidence is presented in a coherent manner to propose a novel hypothesis implicating the involvement of redox-based epigenetic changes in drug addiction. Further, we discuss how a "gene priming" phenomenon can contribute to the maintenance of redox and methylation status homeostasis under various stimuli including drugs of abuse. Additionally, a new mechanistic rationale for the use of metabolic interventions/redox-replenishers as symptomatic treatment of alcohol and other drug addiction and associated withdrawal symptoms is also provided. Hence, the current review article strengthens the hypothesis that neuronal metabolism has a critical bidirectional coupling with epigenetic changes in drug addiction exemplified by the link between redox-based metabolic changes and resultant epigenetic consequences under the effect of drugs of abuse.

  16. Redox-based Epigenetic status in Drug Addiction: Potential mediator of drug-induced gene priming phenomenon and use of metabolic intervention for symptomatic treatment in drug addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malav Suchin Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants and opioids, can induce epigenetic changes: a contributing factor for drug addiction, tolerance and associated withdrawal symptoms. DNA methylation is the major epigenetic mechanism and it is one of more than 200 methylation reactions supported by methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. The levels of SAM are controlled by cellular redox status via the folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS, for example; under oxidative conditions MS is inhibited, diverting its substrate homocysteine (HCY to the transsulfuration pathway. Alcohol, dopamine and morphine, can alter intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH-based cellular redox status, subsequently affecting S-adenosylmethionine (SAM levels and DNA methylation status. In this discussion, we compile this and other existing evidence in a coherent manner to present a novel hypothesis implicating the involvement of redox-based epigenetic changes in drug addiction. Next, we also discuss how gene priming phenomenon can contribute to maintenance of redox and methylation status homeostasis under various stimuli including drugs of abuse. Lastly, based on our hypothesis and some preliminary evidence, we discuss a mechanistic explanation for use of metabolic interventions / redox-replenishers as symptomatic treatment of alcohol addiction and associated withdrawal symptoms. Hence, the current review article strengthens the hypothesis that neuronal metabolism has a critical bidirectional coupling with epigenetic changes in drug addiction and we support this claim via exemplifying the link between redox-based metabolic changes and resultant epigenetic consequences under the effect of drugs of abuse.

  17. Changes in mitochondrial homeostasis and redox status in astronauts following long stays in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Indo, Hiroko P; Majima, Hideyuki J; Terada, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    reductions in the mtRNA/nRNA ratios in both the Inflight and Postflight samples. The mtRNA/mtDNA ratios were relatively constant, except in the Postflight samples. Using the same samples, the expression of redox and signal transduction related genes, MnSOD, CuZnSOD, Nrf2, Keap1, GPx4 and Catalase was also...... examined. The results of the combined data from Preflight, Inflight and Postflight show a significant decrease in the expression of all of the redox-related genes in the samples collected Postflight, with the exception of Catalase, which show no change. This decreased expression may contribute to increased...

  18. Monitoring intra- and extracellular redox capacity of intact barley aleurone layers responding to phytohormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto

    2016-01-01

    to the phytohormones gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Gibberellic acid is shown to elicit a mobilisation of electrons as detected by an increase in the reducing capacity of the aleurone layers. By taking advantage of the membrane-permeable menadione/menadiol redox pair to probe the membrane-impermeable ferricyanide....../ferrocyanide redox pair, the mobilisation of electrons was dissected into an intracellular and an extracellular, plasma membrane-associated component. The intracellular and extracellular increases in reducing capacity were both suppressed when the aleurone layers were incubated with abscisic acid. By probing redox...

  19. Effect of Multicomponent Training on Blood Pressure, Nitric Oxide, Redox Status, and Physical Fitness in Older Adult Women: Influence of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS3 Haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Alexandre Trapé

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of the genotype or haplotype (interaction of the NOS3 polymorphisms [-786T>C, 894G>T (Glu298Asp, and intron 4b/a] on the response to multicomponent training (various capacities and motor skills on blood pressure (BP, nitrite concentration, redox status, and physical fitness in older adult women. The sample consisted of 52 participants, who underwent body mass index and BP assessments. Physical fitness was evaluated by six-minute walk, elbow flexion, and sit and stand up tests. Plasma/blood samples were used to evaluate redox status, nitrite concentration, and genotyping. Associations were observed between isolated polymorphisms and the response of decreased systolic and diastolic BP and increased nitrite concentration and antioxidant activity. In the haplotype analysis, the group composed of ancestral alleles (H1 was the only one to present improvement in all variables studied (decrease in systolic and diastolic BP, improvement in nitrite concentration, redox status, and physical fitness, while the group composed of variant alleles (H8 only demonstrated improvement in some variables of redox status and physical fitness. These findings suggest that NOS3 polymorphisms and physical training are important interacting variables to consider in evaluating redox status, nitric oxide availability and production, and BP control.

  20. Eclipta yellow vein virus enhances chlorophyll destruction, singlet oxygen production and alters endogenous redox status in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asifa; Luqman, Suaib; Masood, Nusrat; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Saeed, Sana Tabanda; Samad, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    The infection of Eclipta yellow vein virus [EcYVV-IN, Accession No. KC476655], recently reported for the first time, on Andrographis paniculata was studied for redox-mediated alteration mechanism in infected plants. A. paniculata, an important medicinal plant, is used in traditional Indian, Chinese and modern system of medicine. Andrographolide, one of the foremost components of this plant, is known for its varied pharmacological properties. Our investigation provides insight into the effect of virus-induced changes in the singlet oxygen quenching due to the alteration in pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoids) as well as activation of plant secondary metabolism along with defense activation leading to changes in enzymatic and non-enzymatic redox status. Due to infection, a reduction in carotenoid content was observed which leads to reduced quenching of singlet oxygen. An increased level of enzymatic (SOD and APX) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, RP, NO, TAC and TP) activities were also observed in virus-infected plants with a positive correlation (>0.9). However, CAT activity was diminished which could be either due to its proteolytic degradation or inactivation by superoxide anions (O(2-.)), NO or peroxynitrite radicals. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in total phenolic content was observed in the infected plants while no considerable difference was seen in the total flavonoid content. Our results highlighted the alteration in redox status caused by virus-induced biotic stress on the plants and could be useful for understanding the after effects of viral infection This study could also be helpful in developing biomimetic methods for improving the production of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  2. Altered cellular redox status, sirtuin abundance and clock gene expression in a mouse model of developmentally primed NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Sihota, Kiran K; Ravindraanandan, Manoj; Thomas, Hugh; Lillycrop, Karen A; Burdge, Graham C; Hanson, Mark A; Byrne, Christopher D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2016-07-01

    We have previously shown that high fat (HF) feeding during pregnancy primes the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatits (NASH) in the adult offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Since the endogenous molecular clock can regulate hepatic lipid metabolism, we investigated whether exposure to a HF diet during development could alter hepatic clock gene expression and contribute to NASH onset in later life. Female mice were fed either a control (C, 7%kcal fat) or HF (45%kcal fat) diet. Offspring were fed either a C or HF diet resulting in four offspring groups: C/C, C/HF, HF/C and HF/HF. NAFLD progression, cellular redox status, sirtuin expression (Sirt1, Sirt3), and the expression of core clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Per2, Cry2) and clock-controlled genes involved in lipid metabolism (Rev-Erbα, Rev-Erbβ, RORα, and Srebp1c) were measured in offspring livers. Offspring fed a HF diet developed NAFLD. However HF fed offspring of mothers fed a HF diet developed NASH, coupled with significantly reduced NAD(+)/NADH (pNASH in adulthood, involving altered cellular redox status, reduced sirtuin abundance, and desynchronized clock gene expression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Redox Mediators for Li-O2 Batteries: Status and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Bum; Lee, Seon Hwa; Jung, Hun-Gi; Aurbach, Doron; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2018-01-01

    Li-O 2 batteries have received much attention due to their extremely large theoretical energy density. However, the high overpotentials required for charging Li-O 2 batteries lower their energy efficiency and degrade the electrolytes and carbon electrodes. This problem is one of the main obstacles in developing practical Li-O 2 batteries. To solve this problem, it is important to facilitate the oxidation of Li 2 O 2 upon charging by using effective electrocatalysis. Using solid catalysts is not too effective for oxidizing the electronically isolating Li-peroxide layers. In turn, for soluble catalysts, red-ox mediators (RMs) are homogeneously dissolved in the electrolyte solutions and can effectively oxidize all of the Li 2 O 2 precipitated during discharge. RMs can decompose solid Li 2 O 2 species no matter their size, morphology, or thickness and thus dramatically increase energy efficiency. However, some negative side effects, such as the shuttle reactions of RMs and deterioration of the Li-metal occur. Therefore, it is necessary to study the activity and stability of RMs in Li-O 2 batteries in detail. Herein, recent studies related to redox mediators are reviewed and the mechanisms of redox reactions are illustrated. The development opportunities of RMs for this important battery technology are discussed and future directions are suggested. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Higher Mediterranean Diet Quality Scores and Lower Body Mass Index Are Associated with a Less-Oxidized Plasma Glutathione and Cysteine Redox Status in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettermann, Erika L; Hartman, Terryl J; Easley, Kirk A; Ferranti, Erin P; Jones, Dean P; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Vaccarino, Viola; Ziegler, Thomas R; Alvarez, Jessica A

    2018-02-01

    Both systemic redox status and diet quality are associated with risk outcomes in chronic disease. It is not known, however, the extent to which diet quality influences plasma thiol/disulfide redox status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of diet, as measured by diet quality scores and other dietary factors, on systemic thiol/disulfide redox status. We performed a cross-sectional study of 685 working men and women (ages ≥18 y) in Atlanta, GA. Diet was assessed by 3 diet quality scores: the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). We measured concentrations of plasma glutathione (GSH), cysteine, their associated oxidized forms [glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and cystine (CySS), respectively], and their redox potentials (EhGSSG and EhCySS) to determine thiol/disulfide redox status. Linear regression modeling was performed to assess relations between diet and plasma redox after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), sex, race, and history of chronic disease. MDS was positively associated with plasma GSH (β = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.03) and total GSH (GSH + GSSG) (β = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.03), and inversely associated with the CySS:GSH ratio (β = -0.02; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.004). There were significant independent associations between individual MDS components (dairy, vegetables, fish, and monounsaturated fat intake) and varying plasma redox indexes (P indexes and other diet factors of interest were not significantly correlated with plasma thiol and disulfide redox measures. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with a favorable plasma thiol/disulfide redox profile, independent of BMI, in a generally healthy working adult population. Although longitudinal studies are warranted, these findings contribute to the feasibility of targeting a Mediterranean diet to improve plasma redox status.

  5. Physiologic Status Monitoring via the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    monitoring is similar with many other ambulatory physiological monitoring systems, and this one of the same limitations of the existing “ gold standard... pollution on acoustic signal fidelity. Reassuringly, data collected here appeared robust in spite of room noise contributions ranging from 70 to 80 dB...Noise pollution , Page 10 of 24 either from ambient or internal sources, may also be addressed using more robust signal processing algorithms

  6. Determination of Glutathione and Its Redox Status in Isolated Vacuoles of Red Beetroot Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione of the red beetroot vacuoles (Beta vulgaris L. was measured using three well-known methods: the spectrofluorimetric method with orthophthalic aldehyde (OPT; the spectrophotometric method with 5.5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB; the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The content of reduced (GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG differed depending on the research method. With OPT the concentration of glutathione was: GSH – 0.059 µmol /mg protein; GSSG – 0.019 µmol/mg protein and total glutathione (GSHtotal – 0.097 µmol/mg protein. In the case of determining with DTNB the concentration of glutathione was: GSH – 0.091 µmol/mg protein; GSSG – 0.031 µmol/mg protein; GSHtotal – 0.153 µmol/mg protein. HPLC-defined concentration of glutathione was lower: GSH – 0.039 µmol/mg protein; GSSG – 0.007 µmol/mg protein; GSHtotal – 0.053 µmol/mg protein. Redox ratio of GSH/GSSG was also dependent on the method of determination: with OPT – 3.11; with DTNB – 2.96 and HPLC – 5.57. Redox ratio of glutathione in vacuoles was much lower than the tissue extracts of red beetroot, which, depending on the method of determination, was: 7.23, 7.16 and 9.22. The results showed the vacuoles of red beetroot parenchyma cells contain glutathione. Despite the low value of the redox ratio GSH/GSSG, in vacuoles the pool of reduced glutathione prevailed over the pool of oxidized glutathione.

  7. Status of contamination monitoring in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Aleya [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dacca (Bangladesh)

    1997-06-01

    The applications of radioisotopes and radiation sources to the research and development in medicine, food agriculture, industries and others are rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. The existing major nuclear facilites and allied laboratories of the country include 3 MW TRIGA Mark-2 research reactor for training, research and radioisotope production, 14 MeV neutron generator for nuclear data measurement and elemental analysis via neutron activation, 3 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator for the research and application of nuclear physics, and 50,000 Ci and 5,000 Ci Co-60 irradiators. About 10 Co-60 and Cs-137 teletherapy units are in operation in hospitals. The radioactive contamination of working areas, equipment, protective clothing and skin may result from normal operation and accidents, and contamination monitoring and decontamination are the essential part of radiation protection program. Surface contamination is monitored with Berthold survey meters. Hand and foot monitors have been used. Routine systematic search, continuous air monitoring, the examination of silt movement in Chittagong harbor using Sc-46 tracer and the measurement of tritium contamination for the neutron generator are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Continuous glucose monitoring microsensor with a nanoscale conducting matrix and redox mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesantez, Daniel

    The major limiting factor in kidney clinical transplantation is the shortage of transplantable organs. The current inability to distinguish viability from non-viability on a prospective basis represents a major obstacle in any attempt to expand organ donor criteria. Consequently, a way to measure and monitor a relevant analyte to assess kidney viability is needed. For the first time, the initial development and characterization of a metabolic microsensor to assess kidney viability is presented. The rate of glucose consumption appears to serve as an indicator of kidney metabolism that may distinguish reversible from irreversible kidney damage. The proposed MetaSense (Metabolic Sensor) microdevice would replace periodic laboratory diagnosis tests with a continuous monitor that provides real-time data on organ viability. Amperometry, a technique that correlates an electrical signal with analyte concentration, is used as a method to detect glucose concentrations. A novel two-electrode electrochemical sensing cell design is presented. It uses a modified metallic working electrode (WE) and a bare metallic reference electrode (RE) that acts as a pseudo-reference/counter electrode as well. The proposed microsensor has the potential to be used as a minimally invasive sensor for its reduced number of probes and very small dimensions achieved by micromachining and lithography. In order to improve selectivity of the microdevice, two electron transfer mechanisms or generations were explored. A first generation microsensor uses molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor in the enzymatic reaction and oxidizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to get the electrical signal. The microsensor's modified WE with conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) and corresponding enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized into its matrix, constitutes the electrochemical detection mechanism. Photoluminescence spectroscopic analysis confirmed and quantified enzyme immobilized concentrations within the matrix. In

  9. Effects of commonly consumed fruit juices and carbohydrates on redox status and anticancer biomarkers in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Vibeke M.; Nielsen, Salka E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2003-01-01

    /kg of diet. However, no effects were observed on hepatic glutathione S-transferase or quinone reductase activities, plasma redox status, or the activity of red blood cell antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that commonly consumed fruit juices can alter lipid and protein......Administration of apple juice, black currant juice, ora 1:1 combination of the two juices significantly decreased the level of the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde in plasma of female rats, whereas the protein oxidation biomarker 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde, was significantly increased...... following administration of orange juice, black currant juice, or the 1: 1 combination of apple and black currant juice. A significant increase in 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde was also observed in control rats given sucrose, fructose, and glucose in the drinking water at concentrations approximating...

  10. A nuclear power plant status monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, B.B.; Conradi, L.L.; Weinzimmer, F.

    1986-01-01

    Power plant operation requires decisions that can affect both the availability of the plant and its compliance with operating guidelines. Taking equipment out of service may affect the ability of the plant to produce power at a certain power level and may also affect the status of the plant with regard to technical specifications. Keeping the plant at a high as possible production level and remaining in compliance with the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) can dictate a variety of plant operation and maintenance actions and responses. Required actions and responses depend on the actual operational status of a nuclear plant and its attendant systems, trains, and components which is a dynamic situation. This paper discusses an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Research Project, RP 2508, the objective of which is to combine the key features of plant information management systems with systems reliability analysis techniques in order to assist nuclear power plant personnel to perform their functions more efficiently and effectively. An overview of the EPRI Research Project is provided along with a detailed discussion of the design and operation of the PSM portion of the project

  11. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  12. Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, R.A.; Trebules, V.W.; Blandford, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    1993 has been yet another year of major change in the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) project. The change in administration has brought a new Secretary of Energy to the Department. Secretary O'Leary has brought a strong leadership background and fresh ideas to address the Department's many complex challenges, including the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). Dr. Daniel Dreyfus was named Director of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Mr. Richard Stallings has been named, as the new, Nuclear Waste Negotiator under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Amendments of 1987. The overall mission of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has not changed. OCRWM is tasked with finding technically sound, environmentally responsible and economically viable solutions to spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste storage and disposal

  13. A multimodal optical and electrochemical device for monitoring surface reactions: redox active surfaces in porous silicon Rugate filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampi, Simone; Guan, Bin; Darwish, Nadim A; Zhu, Ying; Reece, Peter J; Gooding, J Justin

    2012-12-21

    Herein, mesoporous silicon (PSi) is configured as a single sensing device that has dual readouts; as a photonic crystal sensor in a Rugate filter configuration, and as a high surface area porous electrode. The as-prepared PSi is chemically modified to provide it with stability in aqueous media and to allow for the subsequent coupling of chemical species, such as via Cu(I)-catalyzed cycloaddition reactions between 1-alkynes and azides ("click" reactions). The utility of the bimodal capabilities of the PSi sensor for monitoring surface coupling procedures is demonstrated by the covalent coupling of a ferrocene derivative, as well as by demonstrating ligand-exchange reactions (LER) at the PSi surface. Both types of reactions were monitored through optical reflectivity measurements, as well as electrochemically via the oxidation/reduction of the surface tethered redox species.

  14. Inhibition of glutathione biosynthesis alters compartmental redox status and the thiol proteome in organogenesis-stage rat conceptuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Craig; Shuster, Daniel Z; Roman Gomez, Rosaicela; Sant, Karilyn E; Reed, Matthew S; Pohl, Jan; Hansen, Jason M

    2013-10-01

    Developmental signals that control growth and differentiation are regulated by environmental factors that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alter steady-state redox environments in tissues and fluids. Protein thiols are selectively oxidized and reduced in distinct spatial and temporal patterns in conjunction with changes in glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) and cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) redox potentials (E(h)) to regulate developmental signaling. The purpose of this study was to measure compartment-specific thiol redox status in cultured organogenesis-stage rat conceptuses and to evaluate the impact of thiol oxidation on the redox proteome. The visceral yolk sac (VYS) has the highest initial (0 h) total intracellular GSH (GSH+2GSSG) concentration (5.5 mM) and the lowest Eh (-223 mV) as determined by HPLC analysis. Total embryo (EMB) GSH concentrations ranged lower (3.2 mM) and were only slightly more oxidized than the VYS. Total GSH concentrations in yolk sac fluid (YSF) and amniotic fluid (AF) are >500-fold lower than in tissues and are highly oxidized (YSF E(h)=-121 mV and AF E(h)=-49 mV). Steady-state total Cys concentrations (Cys+2CySS) were significantly lower than GSH in tissues but were otherwise equal in VYS and EMB near 0.5 mM. On gestational day 11, total GSH and Cys concentrations in EMB and VYS increase significantly over the 6h time course while E(h) remains relatively constant. The Eh (GSH/GSSG) in YSF and AF become more reduced over time while E(h) (Cys/CySS) become more oxidized. Addition of L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BS0) to selectively inhibit GSH synthesis and mimic the effects of some GSH-depleting environmental chemicals significantly decreased VYS and EMB GSH and Cys concentrations and increased Eh over the 6h exposure period, showing a greater overall oxidation. In the YSF, BSO caused a significant increase in total Cys concentrations to 1.7 mM but did not significantly change the E(h) for Cys/CySS. A significant net

  15. Status of radionuclide monitoring stations in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ANSTO) first became involved in the monitoring of radionuclides in the environment in 1955 when assessing the effects on the Australian population of the radioactive releases associated with the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. (At that time ARPANSA was known as the Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory). The United Kingdom had tested weapons in Australia in 1952 and 1953 and in August 1954 entered into an agreement with the Australian Government to establish a test range at Maralinga in South Australia. The government established a Maralinga Safety Committee and through this Committee ARPANSA became involved in the surveillance of radioactive fallout over Australia. The primary function of this surveillance was to ensure that the nuclear trials would not adversely effect the health of the Australian population. A program was established to reliably assess the deposition of radioactive fallout over Australia so that exposure to the population could be estimated. This task was performed in conjunction with the Bureau of Meteorology and the Department of Supply. Measurements were made on daily samples of fallout dawn from 10 centres throughout Australia. A low level radiochemical facility was established in 1961 for the measurement of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in environmental samples so that the long term distribution of fallout could be tracked. In the 1960s the program was extended to measure fresh fission products reaching Australia from atmospheric testing in other countries, usually originating from test sites in the northern hemisphere. The sampling program that was established was designed so that it could be rapidly expanded when a new testing program started. At this time a permanent fallout monitoring network was established around Australia using high volume air samplers capable of sampling up to 10000 m 3 per week. Approximately six stations have been operated at any one time but the

  16. Asada-Halliwell pathway maintains redox status in Dioscorea alata tuber which helps in germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sehrawat, Ankita; Deswal, Renu

    2016-09-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are important regulatory molecules governing physiological processes. In the present study a biochemical and proteome level comparison of two contrasting growth stages of Dioscorea alata tuber namely germinating and mature tuber was performed in order to understand the tuber physiology and biochemistry. Existence of all the component enzymes [APx (ascorbate peroxidase), GR (glutathione reductase), DHAR (dehydroascorbate reductase), MDHAR (mono-dehydroascorbate reductase)] and major products [ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH)] of the cycle showed an operational Asada-Halliwell cycle in the tuber. A 2.65 fold increase in ASC content & a 3.8 fold increase in GR activity fortified the redox milieu during germination. In contrast a 5 fold higher H2O2 content (due to 3.08 fold lower APx activity) and accumulation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitric oxide (NO, 2.4-fold) and S-nitrosothiol (SNO, 2.08 fold) contributed to overall oxidative conditions in the mature tuber. The carbonic anhydrase (CA, 7.5 fold), DHAR (5.31 fold) and MDHAR (7 fold) activities were higher in the germinating tuber in comparison with the mature tuber. GSNO negatively regulated the CA (3.6 & 3.95 fold), MDHAR (7.5 & 1.5 fold) and APx (2.3 & 1.81 fold) while another NO donor, CysNO negatively regulated the DHAR (2.24 & 1.32 fold) activity in the mature and germinating stages respectively indicating again that the lesser inhibition by NO (via nitrosylation) may be because of overall reducing environment in the germinating tuber. Increased SNO leading to S-nitrosylation of dioscorin was confirmed by Biotin switch assay. This is the first report showing dioscorin nitrosylation. The present analysis showed differential redox regulation and also suggests the physiological relevance of CA, DHAR, MDHAR, APx & GR in tuber germination for the first time. These enzymes may be used as potential markers of tuber germination in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  17. Redox potential monitoring as a method to control unwanted noble metal-catalyzed hydrogen generation from formic acid treatment of simulated nuclear waste media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Simulants for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed containing the major nonradioactive components Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Nd, Ni, Si, Zr, Na, CO 3 2- , NO 3 - , and NO 2 - were used to study redox potential changes in reactions of formic acid at 90 C catalyzed by the noble metals Ru, Rh, and/or Pd found in significant quantities in uranium fission products. Such reactions were monitored using gas chromatography to analyze the CO 2 , H 2 , NO, and N 2 O in the gas phase and a redox electrode to follow redox potential changes as a function of time. In the initial phase of formic acid addition to nitrite-containing feed simulants, the redox potential of the reaction mixture rises typically to +400 mV relative to the Al/AgCl electrode because of the generation of the moderately strongly oxidizing nitrous acid. No H 2 production occurs at this stage of the reaction as long as free nitrous acid is present. After all of the nitrous acid has been destroyed by reduction to N 2 O and NO and disproportionation to NO/NO 3 - , the redox potential of the reaction mixture becomes more negative than the Ag/AgCl electrode. The experiments outlined in this paper suggest the feasibility of controlling the production of H 2 by limiting the amount of formic acid used and monitoring the redox potential during formic acid treatment

  18. Plant redox proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2011-01-01

    PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual roles to maintain oxidative stress resistance and regulate signal transduction pathways via redox PTMs......In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox....... To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis, possibly...

  19. Influence of the PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil on redox status and antioxidant defense system in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranti, Guglielmo; Ceci, Roberta; Sgrò, Paolo; Sabatini, Stefania; Di Luigi, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is), widely known for their beneficial effects onto male erectile dysfunction, seem to exert favorable effects onto metabolism as well. Tadalafil exposure increases oxidative metabolism of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. A rise in fatty acid (FA) metabolism, requiring more oxygen, could induce a larger reactive oxygen species (ROS) release as a byproduct thus leading to a redox imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine how PDE5I tadalafil influences redox status in skeletal muscle cells to match the increasing oxidative metabolism. To this purpose, differentiated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells were treated with tadalafil and analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione levels as marker of redox status; enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) engaged in antioxidant defense; and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PrCar) as markers of oxidative damage. Tadalafil increased total intracellular glutathione (tGSH), CAT, SOD, and GPx enzymatic activities while no changes were found in TAC. A perturbation of redox status, as showed by the decrease in the ratio between reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), was observed. Nevertheless, it did not cause any change in TBARS and PrCar levels probably due to the enhancement in the antioxidant enzymatic network. Taken together, these data indicate that tadalafil, besides improving oxidative metabolism, may be beneficial to skeletal muscle cells by enhancing the enzymatic antioxidant system capacity.

  20. Forest Health Monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2015-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  1. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2017-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...

  2. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2015-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  3. Personal dosimetric monitoring in Ukraine: current status and further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V. V.; Musijachenkom, A. V.; Boguslavskaya, A. I.

    2003-01-01

    Presently Ukraine has mixed system for dosimetric monitoring. Nuclear power plants and some major nuclear facilities have their own dosimetry services, which are responsible for regular dosimetric monitoring of workers. Rest of occupationally exposed persons is monitored by dosimetry laboratories affiliated to the territorial authorities for sanitary and epidemiology supervision. In 2002-2003 Ukrainian Ministry of Health performed survey of the status of dosimetric monitoring and inventory of critical groups requiring such monitoring. Dosimetry services in Ukraine cover about 38,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 9,100 medical professionals, 16,400 employees of 5 nuclear power plants and ca.12,400 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure (industry, research). Territorial dosimetry services operate in 13 of 24 regions of Ukraine, using DTU-01 manual TLD readers produced with one exception in 1988-1990. The coverage of critical groups by dosimetric monitoring is variable and ranges from 38% to 100% depending on the region. Personnel of nuclear power plants (about 16,400 workers) is monitored by their own dosimetry services achieving absolute coverage of the main staff and temporary workers. Current inadequate status of dosimetric monitoring infrastructure in Ukraine demands an urgent elaboration of the united state system for monitoring and recording of individual doses. The proposed plan would allows to bring dosimetry infrastructure in Ukraine to the modern state which would be compatible with existing and future European and international radiation protection networks. Unitary structure of Ukraine, strong administrative command and good communications between regions of the country are positive factors in favour of efficient implementation of the proposed plan. Deficiencies are associated with limited funding of this effort. (authors)

  4. Monitoring the chemical nature of the carbon pool of Louisiana wetland soils undergoing erosion: carbon speciation and redox processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, B.; Cook, R. L.; Hayes, M. P.; White, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands account for approximately one third of all the soil carbon on the planet; however, due to erosion caused by a range of factors, including sea level rising, they are also some of the most vulnerable carbon pools. Small changes within this sequestered carbon pool can have a large impact on atmospheric CO2 levels. Thus, it is essential to understand how this sequestered carbon reacts to wetland loss in order to gain deeper insight into the global carbon cycle. In the study to be presented, Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA is used as a model system for wetland loss. A sampling site and sampling grid has been established, and consists of three transects on and from an individual island. Each transect has five different distances ranging from 2 m inland to 8 m outland (into the water). At each of these different distances, depth profiles from 0 to 100 cm for inland samples, and 0-70 cm for submerged samples, were collected in order to identify spatial trends not only from inland to submerged, but also through the depth of the soil profile. Three types of samples were collected, namely water, pore water, and soil samples, with the latter being obtained from the combined collection of water and core samples. Samples have undergone spectroscopic characterizing including UV/Vis, fluorescence (excitation emission matrices, EEMs, and parallel factor, PARAFAC, analysis of the EEMs), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, solid state 13C), and electron pair resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in concert with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy to monitor the initial state of carbon speciation as well as redox processes. The data are used to establish a starting point on which to monitor changes within the carbon pool as the sampling site experience erosion over the next few years. The discussion will focus on the lability of different carbon pools and the potential lability-inducing mechanisms as well as the initial carbon speciation and redox state of the sampling

  5. Brevetoxin (PbTx-2) influences the redox status and NPQ of Karenia brevis by way of thioredoxin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Colon, Ricardo; Louda, J William; Del Rey, Freddy Rodriguez; Durham, Michaella; Rein, Kathleen S

    2018-01-01

    The Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, is the major harmful algal bloom dinoflagellate of the Gulf of Mexico and plays a destructive role in the region. Blooms of K. brevis can produce brevetoxins: ladder-shaped polyether (LSP) compounds, which can lead to adverse human health effects, such as reduced respiratory function through inhalation exposure, or neurotoxic shellfish poisoning through consumption of contaminated shellfish. The endogenous role of the brevetoxins remains uncertain. Recent work has shown that some forms of NADPH dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR) are inhibited by brevetoxin-2 (PbTx-2). The study presented herein reveals that high toxin and low toxin K. brevis, which have a ten-fold difference in toxin content, also show a significant difference in their ability, not only to produce brevetoxin, but also in their cellular redox status and distribution of xanthophyll cycle pigments. These differences are likely due to the inhibition of NTR by brevetoxin. The work could shed light on the physiological role that brevetoxin fills for K. brevis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Organophosphate pesticides-induced changes in the redox status of rat tissues and protective effects of antioxidant vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vibhuti; Srivastava, Nalini

    2015-04-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) pesticides are among the most toxic synthetic chemicals purposefully added in the environment. The common use of OP insecticides in public health and agriculture results in an environmental pollution and a number of acute and chronic poisoning events. Present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of monocrotophos and quinalphos to effect the redox status and glutathione (GSH) homeostasis in rat tissues and find out whether antioxidant vitamins have some protection on the pesticide-induced alterations. The results showed that these pesticides alone or in combination, caused decrease in the levels of GSH and the corresponding increase in the levels of GSSG, decreasing the GSH/GSSG ratio. The results also showed that NADPH/NADP(+) and NADH/NAD(+) ratios were decreased in the liver and brain of rats on exposure with mococrotophos, quinalphos, and their mixture. These pesticides, alone or in combination, caused alterations in the activities of GSH reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the rat tissues. However, the expression of the GSH recycling enzymes did not show significant alterations as compared to control. From the results, it can be concluded that these pesticides generate oxidative stress but their effects were not synergistic when given together and prior feeding of antioxidant vitamins tend to reduce the toxicities of these pesticides. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Novel feed including bioactive compounds from winery wastes improved broilers' redox status in blood and tissues of vital organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makri, Sotiria; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Stagos, Dimitrios; Chamokeridou, Theodora; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Mpesios, Anastasios; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Goulas, Panagiotis; Komiotis, Dimitrios; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Currently, there is a great interest in the production of animal feed with antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to examine the potential antioxidant effects of a feed supplemented with grape pomace (GP), a winery by-product with high environmental load, in chickens. Broilers of 15 days post birth were separated into two groups fed either with standard diet or with diet supplemented with GP for 35 days. Blood and tissues collections were performed after feeding for 15 and 35 days with the experimental diet (i.e. at 30 and 50 days post birth). Free radical toxicity markers, namely thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, catalase activity and rate of H 2 O 2 decomposition were determined in blood and tissues of vital organs. The results indicated that feed supplemented with GP decreased oxidative stress-induced toxic effects and improved chickens' redox status, and so it may also improve their wellness and productivity. On the other hand, this exploitation of GP may solve problems of environmental pollution in areas with wineries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Plants status monitor: Modelling techniques and inherent benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding, R.J.; Lainoff, S.M.; Rees, D.C.; Prather, W.A.; Fickiessen, K.O.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Plant Status Monitor (PSM) is designed to provide plant personnel with information on the operational status of the plant and compliance with the plant technical specifications. The PSM software evaluates system models using a 'distributed processing' technique in which detailed models of individual systems are processed rather than by evaluating a single, plant-level model. In addition, development of the system models for PSM provides inherent benefits to the plant by forcing detailed reviews of the technical specifications, system design and operating procedures, and plant documentation. (orig.)

  9. Status of neutron monitoring meters for radiation protection purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Taosheng

    2003-01-01

    The status of and trends towards the development of neutron monitoring meters, such as dose survey meter, workplace (ambient) spectrometer and individual dosimeters, are discussed in the present paper from the perspectives of workplace and individual dose monitoring. Over the past 4 decades, both neutron dose survey meter and workplace spectrometer have declined to be more reasonable in design of their probes, with more broaden applications. With the development of electronic technology, there is a trend towards being more small-compacted and smart. Although many technical difficulties in the practical measurement, some significant progresses have be made in the development and research of these kinds of meters. (authors)

  10. Artificial neural network for research reactor safety status monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varde, P.V.

    2001-01-01

    During reactor upset/abnormal conditions, emphasis is placed on plant operator's ability to quickly identify the problem and perform diagnosis and initiate recovery action to ensure safety of the plant. However, the reliability of human action is adversely affected at the time of crisis, due to the time stress and psychological factors. Availability of operational aids capable of monitoring the status of the plant and quickly identifying the deviation from normal operation is expected to significantly improve the operator reliability. Artificial Neural Network (based on Back Propagation Algorithm) has been developed and applied for reactor safety status monitoring, as part of an Operator Support System. ANN has been trained for 14 different plant states using 42 input symptom patterns. Recall tests performed on the ANN show that the system was able to identify the plant state with reasonable accuracy. (author)

  11. GStat 2.0: Grid Information System Status Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Field, L; Huang, J; Tsai, M

    2009-01-01

    Grid Information Systems are mission-critical components in today's production grid infrastructures. They enable users, applications and services to discover which services exist in the infrastructure and further information about the service structure and state. It is therefore important that the information system components themselves are functioning correctly and that the information content is reliable. Grid Status (GStat) is a tool that monitors the structural integrity of the EGEE info...

  12. Investigation of redox status in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced neurodegeneration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Saxena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging related reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF has been linked with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Experimentally, a condition of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion due to reduced CBF can be induced by permanent bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries (2-vessel occlusion, 2VO in rats. Since oxidative stress, leading to neuronal apoptosis and death, is one of the mechanisms, which is thought to play a significant role in chronic degenerative neurological disorders, the present study was planned to assess the ROS status by measuring the levels of anti-oxidant enzymes that might occur during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Antioxidant enzymes namely glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase were measured in the brain tissue at eight weeks of 2VO induction in rats. Results show significantly elevated levels of GPx, SOD, and catalase enzymes as compared with the control group. It is possible that compensatory rise in antioxidant enzymes occurs in response to increased oxidative stress following ischemic insult.

  13. Status of radiation detector and neutron monitor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y K; Ha, J H; Han, S H; Hong, S B; Hwang, I K; Lee, W G; Moon, B S; Park, S H; Song, M H

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe the current states of the radiation detection technology, detectors for industrial application, and neutron monitors. We also survey the new technologies being applied to this field. The method to detect radiation is the measurement of the observable secondary effect from the interaction between incident radiation and detector material, such as ionization, excitation, fluorescence, and chemical reaction. The radiation detectors can be categorized into gas detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors according to major effects and main applications. This report contains the current status and operational principles of these detectors. The application fields of radiation detectors are industrial measurement system, in-core neutron monitor, medical radiation diagnostic device, nondestructive inspection device, environmental radiation monitoring, cosmic-ray measurement, security system, fundamental science experiment, and radiation measurement standardization. The st...

  14. Cisplatin Induces a Mitochondrial-ROS Response That Contributes to Cytotoxicity Depending on Mitochondrial Redox Status and Bioenergetic Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marullo, Rossella; Werner, Erica; Degtyareva, Natalya; Moore, Bryn; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most effective and widely used anticancer agents for the treatment of several types of tumors. The cytotoxic effect of cisplatin is thought to be mediated primarily by the generation of nuclear DNA adducts, which, if not repaired, cause cell death as a consequence of DNA replication and transcription blockage. However, the ability of cisplatin to induce nuclear DNA (nDNA) damage per se is not sufficient to explain its high degree of effectiveness nor the toxic effects exerted on normal, post-mitotic tissues. Oxidative damage has been observed in vivo following exposure to cisplatin in several tissues, suggesting a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced dose-limiting toxicities. However, the mechanism of cisplatin-induced generation of ROS and their contribution to cisplatin cytotoxicity in normal and cancer cells is still poorly understood. By employing a panel of normal and cancer cell lines and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model system, we show that exposure to cisplatin induces a mitochondrial-dependent ROS response that significantly enhances the cytotoxic effect caused by nDNA damage. ROS generation is independent of the amount of cisplatin-induced nDNA damage and occurs in mitochondria as a consequence of protein synthesis impairment. The contribution of cisplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in determining its cytotoxic effect varies among cells and depends on mitochondrial redox status, mitochondrial DNA integrity and bioenergetic function. Thus, by manipulating these cellular parameters, we were able to enhance cisplatin cytotoxicity in cancer cells. This study provides a new mechanistic insight into cisplatin-induced cell killing and may lead to the design of novel therapeutic strategies to improve anticancer drug efficacy. PMID:24260552

  15. Phosphatidylcholine formation by LPCAT1 is regulated by Ca2+ and the redox status of the cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soupene Eric

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to oxidation and damaged chains are removed from glycerophospholipids by phospholipase A2. De-acylated lipids are then re-acylated by lysophospholipid acyltransferase enzymes such as LPCAT1 which catalyses the formation of phosphatidylcholine (PC from lysoPC and long-chain acyl-CoA. Results Activity of LPCAT1 is inhibited by Ca2+, and a Ca2+-binding motif of the EF-hand type, EFh-1, was identified in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the protein. The residues Asp-392 and Glu-403 define the loop of the hairpin structure formed by EFh-1. Substitution of D392 and E403 to alanine rendered an enzyme insensitive to Ca2+, which established that Ca2+ binding to that region negatively regulates the activity of the acyltransferase amino-terminal domain. Residue Cys-211 of the conserved motif III is not essential for catalysis and not sufficient for sensitivity to treatment by sulfhydryl-modifier agents. Among the several active cysteine-substitution mutants of LPCAT1 generated, we identified one to be resistant to treatment by sulfhydryl-alkylating and sulfhydryl-oxidizer agents. Conclusion Mutant forms of LPCAT1 that are not inhibited by Ca2+ and sulfhydryl-alkylating and –oxidizing agents will provide a better understanding of the physiological function of a mechanism that places the formation of PC, and the disposal of the bioactive species lysoPC, under the control of the redox status and Ca2+ concentration of the cell.

  16. N-Acetyl Cysteine Protects against Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration via Modulation of Redox Status and Autophagy in Dopaminergic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Chandramani Shivalingappa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine- (MA- induced neurotoxicity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced oxidative stress. Our previous study demonstrated that MA induces autophagy in a dopaminergic neuronal cell model (N27 cells. The cellular mechanisms underlying MA-induced autophagy and apoptosis remain poorly characterized. In the present study we sought to investigate the importance of GSH redox status in MA-induced neurotoxicity using a thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC. Morphological and biochemical analysis revealed that MA-induced autophagy in N27 dopaminergic cells was associated with pronounced depletion of GSH levels. Moreover, pretreatment with NAC reduced MA-induced GSH depletion and autophagy, while depletion of GSH using L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO enhanced autophagy. Furthermore, treatment with NAC significantly attenuated MA-induced apoptotic cell death as well as oxidative stress markers, namely, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE. Together, these results suggest that NAC exhibits significant protective effects against MA-induced dopaminergic cell death, presumably via modulation of the GSH level and autophagy. Collectively, our data provide mechanistic insights into the role of cellular GSH redox status in MA-induced autophagy and apoptotic cell death, and additional studies are needed to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of cellular redox modifiers in attenuating dopaminergic neurodegeneration in vivo.

  17. Liquid effluent retention facility final-status groundwater monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.D.; Chou, C.J.; Bjornstad, B.N.

    1997-09-01

    The following sections describe the groundwater-monitoring program for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF). The LERF is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The LERF is included in the open-quotes Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste, Permit WA890008967close quotes, (referred to herein as the Permit) (Ecology 1994) and is subject to final-status requirements for groundwater monitoring (WAC 173-303-645). This document describes a RCRA/WAC groundwater detection-monitoring program for groundwater in the uppermost aquifer system at the LERF. This plan describes the LERF monitoring network, constituent list, sampling schedule, statistical methods, and sampling and analysis protocols that will be employed for the LERF. This plan will be used to meet the groundwater monitoring requirements from the time the LERF becomes part of the Permit and through the post-closure care period, until certification of final closure

  18. Chloroplast Redox Poise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steccanella, Verdiana

    the redox status of the plastoquinone pool and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Furthermore, in the plant cell, the equilibrium between redox reactions and ROS signals is also maintained by various balancing mechanisms among which the thioredoxin reductase-thioredoxin system (TR-Trx) stands out as a mediator......The redox state of the chloroplast is maintained by a delicate balance between energy production and consumption and is affected by the need to avoid increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Redox power and ROS generated in the chloroplast are essential for maintaining physiological...... metabolic pathways and for optimizing chloroplast functions. The redox poise of photosynthetic electron transport components like plastoquinone is crucial to initiate signaling cascades and might also be involved in key biosynthetic pathways such as chlorophyll biosynthesis. We, therefore, explored...

  19. Impact of uranium (U) on the cellular glutathione pool and resultant consequences for the redox status of U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehweger, Katrin; Geipel, Gerhard; Bernhard, Gert

    2011-12-01

    Uranium (U) as a redox-active heavy metal can cause various redox imbalances in plant cells. Measurements of the cellular glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) by HPLC after cellular U contact revealed an interference with this essential redox couple. The GSH content remained unaffected by 10 μM U whereas the GSSG level immediately increased. In contrast, higher U concentrations (50 μM) drastically raised both forms. Using the Nernst equation, it was possible to calculate the half-cell reduction potential of 2GSH/GSSG. In case of lower U contents the cellular redox environment shifted towards more oxidizing conditions whereas the opposite effect was obtained by higher U contents. This indicates that U contact causes a consumption of reduced redox equivalents. Artificial depletion of GSH by chlorodinitrobenzene and measuring the cellular reducing capacity by tetrazolium salt reduction underlined the strong requirement of reduced redox equivalents. An additional element of cellular U detoxification mechanisms is the complex formation between the heavy metal and carboxylic functionalities of GSH. Because two GSH molecules catalyze electron transfers each with one electron forming a dimer (GSSG) two UO(2) (2+) are reduced to each UO(2) (+) by unbound redox sensitive sulfhydryl moieties. UO(2) (+) subsequently disproportionates to UO(2) (2+) and U(4+). This explains that in vitro experiments revealed a reduction to U(IV) of only around 33% of initial U(VI). Cellular U(IV) was transiently detected with the highest level after 2 h of U contact. Hence, it can be proposed that these reducing processes are an important element of defense reactions induced by this heavy metal.

  20. Status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in European hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carinou, Eleftheria; Ginjaume, Merce; O’Connor, Una; Kopec, Renata; Sans Merce, Marta

    2014-01-01

    A questionnaire was developed by the members of WG12 of EURADOS in order to establish an overview of the current status of eye lens radiation dose monitoring in hospitals. The questionnaire was sent to medical physicists and radiation protection officers in hospitals across Europe. Specific topics were addressed in the questionnaire such as: knowledge of the proposed eye lens dose limit; monitoring and dosimetry issues; training and radiation protection measures. The results of the survey highlighted that the new eye lens dose limit can be exceeded in interventional radiology procedures and that eye lens protection is crucial. Personnel should be properly trained in how to use protective equipment in order to keep eye lens doses as low as reasonably achievable. Finally, the results also highlighted the need to improve the design of eye dosemeters in order to ensure satisfactory use by workers. (paper)

  1. Treatment of chronic hemodialysis patients with low-dose fenofibrate effectively reduces plasma lipids and affects plasma redox status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makówka Agnieszka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyslipidemia is common in chronic hemodialysis patients and its underlying mechanism is complex. Hemodialysis causes an imbalance between antioxidants and production of reactive oxygen species, which induces the oxidative stress and thereby may lead to accelerated atherosclerosis. Statins have been found to be little effective in end-stage kidney disease and other lipid-lowering therapies have been only scarcely studied. The study aimed to assess the effect of low-dose fenofibrate therapy on plasma lipids and redox status in long-term hemodialysis patients with mild hypertriglyceridemia. Twenty seven chronic hemodialysis patients without any lipid-lowering therapy were included in a double-blind crossover, placebo-controlled study. The patients were randomized into two groups and were given a sequence of either 100 mg of fenofibrate per each hemodialysis day for 4 weeks or placebo with a week-long wash-out period between treatment periods. Plasma lipids, high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP, urea, creatinine, electrolytes, phosphocreatine kinase (CK, GOT, GPT and plasma thiols (total and free glutathione, homocysteine, cysteine and cysteinylglycine were measured at baseline and after each of the study periods. Plasma aminothiols were measured by reversed phase HPLC with thiol derivatization with 2-chloro-1-methylquinolinium tetrafluoroborate. Fenofibrate therapy caused a significant decrease of total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and an increase of HDL cholesterol. The treatment was well tolerated with no side-effects but there was a small but significant increase of CK not exceeding the upper limit of normal range. There were no changes of serum CRP, potassium, urea, and creatinine and liver enzymes during the treatment. Neither total nor total free cysteinylglycine and cysteine changed during the study but both total and free glutathione increased during the therapy with fenofibrate and the same was observed

  2. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.

    2016-07-01

    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  3. Age-Related Responses in Circulating Markers of Redox Status in Healthy Adolescents and Adults during the Course of a Training Macrocycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Zalavras

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Redox status changes during an annual training cycle in young and adult track and field athletes and possible differences between the two age groups were assessed. Forty-six individuals (24 children and 22 adults were assigned to four groups: trained adolescents, (TAD, N=13, untrained adolescents (UAD, N=11, trained adults (TA, N=12, and untrained adults (UA, N=10. Aerobic capacity and redox status related variables [total antioxidant capacity (TAC, glutathione (GSH, catalase activity, TBARS, protein carbonyls (PC, uric acid, and bilirubin] were assessed at rest and in response to a time-trial bout before training, at mid- and posttraining. TAC, catalase activity, TBARS, PC, uric acid, and bilirubin increased and GSH declined in all groups in response to acute exercise independent of training status and age. Training improved aerobic capacity, TAC, and GSH at rest and in response to exercise. Age affected basal and exercise-induced responses since adults demonstrated a greater TAC and GSH levels at rest and a greater rise of TBARS, protein carbonyls, and TAC and decline of GSH in response to exercise. Catalase activity, uric acid, and bilirubin responses were comparable among groups. These results suggest that acute exercise, age, and training modulate the antioxidant reserves of the body.

  4. Redox Reaction in Silicate Melts Monitored by ''Static'' In-Situ Fe K-Edge XANES up to 1180 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Max; Partzsch, Georg M.; Welter, Edmund; Farges, Francois

    2007-01-01

    A new experimental setup to measure in-situ kinetics of redox reactions in silicate melts is presented. To study the progress of the Fe-redox reaction, the variation of the signal is recorded at an energy, where the difference between the spectra of the oxidized and reduced Fe in the melt is largest (''static XANES''). To control the redox conditions, the gas atmosphere could be changed between to types of gases using computer-controlled valves (N2:H2 and air, respectively). In this way, a number of reduction/oxidation cycles can be monitored in-situ and continuously. Applied at the Fe K-edge in molten silicates, we obtained a set of high quality data, which includes the very first steps of the redox reaction. An Avrami-type equation is used to investigate rate-controlling parameters for the iron oxidation/reduction kinetics for two melts (basaltic and Na trisilicate) for temperatures up to 1180 deg. C

  5. In Vivo EPR Assessment of pH, pO2, Redox Status, and Concentrations of Phosphate and Glutathione in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobko, Andrey A; Eubank, Timothy D; Driesschaert, Benoit; Khramtsov, Valery V

    2018-03-16

    This protocol demonstrates the capability of low-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based techniques in combination with functional paramagnetic probes to provide quantitative information on the chemical tumor microenvironment (TME), including pO2, pH, redox status, concentrations of interstitial inorganic phosphate (Pi), and intracellular glutathione (GSH). In particular, an application of a recently developed soluble multifunctional trityl probe provides unsurpassed opportunity for in vivo concurrent measurements of pH, pO2 and Pi in Extracellular space (HOPE probe). The measurements of three parameters using a single probe allow for their correlation analyses independent of probe distribution and time of the measurements.

  6. Load monitoring program: Status and results report. Volume 1: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    British Columbia Hydro conducts a monitoring program to provide information on customer needs and values for planning; to measure customer response, energy savings impacts, and load shape impacts due to changes in rate level, rate restructuring, and Power Smart programs; to estimate end-use consumption and load shapes by customer class; and to provide load information for distribution and system load studies. To achieve these objectives, the monitoring program tracks the characteristics and energy use patterns of a sample of BC Hydro residential, commercial, and industrial customers over a period of several years. The entire sample will be surveyed periodically to obtain information on changes in building characteristics, equipment stocks, and energy-use behavior and attitudes. A report is provided on the status of monitoring program activities and some results obtained in 1993/94. For the residential sector, the results include typical load profiles, end-user demographics, and extent of electric space heating and water heating. In the commercial sector, customers were divided into two main groups. The large-building group was relatively well organized in terms of energy needs and participated in Power Smart programs. The small-building group was relatively energy-inefficient and relatively unaware of Power Smart programs. 43 figs., 15 tabs

  7. Prototype equipment status monitor for plant operational configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVerno, M.; Trask, D.; Groom, S.

    1998-01-01

    CANDU plants, such as the Point Lepreau GS, have tens of thousands of operable devices. The status of each operable device must be immediately available to plan and execute future changes to the plant. Historically, changes to the plant's operational configuration have been controlled using manual and administrative methods where the status of each operable device is maintained on operational flowsheets located in the work control area of the main control room. The operational flowsheets are used to plan and develop Operating Orders (OOs) or Order-to-Operate (OTOs) and the control centre work processes are used to manage their execution. After performing each OO procedure, the operational flowsheets are updated to reflect the new plant configuration. This process can be very time consuming, and due to the manual processes, can lead to the potential for time lags and errors in the recording of the current plant configuration. Through a cooperative research and development program, Canadian CANDU utilities and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, the design organization, have applied modern information technologies to develop a prototype Equipment Status Monitor (ESM) to address processes and information flow for efficient operational configuration management. The ESM integrates electronic operational flowsheets, equipment databases, engineering and work management systems, and computerized procedures to assess, plan, execute, track, and record changes to the plant's operational configuration. This directly leads to improved change control, more timely and accurate plant status information, fewer errors, and better decision making regarding future changes. These improvements to managing the plant's operational configuration are essential to increasing plant safety, achieving a high plant availability, and maintaining high capability and capacity factors. (author)

  8. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Yong Lee; Kideok D. Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN), Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN), Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN), Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN), Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network ...

