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Sample records for monitoring pulse strikes

  1. Pulse oximetry for perioperative monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann Merete; Hovhannisyan, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Pulse oximetry is extensively used in the perioperative period and might improve patient outcomes by enabling an early diagnosis and, consequently, correction of perioperative events that might cause postoperative complications or even death. Only a few randomized clinical trials of pulse oximetry...

  2. Pulse oximetry for perioperative monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom; Nicholson, Amanda; Hovhannisyan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    . Results indicated that hypoxaemia was reduced in the pulse oximetry group, both in the operating theatre and in the recovery room. During observation in the recovery room, the incidence of hypoxaemia in the pulse oximetry group was 1.5 to three times less. Postoperative cognitive function was independent...... postoperative complications or even death. Only a few randomized clinical trials of pulse oximetry during anaesthesia and in the recovery room have been performed that describe perioperative hypoxaemic events, postoperative cardiopulmonary complications and cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: To study the use...... checked the reference lists of trials and review articles. The original search was performed in January 2005, and a previous update was performed in May 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all controlled trials that randomly assigned participants to pulse oximetry or no pulse oximetry during...

  3. Effect of source parameters on forward-directivity velocity pulse for vertical strike slip fault in half space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qifang; Yuan Yifan; Jin Xing

    2006-01-01

    It has been found that the large velocity pulse is one of the most important characteristics of near-fault strong ground motions. Some statistical relationships between pulse period and the moment magnitude for near-fault strong ground motions have been established by Somerville (1998); Alavi and Krawinkler ( 2000); and Mavroeidis and Papageorgiou (2003), where no variety of rupture velocity, fault depth, and fault distance, etc. were considered. Since near-fault ground motions are significantly influenced by the rupture process and source parameters, the effects of some source parameters on the amplitude and the period of a forward-directivity velocity pulse in a half space are analyzed by the finite difference method combined with the kinematic source model in this paper. The study shows that the rupture velocity, fault depth, position of the initial rupture point and distribution of asperities are the most important parameters to the velocity pulse. Generally, the pulse period decreases and the pulse amplitude increases as the rupture velocity increases for shallow crustal earthquakes. In a definite region besides the fault trace, the pulse period increases as the fault depth increases. For a uniform strike slip fault,rupture initiating from one end of a fault and propagating to the other always generates a higher pulse amplitude and longer pulse period than in other cases.

  4. Effect of source parameters on forward-directivity velocity pulse for vertical strike slip fault in half space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qifang; Yuan, Yifan; Jin, Xing

    2006-06-01

    It has been found that the large velocity pulse is one of the most important characteristics of near-fault strong ground motions. Some statistical relationships between pulse period and the moment magnitude for near-fault strong ground motions have been established by Somerville (1998); Alavi and Krawinkler (2000); and Mavroeidis and Papageorgiou (2003), where no variety of rupture velocity, fault depth, and fault distance, etc. were considered. Since near-fault ground motions are significantly influenced by the rupture process and source parameters, the effects of some source parameters on the amplitude and the period of a forward-directivity velocity pulse in a half space are analyzed by the finite difference method combined with the kinematic source model in this paper. The study shows that the rupture velocity, fault depth, position of the initial rupture point and distribution of asperities are the most important parameters to the velocity pulse. Generally, the pulse period decreases and the pulse amplitude increases as the rupture velocity increases for shallow crustal earthquakes. In a definite region besides the fault trace, the pulse period increases as the fault depth increases. For a uniform strike slip fault, rupture initiating from one end of a fault and propagating to the other always generates a higher pulse amplitude and longer pulse period than in other cases.

  5. Advanced Pulse Oximetry System for Remote Monitoring and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Geon Pak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulse oximetry data such as saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2 and pulse rate are vital signals for early diagnosis of heart disease. Therefore, various pulse oximeters have been developed continuously. However, some of the existing pulse oximeters are not equipped with communication capabilities, and consequently, the continuous monitoring of patient health is restricted. Moreover, even though certain oximeters have been built as network models, they focus on exchanging only pulse oximetry data, and they do not provide sufficient device management functions. In this paper, we propose an advanced pulse oximetry system for remote monitoring and management. The system consists of a networked pulse oximeter and a personal monitoring server. The proposed pulse oximeter measures a patient’s pulse oximetry data and transmits the data to the personal monitoring server. The personal monitoring server then analyzes the received data and displays the results to the patient. Furthermore, for device management purposes, operational errors that occur in the pulse oximeter are reported to the personal monitoring server, and the system configurations of the pulse oximeter, such as thresholds and measurement targets, are modified by the server. We verify that the proposed pulse oximetry system operates efficiently and that it is appropriate for monitoring and managing a pulse oximeter in real time.

  6. The CRRES IDM spacecraft experiment for insulator discharge pulses. [Internal Discharge Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Mullen, E. G.; Kerns, K. J.; Robinson, P. A.; Holeman, E. G.

    1993-01-01

    The Internal Discharge Monitor (IDM) is designed to observe electrical pulses from common electrical insulators in space service. The characteristics of the instrument are described. The IDM was flown on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). The sixteen insulator samples included G10 circuit boards, FR4 and PTFE fiberglass circuit boards, FEP Teflon, alumina, and wires with common insulations. The samples are fully enclosed, mutually isolated, and space radiation penetrates 0.02 cm of aluminum before striking the samples. Published data in the literature provides a simple method for determining the flux of penetrating electrons. The pulse rate is compared to the penetrating flux of electrons.

  7. Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briestenský Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU-TecNet monitoring network uses customized three-dimensional extensometers to record transient deformations across individual faults. This paper presents the first results from two newly established monitoring points in the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria. The data from Saeva Dupka, recorded across an EEN-WWS striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the southern block. Much of the subsidence occurred around the time of the distal MW = 5.6 Pernik Earthquake. An important transient deformation event, which began in autumn 2012, was reflected by significant compression and following extension, across the monitored fault. The data from Bacho Kiro, recorded across a NE–SW striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the north-western block. The same important deformation event was reflected by changes in the strike-slip, dip-slip, and horizontal opening/closing trends. These results have been compared to data from other monitoring points in the Western Carpathians, External Dinarides, and Tian Shan. Many of the sites show evidence of simultaneous displacement anomalies and this observation is interpreted as a reflection of the plate-wide propagation of a tectonic pressure pulse towards the end of 2012.

  8. Pulse radiolysis apparatus for monitoring at 2000 Å

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.C.; Nilsson, G.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1969-01-01

    A pulse radiolysis apparatus with photometric monitoring has been built around an 11 MeV, 250 mA peak current, linac that delivers single 0.25 to 4 μsec pulses. The novel features of the apparatus include (1) a 450 W xenon lamp as the analyzing light source which in pulsed operation had a 25 times...... increased luminance; (2) a fast electronic switch that cut out the signal due to the Cerenkov radiation; (3) a secondary emission chamber that allowed the simultaneous measurement of the current and the direction of the pulsed electron beam; and (4) a system for remote controlled change of liquid samples...... stored in glass syringes. Reliable measurements of optical transmission could be made starting 0.2 μsec after the electron pulse at wavelengths down to 2000 Å on transient species having products of yield and absorptivity G×ε>500 mole (100 eV)-1.liter-1.cm-1...

  9. Wide-range monitor for pulsed x-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaifer, R.C.; Jenkins, T.E.; Straume, T.

    1981-10-12

    A monitoring instrument based on a high-pressure ionization chamber has been developed that measures average dose rates as low as 0.1 mR/h and responds linearly to short pulses at dose rates up to 1.2 x 10/sup 10/ R/h. Its sensitivity can be remotely changed by a factor of 10/sup 4/, to enable accurate measurement of both background radiation and very high intensities such as can be expected from accelerator beam-spills. The instrument's detector-electrometer pulse response was measured using a dose-calibrated field-emission accelerator having a 30-ns pulse width.

  10. Clinical evaluation of pulse oximetry monitors on critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, C; Poelaert, J; Rolly, G; Colardyn, F

    1990-01-01

    Four pulse oximeters and two pulse oximeter-capnographs were evaluated on accuracy of measuring oxygen saturation and heartrate for the former and oxygen saturation, heartrate, respiratory rate and capnography for the latter. In the first part of the study four pulse oximeters (Criticare Systems Model 501 +, Ohmeda Biox 3700 Pulse Oximeter, Nellcor Model N 100 and Datex Satlite) were simultaneously studied on 10 ventilated ICU patients. Fifty simultaneous measurements were done for heartrate and oxygen saturation and compared to arterial saturations and ECG heartrates. Mean differences from pulse oximeter values versus control arterial and ECG values were within two percent for the four instruments. In the second part two oxicaps (Ohmeda 4700 and Nellcor N 1000) were evaluated with the same control parameters. Thirty measurements on 3 patients were done. As in the first part of the study all results were accurate within two percent of control values. From those data we can conclude that all examined monitors were fairly accurate compared to simultaneous arterial blood gas analysis and ECG monitoring. The oxicap monitors have the advantage of giving continuous information on two very important parameters of patient monitoring: CO2 and saturation.

  11. MoMAR observatory: A Geophysical, Geological and Oceanographical Approach to the Monitoring of the Lucky Strike Segment (GRAVILUCK Cruise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballu, V.; Cannat, M.; Graviluck Scientific Party, A.

    2006-12-01

    The GRAVILUCK expedition, conducted in August 2006 on the R/V ATALANTE, was mainly dedicated to the installation of a seafloor geodetic network in the framework of the MoMAR ("Monitoring the Mid-Atlantic Ridge") project, to study active mid-ocean ridge processes along a slow-spreading ridge segment. The chosen site for this integrated "observatory" effort is the Lucky Strike segment (37°N) along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, South of the Azores Archipelago; it combines both logistic and scientific interests, and has been studied in depth by geologists, geophysicists and biologists for many years. It also presents an intense hydrothermal activity and hosts an axial magma chamber under its center discovered last year during the SISMOMAR cruise. The installation of 9 permanent geodetic benchmarks and the time-zero pressure and gravity measurements were conducting during 19 Nautile dives. Pressure changes measured at a benchmark can be due to environmental variability, to a change in the elevation of the point, or to both. To quantify environmental variations, we monitored water column with full depth CTD prior to each dive, and shallow CTD yoyos down to 500 m during the dives. These oceanographic measurements will allow us to directly model and remove part of the environmental variability and thus increase our capability to detect small vertical motions over several years. Three additional Nautile dives were dedicated to geology and gravity cartography of the central volcano. In addition to the day program, 10 nights were devoted to a geological survey using the TowCam (camera, magnetometer, wax coring, CTD) to characterize tectonic and magmatic features of the Lucky Strike volcano, their relationship to the magma chamber location, and identification of areas of most recent apparent volcanic activity; 10 other nights were dedicated to studying ocean circulation and induced mixing around the Lucky Strike site. GRAVILUCK cruise Scientific Party: CNRS/IPGP: J. Ammann, V

  12. Development of advanced radiation monitors for pulsed neutron fields

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081895

    The need of radiation detectors capable of efficiently measuring in pulsed neutron fields is attracting widespread interest since the 60s. The efforts of the scientific community substantially increased in the last decade due to the increasing number of applications in which this radiation field is encountered. This is a major issue especially at particle accelerator facilities, where pulsed neutron fields are present because of beam losses at targets, collimators and beam dumps, and where the correct assessment of the intensity of the neutron fields is fundamental for radiation protection monitoring. LUPIN is a neutron detector that combines an innovative acquisition electronics based on logarithmic amplification of the collected current signal and a special technique used to derive the total number of detected neutron interactions, which has been specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields. Due to its special working principle, it is capable of overcoming the typical saturation issues encountere...

  13. Miniaturized pulse oximeter sensor for continuous vital parameter monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Jens; Reichelt, Stephan; Werber, Armin; Bingger, Philipp; Zappe, Hans; Förster, Katharina; Klemm, Rolf; Heilmann, Claudia; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2007-07-01

    A miniaturized photoplethysmographic sensor system which utilizes the principle of pulse oximetry is presented. The sensor is designed to be implantable and will permit continuous monitoring of important human vital parameters such as arterial blood oxygen saturation as well as pulse rate and shape over a long-term period in vivo. The system employs light emitting diodes and a photo transistor embedded in a transparent elastic cu. which is directly wrapped around an arterial vessel. This paper highlights the specific challenges in design, instrumentation, and electronics associated with that sensor location. In vitro measurements were performed using an artificial circulation system which allows for regulation of the oxygen saturation and pulsatile pumping of whole blood through a section of a domestic pig's arterial vessel. We discuss our experimental results compared to reference CO-oximeter measurements and determine the empirical calibration curve. These results demonstrate the capabilities of the pulse oximeter implant for measurement of a wide range of oxygen saturation levels and pave the way for a continuous and mobile monitoring of high-risk cardiovascular patients.

  14. Noninvasive continuous monitoring of digital pulse waves during hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkert, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intermittent hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis treatment is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal failure. A noninvasive method for continuous hemodynamic monitoring is needed. We used noninvasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous, investiga......Intermittent hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis treatment is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal failure. A noninvasive method for continuous hemodynamic monitoring is needed. We used noninvasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous......, investigator-independent, automatic analysis of digital volume pulse in 10 healthy subjects and in 20 patients with end-stage renal failure during the hemodialysis session. The reflective index was defined representing the diastolic component of the digital pulse wave. The properties of the reflective index...... were studied in healthy control subjects (n=10). An increased reflective index was due to increased peripheral pulse wave reflection (e.g., vasoconstriction). During a hemodialysis session, the reflective index increased significantly from 36+/-3 arbitrary units to 41+/-3 arbitrary units (n=20; p...

  15. Ultrafast control and monitoring of material properties using terahertz pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowlan, Pamela Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Lab. for Ultrafast Materials Optical Science (LUMOS)

    2016-05-02

    These are a set of slides on ultrafast control and monitoring of material properties using terahertz pulses. A few of the topics covered in these slides are: How fast is a femtosecond (fs), Different frequencies probe different properties of molecules or solids, What can a THz pulse do to a material, Ultrafast spectroscopy, Generating and measuring ultrashort THz pulses, Tracking ultrafast spin dynamics in antiferromagnets through spin wave resonances, Coherent two-dimensional THz spectroscopy, and Probing vibrational dynamics at a surface. Conclusions are: Coherent two-dimensional THz spectroscopy: a powerful approach for studying coherence and dynamics of low energy resonances. Applying this to graphene we investigated the very strong THz light mater interaction which dominates over scattering. Useful for studying coupled excitations in multiferroics and monitoring chemical reactions. Also, THz-pump, SHG-probe spectoscopy: an ultrafast, surface sensitive probe of atomic-scale symmetry changes and nonlinear phonon dymanics. We are using this in Bi2Se3 to investigate the nonlinear surface phonon dynamics. This is potentially very useful for studying catalysis.

  16. Development of micro pulse lidar system for atmospheric monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Ju; Kim, Duk Hyeon; Nam, Sung Mo; Go, Do Kyung; Yang, Gi Ho; Hong, Kyang He

    1999-12-01

    A compact small micro pulse lidar system is developed for atmospheric monitoring. The developed system can be operated during 24 hrs for four seasons. The maximum detection distance is 5 km at day time and 10 km at night. Specially, the problem of eye safety is solved by using diode pumped low pulse-energy Nd:YAG laser. Two rotational axis, vertical and horizontal, is chosen for 3D mapping of the atmospheric aerosol. The spatial resolution can be optionally changed from 5 m to 300 m, but time resolution which changes from several sec to several minutes depends on the detection distance and background signal. To analyze the obtained lidar signal, processing software is developed and applied to the lidar signal obtained near the chimney. Vertical lidar signal is also obtained and from this data we can find the thickness and change of cloud. (author)

  17. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  18. LMS Adaptive Filtering Applied to a Microwave Arterial Pulse Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    MIUTION NXTATEME A Approved for pubito r~ ehm DAprib hc"don U&tmod, 1 89 1. 7. 106 • + 5 : .. . . _ -.- + +’ .. d .. . 1 . . . .. . . AFIT/GE/ENG/88D-45...signals were low level and a certain degree of sensor repositioning was required to obtain a strong signal (greater than +/-0.2v). Once acquired...however, signal levels could be maintained at a fairly constant level even - after a slight movement of the pulse monitor. Region 3 exhibited a strong

  19. Pulse wave transit time for monitoring respiration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Ahlstrom, C; Lanne, T; Ask, P

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the beat-to-beat respiratory fluctuations in pulse wave transit time (PTT) and its subcomponents, the cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and the vessel transit time (VTT) in ten healthy subjects. The three transit times were found to fluctuate in pace with respiration. When applying a simple breath detecting algorithm, 88% of the breaths seen in a respiration air-flow reference could be detected correctly in PTT. Corresponding numbers for PEP and VTT were 76 and 81%, respectively. The performance during hypo- and hypertension was investigated by invoking blood pressure changes. In these situations, the error rates in breath detection were significantly higher. PTT can be derived from signals already present in most standard monitoring set-ups. The transit time technology thus has prospects to become an interesting alternative for respiration rate monitoring.

  20. Laser Energy Monitor for Double-Pulsed 2-Micrometer IPDA Lidar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is a remote sensing technique for monitoring different atmospheric species. The technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features normalized to the transmitted energy. 2-micron double-pulsed IPDA lidar is best suited for atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements. In such case, the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by short interval (200 microseconds), with low repetition rate (10Hz). Conventional laser energy monitors, based on thermal detectors, are suitable for low repetition rate single pulse lasers. Due to the short pulse interval in double-pulsed lasers, thermal energy monitors underestimate the total transmitted energy. This leads to measurement biases and errors in double-pulsed IPDA technique. The design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on a high-speed, extended range InGaAs pin quantum detectors suitable for separating the two pulse events. Pulse integration is applied for converting the detected pulse power into energy. Results are compared to a photo-electro-magnetic (PEM) detector for impulse response verification. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in single-pulsed mode, then comparing the pin and PEM detectors in double-pulsed mode. Energy monitor linearity will be addressed.

  1. Photoplethysmography beyond perfusion and oxygenation monitoring: Pulse wave analysis for hepatic graft monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akl, Tony [Texas A& M University; Wilson, Mark A. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh PA; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Cote, Gerard L. [Texas A& M University

    2014-01-01

    Photoplethysmography is a widely used technique in monitoring perfusion and blood oxygen saturation by using the amplitude of the pulsatile signal on one or multiple wavelengths. However, the pulsatile signal carries in its waveform a substantial amount of information about the mechanical properties of the tissue and vasculature under investigation that is still yet to be utilized to its full potential. In this work, we present the feasibility of pulse wave analysis for the application of monitoring hepatic implants and diagnosing graft complications. In particular, we show the possibility of computing the slope of the pulse during the diastole phase to assess the location of vascular complications when they take place. This hypothesis was tested in a series of in vitro experiments using a PDMS based phantom mimicking the optical and mechanical properties of the portal vein. The emptying time of the vessel increased from 305 ms to 515 ms when an occlusion was induced downstream from the phantom. However, in the case of upstream occlusions, the emptying time remained constant. In both cases, a decrease in the amplitude of the pulse was recorded indicating the drop in flow levels. In addition, we show that quantifying the emptying time of the vasculature under investigation can be used to assess its compliance. The emptying time decreased from 305 ms for phantoms with compliance of 15 KPa to 195 ms for phantoms with compliance of 100 KPa. These compliance levels mimic those seen for normal and fibrotic hepatic tissue respectively.

  2. Photoplethysmography beyond perfusion and oxygenation monitoring: pulse wave analysis for hepatic graft monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2014-02-01

    Photoplethysmography is a technique widely used in monitoring perfusion and blood oxygen saturation based on the amplitude of the pulsatile signal at one or multiple wavelengths. However, the pulsatile signal carries in its waveform a substantial amount of information about the mechanical properties of the tissue and vasculature under investigation that is still yet to be utilized to its full potential. In this work, we present the feasibility of pulse wave analysis for the application of monitoring hepatic implants and diagnosing graft complications. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of computing the slope of the pulse during the diastole phase to assess compliance changes in tissue. This hypothesis was tested in a series of in vitro experiments using a polydimethylsiloxane based phantom mimicking the optical and mechanical properties of the portal vein. The emptying time decreased from 148.1 ms for phantoms with compliance of 12 KPa to 97.5 ms for phantoms with compliance of 61 KPa. These compliance levels mimic those seen for normal and fibrotic hepatic tissue respectively.

  3. Non-Contact Cardiac Activity Monitoring using Pulsed Laser Vibrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chia WANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate experimentally the detection of detailed human cardiac mechanical activity in a remote, non-contacting, and non-ionizing manner using a pulsed laser vibrometer. The highly sensitive pulsed laser vibrometer allows the detection of the temporally-phased mechanical events occurring in individual cardiac cycles even from the surface of clothing-covered extremities of the subjects. Fine structures of the detected cardiac traces are identified with their meanings assigned and corroborated using accelerometer and electrocardiogram measurements obtained concurrently with the pulsed laser vibrometer studies.

  4. PULSED ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUE FOR MONITORING ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTIONS AT INTERFACES. (R825323)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe mechanism of pulsed potential waveform for monitoring antibody¯antigen interactions at immunosensor interfaces is discussed. Some examples of antibody¯antigen interactions at quartz crystal microbalance and polymer-modified ...

  5. High Sensitivity Pulsed Laser Vibrometer for Aircraft Interior Noise Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an innovative pulsed laser vibrometer technology for the monitoring of interior noise inside an aircraft. The optical speckle-tolerant nature of the...

  6. Validation of pulse oximetry for monitoring of hypoxaemic episodes in the late postoperative period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Edvardsen, L;

    1997-01-01

    We monitored 12 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery using a pulse oximeter (Nellcor N-200) and a transcutaneous oxygen tension monitor (TINA, Radiometer A/S) on the second or third night after operation. Of the shortest hypoxaemic episodes measured with the pulse oximeter (... duration), 78% also occurred in the transcutaneous oxygen tension measurement. Episodes of longer duration (> or = 1 min duration on the pulse oximeter) were, in 95% of cases, reflected in the transcutaneous oxygen tension measurement also. Thus postoperative episodic desaturations lasting > or = 1 min...

  7. Variations in physician interpretation of overnight pulse oximetry monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Rory; Mehra, Reena; Strohl, Kingman P

    2007-09-01

    Overnight pulse oximetry is commonly used for hypoxemia evaluation in patients with COPD and sleep-disordered breathing. There is little information regarding its impact on physician decision making, and therefore an important measure of its clinical utility is untested and unknown. The aim of this study was to describe physician interpretation, use, and opinions regarding overnight pulse oximetry. Forty-one pulmonary physicians and fellows participated in structured interviews consisting of three oximetry record interpretations, oral responses to a standard question set, and a questionnaire. Qualitative data were analyzed using an open coding process. Quantitative data were assessed for distributions. Four measures were consistently used by the majority of physicians in record interpretation: background information, arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (Spo(2)) waveform and pattern, and time spent with Spo(2) 60% consensus. There was a wide range of opinions on important matters related to this test, including test utility, indications, variables considered most important for interpretation, and criteria for nocturnal oxygen prescription. Forty-one physicians provided 35 different opinions on when nocturnal supplemental oxygen should be initiated. The variation in physician interpretation, use, and opinions regarding overnight pulse oximetry calls into question its clinical utility and underscores a need for standardization of presentation, training, and interpretation.

  8. Patient Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate Monitoring With an Alert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... Blood pressure and pulse rate are two of the vital signs of humans and it is ... even from their homes and transfer the readings into the computer ... benefits from Omron's 'IntelliSense' .... (the port number assigned to the smart.

  9. Wrist Pulse Rate Monitor Using Self-Injection-Locked Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To achieve sensitivity, comfort, and durability in vital sign monitoring, this study explores the use of radar technologies in wearable devices. The study first detected the respiratory rates and heart rates of a subject at a one-meter distance using a self-injection-locked (SIL radar and a conventional continuous-wave (CW radar to compare the sensitivity versus power consumption between the two radars. Then, a pulse rate monitor was constructed based on a bistatic SIL radar architecture. This monitor uses an active antenna that is composed of a SIL oscillator (SILO and a patch antenna. When attached to a band worn on the subject’s wrist, the active antenna can monitor the pulse on the subject’s wrist by modulating the SILO with the associated Doppler signal. Subsequently, the SILO’s output signal is received and demodulated by a remote frequency discriminator to obtain the pulse rate information.

  10. Wrist Pulse Rate Monitor Using Self-Injection-Locked Radar Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Kang; Tang, Mu-Cyun; Su, Sheng-Chao; Horng, Tzyy-Sheng

    2016-10-26

    To achieve sensitivity, comfort, and durability in vital sign monitoring, this study explores the use of radar technologies in wearable devices. The study first detected the respiratory rates and heart rates of a subject at a one-meter distance using a self-injection-locked (SIL) radar and a conventional continuous-wave (CW) radar to compare the sensitivity versus power consumption between the two radars. Then, a pulse rate monitor was constructed based on a bistatic SIL radar architecture. This monitor uses an active antenna that is composed of a SIL oscillator (SILO) and a patch antenna. When attached to a band worn on the subject's wrist, the active antenna can monitor the pulse on the subject's wrist by modulating the SILO with the associated Doppler signal. Subsequently, the SILO's output signal is received and demodulated by a remote frequency discriminator to obtain the pulse rate information.

  11. An Electronic Patch for Wearable Health Monitoring by Reflectance Pulse Oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Rasmus Grønbek; Duun, Sune Bro; Toft, Mette H.;

    2012-01-01

    We report the development of an Electronic Patch for wearable health monitoring. The Electronic Patch is a new health monitoring system incorporating biomedical sensors, microelectronics, radio frequency (RF) communication, and a battery embedded in a 3-dimensional hydrocolloid polymer...... photodiode to enable low power consumption by the light emitting components. The Electronic Patch has a disposable part of soft adhesive hydrocolloid polymer and a reusable part of hard polylaurinlactam. The disposable part contains the battery. The reusable part contains the reflectance pulse oximetry....... In this paper the Electronic Patch is demonstrated with a new optical biomedical sensor for reflectance pulse oximetry so that the Electronic Patch in this case can measure the pulse and the oxygen saturation. The reflectance pulse oximetry solution is based on a recently developed annular backside silicon...

  12. A Dual-Mode UWB Wireless Platform with Random Pulse Length Detection for Remote Patient Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes, Carlos; Bisbe, Sergi; Shen, Ming

    2013-01-01

    on a single hardware platform, but it is capable of both monitoring and data transmission. This is achieved by employing a new random pulse length detection method that allows data transmission by using a modulated monitoring signal. To prove the proposed concept a test system has been built, using commercial......This paper presents a dual-mode ultra-wideband platform for wireless Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM). Existing RPM solutions are typically based on two different hardware platforms; one responsible for medical-data monitoring and one to handle data transmission. The proposed RPM topology is based...

  13. Self-Powered Real-Time Arterial Pulse Monitoring Using Ultrathin Epidermal Piezoelectric Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Yong; Joe, Daniel J; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Hyewon; Han, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Park, Hyelim; Park, Jung Gyu; Joung, Boyoung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2017-10-01

    Continuous monitoring of an arterial pulse using a pressure sensor attached on the epidermis is an important technology for detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and assessing personal health status. Conventional pulse sensors have the capability of detecting human biosignals, but have significant drawbacks of power consumption issues that limit sustainable operation of wearable medical devices. Here, a self-powered piezoelectric pulse sensor is demonstrated to enable in vivo measurement of radial/carotid pulse signals in near-surface arteries. The inorganic piezoelectric sensor on an ultrathin plastic achieves conformal contact with the complex texture of the rugged skin, which allows to respond to the tiny pulse changes arising on the surface of epidermis. Experimental studies provide characteristics of the sensor with a sensitivity (≈0.018 kPa(-1) ), response time (≈60 ms), and good mechanical stability. Wireless transmission of detected arterial pressure signals to a smart phone demonstrates the possibility of self-powered and real-time pulse monitoring system. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Monitoring of concrete structures using the ultrasonic pulse velocity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaiskos, G.; Deraemaeker, A.; Aggelis, D. G.; Van Hemelrijck, D.

    2015-11-01

    Concrete is the material most produced by humanity. Its popularity is mainly based on its low production cost and great structural design flexibility. Its operational and ambient loadings including environmental effects have a great impact in the performance and overall cost of concrete structures. Thus, the quality control, the structural assessment, the maintenance and the reliable prolongation of the operational service life of the existing concrete structures have become a major issue. In the recent years, non-destructive testing (NDT) is becoming increasingly essential for reliable and affordable quality control and integrity assessment not only during the construction of new concrete structures, but also for the existing ones. Choosing the right inspection technique is always followed by a compromise between its performance and cost. In the present paper, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method, which is the most well known and widely accepted ultrasonic concrete NDT method, is thoroughly reviewed and compared with other well-established NDT approaches. Their principles, inherent limitations and reliability are reviewed. In addition, while the majority of the current UPV techniques are based on the use of piezoelectric transducers held on the surface of the concrete, special attention is paid to a very promising technique using low-cost and aggregate-size piezoelectric transducers embedded in the material. That technique has been evaluated based on a series of parameters, such as the ease of use, cost, reliability and performance.

  15. Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resting for at least 10 minutes. Take the exercise heart rate while you are exercising. ... pulse rate can help determine if the person's heart is pumping. Pulse ... rate gives information about your fitness level and health.

  16. Monitoring of solidification crack propagation mechanism in pulsed laser welding of 6082 aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Witzendorff, P.; Kaierle, S.; Suttmann, O.; Overmeyer, L.

    2016-03-01

    Pulsed laser sources with pulse durations in the millisecond regime can be used for spot welding and seam welding of aluminum. Seam welds are generally produced with several overlapping spot welds. Hot cracking has its origin in the solidification process of individual spot welds which determines the cracking morphology along the seam welding. This study used a monitoring unit to capture the crack geometry within individual spot welds during seam welding to investigate the conditions for initiation, propagation and healing (re-melting) of solidification cracking within overlapping pulsed laser welds. The results suggest that small crack radii and high crack angles with respect to welding direction are favorable conditions for crack healing which leads to crack-free seam welds. Optimized pulse shapes were used to produce butt welds of 0.5 mm thick 6082 aluminum alloys. Tensile tests were performed to investigate the mechanical strength in the as-welded condition.

  17. Optimization of Kicker Pulse Bump by Using a SR Monitor at the Photon Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsuhashi, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    We plan to operate the Photon Factory storage ring by top-up injection mode from 2006. To realize this operation mode, remaining coherent oscillation of the stored beam due to error in the injection pulse bump is one of most serious problem. To reducing the error in the injection pulse bump, we calibrated kicking angles of the injection kicker magnets by means of the term by term instantaneous observation of beam profile. We have a SR monitor inside of injection pulse bump. By measureing the tern by tern beam position after the excitation of kicker magnet, we can calibrate the kick angle of the kicker magnet. By using this calibration, we optimized injection pulse bump. As a result, we reduced amplitude of remaining coherent oscillation less than 1/4 of the 1??of the beam size.

  18. In-situ monitoring during pulsed laser deposition using RHEED at high pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, David H.A.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Koster, Gertjan; Rogalla, Horst

    1998-01-01

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is, due to its surface sensitivity, often used for the analysis and monitoring of thin film growth in ultra-high vacuum deposition systems. RHEED is usually applied in combination with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) by adjusting the background

  19. A correlation between pulse diagnosis of human body and health monitoring of structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.C.Chang; Henry T. Y. Yang

    2004-01-01

    The concept of health monitoring is a key aspect of the field of medicine that has been practiced for a long time. A commonly used diagnostic and health monitoring practice is pulse diagnosis, which can be traced back approximately five thousand years in the recorded history of China. With advances in the development of modem technology, the concept of health monitoring of a variety of engineering structures in several applications has begun to attract widespread attention.Of particular interest in this study is the health monitoring of civil structures. It seems natural, and even beneficial, that these two health-monitoring methods, one as applies to the human body and the other to civil structures, should be analyzed and compared. In this paper, the basic concepts and theories of the two monitoring methods are first discussed. Similarities are then summarized and commented upon. It is hoped that this correlation analysis may help provide structural engineers with some insights into the intrinsic concept of using pulse diagnosis in human health monitoring, which may be of some benefit in the development of modern structural health monitoring methods.