  9. Redox fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.; McKinley, I.; Shea, M.; Smellie, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the investigations of redox fronts performed at the Osamu Utsumi mine. Results obtained by modelling groups on the rate of movement of the redox fronts and on the chemical reactions involved are discussed. Some of the most important rockwater interactions which occur at redox fronts can be modelled reasonably well but the complex redox chemistry of elements like sulphur is poorly simulated. The observed enrichment of many trace elements close to the redox fronts could be of significance for high-level waste repositories, but cannot be quantified by existing models. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. GStat 2.0: Grid Information System Status Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L; Tsai, M; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    Grid Information Systems are mission-critical components in today's production grid infrastructures. They enable users, applications and services to discover which services exist in the infrastructure and further information about the service structure and state. It is therefore important that the information system components themselves are functioning correctly and that the information content is reliable. Grid Status (GStat) is a tool that monitors the structural integrity of the EGEE information system, which is a hierarchical system built out of more than 260 site-level and approximately 70 global aggregation services. It also checks the information content and presents summary and history displays for Grid Operators and System Administrators. A major new version, GStat 2.0, aims to build on the production experience of GStat and provides additional functionality, which enables it to be extended and combined with other tools

  11. SHARP - Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  12. SHARP: Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. Gaius

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  13. Effects of cisplatin on lipid peroxidation and the glutathione redox status in the liver of male rats: The protective role of selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trbojević Ivana S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of oxidative stress in cisplatin (CP toxicity and its prevention by pretreatment with selenium (Se was investigated. Male Wistar albino rats were injected with a single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg CP/kg b.m., i.p. and selenium (6 mg Se/kg b.m, as Na2SeO3, i.p. alone or in combination. The results suggest that CP intoxication induces oxidative stress and alters the glutathione redox status: reduced glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG and the GSH/GSSG ratio (GSH RI, resulting in increased lipid peroxidation (LPO in rat liver. The pretreatment with selenium prior to CP treatment showed a protective effect against the toxic influence of CP on peroxidation of the membrane lipids and an altering of the glutathione redox status in the liver of rats. From our results we conclude that selenium functions as a potent antioxidant and suggest that it can control CP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  14. Oligo-Carrageenan Kappa-Induced Reducing Redox Status and Increase in TRR/TRX Activities Promote Activation and Reprogramming of Terpenoid Metabolism in Eucalyptus Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR/thioredoxin(TRX system induced by oligo-carrageenan (OC kappa in Eucalyptus globulus activate secondary metabolism increasing terpenoid synthesis, trees were sprayed on the leaves with water, with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of NAD(PH, ascorbate (ASC and (GSH synthesis and TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO and auranofine, respectively, and with OC kappa and cultivated for four months. The main terpenoids in control Eucalyptus trees were eucalyptol (76%, α-pinene (7.4%, aromadendrene (3.6%, silvestrene (2.8%, sabinene (2% and α-terpineol (0.9%. Treated trees showed a 22% increase in total essential oils as well as a decrease in eucalyptol (65% and sabinene (0.8% and an increase in aromadendrene (5%, silvestrene (7.8% and other ten terpenoids. In addition, treated Eucalyptus showed seven de novo synthesized terpenoids corresponding to carene, α-terpinene, α-fenchene, γ-maaliene, spathulenol and α-camphenolic aldehyde. Most increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids have potential insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. Trees treated with CHS-828, lycorine, BSO and auranofine and with OC kappa showed an inhibition of increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids. Thus, OC kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system enhance secondary metabolism increasing the synthesis of terpenoids and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

  15. Effects of exogenous vitamins A, C, and E and NADH supplementation on proliferation, cytokines release, and cell redox status of lymphocytes from healthy aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama, Samia; Merzouk, Hafida; Medjdoub, Amel; Merzouk-Saidi, Amel; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Aging is an inevitable biological event that is associated with immune alterations. These alterations are related to increased cellular oxidative stress and micronutrient deficiency. Antioxidant supplementation could improve these age-related abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro effects of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) on T cell proliferation, cytokine release, and cell redox status in the elderly compared with young adults. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using a density gradient of Histopaque. They were cultured in vitro and stimulated with concanavalin A in the presence or absence of vitamins. Cell proliferation was determined by conducting MTT assays, and based on interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 secretions. Cell oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed by assaying reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein levels, and catalase activity. The present study demonstrated that T-lymphocyte proliferation was decreased with aging and was associated with cytokine secretion alterations, GSH depletion, and intracellular oxidative stress. In the elderly, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH significantly improved lymphocyte proliferation and mitigated cellular oxidative stress, whereas vitamin A did not affect cell proliferation or cell redox status. In conclusion, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH supplementation improved T-lymphocytes response in the elderly, and could contribute to the prevention of age-related immune alterations. Consumption of food items containing these vitamins is recommended, and further investigation is necessary to evaluate the effect of vitamin supplementation in vivo.

  16. Oligo-carrageenan kappa-induced reducing redox status and increase in TRR/TRX activities promote activation and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Cutiño, Marlen; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-06-05

    In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin(TRX) system induced by oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa in Eucalyptus globulus activate secondary metabolism increasing terpenoid synthesis, trees were sprayed on the leaves with water, with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC) and (GSH) synthesis and TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and auranofine, respectively, and with OC kappa and cultivated for four months. The main terpenoids in control Eucalyptus trees were eucalyptol (76%), α-pinene (7.4%), aromadendrene (3.6%), silvestrene (2.8%), sabinene (2%) and α-terpineol (0.9%). Treated trees showed a 22% increase in total essential oils as well as a decrease in eucalyptol (65%) and sabinene (0.8%) and an increase in aromadendrene (5%), silvestrene (7.8%) and other ten terpenoids. In addition, treated Eucalyptus showed seven de novo synthesized terpenoids corresponding to carene, α-terpinene, α-fenchene, γ-maaliene, spathulenol and α-camphenolic aldehyde. Most increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids have potential insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. Trees treated with CHS-828, lycorine, BSO and auranofine and with OC kappa showed an inhibition of increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids. Thus, OC kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system enhance secondary metabolism increasing the synthesis of terpenoids and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

  17. The research of knitting needle status monitoring setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Liao, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Yong-kang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Yong-kai; Huang, Hui-jie

    2013-09-01

    In textile production, quality control and testing is the key to ensure the process and improve the efficiency. Defect of the knitting needles is the main factor affecting the quality of the appearance of textiles. Defect detection method based on machine vision and image processing technology is universal. This approach does not effectively identify the defect generated by damaged knitting needles and raise the alarm. We developed a knitting needle status monitoring setup using optical imaging, photoelectric detection and weak signal processing technology to achieve real-time monitoring of weaving needles' position. Depending on the shape of the knitting needle, we designed a kind of Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) light guides with a rectangular port used for transmission of the signal light. To be able to capture the signal of knitting needles accurately, we adopt a optical 4F system which has better imaging quality and simple structure and there is a rectangle image on the focal plane after the system. When a knitting needle passes through position of the rectangle image, the reflected light from needle surface will back to the GOF light guides along the same optical system. According to the intensity of signals, the computer control unit distinguish that the knitting needle is broken or curving. The experimental results show that this system can accurately detect the broken needles and the curving needles on the knitting machine in operating condition.

  18. Redox-sensitive GFP fusions for monitoring the catalytic mechanism and inactivation of peroxiredoxins in living cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Staudacher

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein 2 (roGFP2 is a valuable tool for redox measurements in living cells. Here, we demonstrate that roGFP2 can also be used to gain mechanistic insights into redox catalysis in vivo. In vitro enzyme properties such as the rate-limiting reduction of wild type and mutant forms of the model peroxiredoxin PfAOP are shown to correlate with the ratiometrically measured degree of oxidation of corresponding roGFP2 fusion proteins. Furthermore, stopped-flow kinetic measurements of the oxidative half-reaction of PfAOP support the interpretation that changes in the roGFP2 signal can be used to map hyperoxidation-based inactivation of the attached peroxidase. Potential future applications of our system include the improvement of redox sensors, the estimation of absolute intracellular peroxide concentrations and the in vivo assessment of protein structure-function relationships that cannot easily be addressed with recombinant enzymes, for example, the effect of post-translational protein modifications on enzyme catalysis. Keywords: Peroxiredoxin, Redox sensor, roGFP2, H2O2, Plasmodium falciparum

  19. Monitoring Technology for Vehicle Loading Status Based on the Analysis of Suspension Vibration Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and early warning of vehicle risk status was one of the key technologies of transportation security, and real-time monitoring load status could reduce the transportation accidents effectively. In order to obtain vehicle load status information, vehicle characters of suspension were analyzed and simulated under different working conditions. On the basis of this, the device that can detect suspension load with overload protection structure was designed and a method of monitored vehicle load status was proposed. The monitoring platform of vehicle load status was constructed and developed for a FAW truck and system was tested on level-A road and body twist lane. The results show that the measurement error is less than 5% and horizontal centre-of-mass of vehicle was positioned accurately. The platform enables providing technical support for the real-time monitoring and warning of vehicles risk status in transit.

  20. A Multi-Parametric Device with Innovative Solid Electrodes for Long-Term Monitoring of pH, Redox-Potential and Conductivity in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Daoudi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an innovative electrochemical probe for the monitoring of pH, redox potential and conductivity in near-field rocks of deep geological radioactive waste repositories. The probe is composed of a monocrystalline antimony electrode for pH sensing, four AgCl/Ag-based reference or Cl− selective electrodes, one Ag2S/Ag-based reference or S2− selective electrode, as well as four platinum electrodes, a gold electrode and a glassy-carbon electrode for redox potential measurements. Galvanostatic electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy using AgCl/Ag-based and platinum electrodes measure conductivity. The use of such a multi-parameter probe provides redundant information, based as it is on the simultaneous behaviour under identical conditions of different electrodes of the same material, as well as on that of electrodes made of different materials. This identifies the changes in physical and chemical parameters in a solution, as well as the redox reactions controlling the measured potential, both in the solution and/or at the electrode/solution interface. Understanding the electrochemical behaviour of selected materials thus is a key point of our research, as provides the basis for constructing the abacuses needed for developing robust and reliable field sensors.

  1. A Multi-Parametric Device with Innovative Solid Electrodes for Long-Term Monitoring of pH, Redox-Potential and Conductivity in a Nuclear Waste Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Jordan; Betelu, Stephanie; Tzedakis, Theodore; Bertrand, Johan; Ignatiadis, Ioannis

    2017-06-13

    We present an innovative electrochemical probe for the monitoring of pH, redox potential and conductivity in near-field rocks of deep geological radioactive waste repositories. The probe is composed of a monocrystalline antimony electrode for pH sensing, four AgCl/Ag-based reference or Cl - selective electrodes, one Ag₂S/Ag-based reference or S 2- selective electrode, as well as four platinum electrodes, a gold electrode and a glassy-carbon electrode for redox potential measurements. Galvanostatic electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy using AgCl/Ag-based and platinum electrodes measure conductivity. The use of such a multi-parameter probe provides redundant information, based as it is on the simultaneous behaviour under identical conditions of different electrodes of the same material, as well as on that of electrodes made of different materials. This identifies the changes in physical and chemical parameters in a solution, as well as the redox reactions controlling the measured potential, both in the solution and/or at the electrode/solution interface. Understanding the electrochemical behaviour of selected materials thus is a key point of our research, as provides the basis for constructing the abacuses needed for developing robust and reliable field sensors.

  2. Chloroplast Redox Status Modulates Genome-Wide Plant Responses during the Non-host Interaction of Tobacco with the Hemibiotrophic Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Pierella Karlusich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-host resistance is the most ample and durable form of plant resistance against pathogen infection. It includes induction of defense-associated genes, massive metabolic reprogramming, and in many instances, a form of localized cell death (LCD at the site of infection, purportedly designed to limit the spread of biotrophic and hemibiotrophic microorganisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been proposed to act as signals for LCD orchestration. They are produced in various cellular compartments including chloroplasts, mitochondria and apoplast. We have previously reported that down-regulation of ROS build-up in chloroplasts by expression of a plastid-targeted flavodoxin (Fld suppressed LCD in tobacco leaves inoculated with the non-host bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv, while other defensive responses were unaffected, suggesting that chloroplast ROS and/or redox status play a major role in the progress of LCD. To better understand these effects, we compare here the transcriptomic alterations caused by Xcv inoculation on leaves of Fld-expressing tobacco plants and their wild-type siblings. About 29% of leaf-expressed genes were affected by Xcv and/or Fld. Surprisingly, 5.8% of them (1,111 genes were regulated by Fld in the absence of infection, presumably representing pathways responsive to chloroplast ROS production and/or redox status during normal growth conditions. While the majority (∼75% of pathogen-responsive genes were not affected by Fld, many Xcv responses were exacerbated, attenuated, or regulated in opposite direction by expression of this protein. Particularly interesting was a group of 384 genes displaying Xcv responses that were already triggered by Fld in the absence of infection, suggesting that the transgenic plants had a larger and more diversified suite of constitutive defenses against the attacking microorganism compared to the wild type. Fld modulated many genes involved in pathogenesis, signal

  3. DNA Sequencing as a Tool to Monitor Marine Ecological Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly D. Goodwin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many ocean policies mandate integrated, ecosystem-based approaches to marine monitoring, driving a global need for efficient, low-cost bioindicators of marine ecological quality. Most traditional methods to assess biological quality rely on specialized expertise to provide visual identification of a limited set of specific taxonomic groups, a time-consuming process that can provide a narrow view of ecological status. In addition, microbial assemblages drive food webs but are not amenable to visual inspection and thus are largely excluded from detailed inventory. Molecular-based assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem function offer advantages over traditional methods and are increasingly being generated for a suite of taxa using a “microbes to mammals” or “barcodes to biomes” approach. Progress in these efforts coupled with continued improvements in high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics pave the way for sequence data to be employed in formal integrated ecosystem evaluation, including food web assessments, as called for in the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. DNA sequencing of bioindicators, both traditional (e.g., benthic macroinvertebrates, ichthyoplankton and emerging (e.g., microbial assemblages, fish via eDNA, promises to improve assessment of marine biological quality by increasing the breadth, depth, and throughput of information and by reducing costs and reliance on specialized taxonomic expertise.

  4. GStat 2.0: Grid Information System Status Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Laurence; Huang, Joanna; Tsai, Min

    2010-01-01

    Grid Information Systems are mission-critical components in today's production grid infrastructures. They enable users, applications and services to discover which services exist in the infrastructure and further information about the service structure and state. It is therefore important that the information system components themselves are functioning correctly and that the information content is reliable. Grid Status (GStat) is a tool that monitors the structural integrity of the EGEE information system, which is a hierarchical system built out of more than 260 site-level and approximately 70 global aggregation services. It also checks the information content and presents summary and history displays for Grid Operators and System Administrators. A major new version, GStat 2.0, aims to build on the production experience of GStat and provides additional functionality, which enables it to be extended and combined with other tools. This paper describes the new architecture used for GStat 2.0 and how it can be used at all levels to help provide a reliable information system.

  5. Current Status of The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartez, Louis; Creighton, Teviet; Jenet, Fredrick; Dolch, Timothy; Boehler, Keith; Bres, Luis; Cole, Brent; Luo, Jing; Miller, Rossina; Murray, James; Reyes, Alex; Rivera, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    The Low Frequency All Sky Monitor (LoFASM) is a distributed array of cross-dipole antennas that are sensitive to radio frequencies from 10 to 88 MHz. LoFASM consists of antennas and front end electronics that were originally developed for the Long Wavelength Array by the U.S. Naval Research Lab, the University of New Mexico, Virginia Tech, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. LoFASM, funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, will initially consist of 4 stations, each consisting of 12 dual- polarization dipole antenna stands. The primary science goals of LoFASM will be the detection and study of low-frequency radio transients, a high priority science goal as deemed by the National Research Council’s ASTRO2010 decadal survey. The data acquisition system for the LoFASM antenna array uses Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology to implement a real time full Stokes spectrometer and data recorder. This poster presents an overview of the LoFASM Radio Telescope as well as the status of data analysis of initial commissioning observations.

  6. Late-onset running biphasically improves redox balance, energy- and methylglyoxal-related status, as well as SIRT1 expression in mouse hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Falone

    Full Text Available Despite the active research in this field, molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced beneficial effects on brain physiology and functions are still matter of debate, especially with regard to biological processes activated by regular exercise affecting the onset and progression of hippocampal aging in individuals unfamiliar with habitual physical activity. Since such responses seem to be mediated by changes in antioxidative, antiglycative and metabolic status, a possible exercise-induced coordinated response involving redox, methylglyoxal- and sirtuin-related molecular networks may be hypothesized. In this study, hippocampi of CD1 mice undergoing the transition from mature to middle age were analyzed for redox-related profile, oxidative and methylglyoxal-dependent damage patterns, energy metabolism, sirtuin1 and glyoxalase1 expression after a 2- or 4-mo treadmill running program. Our findings suggested that the 4-mo regular running lowered the chance of dicarbonyl and oxidative stress, activated mitochondrial catabolism and preserved sirtuin1-related neuroprotection. Surprisingly, the same cellular pathways were negatively affected by the first 2 months of exercise, thus showing an interesting biphasic response. In conclusion, the duration of exercise caused a profound shift in the response to regular running within the rodent hippocampus in a time-dependent fashion. This research revealed important details of the interaction between exercise and mammal hippocampus during the transition from mature to middle age, and this might help to develop non-pharmacological approaches aimed at retarding brain senescence, even in individuals unfamiliar with habitual exercise.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory reaction in acute lung injury via regulating inflammation and redox status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianfeng; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yingxun; Ma, Chunhua

    2015-05-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) represents a clinical syndrome that results from complex responses of the lung to a multitude of direct and indirect insults. This study aims to evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol (EUL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory reaction in ALI. ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS (0.5 mg/kg), and EUL (5, and 10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1h prior to LPS administration. After 6h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. The findings suggest that the protective mechanism of EUL may be attributed partly to decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines through the regulating inflammation and redox status. The results support that use of EUL is beneficial in the treatment of ALI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Paper spray mass spectrometry applied in the monitoring of a chemical system in dynamic chemical equilibrium: the redox process of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Camila Cristina Almeida; Valadares, Alberto; Jurisch, Marina; Piccin, Evandro; Augusti, Rodinei

    2016-05-15

    The monitoring of chemical systems in dynamic equilibrium is not an easy task. This is due to the high rate at which the system returns to equilibrium after being perturbed, which hampers the possibility of following the aftereffects of the disturbance. In this context, it is necessary to use a fast analytical technique that requires no (or minimal) sample preparation, and which is capable of monitoring the species constituting the system in equilibrium. Paper spray ionization mass spectrometry (PS-MS), a recently introduced ambient ionization technique, has such characteristics and hence was chosen for monitoring a model system: the redox process of methylene blue. The model system evaluated herein was composed of three cationic species of methylene blue (MB), which coexist in a dynamic redox system: (1) [MB](+) of m/z 284 (cationic MB); (2) [MB + H + e](+•) of m/z 285 (the protonated form of a transient species resulting from the reduction of [MB](+) ); (3) [MB + 2H + 2e](+) or [leuco-MB + H](+) of m/z 286 (the protonated leuco form of MB). Aliquots of a MB solution were collected before and after the addition of a reducing agent (metallic zinc) and directly analyzed by PS-MS for identification of the predominant cationic species at different conditions. The mass spectra revealed that before the addition of the reducing agent the ion of m/z 284 (cationic MB) is the unique species. Upon the addition of the reducing agent and acid, however, the solution continuously undergo discoloration while reduced species derived directly from cationic MB (m/z 285 and 286) are detected in the mass spectra with increasing intensities. Fragmentation patterns obtained for each ionic species, i.e. [MB](+) , [MB + H + e](+•) and [leuco-MB + H](+) , shown to be consistent with the proposed structures. The PS-MS technique proved to be suitable for an in situ and 'near' real-time analysis of the dynamic equilibrium involving the redox of MB in aqueous medium. The data clearly

  9. Current Status of Groundwater Monitoring Networks in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Korea has been operating groundwater monitoring systems since 1996 as the Groundwater Act enacted in 1994 enforces nationwide monitoring. Currently, there are six main groundwater monitoring networks operated by different government ministries with different purposes: National Groundwater Monitoring Network (NGMN, Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN, Seawater Intrusion Monitoring Network (SIMN, Rural Groundwater Monitoring Network (RGMN, Subsidiary Groundwater Monitoring Network (SGMN, and Drinking Water Monitoring Network (DWMN. The Networks have a total of over 3500 monitoring wells and the majority of them are now equipped with automatic data loggers and remote terminal units. Most of the monitoring data are available to the public through internet websites. These Networks have provided scientific data for designing groundwater management plans and contributed to securing the groundwater resource particularly for recent prolonged drought seasons. Each Network, however, utilizes its own well-specifications, probes, and telecommunication protocols with minimal communication with other Networks, and thus duplicate installations of monitoring wells are not uncommon among different Networks. This mini-review introduces the current regulations and the Groundwater Monitoring Networks operated in Korea and provides some suggestions to improve the sustainability of the current groundwater monitoring system in Korea.

  10. Maintenance of Macrophage Redox Status by ChREBP Limits Inflammation and Apoptosis and Protects against Advanced Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Sarrazy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced glucose utilization can be visualized in atherosclerotic lesions and may reflect a high glycolytic rate in lesional macrophages, but its causative role in plaque progression remains unclear. We observe that the activity of the carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein ChREBP is rapidly downregulated upon TLR4 activation in macrophages. ChREBP inactivation refocuses cellular metabolism to a high redox state favoring enhanced inflammatory responses after TLR4 activation and increased cell death after TLR4 activation or oxidized LDL loading. Targeted deletion of ChREBP in bone marrow cells resulted in accelerated atherosclerosis progression in Ldlr−/− mice with increased monocytosis, lesional macrophage accumulation, and plaque necrosis. Thus, ChREBP-dependent macrophage metabolic reprogramming hinders plaque progression and establishes a causative role for leukocyte glucose metabolism in atherosclerosis.

  11. Cytoplasmic glutathione redox status determines survival upon exposure to the thiol-oxidant 4,4'-dipyridyl disulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Thorsen, Michael; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C

    2007-01-01

    Dipyridyl disulfide (DPS) is a highly reactive thiol oxidant that functions as electron acceptor in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. DPS is very toxic to yeasts, impairing growth at low micromolar concentrations. The genes TRX2 (thioredoxin), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase), GSH1 (gamma-glutamyl-c......Dipyridyl disulfide (DPS) is a highly reactive thiol oxidant that functions as electron acceptor in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. DPS is very toxic to yeasts, impairing growth at low micromolar concentrations. The genes TRX2 (thioredoxin), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase), GSH1 (gamma...... antioxidant pools of glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin are required for resistance to DPS. We found that DPS-sensitive mutants display increases in the disulfide form of GSH (GSSG) during DPS exposure that roughly correlate with their more oxidizing GSH redox potential in the cytosol and their degree of DPS...

  12. 9 CFR 147.14 - Procedures to determine status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. The following monitoring procedures 10 may be applied at the discretion of the Official State Agency: 10 Laboratory procedures for monitoring operations... egg conalbumin; and (ii) Tetrathionate selective enrichment broths, competitor-controlling plating...

  13. The tritium monitoring requirements of fusion and the status of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, S.B.; Gerdingh, R.F.; Penfold, K.

    1982-10-01

    This report is a summary of an investigation into the tritium monitoring requirements of tritium laboratories, D-T burning ignition experiments, and fusion reactors. There is also a summary of the status of research into tritium monitoring and a survey of commercially available tritium monitors

  14. Regulatory redox state in tree seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Ratajczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peroxiredoxins (Prx are important regulators of the redox status of tree seeds during maturation and long-term storage. Thioredoxins (Trx are redox transmitters and thereby regulate Prx activity. Current research is focused on the association of Trx with Prx in tree seeds differing in the tolerance to desiccation. The results will allow for better understanding the regulation of the redox status in orthodox, recalcitrant, and intermediate seeds. The findings will also elucidate the role of the redox status during the loss of viability of sensitive seeds during drying and long-term storage.

  15. Current status of technology development on remote monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, Y. D.; Na, W. W.

    1997-03-01

    IAEA is planning to perform the remote monitoring system in nuclear facility in order to reinforce the economical and efficient inspection. National lab. in U.S. is developing the corresponding core technology and field trial will be done to test the remote monitoring system by considering the case that it replace the current safeguards system. U.S. setup the International Remote Monitoring Project to develop the technology. IAEA makes up remote monitoring team and setup the detail facility to apply remote monitoring system. Therefore, early participation in remote monitoring technology development will make contribution in international remote monitoring system and increase the transparency and confidence in domestic nuclear activities. (author). 12 refs., 20 figs

  16. Wolfram Syndrome protein, Miner1, regulates sulphydryl redox status, the unfolded protein response, and Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Sandra E; Andreyev, Alexander Y; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Karisch, Robert; Perkins, Guy; Wall, Estelle A; van der Geer, Peter; Chen, Yi-Fan; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Simon, Melvin I; Neel, Benjamin G; Dixon, Jack E; Murphy, Anne N

    2013-06-01

    Miner1 is a redox-active 2Fe2S cluster protein. Mutations in Miner1 result in Wolfram Syndrome, a metabolic disease associated with diabetes, blindness, deafness, and a shortened lifespan. Embryonic fibroblasts from Miner1(-/-) mice displayed ER stress and showed hallmarks of the unfolded protein response. In addition, loss of Miner1 caused a depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores, a dramatic increase in mitochondrial Ca(2+) load, increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, an increase in the GSSG/GSH and NAD(+)/NADH ratios, and an increase in the ADP/ATP ratio consistent with enhanced ATP utilization. Furthermore, mitochondria in fibroblasts lacking Miner1 displayed ultrastructural alterations, such as increased cristae density and punctate morphology, and an increase in O2 consumption. Treatment with the sulphydryl anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine reversed the abnormalities in the Miner1 deficient cells, suggesting that sulphydryl reducing agents should be explored as a treatment for this rare genetic disease. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  17. Integrated Haematological Profiles of Redox Status, Lipid, and Inflammatory Protein Biomarkers in Benign Obesity and Unhealthy Obesity with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lubrano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of obesity (OB and metabolic syndrome (MetS implies free radical-, oxidized lipid- (LOOH-, and inflammatory cytokine-mediated altered pathways in target organs. Key elements of the transition from benign OB to unhealthy OB+MetS remain unclear. Here, we measured a panel of redox, antioxidant, and inflammation markers in the groups of OB patients (67 with, 45 without MetS and 90 controls. Both OB groups displayed elevated levels of adipokines and heavy oxidative stress (OS evidenced by reduced levels of glutathione, downregulated glutathione-S-transferase, increased 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, reactive oxygen species, and membrane-bound monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. Exclusively in OB+MetS, higher-than-normal glutathione peroxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors were observed; a combination of high adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and MUFA was consistent with increased cardiovascular risk. The uncomplicated OB group showed features of adaptation to OS such as decreased levels of vitamin E, activated superoxide dismutase, and inhibited catalase, suggesting H2O2 hyperproduction. Proinflammatory cytokine pattern was normal, except few markers like RANTES, a suitable candidate for therapeutic approaches to prevent a setting of MetS by inhibition of LOOH-primed leukocyte chemotaxis/recruitment to target tissues.

  18. Effects of long-term administration of aspartame on biochemical indices, lipid profile and redox status of cellular system of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Akanni, Olubukola O

    2016-01-01

    Aspartame (N-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester) (ASP) is a synthetic sweetener used in foods and its safety remains controversial. The study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term administration of aspartame on redox status, lipid profile and biochemical indices in tissues of male Wistar rats. Rats were assigned into four groups and given distilled water (control), aspartame at doses of 15 mg/kg (ASP 1), 35 mg/kg (ASP 2) and 70 mg/kg (ASP 3) daily by oral gavage for consecutive 9 weeks. Administration of ASP 2 and ASP 3 significantly increased the weight of liver and brain, and relative weight of liver of rats. Lipid peroxidation products significantly increased in the kidney, liver and brain of rats at all doses of ASP with concomitant depletion of antioxidant parameters, viz. glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione. Furthermore, ASP 2 and ASP 3 significantly increased the levels of gamma glutamyl transferase by 70% and 85%; alanine aminotransferase by 66% and 117%; aspartate aminotransferase by 21% and 48%; urea by 72% and 58% and conjugated bilirubin by 63% and 64%, respectively. Also, ASP 2 and ASP 3 significantly increased the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the rats. Histological findings showed that ASP 2 and ASP 3 caused cyto-architectural changes such as degeneration, monocytes infiltration and necrotic lesions in brain, kidney and liver of rats. Aspartame may induce redox and lipid imbalance in rats via mechanism that involves oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione-dependent system.

  19. Current status of process monitoring for IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroyasu, M.

    1987-06-01

    Based on literature survey, this report tries to answer some of the following questions on process monitoring for safeguards purposes of future large scale reprocessing plants: what is process monitoring, what are the basic elements of process monitoring, what kinds of process monitoring are there, what are the basic problems of process monitoring, what is the relationship between process monitoring and near-real-time materials accountancy, what are actual results of process monitoring tests and what should be studied in future. A brief description of Advanced Safeguards Approaches proposed by the four states (France, U.K., Japan and U.S.A.), the approach proposed by the U.S.A., the description of the process monitoring, the main part of the report published as a result of one of the U.S. Support Programmes for IAEA Safeguards and an article on process monitoring presented at an IAEA Symposium held in November 1986 are given in the annexes. 24 refs, 20 figs, tabs

  20. Multidimensional Monitoring of Recovery Status and Implications for Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Jahan; Beckmann, Jürgen; Bertollo, Maurizio; Brink, Michel; Kallus, Wolfgang; Robazza, Claudio; Kellmann, Michael

    2018-03-15

    Monitoring of recovery in the context of athletic performance has gained significant importance during recent years. As a systematic process of data collection and evaluation, the monitoring of recovery can be implemented for various purposes. It may aid to prevent negative outcomes of training or competition, such as underrecovery, overtraining, or injuries. Further, it aims at establishing routines and strategies necessary to guarantee athletes' readiness for performance by restoring their depleted resources. Comprehensive monitoring of recovery ideally encompasses a multidimensional approach, thereby considering biological, psychological, and social monitoring methods. From a biological perspective, physiological (e.g., cardiac parameters), biochemical (e.g., creatine kinase), hormonal (e.g., salivary cortisol) and immunological (e.g., immunoglobulin A) markers can be taken into account to operationalize training loads and recovery needs. Psychological approaches suggest the application of validated and reliable psychometric questionnaires (e.g., Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes) to measure a subjective perception of recovery as well as the subjective degree of training- or competition-induced fatigue. Social aspects also play a role in performance monitoring and may hence provide essential performance-related information. The implementation of a monitoring routine within athletic environments represents a continuous process which functions as an effective addition to training and depends on a range of conditions (e.g., organizational regulations, commitment of athletes). Current research in the field of monitoring aims at establishing individualized monitoring regimes that are referring to intraindividual reference values with the help of innovative technological devices.

  1. Severe exercise and exercise training exert opposite effects on human neutrophil apoptosis via altering the redox status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Da Syu

    Full Text Available Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis, a process crucial for immune regulation, is mainly controlled by alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondria integrity. Exercise has been proposed to be a physiological way to modulate immunity; while acute severe exercise (ASE usually impedes immunity, chronic moderate exercise (CME improves it. This study aimed to investigate whether and how ASE and CME oppositely regulate human neutrophil apoptosis. Thirteen sedentary young males underwent an initial ASE and were subsequently divided into exercise and control groups. The exercise group (n = 8 underwent 2 months of CME followed by 2 months of detraining. Additional ASE paradigms were performed at the end of each month. Neutrophils were isolated from blood specimens drawn at rest and immediately after each ASE for assaying neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis (annexin-V binding on the outer surface along with redox-related parameters and mitochondria-related parameters. Our results showed that i the initial ASE immediately increased the oxidative stress (cytosolic ROS and glutathione oxidation, and sequentially accelerated the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, the surface binding of annexin-V, and the generation of mitochondrial ROS; ii CME upregulated glutathione level, retarded spontaneous apoptosis and delayed mitochondria deterioration; iii most effects of CME were unchanged after detraining; and iv CME blocked ASE effects and this capability remained intact even after detraining. Furthermore, the ASE effects on neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis were mimicked by adding exogenous H(2O(2, but not by suppressing mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, while ASE induced an oxidative state and resulted in acceleration of human neutrophil apoptosis, CME delayed neutrophil apoptosis by maintaining a reduced state for long periods of time even after detraining.

  2. RED BLOOD CELL AND WHOLE BLOOD GLUTATHIONE REDOX STATUS IN ENDURANCE-TRAINED MEN FOLLOWING A SKI MARATHON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Unt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in glutathione redox ratio (GSSG·GSH-1 in red blood cells (RBCs and whole blood in well-trained men following a ski marathon. 16 male subjects (27.0 ± 4.7 yrs, 1.81 ± 0.06 m, 77.6 ± 9.6 kg, VO2max 66.2 ± 5.7 ml·kg-1·min-1 were examined before the competition (pre- COMP, after the competition (post-COMP and during an 18-hour recovery period (RECOV. There was a slight decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH in blood and in RBCs in post-COMP. During RECOV, the GSH level in blood was reduced, the GSH level in RBCs was significantly elevated (a statistically significant difference as compared to the pre-COMP level. The post-COMP GSSG·GSH-1 in full blood did not increase significantly, but its increase was statistically significant during the 18-hour recovery period. During the post-COMP and RECOV, the GSSG·GSH-1 in RBCs slightly decreased in comparison with the pre-COMP. Vitamin C concentration in serum increased in post-COMP (49% vs. pre- COMP and decreased to the baseline level during RECOV. In conclusion, our data show that acute exercise slightly increases the GSSG·GSH-1 in whole blood, while GSSG·GSH-1 in RBCs significantly decreases. Thus, exercise-related changes in the non-enzymatic components of the glutathione system (GSSG and GSH in whole blood and RBCs are not identical

  3. Metabolic Control of Redox and Redox Control of Metabolism in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reduction-oxidation (Redox) status operates as a major integrator of subcellular and extracellular metabolism and is simultaneously itself regulated by metabolic processes. Redox status not only dominates cellular metabolism due to the prominence of NAD(H) and NADP(H) couples in myriad metabolic reactions but also acts as an effective signal that informs the cell of the prevailing environmental conditions. After relay of this information, the cell is able to appropriately respond via a range of mechanisms, including directly affecting cellular functioning and reprogramming nuclear gene expression. Recent Advances: The facile accession of Arabidopsis knockout mutants alongside the adoption of broad-scale post-genomic approaches, which are able to provide transcriptomic-, proteomic-, and metabolomic-level information alongside traditional biochemical and emerging cell biological techniques, has dramatically advanced our understanding of redox status control. This review summarizes redox status control of metabolism and the metabolic control of redox status at both cellular and subcellular levels. Critical Issues: It is becoming apparent that plastid, mitochondria, and peroxisome functions influence a wide range of processes outside of the organelles themselves. While knowledge of the network of metabolic pathways and their intraorganellar redox status regulation has increased in the last years, little is known about the interorganellar redox signals coordinating these networks. A current challenge is, therefore, synthesizing our knowledge and planning experiments that tackle redox status regulation at both inter- and intracellular levels. Future Directions: Emerging tools are enabling ever-increasing spatiotemporal resolution of metabolism and imaging of redox status components. Broader application of these tools will likely greatly enhance our understanding of the interplay of redox status and metabolism as well as elucidating and

  4. Continuous AE monitoring of nuclear plants to detect flaws - status and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a brief commentary on the evolution of acoustic emission (AE) technology for continuous monitoring of nuclear reactors and the current status. The technical work described to support the status description has the objective of developing and validating the use of AE to detect, locate, and evaluate growing flaws in reactor pressure boundaries. The future of AE for continuous monitoring is discussed in terms of envisioned applications and further accomplishments required to achieve them. 12 refs.

  5. Job monitoring on the WLCG scope: Current status and new strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, Julia; Casey, James; Gaidioz, Benjamin; Karavakis, Edward; Kokoszkiewicz, Lukasz; Lanciotti, Elisa; Maier, Gerhild; Rodrigues, Daniele Filipe Rocha Da Cuhna; Rocha, Ricardo; Saiz, Pablo; Sidorova, Irina; Boehm, Max; Belov, Sergey; Tikhonenko, Elena; Dvorak, Frantisek; Krenek, Ales; Mulac, Milas; Sitera, Jiri; Kodolova, Olga; Vaibhav, Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Job processing and data transfer are the main computing activities on the WLCG infrastructure. Reliable monitoring of the job processing on the WLCG scope is a complicated task due to the complexity of the infrastructure itself and the diversity of the currently used job submission methods. The paper will describe current status and the new strategy for the job monitoring on the WLCG scope, covering primary information sources, job status changes publishing, transport mechanism and visualization.

  6. The impact of intermittent exercise in a hypoxic environment on redox status and cardiac troponin release in the serum of well-trained marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feifei; Nie, Jinlei; Lu, Yifan; Tong, Tom Kwok Keung; Yi, Longyan; Yan, Huiping; Fu, Frank Hoo Kin; Ma, Shengxia

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effects of hypoxic training on redox status and cardiac troponin (cTn) release after intermittent exercise. Nine well-trained male marathon runners (age, 21.7 ± 2.3 year; body mass, 64.7 ± 4.8 kg; height, 177.9 ± 3.8 cm; and VO2max, 64.3 ± 6.7 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed intermittent exercise under normoxic [trial N; fraction of inspiration oxygen (FIO2), 21.0 %] and hypoxic (trial H; FIO2, 14.4 %) conditions in random order. Each bout of intermittent exercise included hard run (16.2 ± 0.8 km h(-1)) at 90 % VO2max for 2 min followed by easy run (9.0 ± 0.4 km h(-1)) at 50 % VO2max for 2 min and 23 bouts in 92 min totally. Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase, an estimate of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were measured before, immediately after (0 h), and 2, 4, and 24 h after the completion of trials N and H. GSH was increased immediately after trial N. T-AOC was lower 4 h after trial H than trial N. Hs-cTnT was elevated from 0 to 4 h and returned to baseline 24 h after both trials. CTnI was increased after trial H; peaked at 2-4 h and returned to below the detection by 24 h. The overall redox status was balanced under normoxic conditions, and exercise-induced cTn release did not deviate. However, the protective effects of antioxidant were weaker in the hypoxic state than normoxic, and the stress on the myocardium induced by intermittent exercise was transiently aggravated.

  7. The current status of radioactive monitoring gauges in UIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1993-01-01

    The author introduces the characteristics of representative products for current environment radiation monitoring and measurement instruments of radiation nuclide content in UIC including aerosol detection equipment and multi function radiation dosemeters

  8. Dose monitoring in radiology departments. Status quo and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, J.; Bethge, O.T.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of computed tomography examinations has continuously increased over the last decades and accounts for a major part of the collective radiation dose from medical investigations. For purposes of quality assurance in modern radiology a systematic monitoring and analysis of dose related data from radiological examinations is mandatory. Various ways of collecting dose data are available today, for example the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine - Structured Report (DICOM-SR), optical character recognition and DICOM-modality performed procedure steps (MPPS). The DICOM-SR is part of the DICOM-standard and provides the DICOM-Radiation Dose Structured Report, which is an easily applicable and comprehensive solution to collect radiation dose parameters. This standard simplifies the process of data collection and enables comprehensive dose monitoring. Various commercial dose monitoring software devices with varying characteristics are available today. In this article, we discuss legal obligations, various ways to monitor dose data, current dose monitoring software solutions and future perspectives in regard to the EU Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.

  9. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Zhu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG, as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.

  10. FBG-Based Monitoring of Geohazards: Current Status and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng

    2017-02-24

    In recent years, natural and anthropogenic geohazards have occured frequently all over the world, and field monitoring is becoming an increasingly important task to mitigate these risks. However, conventional geotechnical instrumentations for monitoring geohazards have a number of weaknesses, such as low accuracy, poor durability, and high sensitivity to environmental interferences. In this aspect, fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as a popular fiber optic sensing technology, has gained an explosive amount of attention. Based on this technology, quasi-distributed sensing systems have been established to perform real-time monitoring and early warning of landslides, debris flows, land subsidence, earth fissures and so on. In this paper, the recent research and development activities of applying FBG systems to monitor different types of geohazards, especially those triggered by human activities, are critically reviewed. The working principles of newly developed FBG sensors are briefly introduced, and their features are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of recent case studies and lessons learned, and some critical problems associated with field implementation of FBG-based monitoring systems. Finally the challenges and future trends in this research area are presented.

  11. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-02-09

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan, under RCRA regulations in 40 CFR 265 Subpart F and WAC173-300-400, for the 216-B-63 Trench. This interim status facility is being sampled under detection monitoring criteria and this plan provides current program conditions and requirements.

  12. Race and vitamin D status and monitoring in male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Alan N; Bailey, Beth A; Peiris, Prith; Copeland, Rebecca J; Manning, Todd

    2011-06-01

    African Americans have lower vitamin D levels and reduced health outcomes compared to white Americans. Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to adverse health outcomes in African Americans. We hypothesized that race would be associated with vitamin D status and testing in African Americans veterans, and that vitamin D status is a major contributor to health care costs in African American veterans compared to white veterans. A retrospective analysis of the medical data in the Veterans Integrated Service Network 9 (southeastern United States) was performed, and 14148 male veterans were identified. Race was designated by the patient and its relationship to vitamin D levels/status and costs was assessed. Vitamin D levels were significantly lower and the percent of patients with vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in African American veterans. This difference was independent of latitude and seasonality. Vitamin D testing was done significantly more in white veterans compared to African American veterans (5.4% vs 3.8%). While follow-up testing was 42% more likely if a patient was found to be vitamin D deficient, white veterans were 34% more likely than African American veterans to have at least 1 follow-up 25-hydroxyvitamin D performed. African American veterans had significantly higher health care costs, which were linked to lower vitamin D levels; however, the cost differential persisted even after adjusting for vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in African American veterans and needs improved management within the Veteran Administration system. Vitamin D status appears not to be the sole contributor to increased health care costs in African American veterans.

  13. Effects of consuming diets containing Agave tequilana dietary fibre and jamaica calyces on body weight gain and redox status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Mateos, Raquel; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa I; Largo, Carlota; Serrano, José; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo, Laura; Tabernero, María

    2014-04-01

    Dietary fibre (DF) obtained from Agave tequilana, which is rich in fructans and insoluble DF, and jamaica calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa), which is rich in DF and phenolic compounds, were assessed as new potential functional ingredients using the hypercholesterolemic animal model. Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 3 groups (n=8) and fed with cholesterol-rich diets supplemented with cellulose (CC, control), agave DF (ADF) or ADF with jamaica calyces (ADF-JC). After consuming the test diets for 5 weeks, weight gain in the ADF-JC group was significantly lower than in the other groups. The ADF and ADF-JC groups had a reduced concentration of cholesterol transporters in the caecum tissue, although no changes were observed in the plasma lipid profile. Both treatments improved the redox status by reducing the malondialdehyde serum levels and protein oxidative damage, compared to the CC group. DF from A. tequilana alone, or in combination with jamaica calyces, shows promising potential as a bioactive ingredient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. N-acetylcysteine improves redox status, mitochondrial dysfunction, mucin-depleted crypts and epithelial hyperplasia in dextran sulfate sodium-induced oxidative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrouche-Mekkioui, Ilhem; Djerdjouri, Bahia

    2012-09-15

    The effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a pharmacological antioxidant was investigated in a murine model of chronic colitis. Male NMRI mice were given 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 10 days of water, three times. Compared to control mice given water, DSS-treated mice displayed severe imbalanced redox status with decreased glutathione and catalase, but increased malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase levels, at days 35th (active colitis) and 45th (recovery period). It also resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, mucosal ulcers, mucin-depleted crypts and epithelial cell apoptosis. Crypt abscesses and glandular hyperplasia occurred selectively in distal colon. NAC (150 mg/kg) given in drinking water for 45 days along with 3 DSS cycles improved the hallmarks of DSS-colitis. Interestingly, the moderate impact of NAC on lipids and proteins oxidation correlated with myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide levels.NAC as a mucoregulator and a thiol restoring agent is protective on oxidative crypt alterations, mucin depletion, epithelial cell hyperplasia and apoptosis. Taken together, our results highlight the role of NAC as a scavenger of phagocytes-derived reactive oxygen species in mice DDS-colitis, suggesting that a long term NAC diet might be beneficial in inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Mpesios, Anastasios; Kouretas, Demetrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Mitsagga, Chrysanthi; Giavasis, Ioannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-06-03

    In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women) nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition-EC) or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition-CC) every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p = 0.06) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB.

  16. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Georgakouli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition—EC or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition—CC every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p < 0.05 following the two-week consumption of yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (p = 0.06 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.05 following two weeks of polyphenol-enriched yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB.

  17. Status and Needs Research for On-line Monitoring of VOCs Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Qiang; Zhong, Qi; Zhao, Jinbao; Yang, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Based on atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution control requirements during the twelfth-five year plan and the current status of monitoring and management at home and abroad, instrumental architecture and technical characteristics of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) for VOCs emission from stationary sources are investigated and researched. Technological development needs of VOCs emission on-line monitoring techniques for stationary sources in china are proposed from the system sampling pretreatment technology and analytical measurement techniques.

  18. NASA/RAE cooperation on a knowlede based flight status monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. F.; Duke, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a US/UK cooperative aeronautical research pragram, a joint activity between the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on Knowledge Based Systems was established. Under the agreement, a Flight Status Monitor Knowledge base developed at Ames-Dryden was implemented using the real-time IKBS toolkit, MUSE, which was developed in the UK under RAE sponsorship. The Flight Status Monitor is designed to provide on-line aid to the flight test engineer in the interpretation of system health and status by storing expert knowledge of system behavior in an easily accessible form. The background to the cooperation is described and the details of the Flight Status Monitor, the MUSE implementation are presented.

  19. Monitoring health status following a major firework factory explosion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.; IJzermans, J.

    2003-01-01

    In May 2000, a firework factory exploded in a residential area in the Netherlands, resulting in 22 death, 947 wounded people, 500 destroyed houses, and 1.500 severely damaged houses. Following the explosion, a large-scale monitoring study was implemented to investigate disaster-related health

  20. The development of android - based children's nutritional status monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanto, Agus; Paramita, Octavianti; Pribadi, Feddy Setio

    2017-03-01

    The calculation of BMI (Body Mass Index) is one of the methods to calculate the nutritional status of a person. The BMI calculation has not yet widely understood and known by the public. In addition, people should know the importance of progress in the development of child nutrition each month. Therefore, an application to determine the nutritional status of children based on Android was developed in this study. This study restricted the calculation for children with the age of 0-60 months. The application can run on a smartphone or tablet PC with android operating system due to the rapid development of a smartphone or tablet PC with android operating system and many people own and use it. The aim of this study was to produce a android app to calculate of nutritional status of children. This study was Research and Development (R & D), with a design approach using experimental studies. The steps in this study included analyzing the formula of the Body Mass Index (BMI) and developing the initial application with the help of a computer that includes the design and manufacture of display using Eclipse software. This study resulted in android application that can be used to calculate the nutritional status of children with the age 0-60 months. The results of MES or the error calculation analysis using body mass index formula was 0. In addition, the results of MAPE percentage was 0%. It shows that there is no error in the calculation of the application based on the BMI formula. The smaller value of MSE and MAPE leads to higher level of accuracy.

  1. Monitoring fluid status at the outpatient level: the need for more precision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Ken

    2010-07-01

    Accurate determination of fluid status in patients with heart failure is a critical aspect of care of this population. Early detection of emerging fluid overload would allow for prompt intervention, potentially aborting clinical deterioration and avoiding hospitalization. While many strategies are available to determine fluid status of patients, all areas are compromised by less-than-optimal sensitivity and specificity. Recent work on the role of bioimpedance as a means of assessing a patient\\'s fluid status indicates that this parameter may have a role in monitoring patients with heart failure. This article reviews present techniques available for assessment of fluid status and focuses on the additional information provided by bioimpedance assessment.

  2. Monitoring fluid status at the outpatient level: the need for more precision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Ken

    2012-02-01

    Accurate determination of fluid status in patients with heart failure is a critical aspect of care of this population. Early detection of emerging fluid overload would allow for prompt intervention, potentially aborting clinical deterioration and avoiding hospitalization. While many strategies are available to determine fluid status of patients, all areas are compromised by less-than-optimal sensitivity and specificity. Recent work on the role of bioimpedance as a means of assessing a patient\\'s fluid status indicates that this parameter may have a role in monitoring patients with heart failure. This article reviews present techniques available for assessment of fluid status and focuses on the additional information provided by bioimpedance assessment.

  3. Current status of personnel monitoring for β particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plato, P.; Miklos, J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1975 to 1982, a concerted effort was made to develop a uniform procedure to test the performance of personnel dosimetry processors throughout the United States. The heart of this effort is a standard developed by the Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) and adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as ANSI N13.11-1982. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored a five year pilot study of this Standard which included three trial tests in which approximately 80 dosimetry processors participated. This paper addresses two major questions. First, what have the HPSSC/ANSI Standard and the NRC-sponsored pilot study contributed toward improvements in personnel monitoring for β particles. Second, what additional improvements are necessary. The Standard defines test categories for β particles and mixtures of β particles plus γ rays in addition to test categories for other types of radiation. It also defines a reference β-particle source for test purposes. Third, it provides test criteria which are used to determine acceptable performance by a processor. The pilot study provided information on the state of the art of personnel monitoring within the bounds of the Standard. In addition, since the pilot study was advertised as the forerunner of a future mandatory certification program for dosimetry processors throughout the United States, considerable attention was given to personnel monitoring in general, and β particles in particular, that otherwise would have been given to other squeaky wheels. The results of the three tests of the pilot study are summarized. The paper also amplifies on the needs to define the monitoring problems of the work place and to define appropriate β-particle sources clearly

  4. Current status of personnel monitoring for beta particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plato, P.; Miklos, J.

    1983-01-01

    From 1975 to 1982, a concerted effort was made to develop a uniform procedure to test the performance of personnel dosimetry processors throughout the United States. The heart of this effort is a standard developed by the Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) and adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as ANSI N13.11-1982. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored a five year pilot study of this Standard which included three trial tests in which approximately 80 dosimetry processors participated. The Standard has made several contributions to the art and science of personnel monitoring for beta particles. First, the Standard defines test categories for beta particles and mixtures of beta particles plus gamma rays in addition to test categories for other types of radiation. Second, it defines a reference beta-particle source for test purposes. Third, it provides test criteria which are used to determine acceptable performance by a processor. The pilot study provided information on the state of the art of personnel monitoring within the bounds of the Standard. In addition, since the pilot study was advertised as the forerunner of a future mandatory certification program for dosimetry processors throughout the United States, considerable attention was given to personnel monitoring in general, and beta particles in particular. This paper discusses specific contibutions of the HPSSC/ANSI Standard and the pilot study to beta-particle dosimetry. The results of the three tests of the pilot study are summarized. The paper also amplifies on the needs to define the monitoring particle sources clearly

  5. Status of Database for Electrochemical Noise Based Corrosion Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDGEMON, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Underground storage tanks made of mild steel are used to contain radioactive waste generated by plutonium production at the Hanford Site. Corrosion of the walls of these tanks is a major issue. Corrosion-related failure of waste tank walls could lead to the leakage of radioactive contaminants to the soil and groundwater. It is essential to monitor corrosion conditions of the tank walls to determine tank integrity and ensure safe waste storage until retrieval and final waste disposal can be accomplished. Corrosion monitoring/control is currently provided at the Hanford Site through a waste chemistry sampling and analysis program. In this process, tank waste is sampled, analyzed and compared to a selection of laboratory exposures of coupons in simulated waste. Tank wall corrosion is inferred by matching measured tank chemistries to the results of the laboratory simulant testing. This method is expensive, time consuming, and does not yield real-time data. A project to improve the Hanford Site's corrosion monitoring strategy was started in 1995

  6. Effect of Omega-3 and Vitamins E + C Supplements on the Concentration of Serum B-Vitamins and Plasma Redox Aminothiol Antioxidant Status in Elderly Men after Strength Training for Three Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Tonje Holte; Stølevik, Solvor B; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ezzathkah Bastani, Nasser; Paulsen, Gøran; Lohne Seiler, Hilde; Hetlelid, Ken J; Blomhoff, Rune; Mansoor, Mohammad Azam

    2016-01-01

    Data on redox plasma aminothiol status in individuals on strength training are very limited. Therefore, we studied the effect of omega-3 and vitamins E + C supplementation on the concentration of B-vitamins and redox aminothiol status in elderly men after strength training for 3 months. Healthy men, age 60 ± 6 (mean ± SD) were randomly divided into 3 groups: group I received placebo (n = 17), group II consumed omega-3 (700 mg, n = 17), and group III consumed vitamins E + C (235 mg +1 g, n = 16) daily for 3 months. All participants completed a strength training program for the same period. The concentration of serum vitamin B12 decreased and the concentration of serum folate increased in group I after the intervention (p = 0.01, p = 0.009). The concentration of plasma 5-pyridoxal phosphate decreased in groups II and III (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01), whereas the concentration of serum uric acid decreased only in group II (p = 0.02). We detected an increase in the concentration of reduced form of aminothiols in all groups (p vitamins E + C supplementation affect the concentrations of serum B-vitamins and redox plasma aminothiol status in healthy elderly men on strength training. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. A knowledge-based flight status monitor for real-time application in digital avionics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, E. L.; Disbrow, J. D.; Butler, G. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) is the principal NASA facility for the flight testing and evaluation of new and complex avionics systems. To aid in the interpretation of system health and status data, a knowledge-based flight status monitor was designed. The monitor was designed to use fault indicators from the onboard system which are telemetered to the ground and processed by a rule-based model of the aircraft failure management system to give timely advice and recommendations in the mission control room. One of the important constraints on the flight status monitor is the need to operate in real time, and to pursue this aspect, a joint research activity between NASA Ames-Dryden and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on real-time knowledge-based systems was established. Under this agreement, the original LISP knowledge base for the flight status monitor was reimplemented using the intelligent knowledge-based system toolkit, MUSE, which was developed under RAE sponsorship. Details of the flight status monitor and the MUSE implementation are presented.