  20. Concurrent validity of resting pulse-rate measurements: a comparison of 2 smartphone applications, the polar H7 belt monitor, and a pulse oximeter with bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Scott W; Kolber, Morey J; Ernst, Michael P

    2015-05-01

    Pulse rate is commonly measured manually or with commercial wrist or belt monitors. More recently, pulse-rate monitoring has become convenient with the use of mobile technology that allows monitoring through a smartphone camera. This optical technology offers many benefits, although the clinimetric properties have not been extensively studied. Observational study of reliability Setting: University kinesiology laboratory. 30 healthy, recreationally active adults. Concurrent measurement of pulse rate using 2 smartphone applications (fingertip, face-scan,) with the Polar H7 belt and pulse oximeter. Average resting pulse rate for 5 min in 3 positions (supine, sitting, and prone). Concurrent validity in supine and standing was good between the 2 applications and the Polar H7 (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] .80-.98) and pulse oximeter (ICC .82-.98). For sitting, the validity was good between the fingertip application, Polar H7 (ICC .97), and pulse oximeter (ICC .97). The face-scan application had moderate validity with the Polar H7 (ICC .74) and pulse oximeter (ICC .69). The minimal detectable change (MDC90) between the fingertip application and Polar H7 ranged from 1.38 to 4.36 beats/min (BPM) and from 0.69 to 2.97 BPM for the pulse oximeter with both positions. The MDC90 between the face-scan application and Polar H7 ranged from 11.88 to 12.83 BPM and from 0.59 to 17.72 BPM for the pulse oximeter. The 95% limits of agreement suggest that the fingertip application may vary between 2.40 and 3.59 BPM with the Polar H7 and between 3.40 and 3.42 BPM with the pulse oximeter. The face-scan application may vary between 3.46 and 3.52 BPM with the Polar H7 and between 2.54 and 3.46 BPM with the pulse oximeter. Pulse-rate measurements may be effective using a fingertip application, belt monitor, and pulse oximeter. The fingertip scanner showed superior results compared with the face scanner, which only demonstrated modest validity compared with the Polar H7 and pulse

  1. Rattlesnake strike behavior: kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardong; v

    1998-03-01

    The predatory behavior of rattlesnakes includes many distinctive preparatory phases leading to an extremely rapid strike, during which venom is injected. The rodent prey is then rapidly released, removing the snake's head from retaliation by the prey. The quick action of the venom makes possible the recovery of the dispatched prey during the ensuing poststrike period. The strike is usually completed in less than 0.5 s, placing a premium on an accurate strike that produces no significant errors in fang placement that could result in poor envenomation and subsequent loss of the prey. To clarify the basis for effective strike performance, we examined the basic kinematics of the rapid strike using high-speed film analysis. We scored numerous strike variables. Four major results were obtained. (1) Neurosensory control of the strike is based primarily upon sensory inputs via the eyes and facial pits to launch the strike, and upon tactile stimuli after contact. Correction for errors in targeting occurs not by a change in strike trajectory, but by fang repositioning after the jaws have made contact with the prey. (2) The rattlesnake strike is based upon great versatility and variation in recruitment of body segments and body postures. (3) Forces generated during acceleration of the head are transferred to posterior body sections to decelerate the head before contact with the prey, thereby reducing impact forces upon the snake's jaws. (4) Body acceleration is based on two patterns of body displacement, one in which acute sections of the body open like a gate, the other in which body segments flow around postural curves similar to movements seen during locomotion. There is one major implication of these results: recruitment of body segments, launch postures and kinematic features of the strike may be quite varied from strike to strike, but the overall predatory success of each strike by a rattlesnake is very consistent.

  2. A twin-type airflow pulse ionization chamber for continuous alpha-radioactivity monitoring in atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, Wataru, E-mail: kada@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Dwaikat, Nidal; Datemichi, Jun; Sato, Fuminobu; Murata, Isao; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A simple and inexpensive twin-type airflow pulse ionization chamber was developed for the continuous monitoring of alpha-radioactivity in atmosphere under high humidity condition. The symmetrical structure of the twin-type ionization chamber was effective in the improvement of the ratio of signal to noise in the measurement of pulses induced by alpha-rays. Outdoor alpha-ray measurement was well performed with this ionization chamber by applying sufficiently high bias voltage to the electrodes, except for at very high humidity conditions. It was confirmed that the declination of the counting efficiency due to wetting was easily recovered by the dry-up of the inside of the chamber. Alpha-radioactivity from radon and other alpha-emitting radionuclide in atmosphere was satisfactorily monitored by the detector.

  3. Toward Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Monitoring via Pulse Transit Time: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ramakrishna; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Inan, Omer T; Mestha, Lalit K; Kim, Chang-Sei; Töreyin, Hakan; Kyal, Survi

    2015-08-01

    Ubiquitous blood pressure (BP) monitoring is needed to improve hypertension detection and control and is becoming feasible due to recent technological advances such as in wearable sensing. Pulse transit time (PTT) represents a well-known potential approach for ubiquitous BP monitoring. The goal of this review is to facilitate the achievement of reliable ubiquitous BP monitoring via PTT. We explain the conventional BP measurement methods and their limitations; present models to summarize the theory of the PTT-BP relationship; outline the approach while pinpointing the key challenges; overview the previous work toward putting the theory to practice; make suggestions for best practice and future research; and discuss realistic expectations for the approach.

  4. Application of Pressure Pulse Test Analysis in CO2 Leakage Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, M.; Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, numerous research and industrial projects have been devoted to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of carbon dioxide capture, storage, and utilization. Besides the studies over the characteristics of candidate formations for CO2 injection, much attention has been paid to answer the environmental concerns regarding the CO2 leak to overlying formations. To first detect and then track a possible CO2 leak, different techniques have been proposed in the literature; however, most of them examine only a small portion of the formation and have a low resolution for early leak detection. To further increase the extent of the investigation zone and to monitor a large section of the formation in more detail, multi-well testing techniques have received a significant attention. Pressure pulse testing is a multi-well test technique in which a pressure signal generated by periods of injection and shut-in from a pulser well is propagated inside the formation, and the corresponding response is recorded at the observer wells. The recorded pressure response is then analyzed to measure the rock and fluid properties and to monitor the possible changes over the time. In this research study, we have applied frequency methods as well as superposition principle to interpret the pressure pulse test data and monitor the changes in transmissibility and storativity of the formation between the well pairs. We have used synthetic reservoir models and numerical reservoir simulations to produce the pressure pulse test data. The analysis of the simulation results indicated that even a small amount of CO2 leak in the investigation zone can have a measurable effect on the calculated storativity and transmissibility factors. This can be of a great importance when an early leak detection is of interest. Moreover, when multiple wells are available in the formation, the distribution of the calculated parameters can visualize the extent of CO2 leak, which has a great

  5. Pulsed-terahertz reflectometry for health monitoring of ceramic thermal barrier coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chu; Lee, Dong-Joon; Pollock, Tresa; Whitaker, John F

    2010-02-15

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry was used to monitor the progress of a thermally grown oxide layer and stress-induced, air-filled voids at the interface of an Yttria-stabilized-zirconia ceramic thermal-barrier coating and a metal surface. The thicknesses of these internal layers, observed in scanning-electron-microscope images to increase with thermal-exposure time, have been resolved - even when changing on the order of only a few micrometers - by distinguishing not only increased delays in the arrival times of terahertz pulses reflected from this multilayer structure, but also changes in the width and shape of the pulses. These unique features can be used to predict the lifetime of thermal-barrier coatings and to indicate or warn of spallation conditions. The trends of the experimental results are also confirmed through Fresnel-reflection time-domain simulations.

  6. Unconstrained pulse pressure monitoring for health management using hetero-core fiber optic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Michiko; Sonobe, Masako; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a pulse pressure waveform sensor that does not constrain a wearer's daily activity; the sensor uses hetero-core fiber optics. Hetero-core fiber sensors have been found to be sensitive to moderate bending. To detect minute pulse pressure changes from the radial artery at the wrist, we devised a fiber sensor arrangement using three-point bending supports. We analyzed and evaluated the measurement validity using wavelet transformation, which is well-suited for biological signal processing. It was confirmed that the detected pulse waveform had a fundamental mode frequency of around 1.25 Hz over the time-varying waveform. A band-pass filter with a range of frequencies from 0.85 to 1.7 Hz was used to pick up the fundamental mode. In addition, a high-pass filter with 0.85 Hz frequency eliminated arm motion artifacts; consequently, we achieved high signal-to-noise ratio. For unrestricted daily health management, it is desirable that pulse pressure monitoring can be achieved by simply placing a device on the hand without the sensor being noticed. Two types of arrangements were developed and demonstrated in which the pulse sensors were either embedded in a base, such as an armrest, or in a wearable device. A wearable device without cuff pressure using a sensitivity-enhanced fiber sensor was successfully achieved with a sensitivity of 0.07-0.3 dB with a noise floor lower than 0.01 dB for multiple subjects.

  7. Parallel plate chambers for monitoring the profiles of high-intensity pulsed antiproton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, Masaki

    2004-01-01

    Two types of beam profile monitor with thin parallel-plate electrodes have been used in experiments carried out at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) and Antiproton Decelerator (AD) of CERN. The detectors were used to measure non-destructively the spatial profiles, absolute intensities, and time structures of 100-300-ns- long beam pulses containing between 10**7 and 10**9 antiprotons. The first of these monitors was a parallel plate ionization chamber operated at gas pressure P=65 mbar. The other was a secondary electron emission detector, and was operated in the ultra-high vacuum of the AD. Both designs may be useful in medical and commercial applications. The position-sensitive electrodes in these detectors were manufactured by a novel method in which a laser trimmer was used to cut strip patterns on metallized polyester foils.

  8. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  9. Monitoring of transient cavitation induced by ultrasound and intense pulsed light in presence of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Shanei, Ahmad; Shanei, Mohammad Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in medical treatment is invention of a minimally invasive approach in order to induce lethal damages to cancer cells. Application of high intensity focused ultrasound can be beneficial to achieve this goal via the cavitation process. Existence of the particles and vapor in a liquid decreases the ultrasonic intensity threshold required for cavitation onset. In this study, synergism of intense pulsed light (IPL) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been investigated as a means of providing nucleation sites for acoustic cavitation. Several approaches have been reported with the aim of cavitation monitoring. We conducted the experiments on the basis of sonochemiluminescence (SCL) and chemical dosimetric methods. The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated by determining the integrated SCL signal acquired over polyacrylamide gel phantoms containing luminol in the presence and absence of GNPs in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm using a spectrometer equipped with cooled charged coupled devices (CCD) during irradiation by different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound and IPL pulses. In order to confirm these results, the terephthalic acid chemical dosimeter was utilized as well. The SCL signal recorded in the gel phantoms containing GNPs at different intensities of ultrasound in the presence of intense pulsed light was higher than the gel phantoms without GNPs. These results have been confirmed by the obtained data from the chemical dosimetry method. Acoustic cavitation in the presence of GNPs and intense pulsed light has been suggested as a new approach designed for decreasing threshold intensity of acoustic cavitation and improving targeted therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. QECH general hospital strike

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi's only medical school and also hosts the Blantyre cam- pus for the ... 1993 when general civil disobedience in form of street demon- strations, riots and strikes ... However their own rights are limited by their responsibility to save life and ...

  11. Dual-modality arterial pulse monitoring system for continuous blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Xuan Dai; Yuan-Ting Zhang; Jing Liu; Xiao-Rong Ding; Ni Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and ambulatory measurement of blood pressure (BP) is essential for efficient diagnosis, management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, traditional cuff-based BP measurement methods provide only intermittent BP readings and can cause discomfort with the occlusive cuff. Although pulse transit time (PTT) method is promising for cuffless and continuous BP measurement, its pervasive use is restricted by its limited accuracy and requirement of placing sensors on multiple body sites. To tackle these issues, we propose a novel dual-modality arterial pulse monitoring system for continuous blood pressure measurement, which simultaneously records the pressure and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals of radial artery. The obtained signals can be used to generate a pressure-volume curve, from which the elasticity index (EI) and viscosity index (VI) can be extracted. Experiments were carried out among 7 healthy subjects with their PPG, ECG, arterial pressure wave and reference BP collected to examine the effectiveness of the proposed indexes. The results of this study demonstrate that a linear regression model combining EI and VI has significantly higher BP tracking correlation coefficient as compared to the PTT method. This suggests that the proposed system and method can potentially be used for convenient and continuous blood pressure estimation with higher accuracy.

  12. Automatic algorithm for monitoring systolic pressure variation and difference in pulse pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Gunther; Fukui, Kimiko; Hartwich, Volker; Schumacher, Peter M; Vogt, Andreas; Hiltebrand, Luzius B; Kurz, Andrea; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Inderbitzin, Daniel; Leibundgut, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Difference in pulse pressure (dPP) reliably predicts fluid responsiveness in patients. We have developed a respiratory variation (RV) monitoring device (RV monitor), which continuously records both airway pressure and arterial blood pressure (ABP). We compared the RV monitor measurements with manual dPP measurements. ABP and airway pressure (PAW) from 24 patients were recorded. Data were fed to the RV monitor to calculate dPP and systolic pressure variation in two different ways: (a) considering both ABP and PAW (RV algorithm) and (b) ABP only (RV(slim) algorithm). Additionally, ABP and PAW were recorded intraoperatively in 10-min intervals for later calculation of dPP by manual assessment. Interobserver variability was determined. Manual dPP assessments were used for comparison with automated measurements. To estimate the importance of the PAW signal, RV(slim) measurements were compared with RV measurements. For the 24 patients, 174 measurements (6-10 per patient) were recorded. Six observers assessed dPP manually in the first 8 patients (10-min interval, 53 measurements); no interobserver variability occurred using a computer-assisted method. Bland-Altman analysis showed acceptable bias and limits of agreement of the 2 automated methods compared with the manual method (RV: -0.33% +/- 8.72% and RV(slim): -1.74% +/- 7.97%). The difference between RV measurements and RV(slim) measurements is small (bias -1.05%, limits of agreement 5.67%). Measurements of the automated device are comparable with measurements obtained by human observers, who use a computer-assisted method. The importance of the PAW signal is questionable.

  13. Algab õppus "Saber Strike"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Täna algab Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus Ameerika Ühendriikide Euroopa väekoondise õppus "Saber Strike", mille eesmärk on maaväeüksuste koostöö harjutamine. Õppusest võtab osa üle 2000 kaitseväelase Baltimaadest, USAst, Ühendkuningriigist, Taanist, Norrast, Soomest ja Saksamaalt. Eestist osaleb õppusel ligi 400 kaitseväelast

  14. Algab õppus "Saber Strike"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Täna algab Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus Ameerika Ühendriikide Euroopa väekoondise õppus "Saber Strike", mille eesmärk on maaväeüksuste koostöö harjutamine. Õppusest võtab osa üle 2000 kaitseväelase Baltimaadest, USAst, Ühendkuningriigist, Taanist, Norrast, Soomest ja Saksamaalt. Eestist osaleb õppusel ligi 400 kaitseväelast

  15. A useful method to monitor outputs from a pulsed light source and its application to rate effect studies in a photomultiplier tube

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kurashige, H; Matono, Y; Murakami, K; Nomura, T; Sakamoto, H; Sasao, N; Suehiro, M; Fukushima, Y; Ikegami, Y; Nakamura, T T; Taniguchi, T; Asai, M

    1999-01-01

    In order to study short-term gain stability in a photomultiplier tube at high counting rate, we constructed an LED pulsed light source and its output monitoring system. For the monitoring system, we employed a photon counting method using a photomultiplier as a monitor photon detector. It is found that the method offers a simple way to monitor outputs from a pulsed light source and that, together with an LED light source, it provides a useful method to investigate photomultiplier's rate effects.

  16. The Poster Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses fundamental issues in relation to placing graphic design in locations such as museums of decorative arts and living history museums. Based on my Ph.D. project on British commercial posters of the interwar years and approached from a combined perspective of museology, semiotics...... and design history, I argue that the poster during the interwar years inhabits a new active position. By exploiting and challenging the commercial and aesthetic paradox out of which it arose, the poster ‘strikes back' as a museologized, exhibited object. Rather than being absorbed into the city swirl...

  17. Pulse properties of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Suzanne; Briggs, Michael S; Connaughton, Valerie; Tierney, David; McBreen, Sheila; Dwyer, Joseph; Chaplin, Vandiver L; Bhat, P Narayana; Byrne, David; Cramer, Eric; Fishman, Gerald J; Xiong, Shaolin; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R Marc; Meegan, Charles A; Paciesas, William S; Preece, Robert D; von Kienlin, Andreas; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has triggered on over 300 terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) since its launch in June 2008. With 14 detectors, GBM collects on average ~100 counts per triggered TGF, enabling unprecedented studies of the time profiles of TGFs. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the temporal properties of a large sample of TGFs (278), including the distributions of the rise and fall times of the individual pulses and their durations. A variety of time profiles are observed with 19 of TGFs having multiple pulses separated in time and 31 clear cases of partially overlapping pulses. The effect of instrumental dead time and pulse pileup on the temporal properties are also presented. As the observed gamma ray pulse structure is representative of the electron flux at the source, TGF pulse parameters are critical to distinguish between relativistic feedback discharge and lightning leader models. We show that at least 67% of TGFs at satellite ...

  18. A micropower supervisor for wireless nodes with a digital pulse frequency modulator battery monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloni, Mirko; d'Aparo, Rocco; Scorrano, Pierpaolo; Naticchia, Berardo; Conti, Massimo

    2013-05-01

    In the last few years the increased development of wireless technologies led to the development of micropower devices with power management and real time power control, aimed to maximize the battery life time.1 The main and simplest method to estimate residual battery life time is by voltage measurement. This kind of measurement is simple but is useless in many cases, especially when long term Lithium-Thionyl chloride batteries are used, since its voltage is flat for more than 90% of the battery discharge. In this case, a current control should be used. However, these kinds of devices have various problems as a limited range of measurement and not negligible quiescent current that may distort the measurements. In this work we developed a micropower supervisor for wireless sensor nodes with a charge battery monitor, whose features are aimed at solving the problems just described. The current measured by a sense resistor, is filtered by a super-capacitor, amplified by a current sense amplifier and then fed to a voltage to pulse frequency modulator. In this way, the charge consumption can be estimated without the saturation of the current sense amplifier, even if the wireless node consumes time limited high current spikes, for example during transmission.

  19. The STM32 microcontroller based pulse intensity registration system for the neutron monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepetov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the outlines of a new microcontroller based data acquisition system which is aimed for reliable operation in a typical cosmic ray particle registration experiment. The system supports connection of up to 16 input signals and ensures the following operation functionality: (1 stable monitoring of the intensity of a digital pulse signal, or digitization of a continuous potential level with a low time resolution (typically, about 1 s–100 s; (2 registration of uninterruptable high-resolution (up to 5–10 μs time series of the input signal intensity; (3 synchronization of registered time series with both external (physical or local (program-based trigger signal; (4 possibility of an on-the-fly change of the whole configuration of informational system (both the combination and type of input signals, time resolution and sum duration of the time series measurements, trigger logic, etc. immediately in operation time through convenient communication by plain text messages in dialog mode. In particular, the considered system is applied now for a long-term, high precision measurement of the counting rate of neutron signals at the NM64 type neutron supermonitor of the Tien Shan mountain cosmic ray station, with a real-time representation of the whole collected dataset in a WWW database.

  20. The STM32 microcontroller based pulse intensity registration system for the neutron monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepetov, Alexander; Chubenko, Alexander; Kryakunova, Olga; Nikolayevsky, Nikolay; Salikhov, Nazyf; Yanke, Victor

    2017-06-01

    We present the outlines of a new microcontroller based data acquisition system which is aimed for reliable operation in a typical cosmic ray particle registration experiment. The system supports connection of up to 16 input signals and ensures the following operation functionality: (1) stable monitoring of the intensity of a digital pulse signal, or digitization of a continuous potential level with a low time resolution (typically, about 1 s-100 s); (2) registration of uninterruptable high-resolution (up to 5-10 μs) time series of the input signal intensity; (3) synchronization of registered time series with both external (physical) or local (program-based) trigger signal; (4) possibility of an on-the-fly change of the whole configuration of informational system (both the combination and type of input signals, time resolution and sum duration of the time series measurements, trigger logic, etc.) immediately in operation time through convenient communication by plain text messages in dialog mode. In particular, the considered system is applied now for a long-term, high precision measurement of the counting rate of neutron signals at the NM64 type neutron supermonitor of the Tien Shan mountain cosmic ray station, with a real-time representation of the whole collected dataset in a WWW database.

  1. Factors that affect pulse wave time transmission in the monitoring of cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong A; Wilson, Stephen J; Wang, Ping

    2008-04-01

    Vascular transit time (VTT) can be defined as the first heart sound of the phonocardiography (PCG) signal to its arrival at the photoplethysmography (PPG). Studies have shown that monitoring VTT can be useful as an early prognosis of cardiac diseases. However, there is limited study conducted to understand the physiologic factors that affect VTT at the upper limb. In this study, the effect associated with difference in subject height, weight, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was assessed. A study population of 31 healthy Chinese young adults (21 male; age range 20-33 yr) were recruited. PCG and PPG were recorded non-invasively from the fourth costal cartilage at the midclavicular line and right index finger, respectively. A single sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) goodness-of-fit hypothesis test, a univariate linear regression analysis, and a multiple linear regression modelling were performed on the VTT measurements and the associated physiologic parameters. The results from the K-S test showed that the physiologic parameters and VTT measurements had a normal cumulative distribution function. Furthermore, all physiologic parameters were significantly and independently related to VTT (P VTT regression model was also derived (r (2) = 0.79). The findings herein suggest that the observed physiologic parameters have significant contributions to the nominal VTT value of a subject. Unlike pulse transit time, the VTT technique has the added advantage that the left ventricular isometric contraction time is not included in the timing derivation.

  2. A new fibre optic pulse oximeter probe for monitoring splanchnic organ arterial blood oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M; Samuels, N; Randive, N; Langford, R; Kyriacou, P A

    2012-12-01

    A new, continuous method of monitoring splanchnic organ oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) would make the early detection of inadequate tissue oxygenation feasible, reducing the risk of hypoperfusion, severe ischaemia, and, ultimately, death. In an attempt to provide such a device, a new fibre optic based reflectance pulse oximeter probe and processing system were developed followed by an in vivo evaluation of the technology on seventeen patients undergoing elective laparotomy. Photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals of good quality and high signal-to-noise ratio were obtained from the small bowel, large bowel, liver and stomach. Simultaneous peripheral PPG signals from the finger were also obtained for comparison purposes. Analysis of the amplitudes of all acquired PPG signals indicated much larger amplitudes for those signals obtained from splanchnic organs than those obtained from the finger. Estimated SpO(2) values for splanchnic organs showed good agreement with those obtained from the finger fibre optic probe and those obtained from a commercial device. These preliminary results suggest that a miniaturized 'indwelling' fibre optic sensor may be a suitable method for pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of splanchnic organ SpO(2) and their health.

  3. Impulse of a Kendo Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Abe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An expert swordsman struck a target with a kendo sword. The velocity and force of the strike were measured. The relationship between the strike velocity, impact force and effective mass of the sword was investigated. It was shown that the effective mass of the sword remains constant for typical strike velocities.

  4. In-process monitoring and adaptive control for gap in micro butt welding with pulsed YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Kito, Masayuki; Katayama, Seiji

    2007-05-01

    A gap is one of the most important issues to be solved in laser welding of a micro butt joint, because the gap results in welding defects such as underfilling or a non-bonded joint. In-process monitoring and adaptive control has been expected as one of the useful procedures for the stable production of sound laser welds without defects. The objective of this research is to evaluate the availability of in-process monitoring and adaptive control in micro butt welding of pure titanium rods with a pulsed neodymium : yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd : YAG) laser beam of a 150 µm spot diameter. It was revealed that a 45 µm narrow gap was detected by the remarkable jump in a reflected light intensity due to the formation of the molten pool which could bridge the gap. Heat radiation signal levels increased in proportion to the sizes of molten pools or penetration depths for the respective laser powers. As for adaptive control, the laser peak power was controlled on the basis of the reflected light or the heat radiation signals to stably produce a sound deeply penetrated weld reduced underfilling. In the case of a 100 µm gap, the underfilling was greatly reduced by half smaller than those made with a conventional rectangular pulse shape in seam welding as well as spot welding with a pulsed Nd : YAG laser beam. Consequently, the adaptive control of the laser peak power on the basis of in-process monitoring could reduce the harmful effects due to a gap in micro butt laser welding with a pulsed laser beam.

  5. In-process monitoring and adaptive control for gap in micro butt welding with pulsed YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahito, Yousuke; Kito, Masayuki; Katayama, Seiji [Joining and Welding Research Institute (JWRI), Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2007-05-07

    A gap is one of the most important issues to be solved in laser welding of a micro butt joint, because the gap results in welding defects such as underfilling or a non-bonded joint. In-process monitoring and adaptive control has been expected as one of the useful procedures for the stable production of sound laser welds without defects. The objective of this research is to evaluate the availability of in-process monitoring and adaptive control in micro butt welding of pure titanium rods with a pulsed neodymium : yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd : YAG) laser beam of a 150 {mu}m spot diameter. It was revealed that a 45 {mu}m narrow gap was detected by the remarkable jump in a reflected light intensity due to the formation of the molten pool which could bridge the gap. Heat radiation signal levels increased in proportion to the sizes of molten pools or penetration depths for the respective laser powers. As for adaptive control, the laser peak power was controlled on the basis of the reflected light or the heat radiation signals to stably produce a sound deeply penetrated weld reduced underfilling. In the case of a 100 {mu}m gap, the underfilling was greatly reduced by half smaller than those made with a conventional rectangular pulse shape in seam welding as well as spot welding with a pulsed Nd : YAG laser beam. Consequently, the adaptive control of the laser peak power on the basis of in-process monitoring could reduce the harmful effects due to a gap in micro butt laser welding with a pulsed laser beam.

  6. Self-Calibration and Laser Energy Monitor Validations for a Double-Pulsed 2-Micron CO2 Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2015-01-01

    Double-pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is well suited for atmospheric CO2 remote sensing. The IPDA lidar technique relies on wavelength differentiation between strong and weak absorbing features of the gas normalized to the transmitted energy. In the double-pulse case, each shot of the transmitter produces two successive laser pulses separated by a short interval. Calibration of the transmitted pulse energies is required for accurate CO2 measurement. Design and calibration of a 2-micron double-pulse laser energy monitor is presented. The design is based on an InGaAs pin quantum detector. A high-speed photo-electromagnetic quantum detector was used for laser-pulse profile verification. Both quantum detectors were calibrated using a reference pyroelectric thermal detector. Calibration included comparing the three detection technologies in the single-pulsed mode, then comparing the quantum detectors in the double-pulsed mode. In addition, a self-calibration feature of the 2-micron IPDA lidar is presented. This feature allows one to monitor the transmitted laser energy, through residual scattering, with a single detection channel. This reduces the CO2 measurement uncertainty. IPDA lidar ground validation for CO2 measurement is presented for both calibrated energy monitor and self-calibration options. The calibrated energy monitor resulted in a lower CO2 measurement bias, while self-calibration resulted in a better CO2 temporal profiling when compared to the in situ sensor.

  7. Time domain measuring system of molecular fluorescence with real-time monitor and control of pulsed dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Kato, H.; Konishi, N.; Kasuya, T.

    1982-04-01

    A computer controlled system is presented for a high-precision, time-domain measurement of molecular fluorescence induced by a pulsed dye laser field. In this system three intelligent functions are assembled by the system controller: they are an automatic wavelength control of pulsed dye laser to 0.45 GHz resolution, a digital wavelength meter of 10-7 precision, and a high-speed waveform digitizer with 10 ps inherent resolution. Then the system achieves a unique capability such as to record real-time data of fluorescence decay in the nanosecond regime under an on-line monitor and control of the laser wavelength to milliangstrom precision. The basic constitution and practical performance of the system are described with particular emphasis on its high precision and multi-task capability.

  8. Multiple Time-Scale Monitoring to Address Dynamic Seasonality and Storm Pulses of Stream Water Quality in Mountainous Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ju Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall variability and extreme events can amplify the seasonality and storm pulses of stream water chemistry in mountainous watersheds under monsoon climates. To establish a monitoring program optimized for identifying potential risks to stream water quality arising from rainfall variability and extremes, we examined water chemistry data collected on different timescales. At a small forested watershed, bi-weekly sampling lasted over two years, in comparison to three other biweekly sampling sites. In addition, high-frequency continuous measurements of pH, electrical conductivity, and turbidity were conducted in tandem with automatic water sampling at 2 h intervals during eight rainfall events. Biweekly monitoring showed that during the summer monsoon period, electrical conductivity (EC, dissolved oxygen (DO, and dissolved ion concentrations generally decreased, but total suspended solids (TSS slightly increased. A noticeable variation from the usual seasonal pattern was that DO levels substantially decreased during an extended drought. Bi-hourly storm event samplings exhibited large changes in the concentrations of TSS and particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC; DOC during intense rainfall events. However, extreme fluctuations in sediment export during discharge peaks could be detected only by turbidity measurements at 5 min intervals. Concomitant measurements during rainfall events established empirical relationships between turbidity and TSS or POC. These results suggest that routine monitoring based on weekly to monthly sampling is valid only in addressing general seasonal patterns or long-lasting phenomena such as drought effects. We propose an “adaptive” monitoring scheme that combines routine monitoring for general seasonal patterns and high-frequency instrumental measurements of water quality components exhibiting rapid responses pulsing during intense rainfall events.

  9. Pulsed-source MOCVD of high-k dielectric thin films with in situ monitoring by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchiya, Y; Tung, R T; Oda, S; Kurosawa, M; Hattori, T

    2003-01-01

    The formation of high-k thin films by pulsed-source metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been investigated with in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. It is demonstrated that spectroscopic ellipsometry is an effective method for in situ monitoring of the fabrication of high-k dielectric thin films with thicknesses of several nm's. Thin yttrium oxide films with average roughnesses smaller than the thickness of a single molecular layer, and with a capacitance equivalent thickness approx 1.7 nm were obtained. Thicknesses and optical properties of each individual layer were also extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry, by fitting to appropriate structural models. (author)

  10. Continuous cuff-less blood pressure monitoring based on the pulse arrival time approach: the impact of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlsteff, J; Aubert, X A; Morren, G

    2008-01-01

    There is an unmet need for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring especially, in personal healthcare applications. The pulse arrival time (PAT) approach might offer a suitable solution to enable comfortable BP monitoring even at beat-level. However, the methodology is based on hemodynamic surrogate measures, which are sensitive to patient activities such as posture changes, not necessarily related to blood pressure variations. In this paper, we analyze the impact of posture on the PAT measure and related hemodynamic parameters such as the pre-ejection period in well-defined procedures. Additionally, the PAT of a monitored subject is investigated in an unsupervised scenario illustrating the complexity of such a measurement. Our results show the failure of blood pressure inference based on simple calibration strategies using the PAT measure only. We discuss opportunities to compensate for the observed effects towards the realization of wearable cuff-less blood pressure monitoring. These findings emphasize the importance of accessing context information in personal healthcare applications, where vital sign monitoring is typically unsupervised.

  11. A spectroscopic approach to monitor the cut processing in pulsed laser osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Konrad; Gubaidullin, Gail G; Bongartz, Jens; Wahrburg, Jürgen; Roth, Hubert; Kunkel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    During laser osteotomy surgery, plasma arises at the place of ablation. It was the aim of this study to explore whether a spectroscopic analysis of this plasma would allow identification of the type of tissue that was affected by the laser. In an experimental setup (Rofin SCx10, CO(2) Slab Laser, wavelength 10.6 μm, pulse duration 80 μs, pulse repetition rate 200 Hz, max. output in cw-mode 100 W), the plasma spectra evoked by a pulsed laser, cutting 1-day postmortem pig and cow bones, were recorded. Spectra were compared to the reference spectrum of bone via correlation analysis. Our measurements show a clear differentiation between the plasma spectra when cutting either a bone or a soft tissue. The spectral changes could be detected from one to the next spectrum within 200 ms. Continuous surveillance of plasma spectra allows us to differentiate whether bone or soft tissue is hit by the last laser pulse. With this information, it may be possible to stop the laser when cutting undesired soft tissue and to design an automatic control of the ablation process.

  12. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  13. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... removed. That is the most common form of skin cancer and not as dangerous as melanoma. Photo: Corbis ...

  14. Photoacoustic & pulsed laser-doppler monitoring of blood concentration and perfusion in tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Kolkman, Roy Gerardus Maria

    2002-01-01

    In medicine there are situations that require continuous bedside monitoring of perfusion and blood volume. Such a situation can occur when children are born prematurely. Those children have a high risk to develop a handicap, which is most likely caused by cerebral damage due to impaired brain perfusion. Monitoring cerebral perfusion can provide information for preventive treatment. In this thesis we have explored the potential of photoacoustics and laser Doppler flowmetry for measurement of c...

  15. Hunger strike among detainees: guidance for good medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gétaz, Laurent; Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Eytan, Ariel; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2012-09-17

    Hunger strike is a regularly reported problem in prison. Although clinical situations are rarely severe, hospitalisation is often considered. In consequence, it is not only physicians working in prisons, but also hospital medical teams who face challenges related to hunger strike, involving somatic, psychological, legal and human rights aspects. Furthermore, deontological rules must be strictly respected when delivering care, particularly in prison setting. Starvation involves metabolic changes and can cause severe, and sometimes even irreversible or fatal complications. Moreover, the phase of re-alimentation should not be trivialised, as re-feeding syndrome is a potentially fatal phenomenon. This article provides guidance for monitoring and management of patients on hunger strike.

  16. Monitoring respiration in wheezy preschool children by pulse oximetry plethysmogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, David; Olden, Cathy; Symes, Liz; Rabe, Heike; Seddon, Paul

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether respiratory information can be derived from pulse oximetry plethysmogram (pleth) recordings in acutely wheezy preschool children. A digital pulse oximeter was connected via 'Bluetooth' to a notebook computer in order to acquire pleth data. Low pass filtering and frequency analysis were used to derive respiratory rate from the pleth trace; the ratio of heart rate to respiratory rate (HR/RR) was also calculated. Recordings were obtained during acute wheezy episodes in 18 children of median age 31 months and follow-up recordings from 16 of the children were obtained when they were wheeze-free. For the acutely wheezy children, frequency analysis of the pleth waveform was within 10 breaths/min of clinical assessment in 25 of 29 recordings in 15 children. For the follow-up measurements, frequency analysis of the pleth waveform showed similarly good agreement in recordings on 15 of the 16 children. Respiratory rate was higher (p < 0.001), and HR/RR ratio was lower (p = 0.03) during acute wheeze than at follow-up. This study suggests that respiratory rate can be derived from pleth traces in wheezy preschool children.

  17. Basis of monitoring central blood pressure and hemodynamic parameters by peripheral arterial pulse waveform analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Hiroshi; Katsuda, Shin-ichiro

    2013-01-01

    In hypertension clinics, central blood pressure (CBP) should be estimated, instead of directly measured, by the "signal processing" of a noninvasive peripheral pressure waveform. This paper deals with the data obtained in our three separate studies focusing on a major estimation method, i.e., radial artery late systolic shoulder pressure (rSBP2)-based CBP estimation. Study 1: Using a wave separation analysis of precise animal data of pressure wave transmission along the upper-limb arteries, we first demonstrate that pulse pressure amplification is largely attributable to local wave reflection alone. Study 2: A frequency component analysis of simultaneously recorded human central and radial artery pressure waveforms showed a predominance of lower (1st+2nd) harmonic components in determining the central augmentation peak amplitude. The features of a central pressure waveform, including its phase property, may contribute to the less-altered transmission of augmentation peak pressure to rSBP2. Study 3: Comparisons of noninvasive rSBP2 with direct or estimated central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) revealed broad agreement but also augmentation-dependent biases. Based on the features of the biases as well as the counterbalanced relationship between pulse pressure amplification and the transmission-induced alterations of augmentation peak amplitude observed in Study 2, we propose an improved cSBP estimate, SBPm, the simple arithmetic mean of rSBP2 and peripheral systolic blood pressure.

  18. A sensor for monitoring pulse rate, respiration rhythm, and body movement in bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, Yusuke; Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Mukai, Koji; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    A non-constraint cardiac vibration, respiration, and body movement monitoring system has been developed. The sensor system is designed to be easily installable under an existing bed mattress. The sensor consists of a 40-kHz ultrasound transmitter and receiver pair. The transmitted ultrasound is reflected on the mattress' undersurface, and the amplitude of the received ultrasonic wave is modulated by the shape of the mattress, and parameters such as respiration, cardiac vibration, and movement. The physiological parameters can be extracted from the reflected ultrasound by an envelope detection circuit. To confirm the accuracy of the developed system, measurements were performed on 6 normal male subjects aged 25.0 ± 6.7 years, using 2 pocket spring coil mattresses and a polyurethane foam mattress. The results revealed that the physiological parameters were monitored with an 84.2% average accuracy for all mattresses when the subjects lay on the beds in the supine, lateral, and prone positions.

  19. Respecting the right to strike

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Since two years the representatives of the employers in the ILO, a tripartite multilateral body responsible for guaranteeing the correct application of an international labour code, try to weaken the global work regulations. On the occasion of the Global Day of Action for the right to strike at the invitation of the Geneva community of Union action (Communauté genevoise d’action syndicale) and the Swiss Trade Union Association (Union syndicale suisse) around noon on Wednesday 18th February some fifty staff representatives of international organizations gathered on the place des Nations in Geneva to reaffirm the importance of this fundamental right, too often flouted. A delegation of the CERN Staff Association was also present. In a short speech, the Staff Association said that, while being one of the fundamental human rights, to be efficient the right to strike must be used intelligently. It must be implemented taking into account the sensitivities of the professional environment and r...

  20. Design and array signal suggestion of array type pulsed eddy current probe for health monitoring of metal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Kil [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    An array type probe for monitoring metal tubes is proposed in this paper which utilizes peak value and peak time of a pulsed eddy current(PEC) signal. The probe consists of an array of encircling coils along a tube and the outside of coils is shielded by ferrite to prevent source magnetic fields from directly affecting sensor signals since it is the magnetic fields produced by eddy currents that reflect the condition of metal tubes. The positions of both exciter and sensor coils are consecutively moved automatically so that manual scanning is not necessary. At one position of send-receive coils, peak value and peak time are extracted from a sensor PEC signal and these data are accumulated for all positions to form an array type peak value signal and an array type peak time signal. Numerical simulation was performed using the backward difference method in time and the finite element method for spatial analysis. Simulation results showed that peak value increases and the peak appears earlier as the defect depth or length increases. The proposed array signals are shown to be excellent in reflecting the defect location as well as variations of defect depth and length within the array probe.

  1. Radio pulse search and X-Ray monitoring of SAX J1808.4-3658: What Causes its Orbital Evolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Patruno, Alessandro; Kuiper, Lucien; Bult, Peter; Hessels, Jason; Knigge, Christian; King, Andrew R; Wijnands, Rudy; van der Klis, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    The accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP) SAX J1808.4-3658, shows a peculiar orbital evolution that proceeds at a much faster pace than predicted by conservative binary evolution models. It is important to identify the underlying mechanism responsible for this behavior because it can help to understand how this system evolves. It has also been suggested that, when in quiescence, SAX J1808.4-3658 turns on as a radio pulsar, a circumstance that might provide a link between AMXPs and black-widow radio pulsars. In this work we report the results of a deep radio pulsation search at 2 GHz using the Green Bank Telescope in August 2014 and an X-ray monitoring of the 2015 outburst with Chandra, Swift, and INTEGRAL. In particular, we present the X-ray timing analysis of a 30-ks Chandra observation executed during the 2015 outburst. We detect no radio pulsations, and place the strongest limit to date on the pulsed radio flux density of any AMXP. We also find that the orbit of SAX J1808.4-3658 continues evolving at a...

  2. Feasibility Study and Design of a Wearable System-on-a-Chip Pulse Radar for Contactless Cardiopulmonary Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Zito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new system-on-a-chip radar sensor for next-generation wearable wireless interface applied to the human health care and safeguard is presented. The system overview is provided and the feasibility study of the radar sensor is presented. In detail, the overall system consists of a radar sensor for detecting the heart and breath rates and a low-power IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee radio interface, which provides a wireless data link with remote data acquisition and control units. In particular, the pulse radar exploits 3.1–10.6 GHz ultra-wideband signals which allow a significant reduction of the transceiver complexity and then of its power consumption. The operating principle of the radar for the cardiopulmonary monitoring is highlighted and the results of the system analysis are reported. Moreover, the results obtained from the building-blocks design, the channel measurement, and the ultra-wideband antenna realization are reported.

  3. Doctors' strikes and mortality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Mitchell, Kristina; Narayan, K M; Yusuf, Salim

    2008-12-01

    A paradoxical pattern has been suggested in the literature on doctors' strikes: when health workers go on strike, mortality stays level or decreases. We performed a review of the literature during the past forty years to assess this paradox. We used PubMed, EconLit and Jstor to locate all peer-reviewed English-language articles presenting data analysis on mortality associated with doctors' strikes. We identified 156 articles, seven of which met our search criteria. The articles analyzed five strikes around the world, all between 1976 and 2003. The strikes lasted between nine days and seventeen weeks. All reported that mortality either stayed the same or decreased during, and in some cases, after the strike. None found that mortality increased during the weeks of the strikes compared to other time periods. The paradoxical finding that physician strikes are associated with reduced mortality may be explained by several factors. Most importantly, elective surgeries are curtailed during strikes. Further, hospitals often re-assign scarce staff and emergency care was available during all of the strikes. Finally, none of the strikes may have lasted long enough to assess the effects of long-term reduced access to a physician. Nonetheless, the literature suggests that reductions in mortality may result from these strikes.

  4. A PC-Based Pulse Oximetry Monitor for Four Patients%微机化多床位脉搏血氧饱和度监测仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国忠; 李萍

    2001-01-01

    微机多床位脉搏血氧饱和度监测仪具有系统结构简单、灵活、存储容量大、功能强、性能价格比高等特点,且易实现多机通讯。介绍了监测仪的硬件系统组成原理及软件模块功能。%Pulse oximeters are used in many departments of a hospital. The pc-based pulse oximetry monitor for many patients has the features of simplicity, flexbility, large memory,powerful function, high ratio of performance to price, and it is easy to communicate with mul-timonitors. The principles of hardware system and the function of software block of the monitor are introduced too in this paper.

  5. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices.

  6. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. A finger-free wrist-worn pulse oximeter for the monitoring of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chang-Sheng; Chuang, Shuang-Chao; Lee, Yeh Wen; Fan, Chih-Hsun; Chung, Lung Pin; Li, Yu-Tang; Chen, Jyh-Chern

    2016-03-01

    Herein, a finger-free wrist-worn pulse oximeter is presented. This device allows patients to measure blood oxygen level and pulse rate without hindering their normal finger movement. This wrist-worn pulse oximeter is built with a reflectance oximetry sensor, which consists of light emitting diodes and photodiode light detectors located side by side. This reflectance oximetry sensor is covered with an optical element with micro structured surface. This micro structured optical element is designed to modulate photon propagation beneath the skin tissue so that the photoplethysmogram signals of reflected lights or backscattered lights detected by the photodetector are therefore enhanced.

  8. Differential-output B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA, 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Wagoner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator’s 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator’s 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs, and 2 current monitors on the accelerator’s inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator’s power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-Ω balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-Ω cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample, numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two

  9. Differential B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoup, Roy Willlam (ITT Industries, Albuquerque, NM); Gilliland, Terrance Leo (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Lee, James R.; Speas, Christopher Shane; Kim, Alexandre A. (High Current Electronic Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia); Struve, Kenneth William; York, Mathew William; Leifeste, Gordon T.; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Sharpe, Arthur William; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Wagoner, Tim C. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Reynolds, Paul Gerard (Team Specialty Products Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Slopek, Jeffrey Scott (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Moore, William B. S.; Dinwoodie, Thomas Albert (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Woodring, R. M. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Broyles, Robin Scott (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Mills, Jerry Alan; Melville, J. A. (Prodyn Technologies Incorporated, Albuquerque, NM); Dudley, M. E. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Androlewicz, K. E. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Mourning, R. W. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Moore, J. K. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Serrano, Jason Dimitri (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Ives, H. C. (EG& G, Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, M. F. (Team Specialty Products Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Peyton, B. P. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Leeper, Ramon Joe; Savage, Mark Edward; Donovan, Guy Louis; Spielman, R. B. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Seamen, Johann F.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator's 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator's 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs), and 2 current monitors on the accelerator's inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator's power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order) the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-{Omega} balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-{omega} cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample), numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two

  10. Option Strike Price and Managerial Investment Decisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸿雁; 张维

    2003-01-01

    The manager′s investment decisions is modeled when the manager is risk-averse and has stock options as compensation. It is found that the strike price of options is crucial to the investment incentives of managers, and that the correct value, or interval of values, of managerial stock option strike price can bring stockholder and manager interests in agreement.

  11. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of...

  12. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2017-08-23

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulse on Pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik; Carlson, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Pulse on Pulse” investigates the relation between signifying processes and non-signifying material dynamism in the installation Pulse Room (2006-) by Mexican Canadian artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Pulse Room the sense of pulse is ambiguous. Biorhythms are transmitted from the pulsing energy...... and pulsating ‘room’. Hence, the visitors in Pulse Room are invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic ‘rhythm of life’) and instants of pure material processuality...... a multilayered sense of time and space that is central to the sensory experience of Pulse Room as a whole. Pulse Room is, at the very same time, an anthropomorfized archive of a past intimacy and an all-encompassing immersive environment modulating continuously in real space-time....

  14. Five years use of Pulse Doppler RADAR-utechnology in debris-flows monitoring - experience at three test sites so far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschuch, Richard; Brauner, Michael; Hu, Kaiheng; Hübl, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Automatic monitoring of alpine mass movement is a major challenge in dealing with natural hazards. The presented research project shows a new approach in measurment and alarming technology for water level changes an debris flow by using a high-frequency Pulse Doppler RADAR. The detection system was implemented on 3 places (2 in Tirol/Austria within the monitoring systems of the IAN/BOKU; 1 in Dongchuan/China within the monitoring systems of the IMHE/Chinese Academy of Science) in order to prove the applicability of the RADAR in monitoring torrential activities (e.g. debris-flows, mudflows, flash floods, etc.). The main objective is to illustrate the principles and the potential of an innovative RADAR system and its versatility as an automatic detection system for fast (> 1 km/h - 300 km/h) alpine mass movements of any kind. The high frequency RADAR device was already successfully tested for snow avalanches in Sedrun/Switzerland (Lussi et al., 2012), in Ischgl/Austria (Kogelnig et al., 2012). The experience and the data of the five year showed the enormous potential of the presented RADAR technology in use as an independent warning and monitoring system in the field of natural hazard. We have been able to measure water level changes, surface velocities and several debris flows and can compare this data with the other installed systems.

  15. Tsunami Hazards From Strike-Slip Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, M. R.; Borrero, J. C.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    Strike-slip faulting is often considered unfavorable for tsunami generation during large earthquakes. Although large strike-slip earthquakes triggering landslides and then generating substantial tsunamis are now recognized hazards, many continue to ignore the threat from submarine tectonic displacement during strike-slip earthquakes. Historical data record the occurrence of tsunamis from strike-slip earthquakes, for example, 1906 San Francisco, California, 1994 Mindoro, Philippines, and 1999 Izmit, Turkey. Recognizing that strike-slip fault zones are often curved and comprise numerous en echelon step-overs, we model tsunami generation from realistic strike-slip faulting scenarios. We find that tectonic seafloor uplift, at a restraining bend or"pop-up" structure, provides an efficient mechanism to generate destructive local tsunamis; likewise for subsidence at divergent pull-apart basin structures. Large earthquakes on complex strike-slip fault systems may involve both types of structures. The California Continental Borderland is a high-relief submarine part of the active Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Natural harbors and bays created by long term vertical motion associated with strike-slip structural irregularities are now sites of burgeoning population and major coastal infrastructure. Significant local tsunamis generated by large strike-slip earthquakes pose a serious, and previously unrecognized threat. We model several restraining bend pop-up structures offshore southern California to quantify the local tsunami hazard. Maximum runup derived in our scenarios ranges from one to several meters, similar to runup observed from the 1994 Mindoro, Philippines, (M=7.1) earthquake. The runup pattern is highly variable, with local extremes along the coast. We only model the static displacement field for the strike-slip earthquake source; dynamic effects of moving large island or submerged banks laterally during strike-slip events remains to be examined

  16. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  17. Pulse on Pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik; Carlson, Merete

    2012-01-01

    and pulsating ‘room’. Hence, the visitors in Pulse Room are invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic ‘rhythm of life’) and instants of pure material processuality......“Pulse on Pulse” investigates the relation between signifying processes and non-signifying material dynamism in the installation Pulse Room (2006-) by Mexican Canadian artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Pulse Room the sense of pulse is ambiguous. Biorhythms are transmitted from the pulsing energy...... of the visitor’s beating heart to the blink of a fragile light bulb, thereby transforming each light bulb into a register of individual life. But at the same time the blinking light bulbs together produce a chaotically flickering light environment composed by various layers of repetitive rhythms, a vibrant...

  18. Non-Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia in A Child After Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haşim Olgun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lightning strike is a rare natural phenomenon with a high risk of fatality. The most dramatic complications of lightning injury are those associated with the cardiovascular system, and cardiac arrest is the primary cause of death. Rhythm problems often lead to death in the acute phase of lightning strike, but recording rhythm problems in the acute phase is very difficult. We described a child who suffered a lightning strike and developed cardiac arrest shortly after admission to the emergency department. He had transient ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG changes and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT on Holter monitoring and was treated with lidocaine.

  19. Women, transition and strikes in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Nada G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting for their social and economic rights, threatened by the capitalist class. Elites in government and state authorities protect the interests of big capital at the detriment of the interests of the majority of workers. Exploring women's strikes in transition reveals the nature of the social and political system. Their strikes in enterprises, the blocking of public spaces and public protests are systemic, ie. class determined. As the transition was very fast, the resistance of the strikers was inefficient, and the protests of women became an expression of desperation against the loss of jobs and basic resources for lifehood. In short, this research is about the main causes, the organizational forms and the consequences of strikes in which the majority were women. For this purpose, the author chose to describe an array of strikes in the industries and the companies where women are most employed. The choice of strikes in the economic sector is not accidental, but a consequence of the fact that the women there were the most vulnerable. Women in public institutions and companies had much higher financial and social position. They are less likely to strike and publicly protested. After 2000, these strikes were more successful than worker's strikes in textile, food processing, manufacturing and trade. Relationship between the government and the public towards them was tainted by self-interest and selective. The main criterion for the selection of companies and

  20. A Ring-shaped photodiode designed for use in a reflectance pulse oximetry sensor in wireless health monitoring applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun, Sune; Haahr, Rasmus Grønbek; Birkelund, Karen

    2010-01-01

    We report a photodiode for use in a reflectance pulse oximeter for use in autonomous and low-power homecare applications. The novelty of the reflectance pulse oximeter is a large ring shaped backside silicon pn photodiode. The ring-shaped photodiode gives optimal gathering of light and thereby en...... is demonstrated to work in a laboratory setup with a Ledtronics dual LED with wavelengths of 660 and 940 nm. Using this setup photoplethysmograms which clearly show the cardiovascular cycle have been recorded. The sensor is shown to work very well with low currents of less than 10 mA....... a radius of 3.68 mm and a width of 0.78 mm giving an area of 18 mm2. The capacitance of the photodiode is measured to 34.5 nF. The quantum efficiency of the photodiode is measured to 55% and 62% at 660 nm and 940 nm, respectively. It is acceptable for this prototype but can be improved. The sensor also has...

  1. Noninvasive cardiac output monitoring during exercise testing: Nexfin pulse contour analysis compared to an inert gas rebreathing method and respired gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Sebastiaan A; Stok, Wim J; Bezemer, Rick; Boksem, Remco J; van Goudoever, Jeroen; Cherpanath, Thomas G V; van Lieshout, Johannes J; Westerhof, Berend E; Karemaker, John M; Ince, Can

    2011-10-01

    Exercise testing is often used to assess cardiac function during physical exertion to obtain diagnostic information. However, this procedure is limited to measuring the electrical activity of the heart using electrocardiography and intermittent blood pressure (BP) measurements and does not involve the continuous assessment of heart functioning. In this study, we compared continuous beat-to-beat pulse contour analysis to monitor noninvasive cardiac output (CO) during exercise with inert gas rebreathing and respired gas analysis. Nineteen healthy male volunteers were subjected to bicycle ergometry testing with increasing workloads. Cardiac output was deter- mined noninvasively by continuous beat-to-beat pulse contour analysis (Nexfin) and by inert gas rebreathing, and estimated using the respired gas analysis method. The effects of the rebreathing maneuver on heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and CO were evaluated. The CO values derived from the Nexfin- and inert gas rebreathing methods were well correlated (r = 0.88, P gas analysis-derived CO values correlated even better (r = 0.94, P < 0.01) and the limits of agreement were 21.5% with a measurement bias of -0.70 ± 1.6 L/min. At rest, the rebreathing maneuver increased HR by 13 beats/min (P < 0.01), SV remained unaffected (P = 0.7), while CO increased by 1.0 L/min (P < 0.01). Rebreathing did not affect these parameters during exercise. Nexfin continuous beat-to-beat pulse contour analysis is an appropriate method for noninvasive assessment of CO during exercise.

  2. Taking the Pulse: Monitoring the Quality and Progress of Internationalization, Including Tracking Measures. CBIE Research Millennium Series No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Internalization of higher education will be remembered as one of the major challenges and accomplishments of the last two decades. This paper introduces the concept of qualitative and quantitative tracking measures to enable a monitoring of progress and quality toward specified objects or targets. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to emphasize the…

  3. Conceptual design of a high precision dual directional beam position monitoring system for beam crosstalk cancellation and improved output pulse shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieberger P.; Dawson, C.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Hulsart, R.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.

    2012-04-15

    The Relativistic Heavy Ions Collider (RHIC) would benefit from improved beam position measurements near the interaction points that see both beams, especially as the tolerances become tighter when reducing the beam sizes to obtain increased luminosity. Two limitations of the present beam position monitors (BPMs) would be mitigated if the proposed approach is successful. The small but unavoidable cross-talk between signals from bunches traveling in opposite directions when using conventional BPMs will be reduced by adopting directional BPMs. Further improvements will be achieved by cancelling residual cross-talk using pairs of such BPMs. Appropriately delayed addition and integration of the signals will also provide pulses with relatively flat maxima that will be easier to digitize by relaxing the presently very stringent timing requirements.

  4. Optical sensor based on fluorescent quenching and pulsed blue LED excitation for long-term monitoring of dissolved oxygen in NASA space bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Frank G; Fay, James M; Mathew, Grace; Jeevarajan, Antony S; Anderson, Melody M

    2005-01-01

    There is a need to monitor the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) present in the culture medium for NASA's space cell biology experiments, as well as in earth-based cell cultures. Continuous measurement of DO concentration in the cell culture medium in perfused bioreactors requires that the oxygen sensor provide adequate sensitivity and low toxicity to the cells, as well as maintain calibration over several weeks. Although there are a number of sensors for dissolved oxygen on the market and under development elsewhere, very few meet these stringent conditions. An in-house optical oxygen sensor (HOXY) based on dynamic fluorescent quenching of Tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) chloride and a pulsed blue LED light source was developed in our laboratory to address these requirements. The sensing element consisted of the fluorescent dye embedded in a silicone matrix and coated onto a glass capillary. Photobleaching was minimized by a pulsed LED light source. The total noise in the sensor output is 2% and the sensor dynamic range is 0 to 200 mm Hg. The resolution of the sensor is 0.1 mm Hg at 50 mm Hg, and 0.25 mm Hg at 130 mm Hg, while the accuracy is 5%. The LED-based oxygen sensor exhibited stable performance and low drift, making it compatible for space-flight bioreactor systems.

  5. Kissing G domains of MnmE monitored by X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Simon; Böhme, Sabine; Krüger, André; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Klare, Johann P; Wittinghofer, Alfred

    2009-10-01

    MnmE, which is involved in the modification of the wobble position of certain tRNAs, belongs to the expanding class of G proteins activated by nucleotide-dependent dimerization (GADs). Previous models suggested the protein to be a multidomain protein whose G domains contact each other in a nucleotide dependent manner. Here we employ a combined approach of X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to show that large domain movements are coupled to the G protein cycle of MnmE. The X-ray structures show MnmE to be a constitutive homodimer where the highly mobile G domains face each other in various orientations but are not in close contact as suggested by the GDP-AlF(x) structure of the isolated domains. Distance measurements by pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy show that the G domains adopt an open conformation in the nucleotide free/GDP-bound and an open/closed two-state equilibrium in the GTP-bound state, with maximal distance variations of 18 A. With GDP and AlF(x), which mimic the transition state of the phosphoryl transfer reaction, only the closed conformation is observed. Dimerization of the active sites with GDP-AlF(x) requires the presence of specific monovalent cations, thus reflecting the requirements for the GTPase reaction of MnmE. Our results directly demonstrate the nature of the conformational changes MnmE was previously suggested to undergo during its GTPase cycle. They show the nucleotide-dependent dynamic movements of the G domains around two swivel positions relative to the rest of the protein, and they are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanistic principles of this GAD.

  6. Kissing G domains of MnmE monitored by X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Meyer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available MnmE, which is involved in the modification of the wobble position of certain tRNAs, belongs to the expanding class of G proteins activated by nucleotide-dependent dimerization (GADs. Previous models suggested the protein to be a multidomain protein whose G domains contact each other in a nucleotide dependent manner. Here we employ a combined approach of X-ray crystallography and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy to show that large domain movements are coupled to the G protein cycle of MnmE. The X-ray structures show MnmE to be a constitutive homodimer where the highly mobile G domains face each other in various orientations but are not in close contact as suggested by the GDP-AlF(x structure of the isolated domains. Distance measurements by pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER spectroscopy show that the G domains adopt an open conformation in the nucleotide free/GDP-bound and an open/closed two-state equilibrium in the GTP-bound state, with maximal distance variations of 18 A. With GDP and AlF(x, which mimic the transition state of the phosphoryl transfer reaction, only the closed conformation is observed. Dimerization of the active sites with GDP-AlF(x requires the presence of specific monovalent cations, thus reflecting the requirements for the GTPase reaction of MnmE. Our results directly demonstrate the nature of the conformational changes MnmE was previously suggested to undergo during its GTPase cycle. They show the nucleotide-dependent dynamic movements of the G domains around two swivel positions relative to the rest of the protein, and they are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanistic principles of this GAD.

  7. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand...

  8. Impact of lightning strikes on hospital functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct impact on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature.

  9. When Lightning Strikes a Second Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    The chances of lightning striking twice are infinitesimal, at best. What are the odds, in middle age, of being struck with a jarring bolt of figurative lightning, then a few months later being an eyewitness as the same sizzle in the sky jolts a group of students--those decision-makers of tomorrow? The author describes two experiences that proved…

  10. Interaction of ferulic acid derivatives with human erythrocytes monitored by pulse field gradient NMR diffusion and NMR relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Cecilia; Bernardi, Francesca; Centini, Marisanna; Gaggelli, Elena; Gaggelli, Nicola; Valensin, Daniela; Valensin, Gianni

    2005-04-01

    Ferulic acid (Fer), a natural anti-oxidant and chemo-protector, is able to suppress experimental carcinogenesis in the forestomach, lungs, skin, tongue and colon. Several Fer derivatives have been suggested as promising candidates for cancer prevention, being the biological activity related also to the capacity of partitioning between aqueous and lipid phases. In the present work, pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion measurement and NMR relaxation rates have been adopted for investigating the interaction of three Fer derivatives (Fer-C11, Fer-C12 and Fer-C13) with human erythrocytes. Binding to the erythrocyte membrane has been shown for all derivatives, which displayed a similar interaction mode such that the aromatic moiety and the terminal part of the alkyl chain were the most affected. Quantitative analysis of the diffusion coefficients was used to show that Fer-C12 and Fer-C13 display higher affinity for the cell membrane when compared with Fer-C11. These findings agree with the higher anti-oxidant activity of the two derivatives.

  11. Monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide by long-path pulsed differential optical absorption spectroscopy using two different light paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Yasuaki; Yoshii, Yotsumi; Takahashi, Kenshi; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    Measurements of the local distribution of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) by long-path pulsed differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-PDOAS) in Tokyo during August 2008 are presented. Two LP-PDOAS systems simultaneously measured average NO(2) temporal mixing ratios along two different paths from a single observation point. Two flashing aviation obstruction lights, located 7.0 km north and 6.3 km east from the observation point, were used as light sources, allowing spatiotemporal variations of NO(2) in Tokyo to be inferred. The LP-PDOAS data were compared with ground-based data measured using chemiluminescence. Surface wind data indicated that large inhomogeneities were present in the spatial NO(2) distributions under southerly wind conditions, while northerly wind conditions displayed greater homogeneity between the two systems. The higher correlation in the NO(2) mixing ratio between the two LP-PDOAS systems was observed under northerly wind conditions with a correlation factor R(2) = 0.88. We demonstrated that the combined deployment of two LP-PDOAS systems oriented in different directions provides detailed information on the spatial distribution of NO(2).

  12. The Distribution of Cloud to Ground Lightning Strike Intensities and Associated Magnetic Inductance Fields Near the Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lee; Decker, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    Lightning strike location and peak current are monitored operationally in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) area by the Cloud to Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS). The present study compiles ten years worth of CGLSS data into a database of near strikes. Using shuffle launch platform LP39A as a convenient central point, all strikes recorded within a 20-mile radius for the period of record O R ) from January 1, 1993 to December 31,2002 were included in the subset database. Histograms and cumulative probability curves are produced for both strike intensity (peak current, in kA) and the corresponding magnetic inductance fields (in A/m). Results for the full POR have application to launch operations lightning monitoring and post-strike test procedures.

  13. Research and Development for the Mu2e Extinction Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, Casey Benjamin [Northern Illinois U.

    2016-01-01

    Mu2e is a planned experiment to search for flavor-violating conversion from a muon to an electron. The experiment will use a pulsed 8 GeV proton beam to produce muons which will then stop in an aluminum target. Mu2e will search for the $\\mu^- + Al \\rightarrow e^- + Al$ process. For Mu2e, an extinction rate of 10$^{-10}$ is required to reduce the backgrounds to an acceptable level. Extinction is the ratio of the amount of protons striking the production target between beam pulses to the number striking it during the beam pulse. One of the backgrounds, off-target interactions, was simulated using G4beamline and Fermilab's Grid setup to confirm that an extinction rate of 10$^{-10}$ is possible. The extinction level will be measured by the extinction monitor which will include scintillation counters read out by photomultiplier tubes. In order to build a beam time profile, low fake responses (after pulses) are needed in the photomultiplier tubes. This thesis determines the best combination of resistors, voltage, and other components that provide the lowest after pulse rate.