  8. Redox homeostasis: the linchpin in stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Zhang, Tao; Dong, Qiang; Nice, Edouard Collins; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan

    2013-03-14

    Stem cells are characterized by their unique ability of self-renewal to maintain the so-called stem cell pool. Over the past decades, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized as toxic aerobic metabolism byproducts that are harmful to stem cells, leading to DNA damage, senescence or cell death. Recently, a growing body of literature has shown that stem cells reside in redox niches with low ROS levels. The balance of Redox homeostasis facilitates stem cell self-renewal by an intricate network. Thus, to fully decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of stem cell self-renewal, it is critical to address the important role of redox homeostasis in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. In this regard, we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved in the subtly orchestrated balance of redox status in stem cells by scavenger antioxidant enzyme systems that are well monitored by the hypoxia niches and crucial redox regulators including forkhead homeobox type O family (FoxOs), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1), nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We will also introduce several pivotal ROS-sensitive molecules, such as hypoxia-inducible factors, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and p53, involved in the redox-regulated stem cell self-renewal. Specifically, all the aforementioned molecules can act as 'redox sensors' by virtue of redox modifications of their cysteine residues, which are critically important in the control of protein function. Given the importance of redox homeostasis in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal, understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms involved will provide important new insights into stem cell biology.

  9. Radiation monitoring systems: current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, W.C.; Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1978-01-01

    The Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) in a nuclear power plant is used for assessing radiological impact of plant operation. A classical RMS consists of several types of radiation detectors strategically placed about a nuclear plant to ensure the safety of operating personnel and the surrounding environment. It serves in conjunction with, and as a backup to, a comprehensive sampling program to quantitatively evaluate process systems and effluent activity levels. The development of the computerized and digitalized RMS is reviewed with emphasis upon its added capability and flexibility. The potential future requirements for the RMS, as a result of regulatory criteria development, is briefly discussed

  10. Quality management status of national radiation environmental monitoring network and strategy for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Renjie; Zhang Rongsuo; Ni Shiying; Shen Gang

    2009-01-01

    During the period of 10th five-year plan, MEP has constructed a national radiation environmental monitoring network. In the running of the network, quality management on monitoring data is of vital importance. So all the members of the radiation environmental monitoring network are required to ensure the quality of monitoring method, equipment, reagent,quality of personnel, data processing and information management and so on. Thus the monitoring result would be typical and accuracy in science. The article introduced in detail the quality management status of the National Radiation Environmental Monitoring Network and put forward the strategy for development from the institutionalized and large-scale point of view of radioactive environmental monitoring work. (authors)

  11. Amplified and in situ detection of redox-active metabolite using a biobased redox capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Gordonov, Tanya; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2013-02-19

    Redox cycling provides a mechanism to amplify electrochemical signals for analyte detection. Previous studies have shown that diverse mediators/shuttles can engage in redox-cycling reactions with a biobased redox capacitor that is fabricated by grafting redox-active catechols onto a chitosan film. Here, we report that redox cycling with this catechol-chitosan redox capacitor can amplify electrochemical signals for detecting a redox-active bacterial metabolite. Specifically, we studied the redox-active bacterial metabolite pyocyanin that is reported to be a virulence factor and signaling molecule for the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa. We demonstrate that redox cycling can amplify outputs from various electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, and differential pulse voltammetry) and can lower the detection limit of pyocyanin to 50 nM. Further, the compatibility of this biobased redox capacitor allows the in situ monitoring of the production of redox-active metabolites (e.g., pyocyanin) during the course of P. aeruginosa cultivation. We anticipate that the amplified output of redox-active virulence factors should permit an earlier detection of life-threatening infections by the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa while the "bio-compatibility" of this measurement approach should facilitate in situ study of the spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial redox signaling.

  12. Status of Wakefield Monitor Experiments at the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Lillestøl, Reidar; Aftab, Namra; Corsini, Roberto; Döbert, Steffen; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Grudiev, Alexej; Javeed, Sumera; Pfingstner, Juergen; Wuensch, Walter

    2016-01-01

    For the very low emittance beams in CLIC, it is vital to mitigate emittance growth which leads to reduced luminosity in the detectors. One factor that leads to emittance growth is transverse wakefields in the accelerating structures. In order to combat this the structures must be aligned with a precision of a few um. For achieving this tolerance, accelerating structures are equipped with wakefield monitors that measure higher-order dipole modes excited by the beam when offset from the structure axis. We report on such measurements, performed using prototype CLIC accelerating structures which are part of the module installed in the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) at CERN. Measurements with and without the drive beam that feeds rf power to the structures are compared. Improvements to the experimental setup are discussed, and finally remaining measurements that should be performed before the completion of the program are summarized.

  13. Current Status of the Beam Position Monitoring System at TLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. H.; Hu, K. H.; Chen, Jenny; Lee, Demi; Wang, C. J.; Hsu, S. Y.; Hsu, K. T.

    2006-11-01

    The beam position monitoring system is an important part of a synchrotron light source that supports its routine operation and studies of beam physics. The Taiwan light source is equipped with 59 BPMs. Highly precise closed orbits are measured by multiplexing BPMs. Data are acquired using multi-channel 16-bit ADC modules. Orbit data are sampled every millisecond. Fast orbit data are shared in a reflective memory network to support fast orbit feedback. Averaged data were updated to control database at a rate of 10 Hz. A few new generation digital BPMs were tested to evaluate their performance and functionality. This report summarizes the system structure, the software environment and the preliminary beam test of the BPM system.

  14. Polyalthia longifolia Methanolic Leaf Extracts (PLME) induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial potential depolarization by possibly modulating the redox status in hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Oon, Chern Ein; Chen, Yeng; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2017-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been accepted as a gold mine, with respect to the diversity of their phytochemicals. Many medicinal plants extracts are potential anticancer agents. Polyalthia longifolia var. angustifolia Thw. (Annonaceae) is one of the most significant native medicinal plants and is found throughout Malaysia. Hence, the present study was intended to assess the anticancer properties of P. longifolia leaf methanolic extract (PLME) and its underlying mechanisms. The Annexin V/PI flow cytometry analysis showed that PLME induces apoptosis in HeLa cells in dose-dependent manner whereas the PI flow cytometric analysis for cell cycle demonstrated the accumulation of cells at sub G0/G1, G0/G1 and G2/M phases. Investigation with JC-1 flow cytometry analysis indicated increase in mitochondria membrane potential depolarisation corresponding to increase in PLME concentrations. PLME was also shown to influence intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by exerting anti-oxidant (half IC 50 ) and pro-oxidant (IC 50 and double IC 50 ) affect against HeLa cells. PLME treatment also displayed DNA damage in HeLa cells in concentration depended fashion. The proteomic profiling array exposed the expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins upon PLME treatment at IC 50 concentration in HeLa cells. Pro-apoptotic proteins; BAX, BAD, cytochrome c, caspase-3, p21, p27 and p53 were found to be significantly up-regulated while anti-apoptotic proteins; BCL-2 and BCL-w were found to be significantly down-regulated. This investigation postulated the role of p53 into mediating apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial potential depolarisation by modulating the redox status of HeLa cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Ovotoxicants 4-vinylcyclohexene 1,2-monoepoxide and 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide disrupt redox status and modify different electrophile sensitive target enzymes and genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos O. Abolaji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The compounds 4-vinylcyclohexene 1,2-monoepoxide (VCM and 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD are the two downstream metabolites of 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH, an ovotoxic agent in mammals. In addition, VCM and VCD may be found as by-products of VCH oxidation in the environment. Recently, we reported the involvement of oxidative stress in the toxicity of VCH in Drosophila melanogaster. However, it was not possible to determine the individual contributions of VCM and VCD in VCH toxicity. Hence, we investigated the toxicity of VCM and VCD (10–1000 µM in flies after 5 days of exposure via the diet. Our results indicated impairments in climbing behaviour and disruptions in antioxidant balance and redox status evidenced by an increase in DCFH oxidation, decreases in total thiol content and glutathione-S-transferase (GST activity in the flies exposed to VCM and VCD (p<0.05. These effects were accompanied by disruptions in the transcription of the genes encoding the proteins superoxide dismutase (SOD1, kelch-like erythroid-derived cap-n-collar (CNC homology (ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap-1, mitogen activated protein kinase 2 (MAPK-2, catalase, Cyp18a1, JAFRAC 1 (thioredoxin peroxidase 1 and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR-1 (p<0.05. VCM and VCD inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE and delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA D activities in the flies (p<0.05. Indeed, here, we demonstrated that different target enzymes and genes were modified by the electrophiles VCM and VCD in the flies. Thus, D. melanogaster has provided further lessons on the toxicity of VCM and VCD which suggest that the reported toxicity of VCH may be mediated by its transformation to VCM and VCD.

  16. Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bjarne; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Elmeros, Morten

    Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra in Denmark Søgaard B. ¹, Madsen A.B.¹, Elmeros M.¹ ¹Institute of Bioscience - Kaloe, Aarhus University. Keywords: Eurasian Otter; Monitoring; Conservation status According to the EU Habitats Directive Denmark has...... of the otter inside Denmark, DNA analysis of dead found otters in Schleswig-Holstein (North Germany) shows that “Danish” otter have crossed the border to Germany connecting the Danish population to the East German population, which spreads into Schleswig-Holstein from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern....

  17. An American knowledge base in England - Alternate implementations of an expert system flight status monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. F.; Graves, A. T.; Disbrow, J. D.; Duke, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    A joint activity between the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on knowledge-based systems has been agreed. Under the agreement, a flight status monitor knowledge base developed at Ames-Dryden has been implemented using the real-time AI (artificial intelligence) toolkit MUSE, which was developed in the UK. Here, the background to the cooperation is described and the details of the flight status monitor and a prototype MUSE implementation are presented. It is noted that the capabilities of the expert-system flight status monitor to monitor data downlinked from the flight test aircraft and to generate information on the state and health of the system for the test engineers provides increased safety during flight testing of new systems. Furthermore, the expert-system flight status monitor provides the systems engineers with ready access to the large amount of information required to describe a complex aircraft system.

  18. A Protocol for Electrochemical Evaluations and State of Charge Diagnostics of a Symmetric Organic Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wentao; Vemuri, Rama S.; Hu, Dehong; Yang, Zheng; Wei, Xiaoliang

    2017-01-01

    Redox flow batteries have been considered as one of the most promising stationary energy storage solutions for improving the reliability of the power grid and deployment of renewable energy technologies. Among the many flow battery chemistries, nonaqueous flow batteries have the potential to achieve high energy density because of the broad voltage windows of nonaqueous electrolytes. However, significant technical hurdles exist currently limiting nonaqueous flow batteries to demonstrate their full potential, such as low redox concentrations, low operating currents, under-explored battery status monitoring, etc. In an attempt to address these limitations, we report a nonaqueous flow battery based on a highly soluble, redox-active organic nitronyl nitroxide radical compound, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO). This redox materials exhibits an ambipolar electrochemical property with two reversible redox pairs that are moderately separated by a voltage gap of ~1.7 V. Therefore, PTIO can serve as both anolyte and catholyte redox materials to form a symmetric flow battery chemistry, which affords the advantages such as high effective redox concentrations and low irreversible redox material crossover. The PTIO flow battery shows decent electrochemical cyclability under cyclic voltammetry and flow cell conditions; an improved redox concentration of 0.5 M PTIO and operational current density of 20 mA cm-2 were achieved in flow cell tests. Moreover, we show that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could measure the PTIO concentrations during the PTIO flow battery cycling and offer reasonably accurate detection of the battery state of charge (SOC) as cross-validated by electron spin resonance measurements. This study suggests FTIR can be used as a reliable online SOC sensor to monitor flow battery status and ensure battery operations stringently in a safe SOC range.

  19. Information technologies in optimization process of monitoring of software and hardware status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, P. V.; Savinov, A. N.; Bazhenov, R. I.; Ryabov, I. V.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes a model of a hardware and software monitoring system for a large company that provides customers with software as a service (SaaS solution) using information technology. The main functions of the monitoring system are: provision of up-todate data for analyzing the state of the IT infrastructure, rapid detection of the fault and its effective elimination. The main risks associated with the provision of these services are described; the comparative characteristics of the software are given; author's methods of monitoring the status of software and hardware are proposed.

  20. Health status monitoring for ICU patients based on locally weighted principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yangyang; Ma, Xin; Wang, Youqing

    2018-03-01

    Intelligent status monitoring for critically ill patients can help medical stuff quickly discover and assess the changes of disease and then make appropriate treatment strategy. However, general-type monitoring model now widely used is difficult to adapt the changes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients' status due to its fixed pattern, and a more robust, efficient and fast monitoring model should be developed to the individual. A data-driven learning approach combining locally weighted projection regression (LWPR) and principal component analysis (PCA) is firstly proposed and applied to monitor the nonlinear process of patients' health status in ICU. LWPR is used to approximate the complex nonlinear process with local linear models, in which PCA could be further applied to status monitoring, and finally a global weighted statistic will be acquired for detecting the possible abnormalities. Moreover, some improved versions are developed, such as LWPR-MPCA and LWPR-JPCA, which also have superior performance. Eighteen subjects were selected from the Physiobank's Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) database, and two vital signs of each subject were chosen for online monitoring. The proposed method was compared with several existing methods including traditional PCA, Partial least squares (PLS), just in time learning combined with modified PCA (L-PCA), and Kernel PCA (KPCA). The experimental results demonstrated that the mean fault detection rate (FDR) of PCA can be improved by 41.7% after adding LWPR. The mean FDR of LWPR-MPCA was increased by 8.3%, compared with the latest reported method L-PCA. Meanwhile, LWPR spent less training time than others, especially KPCA. LWPR is first introduced into ICU patients monitoring and achieves the best monitoring performance including adaptability to changes in patient status, sensitivity for abnormality detection as well as its fast learning speed and low computational complexity. The algorithm

  1. The interplay of parental monitoring and socioeconomic status in predicting minor delinquency between and within adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, Wim

    2017-01-01

    This six-wave multi-informant longitudinal study on Dutch adolescents (N = 824; age 12–18) examined the interplay of socioeconomic status with parental monitoring in predicting minor delinquency. Fixed-effects negative binomial regression analyses revealed that this interplay is different within

  2. The interplay of parental monitoring and socioeconomic status in predicting minor delinquency between and within adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans; Meeus, W.H.J.

    This six-wave multi-informant longitudinal study on Dutch adolescents (N = 824; age 12 18) examined the interplay of socioeconomic status with parental monitoring in predicting minor delinquency. Fixed-effects negative binomial regression analyses revealed that this interplay is different within

  3. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Parental Monitoring and Support as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Bru, Edvin; Idsøe, Thormod

    2015-01-01

    The roles of parental monitoring and support (parenting styles) as mediators of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and perceived inclusion in school were studied in a sample of 7137 Norwegian primary and secondary school pupils aged between 10 and 16 years. To study whether additional social disadvantages moderated the…

  4. NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS: RELEVANCE OF BIOIMPEDANCEMETRY (BCM® FOR LONGITUDINAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Nodimar

    2012-06-01

    We confirm that PD is associated with changes in BC, whether for incident or prevalent patients. The BCM®, a simple, reproducible and inexpensive technique, could be proposed in the systematic nutritional monitoring of PD patients, in order to detect early modification of nutritional status in those patients and then to adapt clinical management.

  5. Diurnal and seasonal trends and source apportionment of redox-active metals in Los Angeles using a novel online metal monitor and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Amirhosein; Sowlat, Mohammad H.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we identified the sources of four redox-active metals, including Iron (Fe), Chromium (Cr), Cupper (Cu), and Manganese (Mn) and quantified the contribution of these sources to PM2.5 concentrations in central Los Angeles, California, by employing time-resolved measurements (i.e., a time resolution of 2 h) with a recently developed online metal monitor and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Size distribution of ambient PM (14 nm-10 μm) was measured using the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). Auxiliary variables were also collected, including elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC), gaseous pollutants (NO2 and O3), meteorological parameters (including relative humidity (RH) and temperature), and traffic data (for heavy- (HDVs) and light-duty vehicles (LDVs)). A 4-factor solution was found to be optimum for the chemically-speciated dataset, whereas a 5-factor solution appeared to be most plausible for the size distribution data. The factors included fresh traffic, soil/road dust, urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and nucleation (only resolved for the size distribution data). Fresh traffic was the major contributor to Fe and Cu concentrations, whereas Cr was mostly found in the urban background aerosol (reflecting a mixture of small local sources as well as aged traffic emissions), and Mn mostly came from both soil/road dust and was to a lesser degree found in urban background aerosol. Secondary aerosol did not contribute to the concentrations of any of these metals, but was associated with very high loading of OC, as expected. Even though the urban background aerosol and secondary aerosol appeared to be characterized by "aged" particles and have a rather homogeneous spatial distribution, the reactions and processes involved in their formation are entirely different. Our results provide insights into the sources of redox-active metals in central Los Angeles. They also underscore the benefits of

  6. The MRC dyspnoea scale by telephone interview to monitor health status in elderly COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladini, Luciana; Hodder, Rick; Cecchini, Isabella; Bellia, Vincenzo; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2010-07-01

    Dyspnoea is the most common symptom associated with poor quality of life in patients affected by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). While COPD severity is commonly staged by lung function, the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale has been proposed as a more clinically meaningful method of quantifying disease severity in COPD. We wished to assess whether this scale might also be useful during telephone surveys as a simple surrogate marker of perceived health status in elderly patients with COPD. We conducted a comprehensive health status assessment by telephone survey of 200 elderly patients who had a physician diagnosis of COPD. The telephone survey contained 71 items and explored such domains as educational level, financial status, living arrangements and social contacts, co-morbid illness, and the severity and the impact of COPD on health status. Patients were categorized according to the reported MRC score: mild dyspnoea (MRC scale of 1), moderate dyspnoea (MRC scale of 2 and 3), or severe dyspnoea (MRC of 4 and 5). Deterioration in most of the recorded indicators of health status correlated with an increasingly severe MRC score. This was most evident for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), perceived health and emotional status, pain-related limitations, limitations in social life, hospital admissions in preceding year and prevalence of most co-morbidities. The MRC dyspnoea scale is a reliable index of disease severity and health status in elderly COPD patients which should prove useful for remote monitoring of COPD and for rating health status for epidemiological purposes.

  7. Implementing and Innovating Marine Monitoring Approaches for Assessing Marine Environmental Status

    KAUST Repository

    Danovaro, Roberto; Carugati, Laura; Berzano, Marco; Cahill, Abigail E.; Carvalho, Susana; Chenuil, Anne; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Cristina, Sonia; David, Romain; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Dzhembekova, Nina; Garcé s, Esther; Gasol, Joseph M.; Goela, Priscila; Fé ral, Jean-Pierre; Ferrera, Isabel; Forster, Rodney M.; Kurekin, Andrey A.; Rastelli, Eugenio; Marinova, Veselka; Miller, Peter I.; Moncheva, Snejana; Newton, Alice; Pearman, John K.; Pitois, Sophie G.; Reñ é , Albert; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Saggiomo, Vincenzo; Simis, Stefan G. H.; Stefanova, Kremena; Wilson, Christian; Lo Martire, Marco; Greco, Silvestro; Cochrane, Sabine K. J.; Mangoni, Olga; Borja, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental monitoring has tended to focus on site-specific methods of investigation. These traditional methods have low spatial and temporal resolution and are relatively labor intensive per unit area/time that they cover. To implement the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), European Member States are required to improve marine monitoring and design monitoring networks. This can be achieved by developing and testing innovative and cost-effective monitoring systems, as well as indicators of environmental status. Here, we present several recently developed methodologies and technologies to improve marine biodiversity indicators and monitoring methods. The innovative tools are discussed concerning the technologies presently utilized as well as the advantages and disadvantages of their use in routine monitoring. In particular, the present analysis focuses on: (i) molecular approaches, including microarray, Real Time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and metagenetic (metabarcoding) tools; (ii) optical (remote) sensing and acoustic methods; and (iii) in situ monitoring instruments. We also discuss their applications in marine monitoring within the MSFD through the analysis of case studies in order to evaluate their potential utilization in future routine marine monitoring. We show that these recently-developed technologies can present clear advantages in accuracy, efficiency and cost.

  8. Implementing and Innovating Marine Monitoring Approaches for Assessing Marine Environmental Status

    KAUST Repository

    Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-11-23

    Marine environmental monitoring has tended to focus on site-specific methods of investigation. These traditional methods have low spatial and temporal resolution and are relatively labor intensive per unit area/time that they cover. To implement the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), European Member States are required to improve marine monitoring and design monitoring networks. This can be achieved by developing and testing innovative and cost-effective monitoring systems, as well as indicators of environmental status. Here, we present several recently developed methodologies and technologies to improve marine biodiversity indicators and monitoring methods. The innovative tools are discussed concerning the technologies presently utilized as well as the advantages and disadvantages of their use in routine monitoring. In particular, the present analysis focuses on: (i) molecular approaches, including microarray, Real Time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and metagenetic (metabarcoding) tools; (ii) optical (remote) sensing and acoustic methods; and (iii) in situ monitoring instruments. We also discuss their applications in marine monitoring within the MSFD through the analysis of case studies in order to evaluate their potential utilization in future routine marine monitoring. We show that these recently-developed technologies can present clear advantages in accuracy, efficiency and cost.

  9. Fluid Status in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: The European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM) Study Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Wim; Williams, John D.; Covic, Adrian C.; Fan, Stanley; Claes, Kathleen; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Verger, Christian; Steiger, Jurg; Schoder, Volker; Wabel, Peter; Gauly, Adelheid; Himmele, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Background Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. Methods We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM) to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. Results Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R2 of the model = 0.57). Conclusions The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia. PMID:21390320

  10. Antifibrotic effect of xanthohumol in combination with praziquantel is associated with altered redox status and reduced iron accumulation during liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassana Jamnongkan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA caused by infection of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, (Ov is the major public health problem in northeast Thailand. Following Ov infection the subsequent molecular changes can be associated by reactive oxygen species (ROS induced chronic inflammation, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis. Notably, resistance to an activation of cell death in prolonged oxidative stress conditions can occur but some damaged/mutated cells could survive and enable clonal expansion. Our study used a natural product, xanthohumol (XN, which is an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound, to examine whether it could prevent Ov-associated CCA carcinogenesis. We measured the effect of XN with or without praziquantel (PZ, an anti-helminthic treatment, on DNA damage, redox status change including iron accumulation and periductal fibrosis during CCA genesis induced by administration of Ov and N-dinitrosomethylamine (NDMA in hamsters. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: group I, Ov infection and NDMA administration (ON; group II, Ov infection and NDMA administration and PZ treatment (ONP; the latter 2 groups were similar to group I and II, but group III received additional XN (XON and group IV received XN plus PZ (XONP. The results showed that high 8-oxodG (a marker of DNA damage was observed throughout cholangiocarcinogenesis. Moreover, increased expression of CD44v8-10 (a cell surface in regulation of the ROS defense system, whereas decreased expression of phospho-p38MAPK (a major ROS target, was found during the progression of the bile duct cell transformation. In addition, high accumulation of iron and expression of transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1 in both malignant bile ducts and inflammatory cells were detected. Furthermore, fibrosis also increased with the highest level being on day 180. On the other hand, the groups of XN with or without PZ supplementations showed an effective reduction in all the

  11. Pattern Matching for Volcano Status Assessment: what monitoring data alone can say about Mt. Etna activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo, F.; Cannata, A.; Cassisi, C.

    2017-12-01

    The importance of assessing the ongoing status of active volcanoes is crucial not only for exposures to the local population but due to possible presence of tephra also for airline traffic. Adequately monitoring of active volcanoes, hence, plays a key role for civil protection purposes. In last decades, in order to properly monitor possible threats, continuous measuring networks have been designed and deployed on most of potentially hazardous volcanos. Nevertheless, at the present, volcano real-time surveillance is basically delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology, who interpret data coming from different kind of monitoring networks using their experience and non-measurable information (e.g. information from the field) to infer the volcano status. In some cases, raw data are used in some models to obtain more clues on the ongoing activity. In the last decades, with the development of volcano monitoring networks, huge amount of data of different geophysical, geochemical and volcanological types have been collected and stored in large databases. Having such big data sets with many examples of volcanic activity allows us to study volcano monitoring from a machine learning perspective. Thus, exploiting opportunities offered by the abundance of volcano monitoring time-series data we can try to address the following questions: Are the monitored parameters sufficient to discriminate the volcano status? Is it possible to infer/distinguish the volcano status only from the multivariate patterns of measurements? Are all the kind of measurements in the pattern equally useful for status assessment? How accurate would be an automatic system of status inference based only on pattern recognition of data? Here we present preliminary results of the data analysis we performed on a set of data and activity covering the period 2011-2017 at Mount Etna (Italy). In the considered period, we had 52 events of lava fountaining and long periods of Strombolian activity. We

  12. Radioactivity monitoring status in French Polynesia in 2008. Results from IRSN's monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Radiological monitoring of the French environment is one of IRSN's permanent tasks as part of public policy on nuclear safety and radiological protection. It is helping to guarantee the best possible protection of the population. The task addresses two objectives: - To monitor the levels of artificial radioactivity in all sectors of the environment and in major foodstuffs; - To estimate the exposure of the Polynesian population to this artificial radioactivity. The IRSN has monitored radioactivity levels in French Polynesia, excluding the Mururoa and Fangataufa nuclear experimentation centres, since 1962. This task is realized by the IRSN's Environmental Study and Monitoring Laboratory located in Tahiti (Vairao) This monitoring was instigated at the time when atmospheric nuclear weapons testing was being performed by the major powers (the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and China), causing fallout of artificial radionuclides, over several years, on a planetary scale. In French Polynesia, the IRSN is most particularly interested in fallout resulting from the 41 tests carried out by France in this region of the globe between 1966 and 1974, and in its consequent effects on the population. Today, just as in metropolitan France, the IRSN carries out monitoring as part of its mission to constantly monitor radiological protection factors. The monitoring takes place on seven islands (Tahiti, Maupiti, Hao, Rangiroa, Hiva Oa, Mangareva and Tubuai) representing the five archipelagoes and consists of taking monthly samples of various kinds from the different environmental compartments (air, water, soil, food...) with which the population may be in contact. For more than 40 years, the IRSN takes part in the evaluation of the dosimetric consequences of these atmospheric depositions in French Polynesia. This laboratory is established in Tahiti. The ingestion component of this dosimetric evaluation requires to collect the most representative samples of

  13. Redox sensor proteins for highly sensitive direct imaging of intracellular redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Kazunori; Nagai, Takeharu; Nakano, Masahiro; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Hisabori, Toru

    2015-02-13

    Intracellular redox state is a critical factor for fundamental cellular functions, including regulation of the activities of various metabolic enzymes as well as ROS production and elimination. Genetically-encoded fluorescent redox sensors, such as roGFP (Hanson, G. T., et al. (2004)) and Redoxfluor (Yano, T., et al. (2010)), have been developed to investigate the redox state of living cells. However, these sensors are not useful in cells that contain, for example, other colored pigments. We therefore intended to obtain simpler redox sensor proteins, and have developed oxidation-sensitive fluorescent proteins called Oba-Q (oxidation balance sensed quenching) proteins. Our sensor proteins derived from CFP and Sirius can be used to monitor the intracellular redox state as their fluorescence is drastically quenched upon oxidation. These blue-shifted spectra of the Oba-Q proteins enable us to monitor various redox states in conjunction with other sensor proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Remote monitoring of vacuum and valve status using LabVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozario, C.; Pal, S.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    For remote monitoring of vacuum status in LINAC and associated beam transport lines, a LabVIEW based interface through RS232 communication is developed. All vacuum stations in LINAC are equipped with Pfeiffer pressure measurement units, namely, TPQ 262 (for 2 no.s) and TPG256 (for 6 no.s). The communication to the unit is done via RS232 with the Serial Device Server. The electro-pneumatic gate valves separating beam line sections and cryostats are fitted with limit switches for indicating open/close status. A modular unit based on PIC 18F4520 microcontroller is developed to read the limit switch positions of up to 10 valves. Both the vacuum readout unit and the gate valve monitor unit act as a server to the client PC on the console. Each unit is assigned a unique IP address and connected to the TCP/IP Ethernet bus. The LabVIEW Virtual Instrument based TCP/IP is used for communication through the distributed LAN. It is possible to connect additional client PCs using the LabVIEW Remote Console features. During the accelerator operation the vacuum reading of the gauge and the status of valves can be monitored from the control room console. All the vacuum parameters like gauge value and status at different physical locations are scanned and logged approximately every second. The LabVIEW GUI has helped in making the system user friendly and can be expanded easily. (author)

  15. [History and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe and related development strategies for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Jun; Xu, Hai-Gen; Guan, Jian-Ling

    2013-09-01

    Butterfly is an important bio-indicator for biodiversity monitoring and ecological environment assessment. In Europe, the species composition, population dynamics, and distribution pattern of butterfly have been monitored for decades, and many long-term monitoring schemes with international effects have been implemented. These schemes are aimed to assess the regional and national variation trends of butterfly species abundance, and to analyze the relationships of this species abundance with habitat, climate change, and other environmental factors, providing basic data for researching, protecting, and utilizing butterfly resources and predicting environmental changes, and playing important roles in the division of butterfly' s threatened level, the formulation of related protection measures, and the protection and management of ecological environment. This paper reviewed the history and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe, with the focus on the well-known long-term monitoring programs, e. g. , the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme and the Germany and European Union Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Some specific proposals for conducting butterflies monitoring in China were suggested.

  16. Monitoring training status with HR measures: do all roads lead to Rome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBuchheit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring an athlete's physiological status in response to various types and volumes of (aerobic-oriented training can provide useful information for optimizing training programs. Measures of resting, exercise and recovery heart rate (HR are receiving increasing interest for monitoring fatigue, fitness and endurance performance responses, which has direct implications for adjusting training load 1 daily during specific training blocks and 2 throughout the competitive season. These measures are still not widely implemented to monitor athletes’ responses to training load, probably because of apparent contradictory findings in the literature. In this review I contend that most of the contradictory findings are related to methodological inconsistencies and/or misinterpretation of the data rather than to limitations of heart rate measures to accurately inform on training status. I also provide evidence that measures derived from 5-min (almost daily recordings of resting (indices capturing beat-to-beat changes in HR, reflecting parasympathetic activity and submaximal exercise (30- to 60-s average HR are likely the most useful monitoring tools. For appropriate interpretation at the individual level, changes in a given measure should be interpreted by taking into account the error of measurement and the smallest important change of the measure, as well as the training context (training phase, load and intensity distribution. The decision to use a given measure should be based upon the level of information that is required by the athlete, the marker’s sensitivity to changes in training status and the practical constrains required for the measurements. However, measures of HR cannot inform on all aspects of wellness, fatigue and performance, so their use in combination with daily training logs, psychometric questionnaires and non-invasive, cost-effective performance tests such as a countermovement jump may offer a complete solution to monitor

  17. Status of radioactivity monitoring in French Polynesia in 2012. Synthesis of IRSN's monitoring network results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouisset, P.; Bernagout, S.; Leclerc, G.; Rua, J.; Delabbaye, P.; De Vismes, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Exercised in Polynesia since 1962, the radiological monitoring of the French environment, which takes place on seven islands (Tahiti, Maupiti, Hao, Rangiroa, Hiva Oa, Mangareva and Tubuai) representing the five archipelagos, and consists of taking regular samples of various kinds from the different environmental compartments (air, water, soil, food...) with which the population may be in contact. Regarding food, the samples analyzed are representative of the diet of Polynesians living in the five archipelagos of that territory, and from the marine environment of the open sea, from the lagoon environment and from the terrestrial environment. Almost all the samples are measured at the Laboratory for the Study and Monitoring of the Environment (LESE) IRSN, based in Vairao on the island of Tahiti. During the year 2012, were stable and typical of the regular reduction of the levels of radioactivity since the stop, in 1974, of the French atmospheric tests. This residual radioactivity relates primarily to the 137 Cs. In term of additional dose, this artificial and residual radioactivity is lower than 5 μSv.y -1 (5 micro-sieverts per year). This value corresponds to less than 0,5 % of exposure due to natural radioactivity in Polynesia (approximately 1 000 μSv.y -1 ). Enhanced radiological monitoring of the environment set up in the wake of the Fukushima disaster, continued in 2012 in the marine field. The measurements carried out throughout the year confirm the lack of impact of the contamination of Japanese marine area in Polynesian waters. Samples of pelagic fish (tuna, swordfish, dolphin fish, wahoo...) were made in the vicinity of five Polynesian archipelagos: no increase of 137 Cs compared to previous years was observed and 134 Cs was never detected. (authors) [fr

  18. Status of 2009 radioactivity monitoring in French Polynesia. Results of IRSN's monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Radiological monitoring of the French environment is one of IRSN's permanent tasks as part of public policy on nuclear safety and radiological protection. It is helping to guarantee the best possible protection of the population. Exercised in Polynesia since 1962, this monitoring, which takes place on seven islands (Tahiti, Maupiti, Hao, Rangiroa, Hiva Oa, Mangareva and Tubuai) representing the five archipelagoes, consists in regularly collecting samples of various kinds from the different environmental compartments (air, water, soil, food...) with which the population may be in contact. Regarding food, the samples analyzed are representative of the diet of Polynesians living in the five archipelagoes of that territory. They come from the marine environment of the open sea, from the marine lagoon environment and from the terrestrial environment. Almost all samples are measured at the IRSN Laboratory for the Environment Study and Monitoring, based in Vairao, Tahiti Island. The 239 samples collected in 2009 were measured by Hp-Ge low background gamma spectrometry in order to be able to characterize lowest possible radioactivity levels. The levels of activity of Pu isotopes have also been determined for 17 selected samples and tritium activities for 15 water samples. The results for the year 2009 are in the continuity of a regular reduction of the levels of radioactivity since the stop, in 1974, of the French atmospheric tests. This residual radioactivity relates to primarily the 137 Cs. In term of additional dose, this artificial and residual radioactivity is lower than 5 μSv.y -1 (5 micro Sieverts per year). This value corresponds to less than 0, 5 % of exposure due to natural radioactivity in Polynesia (approximately 1000 μSv.y -1 ). (authors)

  19. Status report on cross-sections of monitor reactions for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerer, O.; Okamoto, K.

    1989-12-01

    The status of data on cross-sections of 19 monitor reactions, especially for cyclotron operation, is summarized. Most of the information was extracted from the data compiled in EXFOR (EXchange FORmat) which is a common format used by the co-operating nuclear data centres in the world. The EXFOR data were supplemented by a number of additional data sets found in the literature. For each reaction a brief status summary, graphical plots of the available experimental and evaluated data, and a table of all experimental data sorted by incident particle energy, are given

  20. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  1. Watertrak, a computerized liquid waste treatment system status and performance monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.N.; Tafazzoli, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Because of continuing problems in the radwaste system operations of a large number of plants currently operating, there is an increasing need to provide greater quantities of radwaste system information to plant operators and managers. Current and more complete information is required to enhance the operation and performance of the radwaste treatment systems, to assess the current system status, to plan for changing plant conditions and to diagnose actual or impending problems. The information needs include: real-time system status monitoring, equipment performance monitoring, report generation for operators and plant management, and training information. The nature and quantity of information required makes this program well-suited for a computer-aided engineering application

  2. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2016-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi- State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  3. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site - FY09 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Waichler, Scott R.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2009-09-28

    Recharge provides the primary driving force for transporting contaminants from the vadose zone to underlying aquifer systems. Quantification of recharge rates is important for assessing contaminant transport and fate and for evaluating remediation alternatives. This report describes the status of soil water balance and recharge monitoring performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at the Hanford Site for Fiscal Year 2009. Previously reported data for Fiscal Years 2004 - 2008 are updated with data collected in Fiscal Year 2009 and summarized.

  4. Strength monitoring of bridge constructions and features of its application. Part 2. Continuous monitoring of bridge construction status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikov Igor Georgievich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a system of continuous monitoring of bridge constructions — a system of observation over the operating conditions and behavior of the bridge structure, which is aimed at ensuring the preservation of its functional application properties within the specified limits, realized on the continuous, long-term basis with the use of instrumentation and ensures on-line presentation of information on the status of structure. To illustrate, one may consider the existing systems of continuous monitoring for a number of bridge constructions in the United States, Japan, Europe, South Korea, Greece and Russia. The article suggests to examine the systems of continuous monitoring of «Commodore John Barry» truss bridge, «Akashi-Kaikyo» suspension bridge, «Siggenthal» reinforced-concrete arch bridge, «Nimhe» suspension bridge, «Jindo»cable-stayed bridge, «Yandzhon» suspension bridge, «Banghwa» bridge, «Seohae» bridge and «Rio-Antirrio» bridge. In addition one may consider monitoring of the longitudinal launching of the bridge superstructures over the Volga River near the village Pristannoye in Saratov region. Finally, it was drawn the conclusion that monitoring of bridge constructions from the standpoint of their consumers is aimed at solving such important problems as preservation of bridge structures, increase in service life of bridge structures through timely detection of faults and their elimination, as well as preservation of bridge structure carrying capacity by controlling their behavior during the operation and improving the efficiency of expenditure of monetary resources for repair activities by correct determination of time and type of the necessary repair.

  5. In/Out Status Monitoring in Mobile Asset Tracking with Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsoo Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A mobile asset with a sensor node in a mobile asset tracking system moves around a monitoring area, leaves it, and then returns to the region repeatedly. The system monitors the in/out status of the mobile asset. Due to the continuous movement of the mobile asset, the system may generate an error for the in/out status of the mobile asset. When the mobile asset is inside the region, the system might determine that it is outside, or vice versa. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and correct the incorrect in/out status of the mobile asset. To solve this problem, our approach uses data about the connection state transition and the battery lifetime of the mobile node attached to the mobile asset. The connection state transition is used to classify the mobile node as normal or abnormal. The battery lifetime is used to predict a valid working period for the mobile node. We evaluate our method using real data generated by a medical asset tracking system. The experimental results show that our method, by using the estimated battery life time or by using the invalid connection state, can detect and correct most cases of incorrect in/out statuses generated by the conventional approach.

  6. In/out status monitoring in mobile asset tracking with wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Chung, Chin-Wan

    2010-01-01

    A mobile asset with a sensor node in a mobile asset tracking system moves around a monitoring area, leaves it, and then returns to the region repeatedly. The system monitors the in/out status of the mobile asset. Due to the continuous movement of the mobile asset, the system may generate an error for the in/out status of the mobile asset. When the mobile asset is inside the region, the system might determine that it is outside, or vice versa. In this paper, we propose a method to detect and correct the incorrect in/out status of the mobile asset. To solve this problem, our approach uses data about the connection state transition and the battery lifetime of the mobile node attached to the mobile asset. The connection state transition is used to classify the mobile node as normal or abnormal. The battery lifetime is used to predict a valid working period for the mobile node. We evaluate our method using real data generated by a medical asset tracking system. The experimental results show that our method, by using the estimated battery life time or by using the invalid connection state, can detect and correct most cases of incorrect in/out statuses generated by the conventional approach.

  7. Operation status display and monitoring system for BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Yasuo; Hayakawa, Hiroyasu; Kawamura, Atsuo; Kaneda, Mitsunori.

    1982-01-01

    Lately, the development of the system has been made for BWR plants, which monitors the operating status not only in normal operation but also in abnormal state and also for plant safety. Recently, the improvement of man-machine interface has been tried through the practical use of technique which displays data collectively on a CRT screen relating them mutually. As one of those results, the practical use of an electronic computer and color CRT display for No. 1 unit in the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station (2F-1), Tokyo Electric Power Co., is described. Also, new centralized control panels containing such systems were used for the 1100 MWe BWR nuclear power plants now under construction, No. 3 unit of the Fukushima No. 2 Power Station and No. 1 unit of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (2F-3 and K-1, respectively). The display and monitoring system in 2F-1 plant is the first one in which a computer and color CRTs were practically employed for a BWR plant in Japan, and already in commercial operation. The advanced operating status monitoring system, to which the result of evaluation of the above system was added, was incorporated in the new centralized control panels presently under production for 2F-3 and K-1 plants. The outline of the system, the functions of an electronic computer, plant operating status monitor, surveillance test guide, the automation of plant operation and auxiliary operation guide are reported for these advanced monitoring system. It was confirmed that these systems are useful means to improve the man-machine communication for plant operation minitoring. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Oligo-carrageenan kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system increase the level of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellin A3 and trans-zeatin in Eucalyptus globulus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Zúiga, Gustavo; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-08-20

    Eucalyptus globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa showed an increase in NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione levels and activation of the thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) system which enhance photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth. In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and the activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) increased the level of growth-promoting hormones, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of ascorbate synthesis, lycorine, glutathione synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), NADPH synthesis, CHS-828, and thioredoxin reductase activity, auranofine, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for four additional months. Eucalyptus trees treated with OC kappa showed an increase in the levels of the auxin indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A3 (GA3) and the cytokinin trans-zeatin (t-Z) as well as a decrease in the level of the brassinosteroid epi-brassinolide (EB). In addition, treatment with lycorine, BSO, CHS-828 and auranofine inhibited the increase in IAA, GA3 and t-Z as well as the decrease in EB levels. Thus, the reducing redox status and the activation of TRR/TRX system induced by OC kappa increased the levels of IAA, GA3 and t-Z levels determining, at least in part, the stimulation of growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  9. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-06-13

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan for interim-status detection-level monitoring of the 216-B-63 Trench. This is a revision of the initial groundwater monitoring plan prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Bjornstad and Dudziak (1989). The 216-B-63 Trench, located at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, is an open, unlined, earthern trench approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) wide at the bottom, 427 m (1400 ft) long, and 3 m (10 ft) deep that received wastewater containing hazardous waste and radioactive materials from B Plant, located in the 200 East Area. Liquid effluent discharge to the 216-B-63 Trench began in March 1970 and ceased in February 1992. The trench is now managed by Waste Tank Operations.

  10. Interim-status groundwater monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    This document outlines the groundwater monitoring plan for interim-status detection-level monitoring of the 216-B-63 Trench. This is a revision of the initial groundwater monitoring plan prepared for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Bjornstad and Dudziak (1989). The 216-B-63 Trench, located at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State, is an open, unlined, earthern trench approximately 1.2 m (4 ft) wide at the bottom, 427 m (1400 ft) long, and 3 m (10 ft) deep that received wastewater containing hazardous waste and radioactive materials from B Plant, located in the 200 East Area. Liquid effluent discharge to the 216-B-63 Trench began in March 1970 and ceased in February 1992. The trench is now managed by Waste Tank Operations

  11. 40 CFR 265 interim-status ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This report outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 2101-M pond, located in the southwestern part of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials may have been discharged to the pond. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to determine if hazardous chemicals are moving out of the pond. This plan describes the location of new wells for the monitoring system, how the wells are to be completed, the data to be collected, and how those data can be used to determine the source and extent of any ground-water contamination from the 2101-M pond. Four new wells are planned, one upgradient and three downgradient. 35 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  12. [Research and implementation of a real-time monitoring system for running status of medical monitors based on the internet of things].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Qian, Mingli; Li, Long; Li, Bin

    2014-07-01

    This paper proposed a real-time monitoring system for running status of medical monitors based on the internet of things. In the aspect of hardware, a solution of ZigBee networks plus 470 MHz networks is proposed. In the aspect of software, graphical display of monitoring interface and real-time equipment failure alarm is implemented. The system has the function of remote equipment failure detection and wireless localization, which provides a practical and effective method for medical equipment management.

  13. The countermovement jump to monitor neuromuscular status: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, João Gustavo; Cronin, John; Mezêncio, Bruno; McMaster, Daniel Travis; McGuigan, Michael; Tricoli, Valmor; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Julio Cerca

    2017-04-01

    The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to compare countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in studies that reported the highest value as opposed to average value for the purposes of monitoring neuromuscular status (i.e., fatigue and supercompensation). The secondary aim was to determine the sensitivity of the dependent variables. Systematic review with meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was conducted on the highest or average of a number of CMJ variables. Multiple literature searches were undertaken in Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science to identify articles utilizing CMJ to monitor training status. Effect sizes (ES) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using the mean and standard deviation of the pre- and post-testing data. The coefficient of variation (CV) with 95% CI was also calculated to assess the level of instability of each variable. Heterogeneity was assessed using a random-effects model. 151 articles were included providing a total of 531 ESs for the meta-analyses; 85.4% of articles used highest CMJ height, 13.2% used average and 1.3% used both when reporting changes in CMJ performance. Based on the meta-analysis, average CMJ height was more sensitive than highest CMJ height in detecting CMJ fatigue and supercompensation. Furthermore, other CMJ variables such as peak power, mean power, peak velocity, peak force, mean impulse, and power were sensitive in tracking the supercompensation effects of training. The average CMJ height was more sensitive than highest CMJ height in monitoring neuromuscular status; however, further investigation is needed to determine the sensitivity of other CMJ performance variables. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Annual Report of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program: Fiscal Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terraqua, Inc. (Wauconda, WA)

    2009-07-20

    This document was created as an annual report detailing the accomplishments of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) in the Upper Columbia Basin in fiscal year 2008. The report consists of sub-chapters that reflect the various components of the program. Chapter 1 presents a report on programmatic coordination and accomplishments, and Chapters 2 through 4 provide a review of how ISEMP has progressed during the 2008 fiscal year in each of the pilot project subbasins: the John Day (Chapter 2), Wenatchee/Entiat (Chapter 3) and Salmon River (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 presents a report on the data management accomplishments in 2008.

  15. Total Isolation Status Monitoring and Management System by CAD Assisted Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masaaki

    1995-01-01

    Isolation tasks in a nuclear power station require high confidence and quick response particularly during the annual inspection when the equipment must be checked in a safe and planned manner. To realize these advanced isolation works, JAPC has developed TOtal Isolation Status Monitoring and Management System using CAD Assisted Technology. This system, TOMM-CAT, developed under the concept of 'User friendly advanced man-machine interface', allows planning and management to be performed on a CRT display. TOMM-CAT allows isolation tasks to be performed accurately and efficiently in conjunction with equipment information from the existing Job Order Management System, which runs on the station host computer. (author)

  16. Status of initial phase of site-specific seismic monitoring: Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the status of the initial phase of site-specific seismic monitoring work conducted under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. This work is currently organized under two main elements: (1) a portable array; and (2) a baseline data collection array. Progress toward the development of each array is discussed along with an interpretation of preliminary data obtained from the test of a borehole seismometer at potential repository depths. The text is supplemented by nine figures and one table. 9 figs., 1 tab

  17. The Redox Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Sies, Helmut

    2015-09-20

    The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O₂ and H₂O₂ contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine.

  18. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys and Rotary Screw Trap, 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2006 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 37,938 fish from 15 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 15% of fish enumerated followed by rainbow trout (10%) and mountain whitefish (7%). Day surveys were conducted during the summer period 2007 (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2007 (October) surveys. The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) program from August through November of 2007. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 999 wild Oncorhynchus mykiss and 5,107 wild run O. tshawytscha were PIT tagged during the study period. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 22.3% for juvenile O. tshawytscha and 9.0% for juvenile O. mykiss. Rotary screw traps operated 7 days a week and remote capture operations were conducted when flow and temperature regimes permitted. This is third annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  19. The interplay of parental monitoring and socioeconomic status in predicting minor delinquency between and within adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekker, Roderik; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans; Meeus, Wim

    2017-08-01

    This six-wave multi-informant longitudinal study on Dutch adolescents (N = 824; age 12-18) examined the interplay of socioeconomic status with parental monitoring in predicting minor delinquency. Fixed-effects negative binomial regression analyses revealed that this interplay is different within adolescents across time than between adolescents. Between individuals, parental solicitation and control were not significantly associated with delinquency after controlling for SES: Adolescents whose parents exercised more monitoring did not offend less than others. Within individuals, higher levels of parental control were unexpectedly associated with more delinquency, but this relation was dependent on SES: Low-SES adolescents, but not high-SES adolescents, offended more during periods in which their parents exercised more control than during other periods with less control. In contrast to earlier work, this finding suggests that monitoring could be least effective when needed most. Low-SES parents might not use monitoring effectively and become overcontrolling when their child goes astray. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New parameters and reference values for monitoring iron status in Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Varamenti, E; Elzain Elgingo, M; Bourdon, P C

    2014-04-01

    Hematological and biochemical parameters of 160 Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes (aged from 12-18 years) were tested in order to investigate their iron status and to establish reference values for this population. A focus of this study was also the investigation of Reticulocyte hemoglobin (RetHe) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Complete blood count, reticulocyte and sera parameters were analyzed at the beginning of the training season for these adolescent athletes. As the diagnosis of iron deficiency in adolescents is extremely difficult subjects were subdivided in three age groups (12-13, 14-15, 16-18). For most of the parameters our results confirmed the existing reference values reported in young athletes. Exceptions were however found with lower Mean Cell Volumes (79.9±4.3 fl) in this group when compared to other age matched data. RetHe, ferritin and sTfR levels were monitored for the interpretation of the iron status in this population and reference values for these parameters were also established. Information to help evidence based decision making about the need for supplementation or further investigations is provided to physicians and nutritionists. RetHe with a proposed threshold value of 25 pg expands the list of parameters which can be used to monitor athletes.

  1. Use of a Digital Camera to Monitor the Growth and Nitrogen Status of Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop a nondestructive method for monitoring cotton growth and N status using a digital camera. Digital images were taken of the cotton canopies between emergence and full bloom. The green and red values were extracted from the digital images and then used to calculate canopy cover. The values of canopy cover were closely correlated with the normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio vegetation index and were measured using a GreenSeeker handheld sensor. Models were calibrated to describe the relationship between canopy cover and three growth properties of the cotton crop (i.e., aboveground total N content, LAI, and aboveground biomass. There were close, exponential relationships between canopy cover and three growth properties. And the relationships for estimating cotton aboveground total N content were most precise, the coefficients of determination (R2 value was 0.978, and the root mean square error (RMSE value was 1.479 g m−2. Moreover, the models were validated in three fields of high-yield cotton. The result indicated that the best relationship between canopy cover and aboveground total N content had an R2 value of 0.926 and an RMSE value of 1.631 g m−2. In conclusion, as a near-ground remote assessment tool, digital cameras have good potential for monitoring cotton growth and N status.