  14. Research and development for the Mu2E extinction monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Casey B.

    Mu2e is a planned experiment to search for flavor violating conversion from a muon to an electron. The experiment will use a pulsed 8 GeV proton beam to produce muons which will then stop in an aluminum target. Mu2e will search for the mu-- + Al → e-- + Al process. For Mu2e, an extinction rate of 10--10 is required to reduce the backgrounds to an acceptable level. Extinction is the ratio of the amount of protons striking the production target between beam pulses to the number striking it during the beam pulse. One of the backgrounds, off-target interactions, was simulated using G4beamline and Fermilab's Grid setup to confirm that an extinction rate of 10--10 is possible. The extinction level will be measured by the extinction monitor which will include scintillation counters read out by photomultiplier tubes. In order to build a beam time profile, low fake responses (after pulses) are needed in the photomultiplier tubes. This thesis determines the best combination of resistors, voltage, and other components that provide the lowest after pulse rate.

  15. Lightning Strikes and Attribution of Climatic Change

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Using lightning strikes as an example, two possible schemes are discussed for the attribution of changes in event frequency to climate change, and estimating the cost associated with them. The schemes determine the fraction of events that should be attributed to climatic change, and the fraction that should be attributed to natural chance. They both allow for the expected increase in claims and the fluctuations about this expected value. Importantly, the attribution fraction proposed in the second of these schemes is necessarily different to that found in epidemiological studies. This ensures that the statistically expected fraction of attributed claims is correctly equal to the expected increase in claims. The analysis of lightning data highlights two particular difficulties with data-driven, as opposed to modeled, attribution studies. The first is the possibility of unknown "confounding" variables that can influence the strike frequency. This is partly accounted for here by considering the influence of temp...

  16. Central hyperadrenergic state after lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A

    2013-08-01

    To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.

  17. Preemptive Striking in Individual and Group Conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Mifune

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess preemptive striking by and towards individuals or groups. In the framework of a preemptive strike game, we set the following four conditions: one person faced another person, one person faced a three-person group, a three-person group faced an individual, and a three-person group faced another three-person group. Previous studies have revealed that greed is activated when participants belong to a group, while fear is activated when participants interact with a group, and further, that attacking behaviors in the preemptive strike game are driven by fear. These observations led to a hypothesis that high attack rates would be realized when participants interact with a group, regardless of whether the participants make decisions as individuals or a group. The results of our experiment, however, rejected this hypothesis. Among the four conditions, the attack rate was highest when a three-person group faced an individual. As possible reasons for our observation, we discuss the potential threat stemming from the imbalance in the effectiveness of attack between individuals and groups, and the (incorrect belief by groups that single individuals would be more likely to attack out of fear.

  18. Preemptive Striking in Individual and Group Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hizen, Yoichi; Kamijo, Yoshio; Okano, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess preemptive striking by and towards individuals or groups. In the framework of a preemptive strike game, we set the following four conditions: one person faced another person, one person faced a three-person group, a three-person group faced an individual, and a three-person group faced another three-person group. Previous studies have revealed that greed is activated when participants belong to a group, while fear is activated when participants interact with a group, and further, that attacking behaviors in the preemptive strike game are driven by fear. These observations led to a hypothesis that high attack rates would be realized when participants interact with a group, regardless of whether the participants make decisions as individuals or a group. The results of our experiment, however, rejected this hypothesis. Among the four conditions, the attack rate was highest when a three-person group faced an individual. As possible reasons for our observation, we discuss the potential threat stemming from the imbalance in the effectiveness of attack between individuals and groups, and the (incorrect) belief by groups that single individuals would be more likely to attack out of fear.

  19. Measurement of pulse lengthening with pulse energy increase in picosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutolo, A.; Zeni, L.; Berardi, V.; Bruzzese, R.; Solimeno, S.; Spinelli, N.

    1989-03-15

    Taking advantage of a new technique, we have monitored the relative variations of time duration and mode size as a function of the pulse energy for 30-ps-long Nd:YAG laser pulses. In particular, by carrying out a statistical analysis, we have observed that the pulse time duration is an increasing function of the pulse energy, according to the theoretical modeling of passively mode-locked lasers. The measurements can be easily extended to the femtosecond regime.

  20. Onset of aseismic creep on major strike-slip faults

    KAUST Repository

    Çakir, Ziyadin

    2012-10-02

    Time series analysis of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, GPS measurements, and fi eld observations reveal that the central section of the Izmit (Turkey) fault that slipped with a supershear rupture velocity in the A.D. 1999, Mw7.4, Izmit earthquake began creeping aseismically following the earthquake. Rapid initial postseismic afterslip decayed logarithmically with time and appears to have reached a steady rate comparable to the preearthquake full fault-crossing rate, suggesting that it may continue for decades and possibly until late in the earthquake cycle. If confi rmed by future monitoring, these observations identify postseismic afterslip as a mechanism for initiating creep behavior along strike-slip faults. Long-term afterslip and/or creep has signifi cant implications for earthquake cycle models, recurrence intervals of large earthquakes, and accordingly, seismic hazard estimation along mature strike-slip faults, in particular for Istanbul which is believed to lie adjacent to a seismic gap along the North Anatolian fault in the Sea of Marmara. © 2012 Geological Society of America.

  1. In situ monitoring of La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} monolayers grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, David; Gogol, Philippe; Lecoeur, Philippe [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, IEF/CNRS/UMR 8622, Universite Paris Sud, Batiment 220, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Postava, Kamil [Department of Physics, Technical University of Ostrava, 17 listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Niu, Gang; Vilquin, Bertrand [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL), Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Batiment F7, 69134 Ecully (France)

    2010-08-15

    Integration of functional oxides on silicon is a key issue for the development of oxide-based electronics. For this purpose, monitoring the growth of these materials by an in situ technique becomes essential to control the thickness, the roughness and the oxidation state of the layers. Using a new static optical setup, i.e. with no modulation, we have studied the deposition and the annealing of pulsed-laser deposited La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} monolayers on pseudosubstrates SrTiO{sub 3}(100)/Si at high temperature. We show that using the ratio of reflectance for the two different polarizations (s,p) R{sub p}/R{sub s} = tan {sup 2}{psi} of the optical signal after reflection, we can follow, in situ, the growth of monolayers (ML) with a precision of one unit cell. Also, the growth mode and the annealing process leading to the determination of the activation energy can be precisely controlled. All these results are corroborated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using this static measurement method, the obtained results are as sensitive as previous reports with, for example, oblique incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD). (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. REFLECTANCE PULSE OXIMETRY IN FETAL LAMBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DASSEL, AC; GRAAFF, R; AARNOUDSE, JG; ELSTRODT, JM; HEIDA, P; KOELINK, MH; DEMUL, FF; GREVE, J

    1992-01-01

    Transmission pulse oximetry is used for monitoring in many clinical settings. However, for fetal monitoring during labor and in situations with poor peripheral perfusion, transmission pulse oximetry cannot be used. Therefore, we developed a reflectance pulse oximeter, which uses the relative intensi

  3. Acute transient hemiparesis induced by lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira

    2015-07-01

    According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.

  4. Suppression of strike-slip fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    In orogens elongated parallel to a great circle about the Euler pole for the two bounding plates, theory requires simple-shear deformation in the form of distributed deformation or velocity discontinuities across strike-slip faults. This type of deformation, however, does not develop at all plate boundaries requiring toroidal motion. Using the global plate boundary model, PB2002 [Bird, 2003], as the basis for identifying areas where expected simple-shear deformation is absent or underdeveloped, it was also possible to identify two potential causes for this behavior: (1) the presence of extensive fracturing at right angles to the shear plane and (2) regional cover of flood basalts or andesites with columnar joints. To test this hypothesis, a new plane-stress finite-strain model was developed to study the effects of such pre-existing structures on the development of simple shear in a clay cake. A homogenous kaolinite-water mixture was poured into a deforming parallelogram box and partially dried to allow for brittle and plastic deformation at and below the surface of the clay, respectively. This was floated on a dense fluid foundation, effectively removing basal friction, and driven by a motor in a sinistral direction from the sides of the box. Control experiments produced classic Riedel model fault assemblages and discrete, through-going primary deformation zones (PDZs); experiments with pre-existing structures developed the same, though subdued and distributed, fault assemblages but did not develop through-going PDZs. Although formation of strike-slip faults was underdeveloped at the surface in clay with pre-existing structures, offset within the clay cake (measured, with respect to a fixed point, by markers on the clay surface) as a fraction of total offset of the box was consistently larger than that of the control experiments. This suggests that while the extent of surface faulting was lessened in clay with pre-existing structures, slip was still occurring at

  5. Lightning strike-induced brachial plexopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Amita N; Kasundra, Gaurav M; Khichar, Subhakaran; Bhushan, Bharat S K

    2014-10-01

    We describe a patient who presented with a history of lightning strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to lightning injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that lightning rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered.

  6. High order coherent control sequences of fat pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Pasini, S; Uhrig, G S

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the performance of sequences of fat pulses of various lengths and shapes for dynamic decoupling and we compare it with that of sequences of ideal, instantaneous pulses. The use of second order, shaped pulses represents a significant improvement. Non-equidistant sequences characterized by pulse durations scaled proportional to the duration T of the sequence strikingly outperform the sequences with pulses of constant length for small T. Interestingly, for longer durations sequences of pulses of substantial length are found to suppress dephasing better than sequences of ideal pulses.

  7. Properties of Lightning Strike Protection Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Martin

    Composite materials are being increasingly used by many industries. In the case of aerospace companies, those materials are installed on their aircraft to save weight, and thus, fuel costs. These aircraft are lighter, but the loss of electrical conductivity makes aircraft vulnerable to lightning strikes, which hit commercial aircrafts on average once per year. This makes lightning strike protection very important, and while current metallic expanded copper foils offer good protection, they increase the weight of composites. Therefore, under the CRIAQ COMP-502 project, a team of industrial partners and academic researchers are investigating new conductive coatings with the following characteristics: High electromagnetic protection, high mechanical resistance, good environmental protection, manufacturability and moderate cost. The main objectives of this thesis, as part of this project, was to determine the main characteristics, such as electrical and tribomechanical properties, of conductive coatings on composite panels. Their properties were also to be tested after destructive tests such as current injection and environmental testing. Bombardier Aerospace provided the substrate, a composite of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix, and the current commercial product, a surfacing film that includes an expanded copper foil used to compare with the other coatings. The conductive coatings fabricated by the students are: silver nanoparticles inside a binding matrix (PEDOT:PSS or a mix of Epoxy and PEDOT:PSS), silvered carbon nanofibers embedded in the surfacing film, cold sprayed tin, graphene oxide functionalized with silver nanowires, and electroless plated silver. Additionally as part of the project and thesis, magnetron sputtered aluminum coated samples were fabricated. There are three main types of tests to characterize the conductive coatings: electrical, mechanical and environmental. Electrical tests consist of finding the sheet resistance and specific resistivity

  8. MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team : Final Report 2013 : Overall Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  9. effects of strike cost on economic development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    examines strike cost and economic development in Nigeria. Taking strike ... Industrial conflict is constant and an inevitable part of any organization. The concept .... political leadership .lips service; poor knowledge of the society and complete.

  10. MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team : Final Report 2012 : Overall Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  11. MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team : Final Report 2015 : Overall Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  12. Environmental Assessment for Conventional Strike Missile Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    transmitters; maximum 900 Watt radio frequency pulse Power Up to five lithium ion and lithium thionyl chloride batteries , each weighing between 1 and 30 lb...coolant, oil, and hydraulic fluid. Additional lead-acid or lithium batteries on the barges would power control systems and sensors. No other fuels...and other marine species. If any of the PDV lithium battery electrolytes enter the water, wave action and currents would rapidly dilute the

  13. Evidence of a double peak in muscle activation to enhance strike speed and force: an example with elite mixed martial arts fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Chaimberg, Jon D; Frost, David M; Fenwick, Chad M J

    2010-02-01

    The main issue addressed here is the paradox of muscle contraction to optimize speed and strike force. When muscle contracts, it increases in both force and stiffness. Force creates faster movement, but the corresponding stiffness slows the change of muscle shape and joint velocity. The purpose of this study was to investigate how this speed strength is accomplished. Five elite mixed martial arts athletes were recruited given that they must create high strike force very quickly. Muscle activation using electromyography and 3-dimensional spine motion was measured. A variety of strikes were performed. Many of the strikes intend to create fast motion and finish with a very large striking force, demonstrating a "double peak" of muscle activity. An initial peak was timed with the initiation of motion presumably to enhance stiffness and stability through the body before motion. This appeared to create an inertial mass in the large "core" for limb muscles to "pry" against to initiate limb motion. Then, some muscles underwent a relaxation phase as speed of limb motion increased. A second peak was observed upon contact with the opponent (heavy bag). It was postulated that this would increase stiffness through the body linkage, resulting in a higher effective mass behind the strike and likely a higher strike force. Observation of the contract-relax-contract pulsing cycle during forceful and quick strikes suggests that it may be fruitful to consider pulse training that involves not only the rate of muscle contraction but also the rate of muscle relaxation.

  14. Application of pulse contour cardiac output monitoring technique in hemodynamic monitoring in critical patients%脉搏轮廓心排血量监测技术在危重病患者血流动力学监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房贺; 郑兴锋; 夏照帆

    2014-01-01

    Pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring is a new type of invasive hemodynamic monitoring technology,which is more and more often applied in perioperative period and the patients suffering from multiple injuries,septic shock,and extensive burn.With PiCCO one is able to monitor patients' hemodynamic indexes safely,timely,accurately,and continuously to provide reference for judgment of patients' condition and proper quality and quantity of fluid administration.This technique has a good prospect in clinical application.

  15. Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolemen, E.; Gates, D. A.; Rowley, C. W.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving "snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX.

  16. Strikes and solidarity: coalfield conflict in Britain, 1889-1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Church; Quentin Outram [University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    This book investigates the history of strike activity in the British coal mining industry, a byword for industrial militancy since the late nineteenth century. Contents: 1. Interpreting coalfield conflict: focus and formulations; 2. Tradition and modernity: the mining industry 1889-1940; 3. Employers and workers: organizations and strategies; 4. Employers and workers: ideologies, attitudes and political orientations; 5. Configurations of strike activity; 6. Strike participation and solidarity before 1912; 7. Strikes, organization and consciousness in 1912 and after; 8. Conflictual context? The 'isolated mass' revisited; 9. Mining and modernity: size, sectionalism and solidarity; 10. The foundations of strike propensity; 11. Miners and management: agency and action; 12. Industrial relations and strikes after nationalization; 13. International perspectives; 14. Myths and realities: strikes, solidarity and 'militant miners'.

  17. A simple field method to identify foot strike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlène; Poupard, Thibaut; Gimenez, Philippe; Horvais, Nicolas; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre

    2014-05-07

    Identifying foot strike patterns in running is an important issue for sport clinicians, coaches and footwear industrials. Current methods allow the monitoring of either many steps in laboratory conditions or only a few steps in the field. Because measuring running biomechanics during actual practice is critical, our purpose is to validate a method aiming at identifying foot strike patterns during continuous field measurements. Based on heel and metatarsal accelerations, this method requires two uniaxial accelerometers. The time between heel and metatarsal acceleration peaks (THM) was compared to the foot strike angle in the sagittal plane (αfoot) obtained by 2D video analysis for various conditions of speed, slope, footwear, foot strike and state of fatigue. Acceleration and kinematic measurements were performed at 1000Hz and 120Hz, respectively, during 2-min treadmill running bouts. Significant correlations were observed between THM and αfoot for 14 out of 15 conditions. The overall correlation coefficient was r=0.916 (P<0.0001, n=288). The THM method is thus highly reliable for a wide range of speeds and slopes, and for all types of foot strike except for extreme forefoot strike during which the heel rarely or never strikes the ground, and for different footwears and states of fatigue. We proposed a classification based on THM: FFS<-5.49ms

  18. Next-generation pulse oximetry. Focusing on Masimo's signal extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Pulse oximeters are used to determine trends in patients' blood oxygen saturation and to warn of dangerous saturation levels. But conventional pulse oximetry has some inherent limitations. For example, it has difficulty monitoring patients who are moving or who have poor perfusion; it is also subject to interference from certain visible and infrared light sources. Over the past several years, a number of companies have developed advanced signal-processing techniques that allow pulse oximeters to overcome many of these limitations. We refer to such new technologies as next-generation pulse oximetry. In this Evaluation, we focus on the first next-generation technology to have reached the market: Masimo Corporation's Signal Extraction Technology (SET). We designed our study of Masimo SET to address the main question that needs to be asked of any next-generation technology: How well does it compare to conventional pulse oximetry? Specifically, how well does it perform when a patient is moving or being moved, when a patient is poorly perfused, or when certain types of light strike the sensor while it is attached to or detached from the patient? We also examined one type of sensor used with this product, comparing it to conventional tape-on sensors for comfort and durability. Several other next-generation pulse-oximeter products have become available since we began this study. We are currently evaluating these products and will publish our findings in the near future. A list of the products, including a brief description of each, is included in this article. Pulse oximeters are used to determine trends in patients' blood oxygen saturation and to warn against dangerous saturation levels. These monitors are often vital in helping to ensure patient safety, especially for critically ill patients, pediatric patients, and neonates. But conventional pulse oximetry has some inherent limitations--most significantly, it has difficulty monitoring patients who are moving or who have

  19. A Single-Pulse Integrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1974-01-01

    A single-pulse integrator is described. It gives a relative measure of the integral of the output signal from a coil monitor on the Risø 10 MeV linear accelerator, and displays the value on a digital voltmeter. The reproduccibility is found to be better than ±1% for an accelerated pulse charge...

  20. Geological Effects on Lightning Strike Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Berdahl, J. Scott

    2016-05-16

    Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence can now be tested empirically. If present, such influence could represent a new, cheap and efficient geophysical tool with applications in mineral, hydrothermal and oil exploration, regional geological mapping, and infrastructure planning. This project applies statistical analysis to lightning data collected by the United States National Lightning Detection Network from 2006 through 2015 in order to assess whether the huge range in electrical conductivities of geological materials plays a role in the spatial distribution of CG lightning. CG flash densities are mapped for twelve areas in the contiguous United States and compared to elevation and geology, as well as to the locations of faults, railroads and tall towers including wind turbines. Overall spatial randomness is assessed, along with spatial correlation of attributes. Negative and positive polarity lightning are considered separately and together. Topography and tower locations show a strong influence on CG distribution patterns. Geology, faults and railroads do not. This suggests that ground conductivity is not an important factor in determining lightning strike location on scales larger than current flash location accuracies, which are generally several hundred meters. Once a lightning channel is established, however, ground properties at the contact point may play a role in determining properties of the subsequent stroke.

  1. The vascular response observation by the monitoring of the photosensitizer, oxygen, and blood flow during the high intensity pulsed excitation photodynamic therapy 1h after water-soluble photosensitizer intravenous injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakomori, S.; Matsuo, H.; Arai, T.

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the correlation between the therapeutic effect by early irradiation Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and vascular response. The early irradiation PDT has been proposed by our group. This PDT protocol is that pulse laser irradiates to tumors 1 h after intravenous injection of water-soluble photosensitizer. The intact layer appeared over the well treated layer, when the early irradiation PDT was performed at rat prostate subcutaneous tumors with high intensity pulse laser (over 1 MW/cm2 in peak intensity) and Talaporfin sodium. In order to clarify the phenomenon mechanism, we monitored blood volume, surface temperature, photosensitizer amount, and oxygen saturation during the PDT. The rat prostate subcutaneous tumor was irradiated with excimer dye laser light at 1 h after the intravenous injection. The photosensitizer dose wa 2.0 mg/kg, and the pulse energy density was 2.5 mJ/cm2 (low intensity) or 10 mJ/cm2 (high intensity). Under the low intensity pulsed PDT, the fluorescence amount was decreasing gently during the irradiation, and the blood volume and oxygen saturation started decreasing just after the irradiation. Under the hgh intensity pulsed PDT, the fluorescence amount was decreaased rapidly for 20 s after the irradiation started. The blood volume and oxygen saturation were temporally decreased during the irradiation, and recovered at 48 hrs after the irradiation. According to these results, under the low intensity pulsed PDT, the blood vessel located near the surface started closing just after the irradiation. On the other hand, under the high intensity pulsed PDT the blood vessel was closing for 20 s after the irradiation started, moreover, the blood flow recovered at 48 hrs after the irradiation. We concluded that the vascular response depended on the pulse energy density, and then the therapeutic effect was attributed to the difference of the vascular response. In other words, the surface intact layer could be considered to be induced the

  2. PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: In-situ monitoring of EuTiO3 and SrTiO3 film growth using time-resolved X-ray scattering during pulsed-laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Time-resolved X-ray scattering was employed to in-situ monitor the epitaxial growth process of the thin films and multilayers of EuTiO3 and SrTiO3 during pulsed laser deposition. The temporal intensity oscillations of the reflected X-rays at anti-Bragg position and the transient processes following the flux pulses were observed. The temporal intensity oscillations were used to control the film thickness, and the reflectivity along the crystal truncation rod was used to measure both the film thickness and the surface/interface roughness. The primary features of the X-ray intensity oscillations were reproduced via simulating the experimental data using diffusive rate equation model. Several mechanisms of determining the X-ray intensity features were discerned.

  3. 体检人群脉搏波传导速度与动态血压监测指标的相关性研究%Relationship between pulse wave velocity and parameters from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曦; 胡荣; 芦燕玲; 于利群; 周生来

    2013-01-01

    目的:脉搏波传导速度与动态血压监测指标的关系.方法:行动态血压监测的体检者582例,根据血压水平分为正常血压组、血压正常高值组和高血压组,分析脉搏波传导速度与动态血压各指标之间的关系.结果:三组间动态血压各指标显著增高;颈股脉搏波传导速度三组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);高血压组颈桡脉搏波传导速度显著高于血压正常组.Pearson相关性分析:颈桡脉搏波传导速度与24 h平均SBP/DBP、白天平均SBP/DBP、夜间平均DBP、白天DBP负荷、夜间DBP负荷均呈正相关.颈股脉搏波传导速度与24h平均SBP、白天/夜间平均SBP、白天/夜间SBP负荷、白天SBP变化标准差均呈正相关.多元线性回归发现颈股脉搏波传导速度与24h平均SBP独立相关,颈桡脉搏波传导速度与白天平均DBP独立相关.结论:随血压水平程度升高,脉搏波传导速度明显增快.%Objective:To investigate relationship between pulse wave velocity and parameters from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in examination persons.Methods:The 582 examination persons were taken ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and pulse wave velocity,the parameters were analyzed according blood pressure level.Results:The parameters from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring increase obviously in 3 groups.The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity increase obviously in 3 groups.The carotid-radial pulse wave velocity were higher in hypertension group than normotensive.After analysis of pearson correlation,The carotidradial pulse wave velocity positively correlated with the mean 24h blood pressure,daytime mean blood pressure,night diastolic blood pressure,daytime diastolic blood pressure load,night diastolic blood pressure load.The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity positively correlated with 24h systolic blood pressure,daytime and night systolic blood pressure,daytime and night systolic blood pressure load,daytime systolic blood

  4. The effect of hand dominance on martial arts strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10±5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76±703.45 N vs. 1042.28±374.16 N; p<.001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p=.141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75±686.01 N vs. 1201.80±547.98 N; p=.002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06±705.48 N vs. 1269.96±547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p=.007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82±1.08 m/s vs. 5.24±0.78 m/s; p=.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79±1.01 m/s vs. 5.29±0.90 m/s; p<.001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target.

  5. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although $825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  6. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  7. Strikes, Arbitration, and Teacher Salaries: A Behavioral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, John Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Using a behavioral theory of bargaining, the authors examined data sets from Illinois and Iowa school districts and from a national sample of teachers. Results suggest that strike use and the availability of arbitration and the right to strike affect teacher salaries, while arbitration use does not. (Author/SK)

  8. WSARA 2009: Joint Strike Fighter Root Cause Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Verification Doug Pearson , VP F- 35 Test & Verification April 5, 2010 F-35 Lightning II Program Staffing Summary David Demoret, Director, F-35... Frederic C. Schwartz, C-17 Document By/From Date Fighters Technical Director, Joint Strike Fighter Program Office Joint Strike Fighter, Cost

  9. 14 CFR 25.631 - Bird strike damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.631 Bird strike damage. The empennage structure must be designed to assure capability of continued safe flight and landing of the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike damage. 25.631 Section...

  10. Risk Considerations of Bird Strikes to Space Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Christy; Ring, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Within seconds after liftoff of the Space Shuttle during mission STS-114, a turkey vulture impacted the vehicle's external tank. The contact caused no apparent damage to the Shuttle, but the incident led NASA to consider the potential consequences of bird strikes during a Shuttle launch. The environment at Kennedy Space Center provides unique bird strike challenges due to the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and the Atlantic Flyway bird migration routes. NASA is currently refining risk assessment estimates for the probability of bird strike to space launch vehicles. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the risks of bird strikes to space launch vehicles and presents an example. The migration routes, types of birds present, altitudes of those birds, exposed area of the launch vehicle, and its capability to withstand impacts affect the risk due to bird strike. A summary of significant risk contributors is discussed.

  11. Strike Point Control on EAST Using an Isoflux Control Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhe; Xiao, Bingjia; Luo, Zhengping; L. Walker, M.; A. Humphreys, D.

    2015-09-01

    For the advanced tokamak, the particle deposition and thermal load on the divertor is a big challenge. By moving the strike points on divertor target plates, the position of particle deposition and thermal load can be shifted. We could adjust the Poloidal Field (PF) coil current to achieve the strike point position feedback control. Using isoflux control method, the strike point position can be controlled by controlling the X point position. On the basis of experimental data, we establish relational expressions between X point position and strike point position. Benchmark experiments are carried out to validate the correctness and robustness of the control methods. The strike point position is successfully controlled following our command in the EAST operation. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2012GB105000 and 2014GB103000)

  12. Wavelet transform analysis of electromyography kung fu strikes data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda

    2009-11-01

    In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG) analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP) values instead of root mean square (rms) values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF). EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA), triceps brachii (TB) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023) for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007) for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners. Key PointsThe results show higher muscle activity and lower electromyography median frequencies for strikes with impact compared to strikes without.SSP results presented higher sensitivity and lower inter-subject coefficient of variations than rms results.Kung Fu palm strikes with impact may present better motor units' synchronization than strikes without.

  13. The added value of cardiac index and pulse pressure variation monitoring to mean arterial pressure-guided volume therapy in moderate-risk abdominal surgery (COGUIDE): a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stens, J; Hering, J-P; van der Hoeven, C W P; Boom, A; Traast, H S; Garmers, L E; Loer, S A; Boer, C

    2017-09-01

    There is disagreement regarding the benefits of goal-directed therapy in moderate-risk abdominal surgery. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the addition of non-invasive cardiac index and pulse pressure variation monitoring to mean arterial pressure-based goal-directed therapy would reduce the incidence of postoperative complications in patients having moderate-risk abdominal surgery. In this pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial, we randomly allocated 244 patients by envelope drawing in a 1:1 fashion, stratified per centre. All patients had mean arterial pressure, cardiac index and pulse pressure variation measured continuously. In one group, healthcare professionals were blinded to cardiac index and pulse pressure variation values and were asked to guide haemodynamic therapy only based on mean arterial pressure (control group). In the second group, cardiac index and pulse pressure variation values were displayed and kept within target ranges following a pre-defined algorithm (CI-PPV group). The primary endpoint was the incidence of postoperative complications within 30 days. One hundred and seventy-five patients were eligible for final analysis. Overall complication rates were similar (42/94 (44.7%) vs. 38/81 (46.9%) in the control and CI-PPV groups, respectively; p = 0.95). The CI-PPV group had lower mean (SD) pulse pressure variation values (9.5 (2.0)% vs. 11.9 (4.6)%; p = 0.003) and higher mean (SD) cardiac indices (2.76 (0.62) l min(-1) .m(-2) vs. 2.53 (0.66) l min(-1) .m(-2) ; p = 0.004) than the control group. In moderate-risk abdominal surgery, we observed no additional value of cardiac index and pulse pressure variation-guided haemodynamic therapy to mean arterial pressure-guided volume therapy with regard to postoperative complications. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. [Physicians' strikes and health services: an ethical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goić, A

    1996-07-01

    For the public opinion, medical strikes are a controversial issue; physician's ethical judgments are also different. The present article analyses the requisites to consider legitimate a strike and, based on these, the ethical duties of physicians; the features of medical unionism; the ethical duties of authority; the manipulation of ill people by the strike and the social factors that may cause these conflicts. In a medical strike, universal ethical values based on the Hyppocratic oath and promoted by the profession, are endangered. This article concludes that a medical strike may be explainable due to different reasons, but it is not ethically justifiable beyond any doubt. The health profession that is not prepared to give up strikes as gremial pressure tool, should not choose a profession that takes care of the ill. The best way to avoid medical strike is to prevent them: the society and the authority have the ethical obligation to create work conditions that elude conflicts. To settle disputes between physicians and health institutions, the creation of a permanent arbitral instance agreed by physicians and the authority, i.e. a high level committee integrated by respected individuals and physicians, could be necessary. This committee should send forth veredicts that would be obeyed by the contending parties.

  15. Strike action by nurses in South Africa: A value clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Muller

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Labour Relations Act (South Africa, 1991 made provision for protected strike action by employees, subject to certain conditions, procedures and negotiated agreements. This led to the removal of the strike clause in the Nursing Act (South Africa, 1992. The labour rights of all citizens are entrenched in the Constitution of the country (South Africa, 1996. Participation in strike action by the nurse/ midwife, regardless of the legal requirements and specifications, does, however, pose an ethical question. It is therefore necessary to conduct a value clarification on strike action by nurses in South Africa. The purpose of this research is to explore and describe the perceived values of participants from an accessible population on this phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research design was deployed. The perceived values of nurses on strike action were collected by means of an openended questionnaire/sketch. Over a period of three years a purposive and convenient sampling method was used, involving all the enrolled post basic nursing/midwifery students/ learners at a particular Nursing Education Institution. The justification of the sample was further enhanced by also collecting data on the participants’ age and provincial distribution location. Although a 63% sample realisation (of the accessible population was achieved, this represents only 1,5% of the registered nursing/midwifery population in the country. A descriptive analysis of the participants’ age and provincial distribution was undertaken, as well as a content analysis of their perceived values on strike action. The mean age of the participants was 48 years, which could be attributed to the fact that most of them were enrolled for a post-basic Diploma in Community Nursing Science. Most of the responses (52,7% were against strike action and 32,5% supported strike action by nurses as a constitutional and legal right. A fairly substantial number of participants (14

  16. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2013-09-01

    Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

  17. Fiscal 1998 R and D report on femtosecond technology (power generation facility monitoring system using high- intensity X-ray pulse); 1998 nendo femuto byo technology no kenkyu kaihatsu (kokido X senb pulse riyo hatsuden shisetsu monitoring system no kenkyu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report reports the fiscal 1998 R and D result of Femtosecond Technology Research Association (FESTA) supported by NEDO. For creation of industrial basic technologies supporting the advanced information society in the 21st century, ultra-high speed electronics technology including new functions beyond the speed limit of conventional electronics technologies is indispensable. From such viewpoint, this R and D aims at establishment of the basic technology controlling conditions of beams and electrons in a femtosecond (10{sup -15}-10{sup -12} seconds) region. In development of the titled system, this R and D aims at generation of high-intensity X-ray pulse by interaction between femtosecond light pulse and high-density electron beam pulse, and development of measurement technology (non- stop inspection) of high-speed moving objects using such X- ray pulse. In fiscal 1998, this project succeeded in time stabilization of laser oscillators at a 100fs level and generation of low-emittance electron beam pulse through development of ultra-short pulse synchronization, laser stabilization and electron beam pulse generation technologies. (NEDO)

  18. Pulse Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteryoung, Janet

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of pulse voltammetry, indicating that its widespread use arises from good sensitivity and detection limits and from ease of application and low cost. Provides analytical and mechanistic applications of the procedure. (JN)

  19. 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes poster is one of two special edition posters for the Atlantic Hurricanes. This beautiful poster contains two sets of...

  20. Cancer Strikes Out!/Definitions/ Glossary/ Common Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Cancer Strikes Out!/ Definitions/ Glossary/ Common Types Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... is the most common type of leukemia in young children. It also affects adults. Chronic myeloid leukemia (or chronic myelogenous leukemia, CML) ...

  1. Student Involvement in and Information about a University Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robert G.; Marcuse, F. L.

    1972-01-01

    The present study was directed toward studying the relationship for male and female students between participation in a collective social action and the amount of information they possessed about that action-in this instance a university strike. (Author)

  2. BIRD/WILDLIFE STRIKE CONTROL FOR SAFER AIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... staff and lack of public awareness about bird/wildlife hazard were found to be militating against effective control in Nigeria. ... have died from plane crashes caused by birds. (Bird Strike ..... National Biodiversity Report. Federal.

  3. Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161035.html Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5: Study ... 5 years old -- may be at risk of suicide. Black elementary school-age boys seem to have ...

  4. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes 1950-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  5. Comparison of force, power, and striking efficiency for a Kung Fu strike performed by novice and experienced practitioners: preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of force, power, and efficiency values calculated from Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strikes, when performed by 7 experienced and 6 novice men. They performed 5 palm strikes to a freestanding basketball, recorded by high-speed camera at 1000 Hz. Nonparametric comparisons and correlations showed experienced practitioners presented larger values of mean muscle force, mean impact force, mean muscle power, mean impact power, and mean striking efficiency, as is noted in evidence obtained for other martial arts. Also, an interesting result was that for experienced Kung Fu practitioners, muscle power was linearly correlated with impact power (p = .98) but not for the novice practitioners (p = .46).

  6. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Observations on Program Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-14

    F - 35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Observations on Program Progress Statement of Michael J. Sullivan, Director Acquisition...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F - 35 Joint Strike Fighter: Observations on Program Progress 5a...15-429T Chairman Turner, Ranking Member Sanchez, and Members of the Subcommittee: Thank you for the opportunity to discuss our work on the F - 35

  7. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35) Program will develop and field an affordable, highly common family of next- generation strike aircraft for the...the O&S account, with U.S. Services’ changes in aircraft life expectancy and bed down plans overshadowing real reductions in O&S costs. Business ...aircraft subprogram and engine subprogram (Navy). (Estimating) -44.4 -46.2 Revised estimate for Small Business Innovation Research in FY 2015 (Navy

  8. Muscle activity and kinematics of forefoot and rearfoot strike runners

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, A. N.; C. Brayton; Bhatia, T.; P.; Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forefoot strike (FFS) and rearfoot strike (RFS) runners differ in their kinematics, force loading rates, and joint loading patterns, but the timing of their muscle activation is less clear. Methods: Forty recreational and highly trained runners ran at four speeds barefoot and shod on a motorized treadmill. “Barefoot” runners wore thin, five-toed socks and shod runners wore neutral running shoes. Subjects were instructed to run comfortably at each speed with no instructions abou...

  9. Optimizing Marine Corps pilot conversion to the Joint Strike Fighter

    OpenAIRE

    Holloway, Shannon V.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States Marine Corps is replacing its fixed wing fighter and attack aircraft with the new F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. Retirement of F/A-18 Hornets and AV-8B Harriers will make their associated military occupational specialties obsolete. The conversion of personnel to the new aircraft must be carefully managed to ensure appropriate manning levels for the Joint Strike Fighter, while maintaining adequate quantities of experienced...

  10. Targeted Strikes in the "Global War on Terror"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-18

    therefore, a valid military target. 21Anthony Dworkin , "The Yemen Strike: The War On Terrorism Goes Global,ൖ November 2002, Global Policy Forum...Crime Studies," Federal Research Division, The Library of Congress, accessed at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frdlKhobar.htm 30The U.S. has labeled detainees...belligerent" subject to prosecution for war crimes (i.e., murder)? Anthony Dworkin , "The Yemen Strike: The War On Terrorism Goes Global,ൖ November

  11. The Effect of an Electromagnetic Pulse Strike on the Transportation Infrastructure of Kansas City

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    resource. SCADA systems are used globally, and are found at supermarkets , refineries, water treatment plants, and even in the common household...25 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems ..................................................... 28 Kansas City... System CIKR Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources DCS Digital Control Systems DOD Department of Defense ECM Electronic Control Module EFI

  12. WAVELET TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHY KUNG FU STRIKES DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Miranda Marzullo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP values instead of root mean square (rms values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF. EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA, triceps brachii (TB and brachioradialis (BR muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023 for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007 for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners

  13. Optimization of stability index versus first strike cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-05-01

    This note studies the impact of maximizing the stability index rather than minimizing the first strike cost in choosing offensive missile allocations. It does so in the context of a model in which exchanges between vulnerable missile forces are modeled probabilistically, converted into first and second strike costs through approximations to the value target sets at risk, and the stability index is taken to be their ratio. The value of the allocation that minimizes the first strike cost for both attack preferences are derived analytically. The former recovers results derived earlier. The latter leads to an optimum at unity allocation for which the stability index is determined analytically. For values of the attack preference greater than about unity, maximizing the stability index increases the cost of striking first 10--15%. For smaller values of the attack preference, maximizing the index increases the second strike cost a similar amount. Both are stabilizing, so if both sides could be trusted to target on missiles in order to minimize damage to value and maximize stability, the stability index for vulnerable missiles could be increased by about 15%. However, that would increase the cost to the first striker by about 15%. It is unclear why--having decided to strike--he would do so in a way that would increase damage to himself.

  14. 高空核爆电磁脉冲对便携式监护仪的辐射效应%Radiation Effect of High-altitude Electromagnetic Pulse on Portable Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖冬萍; 袁军; 何为; 简鑫; 周小艳

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally simulated the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) acting on a portable monitor, in which the interference thresholds Under different test conditions were set out and the controlling rules of HEMP coupling effect on monitor were obtained. The experimental results show that HEMP radiant field will remarkably cause the interference to the operating state of monitor. The EMP with shorter risetime and duration is also much easier to disturb the state of monitor. After synthetically analyzing the factors, such as the structure of monitor, the results of radiation experiment, and the effecting mechanism of HEMP on monitor, the conclusions can be drawn as follows. Firstly, field-line coupling is the major interference approach. When the lead cables are parallel to the incident electric field, the coupling effect enhances. The shielding effect of lead cable depends on the configuration of shielding layer. Secondly, the ~hielding effect of the monitor's shell is too poor to prevent that HEMP radiant field penetrates through the monitor. Some reinforcement technologies should be taken to improve the shielding effect of lead cables and the shell of monitor.%高空核爆电磁脉冲(HEMP)对电子和电气设备构成严重威胁,但是目前针对军队急救医疗卫生装备的电磁脉冲(EMP)耦合效应及防护研究还比较薄弱。因此以某款当前军队医院所使用的便携式监护仪为研究对象,利用有界波电磁脉冲模拟器模拟产生HEMP进行辐射试验,评估HEMP对监护仪的辐射效应,在各种试验条件下测量干扰场强阈值,分析HEMP对监护仪的作用机理。试验表明:HEMP辐射场对监护仪的工作状态会造成严重干扰,上升时间短、持续时间短的电磁脉冲对设备的干扰能力更强。结合监护仪结构、辐射试验结果、HEMP对监护仪的作用

  15. Volcano instability induced by strike-slip faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, A. M. F.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Kerle, N.; Pyle, D. M.

    2000-09-01

    Analogue sand cone experiments were conducted to study instability generated on volcanic cones by basal strike-slip movement. The results of the analogue models demonstrate that edifice instability may be generated when strike-slip faults underlying a volcano move as a result of tectonic adjustment. This instability occurs on flanks of the volcano above the strike-slip shear. On the surface of the volcano this appears as a pair of sigmoids composed of one reverse and one normal fault. In the interior of the cone the faults form a flower structure. Two destabilised regions are created on the cone flanks between the traces of the sigmoidal faults. Bulging, intense fracturing and landsliding characterise these unstable flanks. Additional analogue experiments conducted to model magmatic intrusion show that fractures and faults developed within the volcanic cone due to basal strike-slip motions strongly control the path of the intruding magma. Intrusion is diverted towards the areas where previous development of reverse and normal faults have occurred, thus causing further instability. We compare our model results to two examples of volcanoes on strike-slip faults: Iriga volcano (Philippines), which underwent non-magmatic collapse, and Mount St. Helens (USA), where a cryptodome was emplaced prior to failure. In the analogue and natural examples, the direction of collapse takes place roughly parallel to the orientation of the underlying shear. The model presented proposes one mechanism for strike-parallel breaching of volcanoes, recently recognised as a common failure direction of volcanoes found in regions with transcurrent and transtensional deformation. The recognition of the effect of basal shearing on volcano stability enables prediction of the likely direction of eventual flank failure in volcanoes overlying strike-slip faults.

  16. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  17. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuz Turan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature.

  18. How Orogen-scale Exhumed Strike-slip Faults Initiate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, S.; Neubauer, F.

    2015-12-01

    Orogen-scale strike-slip faults present one the most important geodynamic processes affecting the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. In specific subtypes, faulting is virtually initiated along hot-to-cool boundaries, e.g. at such of hot granite intrusions or metamorphic core complexes to cool country rocks. Such fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust and are stacked within each other ("telescoping"). Exhumation of rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such strike-slip faults implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion. The hot-to-cool thermal structure across the fault zone significantly influences the physical fault rock properties. One major question is how and where a major strike-slip initiates and further development. Here, we propose a model in which major continental exhumed strike-slip faults potentially evolve along rheologically weak zones such as plutons or margins of metamorphic complexes. As an example, we propose a model for the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) fault, SE Asia, which initiated along the edge of a plutonic belt and evolved in response to India-Asia collision with four tectonic phases.

  19. An Exhumed Strike-Slip Duplex Formed at the Seismogenic Base of the Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, S. M.; Paterson, S. R.; Holk, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    In strike-slip systems, the orientation of bedding influences local fault zone architecture. New 1:5,000 and smaller scale mapping of a paleoseismic shear zone in the central eastern Sierra Nevada, California, provides insight into the behavior of strike-slip faults deforming like-oriented bedding at a dextral shearing, pseudotachylyte-bearing brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in the Sawmill Canyon/Saddlebag Lake segment of the Sierra Crest shear zone. In and near this map area, a strike-slip duplex system, a Riedel shear system, and shear zone-parallel major fault strands all comprise a heavily quartz and silicate vein-sealed, brittle, and partially ductilely overprinted fault system. The strike-slip duplex system is defined by spectacular restraining and releasing bend duplex geometries. New and published stable isotopic compositions of these veins (𝛿18O = +14.5 to -3.2‰) and their fluid inclusions (𝛿D = -79 to -137‰) monitor mixing between three fluid sources. The main mixing trend includes an earlier local (likely hot magmatic) to a later distal (likely cool meteoric) fluid source over time. We interpret the following. (1) Strike-slip faulting subparallel to stratigraphy at the BDT can result in strike-slip duplexes and semi-ductile Riedel shears. As planar mechanical anisotropies are folded, continued offset of the fold requires either rotation of the material about an axis, or extension of the inverted limb. In homogeneous units, rotation becomes exceedingly difficult with thickness. Thus the folded material may be subjected to enhanced tension relative to outside limbs, which in turn nucleates shear zone-subparallel lateral ramps along which folds are transported. (2) This mechanism may promote the fault-assisted descent of fluids from the surface to the seismogenic base of contractional arc crust, where earlier deformation has transposed stratigraphy toward the shear plane in a simple or transpressive wrench shear zone. (3) Duplex

  20. A healthy mouse for monitoring human pulse wave and heart rate%一种可监测人体脉搏波及心率的健康鼠标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴波; 邵常哲; 黄淼; 杨琳; 张松; 杨益民

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is closely linked to pulse waveform, so a simple and real-time portable pulse waveform detecting device is necessary for users. To collect PPG signals, a reflective PPG sensor is placed on the mouse where the thumb touching during mouse using. , Through filtering, enlarging and A / D converting the pulse signal) it was transformed into SCM and computed heart rate, and then data was transferred into computer to display by USB connector. The mouse and reflective PPG sensor were combined into finished products, the sensor measured the PPG signals well and outputted after the actual test. The healthy mouse monitoring PPG and heart rate can affect the user inadvertently using the mouse to detect and record the pulse and heart rate.%脉搏波的波形特征与心血管疾病密切相关,为此用户需要一种简单、实时的便携装置.通过安装在正常使用鼠标时大拇指触摸到的鼠标位置的反射式脉搏波光电传感器采集脉搏波信号,信号经过滤波、放大和A/D转换后,利用单片机对脉搏波信号处理并得出心率数据,最后通过USB接口连接电脑端软件显示.将鼠标和反射式光电传感器结合制成成品之后,经过实际测试,传感器能够很好的测得手指脉搏波并输出.这种可监测人体脉搏波及心率的健康鼠标可以在用户使用鼠标的不经意状态时检测并记录脉搏波及心率.

  1. Hamamatsu PMT R7056 Study for the Extinction Monitoring System of the Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Boi, S; Hedin, D; Johnson, E; Prebys, E; Rubinov, P

    2015-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab proposes to search for the coherent neutrino-less conversion of muons to electrons in the presence of a nucleus. The experimental signature for an aluminum target is an isolated 105 MeV electron exiting the stopping target no earlier than ~700 ns after the pulse of proton beam hits the production target. Any protons that hit the production target in between the pulses can lead to fake conversion electrons during the measurement period. We define the beam extinction as the ratio of the number of protons striking the production target between pulses to the number striking the target during the pulses. It has been established that an extinction of approximately 10-10 is required to reduce the backgrounds to an acceptable level. It would be desirable to measure the extinction of the beam coming out of the accelerator in a minute or less. Studies for the fast extinction monitor based on Hamamatsu PMT R7056 is the subject of this presentation.

  2. Strike mechanics of an ambush predator: the spearing mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deVries, M S; Murphy, E A K; Patek, S N

    2012-12-15

    Ambush predation is characterized by an animal scanning the environment from a concealed position and then rapidly executing a surprise attack. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) consist of both ambush predators ('spearers') and foragers ('smashers'). Spearers hide in sandy burrows and capture evasive prey, whereas smashers search for prey away from their burrows and typically hammer hard-shelled, sedentary prey. Here, we examined the kinematics, morphology and field behavior of spearing mantis shrimp and compared them with previously studied smashers. Using two species with dramatically different adult sizes, we found that strikes produced by the diminutive species, Alachosquilla vicina, were faster (mean peak speed 5.72±0.91 m s(-1); mean duration 3.26±0.41 ms) than the strikes produced by the large species, Lysiosquillina maculata (mean peak speed 2.30±0.85 m s(-1); mean duration 24.98±9.68 ms). Micro-computed tomography and dissections showed that both species have the spring and latch structures that are used in other species for producing a spring-loaded strike; however, kinematic analyses indicated that only A. vicina consistently engages the elastic mechanism. In the field, L. maculata ambushed evasive prey primarily at night while hidden in burrows, striking with both long and short durations compared with laboratory videos. We expected ambush predators to strike with very high speeds, yet instead we found that these spearing mantis shrimp struck more slowly and with longer durations than smashers. Nonetheless, the strikes of spearers occurred at similar speeds and durations to those of other aquatic predators of evasive prey. Although counterintuitive, these findings suggest that ambush predators do not actually need to produce extremely high speeds, and that the very fastest predators are using speed to achieve other mechanical feats, such as producing large impact forces.

  3. Comparison of blade-strike modeling results with empirical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.

  4. Global strike-slip faults: Bounds from plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R. G.; Argus, D. F.

    2006-12-01

    According to the tenets of plate tectonics, a transform fault is a strike-slip fault along which neither convergence nor divergence occurs. Analysis of global plate motion data indicates that the only true transform faults are the strike-slip faults that offset segments of mid-ocean ridges. Thus, many of Earth's major strike-slip fault systems are not true transform faults as they accommodate large components of oblique convergence or oblique divergence. This is particularly true for several important ocean-continent systems such as the San Andreas, the strike-slip systems bounding the northern and southern Caribbean plate, the Alpine fault system of New Zealand, the Anatolian fault system, and the Azores-Gibraltar-Alboran sea system. These strike-slip systems are commonly sites of large scale mountain building and basin formation. Here we examine the far-field constraints on the motions of the plates bounding several of these strike-slip systems using both conventional plate motion circuits and results from global positioning system and other space geodetic data. We pay particular attention to the San Andreas fault system in central and northern California, where the San Andreas system is part of the boundary between the Sierran microplate and the Pacific plate. Most of the fault system accommodates obliquely convergent motion, giving rise to the California Coast Range, but in the northern San Francisco Bay Area it is obliquely divergent, producing San Pablo Bay and a gap in the Coast Range that permits the Sierran watershed to drain to the Pacific through the Golden Gate.

  5. Micro pulse laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An eye safe, compact, solid state lidar for profiling atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering is disclosed. The transmitter of the micro pulse lidar is a diode pumped micro-J pulse energy, high repetition rate Nd:YLF laser. Eye safety is obtained through beam expansion. The receiver employs a photon counting solid state Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector. Data acquisition is by a single card multichannel scaler. Daytime background induced quantum noise is controlled by a narrow receiver field-of-view and a narrow bandwidth temperature controlled interference filter. Dynamic range of the signal is limited to optical geometric signal compression. Signal simulations and initial atmospheric measurements indicate that micropulse lider systems are capable of detecting and profiling all significant cloud and aerosol scattering through the troposphere and into the stratosphere. The intended applications are scientific studies and environmental monitoring which require full time, unattended measurements of the cloud and aerosol height structure.

  6. Drone Strikes in Pakistan: Reasons to Assess Civilian Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    photo: An MQ-9 Reaper, armed with GB U-12 Paveway II laser guided munitions and AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, piloted by Col. Lex Turner flies a combat...campaign. v \\Te observe that drone strikes in Pakistan were more likely to cause civilian casualties on av- erage than drone stiikes by military forces in...T11e Times (London) ,July 26, 2012. V \\!hilc not accomplished with a drone strike, that raid represents one end of a spectnnn with regard to trading

  7. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.

  8. Heel strike detection using split force-plate treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Hossein; Abe, Masaki O; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei

    2015-03-01

    A common source of error when detecting heel-strike moments utilizing split force-plate treadmills is unwillingly stepping on contra-lateral force-plate. In this study, we quantified this error when heel-strike was detected based on such erroneous data and compared three methods to investigate how well the heel-strikes and stride-intervals were detected with erroneous data. Eleven subjects walked on a split force-plate treadmill for more than 20min. We used 20N and 50% body-weight thresholds to detect the heel-strike moments (HS20N and HS50%, respectively). Besides, we used linear approximation to estimate the unaffected force profile from affected force-plate data, and subsequently to detect the heel-strike moments (HSest). We used heel-strike moments detected by a foot-switch as a reference to compare accuracy of HS20N, HS50% and HSest. HS20N and HSest detected heel-strike moments accurately for unaffected force-plate data (median(max) errors for all subjects: 9(23) and 9(37) ms) but HS50% showed significantly larger errors (52(74) ms). Unlike HS50% and HSest, HS20N was considerably affected by the affected force-plate data (23(68) ms). The error in stride-interval measurement was relatively small using any methods for unaffected force-plate data (3(7), 6(8), and 6(12) ms), while stride-interval errors were large for some subjects when using HS20N for affected data (6(175) ms). We concluded that unwillingly stepping on contra-lateral force-plate occurred a few percent and up to 37.7% of all strides (median: 12.9%). Our proposed method (HSest) robustly showed small errors for heel-strike detection and stride-interval calculation consistently among subjects, while HS50% and HS20N showed large errors depending on subjects.

  9. Sound Quality and Striking Position of a Conga Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the location at which a drum membrane was struck and the quality of sound produced was investigated by striking the drum at several distances between the center and the rim. Through analyzing the harmonics of the wave produced from the impact, it was shown that as the striking location changes, the relative amplitudes of different modes of vibration also changes. It was found that sound of a higher pitch is produced at the rim of the drum than anywhere else on the drum head due to higher modes of vibration becoming dominant.

  10. Analysis of electromagnetic fields on an F-106B aircraft during lightning strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, T. F.; Pitts, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Information on the exterior electromagnetic environment of an aircraft when it is struck by lightning has been obtained during thunderstorm penetrations with an F-106B aircraft. Electric and magnetic fields were observed, using mainly time-derivative type sensors, with bandwidths to 50 MHz. Lightning pulse lengths ranging from 25 ns to 7 microsec have been recorded. Sufficient high-frequency content was present to excite electromagnetic resonances of the aircraft, and peaks in the frequency spectra of the waveforms in the range 7 to 23 MHz are in agreement with the resonant frequencies determined in laboratory scale-model tests. Both positively and negatively charged strikes were experienced, and most of the data suggest low values of peak current.

  11. Nasal pulse oximetry overestimates oxygen saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H

    1990-01-01

    Ten surgical patients were monitored with nasal and finger pulse oximetry (Nellcor N-200) for five study periods with alternating mouth and nasal breathing and switching of cables and sensors. Nasal pulse oximetry was found to overestimate arterial oxygen saturation by 4.7 (SD 1.4%) (bias...

  12. Pulsed thermoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.; Nedelcu, M.

    2010-07-01

    A special mechanism of thermoelectric transport is described, consisting of pulses of charge carriers which "fly" periodically through the external circuit from the hot end of the sample to the cold end, with a determined duration of the "on" and "off" times of the electric contacts, while maintaining continuously the thermal contacts. It is shown that such a "resonant" ideal thermogenerator may work cyclically, with the same efficiency quotient as the ideal efficiency quotient of the thermoelectric devices operated in the usual stationary transport regime but the electric flow and power are increased, as a consequence of the concentration of the charge carriers on pulses of small spatial extent. The process is reversible, in the sense that it can be operated either as a thermoelectric generator or as an electrothermal cooler.

  13. Force, reaction time, and precision of Kung Fu strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bolander, Richard; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Bir, Cynthia

    2009-08-01

    The goal was to compare values of force, precision, and reaction time of several martial arts punches and palm strikes performed by advanced and intermediate Kung Fu practitioners, both men and women. 13 Kung Fu practitioners, 10 men and three women, participated. Only the men, three advanced and seven intermediate, were considered for comparisons between levels. Reaction time values were obtained using two high speed cameras that recorded each strike at 2500 Hz. Force of impact was measured by a load cell. For comparisons of groups, force data were normalized by participant's body mass and height. Precision of the strikes was determined by a high speed pressure sensor. The results show that palm strikes were stronger than punches. Women in the study presented, on average, lower values of reaction time and force but higher values of precision than men. Advanced participants presented higher forces than intermediate participants. Significant negative correlations between the values of force and precision and the values of force and reaction time were also found.

  14. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  15. Air Force B-21 Long Range Strike Bomber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    Congressional Research Service 7 Industrial Base Northrop Grumman intends to build the B-21 at its facilities at Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, CA, which were...DefenseNews.com, March 2, 2016. 32 A useful discussion of these issues can be found in Andrew Hunter , “Long Range Strike: 3 Lessons from Defense

  16. When the Corporate Storm Strikes the Academy: Faculty Response Required

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoy, James L.

    2015-01-01

    When the corporate storm strikes the academy, faculty must be willing and able to repel administrative assaults upon academic freedom, shared governance, and tenure. This paper will describe the on-going clash between administrators who embrace the corporate mindset and faculty who cherish traditions of shared governance and collegial…

  17. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  18. Objective assessment of foot strike in Parkinson's disease*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, M; Riva, R; Martinelli, P; Balboni, M; Tonello, C; Albani, F; Baruzzi, A

    1996-05-01

    We assessed the nature of foot strike and the potential effect of acute levodopa dosing in Parkinsonian patients with mild to severe fluctuations of motor performances in comparison with healthy volunteers. Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study and compared with 33 age and gender matched controls. Each patient was assessed by a computerized electropodographic system before levodopa dosing and 1 and 2-h after intake of a standard fasting morning dose of levodopa plus benserazide. Twelve foot strikes (six right, six left) were analysed per patient. The controls underwent three repeated examinations at 1-h intervals. Patients' motor response to acute levodopa dosing was evaluated at fixed times by a battery of motor tests. Foot strike dynamics differed between patients and controls: in particular, first ground contact of the foot was significantly shifted from heel to forefoot in patients compared to controls. The forward shift in footprint during walking was more marked on the more affected body side but was unrelated to the severity and duration of Parkinsonism and unresponsive to levodopa dosing. Tapping and walking tests were overall responsive to acute levodopa intake. The system seemed suitable to detect irregular patterns of foot strike even at the early stages of Parkinsonism, when lower limb disorder was not clinically overt, and might be useful in the search for clinical markers of Parkinsonian gait.

  19. Linkage mechanics and power amplification of the mantis shrimp's strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Nowroozi, B N; Baio, J E; Caldwell, R L; Summers, A P

    2007-10-01

    Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) generate extremely rapid and forceful predatory strikes through a suite of structural modifications of their raptorial appendages. Here we examine the key morphological and kinematic components of the raptorial strike that amplify the power output of the underlying muscle contractions. Morphological analyses of joint mechanics are integrated with CT scans of mineralization patterns and kinematic analyses toward the goal of understanding the mechanical basis of linkage dynamics and strike performance. We test whether a four-bar linkage mechanism amplifies rotation in this system and find that the rotational amplification is approximately two times the input rotation, thereby amplifying the velocity and acceleration of the strike. The four-bar model is generally supported, although the observed kinematic transmission is lower than predicted by the four-bar model. The results of the morphological, kinematic and mechanical analyses suggest a multi-faceted mechanical system that integrates latches, linkages and lever arms and is powered by multiple sites of cuticular energy storage. Through reorganization of joint architecture and asymmetric distribution of mineralized cuticle, the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage offers a remarkable example of how structural and mechanical modifications can yield power amplification sufficient to produce speeds and forces at the outer known limits of biological systems.

  20. Improving the precision of linear optics measurements based on turn-by-turn beam position monitor data after a pulsed excitation in lepton storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, L.; Coello de Portugal, J.; Persson, T.; Skowroński, P. K.; Tomás, R.; Franchi, A.; Liuzzo, S.

    2017-08-01

    Beam optics control is of critical importance for machine performance and protection. Nowadays, turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data are increasingly exploited as they allow for fast and simultaneous measurement of various optics quantities. Nevertheless, so far the best documented uncertainty of measured β -functions is of about 10‰ rms. In this paper we compare the β -functions of the ESRF storage ring measured from two different TbT techniques—the N-BPM and the Amplitude methods—with the ones inferred from a measurement of the orbit response matrix (ORM). We show how to improve the precision of TbT techniques by refining the Fourier transform of TbT data with properly chosen excitation amplitude. The precision of the N-BPM method is further improved by refining the phase advance measurement. This represents a step forward compared to standard TbT measurements. First experimental results showing the precision of β -functions pushed down to 4‰ both in TbT and ORM techniques are reported and commented.

  1. Spacing and strength of active continental strike-slip faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An; Lin, Jessica; Sun, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Parallel and evenly-spaced active strike-slip faults occur widely in nature across diverse tectonic settings. Despite their common existence, the fundamental question of what controls fault spacing remains unanswered. Here we present a mechanical model for the generation of parallel strike-slip faults that relates fault spacing to the following parameters: (1) brittle-crust thickness, (2) fault strength, (3) crustal strength, and (4) crustal stress state. Scaled analogue experiments using dry sand, dry crushed walnut shells, and viscous putty were employed to test the key assumptions of our quantitative model. The physical models demonstrate that fault spacing (S) is linearly proportional to brittle-layer thickness (h), both in experiments with only brittle materials and in two-layer trials involving dry sand overlying viscous putty. The S / h slope in the two-layer sand-putty experiments may be controlled by the (1) rheological/geometric properties of the viscous layer, (2) effects of distributed basal loading caused by the viscous shear of the putty layer, and/or (3) frictional interaction at the sand-putty interface (i.e., coupling between the viscous and brittle layers). We tentatively suggest that this third effect exerts the strongest control on fault spacing in the analogue experiments. By applying our quantitative model to crustal-scale strike-slip faults using fault spacing and the seismogenic-zone thickness obtained from high-resolution earthquake-location data, we estimate absolute fault friction of active strike-slip faults in Asia and along the San Andreas fault system in California. We show that the average friction coefficient of strike-slip faults in the India-Asia collisional orogen is lower than that of faults in the San Andreas fault system. Weaker faults explain why deformation penetrates >3500 km into Asia from the Himalaya and why the interior of Asia is prone to large (M > 7.0) devastating earthquakes along major intra-continental strike

  2. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  3. Pulse-to-pulse Diagnostics at High Reprate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bertram; Kovalev, Sergey; Golz, Torsten; Stojanovich, Nikola; Fisher, Alan; Kampfrath, Tobias; Gensch, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Femtosecond level diagnostic and control of sub-picosecond electron bunches is an important topic in modern accelerator research. At the same time new linear electron accelerators based on quasi-CW SRF technology will be the drivers of many future 4th Generation lightsources such as X-ray free electron lasers. A high duty cycle, high stability and online pulse to pulse diagnostic at these new accelerators are crucial ingredients to the success of these large scale facilities. A novel THz based online monitor concept is presented that has the potential to give access to pulse to pulse information on bunch form, arrival time and energy at high repetition rate and down to sub pC charges. We furthermore show experimentally that pulse to pulse arrival time measurements can be used to perform pump-probe experiments with a temporal resolution in the few-fs regime and an exceptional dynamic range. Our scheme has been tested at the superradiant test facility TELBE, but can be readily transferred to other SRF accelerator driven photon sources, such as X-FELs.

  4. Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy Guided by Cardiac Monitoring During High-Risk Abdominal Surgery in Adult Patients: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Esophageal Doppler and Arterial Pulse Pressure Waveform Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Guillaume; Ruscio, Laura; Benhamou, Dan; Pelletier-Fleury, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    Several minimally invasive techniques for cardiac output monitoring such as the esophageal Doppler (ED) and arterial pulse pressure waveform analysis (APPWA) have been shown to improve surgical outcomes compared with conventional clinical assessment (CCA). To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these techniques in high-risk abdominal surgery from the perspective of the French public health insurance fund. An analytical decision model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of ED, APPWA, and CCA. Effectiveness data were defined from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. The clinical end points were avoidance of hospital mortality and avoidance of major complications. Hospital costs were estimated by the cost of corresponding diagnosis-related groups. Both goal-directed therapy strategies evaluated were more effective and less costly than CCA. Perioperative mortality and the rate of major complications were reduced by the use of ED and APPWA. Cost reduction was mainly due to the decrease in the rate of major complications. APPWA was dominant compared with ED in 71.6% and 27.6% and dominated in 23.8% and 20.8% of the cases when the end point considered was "major complications avoided" and "death avoided," respectively. Regarding cost per death avoided, APPWA was more likely to be cost-effective than ED in a wide range of willingness to pay. Cardiac output monitoring during high-risk abdominal surgery is cost-effective and is associated with a reduced rate of hospital mortality and major complications, whatever the device used. The two devices evaluated had negligible costs compared with the observed reduction in hospital costs. Our comparative studies suggest a larger effect with APPWA that needs to be confirmed by further studies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Water generation and transport below Europa's strike-slip faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousová, Klára; Souček, Ondřej; Tobie, Gabriel; Choblet, Gaël.; Čadek, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa has a very young surface with the abundance of unique terrains that indicate recent endogenic activity. Morphological models as well as spectral observations suggest that it might possess shallow lenses of liquid water within its outer ice shell. Here we investigate the generation and possible accumulation of liquid water below the tidally activated strike-slip faults using a numerical model of two-phase ice-water mixture in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. Our results suggest that generation of shallow partially molten regions underneath Europa's active strike-slip faults is possible, but their lifetime is constrained by the formation of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities due to the negative buoyancy of the melt. Once formed, typically within a few million years, these instabilities efficiently transport the meltwater through the shell. Consequently, the maximum water content in the partially molten regions never exceeds 10% which challenges their possible detection by future exploration mission.