  2. Elevated oxidative stress monitored via the albumin-thiol redox state is correlated with matrix metalloproteinase-3 elevation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizaki, Kazuha; Yoshizumi, Yusuke; Takahashi, Teppei; Era, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and oxidative stress contribute to joint destruction. However, little is known about the relationship between MMP-3 and oxidative stress in RA. We measured the albumin-thiol redox state as a marker of oxidative stress, MMP-3, and the DAS-28 score calculated using CRP values among forty-seven patients (9 males and 38 females) with RA. According to the serum MMP-3 levels, they were divided into two groups (group A: within normal ranges of 36.9-121.0 ng/mL for men and 17.3-59.7 ng/mL for women; group B: above normal ranges). The albumin-thiol redox state in group B was significantly oxidized compared with that in group A (p < 0.01). The percentage of oxidized albumin-thiol showed a positive correlation with serum MMP-3 (r = 0.52). DAS-28 and CRP were also correlated with the percentage of oxidized albumin-thiol (r = 0.46, r = 0.44). The albumin-thiol redox state was significantly oxidized in correlation with serum MMP-3 elevation in RA.

  3. Basic biochemical, hematological and hormonal parameters for monitoring the health and nutritional status in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritz Urdampilleta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sporting competitions are becoming more demanding in terms of intensity of effort, and this means controlling all aspects that affect athletic performance. Food, hydration and supplementation, before, during and after training or competition directly affect health, body composition, performance and recovery of the athlete. The assessment of nutritional status is required for proper advising of the athlete, through blood tests to control the process of adaptation to training. The aim of this paper is to provide practical tools for dietitiansnutritionists to control the health and nutritional status of athletes, as well as monitoring their adaptation to workloads and competition periods. Performing analytical tests to control of protein metabolism, lipid profile, ions, blood tests and iron metabolism, in addition to review some hormonal parameters, may be of interest in order to observe the potential existence of overtraining states. The correct understanding and interpretation of laboratory tests (under sports doctor’s supervision will be most important and useful for dietitiansnutritionists, performing dietary and nutritional advice to athletes, because it will determine the status of the athlete and propose different individual feeding strategies depending on the training phase and response.

  4. CDC's Prevention Status Reports: Monitoring the Status of Public Health Policies and Practices for Improved Performance and Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea C; Lowry, Garry; Mumford, Karen; Graaf, Christine

    Increasing the adoption and implementation of evidence-based policies and practices is a key strategy for improving public health. Although there is widespread agreement about the importance of implementing evidence-based public health policies and practices, there are gaps between what has been shown to be effective and what is implemented at the state level. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Prevention Status Reports (PSRs), a performance measurement system, to highlight evidence-based public health policies and practices and catalyze state performance and quality improvement efforts across the nation. CDC selected a set of 10 topics representing some of the most important public health challenges in the nation. Stakeholders, including state health departments and other partners, helped conceptualize the PSRs and informed the development of the PSR framework, which provides an organizational structure for the system. CDC subject matter experts developed criteria for selecting policies and practices, indicators for each policy and practice, and a criteria-based rating system for each indicator. The PSRs were developed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The PSRs were developed and serve as a performance measurement system for monitoring the adoption, reach, and implementation fidelity of evidence-based public health policies and practices nationwide. The PSRs include 33 policy and practice indicators across the 10 health topics. They use a simple 3-level rating system-green, yellow, and red-to report the extent to which each state (and the District of Columbia) has implemented the policy or practice in accordance with supporting evidence or expert recommendations. Results from aggregate analyses show positive change or improvement. The PSRs are a unique part of CDC's work to improve the performance and accountability of the public health system, serving as both a monitoring tool and a call to action to improve health

  5. Experimental Evidence that In Vivo Intracerebral Administration of L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Acid to Neonatal Rats Provokes Disruption of Redox Status and Histopathological Abnormalities in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Teixeira; Zanatta, Ângela; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Leipnitz, Guilhian; de Oliveira, Francine Hehn; Seminotti, Bianca; Wajner, Moacir

    2018-04-01

    Tissue accumulation of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (L-2-HG) is the biochemical hallmark of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), a rare neurometabolic inherited disease characterized by neurological symptoms and brain white matter abnormalities whose pathogenesis is not yet well established. L-2-HG was intracerebrally administered to rat pups at postnatal day 1 (P1) to induce a rise of L-2-HG levels in the central nervous system (CNS). Thereafter, we investigated whether L-2-HG in vivo administration could disturb redox homeostasis and induce brain histopathological alterations in the cerebral cortex and striatum of neonatal rats. L-2-HG markedly induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (increase of 2',7'-dichloroflurescein-DCFH-oxidation), lipid peroxidation (increase of malondialdehyde concentrations), and protein oxidation (increase of carbonyl formation and decrease of sulfhydryl content), besides decreasing the antioxidant defenses (reduced glutathione-GSH) and sulfhydryl content in the cerebral cortex. Alterations of the activities of various antioxidant enzymes were also observed in the cerebral cortex and striatum following L-2-HG administration. Furthermore, L-2-HG-induced lipid peroxidation and GSH decrease in the cerebral cortex were prevented by the antioxidant melatonin and by the classical antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptor MK-801, suggesting the involvement of reactive species and of overstimulation of NMDA receptor in these effects. Finally, L-2-HG provoked significant vacuolation and edema particularly in the cerebral cortex with less intense alterations in the striatum that were possibly associated with the unbalanced redox homeostasis caused by this metabolite. Taken together, it is presumed that these pathomechanisms may underlie the neurological symptoms and brain abnormalities observed in the affected patients.

  6. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys, 2006-2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.

    2007-10-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 11 sites during the summer 2006 survey period and at 15 sites during fall 2006 and winter 2007 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 39,898 fish from 14 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 19% of fish enumerated followed by mountain whitefish (18%) and rainbow trout (14%). Day and night surveys were conducted during the summer 2006 period (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2006 (October) and winter 2007 (February/March) surveys. This is second annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  7. Instrumentation for status monitoring and protection of SST-1 superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.N., E-mail: aashoo.sharma@yahoo.com; Prasad, U.; Doshi, K.; Varmora, P.; Khristi, Y.; Patel, D.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Details of status monitoring instrumentation are presented. • Protection instrumentation details are presented. • Instrumentation installation details, signal conditioning and DAQ system details and the results during SST-1 operation are presented. - Abstract: Superconducting magnets of SST-1 are extensively instrumented to continuously monitor the health of magnets during machine cool-down, plasma experiments and also during the machine warm-up phase. These instrumentations include temperature sensors, flow meters, hall probes, strain gages, displacement sensors, pressure sensors and voltage taps. The number of sensors and their locations has been optimized to systematically monitor all important magnet parameters to ensure its safety. In-house developed modular signal conditioning cards have been developed for these instrumentations. The data is acquired on a Versa Module Europa bus based data acquisition system (VME DAQ). This paper gives an overview of selection, installation, laboratory scale validations, and distribution logics of these instrumentations. Results during plasma campaigns and the up-gradation aspects of these instrumentations are also discussed in this paper.

  8. Use of the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS) in monitoring speech and language status in PPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapolsky, Daisy; Domoto-Reilly, Kimiko; Dickerson, Bradford C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a devastating neurodegenerative syndrome involving the gradual development of aphasia, slowly impairing the patient’s ability to communicate. Pharmaceutical treatments do not currently exist and intervention often focuses on speech-language behavioral therapies, although further investigation is warranted to determine how best to harness functional benefits. Efforts to develop pharmaceutical and behavioral treatments have been hindered by a lack of standardized methods to monitor disease progression and treatment efficacy. Aims Here we describe our current approach to monitoring progression of PPA, including the development and applications of a novel clinical instrument for this purpose, the Progressive Aphasia Severity Scale (PASS). We also outline some of the issues related to initial evaluation and longitudinal monitoring of PPA. Methods & Procedures In our clinical and research practice we perform initial and follow-up assessments of PPA patients using a multi-faceted approach. In addition to standardized assessment measures, we use the PASS to rate presence and severity of symptoms across distinct domains of speech, language, and functional and pragmatic aspects of communication. Ratings are made using the clinician’s best judgment, integrating information from patient test performance in the office as well as a companion’s description of routine daily functioning. Outcomes & Results Monitoring symptom characteristics and severity with the PASS can assist in developing behavioral therapies, planning treatment goals, and counseling patients and families on clinical status and prognosis. The PASS also has potential to advance the implementation of PPA clinical trials. Conclusions PPA patients display heterogeneous language profiles that change over time given the progressive nature of the disease. The monitoring of symptom progression is therefore crucial to ensure that proposed treatments are appropriate at

  9. A real time status monitor for transistor bank driver power limit resistor in boost injection kicker power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, J.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    For years suffering of Booster Injection Kicker transistor bank driver regulator troubleshooting, a new real time monitor system has been developed. A simple and floating circuit has been designed and tested. This circuit monitor system can monitor the driver regulator power limit resistor status in real time and warn machine operator if the power limit resistor changes values. This paper will mainly introduce the power supply and the new designed monitoring system. This real time resistor monitor circuit shows a useful method to monitor some critical parts in the booster pulse power supply. After two years accelerator operation, it shows that this monitor works well. Previously, we spent a lot of time in booster machine trouble shooting. We will reinstall all 4 PCB into Euro Card Standard Chassis when the power supply system will be updated.

  10. Current Status of the Advanced Residual Gas Monitor for Heavy Ion Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liakin, D A; Sergeeva, O; Skachkov, V S

    2005-01-01

    The challenge and complexity of the advanced RGM requires very careful design of each structural component of the monitor and special attention to match the properties of different subsystems. In the present paper the status of the high performance readout electronics is discussed. Single optical decoupled profile measurement channel (one of 100) with 14 bit resolution and 10 MHz bandwidth was tested and step-by-step improved. Special attention had been paid to the noise cancellation and digital data processing algorithms optimization. Another important point is a proper electromagnetic guiding system design. As it is shown, high field homogeneity, which is required for sub-millimeter spatial resolution, can be achieved despite the presence of the field-distorting hole for the light signal transmitting. The low energy (down to 10MeV per nucleon) beam disturbance compensation methods are also discussed. The ionization process and electron dynamics simulations are used for proving this system design.

  11. Status and challenges of residential and industrial non-intrusive load monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adabi, Ali; Mantey, Patrick; Holmegaard, Emil

    2015-01-01

    in recent years due to improvement in algorithms and methodologies. Currently, the important challenges facing residential NILM are inaccessibility of electricity meter high sampling data, and lack of reliable high resolution datasets. For industrial NILM the identification is more challenging due......Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is the process of identification of loads from an aggregate power interface using disaggregation algorithms. This paper identifies the current status, methodologies and challenges of NILM in residential and industrial settings. NILM has advanced substantially...... to increased number of loads and the variability of equipment type, temporal patterns and industrial secrecy. From our examination of data and its use in NILM, we observe that the number of devices that can be recognized and the training period required to achiever recognition is not only a function...

  12. Limitations of the scalp-hair biologic monitor in assessing selenium status in epidemiological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.S.; Spate, V.L.; Crane, S.B.; Alejandra Gudino

    2012-01-01

    Scalp hair is routinely used to assess exposure to toxic trace elements and nutritional status of some required trace elements. The advantages and disadvantages of hair as a biologic monitor have been comprehensively discussed in the literature for many years. Among the concerns is distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contributions. Nested in this issue is the longitudinal distribution of a trace element along the hair strand. The typical observation for many elements of interest is that the element concentration increases from the root end to the distal end; and this is attributed to continuing contamination from exogenous sources. In this study we used neutron activation analysis to measure 14 trace elements in 6 mm segments of full-length scalp hair from three healthy members of the same household having light-urban environmental exposure. To extend the data set for selenium, we included three adult female subjects with longer than average scalp hair. From these trace-element concentrations we calculated the root-to-distal end ratios as a profile diagnostic of trace-element distributions. Ratios fall into three diagnostic categories, >1, ∼1, and 1, Zn and S have R ∼ 1, and the remaining 11 elements all have R I > Hg ∼ Au ∼ Mg ∼ Mn ∼ Sb ∼ Ca > Cu > Al ∼ Ag. R Se is greater than 1 and increases with hair length (P 0.02) corresponding to a continuous longitudinal loss of Se in stark and puzzling contrast to the other elements measured. An analogous loss of Se in the nail monitor was not observed leading us to conclude that the nail is less prone to misclassification of selenium status in epidemiological studies. (author)

  13. An evaluation of heat on protein oxidation of soy protein isolate or soy protein isolate mixed with soybean oil and its consequences on redox status of broilers at early age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglun Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of heat treatment and soybean oil inclusion on protein oxidation of soy protein isolate (SPI and of oxidized protein on redox status of broilers at an early age. Methods SPI mixed with soybean oil (SPIO heated at 100°C for 8 h was used to evaluate protein oxidation of SPI. A total of two hundred and sixteen 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 12 birds, receiving basal diet (CON, heat-oxidized SPI diet (HSPI or mixture of SPI and 2% soybean oil diet (HSPIO for 21 d, respectively. Results Increased protein carbonyl, decreased protein sulfhydryl of SPI were observed as heating time increased in all treatments (p<0.05. Addition of 2% soybean oil increased protein carbonyl of SPI at 8 h heating (p<0.05. Dietary HSPI and HSPIO decreased the average daily gain of broilers as compared with the CON (p<0.05. Broilers fed HSPI and HSPIO exhibited decreased glutathione (GSH in serum, catalase activity and total sulfhydryl in liver and increased malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl in serum, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs in liver and protein carbonyl in jejunal mucosa as compared with that of the CON (p<0.05. Additionally, broilers receiving HSPIO showed decreased glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px in serum, GSH and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity in liver, GSH-Px activity in duodenal mucosa, GSH-Px activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity in jejunal mucosa and increased AOPPs in serum, MDA and protein carbonyl in liver, MDA and AOPPs in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05. Conclusion Protein oxidation of SPI can be induced by heat and soybean oil and oxidized protein resulted in redox imbalance in broilers at an early age.

  14. The Redox Proteome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Young-Mi; Jones, Dean P.

    2013-01-01

    The redox proteome consists of reversible and irreversible covalent modifications that link redox metabolism to biologic structure and function. These modifications, especially of Cys, function at the molecular level in protein folding and maturation, catalytic activity, signaling, and macromolecular interactions and at the macroscopic level in control of secretion and cell shape. Interaction of the redox proteome with redox-active chemicals is central to macromolecular structure, regulation, and signaling during the life cycle and has a central role in the tolerance and adaptability to diet and environmental challenges. PMID:23861437

  15. Lichen as Bioindicator for Monitoring Environmental Status in Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugam Gupta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioindicator communities (lichen to assess the environmental status of an area is a well-proved strategy to monitor any habitat without any logistic and instrumental facilities. In the present study, 13 bioindicator communities of lichen have been used to assess the environmental status of holy pilgrimage (Badrinath, western Himalaya, India. Three sites (i.e. Badrinath, Mana & pilgrimage route from Bhimpul to Vasudhara have been comparatively assessed. The results of the study reveals that Badrinath site is less polluted and experiences low degree of anthropogenic disturbances compared to Mana, and pilgrimage route (Bhimpul to Vasudhara. Human settlements, construction of civil works, vehicular emission, and trampling and trekking by tourists are the major threats on these habitats, which ultimately decrease the quality of vegetation and adjacent environment. Controlled vehicular use, promotion of modern way of cooking and managed trekking in these pilgrimage routes could be helpful to combat the decreasing vegetation and environmental quality therein.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-2, Mar-May 2016 page: 1-15

  16. HSI for monitoring the critical safety functions status tree of a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Almeida, Jose Carlos Soares de; Augusto, Silas Cordeiro; Jaime, Guilherme Dutra Gonzaga

    2013-01-01

    Critical safety function (CSF) is the most significant design concept for prioritize operator actions based on the potential threat to the three barriers (fuel cladding, primary coolant system boundary, and containment) and allows the operator to respond to these threats prior to event diagnosis. CSF has a hierarchical information structure that organizes the system variables affecting the plant safety in terms of goal-means relations. It is important that the operator should be aware of various success paths associated with each CSF in order to respond to unanticipated system failures quickly. When an emergency occurs in NPPs, the operator should monitor CSFs periodically and identify possible success paths as necessary, and try to stabilize or safely shut down the plant using emergency operating procedure (EOP) that includes steps to check the CSFs. This implies that safety function status check may become a cognitively burdensome task that needs to be supported by proper information display. The advanced human-system interface (HSI) in nuclear power plants provides an information environment that supports the operators' burdensome cognitive tasks. This paper describes a CSFs interface design for supporting the operator's tasks to monitor and identify the associated success path for Westinghouse 3-loops NPP. (author)

  17. Expert system for diagnostics and status monitoring of NPP water chemistry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedova, M.N.; Kritski, V.G.; Zakharova, S.V.; Benediktov, V.B.; Nikolaev, F.V.

    2002-01-01

    Water chemistry condition (WCC) has been the subject of constant study and improvement up to the present day. It is connected with the presence of a direct relationship between the violation of water chemistry regulation on the one hand and components reliability of the circuit's equipment and cost-effectiveness of their operation on the other. It dictates the necessity to apply different optimization methods in the field of monitoring and use of information analytical and diagnostic systems to assess WCC quality, control and support. LI ''VNIPIET'' employees have, for several years, been developing an expert diagnostic system for supporting WCC and status monitoring of RBMK - reactor NPPs [2]. This system has not only conveniently organized the traditional functions of information acquisition and storage, a complete presentation of information in the form of tables, graphs of a dynamical changes of parameters and formation regular reports, diagnostic functions and issuing recommendations on WCC correction, but it also allows the assessment of confidence in the diagnosis made, relying on a wide range of numerical estimates, which were calculated by the use of expert data, and to make a credible prediction of an existing situation development. (authors)

  18. Continuous monitoring of myocardial acid-base status during intermittent warm blood cardioplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A C L; Nollo, G; Pederzolli, C; Ferrari, P; Widesott, L; Antolini, R

    2002-06-01

    Intermittent warm blood cardioplegia (IWBC) is a well-established technique for myocardial protection during cardiac operations. According to standardized protocols, IWBC administration is currently performed every 15-20 min regardless of any individual variable and in the absence of any instrumental monitoring. We devised a new system for continuous measurement of the acid-base status of coronary sinus blood for on-line evaluation of myocardial oxygenation during IWBC. In 19 patients undergoing cardiac surgery for coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery and receiving IWBC (34-37 degrees C) by antegrade induction (3 min) and retrograde or antegrade maintenance (2 min) every 15 min, continuous monitoring of myocardial oxygenation and acid/base status was performed by means of a multiparameter PO(2), PCO(2), pH, and temperature sensor (Paratrend7 (R), Philips Medical System) inserted into the coronary sinus. Mean cross-clamping time was 76+/-26 min; ischemic time was 13+/-0.2 min. pH decline was not linear, showing an initial fast decline, a point of flexus, and a progressive slow decline. After every ischemic period, the pH adaptation curve showed a complex pattern reaching step-by-step lower minimum levels (7.28+/-0.14 during the first ischemic period, to 7.16+/-0.19 during the third ischemic period - P=0.003). PO(2) decreased rapidly at 90% in 5.0+/-1.2 min after every reperfusion. During ischemia, PCO(2) increased steadily at 1.6+/-0.1 mmHg per minute, with progressively incomplete removal after successive reperfusion, and progressive increase of maximal level (42+/-12 mmHg during the first ischemic period, to 53+/-23 mmHg during the third ischemic period - P=0.05). Myocardial oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH show marked changes after repeated IWBC. Myocardial ischemia is not completely reversed by standardized reperfusions, as reflected by steady deterioration of PCO(2) and pH after each reperfusion. Progressive increase of reperfusion durations or

  19. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis. PMID:25778551

  20. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis.

  1. Redox signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment.

  2. Involvement of histone H3 phosphorylation via the activation of p38 MAPK pathway and intracellular redox status in cytotoxicity of HL-60 cells induced by Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hidetomo; Yuan, Bo; Yuhara, Eisuke; Imai, Masahiko; Furutani, Ryota; Fukushima, Shin; Hazama, Shingo; Hirobe, Chieko; Ohyama, Kunio; Takagi, Norio; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2014-08-01

    We have demonstrated that an extract from the ripe fruit of Vitex angus-castus (Vitex), might be a promising anticancer candidate. In order to further provide a molecular rationale for clinical development in anticancer therapy, a detailed mechanism underlying the efficacy of Vitex against HL-60 cells was investigated. Vitex induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cell viability associated with induction of apoptosis and G(2)/M cell cycle arrest, both of which were suppressed by the addition of SB203580, an inhibitor for p38 MAPK. Furthermore, SB203580 significantly suppressed Vitex-induced phosphorylation of histone H3, a downstream molecule of p38 MAPK known to be involved in apoptosis induction in tumor cells. Notably, Vitex induced upregulation of intracellular ATP, known to bind its binding pocket inside activated p38 MAPK and to be required for the activation of p38 MAPK pathway. These results, thus, suggest that upregulation of intracellular ATP and phosphorylation of histone H3 are closely associated with the activation of p38 MAPK pathway, consequently contributing to Vitex-mediated cytotoxicity. Intriguingly, a significant decrease of intracellular ROS levels and downregulation of expression level of gp91(phox), an important component of NADPH oxidase, were observed in Vitex-treated cells. A greater decline in ROS levels along with enhanced apoptosis was observed after treatment with Vitex in combination with SnPP, an inhibitor specific for HO-1. Since NADPH oxidase and HO-1 are closely correlated to redox status associated with intracellular ROS levels, the two enzymes are suggested to be implicated in Vitex-mediated cytotoxicity in HL-60 cells by regulating ROS generation. We also suggest that activation of the p38 MAPK pathway may be dependent on the alterations of intracellular ATP levels, rather than that of intracellular ROS levels. These results may have important implications for appropriate clinical uses of Vitex and provide novel insights

  3. New tools for redox biology: From imaging to manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, Dmitry S; Belousov, Vsevolod V

    2017-08-01

    Redox reactions play a key role in maintaining essential biological processes. Deviations in redox pathways result in the development of various pathologies at cellular and organismal levels. Until recently, studies on transformations in the intracellular redox state have been significantly hampered in living systems. The genetically encoded indicators, based on fluorescent proteins, have provided new opportunities in biomedical research. The existing indicators already enable monitoring of cellular redox parameters in different processes including embryogenesis, aging, inflammation, tissue regeneration, and pathogenesis of various diseases. In this review, we summarize information about all genetically encoded redox indicators developed to date. We provide the description of each indicator and discuss its advantages and limitations, as well as points that need to be considered when choosing an indicator for a particular experiment. One chapter is devoted to the important discoveries that have been made by using genetically encoded redox indicators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of selenium status using the nail biologic monitor in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Morris, J.; Spate, V.L.; Ruth Ann Ngwenyama; Waters, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Toenails and fingernails are routinely used to estimate selenium status in epidemiological studies; however, literature validating nail selenium concentration as a surrogate for critical organs is limited. In this study diets of intact male dogs were selenium supplemented at two physiological levels (3 and 6 μg/kg/day) in two different forms, selenomethionine and selenium-enriched bioformed yeast. The selenium-adequate basal diet consumed by the treatment and control groups during the 4-week run-in period and throughout the trial contained 0.3 ppm selenium. After 7 months the dogs in the two treatment groups and the control group were euthanized. Representative tissue samples from prostate, brain, liver, heart and skeletal muscle were collected, rinsed and frozen. Toenail clippings from multiple toes were also collected. Selenium was determined by neutron activation analysis using Se77m (half life = 17.4 s) at the University of Missouri Research Reactor Center. NIST SRM 1577, Bovine Liver was analyzed as a quality control. The analysts were blinded to control and treatment group assignments. As expected, tissue selenium levels increased proportionally with supplementation. A slightly greater increase in tissue selenium was observed for the purified selenomethionine compared to the bioformed yeast; however this trend was significant only for brain tissue. Toenail selenium concentrations and tissue selenium were highly correlated (p < 0.003) with Pearson coefficients of 0.759 (skeletal muscle), 0.745 (heart), 0.729 (brain), 0.723 (prostate), and 0.632 (liver). The toenail biologic monitor accurately assesses selenium status in skeletal muscle, heart, brain, prostate, and liver in the canine model. (author)

  5. PC and monitor night status: Power management enabling and manual turn-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordman, Bruce; Meier, Alan; Piette, Mary Ann

    1998-01-01

    While office equipment accounts for about 7 percent of commercial building energy use, this reflects considerable energy savings from the use of automatic power management. Most of these savings were gained through the use of low-power modes that meet the criteria of the U.S. EPA's Energy Star program. Despite this success, there are large amounts of additional savings that could be gained if all equipment capable of power management use were enabled and functioning. A considerable portion of equipment is not enabled for power management at all, enabled only partially, or is enabled but prevented from functioning. Additional savings could be gained if more equipment were turned off at night manually. We compiled results from 17 studies from the office equipment literature addressing PCs and monitors. Some factors important for annual energy use, such as power levels, have been documented elsewhere and are not covered. We review methods for estimating office equipment use patterns and energy use, and present findings on night status-power management and manual turn-off rates. In early studies, PC power management was often found to function in 25 percent or less of the Energy Star compliant units (10 percent of all PCs). However, recent assessments have found higher rates, and we estimate that for Energy Star models, 35 percent of PC CPUs and 65 percent of PC monitors are enabled for power management. While the data lack statistical rigor, they can be used to estimate the magnitude of current and potential power management savings, which we did for major types of office equipment. The data also make clear that the topic of enabling rates, and the factors which influence them, deserve greater scrutiny

  6. Dose monitoring in radiology departments. Status quo and future perspectives; Dosismonitoring in der Radiologie. Status quo und Zukunftsperspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, J. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Meineke, A. [Cerner Healthcare Services, Idstein (Germany); Bethge, O.T.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2016-05-15

    The number of computed tomography examinations has continuously increased over the last decades and accounts for a major part of the collective radiation dose from medical investigations. For purposes of quality assurance in modern radiology a systematic monitoring and analysis of dose related data from radiological examinations is mandatory. Various ways of collecting dose data are available today, for example the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine - Structured Report (DICOM-SR), optical character recognition and DICOM-modality performed procedure steps (MPPS). The DICOM-SR is part of the DICOM-standard and provides the DICOM-Radiation Dose Structured Report, which is an easily applicable and comprehensive solution to collect radiation dose parameters. This standard simplifies the process of data collection and enables comprehensive dose monitoring. Various commercial dose monitoring software devices with varying characteristics are available today. In this article, we discuss legal obligations, various ways to monitor dose data, current dose monitoring software solutions and future perspectives in regard to the EU Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM.

  7. Use Of Progesterone Radioimmunoassay for The Monitoring Reproductive status of Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh, Ratnawati; Tjiptosumirat, Totti; Tuasikal, Boky Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    The artificial insemination (AI) has been widely applied for the rapid improvements of genetic and reproductive efficiency, especially in the developing countries. In Indonesia it was introduced for a long time ago, but the fertility rate of insemination cows, however, is still low. Due to the limitation or relying on visual observation and rectal palpation far determining reproductive status, monitoring milk progesterone can help to improve reproductive efficiency and economic benefits. To analyse progesterone concentration, milk samples were collected in vials containing sodium azide tablets.The milk samples were collected twice a week for about six weeks long, and stored at 4 o C in the refrigerator until analysed. Progesterone concentration in milk samples was determined by using solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit with 125 I labelled progesterone as tracer. The progesterone standards were prepared in skim milk and range from 0 to 40 nmol/I. The results of progesterone assay on samples of milk collected from five cows indicated that two cows with low progesterone, signifies that these cows had inactive ovaries (anoestrus), three other cows with post calving catalytic progesterone interpretation, and after subsequent insemination two cows getting pregnant. The accurate determination of progesterone levels can be used to confirm oestrus and diagnose non-pregnancy as well as to moriitor postpartum ovarian activity, early embryonic death and ovarian disorder

  8. Biomarkers for monitoring intestinal health in poultry: present status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatelle, Richard; Goossens, Evy; De Meyer, Fien; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Antonissen, Gunther; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2018-05-08

    Intestinal health is determined by host (immunity, mucosal barrier), nutritional, microbial and environmental factors. Deficiencies in intestinal health are associated with shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), leakage of the mucosal barrier and/or inflammation. Since the ban on growth promoting antimicrobials in animal feed, these dysbiosis-related problems have become a major issue, especially in intensive animal farming. The economical and animal welfare consequences are considerable. Consequently, there is a need for continuous monitoring of the intestinal health status, particularly in intensively reared animals, where the intestinal function is often pushed to the limit. In the current review, the recent advances in the field of intestinal health biomarkers, both in human and veterinary medicine are discussed, trying to identify present and future markers of intestinal health in poultry. The most promising new biomarkers will be stable molecules ending up in the feces and litter that can be quantified, preferably using rapid and simple pen-side tests. It is unlikely, however, that a single biomarker will be sufficient to follow up all aspects of intestinal health. Combinations of multiple biomarkers and/or metabarcoding, metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, metaproteomic and metabolomic approaches will be the way to go in the future. Candidate biomarkers currently are being investigated by many research groups, but the validation will be a major challenge, due to the complexity of intestinal health in the field.

  9. Monitoring local redox processes in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 battery cathode material by in operando EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemöller, Arvid; Jakes, Peter; Eurich, Svitlana; Paulus, Anja; Kungl, Hans; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Granwehr, Josef

    2018-01-01

    Despite the multitude of analytical methods available to characterize battery cathode materials, identifying the factors responsible for material aging is still challenging. We present the first investigation of transient redox processes in a spinel cathode during electrochemical cycling of a lithium ion battery by in operando electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The battery contains a LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) spinel cathode, which is a material whose magnetic interactions are well understood. The evolution of the EPR signal in combination with electrochemical measurements shows the impact of Mn3+ on the Li+ motion inside the spinel. Moreover, state of charge dependent linewidth variations confirm the formation of a solid solution for slow cycling, which is taken over by mixed models of solid solution and two-phase formation for fast cycling due to kinetic restrictions and overpotentials. Long-term measurements for 480 h showed the stability of the investigated LNMO, but also small amounts of cathode degradation products became visible. The results point out how local, exchange mediated magnetic interactions in cathode materials are linked with battery performance and can be used for material characterization.

  10. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program, Entiat River Status and Trend Snorkel Surveys and Rotary Smolt Trap Operations in Nason Creek, March 2007 through March 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Matthew; Jorgensen, John; Murdock, Keely

    2008-03-10

    The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP-BPA project No.2003-0017) has been created as a cost effective means of developing protocols and new technologies, novel indicators, sample designs, analytical, data management and communication tools and skills, and restoration experiments that support the development of a region-wide Research, Monitoring and Evaluation (RME) program to assess the status of anadromous salmonid populations, their tributary habitat and restoration and management actions. The most straightforward approach to developing a regional-scale monitoring and evaluation program would be to increase standardization among status and trend monitoring programs. However, the diversity of species and their habitat, as well as the overwhelming uncertainty surrounding indicators, metrics, and data interpretation methods, requires the testing of multiple approaches. Thus, the approach ISEMP has adopted is to develop a broad template that may differ in the details among subbasins, but one that will ultimately lead to the formation of a unified RME process for the management of anadromous salmonid populations and habitat across the Columbia River Basin. ISEMP has been initiated in three pilot subbasins, the Wenatchee/Entiat, John Day, and Salmon. To balance replicating experimental approaches with the goal of developing monitoring and evaluation tools that apply as broadly as possible across the Pacific Northwest, these subbasins were chosen as representative of a wide range of potential challenges and conditions, e.g., differing fish species composition and life histories, ecoregions, institutional settings, and existing data. ISEMP has constructed a framework that builds on current status and trend monitoring infrastructures in these pilot subbasins, but challenges current programs by testing alternative monitoring approaches. In addition, the ISEMP is: (1) Collecting information over a hierarchy of spatial scales, allowing for a

  11. Expert System for Diagnostics and Status Monitoring of NPP Water Chemistry Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedova, M.N.; Kritski, V.G.; Zakharova, S.V.; Nikolaev, F.V.; Benediktov, V.B.

    2002-01-01

    Water chemistry condition (WCC) has been the subject of constant study and improvement up to the present day. It is connected with the presence of a direct relationship between the violation of water chemistry regulation on the one hand and components reliability of the circuit's equipment and cost-effectiveness of their operation on the other. It dictates the necessity to apply different optimization methods in the field of monitoring and use of information - analytical and diagnostic systems to assess WCC quality, control and support. By now NPP experts have broad experience in revealing and removing the causes of WCC disturbances. However this knowledge is often of an intuitive, non-classified nature, scattered among various working documents, which makes their transfer difficult. Based on what has been mentioned above, special attention is currently being paid to the problem of creating expert diagnostic systems for supporting the optimum WCC. The existing developments in this field (DIWA, Smart chem Works, the water quality control system at the Onagava NPP etc. [1,3,4,5] are based on wide use of experts' knowledge. Such expert diagnostic systems for supporting WCC refer to the new generation of intellectual control methods, which allow the incorporation of the latest achievements both in the field of water chemistry simulation and in the field of artificial intelligence and computer technologies. LI 'VNIPIET' employees have, for several years, been developing an expert diagnostic system for supporting WCC and status monitoring of RBMK - reactor NPPs [2]. This system has not only conveniently organized the traditional functions of information acquisition and storage, a complete presentation of information in the form of tables, graphs of a dynamical changes of parameters and formation regular reports, diagnostic functions and issuing recommendations on WCC correction, but it also allows the assessment of confidence in the diagnosis made, relying on a wide

  12. Current status of radon and radium monitoring at the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), PR, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy; Barbosa, Laercio; Perna, Allan F.N.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous and systematic studies performed in different countries for many decades resulted in the explicit conclusion that radon exposure, as well as its progeny, is the main cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. All three natural radon isotopes ( 222 Rn, 220 Rn and 219 Rn) are produced in the three principal natural radioactive decay chains. Specifically, the 222 Rn is produced by the decay series of 238 U and proceeded from α-decay of 226 Ra. Current work describes the present status and obtained results concerning indoor radon survey in dwellings, radon in water supply and soil gas tests performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR) within Curitiba urban area. For radon in air activity measurements, it was used polycarbonate etched track detectors such as LEXAN (GE) and CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers. For soil gas measurements, the experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD, Genitron/SAPHYMO) connected to the air pump with filter vessels and to specially developed in our Laboratory the Soil Gas Probe. In the case of radon tests in drinking water, the experimental setup was based on the AlphaGUARD Radon monitor and Electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.) connected to special kit of glass vessels through the air pump. Obtained results permitted to identify few dwellings where radon concentration in air was found bigger than 600 Bq/m 3 which is considered as the action level by most of the European Community and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the case of studied artesian wells, collected samples of water presented the average 222 Rn activity about 60 Bq/L which is 6 times bigger than maximum level recommended by USEPA. Some artesian wells presented the radon activity of almost 200 Bq/L. More over, it was identified the radioactivity of radium ( 226 Ra) salts which are soluble in water and almost all water samples presented results bigger than

  13. A robust and versatile mass spectrometry platform for comprehensive assessment of the thiol redox metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Sutton

    2018-06-01

    . Additional determination of acid-labile sulfide/thiols was demonstrated in human blood cells, urine and saliva. Using this simplified mass spectrometry-based workflow the thiol redox metabolome can be determined in samples from clinical and translational studies, providing a novel prognostic/diagnostic platform for patient stratification, drug monitoring, and identification of new therapeutic approaches in redox diseases. Keywords: Oxidative stress, Redox status, Reactive species interactome, Glutathione, Hydrogen sulfide, Persulfides, Thiol-maleimide michael addition

  14. Intelligent system for pilot and astronaut Psychophysiological status monitoring and recuperating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Andrzej; -Bogumila Pecyna, S. Maria

    called intelligent computations, and their methodology is called “computational intelligence”. The absence of gravity which causes significant physiological stress with broad biomedical changes generated key problems for researchers and practitioners of aviations and space flight. Following previous experiences we had on the matter, some current results achieved on the bases of FlexComp Infinity/Biograph Infiniti, V6.1™ of Thought Technology ltd. [Janicki, Pecyna, 2014] are underlined. A particular emphasis has been placed on the ability of the distributed parallel computations connected with the sophisticated application of the NASA Autogenic Feedback Training AFTE [PS Cowings, 2011] method combined biofeedback and Autogenic Therapy exercises [WIML-NASA, 2011]. The present paper reports on the results of a serious preliminary experiments addressed especially to space disorientation and/or awareness of reality problem. Keywords: pilot’s decision making process; intelligent a agent; coherency; psychophysiological pilot status; remote monitoring; remote training; synthetic indicators; scientific information system; three-factor utility function; space disorientation;Near-Infrared Hemoencephalography; References: A.Janicki “three-factor utility function” in LabTSI™ Modeling and Simulation Platform, KUL Univ. publication 2011 - in polish, page 95-103 M.B. Pecyna and M. Pokorski "Near-Infrared Hemoencephalography for Monitoring Blood Oxygenation in Prefrontal Cortical Areas in diagnosis and Therapy of Developmental Dyslexia" in "Neurobiology of Respiration" Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013 page 175 - 180. NASA-WIML Workshop on 2011, Psychophysiological Aspects of Flight Safety In Aerospace Operations, WIML 2011

  15. Monitoring plant water status and rooting depth for precision irrigation in the vineyards of Classic Karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Moretti, Elisa; Dal Borgo, Anna; Petruzzellis, Francesco; Stenni, Barbara; Bertoncin, Paolo; Dreossi, Giuliano; Zini, Luca; Martellos, Stefano; Nardini, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The extreme summer drought and heat waves that occurred in South-Europe in 2003 and 2012 have led to the loss of more than 50% of winery production in the Classic Karst (NE Italy). The irrigation of vineyards in this area is not appropriately developed and, when used, it does not consider the actual water status and needs of plants, posing risks of inappropriate or useless usage of large water volumes. The predicted future increase in frequency and severity of extreme climate events poses at serious risk the local agriculture based on wine business. We monitored seasonal trends of pre-dawn (Ψpd) and minimum (Ψmin) leaf water potential, and stomatal conductance (gL) of 'Malvasia' grapevine in one mature (MV, both in 2015 and 2016) and one young vineyard (YV, in 2016). Moreover, we extracted xylem sap form plant stems and soil water from samples collected in nearby caves, by cryo-vacuum distillation. We also collected precipitation and irrigation water in different months. Oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of atmospheric, plant, soil and irrigation water was analyzed to get information about rooting depth. In 2015, at the peak of summer aridity, two irrigation treatments were applied according to traditional management practices. The treatments were performed in a sub-area of the MV, followed by physiological analysis and yield measurements at grape harvest. In 2016, the soil water potential (Ψsoil) at 50 cm depth was also monitored throughout the season. Under harsh environmental conditions the apparently deep root system ensured relatively favorable plant water status in both MV and YV and during both growing seasons. The Ψsoil at 50 cm depth gradually decreased as drought progressed, reaching a minimum value of about -1.7 MPa, far more negative than Ψpd recorded in plants (about -0.5 MPa). In July, significant stomatal closure was observed, but Ψmin never surpassed the critical threshold of -1.3 MPa, indicating that irrigation was not needed. The xylem sap

  16. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Porrini

    Full Text Available In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47-69% in 2009 and from 30-60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health.

  17. Redox Species of Redox Flow Batteries: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Wang, Qing

    2015-11-18

    Due to the capricious nature of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar, large-scale energy storage devices are increasingly required to make the best use of the renewable power. The redox flow battery is considered suitable for large-scale applications due to its modular design, good scalability and flexible operation. The biggest challenge of the redox flow battery is the low energy density. The redox active species is the most important component in redox flow batteries, and the redox potential and solubility of redox species dictate the system energy density. This review is focused on the recent development of redox species. Different categories of redox species, including simple inorganic ions, metal complexes, metal-free organic compounds, polysulfide/sulfur and lithium storage active materials, are reviewed. The future development of redox species towards higher energy density is also suggested.

  18. Redox Species of Redox Flow Batteries: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Pan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the capricious nature of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar, large-scale energy storage devices are increasingly required to make the best use of the renewable power. The redox flow battery is considered suitable for large-scale applications due to its modular design, good scalability and flexible operation. The biggest challenge of the redox flow battery is the low energy density. The redox active species is the most important component in redox flow batteries, and the redox potential and solubility of redox species dictate the system energy density. This review is focused on the recent development of redox species. Different categories of redox species, including simple inorganic ions, metal complexes, metal-free organic compounds, polysulfide/sulfur and lithium storage active materials, are reviewed. The future development of redox species towards higher energy density is also suggested.

  19. Monitoring and evaluation of the health status of workers from the Kozloduy NPP for the period 2011-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negoycheva, Krasimira; Chobanova, Nina; Peyankov, Her; Miltchev, Audrey; Djounova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the impact of occupational exposure on workers in the Kozloduy NPP through monitoring and evaluation of their health status. The study involved 302 persons from the NPP for the period 2011-2013. Based on the protocol for individual monitoring, cumulative doses of the respondents are in the range of 0.1 to 588 mSv. The probability of the occupational exposure to be a reason for the diagnosed malignant diseases has been determined (Probability of Causation is henceforth denoted as PC)

  20. Imaging Mitochondrial Redox Potential and Its Possible Link to Tumor Metastatic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin Z.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular redox states can regulate cell metabolism, growth, differentiation, motility, apoptosis, signaling pathways, and gene expressions etc. Growing body of literature suggest importance of redox status for cancer progression. While most studies on redox state were done on cells and tissue lysates, it is important to understand the role of redox state in tissue in vivo/ex vivo and image its heterogeneity. Redox scanning is a clinically-translatable method for imaging tissue mitochondrial redox potential with a submillimeter resolution. Redox scanning data in mouse models of human cancers demonstrate a correlation between mitochondrial redox state and tumor metastatic potential. I will discuss the significance of this correlation and possible directions for future research. PMID:22895837

  1. Constraint-Based Modeling Highlights Cell Energy, Redox Status and α-Ketoglutarate Availability as Metabolic Drivers for Anthocyanin Accumulation in Grape Cells Under Nitrogen Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Soubeyrand

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by environmental factors (such as light, temperature, and water availability and nutrient status (such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate nutrition. Previous reports show that low nitrogen availability strongly enhances anthocyanin accumulation in non carbon-limited plant organs or cell suspensions. It has been hypothesized that high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio would lead to an energy excess in plant cells, and that an increase in flavonoid pathway metabolic fluxes would act as an “energy escape valve,” helping plant cells to cope with energy and carbon excess. However, this hypothesis has never been tested directly. To this end, we used the grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Gamay Teinturier (syn. Gamay Freaux or Freaux Tintorier, VIVC #4382 cell suspension line as a model system to study the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation in response to nitrogen supply. The cells were sub-cultured in the presence of either control (25 mM or low (5 mM nitrate concentration. Targeted metabolomics and enzyme activity determinations were used to parametrize a constraint-based model describing both the central carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and the flavonoid (phenylpropanoid pathway connected by the energy (ATP and reducing power equivalents (NADPH and NADH cofactors. The flux analysis (2 flux maps generated, for control and low nitrogen in culture medium clearly showed that in low nitrogen-fed cells all the metabolic fluxes of central metabolism were decreased, whereas fluxes that consume energy and reducing power, were either increased (upper part of glycolysis, shikimate, and flavonoid pathway or maintained (pentose phosphate pathway. Also, fluxes of flavanone 3β-hydroxylase, flavonol synthase, and anthocyanidin synthase were strongly increased, advocating for a regulation of the flavonoid pathway by alpha-ketoglutarate levels. These results strongly support the hypothesis of anthocyanin biosynthesis acting as

  2. Status and development trends of the National Space Monitoring System of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultangazin, U.M.; Spivak, L.F.

    2005-01-01

    Principles of construction and architecture of space monitoring of Kazakhstan are presented, structure and specifications of space and ground segments are described, top-priority tasks of monitoring are determined. (author)

  3. Form Factor Evaluation of Open Body Area Network (OBAN) Physiological Status Monitoring (PSM) System Prototype Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-11

    critical tasks such as shooting in the prone position and low crawling, and 3) interference with a person’s ability to sleep . These issues were...Real-time physiological monitoring while encapsulated in personal protective equipment. Journal of Sport and Human Performance, 1(4): 14-21, 2013...17. Have you previously worn any type of heart rate monitor, such as the Polar Heart Rate Monitor or other Sports Monitors

  4. Pyridine nucleotides in regulation of cell death and survival by redox and non-redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak Kujundžić, Renata; Žarković, Neven; Gall Trošelj, Koraljka

    2014-01-01

    Changes of the level and ratios of pyridine nucleotides determine metabolism- dependent cellular redox status and the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and sirtuins, thereby influencing several processes closely related to cell survival and death. Pyridine nucleotides participate in numerous metabolic reactions whereby their net cellular level remains constant, but the ratios of NAD+/NADP+ and NADH/NADPH oscillate according to metabolic changes in response to diverse stress signals. In non-redox reactions, NAD+ is degraded and quickly, afterward, resynthesized in the NAD+ salvage pathway, unless overwhelming activation of PARP-1 consumes NAD+ to the point of no return, when the cell can no longer generate enough ATP to accommodate NAD+ resynthesis. The activity of PARP-1 is mandatory for the onset of cytoprotective autophagy on sublethal stress signals. It has become increasingly clear that redox status, largely influenced by the metabolism-dependent composition of the pyridine nucleotides pool, plays an important role in the synthesis of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic sphingolipids. Awareness of the involvement of the prosurvival sphingolipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, in transition from inflammation to malignant transformation has recently emerged. Here, the participation of pyridine nucleotides in redox and non-redox reactions, sphingolipid metabolism, and their role in cell fate decisions is reviewed.

  5. Redox environment in stem and differentiated cells: A quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Lyublinskaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are believed to maintain a specific intracellular redox status through a combination of enhanced removal capacity and limited production of ROS. In the present study, we challenge this assumption by developing a quantitative approach for the analysis of the pro- and antioxidant ability of human embryonic stem cells in comparison with their differentiated descendants, as well as adult stem and non-stem cells. Our measurements showed that embryonic stem cells are characterized by low ROS level, low rate of extracellular hydrogen peroxide removal and low threshold for peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. However, biochemical normalization of these parameters to cell volume/protein leads to matching of normalized values in stem and differentiated cells and shows that tested in the present study cells (human embryonic stem cells and their fibroblast-like progenies, adult mesenchymal stem cells, lymphocytes, HeLa maintain similar intracellular redox status. Based on these observations, we propose to use ROS concentration averaged over the cell volume instead of ROS level as a measure of intracellular redox balance. We show that attempts to use ROS level for comparative analysis of redox status of morphologically different cells could lead to false conclusions. Methods for the assessment of ROS concentration based on flow cytometry analysis with the use of H2DCFDA dye and HyPer, genetically encoded probe for hydrogen peroxide, are discussed. Keywords: Embryonic stem cells, Differentiated cells, ROS, Redox status, H2DCFDA, HyPer, Flow cytometry, Quantitative redox biology

  6. The GMES Sentinel-5 mission for operational atmospheric monitoring: status and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierk, Bernd; Bezy, Jean-Loup; Caron, Jerôme; Meynard, Roland; Veihelmann, Ben; Ingmann, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Sentinel-5 is an atmospheric monitoring mission planned in the frame of the joint EU/ESA initiative Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES). The objective of the mission, planned to be launched in 2020, is the operational monitoring of trace gas concentrations for atmospheric chemistry and climate applications.

  7. Status of radioactivity monitoring in French Polynesia in 2011. Synthesis of the results from the IRSN's monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouisset, P.; Bernagout, S.; Leclerc, G.; Rua, J.; Delabbaye, P.; Cagnat, X.

    2012-11-01

    Radiological monitoring of the French environment is one of IRSN's permanent tasks as part of public policy on nuclear safety and radiological protection. It is helping to guarantee the best possible protection of the population. Exercised in Polynesia since 1962, this monitoring, which takes place on seven islands (Tahiti, Maupiti, Hao, Rangiroa, HivaOa, Mangareva and Tubuai) representing the five archipelagos, and consists of taking regular samples of various kinds from the different environmental compartments (air, water, soil, food...) with which the population may be in contact. Regarding food, the samples analyzed are representative of the diet of Polynesians living in the five archipelagos of that territory, and from the marine environment of the open sea, from the lagoon environment and from the terrestrial environment. Almost all samples are measured at the Laboratory for the Study and Monitoring of the Environment IRSN, based in Vairao on the island of Tahiti. The year 2011 was marked by the Fukushima nuclear accident, which occurred on March 11. In this context, IRSN conducted a strengthened monitoring of French Polynesia, thus confirming the absence of radiological impact in Caledonia and Polynesia. The results of analyzes have been published in the previous annual report (report DEI/SESURE 2011-40), this report does not include all data and results for the year 2011, but establishes a synthesis for this year. During the year 2011, results fall under the continuity of a regular reduction of the levels of radioactivity since the stop, in 1974, of the French atmospheric tests. This residual radioactivity relates to primarily the 137 Cs. In term of additional dose, this artificial and residual radioactivity is lower than 5 μSv.y -1 (5 micro-sieverts per year). This value corresponds to less than 0,5 % of exposure due to natural radioactivity in Polynesia (approximately 1 000 μSv.y -1 ). (authors)

  8. Monitoring population status of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: options and considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, George G.; Esler, Daniel N.; Howlin, S.; Starcevich, L.A.

    2015-06-25

    After many decades of absence from southeast Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are recolonizing parts of their former range, including Glacier Bay, Alaska. Sea otters are well known for structuring nearshore ecosystems and causing community-level changes such as increases in kelp abundance and changes in the size and number of other consumers. Monitoring population status of sea otters in Glacier Bay will help park researchers and managers understand and interpret sea otter-induced ecosystem changes relative to other sources of variation, including potential human-induced impacts such as ocean acidification, vessel disturbance, and oil spills. This report was prepared for the National Park Service (NPS), Southeast Alaska Inventory and Monitoring Network following a request for evaluation of options for monitoring sea otter population status in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. To meet this request, we provide a detailed consideration of the primary method of assessment of abundance and distribution, aerial surveys, including analyses of power to detect interannual trends and designs to reduce variation around annual abundance estimates. We also describe two alternate techniques for evaluating sea otter population status—(1) quantifying sea otter diets and energy intake rates, and (2) detecting change in ages at death. In addition, we provide a brief section on directed research to identify studies that would further our understanding of sea otter population dynamics and effects on the Glacier Bay ecosystem, and provide context for interpreting results of monitoring activities.

  9. Evaluation of a wearable physiological status monitor during simulated fire fighting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Dolezal, Brett A; Cooper, Christopher B; Fehling, Patricia C

    2014-01-01

    A physiological status monitor (PSM) has been embedded in a fire-resistant shirt. The purpose of this research study was to examine the ability of the PSM-shirt to accurately detect heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) when worn under structural fire fighting personal protective equipment (PPE) during the performance of various activities relevant to fire fighting. Eleven healthy, college-aged men completed three activities (walking, searching/crawling, and ascending/descending stairs) that are routinely performed during fire fighting operations while wearing the PSM-shirt under structural fire fighting PPE. Heart rate and RR recorded by the PSM-shirt were compared to criterion values measured concurrently with an ECG and portable metabolic measurement system, respectively. For all activities combined (overall) and for each activity, small differences were found between the PSM-shirt and ECG (mean difference [95% CI]: overall: -0.4 beats/min [-0.8, -0.1]; treadmill: -0.4 beats/min [-0.7, -0.1]; search: -1.7 beats/min [-3.1, -.04]; stairs: 0.4 beats/min [0.04, 0.7]). Standard error of the estimate was 3.5 beats/min for all tasks combined and 1.9, 5.9, and 1.9 beats/min for the treadmill walk, search, and stair ascent/descent, respectively. Correlations between the PSM-shirt and criterion heart rates were high (r = 0.95 to r = 0.99). The mean difference between RR recorded by the PSM-shirt and criterion overall was 1.1 breaths/min (95% CI: -1.9 to -0.4). The standard error of the estimate for RR ranged from 4.2 breaths/min (treadmill) to 8.2 breaths/min (search), with an overall value of 6.2 breaths/min. These findings suggest that the PSM-shirt provides valid measures of HR and useful approximations of RR when worn during fire fighting duties.

  10. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  11. A modern concept for status oriented vibration monitoring of big turbogenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, F.; Theodor, P.

    1997-01-01

    The investigation of mechanical vibrations is an excellent method of showing the current condition of a machine. This paper deals with the vibrations monitoring of large turbo-generators. First the general aspects of monitoring, as well as diagnostic strategies and impact on the operation of the installation is discussed. An example of a condition-oriented vibration monitoring is the description of the 'Vibroview' system recently developed and installed in the Leibstadt nuclear power plant. (author) 16 figs., tabs., refs

  12. Identification of redox-sensitive cysteines in the arabidopsis proteome using OxiTRAQ, a quantitative redox proteomics method

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Pei

    2014-01-28

    Cellular redox status plays a key role in mediating various physiological and developmental processes often through modulating activities of redox-sensitive proteins. Various stresses trigger over-production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species which lead to oxidative modifications of redox-sensitive proteins. Identification and characterization of redox-sensitive proteins are important steps toward understanding molecular mechanisms of stress responses. Here, we report a high-throughput quantitative proteomic approach termed OxiTRAQ for identifying proteins whose thiols undergo reversible oxidative modifications in Arabidopsis cells subjected to oxidative stress. In this approach, a biotinylated thiol-reactive reagent is used for differential labeling of reduced and oxidized thiols. The biotin-tagged peptides are affinity purified, labeled with iTRAQ reagents, and analyzed using a paralleled HCD-CID fragmentation mode in an LTQ-Orbitrap. With this approach, we identified 195 cysteine-containing peptides from 179 proteins whose thiols underwent oxidative modifications in Arabidopsis cells following the treatment with hydrogen peroxide. A majority of those redox-sensitive proteins, including several transcription factors, were not identified by previous redox proteomics studies. This approach allows identification of the specific redox-regulated cysteine residues, and offers an effective tool for elucidation of redox proteomes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Protocol for Electrochemical Evaluations and State of Charge Diagnostics of a Symmetric Organic Redox Flow Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wentao; Vemuri, Rama S; Hu, Dehong; Yang, Zheng; Wei, Xiaoliang

    2017-02-13

    Redox flow batteries have been considered as one of the most promising stationary energy storage solutions for improving the reliability of the power grid and deployment of renewable energy technologies. Among the many flow battery chemistries, non-aqueous flow batteries have the potential to achieve high energy density because of the broad voltage windows of non-aqueous electrolytes. However, significant technical hurdles exist currently limiting non-aqueous flow batteries to demonstrate their full potential, such as low redox concentrations, low operating currents, under-explored battery status monitoring, etc. In an attempt to address these limitations, we recently reported a non-aqueous flow battery based on a highly soluble, redox-active organic nitronyl nitroxide radical compound, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO). This redox material exhibits an ambipolar electrochemical property, and therefore can serve as both anolyte and catholyte redox materials to form a symmetric flow battery chemistry. Moreover, we demonstrated that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could measure the PTIO concentrations during the PTIO flow battery cycling and offer reasonably accurate detection of the battery state of charge (SOC), as cross-validated by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Herein we present a video protocol for the electrochemical evaluation and SOC diagnosis of the PTIO symmetric flow battery. With a detailed description, we experimentally demonstrated the route to achieve such purposes. This protocol aims to spark more interests and insights on the safety and reliability in the field of non-aqueous redox flow batteries.

  14. Simultaneous anionic and cationic redox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-12-01

    It is challenging to unlock anionic redox activity, accompanied by full utilization of available cationic redox process, to boost capacity of battery cathodes. Now, material design by tuning the metal-oxygen interaction is shown to be a promising solution.

  15. Redox Regulation of Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Redox-dependent processes influence most cellular functions, such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Mitochondria are at the center of these processes, as mitochondria both generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that drive redox-sensitive events and respond to ROS-mediated changes in the cellular redox state. In this review, we examine the regulation of cellular ROS, their modes of production and removal, and the redox-sensitive targets that are modified by their flux. In particular, we focus on the actions of redox-sensitive targets that alter mitochondrial function and the role of these redox modifications on metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, receptor-mediated signaling, and apoptotic pathways. We also consider the role of mitochondria in modulating these pathways, and discuss how redox-dependent events may contribute to pathobiology by altering mitochondrial function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 1323–1367. PMID:22146081

  16. International Monitoring system (IMS) build-up in Africa: Current status and the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, P.

    2002-01-01

    The complete IMS verification system for primary and auxiliary seismic together with that of radionuclide, hydroacoustic and infrasound is plotted on a global map and Africa in particular showing its status. IMS situation in East and Southern Africa is included

  17. Detection of acute deterioration in health status visit among COPD patients by monitoring COPD assessment test score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Atikun Limsukon, Athavudh Deesomchok, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Nittaya PhetsukDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (CAT could play a role in detecting acute deterioration in health status during monitoring visits in routine clinical practice.Objective: To evaluate the discriminative property of a change in CAT score from a stable baseline visit for detecting acute deterioration in health status visits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients.Methods: The CAT questionnaire was administered to stable COPD patients routinely attending the chest clinic of Chiang Mai University Hospital who were monitored using the CAT score every 1–3 months for 15 months. Acute deterioration in health status was defined as worsening or exacerbation. CAT scores at baseline, and subsequent visits with acute deterioration in health status were analyzed using the t-test. The receiver operating characteristic curve was performed to evaluate the discriminative property of change in CAT score for detecting acute deterioration during a health status visit.Results: A total of 354 follow-up visits were made by 140 patients, aged 71.1±8.4 years, with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.49%±18.2% predicted, who were monitored for 15 months. The mean CAT score change between stable baseline visits, by patients’ and physicians’ global assessments, were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.37–0.46 and 0.18 (95% CI, -0.23–0.60, respectively. At worsening visits, as assessed by patients, there was significant increase in CAT score (6.07; 95% CI, 4.95–7.19. There were also significant increases in CAT scores at visits with mild and moderate exacerbation (5.51 [95% CI, 4.39–6

  18. 40 CFR 265 interim status indicator-evaluation ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, B.N.; Dudziak, S.

    1989-03-01

    This document outlines a ground-water monitoring plan for the 216-B-63 trench located in the northeast corner of the 200-East Area on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. It has been determined that hazardous materials (corrosives) were disposed of to the trench during past operations. Installation of an interim-status ground-water monitoring system is required to determine whether hazardous chemicals are leaching to the ground water from beneath the trench. This document summarizes the existing data that are available from near the 216-B-63 trench and presents a plan to determine the extent of ground-water contamination, if any, derived from the trench. The plan calls for the installation of four new monitoring wells located near the west end of the trench. These wells will be used to monitor ground-water levels and water quality immediately adjacent to the trench. Two existing RCRA monitoring wells, which are located near the trench and hydraulically upgradient of it, will be used as background wells. 46 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs

  19. Study on Developing a System with IP Functionality to Monitor the Status of Containers in Maritime Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hoon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing demand from consignors and shipping companies for real-time monitoring of maritime cargo due to increases in fresh, dangerous, and high-value cargo. Although larger carriers have developed and integrated their own systems for such real-time monitoring services, small- and medium-sized shippers are struggling with the heavy costs and workforce associated with such capability. This study introduces a system that can do real-time monitoring of the location of shipping containers and their internal status by using IP-RFID that in cludes IP functionality. This system is composed of a tag, a smart point, and a service platform.  The monitoring tags are attached to regular containers to track the opening and closing of the doors, the internal temperature, and humidity. The tags then send the data to the smart point where the GPS information is added. The data packet is then finally transmitted to the service platform for location tracking.  In particular, as the tags in this system have IP functionality like Multicast, they are capable of communicating with the users and also allow users to control them. In order to provide such functionality, the smart points can serve as a gateway between the service platform and the tag. By managing the tag’s connection information and the status of transmission at the smart point, the service platform can directly communicate with tags connected to the respective smart point. This technology could be applied in a diverse range of maritime and non-maritime areas including warehouse management. As for maritime logistics, it also often goes through ground, port, and air transportation phases. Further studies should monitor the actual performance of this equipment across the various phases of maritime logistics to empirically test the systems proposed herein.

  20. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  1. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps,Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseiller, Tom; Cotter, Michael (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)

    2009-02-17

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  2. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Rotary Screw Traps, Snorkel Surveys, and Steelhead Redd Surveys, 2008-2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelle, R.D.; Desgroseillier, Tom; Cotter, Michael [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    2009-04-14

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCRFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program from March through November of 2008. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 16,782 wild salmonids were PIT tagged during the study period. Of this, 3,961(23.6%) were wild Oncorhynchus mykiss, 6,987 (41.6%) were wild spring run O. tshawytscha, and 5,591 (33.3%) were identified as wild O. tshawytscha of unknown run. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 40.3% at the upper (Rkm 11.0) trap and 7.8% for the lower (Rkm 2.0) trap. These efficiencies were pooled for emigrant O. tshawytscha and O. mykiss. The MCRFRO conducted effectiveness monitoring snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the winter period and 30 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2008 as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. The 2008 steelhead spawning grounds surveys were conducted weekly in the main Entiat River from rkm 1.1 to 44.2. A total of 222 steelhead redds were identified over the period from February 28 to June 16 2008 with April being the peak spawning month. Approximately 80% of the steelhead redds were located downstream of the rkm 26.

  3. Disruption of Pyridine Nucleotide Redox Status During Oxidative Challenge at Normal and Low-Glucose States: Implications for Cellular Adenosine Triphosphate, Mitochondrial Respiratory Activity, and Reducing Capacity in Colon Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circu, Magdalena L.; Maloney, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We recently demonstrated that menadione (MQ), a redox cycling quinone, mediated the loss of mitochondrial glutathione/glutathione disulfide redox balance. In this study, we showed that MQ significantly disrupted cellular pyridine nucleotide (NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH) redox balance that compromised cellular ATP, mitochondrial respiratory activity, and NADPH-dependent reducing capacity in colonic epithelial cells, a scenario that was exaggerated by low glucose. In the cytosol, MQ induced NAD+ loss concurrent with increased NADP+ and NAD kinase activity, but decreased NADPH. In the mitochondria, NADH loss occurred in conjunction with increased nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase activity and NADP+, and decreased NADPH. These results are consistent with cytosolic NAD+-to-NADP+ and mitochondrial NADH-to-NADPH shifts, but compromised NADPH availability. Thus, despite the sacrifice of NAD+/NADH in favor of NADPH generation, steady-state NADPH levels were not maintained during MQ challenge. Impairments of cellular bioenergetics were evidenced by ATP losses and increased mitochondrial O2 dependence of pyridine nucleotide oxidation–reduction; half-maximal oxidation (P50) was 10-fold higher in low glucose, which was lowered by glutamate or succinate supplementation. This exaggerated O2 dependence is consistent with increased O2 diversion to nonmitochondrial O2 consumption by MQ-semiquinone redox cycling secondary to decreased NADPH-dependent MQ detoxication at low glucose, a situation that was corrected by glucose-sparing mitochondrial substrates. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 2151–2162. PMID:21083422

  4. A biopolymer-based carbon nanotube interface integrated with a redox shuttle and a D-sorbitol dehydrogenase for robust monitoring of D-sorbitol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefcovicova, J.; Filip, J.; Gemeiner, P.; Bucko, M.; Magdolen, P.; Tkac, J.; Tomcik, P.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the preparation and characterization of a glassy carbon electrode modified with a bionanocomposite consisting of a hyaluronic acid, dispersed carbon nanotubes, and electrostatically bound toluidine blue. The electrode was used to detect NADH in the batch and flow-injection mode of operation. The electrode was further modified by immobilizing sorbitol dehydrogenase to result in biosensor for D-sorbitol that displays good operational stability, a sensitivity of 10.6 μA mM -1 cm -2 , a response time of 16 s, and detection limit in the low micromolar range. The biosensor was successfully applied to off-line monitoring of D-sorbitol during its bioconversion into L-sorbose (a precursor in the synthesis of vitamin C) by Gluconobacter oxydans. The sample assay precision is 2.5% (an average RSD) and the throughput is 65 h -1 if operated in the flow-injection mode. The validation of this biosensor against a reference HPLC method resulted in a slope of correlation of 1.021 ± 0.001 (R 2 = 0.99997). (author)

  5. Redox Modulations, Antioxidants, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A. Fraunberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although antioxidants, redox modulations, and neuropsychiatric disorders have been widely studied for many years, the field would benefit from an integrative and corroborative review. Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. Therefore, this review will not enter into the debate regarding the perceived medical legitimacy of antioxidants but rather seek to clarify their abilities and limitations. With this in mind, antioxidants may be interpreted as natural products with significant pharmacological actions in the body. A renewed understanding of these often overlooked compounds will allow us to critically appraise the current literature and provide an informed, novel perspective on an important healthcare issue. In this review, we will introduce the complex topics of redox modulations and their role in the development of select neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Radio frequency security system, method for a building facility or the like, and apparatus and methods for remotely monitoring the status of fire extinguishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Larry [Richland, WA; Gunter, Wayne M [Richland, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Gilroy, CA

    2006-07-25

    A system for remotely monitoring the status of one or more fire extinguishers includes means for sensing at least one parameter of each of the fire extinguishers; means for selectively transmitting the sensed parameters along with information identifying the fire extinguishers from which the parameters were sensed; and means for receiving the sensed parameters and identifying information for the fire extinguisher or extinguishers at a common location. Other systems and methods for remotely monitoring the status of multiple fire extinguishers are also provided.

  7. Status and test report on the LANL-Boeing APLE/HPO flying-wire beam-profile monitor. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, M.; Barlow, D.; Fortgang, C.; Gilpatrick, J.; Meyer, R.; Rendon, A.; Warren, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Greegor, R. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The High-Power Oscillator (HPO) demonstration of the Average Power Laser Experiment (APLE) is a collaboration by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Boeing to demonstrate a 10 kW average power, 10 {mu}m free electron laser (FEL). As part of the collaboration, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for many of the electron beam diagnostics in the linac, transport, and laser sections. Because of the high duty factor and power of the electron beam, special diagnostics are required. This report describes the flying wire diagnostic required to monitor the beam profile during high-power, high-duty operation. The authors describe the diagnostic and prototype tests on the Los Alamos APLE Prototype Experiment (APEX) FEL. They also describe the current status of the flying wires being built for APLE.

  8. Narrative psychological content analysis as a tool for psychological status monitoring of crews in isolated, confined and extreme settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, B.; Balázs, L.; Fülöp, É.; Hargitai, R.; Kabai, P.; Péley, B.; Pólya, T.; Vargha, A.; László, J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper is about a pilot application of narrative psychological content analysis in the psychological status monitoring of Crew 71 of a space analog simulation environment, the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). Both the method and its theoretical framework, Scientific Narrative Psychology, are original developments by Hungarian psychologists [5] (László, 2008). The software was NooJ, a multilingual linguistic development environment [11] (Silberztein, 2008). Three measures were conceptualized and assessed: emotional status, team spirit and subjective physical comfort. The results showed the patterns of these three measures on a daily basis at group level, and allowed for detecting individual differences as well. The method is adaptable to languages involved in space psychology, e.g. Russian, French and German in addition to English.

  9. Present status of contamination monitoring at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (DNRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Hoang Van [Dalat Nuclear Research Inst. (Viet Nam)

    1997-06-01

    The Dalat nuclear research reactor was renovated and upgraded from the previous TRIGA reactor. In Vietnam, it is a unique nuclear device having suitable neutron flux for the radioisotope production and neutron activation analysis. Soon after the reactor reached its initial criticality in November 1983, a programme has been formed to develop the application of nuclear techniques in various fields. In addition, the use of radioisotopes for diagnostic, therapeutic and other research purposes has been in progress. In order to support these activities, the radiation protection, especially the radiation contamination monitoring has been properly paid attention to. In DNRI, the Radiation Protection Department is responsible for controlling and supervising radiation and working safety for all activities. In this paper, the following items are described on radiation contamination monitoring: controlled area, surface contamination monitoring, and airborne concentration monitoring. (G.K.)

  10. Monitoring techniques for the impact assessment during nuclear and radiological emergencies: current status and the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    Preparedness and response capability for Nuclear and Radiological emergencies, existing world over, are mainly based on the requirement of responding to radiation emergency caused by nuclear or radiological accidents. Cosmos satellite accident, plutonium contamination at Polaris, nuclear accidents like Kystium, Windscale, TMI and Chernobyl, radiological accidents at Goiania etc have demonstrated the requirement of improved radiation monitoring techniques. For quick decision making, state of the art monitoring methodology which can support quantitative and qualitative impact assessment is essential. Evaluation of radiological mapping of the area suspected to be contaminated needs ground based as well as aerial based monitoring systems to predict the level of radioactive contamination on ground. This will help in delineating the area and deciding the required countermeasures, based on the quantity and type of radionuclides responsible for it. The response can be successful with the effective use of i) Early Warning System ii) Mobile Monitoring System and iii) Aerial Gamma Spectrometric System. Selection of the monitoring methodology and survey parameters and assessment of situation using available resources etc. are to be optimized depending on the accident scenario. Recently, many countries and agencies like IAEA have expressed the requirement for responding to other types of nuclear/radiological emergencies i.e, man made radiation emergency situations aimed at harming public at large that can also lead to environmental contamination and significant exposure to public. Reports of lost / misplaced / stolen radioactive sources from many countries are alarming as safety and security of these radioactive sources are under challenge. The monitoring methodology has to take into account of the increase in such demands and more periodic monitoring in suspected locations is to be carried out. Detection of orphan sources possible amidst large heap of metallic scraps may pose

  11. Development of monitoring, control and protection systems of nuclear power reactors in the USSR: Status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, V.V.; Mikhailov, M.N.; Prozorov, V.K.; Chudin, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989-90 the Supervision Body approved the new safety regulations for nuclear power plants. The operating plants do not always completely satisfy them and a great amount of work to develop operating power units up to the conditions required is necessary. This paper describes briefly the main changes made in monitoring, control and protection systems of nuclear power reactors to increase the reactor safety. The following fields are presented in the paper: General status of the NPP control and safety systems and instrumentation in USSR; sensors; electronic equipment; actuators improvement; qualification tests. (author). 3 figs

  12. Compact mobile-reader system for two-way wireless communication, tracking and status monitoring for transport safety and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Han-Chung; Liu, Yung Y.; Lee, Hok L.; Craig, Brian; Byrne, Kevin; Mittal, Ketan; Scherer, Justin C.

    2016-12-06

    A system for monitoring a plurality radio frequency identification tags is described. The system uses at least one set of radio frequency identification tags. Each tag is attached to a container and includes several sensors for detecting physical conditions of said container. The system includes at least one autonomous intermediate reader in wireless communication with the frequency identification tags. The intermediate reader includes external wireless communication system, intermediate reader logic controller, and a self-contained rechargeable power supply. The system uses a central status reporting system in communication the intermediate reader.

  13. [Monitoring of environmental pollution in Armenia and certain issues on reproductive health and cytogenetic status of organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadevosian, N S; Muradian, S A; Tadevosian, A E; Khachatrian, B G; Dzhandzhapanian, A N; Parsadanian, G G; Pogosian, S B; Gevorkian, N B; Guloian, A A

    2012-01-01

    Investigations aimed at the study on the state of environment from the point of pollution by organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites (HCH, DDT, DDE and DDD), as well as on possible unfavorable impact due to carriage of mentioned persistent organic pollutants (POPs) towards reproductive health and cytogenetic status of organism were done. In parallel, monitoring of possible mutagenic components of the environment was also conducted. As to obtained data, residues of organochlorine pesticides are continually determined with high frequency both in environmental media, agricultural foodstuffs and biomedia of rural population of observed region (Aragatsotn marz, Armenia). No changes in mutagenic background were registered. The represented results of the study make fragment of complex social-hygienic, monitoring investigations on environmental quality that would further serve as a platform for working out the recommendations on reduction of environmental pollution and improvement of health protection issues in Armenia.

  14. Preservation status and priorities for in situ monitoring of the weapon sacrifice in Illerup Ådal, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjellden, Anna Katarina Ejgreen; Kristiansen, Søren Munch; Botfeldt, Knud B.

    2012-01-01

    Excavations of the southern part of a very rich sacrificial bog in Illerup Ådal, Denmark between 1950 and 1985 recovered approximately 15,000 Iron Age artefacts. At the time, 60% of the area was left unexcavated and thousands of objects are now preserved in situ, but the present preservation status...... has not been investigated for approximately 25 years. Extensive in situ monitoring was carried out for one year in order to present a prioritized plan for further monitoring of the unexcavated areas, producing documentation of groundwater table variations, water quality and vegetation in the area....... Results show that the remaining artefacts in general are well preserved in the waterlogged and anaerobic environment. However, in the north-eastern part of the bog, the groundwater table is too low even in a year when net precipitation and hydrological conditions were near normal. Here, slow, continuous...

  15. Preservation status and priorities for in situ monitoring of the weapon sacrifice in Illerup Ådal, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjelldén, A.K.E.; Kristiansen, S.M.; Botfeldt, Knud Bo

    2012-01-01

    Excavations of the southern part of a very rich sacrificial bog in Illerup Ådal, Denmark between 1950 and 1985 recovered approximately 15,000 Iron Age artefacts. At the time, 60 per cent of the area was left unexcavated and thousands of objects are now preserved in situ, but the present preservation...... status has not been investigated for approximately twenty-five years. Extensive in situ monitoring was carried out for one year in order to present a prioritized plan for further monitoring of the unexcavated areas, producing documentation of groundwater table variations, water quality and vegetation...... in the area. Results show that the remaining artefacts are generally well preserved in a waterlogged and anaerobic environment. However, in the north-eastern part of the bog, the groundwater table is too low even in a year when net precipitation and hydrological conditions were near normal. In the centre...

  16. Monitoring nutritional status accurately and reliably in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew C; Pascoe, Elaine M; Forbes, David A

    2009-01-01

    Accurate assessment of nutritional status is a vital aspect of caring for individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and body mass index (BMI) is considered an appropriate and easy to use tool. Because of the intense fear of weight gain, some individuals may attempt to mislead the physician. Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a simple, objective method of assessing nutritional status. The setting is an eating disorders clinic in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Western Australia. The aim of this study is to evaluate how well MUAC correlates with BMI in adolescents with AN. Prospective observational study to evaluate nutritional status in adolescents with AN. Fifty-five adolescents aged 12-17 years with AN were assessed between January 1, 2004 and January 1, 2006. MUAC was highly correlated with BMI (r = 0.79, P or=20 cm rarely required hospitalisation (negative predictive value 93%). MUAC reflects nutritional status as defined by BMI in adolescents with AN. Lack of consistency between longitudinal measurements of BMI and MUAC should be viewed suspiciously and prompt a more detailed nutritional assessment.

  17. A low-cost microcontroller-based system to monitor crop temperature and water status

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prototype microcontroller-based system was developed to automate the measurement and recording of soil-moisture status and canopy-, air-, and soil-temperature levels in cropped fields. Measurements of these conditions within the cropping system are often used to assess plant stress, and can assis...

  18. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  19. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  20. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Holzheimer, Clous [ENVINET GmbH, Environmental Radiation Detection, Hans-Pinsel-Straße 4, 85540 Haar (Munich) (Germany)

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  1. Redox-capacitor to connect electrochemistry to redox-biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Leverage, W Taylor; Liu, Yi; White, Ian M; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2014-01-07

    It is well-established that redox-reactions are integral to biology for energy harvesting (oxidative phosphorylation), immune defense (oxidative burst) and drug metabolism (phase I reactions), yet there is emerging evidence that redox may play broader roles in biology (e.g., redox signaling). A critical challenge is the need for tools that can probe biologically-relevant redox interactions simply, rapidly and without the need for a comprehensive suite of analytical methods. We propose that electrochemistry may provide such a tool. In this tutorial review, we describe recent studies with a redox-capacitor film that can serve as a bio-electrode interface that can accept, store and donate electrons from mediators commonly used in electrochemistry and also in biology. Specifically, we (i) describe the fabrication of this redox-capacitor from catechols and the polysaccharide chitosan, (ii) discuss the mechanistic basis for electron exchange, (iii) illustrate the properties of this redox-capacitor and its capabilities for promoting redox-communication between biology and electrodes, and (iv) suggest the potential for enlisting signal processing strategies to "extract" redox information. We believe these initial studies indicate broad possibilities for enlisting electrochemistry and signal processing to acquire "systems level" redox information from biology.

  2. Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project. Phase I status report, April 1981-April 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, L.; Hanson, J.; Didwall, E.; Kasameyer, P.; Smith, A.; Hearst, J.; Daily, W.; Crow, N.; Younker, J.; Murray, W.

    1982-08-13

    The feasibility of using remote geophysical techniques to monitor the movement of injected brine has been evaluated. It was established that no single approach is likely to be identified that can be used to accurately monitor the precise location of the injected fluid. Several approaches have been considered in parallel because they add new dimensions to the existing monitoring capabilities, and are likely to cover a range of applications at a variety of geothermal sites. These include: microseismicity - a seismic net is used to record small magnitude events associated with injection; streaming potential - self potential anomalies produced by a moving fluid identify fluid flow direction; cross borehole geotomography - two-dimensional image of flow pathways is constructed using electromagnetic waves; and well pressure response to solid earth tide - changes in pore pressures are used to discriminate fracture/pore porosity and estimate fracture orientations.

  3. Dosimetric monitoring in Ukraine - present status and path to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.; Boguslavskaya, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Ukraine is the country which utilizes radiation in many peaceful areas. So, nuclear energy sector includes 15 power units (including two new units commissioned in 2004), nuclear fuel cycle also include uranium mines, radiation sources are widely used in industry, science and medicine. As a result, about 50,000 occupationally exposed workers require dosimetric monitoring. However, presently dosimetry services in Ukraine cover only about 38,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 9,100 medical professionals, 16,400 employees of 5 nuclear power plants and ca. 12,400 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure (industry, research). Territorial dosimetry services, responsible for dosimetric monitoring in industry and medicine operate in 13 of 25 oblasts (regions) of Ukraine. The coverage of critical groups by dosimetric monitoring is variable and ranges from 38 % to 100 % depending on the oblast. With rare exception, instrumentation is represented by outdated manual TLD systems (inaccurate and insufficiently sensitive) capable of measurement of deep photon dose only; no personal monitoring of beta and neutron exposure is possible now. Quality assurance is limited to the annual metrological attestation of the dosimetric instruments. No information exchange infrastructure and dosimetric registry are in place. The dosimetric data is stored in home-made data environments or even in paper log-books, no data on individual doses is conveyed to central depository, which could be easily accessible for regulating authorities. Although the standing law requires elaboration of the United System for monitoring and registration individual doses, little was done so far, mainly due to lack of domestic funding. However, intention is strong to build such network in accordance with the best practice, covering not only the aspects of physical measurement and data storage, but also quality assurance, accreditation programs and training of the local personnel

  4. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-07

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  5. Aqueous liquid redox desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reicher, M.; Niemiec, B.; Katona, T.

    1999-12-01

    The LO-CAT II process is an aqueous liquid redox process which uses ferric and ferrous iron catalysts to oxidise hydrogen sulfide (from sour gas) to elemental sulfur: the relevant chemical equations are given. Chelating agents keep the iron in solution. The system is described under the headings of (i) LO-CAT chemistry, (ii) design parameters, (iii) startup challenges, (iv) present situation and (v) anticipated future conditions. Further improvements to the system are anticipated.

  6. Ediacaran Redox Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S. K.; Jiang, G.; Planavsky, N. J.; Kendall, B.; Owens, J. D.; Anbar, A. D.; Lyons, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Evidence for pervasive oxic conditions, and likely even deep ocean oxygenation has been documented at three intervals in the lower (ca. 632 Ma), middle (ca. 580 Ma) and upper (ca. 551 Ma) Ediacaran. The Doushantuo Formation in South China hosts large enrichments of redox-sensitive trace element (e.g., molybdenum, vanadium and uranium) in anoxic shales, which are indicative of a globally oxic ocean-atmosphere system. However, ocean redox conditions between these periods continue to be a topic of debate and remain elusive. We have found evidence for widespread anoxic conditions through much of the Ediacaran in the deep-water Wuhe section in South China. During most of the Ediacaran-early Cambrian in basinal sections is characterized by Fe speciation data and pyrite morphologies that indicate deposition under euxinic conditions with near-crustal enrichments of redox-sensitive element and positive pyrite-sulfur isotope values, which suggest low levels of marine sulfate and widespread euxinia. Our work reinforces an emerging view that the early Earth, including the Ediacaran, underwent numerous rises and falls in surface oxidation state, rather than a unidirectional rise as originally imagined. The Ediacaran ocean thus experienced repetitive expansion and contraction of marine chalcophilic trace-metal levels that may have had fundamental impact on the slow evolution of early animals and ecosystems. Further, this framework forces us to re-examine the relationship between Neoproterozoic oxygenation and metazoan diversification. Varying redox conditions through the Cryogenian and Ediacaran may help explain molecular clock and biomarker evidence for an early appearance and initial diversification of metazoans but with a delay in the appearance of most major metazoan crown groups until close to Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary.

  7. Status analysis for the confinement monitoring technology of PWR spent nuclear fuel dry storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeg, Chang Yeal; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Leading national R and D project to design a PWR spent nuclear fuel interim dry storage system that has been under development since mid-2009, which consists of a dual purpose metal cask and concrete storage cask. To ensure the safe operation of dry storage systems in foreign countries, major confinement monitoring techniques currently consist of pressure and temperature measurement. In the case of a dual purpose metal cask, a pressure sensor is installed in the interspace of bolted double lid(primary and secondary lid) in order to measure pressure. A concrete storage cask is a canister based system made of double/redundant welded lid to ensure confinement integrity. For this reason, confinement monitoring method is real time temperature measurement by thermocouple placed in the air flow(air intake and exit) of the concrete structure(over pack and module). The use of various monitoring technologies and operating experiences for the interim dry storage system over the last decades in foreign countries were analyzed. On the basis of the analysis above, development of the confinement monitoring technology that can be used optimally in our system will be available in the near future.

  8. Dosimetric monitoring in Ukraine - Present status and path to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, V.; Boguslavskaya, A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite wide use of nuclear energy and radiation sources in industry and medicine, there is no centralised dose accounting system in Ukraine; existing dosimetry services operate obsolete manual thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) readers and do not meet modern proficiency standards. Currently, dosimetric monitoring is required for ∼42,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 9100 in medicine, 17,000 employees of nuclear power plants and ∼16,000 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure. This article presents the plan of elaboration of the United System for monitoring and registration of individual doses which has the aim of harmonisation of individual monitoring in Ukraine through securing methodical unity; scientific and methodological guidance of individual dosimetric control; procurement of common technical policy regarding nomenclature and operation of instrumentation; implementation of quality assurance programmes; development and support of information infrastructure, in particular operation of the national registry of individual doses; training and certification of personnel engaged in the system of individual dosimetric monitoring. (authors)

  9. Status and trends of solid state track detector use in radiation protection monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic properties of solid state track detectors allow them to be used for determining the radiation fields of charged and uncharged particles and, consequently, for solving some problems involved in radiation protection monitoring. Aptitude of various detector materials is investigated on the basis of the track formation mechanism taking into account the properties of the particles to be detected. Use of these detectors in radiation protection monitoring presumes appropriate methods of intensifying the latent tracks, which are discussed as a function of various physical parameters. Readout methods of solid state track detectors are based on variations in detector properties determined by number and size of particle tracks in the detector. The choice of a special readout method, among other things, depends on the purpose, detector material, and pretreatment of the detectors. The most prospective methods are described and investigated with respect to their possible use in various fields of radiation protection monitoring. The trends of development of the application of solid state track detectors in radiation protection monitoring are discussed, using some typical applications as examples. (author)

  10. THE TASK OF CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS ON THE BASIS OF MONITORING RESOURCE STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy M. Chinyuchin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to basic statements according to scientific researches carried out in the area of airworthiness maintenance and aimed at creation of monitoring system of the aircraft equipment resource condition for the purpose of its resource and service life parameters control.The term monitoring is used here as consecutive process of obtaining, processing and analyzing the information on resources and aircraft equipment service life (planes, helicopters, aircraft engines and their accessories with the further use of this information for the problems solution of its own air fleet structure management, its updating and forecasting indica- tors of its operation processes efficiency.The most important and complex components of monitoring system and aircraft equipment resource condition, in particular are noted: the personified approach to the definition of aircraft equipment rational resources and service life; models of forecasting and aircraft resources processing management; decision-making models on increase of long life air- craft parameters taking into account maintenance cost; justification of expediency of aeronautical products retrofit by way of increasing their resource characteristics; definition methods of resource products necessary quantity by using of statisti- cal model; assessment methods of aviation components authenticity value; models of technical and economic efficiency of works on increase in individual resources of removable parts.Certain components of monitoring system are considered in more detail with the references indication.

  11. Infauna monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, M.; Leonhars, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2004-05-01

    ELSAM and ELTRA have established an offshore wind farm with an output of 160 MW in the waters of Horns Rev 1420 km off Blaevands Huk, which is the most westerly point of Denmark. The first phase of construction of the wind farm started in spring 2002. Before the construction activities took place, a baseline description of the benthos was conducted as a part of an environmental monitoring programme for the establishment of the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm. The baseline surveys for the present monitoring programme were conducted in the wind farm area on three occasions: spring 1999, spring 2001 and September 2001. In designated reference areas, surveys were conducted in spring 1999 and September 2001. The reference areas in 1999 and September 2001 were placed at two different geographical locations because the survey in September 2001 was planned to be a part of a fish monitoring programme. A comparison between the baseline study in spring 2001 and the baseline study in autumn 2001 clearly revealed that the biomass of most species increased considerably from spring to September. Despite the increase in biomass, the overall distribution of the species and their relative abundance did not change. In order to use the baseline data to investigate a possible impact after the construction of the wind farm, it was essential to arrange the monitoring programme either in spring or in September 2003, because the baseline studies were conducted in these periods. The monitoring programme was conducted in September 2003 after the wind farm had become operational, parallel with the survey on hard bottom substrates. The impacts of the wind farm on the benthic fauna (infauna) in the area were mainly expected to be due to the alteration of the local currents. As the changes in the currents are only minor, impacts on the water chemistry and on the benthic fauna resulting from hydrodynamic causes were expected to be limited or non-existent. The main objective of the present monitoring

  12. Infauna monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech, M.; Leonhars, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2004-05-15

    ELSAM and ELTRA have established an offshore wind farm with an output of 160 MW in the waters of Horns Rev 1420 km off Blaevands Huk, which is the most westerly point of Denmark. The first phase of construction of the wind farm started in spring 2002. Before the construction activities took place, a baseline description of the benthos was conducted as a part of an environmental monitoring programme for the establishment of the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm. The baseline surveys for the present monitoring programme were conducted in the wind farm area on three occasions: spring 1999, spring 2001 and September 2001. In designated reference areas, surveys were conducted in spring 1999 and September 2001. The reference areas in 1999 and September 2001 were placed at two different geographical locations because the survey in September 2001 was planned to be a part of a fish monitoring programme. A comparison between the baseline study in spring 2001 and the baseline study in autumn 2001 clearly revealed that the biomass of most species increased considerably from spring to September. Despite the increase in biomass, the overall distribution of the species and their relative abundance did not change. In order to use the baseline data to investigate a possible impact after the construction of the wind farm, it was essential to arrange the monitoring programme either in spring or in September 2003, because the baseline studies were conducted in these periods. The monitoring programme was conducted in September 2003 after the wind farm had become operational, parallel with the survey on hard bottom substrates. The impacts of the wind farm on the benthic fauna (infauna) in the area were mainly expected to be due to the alteration of the local currents. As the changes in the currents are only minor, impacts on the water chemistry and on the benthic fauna resulting from hydrodynamic causes were expected to be limited or non-existent. The main objective of the present monitoring

  13. Moisture Monitoring at Area G, Technical Area 54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2016 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Daniel Glenn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jennings, Terry L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Hydrological characterization and moisture monitoring activities provide data required for evaluating the transport of subsurface contaminants in the unsaturated and saturated zones beneath Area G, and for the Area G Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis. These activities have been ongoing at Area G, Technical Area 54 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since waste disposal operations began in 1957. This report summarizes the hydrological characterization and moisture monitoring activities conducted at Area G. It includes moisture monitoring data collected from 1986 through 2016 from numerous boreholes and access tubes with neutron moisture meters, as well as data collected by automated dataloggers for water content measurement sensors installed in a waste disposal pit cover, and buried beneath the floor of a waste disposal pit. This report is an update of a nearly identical report by Levitt et al., (2015) that summarized data collected through early 2015; this report includes additional moisture monitoring data collected at Pit 31 and the Pit 38 extension through December, 2016. It also includes information from the Jennings and French (2009) moisture monitoring report and includes all data from Jennings and French (2009) and the Draft 2010 Addendum moisture monitoring report (Jennings and French, 2010). For the 2015 version of this report, all neutron logging data, including neutron probe calibrations, were investigated for quality and pedigree. Some data were recalculated using more defensible calibration data. Therefore, some water content profiles are different from those in the Jennings and French (2009) report. All of that information is repeated in this report for completeness. Monitoring and characterization data generally indicate that some areas of the Area G vadose zone are consistent with undisturbed conditions, with water contents of less than five percent by volume in the top two layers of the Bandelier tuff at Area G. These data also

  14. Systemic Redox Imbalance in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsatou, Antonia; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Sakkas, Giorgos K.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience imbalance between oxygen reactive species (ROS) production and antioxidant defenses leading to cell and tissue damage. However, it remains unclear at which stage of renal insufficiency the redox imbalance becomes more profound. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update on recent advances in our understanding of how the redox status changes in the progression of renal disease from predialysis stages 1 to 4 to end stage 5 and whether the various treatments and dialysis modalities influence the redox balance. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and Scopus by using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. In total, thirty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Even from an early stage, imbalance in redox status is evident and as the kidney function worsens it becomes more profound. Hemodialysis therapy per se seems to negatively influence the redox status by the elevation of lipid peroxidation markers, protein carbonylation, and impairing erythrocyte antioxidant defense. However, other dialysis modalities do not so far appear to confer advantages. Supplementation with antioxidants might assist and should be considered as an early intervention to halt premature atherogenesis development at an early stage of CKD. PMID:27563376

  15. Systemic Redox Imbalance in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina P. Poulianiti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD experience imbalance between oxygen reactive species (ROS production and antioxidant defenses leading to cell and tissue damage. However, it remains unclear at which stage of renal insufficiency the redox imbalance becomes more profound. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update on recent advances in our understanding of how the redox status changes in the progression of renal disease from predialysis stages 1 to 4 to end stage 5 and whether the various treatments and dialysis modalities influence the redox balance. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and Scopus by using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. In total, thirty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Even from an early stage, imbalance in redox status is evident and as the kidney function worsens it becomes more profound. Hemodialysis therapy per se seems to negatively influence the redox status by the elevation of lipid peroxidation markers, protein carbonylation, and impairing erythrocyte antioxidant defense. However, other dialysis modalities do not so far appear to confer advantages. Supplementation with antioxidants might assist and should be considered as an early intervention to halt premature atherogenesis development at an early stage of CKD.

  16. Unleashing the Power and Energy of LiFePO4-Based Redox Flow Lithium Battery with a Bifunctional Redox Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun Guang; Du, Yonghua; Jia, Chuankun; Zhou, Mingyue; Fan, Li; Wang, Xingzhu; Wang, Qing

    2017-05-10

    Redox flow batteries, despite great operation flexibility and scalability for large-scale energy storage, suffer from low energy density and relatively high cost as compared to the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. Here we report a redox flow lithium battery, which operates via the redox targeting reactions of LiFePO 4 with a bifunctional redox mediator, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and presents superb energy density as the Li-ion battery and system flexibility as the redox flow battery. The battery has achieved a tank energy density as high as 1023 Wh/L, power density of 61 mW/cm 2 , and voltage efficiency of 91%. Operando X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements were conducted to monitor the evolution of LiFePO 4 , which provides insightful information on the redox targeting process, critical to the device operation and optimization.

  17. Occlusion dose monitoring in amblyopia therapy: status, insights, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Catherine E; Moseley, Merrick J; Georgiou, Pantelis; Fielder, Alistair R

    2017-10-01

    Occlusion therapy remains the mainstay treatment of amblyopia, but its outcome is not assured or universally excellent. Many factors are known to influence treatment outcome, among which compliance is foremost. The occlusion dose monitor (ODM) removes one variable from the treatment equation, because it records the occlusion actually received by-rather than prescribed for-the child. Improvement observed can thus be quantitatively related to the patching received. This review summarizes the insights the ODM has provided to date particularly in elucidating the dose-response relationship. We are entering the era of personalized ophthalmology in which treatments will be tailored to the needs of the individual child and facilitated by the use of wearable monitors. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

    2010-10-27

    This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

  19. Real Time Physiological Status Monitoring (RT-PSM): Accomplishments, Requirements, and Research Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    actionable information. With many lessons learned , the first implementation of real time physiological monitoring (RT-PSM) uses thermal-work strain... Bidirectional Inductive On-Body Network (BIONET) for WPSM Develop sensor links and processing nodes on-Soldier and non-RF links off-Soldier Elintrix...recent sleep watches (e.g., BASIS Peak, Intel Corp.) are attempting to parse sleep quality beyond duration and interruptions into deep and REM sleep

  20. Environmental monitoring at CERN: present status and future plans for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.; Vojtyla, P.; Wittekind, D.

    1998-01-01

    The present radiological impact of CERN on the environment is negligible. It is assessed that this will also be the case after the Large Hadron Collider starts operation in 2005. Nevertheless, the environmental monitoring programme at CERN will be further extended, so as to demonstrate that the Organization fully complies with standards and limits for environmental impact of nuclear installations as laid down by authorities in the CERN host countries. (P.A.)

  1. Spatiotemporal monitoring of Bakhtegan Lake's areal fluctuations and an exploration of its future status by applying a cellular automata model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar Arsanjani, Taghi; Javidan, Reza; Nazemosadat, Mohamad Jafar; Jokar Arsanjani, Jamal; Vaz, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Recent developments of geospatial technologies and models have provided environmentalists and naturalists with a wide variety of facilities and approaches for improved monitoring and management of environmental resources. Rich temporal remote sensing datasets, e.g., Landsat imagery as well as geospatial modeling techniques, facilitate the process of monitoring and modeling environmental phenomena. The main objective of this paper is to monitor the spatiotemporal patterns of fluctuations of a dynamic lake in the south of Iran - Bakhtegan Lake - which has been influenced by extreme climate change conditions. To do so, a temporal coverage of 12 Landsat images from 1973 to 2013, was used to delineate the boundaries of the lake over time and analyze the occurred changes. Next, a cellular automata (CA) approach was adopted for simulating two main processes: 'lake expansion' and 'lake shrinkage'. The CA model was then calibrated based on a statistical comparison of the simulated and actual images of one timestamp. Application of Kappa index analysis measures the performance of the model at a value of 83 percent. The calibrated CA model was then applied and the future status of the lake (by 2017) was modeled; this suggested a further 45 percent shrinkage in addition to its recent 42 percent shrinkage. In conclusion, the socio-ecological impacts and consequences of the lake's fluctuations are discussed in detail and some complementary recommendations are proposed.

  2. Monitoring health and reproductive status of olms (Proteus anguinus) by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, Susanne; Lukač, Maja; Cizelj, Ivan; Mutschmann, Frank; Szentiks, Claudia Anita; Jelić, Dušan; Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Braude, Stanton; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The olm (Proteus anguinus) is a troglomorphic, neotenous amphibian with extraordinary life expectancy and unique adaptations that deserve further investigation. A low reproductive rate and habitat decline render it threatened by extinction. Establishing captive populations for maintenance and artificial breeding may one day become crucial to the species. Longitudinal, in-vivo assessment of inner organs is invaluable to our understanding of reproductive physiology, health, and behavior. Using ultrasound, we measured heart rate and assessed health and reproductive status of 13 captive olms at Zagreb Zoo. Heart rate averaged 42.9 ± 4.6 bpm (32-55 bpm), as determined via pulsed-wave Doppler at 4-12 MHz. By using frequencies of up to 70 MHz (ultrasound biomicroscopy), inner organs were visualized in detail. Assessment of the gastrointestinal tract provided insights into feeding status and digestive processes. Several subclinical pathologies were detected, including biliary sludge, subcutaneous edema, ascites, and skin lesions. Detection of skin lesions by ultrasound was more sensitive than visual adspection. Olms with ultrasonographically detected skin lesions tested positive for Saprolegnia and were treated. Three of the four affected individuals survived and subsequently tested negative for Saprolegnia. Sex was reliably determined; only one individual proved male. The reason for this extreme female-biased sex-ratio remains unknown. However, as most of the individuals were flushed from the caves by strong currents in spring, the sample may not be representative of natural populations. In female olms, different stages of ovarian follicular development were observed with diameters ranging between 0.1 and 1.1 mm. Results were confirmed by comparing ultrasound, necropsy, and histological findings of one dead specimen. In summary, ultrasound proved a valuable tool to support conservation and captive breeding programs by allowing non-invasive assessment of physiological

  3. Monitoring health and reproductive status of olms (Proteus anguinus by ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Holtze

    Full Text Available The olm (Proteus anguinus is a troglomorphic, neotenous amphibian with extraordinary life expectancy and unique adaptations that deserve further investigation. A low reproductive rate and habitat decline render it threatened by extinction. Establishing captive populations for maintenance and artificial breeding may one day become crucial to the species. Longitudinal, in-vivo assessment of inner organs is invaluable to our understanding of reproductive physiology, health, and behavior. Using ultrasound, we measured heart rate and assessed health and reproductive status of 13 captive olms at Zagreb Zoo. Heart rate averaged 42.9 ± 4.6 bpm (32-55 bpm, as determined via pulsed-wave Doppler at 4-12 MHz. By using frequencies of up to 70 MHz (ultrasound biomicroscopy, inner organs were visualized in detail. Assessment of the gastrointestinal tract provided insights into feeding status and digestive processes. Several subclinical pathologies were detected, including biliary sludge, subcutaneous edema, ascites, and skin lesions. Detection of skin lesions by ultrasound was more sensitive than visual adspection. Olms with ultrasonographically detected skin lesions tested positive for Saprolegnia and were treated. Three of the four affected individuals survived and subsequently tested negative for Saprolegnia. Sex was reliably determined; only one individual proved male. The reason for this extreme female-biased sex-ratio remains unknown. However, as most of the individuals were flushed from the caves by strong currents in spring, the sample may not be representative of natural populations. In female olms, different stages of ovarian follicular development were observed with diameters ranging between 0.1 and 1.1 mm. Results were confirmed by comparing ultrasound, necropsy, and histological findings of one dead specimen. In summary, ultrasound proved a valuable tool to support conservation and captive breeding programs by allowing non-invasive assessment of

  4. Redox electrode materials for supercapatteries

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Linpo; Chen, George Z.

    2016-01-01

    Redox electrode materials, including transition metal oxides and electronically conducting polymers, are capable of faradaic charge transfer reactions, and play important roles in most electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitor, battery and supercapattery. Batteries are often based on redox materials with low power capability and safety concerns in some cases. Supercapacitors, particularly those based on redox inactive materials, e.g. activated carbon, can offer high power...

  5. Non-invasive monitoring of endocrine status in laboratory primates: methods, guidelines and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, M.

    2010-11-01

    During the past three decades, non-invasive methods for assessing physiological, in particular endocrine, status have revolutionized almost all areas of primatology, including behavioural ecology, reproductive biology, stress research, conservation and last but not least management of primates in captivity where the technology plays an integral role in assisting the husbandry, breeding and welfare of many species. Non-invasive endocrine methods make use of the fact that hormones circulating in blood are secreted into saliva or deposited in hair and are eliminated from the body via urinary and faecal excretion. The choice of which matrix to use for hormonal assessment depends on a range of factors, including the type of information required, the measurement techniques involved, species differences in hormone metabolism and route of excretion and the practicality of sample collection. However, although sample collection is usually relatively easy, analysing hormones from these non-invasively collected samples is not as easy as many people think, particularly not when dealing with a new species. In this respect, the importance of a careful validation of each technique is essential in order to generate meaningful and accurate results. This paper aims to provide an overview of the available non-invasive endocrine-based methodologies, their relative merits and their potential areas of application for assessing endocrine status in primates, with special reference to captive environments. In addition, general information is given about the most important aspects and caveats researchers have to be aware of when using these methodologies.

  6. Infrared thermography: A potential noninvasive tool to monitor udder health status in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The animal husbandry and livestock sectors play a major role in the rural economy, especially for the small and marginal farmers. India has the largest livestock population in the world and ranks first in the milk production. Mastitis is the most common and expensive infectious disease in dairy cattle. The global economic losses per year due to mastitis amounts to USD 35 billion and for Indian dairy industry INR 6000 crores per year. Early detection of mastitis is very important to reduce the economic loss to the dairy farmers and dairy industry. Automated methods for early and reliable detection of mastitis are currently in focus under precision dairying. Skin surface temperature is an important indicator for the diagnosis of cow’s illnesses and for the estimation of their physiological status. Infrared thermography (IRT is a simple, effective, on-site, and noninvasive method that detects surface heat, which is emitted as infrared radiation and generates pictorial images without causing radiation exposure. In human and bovine medicine, IRT is used as a diagnostic tool for assessment of normal and physiological status.

  7. Monitoring the solid-state electrochemistry of Cu(2,7-AQDC) (AQDC = anthraquinone dicarboxylate) in a lithium battery: coexistence of metal and ligand redox activities in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongyue; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio

    2014-11-19

    By adopting a facile synthetic strategy, we obtained a microporous redox-active metal-organic framework (MOF), namely, Cu(2,7-AQDC) (2,7-H2AQDC = 2,7-anthraquinonedicarboxylic acid) (1), and utilized it as a cathode active material in lithium batteries. With a voltage window of 4.0-1.7 V, both metal clusters and anthraquinone groups in the ligands exhibited reversible redox activity. The valence change of copper cations was clearly evidenced by in situ XANES analysis. By controlling the voltage window of operation, extremely high recyclability of batteries was achieved, suggesting the framework was robust. This MOF is the first example of a porous material showing independent redox activity on both metal cluster nodes and ligand sites.

  8. Geochemistry of Natural Redox Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, B.A.

    1999-05-01

    Redox fronts are important geochemical boundaries which need to be considered in safety assessment of deep repositories for radioactive waste. In most cases, selected host-rock formations will be reducing due to the presence of ferrous minerals, sulphides, etc. During construction and operation of the repository, air will be introduced into the formation. After repository closure, oxidising conditions may persist locally until all oxygen is consumed. In the case of high-level waste, radiolysis of water may provide an additional source of oxidants. Oxidising conditions within a repository are thus possible and potentially have a strong influence on the mobility of many elements. The rate of movement of redox fronts, the boundary between oxidising and reducing environments, and their influence on migrating radionuclides are thus important factors influencing repository performance. The present report is a review of elemental behaviour at natural redox fronts, based on published information and work of the author. Redox fronts are geochemically and geometrically variable manifestations of a global interface between generally oxidising geochemical milieux in contact with the atmosphere and generally reducing milieux in contact with rocks containing ferrous iron, sulphide and/or organic carbon. A classification of redox fronts based on a subdivision into continental near-surface, marine near-surface, and deep environments is proposed. The global redox interface is often located close to the surface of rocks and sediments and, sometimes, within bodies of water. Temperature conditions are close to ambient. A deeper penetration of the global redox front to depths of several kilometres is found in basins containing oxidised sediments (red beds) and in some hydrothermal circulation systems. Temperatures at such deep redox fronts may reach 200 o C. Both near-surface and deep redox fronts are sites of formation of economic deposits of redox-sensitive elements, particularly of

  9. Microalgal process-monitoring based on high-selectivity spectroscopy tools: status and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podevin, Michael Paul Ambrose; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-01-01

    microalgae production towards process automation through multivariate process control (MVPC) and software sensors trained on “big data”. The paper will also include a comprehensive overview of off-line implementations of vibrational spectroscopy in microalgal research as it pertains to spectral...... contribution of this review is to present current and prospective advances of on-line and in-line process analytical technology (PAT), with high-selectivity – the capability of monitoring several analytes simultaneously – in the interest of improving product quality, productivity, and process automation...... interpretation and process automation to aid and motivate development....