  6. HUNGER STRIKES AND FORCE-FEEDING IN PRISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Florin GEAMĂNU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study will try to give an overview and assess the international and European standards regarding the management of hunger strikes. We will analyse the international and European standards regarding the force-feeding a prisoner on a hunger strike. The paper will focus on the study of the ECtHR judgements regarding the force-feeding of hunger strikers. Also, we will address the U.S. case and the force-feeding of prisoners which is considered to be, in certain cases, an act of torture based on the international human rights standards. To close with, the study will attempt to go through the recent developments in the Romanian legislation, analysing the legislation and its conformity with the European principles and recommendations, bearing in mind the prohibition, in absolute terms, of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

  7. When disaster strikes--care considerations for pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendya, Diana G

    2006-01-01

    Katrina and the events of September 11th, 2001 have made the vulnerability of our country very apparent. Communities have been preparing and organizing multihazard response plans to assure the safety and care of citizens when disasters strike. These plans focus on advance preparation to assure access and augmentation of essential resources, as well as provider education, both of which are core components of good trauma centers and effective state trauma systems. Unfortunately though, the needs of children have traditionally been overlooked in these planning processes. This article will serve as a tool for trauma nurses in the identification of the needs, challenges, actions, and nursing leadership roles that may be assumed to assure that appropriate care is available for children when disaster strikes.

  8. Light-induced bird strikes on vessels in Southwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Light-induced bird strikes are known to occur when vessels navigate during darkness in icy waters using powerful searchlight. In Southwest Greenland, which is important internationally for wintering seabirds, we collected reports of incidents of bird strikes over 2–3 winters (2006–2009) from navy...... vessels, cargo vessels and trawlers (total n = 19). Forty-one incidents were reported: mainly close to land (birds were reported killed in a single incident. All occurred between 5 p.m. and 6 a.m. and significantly more birds were involved when...... visibility was poor (snow) rather than moderate or good. Among five seabird species reported, the common eider (Somateria mollissima) accounted for 95% of the bird casualties. Based on spatial analyses of data on vessel traffic intensity and common eider density we are able to predict areas with high risk...

  9. Optimal filter bandwidth for pulse oximetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuban, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2012-10-01

    Pulse oximeters contain one or more signal filtering stages between the photodiode and microcontroller. These filters are responsible for removing the noise while retaining the useful frequency components of the signal, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The corner frequencies of these filters affect not only the noise level, but also the shape of the pulse signal. Narrow filter bandwidth effectively suppresses the noise; however, at the same time, it distorts the useful signal components by decreasing the harmonic content. In this paper, we investigated the influence of the filter bandwidth on the accuracy of pulse oximeters. We used a pulse oximeter tester device to produce stable, repetitive pulse waves with digitally adjustable R ratio and heart rate. We built a pulse oximeter and attached it to the tester device. The pulse oximeter digitized the current of its photodiode directly, without any analog signal conditioning. We varied the corner frequency of the low-pass filter in the pulse oximeter in the range of 0.66-15 Hz by software. For the tester device, the R ratio was set to R = 1.00, and the R ratio deviation measured by the pulse oximeter was monitored as a function of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter. The results revealed that lowering the corner frequency of the low-pass filter did not decrease the accuracy of the oxygen level measurements. The lowest possible value of the corner frequency of the low-pass filter is the fundamental frequency of the pulse signal. We concluded that the harmonics of the pulse signal do not contribute to the accuracy of pulse oximetry. The results achieved by the pulse oximeter tester were verified by human experiments, performed on five healthy subjects. The results of the human measurements confirmed that filtering out the harmonics of the pulse signal does not degrade the accuracy of pulse oximetry.

  10. Simulating Bird Strike on Aircraft Composite Wing Leading Edge.

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Max

    2012-01-01

    In this master thesis project the possibility to model the response of a wing when subjected to bird strike using finite elements is analyzed. Since this transient event lasts only a few milliseconds the used solution method is explicit time integration. The wing is manufactured using carbon fiber laminate. Carbon fiber laminates have orthotropic material properties with different stiffness in different directions. Accordingly, there are damage mechanisms not considered when using metal that ...

  11. Salivary duct carcinoma with striking neutrophil-tumor cell cannibalism

    OpenAIRE

    Payam Arya; Khalbuss, Walid E.; Monaco, Sara E.; Liron Pantanowitz

    2011-01-01

    Cannibalism of neutrophils by tumor cells has previously been reported in certain carcinomas, lymphoma and melanoma. Tumor cannibalism is believed to serve as a tumor-immune escape mechanism, associated with high-grade aggressive cancers with a significantly increased metastatic potential. This interesting phenomenon has not been previously documented in association with salivary gland tumors. We report, for the first time, striking neutrophil-tumor cell cannibalism associated with a high gra...

  12. Strike Rescue - Are We on the Right Path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-16

    requirement, competitive production plan and V-22 baseline configurations. 7 The Joint Services Operational Requirement ( JSOR ) was critically...to maintain than any alternative. * has least developmental risk of undeveloMe aircraft. * is the only aircraft which meets the JSOR . Sikorsky’s H-60...met only 45 % of the JSOR . * in the Strike Rescue role would recover 30 % - 40 % more aircrews if they were downed far from the ship, 15 % - 25 % more

  13. Simulating Bird Strike on Aircraft Composite Wing Leading Edge.

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Max

    2012-01-01

    In this master thesis project the possibility to model the response of a wing when subjected to bird strike using finite elements is analyzed. Since this transient event lasts only a few milliseconds the used solution method is explicit time integration. The wing is manufactured using carbon fiber laminate. Carbon fiber laminates have orthotropic material properties with different stiffness in different directions. Accordingly, there are damage mechanisms not considered when using metal that ...

  14. ATLAS experiment - Episode 2 - The Particles Strike Back

    CERN Multimedia

    Michael Barnett - Erik Johansson

    2006-01-01

    ATLAS, The Particles Strike Back is the second episode in a three part series that uncovers the mysteries of the ATLAS experiment. Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is shown the inner, middle and outer sections of the ATLAS detector. The narrator describes how different parts of the detector are able to detect 6 different types of particles: electrons, photons, protons, neutrons, muons and neutrinos.

  15. [Acute renal failure in a prisoner after hunger strike].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsane, Imène; Zouaghi, Karim; Goucha, Rim; El Younsi, Fethi; Hedri, Hafedh; Barbouch, Samia; Ben Abdallah, Taïeb; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Kheder, Adel

    2007-03-01

    Acute renal failure may occur in varied circumstances. It is potentially reversible spontaneously or after specific treatment. It is rare after hunger strike and fewer cases were reported in the literature. The physiopathological mechanisms are varied and remain incompletely known. We report the case of a prisoner having presented an acute renal failure after a hunger strike wich was completely reversible. He's a 29 year old man, without a past medical facts, in July 2004 he was incarcereted in prison. In October 2004 he undertake a hunger strike during one month. In November 2004 he was hospitalized for global dehydration and shock. His physical examination showed blood pressure 60/40 mmHg, weight 59 Kg with a loss of weight about 10 Kg, diuresis 800 cc/day. His biological findings showed urea 100 mmol/l, creatinemia 679 (mo/l, natremia 179 mmol/l, kaliemia 5 mmol/l, glycemia 5.2 mmol/l, albuminemia 35 g/l, calcemia 2.35 mmol/l and biological marques of rhabdomyolysis: CPK at 11 times the normal and LDH two times the normal. His treatment consisted on rehydratation, parenteral then enteral refeeding and psychiatric talks. The evolution was favourable, re-establishment of good hydration state with a gain weight of 7 Kg, normalization of renal function, his creatininemia reached 85 (mol/l in three weeks and normalization of muscles enzymes in one month. Hunger strike continue to pose a problem because of it's frequency in penitentiary structures and its organic disorders which can lead to death. A good psychiatric cares may be undertaked in order to prevent a such bad manifestations.

  16. The fast and forceful kicking strike of the secretary bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Murn, Campbell P; Sparkes, Emily L; Daley, Monica A

    2016-01-25

    The study of animal locomotion has uncovered principles that can be applied to bio-inspired robotics, prosthetics and rehabilitation medicine, while also providing insight into musculoskeletal form and function [1-4]. In particular, study of extreme behaviors can reveal mechanical constraints and trade-offs that have influenced evolution of limb form and function [1,2]. Secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius; Figure 1A) are large terrestrial birds of prey endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, which feed on snakes, lizards and small mammals [5]. They frequently kick and stamp on the prey's head until it is killed or incapacitated, particularly when dispatching larger lizards and venomous snakes [5]. The consequences of a missed strike when hunting venomous snakes can be deadly [5], so the kicking strikes of secretary birds require fast yet accurate neural control. Delivery of fast, forceful and accurate foot strikes that are sufficient to stun and kill prey requires precision targeting, demanding a high level of coordination between the visual and neuromuscular systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleation and growth of strike slip faults in granite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, P.; Pollard, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Fractures within granodiorite of the central Sierra Nevada, California, were studied to elucidate the mechanics of faulting in crystalline rocks, with emphasis on the nucleation of new fault surfaces and their subsequent propagation and growth. Within the study area the fractures form a single, subparallel array which strikes N50o-70oE and dips steeply to the S. Some of these fractures are identified as joints because displacements across the fracture surfaces exhibit dilation but no slip. The joints are filled with undeformed minerals, including epidote and chlorite. Other fractures are identified as small faults because they display left-lateral strike slip separations of up to 2m. Slickensides, developed on fault surfaces, plunge 0o-20o to the E. The faults occur parallel to, and in the same outcrop with, the joints. The faults are filled with epidote, chlorite, and quartz, which exhibit textural evidence of shear deformation. These observations indicate that the strike slip faults nucleated on earlier formed, mineral filled joints. Secondary, dilational fractures propagated from near the ends of some small faults contemporaneously with the left-lateral slip on the faults. These fractures trend 25o+ or -10o from the fault planes, parallel to the direction of inferred local maximum compressive stress. The faults did not propagate into intact rock in their own planes as shear fractures. -from Authors

  18. Striking dynamics and kinetic properties of boxing and MMA gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA as a competitive sport, questions regarding the dynamic response and properties of MMA gloves arise. High-energy impacts from punches are very similar to boxing yet MMA competition requires the use of 4 oz fingerless glove, compared to the larger full enclosure boxing glove. This work assessed the kinetic properties and strike dynamics of MMA gloves and compared findings with traditional boxing gloves. Gloves mounted on a molded fist were impacted repetitively on an instrumental anvil designed for impact, over a 5 hour period resulting in 10,000 continuous and consistent strikes. Kinetic data from impacts were sampled at the beginning of the data collection and subsequently every 30 minutes (every 1,000 strikes. MMA gloves produced 4-5 times greater peak force and 5 times faster load rate compared to the boxing glove. However, MMA gloves also showed signs of material fatigue, with peak force increasing by 35% and rate of loading increasing by 60% over the duration of the test. Boxing glove characteristics did deteriorate but to a lesser extent. In summary, the kinetic properties of MMA glove differed substantially from the boxing glove resulting in impacts characterized by higher peak forces and more rapid development of force. Material properties including stiffness and thickness play a role in the kinetic characteristics upon impact, and can be inferred to alter injury mechanisms of blunt force trauma.

  19. Modeling of ultrafast laser pulse propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesik, Miroslav; Brown, Jeffrey; Bahl, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Computer simulations of ultrafast optical pulses face multiple challenges. This requires one to construct a propagation model to reduce the Maxwell system so that it can be efficiently simulated at the temporal and spatial scales relevant to experiments. The second problem concerns the light-matter interactions, demanding novel approaches for gaseous and condensed media alike. As the nonlinear optics pushes into new regimes, the need to honor the first principles is ever greater, and requires striking a balance between computational complexity and physical fidelity of the model. With the emphasis on the dynamics in intense optical pulses, this paper discusses some recent developments and promising directions in the field of ultrashort pulse modeling.

  20. Generation of unipolar half-cycle pulses via unusual reflection of a single-cycle pulse from an optically thin metallic or dielectric layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, M V; Arkhipov, R M; Pakhomov, A V; Babushkin, I V; Demircan, A; Morgner, U; Rosanov, N N

    2017-06-01

    We propose a strikingly simple method to form approximately unipolar half-cycle optical pulses via reflection of a single-cycle optical pulse from a thin flat metallic or dielectric layer. Unipolar pulses in reflection arise due to specifics of one-dimensional pulse propagation. Namely, we show that the field emitted by the layer is proportional to the velocity of the oscillating charges in the medium, instead of their acceleration. Besides, the oscillation velocity of the charges can be forced to keep a constant sign throughout the pulse duration. That is, reflection of ultrashort pulses from broad-area layers with nanometer-scale thickness can be very different from the common reflection in the case of longer pulses and thicker layers. This suggests a possibility of unusual transformations of few-cycle light pulses in completely linear optical systems.

  1. Pulse transit time differential measurement by fiber Bragg grating pulse recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Sharath; Padma, Srivani; Ambastha, Shikha; Kalegowda, Anand; Asokan, Sundarrajan

    2015-05-01

    The present study reports a noninvasive technique for the measurement of the pulse transit time differential (PTTD) from the pulse pressure waveforms obtained at the carotid artery and radial artery using fiber Bragg grating pulse recorders (FBGPR). PTTD is defined as the time difference between the arrivals of a pulse pressure waveform at the carotid and radial arterial sites. The PTTD is investigated as an indicator of variation in the systolic blood pressure. The results are validated against blood pressure variation obtained from a Mindray Patient Monitor. Furthermore, the pulse wave velocity computed from the obtained PTTD is compared with the pulse wave velocity obtained from the color Doppler ultrasound system and is found to be in good agreement. The major advantage of the PTTD measurement via FBGPRs is that the data acquisition system employed can simultaneously acquire pulse pressure waveforms from both FBGPRs placed at carotid and radial arterial sites with a single time scale, which eliminates time synchronization complexity.

  2. Striking trends in the incidence of health problems in The Netherlands (2002-05). Findings from a new strategy for surveillance in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.C.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de; Vries Robbe, P.F. de; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to detect striking trends based on a new strategy for monitoring public health. METHODS: We used data over 4 years from electronic medical records of a large, nationally representative network of general practices. Episodes were either directly recorded by general practi

  3. Striking trends in the incidence of health problems in the Netherlands (2002-05): findings from a new method for record linkage in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.C.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de; Vries Robbé, P.F. de; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to detect striking trends based on a new strategy for monitoring public health. METHODS: We used data over 4 years from electronic medical records of a large, nationally representative network of general practices. Episodes were either directly recorded by general practi

  4. Excimer Laser Pulse Compress With Pulse Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>To attain a shorter laser pulse, a compressing technique called pulse feedback was developed from the saturation gain switch applied to the amplification in a discharge pumping excimer laser cavity. It can

  5. Biomechanics: deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Korff, W L; Caldwell, R L

    2004-04-22

    Stomatopods (mantis shrimp) are well known for the feeding appendages they use to smash shells and impale fish. Here we show that the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) generates an extremely fast strike that requires major energy storage and release, which we explain in terms of a saddle-shaped exoskeletal spring mechanism. High-speed images reveal the formation and collapse of vapour bubbles next to the prey due to swift movement of the appendage towards it, indicating that O. scyllarus may use destructive cavitation forces to damage its prey.

  6. An Investigation Into The Impact Of The Sheffield Libraries Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Proctor

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the principal findings of the work undertaken to investigate the impact on user attitudes and behaviour of the temporary closure of Sheffield Libraries and Information Services in 1995. Strike action by library staff following a breakdown in negotiations with Sheffield City Council over the Council's proposal to withdraw enhanced pay for Saturday working, resulted in an eight-week closure of 32 out of 34 library service points. The service disruption provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate aspects of user behaviour and attitudes not covered by previous research.

  7. Concept of a Conducting Composite Material for Lightning Strike Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katunin A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on development of a multifunctional material which allows conducting of electrical current and simultaneously holds mechanical properties of a polymeric composite. Such material could be applied for exterior fuselage elements of an aircraft in order to minimize damage occurring during lightning strikes. The concept introduced in this paper is presented from the points of view of various scientific disciplines including materials science, chemistry, structural physics and mechanical engineering with a discussion on results achieved to-date and further plans of research.

  8. 基于TCP协议的远程脉搏监测与通信系统分析%Analysis ofremote pulse monitoring and communication system based on TCP protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许壮; 关紫艳; 王鑫; 王东辉

    2016-01-01

    文章设计了一套用于检测偏远地区无法享受大型医院就诊患者脉搏信息的医疗设备。产品基于传输控制协议(Transmission Control Protocol,TCP)协议进行数据的传输,上位机用VB进行编写,其主要用winsock控件进行设计。上位机对脉搏波形进行实时的检测与显示,并且医生可以通过上位机进行诊断,然后将诊断说明反馈给患者。下位机采用AT89C51为主控板与W5500模块进行SPI协议的通信,脉搏传感器进行数据采集之后,经过A/D转换传给MCU,最后通过基于W5500模块的TCP协议传给上位机。当医生通过上传到服务端的数据进行诊断后将结果发送给患者,实现患者与医生的远程交互,使偏远地区患者看病难、看病贵的问题得以解决,扩大医疗的普及率。产品创新点在于可以远程监测患者的病情,使患者与医生进行互动,脱离了传统的面对面交流模式。设备成本极低,操作方便,即使老人一人在家也可以使用。%This paper designs a set of medical equipment for detecting patients’ pulse information of remote areas. The product is based on TCP protocol for data transmission, whose host computer uses VB to write, which is mainly used winsock control to design. That upper computer makes a real-time detection on pulse waveform and displays the result, the doctors can diagnosis through it, then gives the diagnosis to patients. The lower computer uses AT89C51 as the main control board and W5500 module to carry out the communication of SPI protocol, after data acquisition,through the A/D conversion to MCU, the pulse sensor passed the result to the host computer through the W5500 module based on the TCP protocol. Doctors make diagnosis and send the result to the patient according to the data uploaded to the sever to implement the remote interaction between the doctors and patients, make the problem that patients in remote areas where it is

  9. Pulsed Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirlimann, C.

    Optics is the field of physics which comprises knowledge on the interaction between light and matter. When the superposition principle can be applied to electromagnetic waves or when the properties of matter do not depend on the intensity of light, one speaks of linear optics. This situation occurs with regular light sources such as light bulbs, low-intensity light-emitting diodes and the sun. With such low-intensity sources the reaction of matter to light can be characterized by a set of parameters such as the index of refraction, the absorption and reflection coefficients and the orientation of the medium with respect to the polarization of the light. These parameters depend only on the nature of the medium. The situation changed dramatically after the development of lasers in the early sixties, which allowed the generation of light intensities larger than a kilowatt per square centimeter. Actual large-scale short-pulse lasers can generate peak powers in the petawatt regime. In that large-intensity regime the optical parameters of a material become functions of the intensity of the impinging light. In 1818 Fresnel wrote a letter to the French Academy of Sciences in which he noted that the proportionality between the vibration of the light and the subsequent vibration of matter was only true because no high intensities were available. The intensity dependence of the material response is what usually defines nonlinear optics.

  10. Is the foot striking pattern more important than barefoot or shod conditions in running?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yo; Lin, Kuan-Lun; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-07-01

    People have advocated barefoot running, claiming that it is better suited to human nature. Humans usually run barefoot using a forefoot strike and run shod using a heel strike. The striking pattern was thought to be a key factor that contributes to the benefit of barefoot running. The purpose of this study is to use scientific data to prove that the striking pattern is more important than barefoot or shod conditions for runners on running injuries prevention. Twelve habitually male shod runners were recruited to run under four varying conditions: barefoot running with a forefoot strike, barefoot running with a heel strike, shod running with a forefoot strike, and shod running with a heel strike. Kinetic and kinematic data and electromyography signals were recorded during the experiments. The results showed that the lower extremity can gain more compliance when running with a forefoot strike. Habitually shod runners can gain more shock absorption by changing the striking pattern to a forefoot strike when running with shoes and barefoot conditions. Habitually shod runners may be subject to injuries more easily when they run barefoot while maintaining their heel strike pattern. Higher muscle activity in the gastrocnemius was observed when running with a forefoot strike, which may imply a greater training load on the muscle and a tendency for injury.

  11. Real-time monitoring of longitudinal electron bunch parameters by intensity-integrated and spectroscopic measurements of single coherent THz pulses; Echtzeitbestimmung longitudinaler Elektronenstrahlparameter mittels absoluter Intensitaets- und Spektralmessung einzelner kohaerenter THz Strahlungspulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesch, Stephan

    2012-12-15

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) generate intense and monochromatic photon pulses with few tens of femtosecond duration. For this purpose, electron beams are accelerated to relativistic energies and shrunk longitudinally down to micrometer size.The diagnosis of theses compressed electron bunches is a challenge especially for MHz bunch repetition rates as provided by the FEL FLASH in Hamburg. In this thesis, coherently emitted THz radiation of single electron bunches were investigated, on which the longitudinal structure is imprinted. Two instruments were used: First, the FLASH bunch compression monitors, relying on the integrated intensity measurement of diffraction radiation, were modified to determine the overall length of every bunch behind the two bunch compressors (BC). A model was developed showing that their response is independent of the exact bunch shape for lengths below 200 {mu}m (rms). This could experimentally be verified in the range between 50 and 190 {mu}m within 7% accuracy for themonitor behind the last BC by comparison with measurements with the transverse deflecting structure (TDS). Second, a single-shot spectrometer with five staged reflective blazed gratings has been designed, build and commissioned. With its two grating sets, the wavelength ranges from 5.5 to 44 {mu}m and 45 to 440 {mu}m can be simultaneously detected by 118 fast pyroelectric elements. Measurements based on transition radiation spectra were compared with profiles recorded by the TDS.The shape of the spectra as well as the reconstructed temporal profiles (using the Kramers-Kronig relation for phase retrieval) are in excellent agreement. For bunches with a charge of 50 pC, bunch lengths down to 5 {mu}m (fhwm) could be detected.

  12. Total Energy Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  13. Analysis of Influencing Factors on Pulse Oxygen Saturation Monitoring%脉搏血氧饱和度监测过程中影响因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桃; 徐钦

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析脉搏血氧饱和度(SpO)监测的影响因素,为临床更好地应用SpO监测提供借鉴.方法:回顾性分析某医院中心ICU于2007-01-2009-07期间SpO监测值与动脉血氧饱和度(SaO)监测值不符(85例)的影响因素.结果:85例SpO监测值异常的影响因素主要为SpO探头位置异常、动作伪差、被检部位低灌注状态、SpO监测系统异常、被检部位皮肤色泽异常及环境光,其中,SpO探头位置异常是最多见的影响因素,占29.41%(25/85).结论:SpO监测能较好地反映动脉血氧的变化,但其影响因素较多,必须进行相应的干预,提高其准确性.%Objective To analyze influencing factors on pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) monitoring for clinical practice reference. Methods The influencing factors of which SpO2 readings were different from arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) values of 85 cases in central ICU from January 2007 to July 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The abnormal site of SpO2 probe, movement artifact, low perfusion states, abnormity of SpO2 monitoring system, abnormal skin color and ambient light might all lead the inaccurateness of SpO2 measurements. The primary influencing factor was the abnonnal site of SpO2 probe, which took a 29.41% (25/85) proportion. Conclusion SpO2 readings can better reflect the changes in SaO2,but many factors influence SpO2 readings. Appropriate intervention is needed to improve its accuracy.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal, 2011 , 32 (4) : 117-118

  14. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  15. Recent geodynamics of major strike-slip zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Trifonov

    2015-09-01

    In all of the cases mentioned above, strike-slip deformation was expressed only or mainly during strong earthquakes. At other times, the rate of its accumulation was small and the dominant stress conditions led to transverse shortening, rarely resulting in local lengthening of the tectonic zone. These variations are caused by the tectonic peculiarities of these zones. The sinistral component of the deformation is related to the shift of the Arabian Plate relative to the African one, but also the transverse component is related to the continental slope and is expressed by the Coastal range shortening that exists in the El Ghab segment zone. There is not only a dextral deformation component, but also a transverse component, expressed by shortening of the Fergana and Talas ranges existing in the Talas-Fergana fault zone. In both zones, the shortening component became appreciable or dominant when the strike-slip deformation rate decreased. Similar, but more local, relationships were expressed in the epicentral area of the 2003 Altai earthquake and in the Western Palmyrides.

  16. Micro pulse lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1993-01-01

    An eye safe, compact, solid state lidar for profiling atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering has been demonstrated. The transmitter of the micropulse lidar is a diode pumped micro-J pulse energy, high repetition rate Nd:YLF laser. Eye safety is obtained through beam expansion. The receiver employs a photon counting solid state Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector. Data acquisition is by a single card multichannel scaler. Daytime background induced quantum noise is controlled by a narrow receiver field-of-view and a narrow bandwidth temperature controlled interference filter. Dynamic range of the signal is limited by optical geometric signal compression. Signal simulations and initial atmospheric measurements indicate that systems built on the micropulse lidar concept are capable of detecting and profiling all significant cloud and aerosol scattering through the troposphere and into the stratosphere. The intended applications are scientific studies and environmental monitoring which require full time, unattended measurements of the cloud and aerosol height structure.

  17. WORKING FEATURES OF POWER SOURCE SYSTEMS – A MULTIPLE CURRENT PULSE GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shs.V. Argun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of circuit designs as to connecting a magnetic pulse action tool to a power source has been carried out. Design features of a magnetic pulse installation control and monitoring system in a multiple current pulse mode have been revealed. The description of the control and monitoring system block diagrams has been presented.

  18. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Ninepipe National Wildlife Refuge, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO MT Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered by...

  19. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2016] Ninepipe National Wildlife Refuge, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  20. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] National Bison Range, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO MT Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered by...

  1. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2012] Bowdoin Wetland Management District, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  2. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Bowdoin Wetland Management District, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  3. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Bowdoin Wetland Management District, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  4. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  5. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  6. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2013] National Bison Range, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO MT Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered by...

  7. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2013] Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  8. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Pablo National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  9. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  10. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Bowdoin Wetland Management District, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  11. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Ninepipe National Wildlife Refuge, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  12. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2012] Pablo National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  13. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2016] Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  14. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] National Bison Range, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  15. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2012] National Elk Refuge, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  16. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2016] National Bison Range, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  17. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] National Bison Range, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  18. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2012] National Bison Range, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  19. Flight Safety In The Aspect Of Bird Strikes In Polish Air Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćwiklak Janusz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents analysis of bird strikes, that occurred in Polish Air Force. Data of Polish Air Force were used to analysis. Mentioned analysis concern such problems as time of day, height, kind of flight operation, severity of bird strikes. It is considered, that the results of researches can be used to determine bird strikes hazard and elaborate SMS in the context of bird strikes for military air bases.

  20. Design of a finger base-type pulse oximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shyh; Huang, Cheng-Yang; Chen, Chien-Yue; Lin, Jiun-Hung

    2016-01-01

    A pulse oximeter is a common medical instrument used for noninvasively monitoring arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). Currently, the fingertip-type pulse oximeter is the prevalent type of pulse oximeter used. However, it is inconvenient for long-term monitoring, such as that under motion. In this study, a wearable and wireless finger base-type pulse oximeter was designed and implemented using the tissue optical simulation technique and the Monte Carlo method. The results revealed that a design involving placing the light source at 135°-165° and placing the detector at 75°-90° or 90°-105° yields the optimal conditions for measuring SpO2. Finally, the wearable and wireless finger base-type pulse oximeter was implemented and compared with the commercial fingertip-type pulse oximeter. The experimental results showed that the proposed optimal finger base-type pulse oximeter design can facilitate precise SpO2 measurement.

  1. Design and construction of a pulse magnetiser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. M.; Gonzalez, F. J. G.; Avalos, E. C.; Rocha, G. G. L.; Llamazares, J. L. S.

    2005-10-01

    In the present paper we present the design and construction of a pulsed field magnetizer that has been set up at the IF-UASLP. The system is based on the discharge of the energy stored in a capacitor bank (C-total = 23.1 mF; U = 1/2CV(2) approximate to 2300 J) into a resistive double-layer copper solenoid supported by reinforcing glass fibers. This magnetizer is capable of generating pulsed magnetic field strengths up to 9.0 T, in a cylindrical volume of 17 mm diameter at the center of the solenoid, with a pulse duration of about 2.0 ms. The principle of operation of the magnetizer as well as the design of the field solenoid are described. A pick-up coil system combined with an electronic integrator is also available in the apparatus to monitor the shape of the field pulse, peak field, and pulse duration.

  2. Programmable pulse generator

    CERN Document Server

    Xue Zhi Hua; Duan Xiao Hui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  3. A striking reduction of simple loudness adaptation in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rebecca P; Aylward, Jessica; White, Sarah; Rees, Geraint

    2015-11-05

    Reports of sensory disturbance, such as loudness sensitivity or sound intolerance, are ubiquitous in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but a mechanistic explanation for these perceptual differences is lacking. Here we tested adaptation to loudness, a process that regulates incoming sensory input, in adults with ASD and matched controls. Simple loudness adaptation (SLA) is a fundamental adaptive process that reduces the subjective loudness of quiet steady-state sounds in the environment over time, whereas induced loudness adaptation (ILA) is a means of generating a reduction in the perceived volume of louder sounds. ASD participants showed a striking reduction in magnitude and rate of SLA relative to age and ability-matched typical adults, but in contrast ILA remained intact. Furthermore, rate of SLA predicted sensory sensitivity coping strategies in the ASD group. These results provide the first evidence that compromised neural mechanisms governing fundamental adaptive processes might account for sound sensitivity in ASD.

  4. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxby, J.; Gottsmann, J.; Cashman, K.; Gutiérrez, E.

    2016-07-01

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  5. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxby, J; Gottsmann, J; Cashman, K; Gutiérrez, E

    2016-07-22

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  6. [Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis: description of a striking instance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Finotto, Elena; Zambolin, Tiziano; Fisogni, Simona; Simeone, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is a very rare condition. A 41 y. o. woman with right hydroureteronephrosis and other aspecific symptoms came to our attention. The CT scan showed an ureteral obstacle causing the hydroureteronephrosis. She underwent ureterorenoscopy with biopsies of the lesion that did not result to be diriment. Suspecting a ureteral neoplasm, the patient then underwent ureteral resection and ureterocystoneostomy, and the extemporary histological examination resulted as endometriosis. The abdominal exploration showed a parametrial and a peritoneal growth - both compatible with the extemporary histological examination - that were also excised. The post-operative course was uneventful. The definitive hystological examination confirmed the perioperatory diagnosis. Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is confirmed as a rare pathology with an indefinite clinical presentation; its typical presentation, namely cyclic hematuria, seems to be an anecdotal feature. Therefore the diagnostics of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is still difficult even despite such a striking presentation.

  7. A Probabilistic, Facility-Centric Approach to Lightning Strike Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.

  8. Migraine strikes as neuronal excitability reaches a tipping point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    Full Text Available Self-propagating waves of cerebral neuronal firing, known as spreading depolarisations, are believed to be at the roots of migraine attacks. We propose that the start of spreading depolarisations corresponds to a critical transition that occurs when dynamic brain networks approach a tipping point. We show that this hypothesis is consistent with current pathogenetic insights and observed dynamics. Our view implies that migraine strikes when modulating factors further raise the neuronal excitability in genetically predisposed subjects to a level where even minor perturbations can trigger spreading depolarisations. A corollary is that recently discovered generic early warning indicators for critical transitions may be used to predict the onset of migraine attacks even before patients are clinically aware. This opens up new avenues for dissecting the mechanisms for the onset of migraine attacks and for identifying novel prophylactic treatment targets for the prevention of attacks.