  10. Modelling and monitoring of integrated urban wastewater systems: review on status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedetti, L.; Langeveld, J.; Comeau, A.

    2013-01-01

    been investigated and several new or improved systems analysis methods have become available. New/improved software tools coupled with the current high computational capacity have enabled the application of integrated modelling to several practical cases, and advancements in monitoring water quantity...... and quality have been substantial and now allow the collecting of data in sufficient quality and quantity to permit using integrated models for real-time applications too. Further developments are warranted in the field of data quality assurance and efficient maintenance....

  11. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area Facility liquid waste streams: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manke, K.L.; Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Ikenberry, A.S.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during a portion of this year: liquid waste streams from Buildings 331, 320, and 3720; treated and untreated Columbia River water; and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Characterization and monitoring data were evaluated for samples collected between March 22 and June 21, 1994, and subsequently analyzed for hazardous chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. Except for bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, concentrations of chemicals detected and parameters measured at end-of-pipe were below the US Environmental Protection Agency existing and proposed drinking water standards. The source of the chemicals, except bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, is not currently known. The bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is probably an artifact of the plastic tubing used in the early stages of the sampling program. This practice was stopped. Concentrations and clearance times for contaminants at end-of-pipe depended strongly on source concentration at the facility release point, waste stream flow rates, dispersion, and the mechanical action of sumps. When present, the action of sumps had the greatest impact on contaminant clearance times. In the absence of sump activity, dispersion and flow rate were the controlling factors

  12. Status of contamination monitoring in radiation activities of National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhariyono, Gatot [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-06-01

    National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN) is a non departmental governmental agency, headed by a Director General who is directly responsible to the President. Center for Standardization and Radiation Safety Research (CSRSR) is one of the research centers within the deputy for the assessment of nuclear science and technology of the NAEA. The main task of the CSRSR is to implement research and development program, development and services in the field of radiation safety, standardization, dosimetry, radiation health as well as the application of nuclear techniques in medicine, according to the policy confirmed by the director general of BATAN. Task of radiation protection division is to set up programs and to develop radiation protection, personal monitoring system and radiation level of the working areas and their surroundings as well as dose limitation system, to carry out technical up grading of radiation protection officials skill and to help coping with radiation accident. The key factor on contamination monitoring is to reduce human error and mechanical failures. These problems can be achieved to the highest degree by developing knowledge and skill of staffs via trainings or courses on contamination and decontamination, so that they are hoped to become trained and qualified staffs. (G.K.)

  13. Microalgal process-monitoring based on high-selectivity spectroscopy tools: status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podevin, Michael; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-08-01

    Microalgae are well known for their ability to accumulate lipids intracellularly, which can be used for biofuels and mitigate CO 2 emissions. However, due to economic challenges, microalgae bioprocesses have maneuvered towards the simultaneous production of food, feed, fuel, and various high-value chemicals in a biorefinery concept. On-line and in-line monitoring of macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and high-value pigments will be more critical to maintain product quality and consistency for downstream processing in a biorefinery to maintain and valorize these markets. The main contribution of this review is to present current and prospective advances of on-line and in-line process analytical technology (PAT), with high-selectivity - the capability of monitoring several analytes simultaneously - in the interest of improving product quality, productivity, and process automation of a microalgal biorefinery. The high-selectivity PAT under consideration are mid-infrared (MIR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman vibrational spectroscopies. The current review contains a critical assessment of these technologies in the context of recent advances in software and hardware in order to move microalgae production towards process automation through multivariate process control (MVPC) and software sensors trained on "big data". The paper will also include a comprehensive overview of off-line implementations of vibrational spectroscopy in microalgal research as it pertains to spectral interpretation and process automation to aid and motivate development.

  14. Monitoring System for Evaluation of Operator Functional Status on Sea Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Varoneckas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the basic concept of a new developed web-based databank for an assessment of seafarers’ functional status during the sea missions. The Web system is based on client-server architecture and the international open source technologies including Apache web server, PHP scripts and MySQL database. The paper focuses on the aspects and first results of the initial practical realization of the web-based databank. The main operational advantage of the developed system is the capability to on-line handle up to a dozen users at the same time. The system includes administrative data and questionnaires. Electronic data entry saves the time and material resources.

  15. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Polotow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA. However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation, drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  16. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polotow, Tatiana G; Poppe, Sandra C; Vardaris, Cristina V; Ganini, Douglas; Guariroba, Maísa; Mattei, Rita; Hatanaka, Elaine; Martins, Maria F; Bondan, Eduardo F; Barros, Marcelo P

    2015-09-28

    Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  17. Monitoring of iodine intake and thyroid status of pregnant women in Saratov region from 1999 till 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumova Yu.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of monitoring of iodine intake and thyroid status in pregnant women in Saratov region according to the two cross-sectional studies in 1999 and 2008. The study involved 229 pregnant women. It has been established that there is a decrease in frequency of endemic goiter in pregnant women from 52,8 to 23,6% and increase in median urinary ioduria from 33,0 to 115,5 ug/l. However, iodine intake in pregnancy remains insufficient, as currently the median urinary ioduria is 150-249 ug/l (WHO, 2007. The frequency of maternal hypothyroxinemia, the most significant iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women, has not changed in a 10-year period (1999 - 46,3%; in 2008 - 55,7%; p>0,1. The research has not obtained significant differences in the frequency of interrelated with pregnancy and delivery complications within two groups of patients

  18. A wearable neuro-feedback system with EEG-based mental status monitoring and transcranial electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Taehwan; Song, Kiseok; Cho, Hyunwoo; Shin, Dongjoo; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2014-12-01

    A wearable neuro-feedback system is proposed with a low-power neuro-feedback SoC (NFS), which supports mental status monitoring with encephalography (EEG) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) for neuro-modulation. Self-configured independent component analysis (ICA) is implemented to accelerate source separation at low power. Moreover, an embedded support vector machine (SVM) enables online source classification, configuring the ICA accelerator adaptively depending on the types of the decomposed components. Owing to the hardwired accelerating functions, the NFS dissipates only 4.45 mW to yield 16 independent components. For non-invasive neuro-modulation, tES stimulation up to 2 mA is implemented on the SoC. The NFS is fabricated in 130-nm CMOS technology.

  19. Monitoring Cerebral and Renal Oxygenation Status during Neonatal Digestive Surgeries Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Beck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDepending on the initial pathology, hypovolemia, intra-abdominal hypertension, and sepsis are often encountered in neonatal digestive surgery. Accurate newborn monitoring during and after surgery is essential to adapt resuscitation protocols. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is non-invasive and can detect hypoperfusion which indicates a low circulatory blood flow, regardless of the cause.ObjectiveEvaluating changes in cerebral and renal regional oxygen saturation during neonatal digestive surgeries, conducted according to normal practices, with commonly used monitoring parameters. Analyzing retrospectively the inter-relationships between NIRS values and mean arterial pressure (MAP values as well as pre-ductal SpO2.MethodsProspective, descriptive, monocentric study. All neonates referred for surgery were included. NIRS allows the measurement of cerebral and renal oxygenation fluctuations, as well as calculating difference in intraoperative and postoperative values.ResultsNineteen patients were included. Cerebral regional oxygen saturation (C rSO2 values were stable while renal regional oxygen saturation (R rSO2 values tended to decrease with time during surgery. Indeed, 72% of rSO2 decline episodes occurred after the first 30 min of surgery, without any significant statistical differences for the next 90 min of surgery. After surgery, the lowest average C and R rSO2 values were evidenced during the first 6 h, with 60% of C rSO2 and R rSO2 anomalies occurring in that time frame. There was no significant statistical difference observed in the following 18 h. There was a significant correlation between R rSO2 and SpO2 values (p < 0.01, but not with C rSO2 values. There was no correlation with the MAP either for the C rSO2 values or R rSO2 ones.ConclusionNIRS is a promising non-invasive bedside tool to monitor cerebral and tissue perfusion, analyzing tissue microcirculation. NIRS has its interest to guide neonatal digestive

  20. Reliability and Validity of a Submaximal Warm-up Test for Monitoring Training Status in Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Alireza; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Twist, Craig

    2018-02-01

    Rabbani, A, Kargarfard, M, and Twist, C. Reliability and validity of a submaximal warm-up test for monitoring training status in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 326-333, 2018-Two studies were conducted to assess the reliability and validity of a submaximal warm-up test (SWT) in professional soccer players. For the reliability study, 12 male players performed an SWT over 3 trials, with 1 week between trials. For the validity study, 14 players of the same team performed an SWT and a 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15IFT) 7 days apart. Week-to-week reliability in selected heart rate (HR) responses (exercise heart rate [HRex], heart rate recovery [HRR] expressed as the number of beats recovered within 1 minute [HRR60s], and HRR expressed as the mean HR during 1 minute [HRpost1]) was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and typical error of measurement expressed as coefficient of variation (CV). The relationships between HR measures derived from the SWT and the maximal speed reached at the 30-15IFT (VIFT) were used to assess validity. The range for ICC and CV values was 0.83-0.95 and 1.4-7.0% in all HR measures, respectively, with the HRex as the most reliable HR measure of the SWT. Inverse large (r = -0.50 and 90% confidence limits [CLs] [-0.78 to -0.06]) and very large (r = -0.76 and CL, -0.90 to -0.45) relationships were observed between HRex and HRpost1 with VIFT in relative (expressed as the % of maximal HR) measures, respectively. The SWT is a reliable and valid submaximal test to monitor high-intensity intermittent running fitness in professional soccer players. In addition, the test's short duration (5 minutes) and simplicity mean that it can be used regularly to assess training status in high-level soccer players.

  1. HIE ISOLDE Alignment and monitoring system technical design and project status

    CERN Document Server

    Gayde, J C; Kautzmann, G; Leclercq, Y; Waniorek, S; Williams, L

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of the HIE ISOLDE project most of the existing ISOLDE REX line will be replaced by a superconducting linac in order to upgrade the energy and intensity of the REX ISOLDE facility at CERN. Beam-physics simulations show that the optimum linac working conditions are obtained when the main axes of the active components, RF cavities and solenoid placed inside the cryostats, are aligned and permanently monitored on the REX Nominal Beam Line (NBL) within a precision of 0.3 mm for the cavities and 0.15 mm for the solenoids at one sigma level along directions perpendicular to the beam axis. This paper presents the proposed adjustment and alignment system based on opto-electronic sensors, optics and precise mechanic elements which are used, for some of them, in various non-standard environmental conditions such as high vacuum, cryogenic temperatures.

  2. Hard bottom substrate monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report. 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2005-05-15

    Elsam and Eltra have built the offshore demonstration wind farm at Horns Rev in the North Sea. Elsam is the owner and is responsible for the operation of the wind farm. Eltra is responsible for the connection of the wind farm to the national onshore grid. In the summer months of 2002, Elsam constructed the world's largest offshore wind farm at the Danish west coast. The wind farm is located 14-20 km into the North Sea, west of Blaevands Huk. The first wind turbine foundation was in place in March 2002 and the last mono-pile was in place in August 2002 for a total of 80. The construction work was completed with the last connecting cables sluiced down in September 2002. All the wind turbines were in production in December 2002. The expected impact from the wind farm will primarily be an alternation of habitats due to the introduction of hard bottom substrates as wind mono-piles and scour protections. A continuous development in the epifouling communities will be expected together with an introduction of new or alien species in the area. The indigenous benthic community in the area of Horn Rev can be characterised by infauna species belonging to the Goniadella-Spisula community. This community is typical of sandbanks in the North Sea area, although communities in such areas are very variable and site specific. Character species used as indicators for environmental changes in the Horns Rev area are the bristle worms Goniadella bobretzkii, Ophelia borealis, Psione remota and Orbinia sertulata and the mussels Goodallia triangularis and Spisula solida. In connection with the implementation of the monitoring programme concerning the ecological impact of the introduction of hard substrate related to the Horns Rev Wind Farm, surveys on hard bottom substrates were initialised in March 2003 with monitoring conducted in September 2003 and March and September 2004. This report describes the results from surveys on hard substrates in 2004. (au)

  3. Hard bottom substrate monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report. 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S B; Pedersen, John

    2005-05-15

    Elsam and Eltra have built the offshore demonstration wind farm at Horns Rev in the North Sea. Elsam is the owner and is responsible for the operation of the wind farm. Eltra is responsible for the connection of the wind farm to the national onshore grid. In the summer months of 2002, Elsam constructed the world's largest offshore wind farm at the Danish west coast. The wind farm is located 14-20 km into the North Sea, west of Blaevands Huk. The first wind turbine foundation was in place in March 2002 and the last mono-pile was in place in August 2002 for a total of 80. The construction work was completed with the last connecting cables sluiced down in September 2002. All the wind turbines were in production in December 2002. The expected impact from the wind farm will primarily be an alternation of habitats due to the introduction of hard bottom substrates as wind mono-piles and scour protections. A continuous development in the epifouling communities will be expected together with an introduction of new or alien species in the area. The indigenous benthic community in the area of Horn Rev can be characterised by infauna species belonging to the Goniadella-Spisula community. This community is typical of sandbanks in the North Sea area, although communities in such areas are very variable and site specific. Character species used as indicators for environmental changes in the Horns Rev area are the bristle worms Goniadella bobretzkii, Ophelia borealis, Psione remota and Orbinia sertulata and the mussels Goodallia triangularis and Spisula solida. In connection with the implementation of the monitoring programme concerning the ecological impact of the introduction of hard substrate related to the Horns Rev Wind Farm, surveys on hard bottom substrates were initialised in March 2003 with monitoring conducted in September 2003 and March and September 2004. This report describes the results from surveys on hard substrates in 2004. (au)

  4. Status of the flora and fauna on the Nevada Test Site, 1992. Results of continuing basic environmental monitoring, January through December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.B. [comp.

    1994-03-01

    This report documents changes in the populations of plants and animals on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1992. It is part of a Department of Energy (DOE) program (Basic Environmental Compliance and Monitoring Program -- BECAMP) that also includes monitoring DOE compliance with the Endangered Species Act, the Historic Preservation Act, and the American Indian Freedom of Religion Act. Ecological studies were to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act and DOE Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` These studies focused on the following: status of ephemeral plants on the Nevada Test Site, 1992; status of reptile and amphibian populations on the Nevada Test Site, 1992; trends in small mammal populations on the Nevada Test Site, 1992; status of large mammals and birds at Nevada Test Site, 1992; and status of perennial plants on the Nevada Test Site, 1992.

  5. Redox Modulation by Amaranth Oil in Human Lung Fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semen, K.O.; den Hartog, G.J.M.; Kaminsky, D.V.; Sirota, T.V.; Maij, N.G.A.A.; Yelisyeyeva, O.P.; Bast, A.

    2013-01-01

    Amaranth oil has several health benefits. It has lipid lowering, anti-diabetic, immune modulatory and cytoprotective properties, activates the function of mitochondria and improves heart rate variability. It has been suggested that the effect of amaranth oil on redox status is involved in this

  6. Status of and changes in water quality monitored for the Idaho statewide surface-water-quality network, 1989—2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A.; Parliman, Deborah J.; O'Dell, Ivalou

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho statewide surface-water-quality monitoring network consists of 56 sites that have been monitored from 1989 through 2002 to provide data to document status and changes in the quality of Idaho streams. Sampling at 33 sites has covered a wide range of flows and seasons that describe water-quality variations representing both natural conditions and human influences. Targeting additional high- or low-flow sampling would better describe conditions at 20 sites during hydrologic extremes. At the three spring site types, sampling covered the range of flow conditions from 1989 through 2002 well. However, high flows at these sites since 1989 were lower than historical high flows as a result of declining ground-water levels in the Snake River Plain. Summertime stream temperatures at 45 sites commonly exceeded 19 and 22 degrees Celsius, the Idaho maximum daily mean and daily maximum criteria, respectively, for the protection of coldwater aquatic life. Criteria exceedances in stream basins with minimal development suggest that such high temperatures may occur naturally in many Idaho streams. Suspended-sediment concentrations were generally higher in southern Idaho than in central and northern Idaho, and network data suggest that the turbidity criteria are most likely to be exceeded at sites in southern Idaho and other sections of the Columbia Plateaus geomorphic province. This is probably because this province has more fine-grained soils that are subject to erosion and disturbance by land uses than the Northern Rocky Mountains province of northern and central

  7. Elsam. Offshore Wind Farm. Horns Rev. Annual status report for the environmental monitoring programme 1. January 2001 - 31. December 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-15

    As a result of the Danish Government's Energy Plan 21 a target of 5,500 MW wind power is to be erected in Denmark by 2030. 4,000 MW of these are to be placed offshore in special pointed areas with minimal impacts on the environment. In 1998 the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy ordered two power companies, Elsam and Energi E2, to establish each a demonstration wind farm at one of the five pointed areas. The intention was to follow the environmental impacts from the wind farm and to evaluate the possibility of setting up about 1,500 MW in each area with as little impact on the environment as possible. In 1999 the two power companies were given approval to begin pre-studies of each of the two wind farms and the work on the site construction as well as the environmental impact assessment related hereto was initiated. The authorities made a number of requirements for the EIA surveys according to the EU-directive for preparation of EIA reports. In the summer of 2000 the EIA report with project description was submitted to the authorities and the project was approved in the spring of 2001. During the summer and autumn of 2001 orders were placed for the components for the wind farm, i.e. foundations, towers, wind turbines, cables etc. After having finalised the EIA, monitoring programmes of the wind farms were initiated on basis of the results of the surveys carried out during the EIA. This means that continuous surveys have been implemented for most of the environmental parameters from 1999 and till today. This annual status report for 2001 is to present the results from the annual environmental monitoring programme (the baseline studies) at Horns Rev, which form part of the monitoring programme set up for the Horns Rev project. To get a complete picture of the Danish monitoring programme for the national demonstration wind farm project it is necessary to see the report for Horns Rev and for Roedsand as a whole. The report comprises a description of the wind

  8. Elsam. Offshore Wind Farm. Horns Rev. Annual status report for the environmental monitoring programme 1. January 2001 - 31. December 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    As a result of the Danish Government's Energy Plan 21 a target of 5,500 MW wind power is to be erected in Denmark by 2030. 4,000 MW of these are to be placed offshore in special pointed areas with minimal impacts on the environment. In 1998 the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy ordered two power companies, Elsam and Energi E2, to establish each a demonstration wind farm at one of the five pointed areas. The intention was to follow the environmental impacts from the wind farm and to evaluate the possibility of setting up about 1,500 MW in each area with as little impact on the environment as possible. In 1999 the two power companies were given approval to begin pre-studies of each of the two wind farms and the work on the site construction as well as the environmental impact assessment related hereto was initiated. The authorities made a number of requirements for the EIA surveys according to the EU-directive for preparation of EIA reports. In the summer of 2000 the EIA report with project description was submitted to the authorities and the project was approved in the spring of 2001. During the summer and autumn of 2001 orders were placed for the components for the wind farm, i.e. foundations, towers, wind turbines, cables etc. After having finalised the EIA, monitoring programmes of the wind farms were initiated on basis of the results of the surveys carried out during the EIA. This means that continuous surveys have been implemented for most of the environmental parameters from 1999 and till today. This annual status report for 2001 is to present the results from the annual environmental monitoring programme (the baseline studies) at Horns Rev, which form part of the monitoring programme set up for the Horns Rev project. To get a complete picture of the Danish monitoring programme for the national demonstration wind farm project it is necessary to see the report for Horns Rev and for Roedsand as a whole. The report comprises a description of the wind farm

  9. The World Radiation Monitoring Center of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network: Status 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemel, Amelie; König-Langlo, Gert; Sieger, Rainer; Long, Charles N.

    2017-04-01

    The World Radiation Monitoring Center (WRMC) is the central archive of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The BSRN was initiated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Working Group on Radiative Fluxes and began operations in 1992. One of its aims is to provide short and long-wave surface radiation fluxes of the best possible quality to support the research projects of the WCRP and other scientific projects. The high quality, uniform and consistent measurements of the BSRN network can be used to monitor the short- and long-wave radiative components and their changes with the best methods currently available, to validate and evaluate satellite-based estimates of the surface radiative fluxes, and to verify the results of global climate models. In 1992 the BSRN/WRMC started at ETH Zurich, Switzerland with 9 stations. Since 2007 the archive is hosted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany (http://www.bsrn.awi.de/) and comprises a network of currently 59 stations in contrasting climatic zones, covering a latitude range from 80°N to 90°S. Of the 59 stations, 23 offer the complete radiation budget (down- and upwelling short- and long-wave data). In addition to the ftp-service access instituted at ETH Zurich, the archive at AWI offers data access via PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science (https://www.pangaea.de). PANGAEA guarantees the long-term availability of its content through a commitment of the operating institutions. Within PANGAEA, the metadata of the stations are freely available. To access the data itself an account is required. If the scientist accepts to follow the data release guidelines of the archive (http://bsrn.awi.de/data/conditions-of-data-release/) he or she can get an account from amelie.driemel@awi.de. Currently, more than 9,400 station months (>780 years) are available for interested scientists (see also https://dataportals.pangaea.de/bsrn/?q=LR0100 for an overview on available data

  10. The Status of Monitoring of Cabon-14 Emissions from LWRs in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Jung, Hai Yong; Yook, Dae Sik; Jeong, Chan Woo; Lee, Byung Soo [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear reactions that produce {sup 14}C in reactors with thermal neutrons are {sup 17}O(n,α){sup 14}C, {sup 14}N(n,p){sup 14}C. When it is released in the form of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} through the exhaust port of NPPs, the substance is retained in the bodies of plants and animals through plants' photosynthesis and the ingestion of plants. When plants containing {sup 14}C are ingested as food, the substance is introduced into the human body and causes radiation exposure. Consequently, regulatory agencies require NPP operators to evaluate and to monitor the amount of {sup 14}C emitted into the atmosphere through the exhaust port of NPPs. The present study examines the current state of regulation of {sup 14}C in Korea and the United States, its effect on {sup 14}C emissions, and the off-site dose calculation of local resident based on evaluations recently conducted at LWRs domestically. In the present study, Korean and U. S. standards for {sup 14}C emission monitoring were compared and the current state of emissions in Korea was examined. While most U. S. NPPs evaluate {sup 14}C emissions based on theoretical calculations, Korean NPPs do so by directly collecting and measuring samples. When the results of the evaluation of {sup 14}C emissions generated from the OPR-1000 NPP in Korea were recently reviewed, the limit stipulated in Article 6 (Effluent Concentration Limit) and Article 16 (Prevention of Hazards to Environment) of NSSC Notice No. 2013-49 'Standards on Radiation Protection, etc.' was amply satisfied. However, because 90% or more of the effect on the residents' radiation exposure doses was demonstrated to consist of gaseous {sup 14}C effluents, to minimize the emission of {sup 14}C gas, NPP operators must actively study and practice ways of reducing the release of {sup 14}C gas, such as periodically conducting gas stripper operation and the release of {sup 14}C in a liquid form.

  11. Monitoring Fatigue Status with HRV Measures in Elite Athletes: An Avenue Beyond RMSSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laurent; Regnard, Jacques; Millet, Grégoire P.

    2015-01-01

    Among the tools proposed to assess the athlete's “fatigue,” the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) provides an indirect evaluation of the settings of autonomic control of heart activity. HRV analysis is performed through assessment of time-domain indices, the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals (RMSSD) measured during short (5 min) recordings in supine position upon awakening in the morning and particularly the logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) has been proposed as the most useful resting HRV indicator. However, if RMSSD can help the practitioner to identify a global “fatigue” level, it does not allow discriminating different types of fatigue. Recent results using spectral HRV analysis highlighted firstly that HRV profiles assessed in supine and standing positions are independent and complementary; and secondly that using these postural profiles allows the clustering of distinct sub-categories of “fatigue.” Since, cardiovascular control settings are different in standing and lying posture, using the HRV figures of both postures to cluster fatigue state embeds information on the dynamics of control responses. Such, HRV spectral analysis appears more sensitive and enlightening than time-domain HRV indices. The wealthier information provided by this spectral analysis should improve the monitoring of the adaptive training-recovery process in athletes. PMID:26635629

  12. Current Status of the Personal Monitoring in Japan After the Fukushima Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koguchi, Y.; Takeuchi, N.; Yamamoto, T.

    2013-01-01

    On 11 March 2011 Japan suffered a magnitude 9.0 earthquake. The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake created a series of massive tsunami waves that struck to the east coast of Japan, causing serious damage to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The radioactive materials such as 134Cs and 137Cs were released into the environment in widespread area of east Japan, especially Fukushima prefecture. Many people living in Fukushima prefecture especially parents of children up to junior high school age have been worrying about the effect of health risk by contaminated radioactive materials. In addition, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended that the dose (effective dose) limits in planned exposure situation for public is 1 mSv in a single year. Therefore, the local governments in Fukushima prefecture have decided to measure the exposed dose using passive dosemeter for public especially children in order to the health risk assessment and the optimum planning of decontamination. The RPL glass dosemeter, we called Glass Badge, based on radiophotoluminescence (RPL) technology is one of suitable dosimeters for the personal monitoring. More than 300 000 Glass Badges were distributed in Fukushima area up to the end of 2012 since the Fukushima Daiichi NPPs accident. It is very easy to know the individual dose and also useful for the health risk assessment.(author)

  13. Monitored retrievable storage program. Status and plans for meeting NWPA requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.J.; Fletcher, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    Accomplishments of the Monitored Retrieval Storage (MRS) Program since passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) are as follows: (1) R and D needs report was submitted; (2) conceptual design analysis of 8 MRS concepts was performed; (3) selection of two MRS concepts (primary, alternative) are underway; (4) Parson/Westinghouse/Golder were selected as architect-engineer; (5) functional design criteria were established; (6) reports to accompany proposal were defined; and (7) evaluations of mission, cost-effectiveness, deployment time were performed. Future work, plans and schedule include completion of facility advanced conceptual design and accompanying design reports in early 1985, for submittal with proposal in June. Designs are being prepared for the primary concept, and in less detail, for the alternate. Three separate site locations will be assumed for each concept. A siting plan, to accompany the proposal, will also be completed in early 1985, as will an environmental assessment now under preparation. It is planned that the proposal be accompanied by several reports augmenting the planning base for post-proposal actions, to be activated at the time MRS deployment is authorized by Congress. 9 figures

  14. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status response of handball athletes: implications for sport training monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Douglas Popp; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; Campoio, Thais Regina; Guerra, Beatriz Alves; Otton, Rosemari

    2013-10-01

    The chronic exposure to regular exercise training seems to improve antioxidant defense systems. However, the intense physical training imposed on elite athletes may lead to overtraining associated with oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different training loads and competition on oxidative stress, biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymatic defense in handball athletes during 6-months of monitoring. Ten male elite handball athletes were recruited to the study. Blood samples were collected four times every six weeks throughout the season. During most intense periods of training and competitions there were significant changes in plasma indices of oxidative stress (increased TBARS and decreased thiols). Conversely, chronic adaptations to exercise training demonstrated a significant protective effect against oxidative stress in erythrocyte (decrease in TBARs and carbonyl group levels). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly increased, suggesting a training-induced antioxidant adaptation. Biomarkers of skeletal muscle damage were significantly increased during high-intensity training period (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase). No significant changes were observed in plasma IL-6, TNF-α and uric acid, whereas a significant reduction was found in the IL-1β concentration and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers can change throughout the season in competitive athletes, reflecting the physical stress and muscle damage that occurs as the result of competitive handball training. In addition, these biochemical measurements can be applied in the physiological follow-up of athletes. © 2013.

  15. Do Premenopausal Hypothyroid Women on Levothyroxine Therapy Need Bone Status Monitoring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby P. Babu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Suppressive doses of levothyroxine therapy are reported to reduce bone mineral density (BMD in women. Data on bone changes in premenopausal hypothyroid women with replacement therapy are limited. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate bone changes in this group using bone markers and BMD. Materials and Methods A hospital-based case–control study including 75 premenopausal women aged 30–45 years was conducted. The subjects were categorized based on their thyroid function and history into three groups of 25 euthyroid, 25 newly diagnosed hypothyroid, and 25 hypothyroid women on 100–200 μg of levothyroxine for a minimum of 5 years. The bone changes were evaluated and compared among the groups biochemically by estimating their plasma osteocalcin and serum calcium and phosphorus and radiologically by measuring their BMD by quantitative ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was conducted by using analysis of variance, Tukey's test, and Pearson's correlation using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Results Levels of plasma osteocalcin, serum calcium, and serum phosphorus in patients on long-term levothyroxine therapy were significantly higher than those in newly diagnosed hypothyroid women and in the euthyroid group. BMD showed definite features of osteopenia ( T -score: −2.26 ± 0.5 among the women in the treatment group, while it was well within the normal range in the newly diagnosed and euthyroid women. A significant correlation was found between the osteocalcin levels and T -score. Conclusion Hypothyroid women on long-term levothyroxine therapy showed signs of increased bone turnover and increased resorptive changes, though not frank osteoporosis. Hence, it may be important to evaluate the bone status of patients on levothyroxine for >5 years.

  16. Data processing and critical function status display system in the nuclear power plant monitoring systems; Procesiranje podataka i prika zstanja kriticnih funkcija postrojenja u sistemima nadzora nuklrearne elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinjeri, Lj; Plackovic, R [SOUR Rade Koncar, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    The Critical Function Monitoring System is a data acquisition and display system designed for effective presentation of essential nuclear plant operational data enabling supervision of the safety status of the nuclear plant by the operational staff. In this article the system functional requirements have been analysed and in accordance with the results of this analysis approach to defininf the design basis for realisation of the Critical Function Monitoring System by 'RK' equipment has been briefly described. (author)

  17. Hard bottom substrate monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2004-05-15

    Elsam and Eltra built the offshore demonstration wind farm at Horns Rev in the North Sea. Elsam is the owner and is responsible for the operation of the wind farm. Eltra is responsible for the connection of the wind farm to the national onshore grid. In the summer months of 2002, Elsam constructed the world's largest offshore wind farm off the Danish west coast. The wind farm is sited 14-20 km into the North Sea, west of Blaevands Huk. The first wind turbine was erected in May 2002 and the last wind turbine tower of a total of 80 was in place by August 2002. The construction work was completed with the last connecting cables sluiced down in September 2002. All the wind turbines were in production by December 2002. The expected impact of the wind farm will primarily be an alternation of habitats due to the introduction of hard bottom substrates as wind turbine towers and scour protections. A continuous development in the epifouling communities will be expected together with an introduction of new or alien species in the area. The indigenous benthic community in the area of Horns Rev can be characterised by infauna species belonging to the Goniadella-Spisula community. This community is typical of sandbanks in the North Sea area, although communities in such areas are very variable and site-specific. Character species used as indicators for environmental changes in the Horns Rev area are the bristle worms Goniadella bobretzkii, Ophelia borealis, Psione remota and Orbinia sertulata and the mussels Goodallia triangularis and Spisula solida. In connection with the implementation of the monitoring programme concerning the ecological impact of the introduction of hard substrate related to the Horns Rev Wind Farm, surveys on hard bottom substrate was conducted in March 2003 and in September 2003. This report describes the first year results of surveys on hard substrate after the completion of the offshore wind farm at Horns Rev. (au)

  18. Time- and cell-resolved dynamics of redox-sensitive Nrf2, HIF and NF-κB activities in 3D spheroids enriched for cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Kipp

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells have an altered redox status, with changes in intracellular signaling pathways. The knowledge of how such processes are regulated in 3D spheroids, being well-established tumor models, is limited. To approach this question we stably transfected HCT116 cells with a pTRAF reporter that enabled time- and cell-resolved activity monitoring of three redox-regulated transcription factors Nrf2, HIF and NF-κB in spheroids enriched for cancer stem cells. At the first day of spheroid formation, these transcription factors were activated and thereafter became repressed. After about a week, both HIF and Nrf2 were reactivated within the spheroid cores. Further amplifying HIF activation in spheroids by treatment with DMOG resulted in a dominant quiescent stem-cell-like phenotype, with high resistance to stress-inducing treatments. Auranofin, triggering oxidative stress and Nrf2 activation, had opposite effects with increased differentiation and proliferation. These novel high-resolution insights into spatiotemporal activation patterns demonstrate a striking coordination of redox regulated transcription factors within spheroids not occurring in conventional cell culture models. Keywords: Redox regulation, Cancer stem cells, Spheroids, Nrf2, HIF, NF-κB

  19. Organ specific mapping of in vivo redox state in control and cigarette smoke-exposed mice using EPR/NMR co-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caia, George L.; Efimova, Olga V.; Velayutham, Murugesan; El-Mahdy, Mohamed A.; Abdelghany, Tamer M.; Kesselring, Eric; Petryakov, Sergey; Sun, Ziqi; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo mapping of alterations in redox status is important for understanding organ specific pathology and disease. While electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) enables spatial mapping of free radicals, it does not provide anatomic visualization of the body. Proton MRI is well suited to provide anatomical visualization. We applied EPR/NMR co-imaging instrumentation to map and monitor the redox state of living mice under normal or oxidative stress conditions induced by secondhand cigarette smoke (SHS) exposure. A hybrid co-imaging instrument, EPRI (1.2 GHz) / proton MRI (16.18 MHz), suitable for whole-body co-imaging of mice was utilized with common magnet and gradients along with dual EPR/NMR resonators that enable co-imaging without sample movement. The metabolism of the nitroxide probe, 3–carbamoyl–proxyl (3-CP), was used to map the redox state of control and SHS-exposed mice. Co-imaging allowed precise 3D mapping of radical distribution and reduction in major organs such as the heart, lungs, liver, bladder and kidneys. Reductive metabolism was markedly decreased in SHS-exposed mice and EPR/NMR co-imaging allowed quantitative assessment of this throughout the body. Thus, in vivo EPR/NMR co-imaging enables in vivo organ specific mapping of free radical metabolism and redox stress and the alterations that occur in the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:22296801

  20. Redox environment in stem and differentiated cells: A quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyublinskaya, O G; Ivanova, Ju S; Pugovkina, N A; Kozhukharova, I V; Kovaleva, Z V; Shatrova, A N; Aksenov, N D; Zenin, V V; Kaulin, Yu A; Gamaley, I A; Nikolsky, N N

    2017-08-01

    Stem cells are believed to maintain a specific intracellular redox status through a combination of enhanced removal capacity and limited production of ROS. In the present study, we challenge this assumption by developing a quantitative approach for the analysis of the pro- and antioxidant ability of human embryonic stem cells in comparison with their differentiated descendants, as well as adult stem and non-stem cells. Our measurements showed that embryonic stem cells are characterized by low ROS level, low rate of extracellular hydrogen peroxide removal and low threshold for peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. However, biochemical normalization of these parameters to cell volume/protein leads to matching of normalized values in stem and differentiated cells and shows that tested in the present study cells (human embryonic stem cells and their fibroblast-like progenies, adult mesenchymal stem cells, lymphocytes, HeLa) maintain similar intracellular redox status. Based on these observations, we propose to use ROS concentration averaged over the cell volume instead of ROS level as a measure of intracellular redox balance. We show that attempts to use ROS level for comparative analysis of redox status of morphologically different cells could lead to false conclusions. Methods for the assessment of ROS concentration based on flow cytometry analysis with the use of H 2 DCFDA dye and HyPer, genetically encoded probe for hydrogen peroxide, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Inflammatory and redox reactions in colorectal carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, Tina; Biasi, Fiorella; Calfapietra, Simone; Nano, Mario; Poli, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    It has been established that there is a relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer development. The constant colonic inflammation typical of inflammatory bowel diseases is now considered a risk factor for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) development. The inflammatory network of signaling molecules is also required during the late phases of carcinogenesis, to enable cancer cells to survive and to metastasize. Oxidative reactions are an integral part of the inflammatory response, and are generally associated with CRC development. However, when the malignant phenotype is acquired, increased oxidative status induces antioxidant defenses in cancer cells, favoring their aggressiveness. This contradictory behavior of cancer cells toward redox status is of great significance for potential anticancer therapies. This paper summarizes the essential background information relating to the molecules involved in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation during carcinogenesis. Understanding more of their function in CRC stages might provide the foundation for future developments in CRC treatment. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Thiol Redox Transitions in Cell Signaling: a Lesson from N-Acetylcysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Parasassi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional status of cells is under the control of external stimuli affecting the function of critical proteins and eventually gene expression. Signal sensing and transduction by messengers to specific effectors operate by post-translational modification of proteins, among which thiol redox switches play a fundamental role that is just beginning to be understood. The maintenance of the redox status is, indeed, crucial for cellular homeostasis and its dysregulation towards a more oxidized intracellular environment is associated with aberrant proliferation, ultimately related to diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Redox transitions occur in sensitive cysteine residues of regulatory proteins relevant to signaling, their evolution to metastable disulfides accounting for the functional redox switch. N-acetylcysteine (NAC is a thiol-containing compound that is able to interfere with redox transitions of thiols and, thus, in principle, able to modulate redox signaling. We here review the redox chemistry of NAC, then screen possible mechanisms to explain the effects observed in NAC-treated normal and cancer cells; such effects involve a modification of global gene expression, thus of functions and morphology, with a leitmotif of a switch from proliferation to terminal differentiation. The regulation of thiol redox transitions in cell signaling is, therefore, proposed as a new tool, holding promise not only for a deeper explanation of mechanisms, but indeed for innovative pharmacological interventions.

  3. First Evaluation of Infrared Thermography as a Tool for the Monitoring of Udder Health Status in Farms of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test infrared thermography (IRT, under field conditions, as a possible tool for the evaluation of cow udder health status. Thermographic images (n. 310 from different farms (n. 3 were collected and evaluated using a dedicated software application to calculate automatically and in a standardized way, thermographic indices of each udder. Results obtained have confirmed a significant relationship between udder surface skin temperature (USST and classes of somatic cell count in collected milk samples. Sensitivity and specificity in the classification of udder health were: 78.6% and 77.9%, respectively, considering a level of somatic cell count (SCC of 200,000 cells/mL as a threshold to classify a subclinical mastitis or 71.4% and 71.6%, respectively when a threshold of 400,000 cells/mL was adopted. Even though the sensitivity and specificity were lower than in other published papers dealing with non-automated analysis of IRT images, they were considered acceptable as a first field application of this new and developing technology. Future research will permit further improvements in the use of IRT, at farm level. Such improvements could be attained through further image processing and enhancement, and the application of indicators developed and tested in the present study with the purpose of developing a monitoring system for the automatic and early detection of mastitis in individual animals on commercial farms.

  4. On-line monitoring of milk electrical conductivity by fuzzy logic technology to characterise health status in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary infection affects the quality and quantity of dairy goat milk. Health status (HS and milk quality can be monitored by electrical conductivity (EC. The aim of the study was to determine the detection potential of EC when measured on-line on a daily basis and compared with readings from previous milkings. Milk yields (MYs were investigated with the same approach. To evaluate these relative traits, a multivariate model based on fuzzy logic technology – which provided interesting results in cows – was used. Two foremilk samples from 8 healthy Saanen goats were measured daily over the course of six months. Bacteriological tests and somatic cells counts were used to define the HS. On-line EC measurements for each gland and MYs were also considered. Predicted deviations of EC and MY were calculated using a moving-average model and entered in the fuzzy logic model. The reported accuracy has a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 69%. Conclusions show that fuzzy logic is an interesting approach for dairy goats, since it offered better accuracy than other methods previously published. Nevertheless, specificity was lower than in dairy cows, probably due to the lack of a significant decrease of MY in diseased glands. Still, results show that the detection of the HS characteristics with EC is improved, when measured on-line, daily and compared with the readings from previous milkings.

  5. Satellite-derived temperature data for monitoring water status in a floodplain forest of the Upper Sabine River, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Mary Grace T.; Allen, Scott T.; Edwards, Brandon L.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Decreased water availability due to hydrologic modifications, groundwater withdrawal, and climate change threaten bottomland hardwood (BLH) forest communities. We used satellite-derived (MODIS) land-surface temperature (LST) data to investigate spatial heterogeneity of canopy temperature (an indicator of plant-water status) in a floodplain forest of the upper Sabine River for 2008–2014. High LST pixels were generally further from the river and at higher topographic locations, indicating lower water-availability. Increasing rainfall-derived soil moisture corresponded with decreased heterogeneity of LST between pixels but there was weaker association between Sabine River stage and heterogeneity. Stronger dependence of LST convergence on rainfall rather than river flow suggests that some regions are less hydrologically connected to the river, and vegetation may rely on local precipitation and other contributions to the riparian aquifer to replenish soil moisture. Observed LST variations associated with hydrology encourage further investigation of the utility of this approach for monitoring forest stress, especially with considerations of climate change and continued river management.

  6. Characterisation of the Redox Sensitive NMDA Receptor

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Ohood

    2016-05-01

    Glucose entry into the brain and its subsequent metabolism to L-lactate, regulated by astrocytes, plays a major role in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. A recent study has shown that L-lactate produced by the brain upon stimulation of glycolysis, and glycogen-derived L-lactate from astrocytes and its transport into neurons, is crucial for memory formation. A recent study revealed the molecular mechanisms that underlie the role of L-lactate in neuronal plasticity and long-term memory formation. L-lactate was shown to induce a cascade of molecular events via modulation of redox-sensitive N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity that was mimicked by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride (NADH) co-enzyme. This indicated that changes in cellular redox state, following L-lactate transport inside the cells and its subsequent metabolism, production of NADH, and favouring a reduced state are the key effects of L-lactate. Therefore, we are investigating the role of L-lactate in modulating NMDA receptor function via redox modulatory sites. Accordingly, crucial redox-sensitive cysteine residues, Cys320 and Cys87, of the NR2A NMDA receptor subunit are mutated using site-directed mutation, transfected, and expressed in HEK293 cells. This cellular system will then be used to characterise and monitor its activity upon Llactate stimulation, compared to the wild type. This will be achieved by calcium imaging, using fluorescent microscopy. Our data shows that L-lactate potentiated NMDA receptor activity and increased intracellular calcium influx in NR1/NR2A wild type compared to the control condition (WT NR1/NR2A perfused with (1μM) glutamate and (1μM) glycine agonist only), showing faster response initiation and slower decay rate of the calcium signal to the baseline. Additionally, stimulating with L-lactate associated with greater numbers of cells having high fluorescent intensity (peak amplitude) compared to the control. Furthermore, L-lactate rescued the

  7. Potential Role of Amino Acid/Protein Nutrition and Exercise in Serum Albumin Redox State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Wada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the major protein in the serum of mammals. It is synthesized exclusively in the liver, before being secreted into the circulation. Similar to skeletal muscle protein, albumin synthesis is stimulated by dietary amino acids and proteins as well as exercise. Albumin has three isoforms based on the redox states of the free cysteine residue at position 34. The redox state of serum albumin has long been extensively investigated in terms of oxidative stress-related chronic diseases, with the redox state of serum albumin having been regarded as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. However, according to recent animal studies, the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by albumin turnover and may also reflect amino acid/protein nutritional status. Furthermore, as the redox state of serum albumin is modulated by exercise training, measuring the pre- and post-exercise redox states of serum albumin in athletes may be useful in assessing amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise-induced oxidative stress, which are closely associated with skeletal muscle adaptive responses. This article extensively reviews serum albumin and the redox state of albumin in the context of amino acid/protein nutritional status and exercise training.

  8. Bifunctional redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.H.; Cheng, J.; Xun, Y.; Ma, P.H.; Yang, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    A new bifunctional redox flow battery (BRFB) system, V(III)/V(II)-L-cystine(O 2 ), was systematically investigated by using different separators. It is shown that during charge, water transfer is significantly restricted with increasing the concentration of HBr when the Nafion 115 cation exchange membrane is employed. The same result can be obtained when the gas diffusion layer (GDL) hot-pressed separator is used. The organic electro-synthesis is directly correlated with the crossover of vanadium. When employing the anion exchange membrane, the electro-synthesis efficiency is over 96% due to a minimal crossover of vanadium. When the GDL hot-pressed separator is applied, the crossover of vanadium and water transfer are noticeably prevented and the electro-synthesis efficiency of over 99% is obtained. Those impurities such as vanadium ions and bromine can be eliminated through the purification of organic electro-synthesized products. The purified product is identified to be L-cysteic acid by IR spectrum. The BRFB shows a favorable discharge performance at a current density of 20 mA cm -2 . Best discharge performance is achieved by using the GDL hot-pressed separator. The coulombic efficiency of 87% and energy efficiency of about 58% can be obtained. The cause of major energy losses is mainly associated with the cross-contamination of anodic and cathodic active electrolytes

  9. Redox rhythm reinforces the circadian clock to gate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mian; Wang, Wei; Karapetyan, Sargis; Mwimba, Musoki; Marqués, Jorge; Buchler, Nicolas E; Dong, Xinnian

    2015-07-23

    Recent studies have shown that in addition to the transcriptional circadian clock, many organisms, including Arabidopsis, have a circadian redox rhythm driven by the organism's metabolic activities. It has been hypothesized that the redox rhythm is linked to the circadian clock, but the mechanism and the biological significance of this link have only begun to be investigated. Here we report that the master immune regulator NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1) of Arabidopsis is a sensor of the plant's redox state and regulates transcription of core circadian clock genes even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Surprisingly, acute perturbation in the redox status triggered by the immune signal salicylic acid does not compromise the circadian clock but rather leads to its reinforcement. Mathematical modelling and subsequent experiments show that NPR1 reinforces the circadian clock without changing the period by regulating both the morning and the evening clock genes. This balanced network architecture helps plants gate their immune responses towards the morning and minimize costs on growth at night. Our study demonstrates how a sensitive redox rhythm interacts with a robust circadian clock to ensure proper responsiveness to environmental stimuli without compromising fitness of the organism.

  10. Redox-responsive theranostic nanoplatforms based on inorganic nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Yu-Long; Li, Xi; Yang, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Min; Hu, Kun; Li, Lu-Hai; Wei, Yen

    2017-08-10

    Spurred on by advances in materials chemistry and nanotechnology, scientists have developed many novel nanopreparations for cancer diagnosis and therapy. To treat complex malignant tumors effectively, multifunctional nanomedicines with targeting ability, imaging properties and controlled drug release behavior should be designed and exploited. The therapeutic efficiency of loaded drugs can be dramatically improved using redox-responsive nanoplatforms which can sense the differences in the redox status of tumor tissues and healthy ones. Redox-sensitive nanocarriers can be constructed from both organic and inorganic nanomaterials; however, at present, drug delivery nanovectors progressively lean towards inorganic nanomaterials because of their facile synthesis/modification and their unique physicochemical properties. In this review, we focus specifically on the preparation and application of redox-sensitive nanosystems based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), carbon nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanomaterials and other inorganic nanomaterials. We discuss relevant examples of redox-sensitive nanosystems in each category. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future strategies from the aspect of material design and practical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. NAD(P)H-dependent quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYP450OR) differentially regulate menadione-mediated alterations in redox status, survival and metabolism in pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joshua P; Karandrea, Shpetim; Burgos, Delaine Zayasbazan; Jaiswal, Anil A; Heart, Emma A

    2016-11-16

    NQO1 (NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1) reduces quinones and xenobiotics to less-reactive compounds via 2-electron reduction, one feature responsible for the role of NQO1 in antioxidant defense in several tissues. In contrast, NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYP450OR), catalyzes the 1-electron reduction of quinones and xenobiotics, resulting in enhanced superoxide formation. However, to date, the roles of NQO1 and CYP450OR in pancreatic β-cell metabolism under basal conditions and oxidant challenge have not been characterized. Using NQO1 inhibition, over-expression and knock out, we have demonstrated that, in addition to protection of β-cells from toxic concentrations of the redox cycling quinone menadione, NQO1 also regulates the basal level of reduced-to-oxidized nucleotides, suggesting other role(s) beside that of an antioxidant enzyme. In contrast, over-expression of NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYP450OR) resulted in enhanced redox cycling activity and decreased cellular viability, consistent with the enhanced generation of superoxide and H 2 O 2 . Basal expression of NQO1 and CYP450OR was comparable in isolated islets and liver. However, NQO1, but not CYP450OR, was strongly induced in β-cells exposed to menadione. NQO1 and CYP450OR exhibited a reciprocal preference for reducing equivalents in β-cells: while CYP450OR preferentially utilized NADPH, NQO1 primarily utilized NADH. Together, these results demonstrate that NQO1 and CYP450OR reciprocally regulate oxidant metabolism in pancreatic β-cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thioredoxin-linked redox control of metabolism in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, an evolutionarily deeply-rooted hyperthermophilic methanogenic archaeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thioredoxin (Trx), a small redox protein, controls multiple processes in eukaryotes and bacteria by changing the thiol redox status of selected proteins. We have investigated this aspect in methanarchaea. These ancient methanogens produce methane almost exclusively from H2 plus CO2 carried approxima...

  13. The ICESat-2 mission: design, status, applications and pre-launch performance assessments for monitoring cryopsheric changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, T.; Markus, T.; Csatho, B. M.; Martino, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is the next-generation orbiting laser altimeter, following the ICESat mission, which operated between 2003 and 2009. Its primary aim is to monitor sea-ice thickness and ice sheet elevation change at scales from outlet glaciers to the entire ice sheet, and enable global assessment of vegetation canopy height as established by ICESat. ICESat-2 is now in Phase C (Design and Development). It is scheduled to launch in 2016 on a Delta II rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. ICESat-2 will carry the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) and collect data to a latitudinal limit of 88 degrees. In contrast to Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on ICESat, ATLAS employs a 6-beam micro-pulse laser photon-counting approach. It uses a high repetition rate (10 kHz; resulting in 70 cm footprint spacing on the ground along the direction of travel) low-power laser in conjunction with single-photon sensitive detectors to measure ranges using 532 nm (green) laser light. In the polar regions, the 91-day repeat orbit pattern with a roughly monthly sub-cycle is designed to monitor seasonal and interannual variations of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet elevations and monthly sea ice thickness changes. Dense ground-tracks over the rest of the globe achieved through a systematic sequence of off-nadir pointing (resulting in < 2 km ground-track spacing at the equator after two years) will enable measurements of land topography and vegetation canopy heights, allowing estimates of biomass and carbon in above-ground vegetation. While the ICESat-2 mission was optimized for cryospheric science, elevation measurements will be collected over land and oceans as well as histograms of backscatter from the atmosphere. These observations will provide a wealth of opportunities in addition to the primary science objectives, ranging from the retrieval of cloud properties, to river stages, to snow cover, to land

  14. Organic Redox Species in Aqueous Flow Batteries: Redox Potentials, Chemical Stability and Solubility

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Wedege; Emil Dražević; Denes Konya; Anders Bentien

    2016-01-01

    Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined ...

  15. Age affects the contraction-induced mitochondrial redox response in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis R Claflin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Compromised mitochondrial respiratory function is associated with advancing age. Damage due to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS with age is thought to contribute to the mitochondrial deficits. The coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its reduced (NADH and oxidized (NAD+ forms plays an essential role in the cyclic sequence of reactions that result in the regeneration of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Monitoring mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ redox status during recovery from an episode of high energy demand thus allows assessment of mitochondrial function. NADH fluoresces when excited with ultraviolet light in the UV-A band and NAD+ does not, allowing NADH/NAD+ to be monitored in real time using fluorescence microscopy. Our goal was to assess mitochondrial function by monitoring the NADH fluorescence response following a brief period of high energy demand in muscle from adult and old wild-type (WT mice. This was accomplished by isolating whole lumbrical muscles from the hind paws of 7- and 28-month-old WT mice and making simultaneous measurements of force and NADH fluorescence responses during and after a 5 s maximum isometric contraction. All muscles exhibited fluorescence oscillations that were qualitatively similar and consisted of a brief transient increase followed by a longer transient period of reduced fluorescence and, finally, an increase that included an overshoot before recovering to resting level. Compared with the adult WT mice, muscles from the 28 mo WT mice exhibited a delayed peak during the first fluorescence transient and an attenuated recovery following the second transient. These findings indicate an impaired mitochondrial capacity to maintain NADH/NAD+ redox homeostasis during contractile activity in skeletal muscles of old mice.

  16. SisLeish: A multi-country standardized information system to monitor the status of Leishmaniasis in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    Background In the Americas, leishmaniasis is endemic in 18 countries, and from 2001 through 2015, 17 countries reported 843,931 cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, and 12 countries reported 52,176 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. A Regional Information System (SisLeish) was created in order to provide knowledge of the distribution and tendency of this disease to analyze and monitor the leishmaniasis status. This article analyses the performance and progress of SisLeish from 2012–2015. Methodology The performance of SisLeish was evaluated by country adhesion, data completeness and delay in entering the data, and also by the SWOT technique. Furthermore, we outlined the structure and modus operandi of the system and indicators utilized. Results In 2012, only 18% of the countries entered the data in SisLeish before the deadline, where 66.7% and 50% of the countries with autochthonous CL/ML and VL reported their cases to the system, respectively. Whereas in 2015, 59% of the countries reached the deadline, where 94.4% and 58.3% of the countries reported their CL/ML and VL data, respectively. Regarding data completeness, there was great progress for different variables since its launch, such as gender, which had an approximately 100% improvement from 2012 to 2015. The SWOT analysis of SisLeish showed 12 strengths, 11 opportunities, seven weaknesses and six threats. Conclusions From 2012–2015 there has been an improvement in the adhesion, quality and data completeness, showing the effort of the majority of the countries to enhance their national database. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that strengths and opportunities exceed weaknesses and threats; however, it highlighted the system frailties and challenges that need to be addressed. Furthermore, it has stimulated several National Programs to advance their surveillance system. Therefore, SisLeish has become an essential tool to prioritize areas, assist in decision-making processes, and to guide

  17. SisLeish: A multi-country standardized information system to monitor the status of Leishmaniasis in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Elkhoury, Ana N S; O B Valadas, Samantha Y; Puppim-Buzanovsky, Lia; Rocha, Felipe; Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J

    2017-09-01

    In the Americas, leishmaniasis is endemic in 18 countries, and from 2001 through 2015, 17 countries reported 843,931 cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, and 12 countries reported 52,176 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. A Regional Information System (SisLeish) was created in order to provide knowledge of the distribution and tendency of this disease to analyze and monitor the leishmaniasis status. This article analyses the performance and progress of SisLeish from 2012-2015. The performance of SisLeish was evaluated by country adhesion, data completeness and delay in entering the data, and also by the SWOT technique. Furthermore, we outlined the structure and modus operandi of the system and indicators utilized. In 2012, only 18% of the countries entered the data in SisLeish before the deadline, where 66.7% and 50% of the countries with autochthonous CL/ML and VL reported their cases to the system, respectively. Whereas in 2015, 59% of the countries reached the deadline, where 94.4% and 58.3% of the countries reported their CL/ML and VL data, respectively. Regarding data completeness, there was great progress for different variables since its launch, such as gender, which had an approximately 100% improvement from 2012 to 2015. The SWOT analysis of SisLeish showed 12 strengths, 11 opportunities, seven weaknesses and six threats. From 2012-2015 there has been an improvement in the adhesion, quality and data completeness, showing the effort of the majority of the countries to enhance their national database. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that strengths and opportunities exceed weaknesses and threats; however, it highlighted the system frailties and challenges that need to be addressed. Furthermore, it has stimulated several National Programs to advance their surveillance system. Therefore, SisLeish has become an essential tool to prioritize areas, assist in decision-making processes, and to guide surveillance and control actions.

  18. An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: Monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, R.; Condit, R.; Angehr, G.; Aguilar, S.; Garcia, T.; Martinez, R.; Sanjur, A.; Stallard, R.; Wright, S.J.; Rand, A.S.; Heckadon, S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Republic of Panama's Environmental Authority, with support from the United States Agency for International Development, undertook a comprehensive program to monitor the ecosystem of the Panama Canal watershed. The goals were to establish baseline indicators for the integrity of forest communities and rivers. Based on satellite image classification and ground surveys, the 2790 km2 watershed had 1570 km2 of forest in 1997, 1080 km2 of which was in national parks and nature monuments. Most of the 490 km2 of forest not currently in protected areas lies along the west bank of the Canal, and its management status after the year 2000 turnover of the Canal from the U.S. to Panama remains uncertain. In forest plots designed to monitor forest diversity and change, a total of 963 woody plant species were identified and mapped. We estimate there are a total of 850-1000 woody species in forests of the Canal corridor. Forests of the wetter upper reaches of the watershed are distinct in species composition from the Canal corridor, and have considerably higher diversity and many unknown species. These remote areas are extensively forested, poorly explored, and harbor an estimated 1400-2200 woody species. Vertebrate monitoring programs were also initiated, focusing on species threatened by hunting and forest fragmentation. Large mammals are heavily hunted in most forests of Canal corridor, and there was clear evidence that mammal density is greatly reduced in hunted areas and that this affects seed predation and dispersal. The human population of the watershed was 113 000 in 1990, and grew by nearly 4% per year from 1980 to 1990. Much of this growth was in a small region of the watershed on the outskirts of Panama City, but even rural areas, including villages near and within national parks, grew by 2% per year. There is no sewage treatment in the watershed, and many towns have no trash collection, thus streams near large

  19. Redox regulation of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2014-09-20

    We provide a conceptual framework for the interactions between the cellular redox signaling hub and the phytohormone signaling network that controls plant growth and development to maximize plant productivity under stress-free situations, while limiting growth and altering development on exposure to stress. Enhanced cellular oxidation plays a key role in the regulation of plant growth and stress responses. Oxidative signals or cycles of oxidation and reduction are crucial for the alleviation of dormancy and quiescence, activating the cell cycle and triggering genetic and epigenetic control that underpin growth and differentiation responses to changing environmental conditions. The redox signaling hub interfaces directly with the phytohormone network in the synergistic control of growth and its modulation in response to environmental stress, but a few components have been identified. Accumulating evidence points to a complex interplay of phytohormone and redox controls that operate at multiple levels. For simplicity, we focus here on redox-dependent processes that control root growth and development and bud burst. The multiple roles of reactive oxygen species in the control of plant growth and development have been identified, but increasing emphasis should now be placed on the functions of redox-regulated proteins, along with the central roles of reductants such as NAD(P)H, thioredoxins, glutathione, glutaredoxins, peroxiredoxins, ascorbate, and reduced ferredoxin in the regulation of the genetic and epigenetic factors that modulate the growth and vigor of crop plants, particularly within an agricultural context.

  20. The role of national system of radiological survey in short, intermediate and long term monitoring the environment radioactivity and health status in uranium industry areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Alina; Milu, C.

    2000-01-01

    The environment radioactivity survey in Romania is performed by CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control) national network. The health status survey of population is carried out by national network of Health Ministry which comprises 23 laboratories. The tasks of the these networks are the following: assessment of natural and artificial irradiation of occupationally exposed personnel and population, as well as goods used by them; determination of population irradiation, survey of environment, food and human internal contamination; survey of health status of the population exposed to radiation, monitoring the medical checkups of the occupationally exposed personnel as well as their dosimetric monitoring; specific enactment, authorization and supervision of nuclear facilities, sanitary expertise and medical examinations; educational activities related to hygiene, radiotoxicology, radioecology and radiobiology. (authors)

  1. Human semen as an early, sensitive biomarker of highly polluted living environment in healthy men: A pilot biomonitoring study on trace elements in blood and semen and their relationship with sperm quality and RedOx status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Paolo; Volpe, Maria Grazia; Lorenzetti, Stefano; Mantovani, Alberto; Notari, Tiziana; Cocca, Ennio; Cerullo, Stefano; Di Stasio, Michele; Cerino, Pellegrino; Montano, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    The Campania region in Italy is facing an environmental crisis due to the illegal disposal of toxic waste. Herein, a pilot study (EcoFoodFertility initiative) was conducted to investigate the use of human semen as an early biomarker of pollution on 110 healthy males living in various areas of Campania with either high or low environmental impact. The semen from the "high impact" group showed higher zinc, copper, chromium and reduced iron levels, as well as reduced sperm motility and higher sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI). Redox biomarkers (total antioxidant capacity, TAC, and glutathione, GSH) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in semen were lower in the "high impact" group. The percentage of immotile spermatozoa showed a significant inverse correlation with TAC and GSH. Overall, several semen parameters (reduced sperm quality and antioxidant defenses, altered chemical element pattern), which were associated with residence in a high polluted environment, could be used in a further larger scale study, as early biomarkers of environmental pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative redox imaging biomarkers for studying tissue metabolic state and its heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He N. Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available NAD+/NADH redox state has been implicated in many diseases such as cancer and diabetes as well as in the regulation of embryonic development and aging. To fluorimetrically assess the mitochondrial redox state, Dr. Chance and co-workers measured the fluorescence of NADH and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp including flavin–adenine–dinucleotide (FAD and demonstrated their ratio (i.e. the redox ratio is a sensitive indicator of the mitochondrial redox states. The Chance redox scanner was built to simultaneously measure NADH and Fp in tissue at submillimeter scale in 3D using the freeze-trap protocol. This paper summarizes our recent research experience, development and new applications of the redox scanning technique in collaboration with Dr. Chance beginning in 2005. Dr. Chance initiated or actively involved in many of the projects during the last several years of his life. We advanced the redox scanning technique by measuring the nominal concentrations (in reference to the frozen solution standards of the endogenous fluorescent analytes, i.e., [NADH] and [Fp] to quantify the redox ratios in various biological tissues. The advancement has enabled us to identify an array of the redox indices as quantitative imaging biomarkers (including [NADH], [Fp], [Fp]/([NADH]+[Fp], [NADH]/[Fp], and their standard deviations for studying some important biological questions on cancer and normal tissue metabolism. We found that the redox indices were associated or changed with (1 tumorigenesis (cancer versus non-cancer of human breast tissue biopsies; (2 tumor metastatic potential; (3 tumor glucose uptake; (4 tumor p53 status; (5 PI3K pathway activation in pre-malignant tissue; (6 therapeutic effects on tumors; (7 embryonic stem cell differentiation; (8 the heart under fasting. Together, our work demonstrated that the tissue redox indices obtained from the redox scanning technique may provide useful information about tissue metabolism and physiology status in normal

  3. Warfighter Physiological Status Monitoring (WPSM): Energy Balance and Thermal Status During a 10-Day Cold Weather U.S. Marine Corps Infantry Officer Course Field Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoyt, Reed

    2001-01-01

    Energy balance and thermal status was assessed in 14 male U.S. Marine Corps volunteers (age = 25 +/- 3 y MEAN +/- SD; ht = 178 +/- 5 Cm; wt = 81.0 +/- 4.1 kg; %body fat = 15 +/- 3; load = 42.6 +/- 3.2 kg...

  4. Remotely monitoring evaporation rate and soil water status using thermal imaging and "three-temperatures model (3T Model)" under field-scale conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guo Yu; Zhao, Ming

    2010-03-01

    Remote monitoring of soil evaporation and soil water status is necessary for water resource and environment management. Ground based remote sensing can be the bridge between satellite remote sensing and ground-based point measurement. The primary object of this study is to provide an algorithm to estimate evaporation and soil water status by remote sensing and to verify its accuracy. Observations were carried out in a flat field with varied soil water content. High-resolution thermal images were taken with a thermal camera; soil evaporation was measured with a weighing lysimeter; weather data were recorded at a nearby meteorological station. Based on the thermal imaging and the three-temperatures model (3T model), we developed an algorithm to estimate soil evaporation and soil water status. The required parameters of the proposed method were soil surface temperature, air temperature, and solar radiation. By using the proposed method, daily variation in soil evaporation was estimated. Meanwhile, soil water status was remotely monitored by using the soil evaporation transfer coefficient. Results showed that the daily variation trends of measured and estimated evaporation agreed with each other, with a regression line of y = 0.92x and coefficient of determination R(2) = 0.69. The simplicity of the proposed method makes the 3T model a potentially valuable tool for remote sensing.

  5. Redox imbalance and mitochondrial abnormalities in the diabetic lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinzi; Jin, Zhen; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Although the lung is one of the least studied organs in diabetes, increasing evidence indicates that it is an inevitable target of diabetic complications. Nevertheless, the underlying biochemical mechanisms of lung injury in diabetes remain largely unexplored. Given that redox imbalance, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in diabetic tissue injury, we set out to investigate mechanisms of lung injury in diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate NADH/NAD + redox status, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial abnormalities in the diabetic lung. Using STZ induced diabetes in rat as a model, we measured redox-imbalance related parameters including aldose reductase activity, level of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PAPR-1), NAD + content, NADPH content, reduced form of glutathione (GSH), and glucose 6-phophate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity. For assessment of mitochondrial abnormalities in the diabetic lung, we measured the activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I to IV and complex V as well as dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) content and activity. We also measured the protein content of NAD + dependent enzymes such as sirtuin3 (sirt3) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Our results demonstrate that NADH/NAD + redox imbalance occurs in the diabetic lung. This redox imbalance upregulates the activities of complexes I to IV, but not complex V; and this upregulation is likely the source of increased mitochondrial ROS production, oxidative stress, and cell death in the diabetic lung. These results, together with the findings that the protein contents of DLDH, sirt3, and NQO1 all are decreased in the diabetic lung, demonstrate that redox imbalance, mitochondrial abnormality, and oxidative stress contribute to lung injury in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Redox Couples with Unequal Diffusion Coefficients: Effect on Redox Cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mampallil Augustine, Dileep; Mathwig, Klaus; Kang, Shuo; Lemay, Serge Joseph Guy

    2013-01-01

    Redox cycling between two electrodes separated by a narrow gap allows dramatic amplification of the faradaic current. Unlike conventional electrochemistry at a single electrode, however, the mass-transport-limited current is controlled by the diffusion coefficient of both the reduced and oxidized

  7. Iron chemistry of Hawaiian rainforest soil solution: Biogeochemical implications of multiple Fe redox cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A.; Chorover, J.; Chadwick, O.

    2003-12-01

    Iron (Fe)-oxides are important sorbents for nutrients, pollutants and natural organic matter (NOM). When flucutations in soil oxygen status exist, Fe can cycle through reduced and oxidized forms and thus greatly affect the aqueous conc. of nutrients and metals. We are examining the influence of oscillating oxic/anoxic conditions on Fe-oxide formation and biogeochemical processes (microbial community composition, and carbon, nutrient and trace metal availability). Our work makes use of a natural rainfall gradient ranging from 2.2 to 4.2 m mean annual precipitation (MAP) on the island of Maui, Hawaii, USA. All sites developed on a 400ky basaltic lava flow and comprise soils under similar vegetation. Solid phase Fe concentration and oxidation state vary systematically across this rainfall gradient with a sharp decrease in pedogenic Fe between 2.8 m and 3.5 m MAP that corresponds with an Eh of 330 mV (1-yr ave.). Fe isotopic composition and Fe-oxide associated rare earth elements (REE) also suggest a shift from ligand-promoted to redutive Fe dissolution with increasing rainfall. To examine the effects of multiple Fe oxidation/reduction cycles, we constructed a set of redox-stat reactors that maintain Eh values within a set range by small Eh-triggered additions of oxygen. Triplicate soil slurry reactors are subjected to redox (Eh) oscillations such that Fe is repeatedly cycled from oxidized to reduced forms. During our current experiment, we measure pH and Eh dynamics and monitor the distribution of Fe(II) and Fe(III), major ion and anion concentrations, a range of trace metals including the REE, and total organic carbon (TOC) in three Stokes-effective particle size fractions (DNA fingerprinting is used to track changes in the microbial community. Prior to implementing the rigorous sampling procedure above, we completed two preliminary reactor experiments focusing only on Fe distribution between aqueous, HCl, and oxalate extractions. These experiments illustrated (1) a

  8. The redox-Mannich reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Seidel, Daniel

    2014-06-06

    A complement to the classic three-component Mannich reaction, the redox-Mannich reaction, utilizes the same starting materials but incorporates an isomerization step that enables the facile preparation of ring-substituted β-amino ketones. Reactions occur under relatively mild conditions and are facilitated by benzoic acid.

  9. S-Glutathionylation and Redox Protein Signaling in Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womersley, Jacqueline S; Uys, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that comes at a high cost to individuals and society. Therefore understanding the mechanisms by which drugs exert their effects is of prime importance. Drugs of abuse increase the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species resulting in oxidative stress. This change in redox homeostasis increases the conjugation of glutathione to protein cysteine residues; a process called S-glutathionylation. Although traditionally regarded as a protective mechanism against irreversible protein oxidation, accumulated evidence suggests a more nuanced role for S-glutathionylation, namely as a mediator in redox-sensitive protein signaling. The reversible modification of protein thiols leading to alteration in function under different physiologic/pathologic conditions provides a mechanism whereby change in redox status can be translated into a functional response. As such, S-glutathionylation represents an understudied means of post-translational protein modification that may be important in the mechanisms underlying drug addiction. This review will discuss the evidence for S-glutathionylation as a redox-sensing mechanism and how this may be involved in the response to drug-induced oxidative stress. The function of S-glutathionylated proteins involved in neurotransmission, dendritic spine structure, and drug-induced behavioral outputs will be reviewed with specific reference to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Differential alkylation-based redox proteomics – Lessons learnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine is one of the most reactive amino acids. This is due to the electronegativity of sulphur atom in the side chain of thiolate group. It results in cysteine being present in several distinct redox forms inside the cell. Amongst these, reversible oxidations, S-nitrosylation and S-sulfenylation are crucial mediators of intracellular redox signalling, with known associations to health and disease. Study of their functionalities has intensified thanks to the development of various analytical strategies, with particular contribution from differential alkylation-based proteomics methods. Presented here is a critical evaluation of differential alkylation-based strategies for the analysis of S-nitrosylation and S-sulfenylation. The aim is to assess the current status and to provide insights for future directions in the dynamically evolving field of redox proteomics. To achieve that we collected 35 original research articles published since 2010 and analysed them considering the following parameters, (i) resolution of modification site, (ii) quantitative information, including correction of modification levels by protein abundance changes and determination of modification site occupancy, (iii) throughput, including the amount of starting material required for analysis. The results of this meta-analysis are the core of this review, complemented by issues related to biological models and sample preparation in redox proteomics, including conditions for free thiol blocking and labelling of target cysteine oxoforms. PMID:26282677

  11. Differential alkylation-based redox proteomics--Lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2015-12-01

    Cysteine is one of the most reactive amino acids. This is due to the electronegativity of sulphur atom in the side chain of thiolate group. It results in cysteine being present in several distinct redox forms inside the cell. Amongst these, reversible oxidations, S-nitrosylation and S-sulfenylation are crucial mediators of intracellular redox signalling, with known associations to health and disease. Study of their functionalities has intensified thanks to the development of various analytical strategies, with particular contribution from differential alkylation-based proteomics methods. Presented here is a critical evaluation of differential alkylation-based strategies for the analysis of S-nitrosylation and S-sulfenylation. The aim is to assess the current status and to provide insights for future directions in the dynamically evolving field of redox proteomics. To achieve that we collected 35 original research articles published since 2010 and analysed them considering the following parameters, (i) resolution of modification site, (ii) quantitative information, including correction of modification levels by protein abundance changes and determination of modification site occupancy, (iii) throughput, including the amount of starting material required for analysis. The results of this meta-analysis are the core of this review, complemented by issues related to biological models and sample preparation in redox proteomics, including conditions for free thiol blocking and labelling of target cysteine oxoforms. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential alkylation-based redox proteomics - Lessons learnt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine is one of the most reactive amino acids. This is due to the electronegativity of sulphur atom in the side chain of thiolate group. It results in cysteine being present in several distinct redox forms inside the cell. Amongst these, reversible oxidations, S-nitrosylation and S-sulfenylati......Cysteine is one of the most reactive amino acids. This is due to the electronegativity of sulphur atom in the side chain of thiolate group. It results in cysteine being present in several distinct redox forms inside the cell. Amongst these, reversible oxidations, S-nitrosylation and S......-sulfenylation are crucial mediators of intracellular redox signalling, with known associations to health and disease. Study of their functionalities has intensified thanks to the development of various analytical strategies, with particular contribution from differential alkylation-based proteomics methods. Presented here...... is a critical evaluation of differential alkylation-based strategies for the analysis of S-nitrosylation and S-sulfenylation. The aim is to assess the current status and to provide insights for future directions in the dynamically evolving field of redox proteomics. To achieve that we collected 35 original...

  13. The use of autecological and environmental parameters for establishing the status of lichen vegetation in a baseline study for a long-term monitoring survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, S.; Asta, J.; Seaward, M.R.D.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 the ecological characteristics of the epiphytic species (83 lichens and two algae) of an urban area (Grenoble, France) were determined. Seven autecological indices were used to characterize the lichen ecology: illumination index, humidity index, pH of bark, nutrient status of substratum, ecological index of IAP and frequency. Six clusters (A1-A6) were defined using cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Seven environmental parameters characterizing the stations and the lichen releves were also used: elevation, parameters of artificiality (urbanization, traffic and local land use), IAP, and the percentage of nitrophytic and acidophytic species. Six clusters (B1-B6) were defined using cluster analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Four clusters (C1-C4) were finally defined using an empirical integrated method combining the autecological and environmental parameters. This final clustering which established the status of the lichen vegetation in 1997 can be reliably used as a baseline study to effectively monitor environmental changes in this urban area. - Ecological clustering which establishes the status of lichen vegetation can be reliably used as a baseline study to monitor environmental changes

  14. The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program : Expansion of Existing Smolt Trapping Program and Steelhead Spawner Surveys : March 1st, 2008 - February 28th, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Todd; Tonseth, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP - BPA project No.2003-0017) has been created as a cost effective means of developing protocols and new technologies, novel indicators, sample designs, analytical, data management and communication tools and skills, and restoration experiments that support the development of a region-wide Research, Monitoring and Evaluation (RME) program to assess the status of anadromous salmonid populations, their tributary habitat and restoration and management actions. The most straightforward approach to developing a regional-scale monitoring and evaluation program would be to increase standardization among status and trend monitoring programs. However, the diversity of species and their habitat, as well as the overwhelming uncertainty surrounding indicators, metrics, and data interpretation methods, requires the testing of multiple approaches. Thus, the approach ISEMP has adopted is to develop a broad template that may differ in the details among subbasins, but one that will ultimately lead to the formation of a unified RME process for the management of anadromous salmonid populations and habitat across the Columbia River Basin. ISEMP has been initiated in three pilot subbasins, the Wenatchee/Entiat, John Day, and Salmon. To balance replicating experimental approaches with the goal of developing monitoring and evaluation tools that apply as broadly as possible across the Pacific Northwest, these subbasins were chosen as representative of a wide range of potential challenges and conditions, e.g., differing fish species composition and life histories, ecoregions, institutional settings, and existing data. ISEMP has constructed a framework that builds on current status and trend monitoring infrastructures in these pilot subbasins, but challenges current programs by testing alternative monitoring approaches. In addition, the ISEMP is: (1) Collecting information over a hierarchy of spatial scales, allowing for a

  15. Whole body retention of Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP) in monitoring skeletal calcium status in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.B.; Rangarajan, V.; Samuel, A.M.; Joshi, D.P.; Ray, S.; Raste, A.S.; Gadhre

    2003-01-01

    The detection and estimation of skeletal calcium loss has become an important consideration in the management of post-menopausal women. The need to supplement large amounts of calcium of 1000-1500 mg per day is recommended to forestall the risk of skeletal fractures. The added supplementation of estrogens and progesterone for several years is also recommended to prevent bone calcium loss. The need to record the calcium status in post-menopausal women is becoming necessary in the present scenario. A total of 159 women in the peri-menopausal, menopausal and post-menopausal groups were selected. None of them had other systemic diseases. They were healthy and not on any medication. They were randomly grouped into 3 groups. One was considered as control and no medication was advised. The second group was advised 1000-1500 mg of calcium carbonate daily. The third group was given the same dose of calcium, but also received additionally another 2 mg of estradiol daily. Whole Body Retention (WBR) studies of Tc-99m MDP were carried out before starting treatment and at 6 monthly intervals for a period of 5 years. Serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase were estimated on fasting samples at the start of the study and at every 6 monthly intervals. WBR studies were done using a shadow shield whole body counter attached with a 5 inch diameter sodium iodide crystal detector and a 5 mm wide slit collimator. The WBR of Tc-99m MDP at 24 hours was found to be 27.55 ± 6.76% in women in the peri-menopausal age range of 25-45 years. It was also observed that at the time of menopause 13.3% of the women had WBR values above 2 SD of the normal values. This suggests that calcium loss from the skeleton is present only in a small number of women at menopause. However in women who were not supplemented with calcium or subjected to hormonal and calcium treatment, the number of women who showed loss of bone calcium increased within a period of 1-2 years after menopause. This simple method of WBR

  16. Quantitative evaluation of redox ratio and collagen characteristics during breast cancer chemotherapy using two-photon intrinsic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shulian; Huang, Yudian; Tang, Qinggong; Li, Zhifang; Horng, Hannah; Li, Jiatian; Wu, Zaihua; Chen, Yu; Li, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Preoperative neoadjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer is recognized as an effective adjuvant therapy, as it improves treatment outcomes. However, the potential complications remain a threat, so there is an urgent clinical need to assess both the tumor response and changes in its microenvironment using non-invasive and precise identification techniques. Here, two-photon microscopy was employed to detect morphological alterations in breast cancer progression and recession throughout chemotherapy. The changes in structure were analyzed based on the autofluorescence and collagen of differing statuses. Parameters, including optical redox ratio, the ratio of second harmonic generation and auto-fluorescence signal, collagen density, and collagen shape orientation, were studied. Results indicate that these parameters are potential indicators for evaluating breast tumors and their microenvironment changes during progression and chemotherapy. Combined analyses of these parameters could provide a quantitative, novel method for monitoring tumor therapy.

  17. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD. Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP. Results show that curcumin significantly (p<0.01 downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects.

  18. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Annual Status Report, 1999: Macroinvertebrate Sampling in Six Reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    In 1992, macroinvertebrate sampling was initiated in Pools 4, 8, 13, 26, and the Open River reach of the Mississippi River, and La Orange Pool of the Illinois River as part of the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program...

  19. Chemistry and Redox Biology of Mycothiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Aníbal M; Pedre, Brandán; De Armas, María Inés; Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Radi, Rafael; Messens, Joris; Trujillo, Madia

    2018-02-20

    Mycothiol (MSH, AcCys-GlcN-Ins) is the main low-molecular weight (LMW) thiol of most Actinomycetes, including the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis that affects millions of people worldwide. Strains with decreased MSH content show increased susceptibilities to hydroperoxides and electrophilic compounds. In M. tuberculosis, MSH modulates the response to several antituberculosis drugs. Enzymatic routes involving MSH could provide clues for specific drug design. Recent Advances: Physicochemical data argue against a rapid, nonenzymatic reaction of MSH with oxidants, disulfides, or electrophiles. Moreover, exposure of the bacteria to high concentrations of two-electron oxidants resulted in protein mycothiolation. The recently described glutaredoxin-like protein mycoredoxin-1 (Mrx-1) provides a route for catalytic reduction of mycothiolated proteins, protecting critical cysteines from irreversible oxidation. The description of MSH/Mrx-1-dependent activities of peroxidases helped to explain the higher susceptibility to oxidants observed in Actinomycetes lacking MSH. Moreover, the first mycothiol-S-transferase, member of the DinB superfamily of proteins, was described. In Corynebacterium, both the MSH/Mrx-1 and the thioredoxin pathways reduce methionine sulfoxide reductase A. A novel tool for in vivo imaging of the MSH/mycothiol disulfide (MSSM) status allows following changes in the mycothiol redox state during macrophage infection and its relationship with antibiotic sensitivity. Redundancy of MSH with other LMW thiols is starting to be unraveled and could help to rationalize the differences in the reported importance of MSH synthesis observed in vitro versus in animal infection models. Future work should be directed to establish the structural bases of the specificity of MSH-dependent enzymes, thus facilitating drug developments. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 487-504.

  20. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  1. Elsam. Offshore Wind Turbines. Horns Rev. Annual status report for the environmental monitoring programme 1. January 2004 - 31. December 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    In 2001, the former Ministry of the Environment and Energy granted Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.A. approval to establish a wind farm capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk at the west coast of Jutland. According to the conditions of the approval, Elsam and Eltra were required to monitor the environmental effects of the wind farm by performing monitoring before, during and after construction of the wind farm. The environmental monitoring programme is financed through Public Service Obligation (PSO). Analogue to the Horns Rev wind farm another offshore demonstrational wind farm was established in the Baltic sea south of Lolland by Energi E2 the Nysted 165 MW offshore wind farm. To coordinate the environmental monitoring at the two demonstration wind farms at Nysted and Horns Rev within the framework of the approved budget, the Environmental Group of Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Projects was set up. The group consists of representatives from the Danish Forest and Nature Agency, the Danish Energy Authority, Elsam and Energi E2. The Environmental Group initiates, monitors and evaluates the environmental programmes continuously with respect to possible improvements and intensifications to ensure that the design of the individual programmes is optimal. After evaluation, the monitoring programmes are proposed by the Environmental Group and carried out after final approval by the Danish Energy Authority. The Environmental Group considers if there is reason to adjust the issues and priorities of the programmes based on previous experience or other inputs eg from the international expert panel, IAPEME (International Advisory Panel of Experts on Marine Ecology). IAPEME evaluates the environmental monitoring programmes and makes valuable suggestions and recommendations to the Environmental Group. The programmes have concentrated on the monitoring of possible impacts before, during and after construction to investigate and

  2. Elsam. Offshore Wind Turbines. Horns Rev. Annual status report for the environmental monitoring programme 1. January 2004 - 31. December 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-15

    In 2001, the former Ministry of the Environment and Energy granted Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.A. approval to establish a wind farm capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk at the west coast of Jutland. According to the conditions of the approval, Elsam and Eltra were required to monitor the environmental effects of the wind farm by performing monitoring before, during and after construction of the wind farm. The environmental monitoring programme is financed through Public Service Obligation (PSO). Analogue to the Horns Rev wind farm another offshore demonstrational wind farm was established in the Baltic sea south of Lolland by Energi E2 the Nysted 165 MW offshore wind farm. To coordinate the environmental monitoring at the two demonstration wind farms at Nysted and Horns Rev within the framework of the approved budget, the Environmental Group of Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Projects was set up. The group consists of representatives from the Danish Forest and Nature Agency, the Danish Energy Authority, Elsam and Energi E2. The Environmental Group initiates, monitors and evaluates the environmental programmes continuously with respect to possible improvements and intensifications to ensure that the design of the individual programmes is optimal. After evaluation, the monitoring programmes are proposed by the Environmental Group and carried out after final approval by the Danish Energy Authority. The Environmental Group considers if there is reason to adjust the issues and priorities of the programmes based on previous experience or other inputs eg from the international expert panel, IAPEME (International Advisory Panel of Experts on Marine Ecology). IAPEME evaluates the environmental monitoring programmes and makes valuable suggestions and recommendations to the Environmental Group. The programmes have concentrated on the monitoring of possible impacts before, during and after construction to investigate and

  3. The NASA Redox Storage System Development project, 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    The technical accomplishments pertaining to the development of Redox systems and related technology are outlined in terms of the task elements: prototype systems development, application analyses, and supporting technology. Prototype systems development provides for a major procurement to develop an industrial capability to take the current NASA Lewis technology and go on to the design, development, and commercialization of iron-chromium Redox storage systems. Application analyses provides for the definition of application concepts and technology requirements, specific definition studies, and the identification of market sectors and their penetration potential. Supporting technology includes both in house and contractual efforts that encompass implementation of technology improvements in membranes, electrodes, reactant processing, and system design. The status of all elements is discussed.

  4. Monitoring Hydration Status Pre- and Post-Training among University Athletes Using Urine Color and Weight Loss Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Salandy, Sinead T.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hydration status pre- and post-training among university athletes using urine color and weight loss as indicators. Participants: Participants were 52 university athletes training for campus games in a developing country. Methods: Pre- and post-training urine specimens were compared with a standard urine color scale.…

  5. Redox control of electric melters with complex feed compositions. Part I: analytical methods and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Diemer, R.B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The redox state of glass from electric melters with complex feed compositions is determined by balance between gases above the melt, and transition metals and organic compounds in the feed. Part I discusses experimental and computational methods of relating flowrates and other melter operating conditions to the redox state of glass, and composition of the melter offgas. Computerized thermodynamic computational methods are useful in predicting the sequence and products of redox reactions and in assessing individual process variations. Melter redox state can be predicted by combining monitoring of melter operating conditions, redox measurement of fused melter feed samples, and periodic redox measurement of product. Mossbauer spectroscopy, and other methods which measure Fe(II)/Fe(III) in glass, can be used to measure melter redox state. Part II develops preliminary operating limits for the vitrification of High-Level Radioactive Waste. Limits on reducing potential to preclude the accumulation of combustible gases, accumulation of sulfides and selenides, and degradation of melter components are the most critical. Problems associated with excessively oxidizing conditions, such as glass foaming and potential ruthenium volatility, are controlled when sufficient formic acid is added to adjust melter feed rheology

  6. Redox reaction studies by nanosecond pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, P.N.

    1979-01-01

    Free radicals are formed as intermediates in many chemical and biochemical reactions. An important type of reaction which they can undergo is a one electron or redox process. The direction and rate of such electron transfer reactions is governed by the relative redox potentials of the participating species. Because of the generally short lived nature of free radicals, evaluation of their redox potentials poses a number of problems. Two techniques are described for the experimental determination of the redox potentials of short lived species generated by either a nanosecond electron pulse or laser flash. In the first method, redox titration of the short lived species with stable molecules of known redox potential is carried out, employing the technique of fast kinetic spectrophotometry. Conversely, by the same method it is also possible to evaluate the one electron redox potentials of stable molecules by redox titration with free radicals of known redox potential produced as above. In the second method, electrochemical reduction or oxidation of the short lived species at an appropriate electrode (generally a mercury drop) is carried out at different fixed potentials, and the redox potential evaluated from the current-potential curves (polarograms). Full description of the experimental set up and theoretical considerations for interpretation of the raw data are given. The relative merits of the two methods and their practical applicability are discussed. (auth.)

  7. Dissecting Redox Biology Using Fluorescent Protein Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzländer, Markus; Dick, Tobias P; Meyer, Andreas J; Morgan, Bruce

    2016-05-01

    Fluorescent protein sensors have revitalized the field of redox biology by revolutionizing the study of redox processes in living cells and organisms. Within one decade, a set of fundamental new insights has been gained, driven by the rapid technical development of in vivo redox sensing. Redox-sensitive yellow and green fluorescent protein variants (rxYFP and roGFPs) have been the central players. Although widely used as an established standard tool, important questions remain surrounding their meaningful use in vivo. We review the growing range of thiol redox sensor variants and their application in different cells, tissues, and organisms. We highlight five key findings where in vivo sensing has been instrumental in changing our understanding of redox biology, critically assess the interpretation of in vivo redox data, and discuss technical and biological limitations of current redox sensors and sensing approaches. We explore how novel sensor variants may further add to the current momentum toward a novel mechanistic and integrated understanding of redox biology in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 680-712.

  8. Redox zonation for different groundwater flow paths during bank filtration: a case study at Liao River, Shenyang, northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaosi; Lu, Shuai; Yuan, Wenzhen; Woo, Nam Chil; Dai, Zhenxue; Dong, Weihong; Du, Shanghai; Zhang, Xinyue

    2018-03-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of redox zones in an aquifer is important when designing groundwater supply systems. Redox zonation can have direct or indirect control of the biological and chemical reactions and mobility of pollutants. In this study, redox conditions are characterized by interpreting the hydrogeological conditions and water chemistry in groundwater during bank infiltration at a site in Shenyang, northeast China. The relevant redox processes and zonal differences in a shallow flow path and deeper flow path at the field scale were revealed by monitoring the redox parameters and chemistry of groundwater near the Liao River. The results show obvious horizontal and vertical components of redox zones during bank filtration. Variations in the horizontal extent of the redox zone were controlled by the different permeabilities of the riverbed sediments and aquifer with depth. Horizontally, the redox zone was situated within 17 m of the riverbank for the shallow flow path and within 200 m for the deep flow path. The vertical extent of the redox zone was affected by precipitation and seasonal river floods and extended to 10 m below the surface. During bank filtration, iron and manganese oxides or hydroxides were reductively dissolved, and arsenic that was adsorbed onto the medium surface or coprecipitated is released into the groundwater. This leads to increased arsenic content in groundwater, which poses a serious threat to water supply security.

  9. Preservation of organic matter in nontronite against iron redox cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q.

    2015-12-01

    It is generally believed that clay minerals can protect organic matter from degradation in redox active environments, but both biotic and abiotic factors can influence the redox process and thus potentially change the clay-organic associations. However, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remain poorly understood. In this study, a model organic compound, 12-Aminolauric acid (ALA) was selected to intercalate into the structural interlayer of nontronite (an iron-rich smectite, NAu-2) to form an ALA-intercalated NAu-2 composite (ALA-NAu-2). Shawanella putrefaciens CN32 and sodium dithionite were used to reduce structural Fe(III) to Fe(II) in NAu-2 and ALA-NAu-2. The bioreduced ALA-NAu-2 was subsequently re-oxidized by air. The rates and extents of bioreduction and air re-oxidation were determined with wet chemistry methods. ALA release from ALA-NAu-2 via redox process was monitored. Mineralogical changes after iron redox cycle were investigated with X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. At the beginning stage of bioreduction, S. putrefaciens CN32 reduced Fe(III) from the edges of nontronite and preferentially reduced and dissolved small and poorly crystalline particles, and released ALA, resulting a positive correlation between ALA release and iron reduction extent (80%). Because bacteria are the principal agent for mediating redox process in natural environments, our results demonstrated that the structural interlayer of smectite can serve as a potential shelter to protect organic matter from oxidation.

  10. Monitoring `Renewable resources`. Vegetable oils and other fuels from plants. Third status report; Monitoring `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe`. Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen. Dritter Sachstandsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.

    1997-11-01

    The present status report `vegetable oils and other fuels from plants` deals with important developments on the utilization of biofuels in spark ignition engines and diesel engines since presentation of the report `growing raw materials` of the Enquete comission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. The report deals mainly with rapeseed oil and rape seed oil fatty acid methyl ester produced from this (mentioned short of biodiesel) as well as with bioethanol made from sugar beet and grain. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Sachstandsbericht `Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen` beschaeftigt sich mit den wichtigsten Entwicklungen beim Einsatz von Biokraftstoffen in Otto- und Dieselmotoren seit Vorlage des Berichts `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe` der Enquete-Kommission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. Der Bericht befasst sich schwerpunktmaessig mit Rapsoel und daraus hergestelltem Rapsoelfettsaeuremethylester (kurz Biodiesel genannt) sowie mit aus Zuckerrueben und Getreide erzeugtem Bioethanol. (orig./SR)

  11. Redox-Mediated and Ionizing-Radiation-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in Prostate Cancer Development and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lu; Holley, Aaron K.; Zhao, Yanming; St. Clair, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Radiation therapy is widely used for treatment of prostate cancer. Radiation can directly damage biologically important molecules; however, most effects of radiation-mediated cell killing are derived from the generated free radicals that alter cellular redox status. Multiple proinflammatory mediators can also influence redox status in irradiated cells and the surrounding microenvironment, thereby affecting prostate cancer progression and radiotherapy efficiency. Recent Advances: Ionizing radiation (IR)–generated oxidative stress can regulate and be regulated by the production of proinflammatory mediators. Depending on the type and stage of the prostate cancer cells, these proinflammatory mediators may lead to different biological consequences ranging from cell death to development of radioresistance. Critical Issues: Tumors are heterogeneous and dynamic communication occurs between stromal and prostate cancer cells, and complicated redox-regulated mechanisms exist in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory strategies should be carefully evaluated for each patient at different stages of the disease to maximize therapeutic benefits while minimizing unintended side effects. Future Directions: Compared with normal cells, tumor cells are usually under higher oxidative stress and secrete more proinflammatory mediators. Thus, redox status is often less adaptive in tumor cells than in their normal counterparts. This difference can be exploited in a search for new cancer therapeutics and treatment regimes that selectively activate cell death pathways in tumor cells with minimal unintended consequences in terms of chemo- and radio-resistance in tumor cells and toxicity in normal tissues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1481–1500. PMID:24093432

  12. Fluid status monitoring with a wireless network to reduce cardiovascular-related hospitalizations and mortality in heart failure: rationale and design of the OptiLink HF Study (Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachmann, Johannes; Böhm, Michael; Rybak, Karin; Klein, Gunnar; Butter, Christian; Klemm, Hanno; Schomburg, Rolf; Siebermair, Johannes; Israel, Carsten; Sinha, Anil-Martin; Drexler, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Aims The Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink (OptiLink HF) study is designed to investigate whether OptiVol fluid status monitoring with an automatically generated wireless CareAlert notification via the CareLink Network can reduce all-cause death and cardiovascular hospitalizations in an HF population, compared with standard clinical assessment. Methods Patients with newly implanted or replacement cardioverter-defibrillator devices with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy, who have chronic HF in New York Heart Association class II or III and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% will be eligible to participate. Following device implantation, patients are randomized to either OptiVol fluid status monitoring through CareAlert notification or regular care (OptiLink ‘on' vs. ‘off'). The primary endpoint is a composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization. It is estimated that 1000 patients will be required to demonstrate superiority of the intervention group to reduce the primary outcome by 30% with 80% power. Conclusion The OptiLink HF study is designed to investigate whether early detection of congestion reduces mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization in patients with chronic HF. The study is expected to close recruitment in September 2012 and to report first results in May 2014. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00769457 PMID:21555324

  13. Mutagenesis of the redox-active disulfide in mercuric ion reductase: Catalysis by mutant enzymes restricted to flavin redox chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distefano, M.D.; Au, K.G.; Walsh, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Mercuric reductase, a flavoenzyme that possesses a redox-active cystine, Cys 135 Cys 140 , catalyzes the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) by NADPH. As a probe of mechanism, the authors have constructed mutants lacking a redox-active disulfide by eliminating Cys 135 (Ala 135 Cys 140 ), Cys 14 (Cys 135 Ala 140 ), or both (Ala 135 Ala 140 ). Additionally, they have made double mutants that lack Cys 135 (Ala 135 Cys 139 Cys 140 ) or Cys 140 (Cys 135 Cys 139 Ala 140 ) but introduce a new Cys in place of Gly 139 with the aim of constructing dithiol pairs in the active site that do not form a redox-active disulfide. The resulting mutant enzymes all lack redox-active disulfides and are hence restricted to FAD/FADH 2 redox chemistry. Each mutant enzyme possesses unique physical and spectroscopic properties that reflect subtle differences in the FAD microenvironment. Preliminary evidence for the Ala 135 Cys 139 Cys 14 mutant enzyme suggests that this protein forms a disulfide between the two adjacent Cys residues. Hg(II) titration experiments that correlate the extent of charge-transfer quenching with Hg(II) binding indicate that the Ala 135 Cys 140 protein binds Hg(II) with substantially less avidity than does the wild-type enzyme. All mutant mercuric reductases catalyze transhydrogenation and oxygen reduction reactions through obligatory reduced flavin intermediates at rates comparable to or greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. In multiple-turnover assays which monitored the production of Hg(0), two of the mutant enzymes were observed to proceed through at least 30 turnovers at rates ca. 1000-fold slower than that of wild-type mercuric reductase. They conclude that the Cys 135 and Cys 140 thiols serve as Hg(II) ligands that orient the Hg(II) for subsequent reduction by a reduced flavin intermediate

  14. Screening protocols to monitor respiratory status in primary immunodeficiency disease : Findings from a European survey and subclinical infection working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolles, S.; Sánchez-Ramón, S.; Quinti, I.; Soler-Palacín, P.; Agostini, C.; Florkin, B.; Couderc, L.J.; Brodszki, N.; Jones, A.; Longhurst, H.; Warnatz, K.; Haerynck, F.; Matucci, A.; de Vries, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) who have antibody deficiency develop progressive lung disease due to underlying subclinical infection and inflammation. To understand how these patients are monitored we conducted a retrospective survey based on patient records of 13 PID centres

  15. Monitoring and evaluation of the rule of law and justice in the EU: status quo and the way ahead?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gramatikov, M.; Janse, R.

    2012-01-01

    This Concept Paper presents a framework for monitoring and evaluation of the rule of law and justice in the European Union. The development of the framework has been based on a number of principles - objectivity and neutrality, validity and reliability, actionability. It also firmly follows the

  16. Engineering redox balance through cofactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiulai; Li, Shubo; Liu, Liming

    2014-06-01

    Redox balance plays an important role in the production of enzymes, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. To meet the demands of industrial production, it is desirable that microbes maintain a maximal carbon flux towards target metabolites with no fluctuations in redox. This requires functional cofactor systems that support dynamic homeostasis between different redox states or functional stability in a given redox state. Redox balance can be achieved by improving the self-balance of a cofactor system, regulating the substrate balance of a cofactor system, and engineering the synthetic balance of a cofactor system. This review summarizes how cofactor systems can be manipulated to improve redox balance in microbes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Rosa, Laura Alejandra de la; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-06-23

    In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima ) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Radii of Redox Components from Absolute Redox Potentials Compared with Covalent and Aqueous Ionic Radii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heyrovská, Raji

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2010), s. 903-907 ISSN 1040-0397 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Electrochemistry * Absolute redox potentials * Radii of redox components Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  19. Redox Pioneer: Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Dolph L

    2016-07-01

    Professor Vadim N. Gladyshev is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer, because he has published an article on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited more than 1000 times and 29 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Gladyshev is world renowned for his characterization of the human selenoproteome encoded by 25 genes, identification of the majority of known selenoprotein genes in the three domains of life, and discoveries related to thiol oxidoreductases and mechanisms of redox control. Gladyshev's first faculty position was in the Department of Biochemistry, the University of Nebraska. There, he was a Charles Bessey Professor and Director of the Redox Biology Center. He then moved to the Department of Medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, where he is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Center for Redox Medicine. His discoveries in redox biology relate to selenoenzymes, such as methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxin reductases, and various thiol oxidoreductases. He is responsible for the genome-wide identification of catalytic redox-active cysteines and for advancing our understanding of the general use of cysteines by proteins. In addition, Gladyshev has characterized hydrogen peroxide metabolism and signaling and regulation of protein function by methionine-R-sulfoxidation. He has also made important contributions in the areas of aging and lifespan control and pioneered applications of comparative genomics in redox biology, selenium biology, and aging. Gladyshev's discoveries have had a profound impact on redox biology and the role of redox control in health and disease. He is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 1-9.

  20. Characterization of redox proteins using electrochemical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of electrochemical techniques in combination with proteins started approximately a decade ago and has since then developed into a powerfull technique for the study of small redox proteins. In addition to the determination of redox potentials, electrochemistry can be used to obtain information about the kinetics of electron transfer between proteins and about the dynamic behaviour of redox cofactors in proteins. This thesis describes the results of a study, initiated to get a ...

  1. Redox flow batteries having multiple electroactive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo; Nie, Zimin

    2018-05-01

    Introducing multiple redox reactions with a suitable voltage range can improve the energy density of redox flow battery (RFB) systems. One example includes RFB systems utilizing multiple redox pairs in the positive half cell, the negative half cell, or in both. Such RFB systems can have a negative electrolyte, a positive electrolyte, and a membrane between the negative electrolyte and the positive electrolyte, in which at least two electrochemically active elements exist in the negative electrolyte, the positive electrolyte, or both.

  2. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. Th...

  3. Sentinel 4: a geostationary imaging UVN spectrometer for air quality monitoring: status of design, performance and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulde, S. T.; Kolm, M. G.; Smith, D. J.; Maurer, R.; Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, G.; Sallusti, M.; Bagnasco, G.

    2017-11-01

    SENTINEL 4 is an imaging UVN (UV-VIS-NIR) spectrometer, developed by Airbus Defence and Space under ESA contract in the frame of the joint European Union (EU)/ESA COPERNICUS program. The mission objective is the operational monitoring of trace gas concentrations for atmospheric chemistry and climate applications. To this end SENTINEL 4 will provide accurate measurements of key atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, as well as aerosol and cloud properties.

  4. Redox reactions in food fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2018-01-01

    involves oxidative steps in the early part of the pathways whereas a multitude of different reactions are used as compensating reductions. Much of the diversity seen between food fermentations arise from the different routes and the different electron acceptors used by microorganisms to counterbalance...... and this contributes to the diversity in flavor, color, texture, and shelf life. The review concludes that these reactions are still only incompletely understood and that they represent an interesting area for fundamental research and also represent a fertile field for product development through a more conscious use...... of the redox properties of strains used to compose food cultures....

  5. Method for producing redox shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Dzwiniel, Trevor L.; Krumdick, Gregory K.

    2015-03-03

    A single step method for producing a redox shuttle having the formula 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate) is provided, the method comprising phosphorylating tert butyl hydroquinone with a phosphate-containing reagent. Also provided is method for producing 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate), the method comprising solubilizing tert-butyl hydroquinone and tetrabutylammonium bromide with methyltetrahydrofuran to create a mixture; heating the mixture while adding base to the mixture in an amount to turn the mixture orange; and adding diethyl chlorophosphate to the orange mixture in an amount to phosphorylate the hydroquinone.

  6. Status of oral ulcerative mucositis and biomarkers to monitor posttraumatic stress disorder effects in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Wings T Y; Liu, Qing; Yip, Michael C W; Wang, Min; Chow, Louis W C; Cheung, Mary N B; Yip, Adrian Y S; Ng, Elizabeth L Y

    2013-06-28

    This study was designed to assess oral ulcerative mucositis, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, heart rate and thyroid function in breast cancer patients in relation to the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder 
(PTSD). A total of 120 female breast cancer patients and women 100 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. PTSD status was assessed by questionnaire. Before and after treatment (modified radical mastectomy and chemotherapy), serum samples were collected and measured for levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) by ELISA. Oral ulcerative mucositis was evaluated by the number and duration of oral ulcers and the degree of pain. Breast cancer patients experienced long-term PTSD and had elevated serum T3 and T4 levels. Patients experienced more severe pain and longer duration of oral ulcers compared with the healthy group. Oral ulcers were significantly associated with PTSD score in terms of the number of ulcers (p=0.0025), the degree of pain (pthyroid function is altered in breast cancer patients with PTSD. Elevation of T3 and T4 and oral ulcerative mucositis might be indicative of the emotional status of breast cancer patients.

  7. Glutathione Redox System in β-Thalassemia/Hb E Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchaneekorn W. Kalpravidh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available β-thalassemia/Hb E is known to cause oxidative stress induced by iron overload. The glutathione system is the major endogenous antioxidant that protects animal cells from oxidative damage. This study aimed to determine the effect of disease state and splenectomy on redox status expressed by whole blood glutathione (GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG and also to evaluate glutathione-related responses to oxidation in β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Twenty-seven normal subjects and 25 β-thalassemia/Hb E patients were recruited and blood was collected. The GSH/GSSG ratio, activities of glutathione-related enzymes, hematological parameters, and serum ferritin levels were determined in individuals. Patients had high iron-induced oxidative stress, shown as significantly increased serum ferritin, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and increased activities of glutathione-related enzymes. Splenectomy increased serum ferritin levels and decreased GSH levels concomitant with unchanged glutathione-related enzyme activities. The redox ratio had a positive correlation with hemoglobin levels and negative correlation with levels of serum ferritin. The glutathione system may be the body’s first-line defense used against oxidative stress and to maintain redox homeostasis in thalassemic patients based on the significant correlations between the GSH/GSSH ratio and degree of anemia or body iron stores.