  9. Final Environmental Assessment for Conventional Strike Missile Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    Communications equipment includes several 5- to 20-watt radio transmitters. Power is provided by five lithium ion and lithium thionyl chloride batteries ...to 20 Watt (radio frequency) transmitters; maximum 900 Watt radio frequency pulse Power Up to five lithium ion and lithium thionyl chloride ...diesel fuel; and several gallons of coolant, oil, and hydraulic fluid. Additional lead-acid or lithium batteries on the barges would power control

  10. Precision Strike Training in Lean Manufacturing: A Workplace Literacy Guidebook [and] Final Report on Precision Strike Workplace Literacy Training at CertainTeed Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CertainTeed's Precision Strike training program was designed to close the gaps between the current status of its workplace and where that work force needed to be to compete successfully in global markets. Precision Strike included Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning (SKILL) customized, computerized lessons in basic skills, one-on-one…

  11. THE EFFECTS OF HEIGHT AND DISTANCE ON THE FORCE PRODUCTION AND ACCELERATION IN MARTIAL ARTS STRIKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Bir

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance

  12. Common Practice Lightning Strike Protection Characterization Technique to Quantify Damage Mechanisms on Composite Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Ticatch, Larry A.; Mielnik, John J.; Mcneill, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    To support FAA certification airworthiness standards, composite substrates are subjected to lightning direct-effect electrical waveforms to determine performance characteristics of the lightning strike protection (LSP) conductive layers used to protect composite substrates. Test results collected from independent LSP studies are often incomparable due to variability in test procedures & applied practices at different organizations, which impairs performance correlations between different LSP data sets. Under a NASA supported contract, The Boeing Company developed technical procedures and documentation as guidance in order to facilitate a test method for conducting universal common practice lightning strike protection test procedures. The procedures obtain conformity in future lightning strike protection evaluations to allow meaningful performance correlations across data sets. This universal common practice guidance provides the manufacturing specifications to fabricate carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) test panels, including finish, grounding configuration, and acceptable methods for pretest nondestructive inspection (NDI) and posttest destructive inspection. The test operations guidance elaborates on the provisions contained in SAE ARP5416 to address inconsistencies in the generation of damage protection performance data, so as to provide for maximum achievable correlation across capable lab facilities. In addition, the guidance details a direct effects test bed design to aid in quantification of the multi-physical phenomena surrounding a lightning direct attachment supporting validation data requirements for the development of predictive computational modeling. The lightning test bed is designed to accommodate a repeatable installation procedure to secure the test panel and eliminate test installation uncertainty. It also facilitates a means to capture the electrical waveform parameters in 2 dimensions, along with the mechanical displacement and thermal

  13. San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart. Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above. One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension opens the fault and

  14. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator. 13 figs.

  15. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator.

  16. Arduino Based Infant Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah Mohamad Ishak, Daing Noor; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a system for monitoring infant in an incubator and records the relevant data into a computer. The data recorded by the system can be further referred by the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel for diagnostic or research purposes. The study focuses on designing the monitoring system that consists of an incubator equipped with humidity sensor to measure the humidity level, and a pulse sensor that can be attached on an infant placed inside the incubator to monitor infant’s heart pulse. The measurement results which are the pulse rate and humidity level are sent to the PC via Arduino microcontroller. The advantage of this system will be that in the future, it may also enable doctors to closely monitor the infant condition through local area network and internet. This work is aimed as an example of an application that contributes towards remote tele-health monitoring system.

  17. Transcranial stimulability of phosphenes by long lightning electromagnetic pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Peer, J

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic pulses of rare long (order of seconds) repetitive lightning discharges near strike point (order of 100m) are analyzed and compared to magnetic fields applied in standard clinical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) practice. It is shown that the time-varying lightning magnetic fields and locally induced potentials are in the same order of magnitude and frequency as those established in TMS experiments to study stimulated perception phenomena, like magnetophosphenes. Lightning electromagnetic pulse induced transcranial magnetic stimulation of phosphenes in the visual cortex is concluded to be a plausible interpretation of a large class of reports on luminous perceptions during thunderstorms.

  18. Transcranial stimulability of phosphenes by long lightning electromagnetic pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, J. [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kendl, A., E-mail: alexander.kendl@uibk.ac.a [Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-06-28

    The electromagnetic pulses of rare long (order of seconds) repetitive lightning discharges near strike point (order of 100 m) are analyzed and compared to magnetic fields applied in standard clinical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) practice. It is shown that the time-varying lightning magnetic fields and locally induced electric fields are in the same order of magnitude and frequency as those established in TMS experiments to study stimulated perception phenomena, like magnetophosphenes. Lightning electromagnetic pulse induced transcranial magnetic stimulation of phosphenes in the visual cortex is concluded to be a plausible interpretation of a large class of reports on luminous perceptions during thunderstorms.

  19. Ultradian corticosterone pulses balance glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabdjitsingh, Ratna Angela; Jezequel, Julie; Pasricha, Natasha; Mikasova, Lenka; Kerkhofs, Amber; Karst, Henk; Groc, Laurent; Joëls, Marian

    2014-09-30

    The rodent adrenal hormone corticosterone (CORT) reaches the brain in hourly ultradian pulses, with a steep rise in amplitude before awakening. The impact of a single CORT pulse on glutamatergic transmission is well documented, but it remains poorly understood how consecutive pulses impact on glutamate receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity. By using high-resolution imaging and electrophysiological approaches, we report that a single pulse of CORT to hippocampal networks causes synaptic enrichment of glutamate receptors and increased responses to spontaneously released glutamatergic vesicles, collectively abrogating the ability to subsequently induce synaptic long-term potentiation. Strikingly, a second pulse of CORT one hour after the first--mimicking ultradian pulses--completely normalizes all aspects of glutamate transmission investigated, restoring the plastic range of the synapse. The effect of the second pulse is precisely timed and depends on a nongenomic glucocorticoid receptor-dependent pathway. This normalizing effect through a sequence of CORT pulses--as seen around awakening--may ensure that hippocampal glutamatergic synapses remain fully responsive and able to encode new stress-related information when daily activities start.

  20. Elastic energy storage in the mantis shrimp's fast predatory strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, T I; Claverie, T; Patek, S N

    2009-12-01

    Storage of elastic energy is key to increasing the power output of many biological systems. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) must store considerable elastic energy prior to their rapid raptorial strikes; however, little is known about the dynamics and location of elastic energy storage structures in this system. We used computed tomography (CT) to visualize the mineralization patterns in Gonodactylaceus falcatus and high speed videography of Odontodactylus scyllarus to observe the dynamics of spring loading. Using a materials testing apparatus, we measured the force and work required to contract the elastic structures in G. falcatus. There was a positive linear correlation between contraction force and contraction distance; alternative model tests further supported the use of a linear model. Therefore, we modeled the system as a Hookean spring. The force required to fully compress the spring was positively correlated with body mass and appendage size, but the spring constant did not scale with body size, suggesting a possible role of muscle constraints in the scaling of this system. One hypothesized elastic storage structure, the saddle, only contributed approximately 11% of the total measured force, thus suggesting that primary site of elastic energy storage is in the mineralized ventral bars found in the merus segment of the raptorial appendages. Furthermore, the intact system exhibited 81% resilience and severing the saddle resulted in a non-significant reduction to 77% resilience. The remarkable shapes and mineralization patterns that characterize the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage further reveal a highly integrated mechanical power amplification system based on exoskeletal elastic energy storage.

  1. Radial pulse (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart. The arteries are the vessels with the "pulse", a rhythmic pushing of the blood in the ... a refilling of the heart chamber. To determine heart rate, one feels the beats at a pulse point ...

  2. Wrist pulse (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To measure the pulse at the wrist, place the index and middle finger over the underside of the opposite wrist, below the base ... firmly with flat fingers until you feel the pulse in the radial artery.

  3. Pulse-Width Jitter Measurement for Laser Diode Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun-Hua; WANG Yun-Cai

    2006-01-01

    @@ Theoretical analysis and experimental measurement of pulse-width jitter of diode laser pulses are presented. The expression of pulse power spectra with all amplitude jitter, timing jitter and pulse-width jitter is deduced.

  4. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): Speech Intelligibility Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    AFRL-RH-WP-TP-2015-0028 Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) – Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): Speech Intelligibility Performance...COVERED (From - To) June 2014 – April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) – Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): Speech Intelligibility...Method for Measuring the Intelligibility of Speech over Communication Systems on the Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) – Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) with

  5. Direction of an approaching stimulus on coincident timing performance of a ballistic striking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Cheryl A

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of stimulus direction and velocity on the coincident timing performance of a ballistic striking task. 26 subjects randomly performed 20 trials at each of two stimulus velocities (4 and 8 mph) and two striking variations (moving with an approaching stimulus or in opposition to it). Analysis indicated the direction of an approaching stimulus does not appear to influence the coincident timing of a ballistic striking action.

  6. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  7. Underreporting the legal aspects of drone strikes in international conflicts: A case study of how Aftenposten and The New York Times cover drone strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Ottosen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate, through content analyses of articles in The New York Times and the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten, how these papers have reported on the legal aspects of drone strikes in international conflicts. Drones have been deployed in US military operations at least since the October 2001 air strikes in Afghanistan. Using critical discourse analysis and framing theory, selected texts were examined in which the two newspapers reported on the topic of drone strikes. Drawing on a report of an April 2010 hearing in the US House of Representatives, this paper discusses the legality of deploying drones in international conflicts. The author concludes that in their reportage on US drone strikes the newspapers failed as watchdogs for the relevant legal issues.

  8. Cavitation pulse extraction and centrifugal pump analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hong Lind Shaoran [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Yu, Bo; Qing, Biao [Xihua University, Chengdu (China)

    2017-03-15

    This study extracted cavitation pulses from hydrophone signals sampled in a centrifugal pump and analyzed their characteristics. The modified and simplified Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm was proposed for extracting cavitation pulses from strong background noise. Experimental results showed that EMD can effectively suppress noise and obtain clear cavitation pulses, facilitating the identification of the number of pulses associated with the degree of cavitation. The cavitation characteristics were modeled to predict the value of incipient cavitation. Then, we proposed a method for detecting the wear of the impeller surface. That is, the information on the impeller surface of the centrifugal pump, including the roughness of the impeller surface and its wear trends, were quantified based on the net positive suction head available of incipient cavitation. The findings indicate that the proposed technique is suitable for condition monitoring of the pump.

  9. Continuous pulse oximetry in acute hemiparetic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, JW; Stewart, R; den Arend, A; De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    2000-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hypoxemia can adversely affect ischemic brain tissue in laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to assess the Value of early continuous monitoring with pulse oximetry in detecting arterial oxygen desaturations in patients with acute hemiparetic stroke, and the effects

  10. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-12

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. 12 figs.

  11. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung.

  12. Strike-parallel and strike-normal coordinate system around geometrically complicated rupture traces: use by NGA-West2 and further improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, Paul A.; Chiou, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional system of generalized coordinates for use with geometrically complex fault ruptures that are neither straight nor continuous. The coordinates are a generalization of the conventional strike-normal and strike-parallel coordinates of a single straight fault. The presented conventions and formulations are applicable to a single curved trace, as well as multiple traces representing the rupture of branching faults or noncontiguous faults. An early application of our generalized system is in the second round of the Next Generation of Ground-Motion Attenuation Model project for the Western United States (NGA-West2), where they were used in the characterization of the hanging-wall effects. We further improve the NGA-West2 strike-parallel formulation for multiple rupture traces with a more intuitive definition of the nominal strike direction. We also derive an analytical expression for the gradient of the generalized strike-normal coordinate. The direction of this gradient may be used as the strike-normal direction in the study of polarization effects on ground motions.

  13. Lower limb joint angles and ground reaction forces in forefoot strike and rearfoot strike runners during overground downhill and uphill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Erik; Li, Jing Xian

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the normal and parallel ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running in habitual forefoot strike and habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Fifteen habitual forefoot strike and 15 habitual RFS recreational male runners ran at 3 m/s ± 5% during level, uphill and downhill overground running on a ramp mounted at 6° and 9°. Results showed that forefoot strike runners had no visible impact peak in all running conditions, while the impact peaks only decreased during the uphill conditions in RFS runners. Active peaks decreased during the downhill conditions in forefoot strike runners while active loading rates increased during downhill conditions in RFS runners. Compared to the level condition, parallel braking peaks were larger during downhill conditions and parallel propulsive peaks were larger during uphill conditions. Combined with previous biomechanics studies, our findings suggest that forefoot strike running may be an effective strategy to reduce impacts, especially during downhill running. These findings may have further implications towards injury management and prevention.

  14. Striking the Right Balance: Fusion Centers and Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    for example. In 2007, Lillie Coney delivered a statement on behalf of the organization to the Department of Homeland Security’s Data Privacy and...use of fusion centers to collect information concerning peace activists and political dissenters (German & Stanley, 2008). According to the ACLU...update report, the Maryland State Police monitored the activities of a well-known peace activist and shared his identifying information with a number of

  15. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic collection of a high resistivity aerosol using the Electron Beam Precipitator (EBP) collecting section was demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarter Five). Collection efficiency experiments were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. The reason for doing this was to attempt to improve upon the collection efficiency of the precipitator alone when testing with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. From the collector shakedown runs, a set of suitable operational parameters were determined for the downstream electrostatic collecting sections of the Electron Beam Precipitator wind tunnel. These parameters, along with those for the MINACC electron beam, will generally be held constant while the numerous precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge. The electrostatic collector experiments were part of a larger, comprehensive investigation on electron beam precharging of high resistivity aerosol particles performed during the period covered by Quarters Five, Six, and Seven. This body of work used the same experimental apparatus and procedures and the experimental run period lasted nearly continuously for six months. A summary of the Quarter Five work is presented in the following paragraphs. Section II-A of TPR 5 contains a report on the continuing effort which was expended on the modification and upgrade of the pulsed power supply and the monitoring systems prior to the initiation of the electron beam precharging experimental work.

  16. Visual Field Defect after Cardiac Surgery: The Striking Role of Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nuzzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative visual loss (POVL is a potentially devastating complication that can occur following ocular or nonocular surgery. The leading causes of this disease are retinal vascular occlusions, ischemic optic neuropathies, and cortical blindness. POVL pathogenesis is strictly influenced by surgery, anesthesia, and patients’ comorbidities. We report of a 55-year-old caucasian man who presented with complaints of sudden painless loss of vision and unilateral campimetric deficit. We recorded a preserved visual acuity but at fundus examination a bilateral ischemic optic neuropathy (ION was suspected. Our hypothesis was supported by uncommon and peculiar visual field defects and a history of cardiovascular surgery shortly before was a striking data. When we examined his medical records we found strong accordance with what is reported in literature to be risk factors for postoperative ION development. He presented intraoperative hypotension, anemia, and hypothermia, he was older than 50 years, and surgery lasted for more than five hours. We are currently monitoring his visual acuity and visual fields which remain unchanged. As there is no proved therapy for such severe adverse events, we recommend intraoperative check of blood pressure, blood loss, and body temperature, associated with repeated eye checks and patients’ interview.

  17. Granular impact cratering by liquid drops: Understanding raindrop imprints through an analogy to asteroid strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Runchen; Zhang, Qianyun; Tjugito, Hendro; Cheng, Xiang

    2015-01-13

    When a granular material is impacted by a sphere, its surface deforms like a liquid yet it preserves a circular crater like a solid. Although the mechanism of granular impact cratering by solid spheres is well explored, our knowledge on granular impact cratering by liquid drops is still very limited. Here, by combining high-speed photography with high-precision laser profilometry, we investigate liquid-drop impact dynamics on granular surface and monitor the morphology of resulting impact craters. Surprisingly, we find that despite the enormous energy and length difference, granular impact cratering by liquid drops follows the same energy scaling and reproduces the same crater morphology as that of asteroid impact craters. Inspired by this similarity, we integrate the physical insight from planetary sciences, the liquid marble model from fluid mechanics, and the concept of jamming transition from granular physics into a simple theoretical framework that quantitatively describes all of the main features of liquid-drop imprints in granular media. Our study sheds light on the mechanisms governing raindrop impacts on granular surfaces and reveals a remarkable analogy between familiar phenomena of raining and catastrophic asteroid strikes.

  18. A sonic net excludes birds from an airfield: implications for reducing bird strike and crop losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddle, John P; Moseley, Dana L; Hinders, Mark K; Smith, Elizabeth P

    2016-03-01

    Collisions between birds and aircraft cause billions of dollars of damages annually to civil, commercial, and military aviation. Yet technology to reduce bird strike is not generally effective, especially over longer time periods. Previous information from our lab indicated that filling an area with acoustic noise, which masks important communication channels for birds, can displace European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from food sources. Here we deployed a spatially controlled noise (termed a "sonic net"), designed to overlap with the frequency range of bird vocalizations, at an airfield. By conducting point counts, we monitored the presence of birds for four weeks before deployment of our sonic net, and for four weeks during deployment. We found an 82% reduction in bird presence in the sonic net area compared with change in the reference areas. This effect was as strong in the fourth week of exposure as in the first week. We also calculated the potential costs avoided resulting from this exclusion. We propose that spatially controlled acoustic manipulations that mask auditory communication for birds may be an effective long term and fairly benign way of excluding problem birds from areas of socioeconomic importance, such as airfields, agricultural sites, and commercial properties.

  19. EU Water Governance: Striking the Right Balance between Regulatory Flexibility and Enforcement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia O. Green

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the challenges and threats currently facing water management and the exacerbation of uncertainty by climate change, the need for flexible yet robust and legitimate environmental regulation is evident. The European Union took a novel approach toward sustainable water resource management with the passage of the EU Water Framework Directive in 2000. The Directive promotes sustainable water use through long-term protection of available water resources, progressively reduces discharges of hazardous substances in ground and surface waters, and mitigates the effects of floods and droughts. The lofty goal of achieving good status of all waters requires strong adaptive capacity, given the large amounts of uncertainty in water management. Striking the right balance between flexibility in local implementation and robust and enforceable standards is essential to promoting adaptive capacity in water governance, yet achieving these goals simultaneously poses unique difficulty. Applied resilience science reveals a conceptual framework for analyzing the adaptive capacity of governance structures that includes multiple overlapping levels of control or coordination, information flow horizontally and vertically, meaningful public participation, local capacity building, authority to respond to changed circumstances, and robust monitoring, system feedback, and enforcement. Analyzing the Directive through the lens of resilience science, we highlight key elements of modern European water management and their contribution to the resilience of the system and conclude that the potential lack of enforcement and adequate feedback of monitoring results does not promote managing for resilience. However, the scale-appropriate governance aspects of the EU approach promotes adaptive capacity by enabling vertical and horizontal information flow, building local capacity, and delegating control at multiple relevant scales.

  20. The effects of height and distance on the force production and acceleration in martial arts strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, Richard P; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bir, Cynthia A

    2009-11-01

    Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance. Key PointsIt has been determined that the palm strike is more effective than the punch for developing force and for transferring momentum, most likely the result of a reduced number of rigid links and joints.A strike at head level is less effective than a strike at chest level for developing force and transferring momentum.Distance plays an effect on the overall force and momentum changes, and most likely is dependent on the velocity of the limb and alignment of the bones prior to impact.The teaching of self defence for novices and law enforcement would benefit from including the palm strike as a high priority technique.

  1. Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peglow, S. G., LLNL; Molitoris, J. D., LLNL

    1997-02-03

    The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by

  2. Pulse Decomposition Analysis of the digital arterial pulse during hemorrhage simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Markers of temporal changes in central blood volume are required to non-invasively detect hemorrhage and the onset of hemorrhagic shock. Recent work suggests that pulse pressure may be such a marker. A new approach to tracking blood pressure, and pulse pressure specifically is presented that is based on a new form of pulse pressure wave analysis called Pulse Decomposition Analysis (PDA). The premise of the PDA model is that the peripheral arterial pressure pulse is a superposition of five individual component pressure pulses, the first of which is due to the left ventricular ejection from the heart while the remaining component pressure pulses are reflections and re-reflections that originate from only two reflection sites within the central arteries. The hypothesis examined here is that the PDA parameter T13, the timing delay between the first and third component pulses, correlates with pulse pressure. T13 was monitored along with blood pressure, as determined by an automatic cuff and another continuous blood pressure monitor, during the course of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) sessions involving four stages, -15 mmHg, -30 mmHg, -45 mmHg, and -60 mmHg, in fifteen subjects (average age: 24.4 years, SD: 3.0 years; average height: 168.6 cm, SD: 8.0 cm; average weight: 64.0 kg, SD: 9.1 kg). Results Statistically significant correlations between T13 and pulse pressure as well as the ability of T13 to resolve the effects of different LBNP stages were established. Experimental T13 values were compared with predictions of the PDA model. These interventions resulted in pulse pressure changes of up to 7.8 mmHg (SE = 3.49 mmHg) as determined by the automatic cuff. Corresponding changes in T13 were a shortening by -72 milliseconds (SE = 4.17 milliseconds). In contrast to the other two methodologies, T13 was able to resolve the effects of the two least negative pressure stages with significance set at p arterial pressure pulse reflections. The proposed physical

  3. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Castillo, Eric R; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Sang, Meshack K; Sigei, Timothy K; Ojiambo, Robert; Okutoyi, Paul; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  4. Batter's Choice: Lessons for Teaching Tactics in a Modified Striking/Fielding Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Christina

    2004-01-01

    When played in their standard form, striking/fielding games are often a favorite among elementary students; yet they allow for only limited participation, which is contradictory to quality physical education. This article presents a sequence of lessons leading to Batter's Choice, a modified striking/fielding game, designed to maximize the…

  5. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Lieberman

    Full Text Available Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  6. Labor Conflict on the National Stage: Metaphoric Lenses in Israel's Teachers' Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, Miriam; Shenkar, Oded

    2011-01-01

    Teachers often embed their labor demands within a broader context to claim high moral ground and build community support. We analyze a recent teachers' strike in Israel, looking at how the strike played out in a country where the challenges of globalization collided with a socialist legacy in the face of an existential threat. The analysis reveals…

  7. Strike type variation among Tarahumara Indians in minimal sandals versus conventional running shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Lieberman

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: These data reinforce earlier studies that there is variation among foot strike patterns among minimally shod runners, but also support the hypothesis that foot stiffness and important aspects of running form, including foot strike, differ between runners who grow up using minimal versus modern, conventional footwear.

  8. Picket Fencing: Amid Fewer Strikes, Some See Waning Sympathy for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2006-01-01

    Once as familiar in the back-to-school ritual as falling leaves, teacher strikes seem headed for a winter freeze. According to the nation's largest teacher's union, about 15 of the National Education Association's (NEA) 14,000 local affiliates have gone on strike since the start of this school year. In Pennsylvania--a traditional union…

  9. An Exploration of the Contribution of Strike Feedback to Combat Effectiveness with Ball and Tracer Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    firing each round. (c) Adjust the rear sight to move the center of the three-round shot group to the aiming point. One click of deflection will move...the strike of the bullet one centimeter. One click of elevation will move the strike of the bullet 1/4 of a centimeter. (4 clicks = 1 centimeter.) (d

  10. Batter's Choice: Lessons for Teaching Tactics in a Modified Striking/Fielding Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Christina

    2004-01-01

    When played in their standard form, striking/fielding games are often a favorite among elementary students; yet they allow for only limited participation, which is contradictory to quality physical education. This article presents a sequence of lessons leading to Batter's Choice, a modified striking/fielding game, designed to maximize the…

  11. Pulse oximetry in bronchiolitis: is it needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendaus MA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed A Hendaus,1,2 Fatima A Jomha,3 Ahmed H Alhammadi,1,2 1Department of Pediatrics, General Pediatrics Division, Hamad Medical Corporation, 2Weill-Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 3School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Khiara, Lebanon Abstract: Infants admitted to health-care centers with acute bronchiolitis are frequently monitored with a pulse oximeter, a noninvasive method commonly used for measuring oxygen saturation. The decision to hospitalize children with bronchiolitis has been largely influenced by pulse oximetry, despite its questionable diagnostic value in delineating the severity of the illness. Many health-care providers lack the appropriate clinical fundamentals and limitations of pulse oximetry. This deficiency in knowledge might have been linked to changes in the management of bronchiolitis. The aim of this paper is to provide the current evidence on the role of pulse oximetry in bronchiolitis. We discuss the history, fundamentals of operation, and limitations of the apparatus. A search of the Google Scholar, Embase, Medline, and PubMed databases was carried out for published articles covering the use of pulse oximetry in bronchiolitis. Keywords: bronchiolitis, children, monitor, oxygen

  12. Developing personal values: trainees' attitudes toward strikes by health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Ting T; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Worldwide, health care providers use strikes and job actions to influence policy. For health care providers, especially physicians, strikes create an ethical tension between an obligation to care for current patients (e.g., to provide care and avoid abandonment) and an obligation to better care for future patients by seeking system improvements (e.g., improvements in safety, to access, and in the composition and strength of the health care workforce). This tension is further intensified when the potential benefit of a strike involves professional self-interest and the potential risk involves patient harm or death. By definition, trainees are still forming their professional identities and values, including their opinions on fair wages, health policy, employee benefits, professionalism, and strikes. In this article, the authors explore these ethical tensions, beginning with a discussion of reactions to a potential 2005 nursing strike at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center. The authors then propose a conceptual model describing factors that may influence health care providers' decisions to strike (including personal ethics, personal agency, and strike-related context). In particular, the authors explore the relationship between training level and attitudes toward taking a job action, such as going on strike. Because trainees' attitudes toward strikes continue to evolve during training, the authors maintain that open discussion around the ethics of health care professionals' strikes and other methods of conflict resolution should be included in medical education to enhance professionalism and systems-based practice training. The authors include sample case vignettes to help initiate these important discussions.

  13. Compact transient-grating self-referenced spectral interferometry for sub-nanojoule femtosecond pulses characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiong; Liu, Jun; Li, Ruxin

    2016-01-01

    The self-referenced spectral interferometry (SRSI) technique, which is usually used for microjoule-level femtosecond pulses characterization, is improved to characterize weak femtosecond pulses with nanojoule based on the transient-grating effect. Both femtosecond pulses from an amplifier with 3 nJ per pulse at 1 kHz repetition rates and femtosecond pulses from an oscillator with less than 0.5 nJ per pulse at 84 MHz repetition rates are successfully characterized. Furthermore, through a special design, the optical setup of the device is even smaller than a palm which will makes it simple and convenient during the application. These improvements extend the application of SRSI technique to the characterization of femtosecond pulses in a broad range. Not only pulses from an amplifier but also pulses from an oscillator or weak pulses used in ultrafast spectroscopy can be monitored with this SRSI method right now.

  14. Development of a Wearable Pulse Monitoring Module Based on Zigbee Technology%基于Zigbee技术的穿戴式脉搏波检测模块的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨易华; 吴效明; 岑人经

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new wearable pulse detection module based on Zigbee technology. Pulse signal was detected using pressure sensor, then preprocessed and sent to CC2430 for analog-to-digital conversion, after that the data were judged and processed. Then, the data were transmitted to PC by using wireless sensor network formed by Zigbee technology,and received,displayed,analyzed with a care-software. The module realized the wireless real-time detection for pulse with miniaturization, low-power and portable for family care.%介绍了一种新型的基于Zigbee技术的穿戴式脉搏波检测模块.利用压力传感器提取出脉搏波信号,经过预处理后,送至CC2430进行模数转换,对数据进行判断和处理,再利用Zigbee技术组成的无线传感器网络把数据打包发送到PC机,然后由监护软件对数据进行处理、分析和显示.该模块实现了脉搏波的无线实时检测,具有微型化、低功耗等特点,适用于家庭的便携式移动监护.

  15. PulseSoar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, P.; Peglow, S.

    1992-07-21

    This paper is an introduction to the PulseSoar concept. PulseSoar is a hypervelocity airplane that uses existing airport facilities and current technologies to fly at the very edge of space. It will be shown that PulseSoar can fly between any two points on the globe in less than two hours with fuel efficiency exceeding current state of the art commercial airliners. In addition, it will be shown that PulseSoar avoids environmental issues concerning the ozone layer and sonic booms because of its unique flight profile. All of this can be achieved with current technology. PulseSoar does not require the development of enabling technology. It is a concept which can be demonstrated today. The importance of this idea goes beyond the technical significance`s of PulseSoar in terms of feasibility and performance. PulseSoar could provide a crucial economic advantage to America`s largest export market: commercial aircraft. PulseSoar is a breakthrough concept for addressing the emerging markets of long range and high speed aircraft. Application of PulseSoar to commercial transport could provide the US Aerospace industry a substantial lead in offering high speed/long range aircraft to the world`s airlines. The rapid emergence of a US developed high speed aircraft could also be important to our competitiveness in the Pacific Rim and South American economies. A quick and inexpensive demonstration vehicle is proposed to bang the concept to reality within two years. This discussion will address all the major technical subjects encompassed by PulseSoar and identifies several near-term, and low risk, applications which may be further explored with the initial demonstration vehicle. What is PulseSoar? PulseSoar could enable high speed, high altitude and long range flight without many of the difficulties encountered by traditional hypersonic vehicles.

  16. Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Ned [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States); Flippo, Kirk [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States); Nemoto, Koshichi [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States); Umstadter, Donald [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, 2200 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States); Crowell, Robert A. [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Jonah, Charles D. [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Trifunac, Alexander D. [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2000-06-01

    A laser based electron generator is shown, for the first time, to produce sufficient charge to conduct time resolved investigations of radiation induced chemical events. Electron pulses generated by focussing terawatt laser pulses into a supersonic helium gas jet are used to ionize liquid water. The decay of the hydrated electrons produced by the ionizing electron pulses is monitored with 0.3 {mu}s time resolution. Hydrated electron concentrations as high as 22 {mu}M were generated. The results show that terawatt lasers offer both an alternative to linear accelerators and a means to achieve subpicosecond time resolution for pulse radiolysis studies. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yoichi

    The pulse tube refrigerator is one of the regenerative cycle refrigerators such as Stirling cycle or Gifford-McMahon cycle which gives the cooling temperature below 150 K down to liquid helium temperature. In 1963, W. E. Gifford invented a simple refrigeration cycle which is composed of compressor, regenerator and simple tube named as pulse tube which gives a similar function of the expander in Stirling or Gifford-McMahon cycle. The thermodynamically performance of this pulse tube refrigerator is inferior to that of other regenerative cycles. In 1984, however, Mikulin and coworkers made a significant advance in pulse tube configuration called as orifice pulse tube. After this, several modifications of the pulse tube hot end configuration have been developed. With those modifications, the thermodynamic performance of the pulse tube refrigerator became the same order to that of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. This article reviews the brief history of the pulse tube refrigerator development in the view point of its thermodynamically efficiency. Simplified theories of the energy flow in the pulse tube have also been described.

  18. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  19. Exploring new frontiers in the pulsed power laboratory: Recent progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adamenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most fundamental processes in the Universe, nucleosynthesis of elements drives energy production in stars as well as the creation of all atoms heavier than hydrogen. To harness this process and open new ways for energy production, we must recreate some of the extreme conditions in which it occurs. We present results of experiments using a pulsed power facility to induce collective nuclear interactions producing stable nuclei of virtually every element in the periodic table. A high-power electron beam pulse striking a small metallic target is used to create the extreme dynamic environment. Material analysis studies detect an anomalously high presence of new chemical elements in the remnants of the exploded target supporting theoretical conjectures of the experiment. These results provide strong motivation to continue our research looking for additional proofs that heavy element nucleosynthesis is possible in pulsed power laboratory.

  20. Propagation of λ3 Laser Pulses in Underdense Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, Alexei; Nemoto, Koshichi; Nayuki, Takuya; Oishi, Yuji; Fujii, Takashi

    2008-06-01

    We study the interaction of λ3 laser pulses with underdense plasma by means of real geometry particle-in-cell simulation. Underdense plasma irradiated by even low energy λ3 laser pulses can be an efficient source of multi-MeV electrons, ˜50 nC/J. The electron acceleration driven by low energy λ3 and λ2 laser pulses is monitored by means of fully relativistic 3D particle-in- cell simulation. Strong transverse wave-breaking in the vicinity of the laser focus is found to give rise to an immense electron charge injected to the acceleration phase of laser wake field. While the acceleration by λ2 pulses runs in usual way, strong blowout regime is found for λ3 pulses. Details of laser pulse self-guiding are discussed.