  8. Information processing through a bio-based redox capacitor: signatures for redox-cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Kim, Eunkyoung; White, Ian M; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2014-08-01

    Redox-cycling compounds can significantly impact biological systems and can be responsible for activities that range from pathogen virulence and contaminant toxicities, to therapeutic drug mechanisms. Current methods to identify redox-cycling activities rely on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and employ enzymatic or chemical methods to detect ROS. Here, we couple the speed and sensitivity of electrochemistry with the molecular-electronic properties of a bio-based redox-capacitor to generate signatures of redox-cycling. The redox capacitor film is electrochemically-fabricated at the electrode surface and is composed of a polysaccharide hydrogel with grafted catechol moieties. This capacitor film is redox-active but non-conducting and can engage diffusible compounds in either oxidative or reductive redox-cycling. Using standard electrochemical mediators ferrocene dimethanol (Fc) and Ru(NH3)6Cl3 (Ru(3+)) as model redox-cyclers, we observed signal amplifications and rectifications that serve as signatures of redox-cycling. Three bio-relevant compounds were then probed for these signatures: (i) ascorbate, a redox-active compound that does not redox-cycle; (ii) pyocyanin, a virulence factor well-known for its reductive redox-cycling; and (iii) acetaminophen, an analgesic that oxidatively redox-cycles but also undergoes conjugation reactions. These studies demonstrate that the redox-capacitor can enlist the capabilities of electrochemistry to generate rapid and sensitive signatures of biologically-relevant chemical activities (i.e., redox-cycling). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. European collaboration for improved monitoring of Icelandic volcanoes: Status of the FUTUREVOLC project after the initial 18 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Einarsdóttir, Heiðveig Maria; Tumi Gudmundsson, Magnús; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Loughlin, Sue; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Hooper, Andrew; Kylling, Arve; Witham, Claire; Bean, Chris; Braiden, Aoife; Ripepe, Maurizio; Prata, Fred; Pétur Heiðarsson, Einar; Other Members Of The Futurevolc Team

    2014-05-01

    The FUTUREVOLC project funded by the European Union (FP7) is devoted to volcanic hazard assessment and establishing an integrated volcanological monitoring procedure through a European collaboration. To reach these objectives the project combines broad expertise from 26 partners from 10 countries, focusing on the four most active volcanoes of Iceland: Grímsvötn, Katla, Hekla and Bárdarbunga. The geological setting of Iceland, the high rate of eruptions and the various eruption styles make this country an optimal natural laboratory to study volcanic processes from crustal depths to the atmosphere. The project, which began on 1 October 2012, integrates advanced monitoring and analytical techniques in an innovative way, focusing on (i) detailed monitoring to improve our understanding of the seismic/magmatic unrest, in order to estimate the amount of magma available for an eruption and to provide early warnings (ii) the dynamics of magma in the conduit and a near real time estimation of the mass eruption rate and (iii) observing and modelling the plume dynamics. The project design considers effective collaboration between partners and aims for efficient cross-disciplinary workflows. A major step during the first 18 months of the project was the installation of additional equipment in the volcanic regions of Iceland to reinforce and complement the existing monitoring. The instruments include: seismometers, GPS stations, MultigGAS detectors, DOAS, infrasonic arrays, electric field sensors, radars, and optical particle sizers. Data streaming is designed to withstand extreme weather conditions. The FUTUREVOLC project has an open data policy for real and near-time data. Implementation of a data hub is currently under way, based on open access to data from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Access to volcano monitoring data through a common interface will allow timely information on magma movements facilitated through combined analysis. A key part of the project is to

  10. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chausse, Bruno; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Sanchez, Angélica B; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary intervention often used as an alternative to caloric restriction (CR) and characterized by 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. Although the consequences of CR are well studied, the effects of IF on redox status are not. Here, we address the effects of IF on redox state markers in different tissues in order to uncover how changes in feeding frequency alter redox balance in rats. IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart.

  11. Intermittent fasting results in tissue-specific changes in bioenergetics and redox state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chausse

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting (IF is a dietary intervention often used as an alternative to caloric restriction (CR and characterized by 24 hour cycles alternating ad libitum feeding and fasting. Although the consequences of CR are well studied, the effects of IF on redox status are not. Here, we address the effects of IF on redox state markers in different tissues in order to uncover how changes in feeding frequency alter redox balance in rats. IF rats displayed lower body mass due to decreased energy conversion efficiency. Livers in IF rats presented increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and enhanced levels of protein carbonyls. Surprisingly, IF animals also presented an increase in oxidative damage in the brain that was not related to changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conversely, IF promoted a substantial protection against oxidative damage in the heart. No difference in mitochondrial bioenergetics or redox homeostasis was observed in skeletal muscles of IF animals. Overall, IF affects redox balance in a tissue-specific manner, leading to redox imbalance in the liver and brain and protection against oxidative damage in the heart.

  12. The Deep Thioredoxome in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: New Insights into Redox Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Mauriès, Adeline; Maes, Alexandre; Tourasse, Nicolas J; Hamon, Marion; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Marchand, Christophe H

    2017-08-07

    Thiol-based redox post-translational modifications have emerged as important mechanisms of signaling and regulation in all organisms, and thioredoxin plays a key role by controlling the thiol-disulfide status of target proteins. Recent redox proteomic studies revealed hundreds of proteins regulated by glutathionylation and nitrosylation in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, while much less is known about the thioredoxin interactome in this organism. By combining qualitative and quantitative proteomic analyses, we have comprehensively investigated the Chlamydomonas thioredoxome and 1188 targets have been identified. They participate in a wide range of metabolic pathways and cellular processes. This study broadens not only the redox regulation to new enzymes involved in well-known thioredoxin-regulated metabolic pathways but also sheds light on cellular processes for which data supporting redox regulation are scarce (aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, nuclear transport, etc). Moreover, we characterized 1052 thioredoxin-dependent regulatory sites and showed that these data constitute a valuable resource for future functional studies in Chlamydomonas. By comparing this thioredoxome with proteomic data for glutathionylation and nitrosylation at the protein and cysteine levels, this work confirms the existence of a complex redox regulation network in Chlamydomonas and provides evidence of a tremendous selectivity of redox post-translational modifications for specific cysteine residues. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitored retrievable storage concept: a review of its status and analysis of its impact on the waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of monitored retrievable storage (MRS) for commercial spent fuel elements and high-level waste is based on using a high-integrity canister and a structure of some type to protect the canister from natural or man-caused events. Cooling is by means of a passive method. Seven concepts are described (dry well, casks, tunnel). The feasibility of demonstation MRS facilities is studied in this report. Two prospective sites are considered at Hanford and Nevada Test Site, and capital cost estimates were made

  14. Survey of Revegetated Areas on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve: Status and Initial Monitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Janelle L.; Link, Steven O.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Durham, Robin E.; Cruz, Rico O.; Mckee, Sadie A.

    2011-09-01

    During 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office removed a number of facilities and debris from the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM). Revegetation of disturbed sites is necessary to stabilize the soil, reduce invasion of these areas by exotic weeds, and to accelerate re-establishment of native plant communities. Seven revegetation units were identified on ALE based on soils and potential native plant communities at the site. Native seed mixes and plant material were identified for each area based on the desired plant community. Revegetation of locations affected by decommissioning of buildings and debris removal was undertaken during the winter and early spring of 2010 and 2011, respectively. This report describes both the details of planting and seeding for each of the units, describes the sampling design for monitoring, and summarizes the data collected during the first year of monitoring. In general, the revegetation efforts were successful in establishing native bunchgrasses and shrubs on most of the sites within the 7 revegetation units. Invasion of the revegetation areas by exotic annual species was minimal for most sites, but was above initial criteria in 3 areas: the Hodges Well subunit of Unit 2, and Units 6 and 7.

  15. Characterization of redox conditions in pollution plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Banwart, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    Evalution of redox conditions in groundwater pollution plumes is often a prerequisite for understanding the behviour of the pollutants in the plume and for selecting remediation approaches. Measuring of redox conditions in pollution plumes is, however, a fairly recent issue and yet relative few...

  16. Redox properties of small semiconductor particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver, N.; Nitzan, A.

    1992-01-01

    The size dependence of electrical and thermodynamic quantities of intermediate-sized semiconductor particles in an electrolyte solution with a given redox pair are studied. The equilibrium constant for this system is then derived based on the relationship of the electrolytic redox components to the size, charges, and concentration of the semiconductor particles. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  17. Characterization of redox proteins using electrochemical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of electrochemical techniques in combination with proteins started approximately a decade ago and has since then developed into a powerfull technique for the study of small redox proteins. In addition to the determination of redox potentials, electrochemistry can be used to obtain

  18. Deep groundwater redox reactions in the Palmottu uranium deposit: The role of uranium and iron in these processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Cera, E.; Duro, L.; Ahonen, L.

    1996-12-01

    The reduction oxidation properties of the deep bedrock and groundwater are important geochemical factors with respect to the chemical stability of the multibarrier system, which isolates the disposed nuclear fuel from biosphere. In the report are described the results of the redox experiments carried out in the field using the natural groundwaters of Palmottu, in Nummi-Pusula, Finland. The experiments include (1) measurements of natural water redox potential values during four to eight hours continuous pumping; (2) monitoring of the redox-potential response to an artificial change of pH of the groundwater. Separate tests were made in iron and uranium-rich groundwaters, respectively. The data of the field experiments were used in the redox-modelling of the iron and uranium systems. In accordance with earlier knowledge, it was showed that dissolved iron is an important redox electrolyte in natural waters, at least at concentration levels of milligrams per liter. However, a striking observation was that in the absence of dissolved iron dissolved uranium (in concentrations of about 200 nM or more) seems to be able to give nernstian response on platinum electrode in acid/base titrations. The effective redox properties of the bedrock-groundwater system depend on the availability and reactivity of solid phases able to exchange electrons with dissolved redox electrolytes. The present results indicate that, in the bedrock/groundwater system of the Palmottu uranium mineralization, uranium minerals are important redox buffers. (orig.) (refs.)

  19. Mathematical characterization of the milk progesterone profile as a leg up to individualized monitoring of reproduction status in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Ines; Huybrechts, Tjebbe; Geerinckx, Katleen; Daems, Devin; Lammertyn, Jeroen; De Ketelaere, Bart; Saeys, Wouter; Aernouts, Ben

    2017-11-01

    Reproductive performance is an important factor affecting the profitability of dairy farms. Optimal fertility results are often confined by the time-consuming nature of classical heat detection, the fact that high-producing dairy cows show estrous symptoms shorter and less clearly, and the occurrence of ovarian problems. Today's commercially available solutions for automatic estrus detection include monitoring of activity, temperature and progesterone. The latter has the advantage that, besides estrus, it also allows to detect pregnancy and ovarian problems. Due to the large variation in progesterone profiles, even between cycles within the same cow, the use of general thresholds is suboptimal. To this end, an intelligent and individual interpretation of the progesterone measurements is required. Therefore, an alternative solution is proposed, which takes individual and complete cycle progesterone profiles into account for reproduction monitoring. In this way, profile characteristics can be translated into specific attentions for the farmers, based on individual rather than general guidelines. To enable the use of the profile and cycle characteristics, an appropriate model to describe the milk progesterone profile was developed. The proposed model describes the basal adrenal progesterone production and the growing and regressing cyclic corpus luteum. To identify the most appropriate way to describe the increasing and decreasing part of each cycle, three mathematical candidate functions were evaluated on the increasing and decreasing parts of the progesterone cycle separately: the Hill function, the logistic growth curve and the Gompertz growth curve. These functions differ in the way they describe the sigmoidal shape of each profile. The increasing and decreasing parts of the P4 cycles were described best by the model based on respectively the Hill and Gompertz function. Combining these two functions, a full mathematical model to characterize the progesterone cycle

  20. Metabolic status of 1088 patients after renal transplantation: assessment of twelve years monitoring in Algiers Mustapha Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yargui, Lyece; Chettouh, Houria; Boukni, Hamama; Mokhtari, Nassima; Berhoune, Arezki

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of monitoring levels of immunosuppressive medications in our service in July 2000, 1088 kidney transplant patients were received for therapeutic drug monitoring and regular follow-up. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the data on these renal graft patients in Algeria and correlate with our 12 years' experience with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) measurements. In addition, during this period, we also examined other bioche-mical parameters. The analysis was focused on the difference of effect of cyclosporin A (CsA; 623 patients) and Tacrolimus (Tac; 465 patients) on lipid and glucose metabolism and their side-effects, if any, on the renal function. The mean age at the time of transplantation was 36.1 years. A great majority of the transplanted kidneys had been taken from living related donors (88.6%). Three-quarters of all grafts were transplanted in our country (79.5%). Dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction were the most common adverse effects of CsA and Tac exposure, with a frequency of 21.4% and 10.3%, respectively. Both the CNIs had a similar effect on the lipid levels. The highest incidence occurred at 3-12 months after renal graft. Tac seemed to have more side-effects on glycemia, causing the onset of diabetes mellitus more than two-fold than CsA (6.9% vs. 3.1%). A significant difference was observed during 12-24 months after transplantation. However, Tac was associated with the most favorable effects on renal function estimated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula.

  1. Engineered Proteins: Redox Properties and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhulkar, Shradha; Tian, Hui; Wang, Xiaotang; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Oxidoreductases and metalloproteins, representing more than one third of all known proteins, serve as significant catalysts for numerous biological processes that involve electron transfers such as photosynthesis, respiration, metabolism, and molecular signaling. The functional properties of the oxidoreductases/metalloproteins are determined by the nature of their redox centers. Protein engineering is a powerful approach that is used to incorporate biological and abiological redox cofactors as well as novel enzymes and redox proteins with predictable structures and desirable functions for important biological and chemical applications. The methods of protein engineering, mainly rational design, directed evolution, protein surface modifications, and domain shuffling, have allowed the creation and study of a number of redox proteins. This review presents a selection of engineered redox proteins achieved through these methods, resulting in a manipulation in redox potentials, an increase in electron-transfer efficiency, and an expansion of native proteins by de novo design. Such engineered/modified redox proteins with desired properties have led to a broad spectrum of practical applications, ranging from biosensors, biofuel cells, to pharmaceuticals and hybrid catalysis. Glucose biosensors are one of the most successful products in enzyme electrochemistry, with reconstituted glucose oxidase achieving effective electrical communication with the sensor electrode; direct electron-transfer-type biofuel cells are developed to avoid thermodynamic loss and mediator leakage; and fusion proteins of P450s and redox partners make the biocatalytic generation of drug metabolites possible. In summary, this review includes the properties and applications of the engineered redox proteins as well as their significance and great potential in the exploration of bioelectrochemical sensing devices. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1796–1822. PMID:22435347

  2. A novel mitochondria-targeted two-photon fluorescent probe for dynamic and reversible detection of the redox cycles between peroxynitrite and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunlong; Du, Wen; Wang, Peng; Wu, Yang; Wang, Baoqin; Wang, Jun; Xie, Wenjun

    2017-12-16

    Redox homeostasis is important for maintenance of normal physiological functions within cells. Redox state of cells is primarily a consequence of precise balance between levels of reducing equivalents and reactive oxygen species. Redox homeostasis between peroxynitrite (ONOO - ) and glutathione (GSH) is closely associated with physiological and pathological processes, such as prolonged relaxation in vascular tissues and smooth muscle preparations, attenuation of hepatic necrosis, and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2. We report a two-photon fluorescent probe (TP-Se) based on water-soluble carbazole-based compound, which integrates with organic selenium, to monitor changes in ONOO - /GSH levels in cells. This probe can reversibly respond to ONOO - and GSH and exhibits high selectivity, sensitivity, and mitochondrial targeting. The probe was successfully applied to visualize changes in redox cycles during ONOO - outbreak and antioxidant GSH repair in cells. The probe will lead to significant development on redox events involved in cellular redox regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Organic chemical degradation by remote study of the redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, P. M.; Revil, A.; Binley, A. M.; Bloem, E.; French, H. K.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring the natural (and enhanced) degradation of organic contaminants is essential for managing groundwater quality in many parts of the world. Contaminated sites often have limited access, hence non-intrusive methods for studying redox processes, which drive the degradation of organic compounds, are required. One example is the degradation of de-icing chemicals (glycols and organic salts) released to the soil near airport runways during winter. This issue has been broadly studied at Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway using intrusive and non-intrusive methods. Here, we report on laboratory experiments that aim to study the potential of using a self-potential, DCresistivity, and time-domain induced polarization for geochemical characterization of the degradation of Propylene Glycol (PG). PG is completely miscible in water, does not adsorb to soil particles and does not contribute to the electrical conductivity of the soil water. When the contaminant is in the unsaturated zone near the water table, the oxygen is quickly consumed and the gas exchange with the surface is insufficient to ensure aerobic degradation, which is faster than anaerobic degradation. Since biodegradation of PG is highly oxygen demanding, anaerobic pockets can exist causing iron and manganese reduction. It is hypothesised that nitrate would boost the degradation rate under such conditions. In our experiment, we study PG degradation in a sand tank. We provide the system with an electron highway to bridge zones with different redox potential. This geo-battery system is characterized by self-potential, resistivity and induced polarization anomalies. An example of preliminary results with self-potential at two different times of the experiment can be seen in the illustration. These will be supplemented with more direct information on the redox chemistry: in-situ water sampling, pH, redox potential and electrical conductivity measurements. In parallel, a series of batch experiments have been

  4. Overexpression of the transcription factor Yap1 modifies intracellular redox conditions and enhances recombinant protein secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marizela Delic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative folding of secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a redox active process, which also impacts the redox conditions in the cytosol. As the transcription factor Yap1 is involved in the transcriptional response to oxidative stress, we investigate its role upon the production of secretory proteins, using the yeast Pichia pastoris as model, and report a novel important role of Yap1 during oxidative protein folding. Yap1 is needed for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS caused by increased oxidative protein folding. Constitutive co-overexpression of PpYAP1 leads to increased levels of secreted recombinant protein, while a lowered Yap1 function leads to accumulation of ROS and strong flocculation. Transcriptional analysis revealed that more than 150 genes were affected by overexpression of YAP1, in particular genes coding for antioxidant enzymes or involved in oxidation-reduction processes. By monitoring intracellular redox conditions within the cytosol and the ER using redox-sensitive roGFP1 variants, we could show that overexpression of YAP1 restores cellular redox conditions of protein-secreting P. pastoris by reoxidizing the cytosolic redox state to the levels of the wild type. These alterations are also reflected by increased levels of oxidized intracellular glutathione (GSSG in the YAP1 co-overexpressing strain. Taken together, these data indicate a strong impact of intracellular redox balance on the secretion of (recombinant proteins without affecting protein folding per se. Re-establishing suitable redox conditions by tuning the antioxidant capacity of the cell reduces metabolic load and cell stress caused by high oxidative protein folding load, thereby increasing the secretion capacity.

  5. Groundwater redox conditions and conductivity in a contaminant plume from geoelectrical investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naudet

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate mapping of the electrical conductivity and of the redox potential of the groundwater is important in delineating the shape of a contaminant plume. A map of redox potential in an aquifer is indicative of biodegradation of organic matter and of concentrations of redox-active components; a map of electrical conductivity provides information on the mineralisation of the groundwater. Both maps can be used to optimise the position of pumping wells for remediation. The self-potential method (SP and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT have been applied to the contaminant plume associated with the Entressen landfill in south-east France. The self-potential depends on groundwater flow (electrokinetic contribution and redox conditions ('electro-redox' contribution. Using the variation of the piezometric head in the aquifer, the electrokinetic contribution is removed from the SP signals. A good linear correlation (R2=0.85 is obtained between the residual SP data and the redox potential values measured in monitoring wells. This relationship is used to draw a redox potential map of the overall contaminated site. The electrical conductivity of the subsoil is obtained from 3D-ERT analysis. A good linear correlation (R2=0.91 is observed between the electrical conductivity of the aquifer determined from the 3D-ERT image and the conductivity of the groundwater measured in boreholes. This indicates that the formation factor is nearly homogeneous in the shallow aquifer at the scale of the ERT. From this correlation, a map of the pore water conductivity of the aquifer is obtained. Keywords: self-potential, redox potential, electrical resistivity tomography, fluid conductivity, contaminant plume

  6. [Trends in the nutritional status of the Spanish population: results from the Catalan nutrition monitoring system (1992-2003)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Majem, Luis; Ribas Barba, Lourdes; Salvador Castell, Gemma; Roman Viñas, Blanca; Castell Abat, Conxa; Cabezas Peña, Carmen; Pastor Ferrer, Mari Cruz; Raidó Quintana, Blanca; Ngo de la Cruz, Joy; García Alvarez, Alicia; Serra Farró, Jaume; Salleras Sanmartí, Luis; Taradach Antoni, Plasencia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in the nutricional habits and nutricional status of the Catalan population over 10 years interval of the two Catalan Nutricional Surveys conducted in 1992-93 and 2002-03. 2641 individuals in 1992-93 and 2060 individuals in 2002-03 aged 10 to 75 years participated in the surveys. Two 24 hour recall, a food frequency questionnaire, and a general questionnaire with information on physical activity, knowledge and opinions on nutrition and supplements use were administered. Weight (Kg), height (cm) and waist circumference (WC) (cm) were measured. A subsample of the population underwent a biochemical evaluation. Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, tryglicerides and beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and retinol were measured. A decrease in the consumption of fruit, vegetables, potatoes, meat and fish and an increase in the consumption of dairy products and fast food (in young individuals) were reported. An increase in the mean value of Body Mass Index (BMI) was observed among males, and an increase in WC mean value was observed in males and females. BMI value decreased in females (except among the younger ones). The prevalence of obesity increased among males (from 9.9% to 16.6%), but not in females. Both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol decreased. A decrease was observed in the percentage of population with sedentary habits during leisure time. There is a need for an effective nutrition policy promoting healthy nutrition in accordance with the ongoing dietary guidelines.

  7. Monitoring the status of Gray Bats (Myotis grisescens) in Virginia, 2009-2014, and potential impacts of White-nose Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Karen E.; Reynolds, Richard J.; Orndorff, Wil; Hyzy, Brenna A.; Hobson, Christopher S.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Myotis grisescens (Gray Bat) is a federally endangered species distributed over the mid-South with a summer range that extends across the upper Tennessee River Basin, including southwest Virginia. Given the onset of White-nose Syndrome (WNS) in the Commonwealth in the winter of 2009, we initiated yearly surveys in late summer 2009 to monitor the status of known summer populations. Our objectives were to examine the relative health of these bats using body mass index (BMI), and determine any changes in juvenile recruitment across sites and years. We did not find any marked changes in BMI across years after WNS for Gray Bats. This finding suggests that surviving bats are either not negatively impacted by WNS or have recovered sufficiently by late summer as to not document obvious differences across years. After limiting our analyses of juvenile recruitment to only the individuals that we had definitively aged via backlit photos (2010–2014), we found a non-significant declining trend in juvenile recruitment; a trend that merits continued monitoring in the years to come. As Gray Bats have only recently shown to be susceptible to WNS infection, it is possible that observable population declines are forthcoming.

  8. Loose-parts monitoring: present status of the technology, its implementation in U.S. reactors, and some recommendations for achieving improved performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.; Ricker, C.W.; Jones, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the technical development status of loose-parts monitoring systems (LPMS) and their performance record to data in commercial light-water-cooled nuclear reactor plants was made during the spring of 1977, using an on-site personal interview and equipment demonstration approach. The study revealed that while presently demonstrated LPMS technology does indeed provide a capability for detecting the presence of those relatively massive loose parts that would likely constitute a serious operational or safety hazard to the plant, it unfortunately affords little information useful to the determination of the parts' safety significance and has not yet attained the levels of sophistication and reliability ordinarily associated with safety systems. A definite need was found for specification of the functional requirements for LPMS, in the form of a clear and comprehensive statement of NRC policy regarding the formulation and implementation of safety-oriented, yet operationally practicable, loose-parts monitoring programs for both existing and future nuclear generating stations so that overall objectives of both the utilities and the regulatory agency might be satisfied simultaneously

  9. Integrated satellite data fusion and mining for monitoring lake water quality status of the Albufera de Valencia in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doña, Carolina; Chang, Ni-Bin; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan M; Camacho, Antonio; Delegido, Jesús; Vannah, Benjamin W

    2015-03-15

    Lake eutrophication is a critical issue in the interplay of water supply, environmental management, and ecosystem conservation. Integrated sensing, monitoring, and modeling for a holistic lake water quality assessment with respect to multiple constituents is in acute need. The aim of this paper is to develop an integrated algorithm for data fusion and mining of satellite remote sensing images to generate daily estimates of some water quality parameters of interest, such as chlorophyll a concentrations and water transparency, to be applied for the assessment of the hypertrophic Albufera de Valencia. The Albufera de Valencia is the largest freshwater lake in Spain, which can often present values of chlorophyll a concentration over 200 mg m(-3) and values of transparency (Secchi Disk, SD) as low as 20 cm. Remote sensing data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhance Thematic Mapper (ETM+) images were fused to carry out an integrative near-real time water quality assessment on a daily basis. Landsat images are useful to study the spatial variability of the water quality parameters, due to its spatial resolution of 30 m, in comparison to the low spatial resolution (250/500 m) of MODIS. While Landsat offers a high spatial resolution, the low temporal resolution of 16 days is a significant drawback to achieve a near real-time monitoring system. This gap may be bridged by using MODIS images that have a high temporal resolution of 1 day, in spite of its low spatial resolution. Synthetic Landsat images were fused for dates with no Landsat overpass over the study area. Finally, with a suite of ground truth data, a few genetic programming (GP) models were derived to estimate the water quality using the fused surface reflectance data as inputs. The GP model for chlorophyll a estimation yielded a R(2) of 0.94, with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 8 mg m(-3), and the GP model for water transparency estimation using

  10. Ruthenium nanocatalysis on redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumar, Pitchaimani; Ramdass, Arumugam; Rajagopal, Seenivasan

    2013-07-01

    Nanoparticles have generated intense interest over the past 20 years due to their high potential applications in different areas such as catalysis, sensors, nanoscale electronics, fuel and solar cells and optoelectronics. As the large fractions of metal atoms are exposed to the surface, the use of metal nanoparticles as nanocatalysts allows mild reaction conditions and high catalytic efficiency in a large number of chemical transformations. They have emerged as sustainable heterogeneous catalysts and catalyst supports alternative to conventional materials. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterization and catalytic role of ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs) on the redox reactions of heteroatom containing organic compounds with the green reagent H2O2, a field that has attracted immense interest among the chemical, materials and industrial communities. We intend to present a broad overview of Ru nanocatalysts for redox reactions with an emphasis on their performance, stability and reusability. The growth in the chemistry of organic sulfoxides and N-oxides during last decade was due to their importance as synthetic intermediates for the production of a wide range of chemically and biologically active molecules. Thus design of efficient methods for the synthesis of sulfoxides and N-oxides becomes important. This review concentrates on the catalysis of RuNPs on the H2O2 oxidation of organic sulfides to sulfoxides and amines to N-oxides. The deoxygenation reactions of sulfoxides to sulfides and reduction of nitro compounds to amines are fundamental reactions in both chemistry and biology. Here, we also highlight the catalysis of metal nanoparticles on the deoxygenation of sulfoxides and sulfones and reduction of nitro compounds with particular emphasis on the mechanistic aspects.

  11. Visualization of Nicotine Adenine Dinucleotide Redox Homeostasis with Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuzheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Zou, Yejun; Yang, Yi

    2018-01-20

    Beyond their roles as redox currency in living organisms, pyridine dinucleotides (NAD + /NADH and NADP + /NADPH) are also precursors or cosubstrates of great significance in various physiologic and pathologic processes. Recent Advances: For many years, it was challenging to develop methodologies for monitoring pyridine dinucleotides in situ or in vivo. Recent advances in fluorescent protein-based sensors provide a rapid, sensitive, specific, and real-time readout of pyridine dinucleotide dynamics in single cells or in vivo, thereby opening a new era of pyridine dinucleotide bioimaging. In this article, we summarize the developments in genetically encoded fluorescent sensors for NAD + /NADH and NADP + /NADPH redox states, as well as their applications in life sciences and drug discovery. The strengths and weaknesses of individual sensors are also discussed. These sensors have the advantages of being specific and organelle targetable, enabling real-time monitoring and subcellular-level quantification of targeted molecules in living cells and in vivo. NAD + /NADH and NADP + /NADPH have distinct functions in metabolic and redox regulation, and thus, a comprehensive evaluation of metabolic and redox states must be multiplexed with a combination of various metabolite sensors in a single cell. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 213-229.

  12. Status of higher order mode beam position monitors in 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M; Flisgen, T; Van Rienen, U; Shinton, I R R

    2013-01-01

    Higher order mode (HOM) beam position monitors (BPM) are being developed for the 3.9 GHz third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. The transverse beam position in a cavity can be determined utilizing beam-excited HOMs based on dipole components. The existing couplers used for HOM suppression provide necessary signals. The diagnostics principle is similar to a cavity BPM, but requires no additional vacuum instruments on the linac. The challenges of HOM-BPM for 3.9 GHz cavities lie in the dense HOM spectrum arising from the coupling of the majority HOMs amongst the four cavities in the cryo-module ACC39. HOMs with particularly promising diagnostics features were evaluated using a spectrum analyzer and custom-built test electronics with various data analysis techniques, data reduction was focused on. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, multi-cavity modes in the region of 5 GHz were chosen to provide a global position over the complete module with superi...

  13. Organic Redox Species in Aqueous Flow Batteries: Redox Potentials, Chemical Stability and Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedege, Kristina; Dražević, Emil; Konya, Denes; Bentien, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined with single cell battery RFB tests on selected redox pairs. Data shows that both the solubility and redox potential are determined by the position of the side groups and only to a small extent by the number of side groups. Additionally, the chemical stability and possible degradation mechanisms leading to capacity loss over time are discussed. The main challenge for the development of all-organic RFBs is to identify a redox pair for the positive side with sufficiently high stability and redox potential that enables battery cell potentials above 1 V. PMID:27966605

  14. Redox behaviors of iron by absorption spectroscopy and redox potential measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Yong

    2010-02-01

    This work is performed to study the redox (reduction/oxidation) behaviors of iron in aqueous system by a combination of absorption spectroscopy and redox potential measurements. There are many doubts on redox potential measurements generally showing low accuracies and high uncertainties. In the present study, redox potentials are measured by utilizing various redox electrodes such as Pt, Au, Ag, and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Measured redox potentials are compared with calculated redox potentials based on the chemical oxidation speciation of iron and thermodynamic data by absorption spectroscopy, which provides one of the sensitive and selective spectroscopic methods for the chemical speciation of Fe(II/III). From the comparison analyses, redox potential values measured by the Ag redox electrode are fairly consistent with those calculated by the chemical aqueous speciation of iron in the whole system. In summary, the uncertainties of measured redox potentials are closely related with the total Fe concentration and affected by the formation of mixed potentials due to Fe(III) precipitates in the pH range of 6 ∼ 9 beyond the solubility of Fe(III), whilst being independent of the initially prepared concentration ratios between Fe(II) and Fe(III)

  15. Organic Redox Species in Aqueous Flow Batteries: Redox Potentials, Chemical Stability and Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedege, Kristina; Dražević, Emil; Konya, Denes; Bentien, Anders

    2016-12-01

    Organic molecules are currently investigated as redox species for aqueous low-cost redox flow batteries (RFBs). The envisioned features of using organic redox species are low cost and increased flexibility with respect to tailoring redox potential and solubility from molecular engineering of side groups on the organic redox-active species. In this paper 33, mainly quinone-based, compounds are studied experimentially in terms of pH dependent redox potential, solubility and stability, combined with single cell battery RFB tests on selected redox pairs. Data shows that both the solubility and redox potential are determined by the position of the side groups and only to a small extent by the number of side groups. Additionally, the chemical stability and possible degradation mechanisms leading to capacity loss over time are discussed. The main challenge for the development of all-organic RFBs is to identify a redox pair for the positive side with sufficiently high stability and redox potential that enables battery cell potentials above 1 V.

  16. [Current status of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and continuous glucose monitoring systems in the Community of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz Martín, Alfonso; Calle Pascual, Alfonso; Del Cañizo Gómez, Francisco Javier; González Albarrán, Olga; Lisbona Gil, Arturo; Botella Serrano, Marta; Pallardo Sánchez, Luis Felipe

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the available information about continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems in the public health care system of the Community of Madrid. A survey consisting of 31 items was sent to the 28 endocrinology department of the Madrid public hospitals. Items focused on CSII and CGM and included patients' registrations, as well as data regarding healthcare, administrative, and logistic aspects. Responses from a total of 20 hospitals where these procedures are used were received from March 2013 to May 2014. Data about pediatric patients were obtained from adult endocrinology departments, except for two hospitals which directly reported the information. A total of 1256 CSII pumps were recorded in the Madrid region, of which 1089 were used by adults, and the remaining 167 by pediatric patients. During 2013, 151 new CSII systems were implanted (12% of the total), while 14 pumps were withdrawn. Availability of human resources (medical assistance) and the number of staff practitioners experienced in management of these systems widely varied between hospitals. Eighty-five percent of hospitals used retrospective CGM systems, and 40% routinely placed them before starting an insulin pump. Thirteen hospitals (65%) used long-term, real-time CGM systems in selected cases (a total of 67 patients). Use of these technologies in diabetes is unequal between public health care hospitals in Madrid, and is still significantly lower as compared to other countries with similar incomes. However, there appears to be a trend to an increase in their use. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Redox kinetics and mechanism in silicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochain, B.

    2009-12-01

    This work contributes to better understand iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate melts. It was conducted on compositions in both Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO and Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -FeO systems. The influence of boron-sodium and aluminum-sodium substitutions and iron content on properties and structure of glasses and on the iron redox kinetics has been studied by Raman, Moessbauer and XANES spectroscopies at the B and Fe K-edges. In borosilicate glasses, an increase in iron content or in the Fe 3+ /ΣFe redox state implies a structural rearrangement of the BO 4 species in the glass network whereas the BO 3 and BO 4 relative proportions remain nearly constant. In all studied glasses and melts, Fe 3+ is a network former in tetrahedral coordination, unless for aluminosilicates of ratio Al/Na≥1 where Fe 3+ is a network modifier in five-fold coordination. Near Tg, diffusion of network modifying cations controls the iron redox kinetics along with a flux of electron holes. At liquidus temperatures, oxygen diffusion is considered to be the mechanism that governs redox reactions. This study shows the role played by the silicate network polymerization on the redox kinetics. In borosilicate melts, iron redox kinetics depends on the boron speciation between BO 3 and BO 4 that depends itself on the sodium content. Furthermore, an increase in the network-former/network-modifier ratio implies a decrease in oxygen diffusion that results in a slowing down of the redox kinetics. The obtained results allow a description of the iron redox kinetics for more complex compositions as natural lavas or nuclear waste model glasses. (author)

  18. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D. [Nez Perce Tribe

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there

  19. Radioactive contamination. Italian programme to monitor the radiocesium levels in the urine and thyroid status of exposed children from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Valeriani, F.; Musumeci, R.G.; Salimei, G.; Marinosci, N.; Giannotti, I.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1995, following the accident at Chernobyl, the Italian Red Cross has hosted about 2,000 children from the contaminated zones of Belorussia and the Ukraine. The purpose of the project was to ensure, by temporary removal of the children from the contaminated areas, an improvement in their general well-being with both physical and psychological benefits. In the current work, in particular, the results reported are of a study carried out in order to evaluate radioactive contamination levels and the medical surveillance of the thyroid status of the exposed children after the fall-out of the accident at Chernobyl. During the course of the research 400 children were examined, masculine and feminine, between the ages of 6 and 16. The children from Belorussia were hosted by families in Tuscany and the children from the Ukraine were hosted in the Corpomiles Center of the Italian Red Cross in Lazio. The children were hosted for a period of 30 days in our country and many have returned since then and we have repeated the same analyses. In the current work a radiometric analysis was carried out on the children's urine samples to find Cs-137 and Cs-134. The concentration of the two radionuclides was measured at the beginning and end of the children's stay in Italy. The two radionuclides were collected over a period of 24 hours. Moreover, a scan of the thyroid was carried out on the same children to discover the potential presence of a glandular tumour of pathological form caused by I-131. The results of the spectrometric analyses give indications as to the degree of radioactivity contamination in the children relative to their different home countries. The results confirm the existence of a chronic radioactive contamination due to a balanced diet of contaminated food. The analysis of the thyroid also demonstrated small to medium lymphadenopaties latero cervical. In conclusion, data collected from our present multidisciplinary work shows a decrease of around 30% in Cs-137

  20. Monitoring sedation status over time in ICU patients: reliability and validity of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, E Wesley; Truman, Brenda; Shintani, Ayumi; Thomason, Jason W W; Wheeler, Arthur P; Gordon, Sharon; Francis, Joseph; Speroff, Theodore; Gautam, Shiva; Margolin, Richard; Sessler, Curtis N; Dittus, Robert S; Bernard, Gordon R

    2003-06-11

    <.001). Face validity was demonstrated via a survey of 26 critical care nurses, which the results showed that 92% agreed or strongly agreed with the RASS scoring scheme, and 81% agreed or strongly agreed that the instrument provided a consensus for goal-directed delivery of medications. The RASS demonstrated excellent interrater reliability and criterion, construct, and face validity. This is the first sedation scale to be validated for its ability to detect changes in sedation status over consecutive days of ICU care, against constructs of level of consciousness and delirium, and correlated with the administered dose of sedative and analgesic medications.

  1. Redox regulation of cell proliferation: Bioinformatics and redox proteomics approaches to identify redox-sensitive cell cycle regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Wilson, Michael H; Wright, Megan H

    2018-03-29

    Plant stem cells are the foundation of plant growth and development. The balance of quiescence and division is highly regulated, while ensuring that proliferating cells are protected from the adverse effects of environment fluctuations that may damage the genome. Redox regulation is important in both the activation of proliferation and arrest of the cell cycle upon perception of environmental stress. Within this context, reactive oxygen species serve as 'pro-life' signals with positive roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and survival. However, very little is known about the metabolic mechanisms and redox-sensitive proteins that influence cell cycle progression. We have identified cysteine residues on known cell cycle regulators in Arabidopsis that are potentially accessible, and could play a role in redox regulation, based on secondary structure and solvent accessibility likelihoods for each protein. We propose that redox regulation may function alongside other known posttranslational modifications to control the functions of core cell cycle regulators such as the retinoblastoma protein. Since our current understanding of how redox regulation is involved in cell cycle control is hindered by a lack of knowledge regarding both which residues are important and how modification of those residues alters protein function, we discuss how critical redox modifications can be mapped at the molecular level. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Aspects of Cellular Thiol-Disulfide Redox Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Steen; Hansen, Rosa Erritzøe; Winther, Jakob R

    2009-01-01

    . In the cytosol regulatory disulfide bonds are typically formed in spite of the prevailing reducing conditions and may thereby function as redox switches. Such disulfide bonds are protected from enzymatic reduction by kinetic barriers and are thus allowed to exist long enough to elicit the signal. Factors......Regulation of intracellular thiol-disulfide redox status is an essential part of cellular homeostasis. This involves the regulation of both oxidative and reductive pathways, production of oxidant scavengers and, importantly, the ability of cells to respond to changes in the redox environment...... that affect the rate of thiol-disulfide exchange and stability of disulfide bonds are discussed within the framework of the underlying chemical foundations. This includes the effect of thiol acidity (pKa), the local electrostatic environment, molecular strain and entropy. Even though a thiol-disulfide...

  3. Trends in nutrient intakes, nutritional status, and correlates of undernutrition among rural children below 5 years of age: The National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau Survey 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I I Meshram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of several national nutrition intervention programs that have been in operation since the past four decades, undernutrition continues to be an important public health problem in India. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the trends in food and nutrient intakes and nutritional status of children in India below 5 years of age. Setting and Design: A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in ten National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau states by adopting a multistage random sampling procedure. Methods: Data were collected on the household (HH socioeconomic and demographic particulars, and anthropometric measurements of the children, such as their length/height and weight, were noted. A 24-h dietary recall method was used for assessing dietary intake. Results: Intake of all the foodstuffs except pulses, vegetables, and fats and oils declined over a period of time (1975–1979 to 2011–2012 while the intake of all the micronutrients except Vitamins A and C declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition, i.e. underweight, stunting, and wasting has declined from 76%, 82%, and 27%, respectively in 1975–1979 to 42%, 44%, and 19%,respectively, in 2011–2012 among 1-5 year children. The severe form of undernutrition has also declined during the same period. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly (P < 0.01 higher among children of illiterate mothers, those belonging to lower socioeconomic status, and those living in nuclear families. Conclusions: The prevalence of undernutrition declined over the period despite the decrease in food and nutrient intake. However, the pace of decline was slower and it was attributed to improved health-care services coupled with control of communicable diseases and increase in the HHs income. Further efforts are needed to improve the literacy of parents, environmental and personal hygiene, along with the food security of HHs through a public

  4. Thioredoxin Selectivity for Thiol-based Redox Regulation of Target Proteins in Chloroplasts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hara, Satoshi; Hisabori, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Redox regulation based on the thioredoxin (Trx) system is believed to ensure light-responsive control of various functions in chloroplasts. Five Trx subtypes have been reported to reside in chloroplasts, but their functional diversity in the redox regulation of Trx target proteins remains poorly clarified. To directly address this issue, we studied the Trx-dependent redox shifts of several chloroplast thiol-modulated enzymes in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assays using a series of Arabidopsis recombinant proteins provided new insights into Trx selectivity for the redox regulation as well as the underpinning for previous suggestions. Most notably, by combining the discrimination of thiol status with mass spectrometry and activity measurement, we identified an uncharacterized aspect of the reductive activation of NADP-malate dehydrogenase; two redox-active Cys pairs harbored in this enzyme were reduced via distinct utilization of Trxs even within a single polypeptide. In our in vitro assays, Trx-f was effective in reducing all thiol-modulated enzymes analyzed here. We then investigated the in vivo physiological relevance of these in vitro findings, using Arabidopsis wild-type and Trx-f-deficient plants. Photoreduction of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase was partially impaired in Trx-f-deficient plants, but the global impact of Trx-f deficiency on the redox behaviors of thiol-modulated enzymes was not as striking as expected from the in vitro data. Our results provide support for the in vivo functionality of the Trx system and also highlight the complexity and plasticity of the chloroplast redox network. PMID:25878252

  5. Redox Behavior of Fe2+/Fe3+ Redox Couple by Absorption Spectroscopy and Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, J. Y.; Park, S.; Yun, J. I.

    2010-01-01

    Redox behavior has influences on speciation and other geochemical reactions of radionuclides such as sorption, solubility, and colloid formation, etc. It is one of the factors for evaluation of long-term safety assessment under high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal conditions. Accordingly, redox potential (Eh) measurement in aquatic system is important to investigate the redox conditions. Eh is usually measured with redox active electrodes (Pt, Au, glassy carbon, etc.). Nevertheless, Eh measurements by general methods using electrodes provide low accuracy and high uncertainty problem. Therefore, Eh calculated from the concentration of redox active elements with a proper complexing reagent by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy is progressed. Iron exists mostly as spent nuclear waste container material and in hydro-geologic minerals. In this system, iron controls the redox condition in near-field area and influences chemical behavior and speciation of radionuclides including redox sensitive actinides such as U, Np, and Pu. In the present work, we present the investigation on redox phenomena of iron in aquatic system by a combination of absorption spectroscopy and redox potential measurements

  6. Mitochondrial redox biology and homeostasis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Graham; De Paepe, Rosine; Foyer, Christine H

    2007-03-01

    Mitochondria are key players in plant cell redox homeostasis and signalling. Earlier concepts that regarded mitochondria as secondary to chloroplasts as the powerhouses of photosynthetic cells, with roles in cell proliferation, death and ageing described largely by analogy to animal paradigms, have been replaced by the new philosophy of integrated cellular energy and redox metabolism involving mitochondria and chloroplasts. Thanks to oxygenic photosynthesis, plant mitochondria often operate in an oxygen- and carbohydrate-rich environment. This rather unique environment necessitates extensive flexibility in electron transport pathways and associated NAD(P)-linked enzymes. In this review, mitochondrial redox metabolism is discussed in relation to the integrated cellular energy and redox function that controls plant cell biology and fate.

  7. Symproportionation versus Disproportionation in Bromine Redox Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toporek, Marcin; Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M.; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: • The disproportionation and symproportionation of bromine in different media is presented. • All the redox systems are elaborated according to the principles of the generalized approach to electrolytic redox systems (GATES/GEB). • All physicochemical knowledge is involved in the algorithm applied for this purpose. • The graphical representation of the systems is the basis of gaining the detailed physicochemical knowledge on the systems in question. -- Abstract: The paper refers to dynamic (titration) redox systems where symproportionation or disproportionation of bromine species occur. The related systems are modeled according to principles assumed in the Generalized Approach to Electrolytic Redox Systems (GATES), with Generalized Electron Balance (GEB) concept involved in the GATES/GEB software. The results obtained from calculations made with use of iterative computer programs prepared according to MATLAB computational software, are presented graphically, as 2D and 3D graphs

  8. Polyarene mediators for mediated redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnick, Frank M.; Ingersoll, David; Liang, Chengdu

    2018-01-02

    The fundamental charge storage mechanisms in a number of currently studied high energy redox couples are based on intercalation, conversion, or displacement reactions. With exception to certain metal-air chemistries, most often the active redox materials are stored physically in the electrochemical cell stack thereby lowering the practical gravimetric and volumetric energy density as a tradeoff to achieve reasonable power density. In a general embodiment, a mediated redox flow battery includes a series of secondary organic molecules that form highly reduced anionic radicals as reaction mediator pairs for the reduction and oxidation of primary high capacity redox species ex situ from the electrochemical cell stack. Arenes are reduced to stable anionic radicals that in turn reduce a primary anode to the charged state. The primary anode is then discharged using a second lower potential (more positive) arene. Compatible separators and solvents are also disclosed herein.

  9. Redox characteristics of the eukaryotic cytosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Winther, Jakob R

    2007-01-01

    The eukaryotic cytoplasm has long been regarded as a cellular compartment in which the reduced state of protein cysteines is largely favored. Under normal conditions, the cytosolic low-molecular weight redox buffer, comprising primarily of glutathione, is highly reducing and reactive oxygen species...... (ROS) and glutathionylated proteins are maintained at very low levels. In the present review, recent progress in the understanding of the cytosolic thiol-disulfide redox metabolism and novel analytical approaches to studying cytosolic redox properties are discussed. We will focus on the yeast model...... organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the combination of genetic and biochemical approaches has brought us furthest in understanding the mechanisms underlying cellular redox regulation. It has been shown in yeast that, in addition to the enzyme glutathione reductase, other mechanisms may exist...

  10. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention. PMID:24958177

  11. Redox Regulation of Endothelial Cell Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are present throughout blood vessels and have variable roles in both physiological and pathological settings. EC fate is altered and regulated by several key factors in physiological or pathological conditions. Reactive nitrogen species and reactive oxygen species derived from NAD(P)H oxidases, mitochondria, or nitric oxide-producing enzymes are not only cytotoxic but also compose a signaling network in the redox system. The formation, actions, key molecular interactions, and physiological and pathological relevance of redox signals in ECs remain unclear. We review the identities, sources, and biological actions of oxidants and reductants produced during EC function or dysfunction. Further, we discuss how ECs shape key redox sensors and examine the biological functions, transcriptional responses, and post-translational modifications evoked by the redox system in ECs. We summarize recent findings regarding the mechanisms by which redox signals regulate the fate of ECs and address the outcome of altered EC fate in health and disease. Future studies will examine if the redox biology of ECs can be targeted in pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24633153

  12. Membranes for redox flow battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Helen; Parasuraman, Aishwarya; Winardi, Suminto; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2012-06-19

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  13. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. The membrane acts as a separator to prevent cross-mixing of the positive and negative electrolytes, while still allowing the transport of ions to complete the circuit during the passage of current. An ideal membrane should have high ionic conductivity, low water intake and excellent chemical and thermal stability as well as good ionic exchange capacity. Developing a low cost, chemically stable membrane for redox flow cell batteries has been a major focus for many groups around the world in recent years. This paper reviews the research work on membranes for redox flow batteries, in particular for the all-vanadium redox flow battery which has received the most attention.

  14. Brain redox imaging in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model of epilepsy by using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance and a nitroxide imaging probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, Miho C; Yamato, Mayumi; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Fujii, Hirotada G

    2015-11-03

    Much evidence supports the idea that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, and therapeutic interventions with antioxidants are expected as adjunct antiepileptic therapy. The aims of this study were to non-invasively obtain spatially resolved redox data from control and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindled mouse brains by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and to visualize the brain regions that are sensitive to oxidative damage. After infusion of the redox-sensitive imaging probe 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (MCP), a series of EPR images of PTZ-induced mouse heads were measured. Based on the pharmacokinetics of the reduction reaction of MCP in the mouse heads, the pixel-based rate constant of its reduction reaction was calculated as an index of redox status in vivo and mapped as a redox map. The obtained redox map showed heterogeneity in the redox status in PTZ-induced mouse brains compared with control. The co-registered image of the redox map and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for both control and PTZ-induced mice showed a clear change in the redox status around the hippocampus after PTZ. To examine the role of antioxidants on the brain redox status, the levels of antioxidants were measured in brain tissues of control and PTZ-induced mice. Significantly lower concentrations of glutathione in the hippocampus of PTZ-kindled mice were detected compared with control. From the results of both EPR imaging and the biochemical assay, the hippocampus was found to be susceptible to oxidative damage in the PTZ-induced animal model of epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanistic insight provided by glutaredoxin within a fusion to redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Østergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R

    2006-01-01

    Redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein (rxYFP) contains a dithiol disulfide pair that is thermodynamically suitable for monitoring intracellular glutathione redox potential. Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1p) from yeast is known to catalyze the redox equilibrium between rxYFP and glutathione, and here, we...... have generated a fusion of the two proteins, rxYFP-Grx1p. In comparison to isolated subunits, intramolecular transfer of reducing equivalents made the fusion protein kinetically superior in reactions with glutathione. The rate of GSSG oxidation was thus improved by a factor of 3300. The reaction...... separately and in the fusion. This could not be ascribed to the lack of an unproductive side reaction to glutaredoxin disulfide. Instead, slower alkylation kinetics with iodoacetamide indicates a better leaving-group capability of the remaining cysteine residue, which can explain the increased activity....

  16. The redox biology network in cancer pathophysiology and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Manda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The review pinpoints operational concepts related to the redox biology network applied to the pathophysiology and therapeutics of solid tumors. A sophisticated network of intrinsic and extrinsic cues, integrated in the tumor niche, drives tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Critical mutations and distorted redox signaling pathways orchestrate pathologic events inside cancer cells, resulting in resistance to stress and death signals, aberrant proliferation and efficient repair mechanisms. Additionally, the complex inter-cellular crosstalk within the tumor niche, mediated by cytokines, redox-sensitive danger signals (HMGB1 and exosomes, under the pressure of multiple stresses (oxidative, inflammatory, metabolic, greatly contributes to the malignant phenotype. The tumor-associated inflammatory stress and its suppressive action on the anti-tumor immune response are highlighted. We further emphasize that ROS may act either as supporter or enemy of cancer cells, depending on the context. Oxidative stress-based therapies, such as radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy, take advantage of the cytotoxic face of ROS for killing tumor cells by a non-physiologically sudden, localized and intense oxidative burst. The type of tumor cell death elicited by these therapies is discussed. Therapy outcome depends on the differential sensitivity to oxidative stress of particular tumor cells, such as cancer stem cells, and therefore co-therapies that transiently down-regulate their intrinsic antioxidant system hold great promise. We draw attention on the consequences of the damage signals delivered by oxidative stress-injured cells to neighboring and distant cells, and emphasize the benefits of therapeutically triggered immunologic cell death in metastatic cancer. An integrative approach should be applied when designing therapeutic strategies in cancer, taking