  1. Are physicians strikes ever morally justifiable? A call for a return to tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyaradzi Mawere

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Though physicians strike provides an opportunity to generate more knowledge about the process in which legitimacy of an organization can be restored, it meets with a great deal of resistance not only by the public but from within the medical profession. This paper critically examines the legitimacy of strike by medical doctors heretofore referred to as physicians. Though critically reflecting on strikes of physicians in general, the paper makes more emphasis on Africa where physician strikes are rampant. More importantly, the paper argues that strike implies a failure for everyone in the organization (including the strikers themselves, not only the responsible government or authority. This is because when a strike occurs, an organization/fraternity is subjected to questions, scrutiny and slander. It becomes difficult to decouple what is said, decided and done. Traditionally, all medical fraternities the world-over are committed to acting comfortably to external demands- guaranteeing the patients lives and public health. By paying attention to external reactions, the medical fraternity adapts and learns what ought and should be done so that it is never again caught in the same messy. At the same time, the fraternity prepares itself for the future strikes. When the fraternity and those outside consider it is doing up to the external expectations, its lost legitimacy is restored. When legitimacy is restored, external pressure like once disturbed water returns to normal

  2. A kinematic method to detect foot contact during running for all foot strike patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Clare E; Paquette, Max R

    2015-09-18

    The biomechanics of distance running are studied in relation to both understanding injury mechanisms and improving performance. Kinematic methods must be used to identify the stance phase of running when data are recorded during running on a standard treadmill or outside the laboratory. Recently, a focus on foot strike patterns has emerged in the field. Thus, there is a need for a kinematic method to identify foot contact that is equally effective for both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strike patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new kinematic method could accurately determine foot contact during running in both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strikers. Overground gait data were collected at on 22 runners, 11 with a rearfoot strike pattern and 11 with a non-rearfoot strike pattern. Data were processed to identify foot contact from: vertical ground reaction force, two previously published kinematic methods, and our new kinematic method. Limits of agreement were used to determine bias and random error of each kinematic method compared to ground reaction force onset. The new method had comparable random error at 200 Hz sampling frequency (5 ms per frame) to the previous methods (7 frames vs 6-9 frames) and produced the same offset for both strike patterns (3 frames), while the existing methods had different offsets for different strike patterns (4 or 7 frames). Study findings support use of this new method, as it can be applied to all running strike patterns without adjusting the frame offset, simplifying data processing.

  3. Collective Labor Disputes and Strikes in Russia: The Impact of Judicial Precedents and Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gerasimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to strike is recognized in the Constitution and the Labor Code of the Russian Federation as a means to resolve collective labor disputes. However, in Russia labor protests come up for discussion much more frequently than strikes. In recent years the number of labor protests in Russia, including various forms of work stoppage, has increased significantly compared to previous years, but the number of legally constituted collective labor disputes and strikes has remained very low. The legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and mounting strikes is quite restrictive in Russia, and its enforcement also encourages employees to seek alternative ways to settle collective labor conflicts. There is little empirical research on the judicial implementation of these norms and its influence on the enforcement of legislation. Therefore, this paper analyses the reasoning of courts in cases on the legality of strikes, their interpretations of the law, and the impact these decisions have on the enforcement of the legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and strikes. Our conclusion is that the courts act as another restrictive influence on the resolution of collective labor disputes and the exercise of the right to strike in Russia.

  4. Physiologic Monitoring: Improving Safety or Increasing Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Charles G

    2016-08-01

    This paper will present a focused and personal history of physiologic monitoring, beginning with the discovery of modern anesthesia and its development from a technical practice to a scientific discipline. Emphasis will be on the essence of monitoring in the anesthesia evolution, and this work will attempt to answer the question of how to evaluate the impact of monitoring on patient outcome. Understanding that monitors are passive and that only caregivers using monitors can impact outcome is at the crux of this approach to analysis. The limited quality data involving monitoring analysis, including that from pulse oximetry, will be discussed and critiqued. The invention and rapid spread of pulse oximetry will be highlighted and used as an example throughout, but the principles developed will apply to other monitors and patient monitoring in general. The problems created by monitoring alarms will also be discussed. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. CONTROL SYSTEM FEATURES OF MAGNETIC-PULSE INSTALLATION AT UNIPOLAR MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyubenko, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction features of monitoring and control system of magnetic pulse installation at work in unipolar mode were detected. Installation control system algorithm at work in multiple repeating mode of discharge pulses is proposed. Description of monitoring and control system structure schemes and their purposes have been conducted.

  6. Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G Hatala

    Full Text Available Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns.

  7. Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Dingwall, Heather L; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Richmond, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns.

  8. Where do pulse oximeter probes break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crede, S; Van der Merwe, G; Hutchinson, J; Woods, D; Karlen, W; Lawn, J

    2014-06-01

    Pulse oximetry, a non-invasive method for accurate assessment of blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), is an important monitoring tool in health care facilities. However, it is often not available in many low-resource settings, due to expense, overly sophisticated design, a lack of organised procurement systems and inadequate medical device management and maintenance structures. Furthermore medical devices are often fragile and not designed to withstand the conditions of low-resource settings. In order to design a probe, better suited to the needs of health care facilities in low-resource settings this study aimed to document the site and nature of pulse oximeter probe breakages in a range of different probe designs in a low to middle income country. A retrospective review of job cards relating to the assessment and repair of damaged or faulty pulse oximeter probes was conducted at a medical device repair company based in Cape Town, South Africa, specializing in pulse oximeter probe repairs. 1,840 job cards relating to the assessment and repair of pulse oximeter probes were reviewed. 60.2 % of probes sent for assessment were finger-clip probes. For all probes, excluding the neonatal wrap probes, the most common point of failure was the probe wiring (>50 %). The neonatal wrap most commonly failed at the strap (51.5 %). The total cost for quoting on the broken pulse oximeter probes and for the subsequent repair of devices, excluding replacement components, amounted to an estimated ZAR 738,810 (USD $98,508). Improving the probe wiring would increase the life span of pulse oximeter probes. Increasing the life span of probes will make pulse oximetry more affordable and accessible. This is of high priority in low-resource settings where frequent repair or replacement of probes is unaffordable or impossible.

  9. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  10. PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowper, G.

    1958-08-12

    A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.

  11. An evaluation of emergency room services during the New York City house officer strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J J; Greene, M

    1976-02-01

    A chart audit of emergency services provided by attending staff during the New York City House Officers' strike is compared to an audit of work previously performed by house staff. The usual quality of services provided in this institution was maintained during the strike. However, deficiencies in quality noted in house staff charts, continued to be noted in the charts of attending staff. Failure to improve quality of medical records when trained staff substitute for trainees suggests that the central strike issue of poor working conditions contributes to low quality of care.

  12. Gender frames and collective action: Configurations of masculinity in the Pittston Coal strike

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckwith, K. [College Wooster, Wooster, OH (United States)

    2001-06-01

    This article develops the concept of gender frame for understanding major transformations in the collective action repertoires of social movements. Focusing on the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) strike against the Pittston Coal Group (1989-90), the article discusses the UMWA's traditional collective action repertoire and its innovation of nonviolent protest, widely employed during the strike. Interviews with major activists and UMWA staff and officers illustrate how the UMWA employed a gender frame of mining masculinities to initiate the new nonviolent strike action. The article concludes by suggesting how collective action repertoires and framing are linked and encouraging future research on gender frames in social movements.

  13. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Florida State University is investigating the concept of pulsed electron beams for fly ash precipitation. This report describes the results and data on three of the subtasks of this project and preliminary work only on the remaining five subtasks. Described are the modification of precharger for pulsed and DC energization of anode; installation of the Q/A measurement system; and modification and installation of pulsed power supply to provide both pulsed and DC energization of the anode. The other tasks include: measurement of the removal efficiency for monodisperse simulated fly ash particles; measurement of particle charge; optimization of pulse energization schedule for maximum removal efficiency; practical assessment of results; and measurement of the removal efficiency for polydisperse test particles. 15 figs., 1 tab. (CK)

  14. Timing control of an intense picosecond pulse laser to the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihito; Hara, Toru; Kitamura, Hideo; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2000-03-01

    We have developed a control system to synchronize intense picosecond laser pulses to the hard x-ray synchrotron radiation (SR) pulses of SPring-8. A regeneratively amplified mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser is synchronized to 40 ps SR pulses by locking the laser to the radio frequency of the ring. The synchronization of the pulses is monitored by detecting both beams simultaneously on a gold photocathode of a streak camera. This method enabled us to make a precise measurement of the time interval between the beams, even if the trigger of the streak camera drifts. Synchronization between the laser and the SR pulses has been achieved with a precision of ±2 ps for some hours. The stable timing control ensures the possibility of making two-photon excitation and pump-probe experiments with time resolution of a few tens of ps (limited by the pulse duration of the SR). We have used this system to show that closing undulator gaps in the storage ring shifts the arrival time of the SR pulses, in accord with expectations for the increased power loss.

  15. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  16. Tidsforbrug ved monitorering af postoperativ oxygenstatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrsen, M J; Tuxøe, J I; Koch, J S;

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare use of time with pulse oximetry versus arterial blood gas measurement on the general surgical ward. Eighty patients who had just had major orthopaedic or abdominal surgery were included in the study at two hospitals in Copenhagen. Success rate for pulse oxi....... We recommend that all general surgical wards should have a portable pulse oximeter for monitoring arterial oxygenation after major surgery....

  17. Earthquake Activities Along the Strike-Slip Fault System on the Thailand-Myanmar Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Pailoplee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the present-day seismicity along the strike-slip fault system on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Using the earthquake catalogue the earthquake parameters representing seismic activities were evaluated in terms of the possible maximum magnitude, return period and earthquake occurrence probabilities. Three different hazardous areas could be distinguished from the obtained results. The most seismic-prone area was located along the northern segment of the fault system and can generate earthquakes of magnitude 5.0, 5.8, and 6.8 mb in the next 5, 10, and 50 years, respectively. The second most-prone area was the southern segment where earthquakes of magnitude 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 mb might be generated every 18, 60, and 300 years, respectively. For the central segment, there was less than 30 and 10% probability that 6.0- and 7.0-mb earthquakes will be generated in the next 50 years. With regards to the significant infrastructures (dams in the vicinity, the operational Wachiralongkorn dam is situated in a low seismic hazard area with a return period of around 30 - 3000 years for a 5.0 - 7.0 mb earthquake. In contrast, the Hut Gyi, Srinakarin and Tha Thung Na dams are seismically at risk for earthquakes of mb 6.4 - 6.5 being generated in the next 50 years. Plans for a seismic-retrofit should therefore be completed and implemented while seismic monitoring in this region is indispensable.

  18. Long-period seismic events with strikingly regular temporal patterns on Katla volcano's south flank (Iceland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgattoni, Giulia; Jeddi, Zeinab; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Einarsson, Páll; Tryggvason, Ari; Lund, Björn; Lucchi, Federico

    2016-09-01

    Katla is a threatening volcano in Iceland, partly covered by the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. The volcano has a large caldera with several active geothermal areas. A peculiar cluster of long-period seismic events started on Katla's south flank in July 2011, during an unrest episode in the caldera that culminated in a glacier outburst. The seismic events were tightly clustered at shallow depth in the Gvendarfell area, 4 km south of the caldera, under a small glacier stream at the southern margin of Mýrdalsjökull. No seismic events were known to have occurred in this area before. The most striking feature of this seismic cluster is its temporal pattern, characterized by regular intervals between repeating seismic events, modulated by a seasonal variation. Remarkable is also the stability of both the time and waveform features over a long time period, around 3.5 years. We have not found any comparable examples in the literature. Both volcanic and glacial processes can produce similar waveforms and therefore have to be considered as potential seismic sources. Discerning between these two causes is critical for monitoring glacier-clad volcanoes and has been controversial at Katla. For this new seismic cluster on the south flank, we regard volcano-related processes as more likely than glacial ones for the following reasons: 1) the seismic activity started during an unrest episode involving sudden melting of the glacier and a jökulhlaup; 2) the glacier stream is small and stagnant; 3) the seismicity remains regular and stable for years; 4) there is no apparent correlation with short-term weather changes, such as rainstorms. We suggest that a small, shallow hydrothermal system was activated on Katla's south flank in 2011, either by a minor magmatic injection or by changes of permeability in a local crack system.

  19. Design and Development of Patient Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazwanie Azizulkarim, Azra; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi

    2017-08-01

    Patient monitoring system allows continuous monitoring of patient vital signs, support decision making among medical personnel and help enhance patient care. This system can consist of devices that measure, display and record human’s vital signs, including body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure and other health-related criteria. This paper proposes a system to monitor the patient’s conditions by monitoring the body temperature and pulse rate. The system consists of a pulse rate monitoring software and a wearable device that can measure a subject’s temperature and pulse rate only by using a fingertip. The device is able to record the measurement data and interface to PC via Arduino microcontroller. The recorded data can be viewed as a historical file or can be archived for further analysis. This work also describes the preliminary experimental results of the selected sensors to show the usefulness of the sensors for the proposed patient monitoring system.

  20. Wildlife strike risk assessment in several Italian airports: lessons from BRI and a new methodology implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

    2011-01-01

    The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B.

  1. Wildlife Strike Risk Assessment in Several Italian Airports: Lessons from BRI and a New Methodology Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

    2011-01-01

    The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B. PMID:22194950

  2. Anti-strike Capability of Steel-fiber Reactive Powder Concrete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pengxian Fan; Mingyang Wang; Chunming Song

    2013-01-01

    Penetration and contact explosion tests on reactive powder concrete (RPC) containing 5 per cent steel-fiber were carried out to investigate the anti-strike capability of steel-fiber reactive powder concrete (SFRPC...

  3. Wildlife strike risk assessment in several Italian airports: lessons from BRI and a new methodology implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Soldatini

    Full Text Available The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2 is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B.

  4. Variations in otological presentation of lightning strike victims: Clinical report of 3 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Erbil; Genç, Hakan; Aydın, Ümit; Aşık, Burak; Satar, Bülent

    2017-03-01

    Lightning strike can cause fatal or nonfatal injuries. Some nonfatal injuries are associated with otological symptoms and findings. Conductive hearing loss due to rupture of the tympanic membrane is the most common audiovestibular lesion of lightning strike. Various forms of sensorineural hearing loss and dizziness have also been reported. Presently described are 3 cases of lightning strike injury. First patient had mid-frequency hearing loss in right ear and high frequency sensorineural hearing loss in left ear. Second patient had high frequency sensorineural hearing loss in left ear, and the third had peripheral facial palsy with perilymphatic fistula on same side. This is the first documented case of mid-frequency hearing loss occurring after lightning strike.

  5. Electrically conductive carbon fibre-reinforced composite for aircraft lightning strike protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, Andrzej; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Turczyn, Roman; Sul, Przemysław; Bilewicz, Marcin

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft elements, especially elements of exterior fuselage, are subjected to damage caused by lightning strikes. Due to the fact that these elements are manufactured from polymeric composites in modern aircraft, and thus, they cannot conduct electrical charges, the lightning strikes cause burnouts in composite structures. Therefore, the effective lightning strike protection for such structures is highly desired. The solution presented in this paper is based on application of organic conductive fillers in the form of intrinsically conducting polymers and carbon fabric in order to ensure electrical conductivity of whole composite and simultaneously retain superior mechanical properties. The presented studies cover synthesis and manufacturing of the electrically conductive composite as well as its characterization with respect to mechanical and electrical properties. The performed studies indicate that the proposed material can be potentially considered as a constructional material for aircraft industry, which characterizes by good operational properties and low cost of manufacturing with respect to current lightning strike protection materials solutions.

  6. Origin and structure of major orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    The formation of major exhumed strike-slip faults represents one of the most important dynamic processes affecting the evolution of the Earth's lithosphere and surface. Detailed models of the potential initiation and properties and architecture of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults and how these relate to exhumation are rare. In this study, we deal with key properties controlling the development of major exhumed strike-slip fault systems, which are equivalent to the deep crustal sections of active across fault zones. We also propose two dominant processes for the initiation of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults: (1) pluton-controlled and (2) metamorphic core complex-controlled strike-slip faults. In these tectonic settings, the initiation of faults occurs by rheological weakening along hot-to-cool contacts and guides the overall displacement and ultimate exhumation. These processes result in a specific thermal and structural architecture of such faults. These types of strike-slip dominated fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust during various stages of faulting. The high variety of distinctive fault rocks is a potential evidence for recognition of these types of strike-slip faults. Exhumation of mylonitic rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such reverse oblique-slip strike-slip faults, implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion during exhumation. Some orogen-scale strike-slip faults nucleate and initiate along rheologically weak zones, e.g. at granite intrusions, zones of low-strength minerals, thermally weakened crust due to ascending fluids, and lateral borders of hot metamorphic core complexes. A further mechanism is the juxtaposition of mechanically strong mantle lithosphere to hot asthenosphere in continental transform faults (e.g., San

  7. Carrier Aviation and Hybrid Conflict: The Future of the Strike Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    additional 182 strike missions over Bosnia -Herzegovina.9 Operation DESERT FOX added another eighty-eight strike missions for the F/ A-18. 10 The following...threat to U.S. aircraft in Bosnia and Kosovo. The trend of SAM proliferation will continue in future combat operations with enemy air defenses as...important but "the fighter guys were at the . . . very tip of the pyramid .ඃ .Th~ blockbuster h:it of Top Gun solidified this culture, and the

  8. Strikes, Employee Workplace Representation, Unionism, and Trust: Evidence from Cross-Country Data

    OpenAIRE

    John T. Addison; Teixeira, Paulino

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of industrial conflict in companies, using a multi-country workplace inquiry for 2009 and 2013 and various measures of strike activity. The principal goal is to address the effect of formal workplace representation on strikes, distinguishing in the first instance between works councils on the one hand and broadly equivalent trade union based entities on the other. The role of unionism is also central to this inquiry, not only with respect to the degree...

  9. Political strike. Viability analysis in the legal system of the Republic of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Goldstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several motivations have led unionized workers to exercise this fundamental right recognized under Article 57 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uruguay. This right has been the subject doctrine discussions by legal scholars when strikes are considered atypical. In this paper, the viability of strikes when they are motivated by politics is discussed, as well as the response of the national legal system to this phenomenon.

  10. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Development of New Capabilities Requires Continued Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    number of changes affecting the planned quantities and associated costs . According to current projections, the U.S. portion of the program will require...Strike Fighter F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Block 4 Development Costs Increase Near-Term Funding Needs DOD does not currently plan to manage...difficult for Congress to hold it accountable for achieving its cost , schedule, and performance requirements. Given that congressional oversight

  11. The Need for a Permanent Gun System On the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    5. 9. Emmanuel Gustin and Anthony G Williams, Flying Guns: The Development of Aircraft Guns, Ammunition and Installations 1933-1945 (Airlife...Checking Six Not Enough, 23. 33. Ibid., 24. 34. Ibid., 24. 35. Todd E. Denning, A Case for the Joint Strike Fighter Gun (Army General Command and...Washington DC, 20 October 2006. 38. Ibid 39. Todd E. Denning, A Case Joint Strike Fighter, 56. 40. David R. Mets, Checking Six Not Enough, 41

  12. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Assessment Needed to Address Affordability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Percent of Labor Hours Spent on Scrap, Rework , and Repair for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter 20 Figure 8: Average Number of F-35 Joint Strike Fighter...engine failure, and a higher than expected amount of test point growth largely to address software rework , over the past year, delayed key test...percent growth in mission system software test points for the year— largely to address software rework that might be needed—officials from the

  13. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    Prompt Global Strike’ Raises Bar for Intel Community.” Inside The Air Force. June 22, 2007. 11 U.S. Department of Defense, Nuclear Posture Review...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic...DATE 25 OCT 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Conventional Prompt Global Strike And Long

  14. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  15. Small angle slot divertor concept for long pulse advanced tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Sang, C. F.; Stangeby, P. C.; Lao, L. L.; Taylor, T. S.; Thomas, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    SOLPS-EIRENE edge code analysis shows that a gas-tight slot divertor geometry with a small-angle (glancing-incidence) target, named the small angle slot (SAS) divertor, can achieve cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions at relatively low values of plasma density at the outside midplane separatrix. SAS exhibits the following key features: (1) strong enhancement of the buildup of neutral density in a localized region near the plasma strike point on the divertor target; (2) spreading of the cooling front across the divertor target with the slot gradually flaring out from the strike point, thus effectively reducing both heat flux and erosion on the entire divertor target surface. Such a divertor may potentially provide a power and particle handling solution for long pulse advanced tokamaks.

  16. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2013] Benton Lake Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  17. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2013] Charles M. Russel National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  18. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Charles M. Russel National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  19. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2012] Benton Lake Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  20. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] National Elk Refuge, Teton County Weed & Pest Control District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO MT Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered by...

  1. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Northeast Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  2. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  3. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2012] Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  4. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2016] Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  5. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  6. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2013] Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO MT Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  7. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  8. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2016] Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  9. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO MT Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  10. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Swan River National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO MT Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  11. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO MT Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  12. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2013] Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  13. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2013] Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  14. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  15. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  16. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2016] Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  17. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  18. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  19. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Benton Lake Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  20. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2013] Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  1. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Charles M. Russel National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  2. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2016] Charles M. Russel National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  3. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge, Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  4. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2012] Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  5. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Benton Lake Wetland Management District, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  6. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Benton Lake Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  7. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Swan River National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  8. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2016] Benton Lake Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  9. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2016] Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  10. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO MT Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered by...

  11. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2013] National Elk Refuge, Teton County Weed & Pest Control District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  12. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  13. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Northeast Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  14. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2012] Northeast Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  15. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2013] Northeast Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  16. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2014] Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  17. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2012] Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  18. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  19. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2015] Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  20. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2016] Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  1. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2013] Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  2. Pulse oximeter for cyclists in smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L.; Gaidos, O.; dos Santos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of cyclists during physical activity is an important factor to improve their performance. We discuss a new approaches based on smartphone for monitoring physiological signal wirelessly for cyclists, using a pulse oximeter sensor attached to the rider's forehead. This paper presents a wireless pulse Oximeter that was developed with a Nellcor's module, which uses the Standard Host Interface Protocol (SHIP) for communication with the Bluetooth module and sends data for a Smartphone with Android O.S. Then these data are shown in the screen: the heartbeat and saturation percentage. The application was created with App Inventor and the data are sent to Google Maps via Twitter. The results demonstrate the possibility of developing a successful prototype.

  3. Pulse energy measurement at the SXR instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Stefan, E-mail: smoeller@slac.stanford.edu; Brown, Garth; Dakovski, Georgi; Hill, Bruce; Holmes, Michael; Loos, Jennifer; Maida, Ricardo; Paiser, Ernesto; Schlotter, William; Turner, Joshua J.; Wallace, Alex [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Jastrow, Ulf; Kreis, Svea [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sorokin, Andrey A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tiedtke, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-04-14

    A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research instrument (SXR) to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. A gas monitor detector was implemented and characterized at the Soft X-ray Research (SXR) instrument to measure the average, absolute and pulse-resolved photon flux of the LCLS beam in the energy range between 280 and 2000 eV. The detector is placed after the monochromator and addresses the need to provide reliable absolute pulse energy as well as pulse-resolved measurements for the various experiments at this instrument. This detector provides a reliable non-invasive measurement for determining flux levels on the samples in the downstream experimental chamber and for optimizing signal levels of secondary detectors and for the essential need of data normalization. The design, integration into the instrument and operation are described, and examples of its performance are given.

  4. Physicians and strikes: can a walkout over the malpractice crisis be ethically justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2004-01-01

    Malpractice insurance rates have created a crisis in American medicine. Rates are rising and reimbursements are not keeping pace. In response, physicians in the states hardest hit by this crisis are feeling compelled to take political action, and the current action of choice seems to be physician strikes. While the malpractice insurance crisis is acknowledged to be severe, does it justify the extreme action of a physician walkout? Should physicians engage in this type of collective action, and what are the costs to patients and the profession when such action is taken? I will offer three related arguments against physician strikes that constitute a prima facie prohibition against such action: first, strikes are intended to cause harm to patients; second, strikes are an affront to the physician-patient relationship; and, third, strikes risk decreasing the public's respect for the medical profession. As with any prima facie obligation, there are justifying conditions that may override the moral prohibition, but I will argue that the current malpractice crisis does not rise to the level of such a justifying condition. While the malpractice crisis demands and justifies a political response on the part of the nation's physicians, strikes and slow-downs are not an ethically justified means to the legitimate end of controlling insurance costs.

  5. Efficient Pulsed Quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Petzenhauser, I.; Spiller, P.; Tenholt, C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to raise the focusing gradient in case of bunched beam lines, a pulsed quadrupole was designed. The transfer channels between synchrotrons as well as the final focusing for the target line are possible applications. The quadrupole is running in a pulsed mode, which means an immense saving of energy by avoiding standby operation. Still the high gradients demand high currents. Hence a circuit had to be developed which is able to recover a significant amount of the pulsing energy for following shots. The basic design of the electrical circuit of the quadrupole is introduced. Furthermore more energy efficient circuits are presented and the limits of adaptability are considered.

  6. Pulse joining cartridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis

    2016-08-23

    A pulsed joining tool includes a tool body that defines a cavity that receives an inner tubular member and an outer tubular member and a pulse joining cartridge. The tubular members are nested together with the cartridge being disposed around the outer tubular member. The cartridge includes a conductor, such as a wire or foil, that extends around the outer tubular member and is insulated to separate a supply segment from a return segment. A source of stored electrical energy is discharged through the conductor to join the tubular members with an electromagnetic force pulse.

  7. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  8. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  9. Pulse subtraction Doppler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahue, Veronique; Mari, Jean Martial; Eckersley, Robert J.; Caro, Colin G.; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances have demonstrated the feasibility of molecular imaging using targeted microbubbles and ultrasound. One technical challenge is to selectively detect attached bubbles from those freely flowing bubbles and surrounding tissue. Pulse Inversion Doppler is an imaging technique enabling the selective detection of both static and moving ultrasound contrast agents: linear scatterers generate a single band Doppler spectrum, while non-linear scatterers generate a double band spectrum, one being uniquely correlated with the presence of contrast agents and non-linear tissue signals. We demonstrate that similar spectrums, and thus the same discrimination, can be obtained through a Doppler implementation of Pulse Subtraction. This is achieved by reconstructing a virtual echo using the echo generated from a short pulse transmission. Moreover by subtracting from this virtual echo the one generated from a longer pulse transmission, it is possible to fully suppress the echo from linear scatterers, while for non-linear scatterers, a signal will remain, allowing classical agent detection. Simulations of a single moving microbubble and a moving linear scatterer subject to these pulses show that when the virtual echo and the long pulse echo are used to perform pulsed Doppler, the power Doppler spectrum allows separation of linear and non-linear moving scattering. Similar results are obtained on experimental data acquired on a flow containing either microbubble contrast agents or linear blood mimicking fluid. This new Doppler method constitutes an alternative to Pulse Inversion Doppler and preliminary results suggest that similar dual band spectrums could be obtained by the combination of any non-linear detection technique with Doppler demodulation.

  10. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

  11. Four pulse recoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneja, Navin; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes a family of novel recoupling pulse sequences in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR, called four pulse recoupling. These pulse sequences can be employed for both homonuclear and heteronuclear recoupling experiments and are robust to dispersion in chemical shifts and rf-inhomogeneity. The homonuclear pulse sequence consists of a building block (π/2) 0 °(3π/2) ϕ°(π/2) 180 ° + ϕ°(3π/2) 180 ° where ϕ = π/n (ϕ° = 180°/n) , and n is number of blocks in a two rotor period. The heteronuclear recoupling pulse sequence consists of a building block (π/2) 0 °(3π/2) ϕ1 °(π/2) 180 ° +ϕ1 °(3π/2) 180 ° and (π/2) 0 °(3π/2) ϕ2 °(π/2) 180 ° +ϕ2 °(3π/2) 180 ° on channel I and S, where ϕ1 = 3π/2n, ϕ2 = π2/n and n is number of blocks in a two rotor period. The recoupling pulse sequences mix the y magnetization. We show that four pulse recoupling is more broadband compared to three pulse recoupling [1]. Experimental quantification of this method is shown for 13Cα-13CO, homonuclear recoupling in a sample of Glycine and 15N-13Cα, heteronuclear recoupling in Alanine. Application of this method is demonstrated on a sample of tripeptide N-formyl-[U-13C,15N]-Met-Leu-Phe-OH (MLF).

  12. Cardiac output monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Lailu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.

  13. A Pulsed Laser and Molecular Beam Apparatus for Surface Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    PRFCAMING ORCANIZATION REPORT NuMSWIS b MONITORING ORGANIZATION RPR :6P" _________ ______._ _ I0 0 1 I &PO*R.TR. o u 1 6NAEOF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 5.OFFICE...with a second pulsed molecular beam, and the course of the reaction may be followed using several new pulsed surface analysis techniques under...available for electrical and manipulation feedthroughs, roughing and gas inlet lines, as well as special viewports (quartz or MgF 2) for the passage of UV

  14. Design of nanosecond pulse laser micromachining system based on PMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyan; Fu, Xing; Xu, Linyan; Lin, Qian; Gu, Shuang

    2012-10-01

    Pulse laser micromachining technology, as a branch of laser processing technology, has been widely used in MEMS device processing, aviation, instruments fabrication, circuit board design etc.. In this paper, a novel nanosecond pulse laser micromachining system is presented, which consists of nanosecond pulse LASER, optical path mechanical structure, transmission system, motion control system. Nanosecond pulse UV laser, with 355 nm wavelength and 40ns pulse width, is chosen as the light source. Optical path mechanical structure is designed to get ideal result of laser focusing. Motion control system, combining PMAC card with the PC software, can control the 3-D motion platform and complete microstructure processing. By CCD monitoring system, researchers can get real-time detection on the effect of laser beam focusing and processing process.

  15. Stochastic modeling of the hypothalamic pulse generator activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Thalabard, J C; Thomas, G

    1994-11-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is released by the pituitary in discrete pulses. In the monkey, the appearance of LH pulses in the plasma is invariably associated with sharp increases (i.e, volleys) in the frequency of the hypothalamic pulse generator electrical activity, so that continuous monitoring of this activity by telemetry provides a unique means to study the temporal structure of the mechanism generating the pulses. To assess whether the times of occurrence and durations of previous volleys exert significant influence on the timing of the next volley, we used a class of periodic counting process models that specify the stochastic intensity of the process as the product of two factors: 1) a periodic baseline intensity and 2) a stochastic regression function with covariates representing the influence of the past. This approach allows the characterization of circadian modulation and memory range of the process underlying hypothalamic pulse generator activity, as illustrated by fitting the model to experimental data from two ovariectomized rhesus monkeys.

  16. Along-strike variation in subducting plate velocity induced by along-strike variation in overriding plate structure: Insights from 3D numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Juan; Billen, Magali I.; Negredo, Ana M.; Montesi, Laurent G. J.

    2016-10-01

    Subduction dynamics can be understood as the result of the balance between driving and resisting forces. Previous work has traditionally regarded gravitational slab pull and viscous mantle drag as the main driving and resistive forces for plate motion respectively. However, this paradigm fails to explain many of the observations in subduction zones. For example, subducting plate velocity varies significantly along-strike in many subduction zones and this variation is not correlated to the age of subducting lithosphere. Here we present three-dimensional and time-dependent numerical models of subduction. We show that along-strike variations of the overriding plate thermal structure can lead to along-strike variations in subducting plate velocity. In turn, velocity variations lead to significant migration of the Euler pole over time. Our results show that the subducting plate is slower beneath the colder portion of the overriding plate due to two related mechanisms. First, the mantle wedge beneath the colder portion of the overriding plate is more viscous, which increases mantle drag. Second, where the mantle wedge is more viscous, hydrodynamic suction increases, leading to a lower slab dip. Both factors contribute to decreasing subducting plate velocity in the region; therefore, if the overriding plate is not uniform, the resulting velocity varies significantly along-strike, which causes the Euler pole to migrate closer to the subducting plate. We present a new mechanism to explain observations of subducting plate velocity in the Cocos and Nazca plates. These results shed new light on the balance of forces that control subduction dynamics and prove that future studies should take into consideration the three-dimensional structure of the overriding plate.

  17. Simulation of FEL pulse length calculation with THz streaking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgisyan, I., E-mail: ishkhan.gorgisyan@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Route Cantonale, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ischebeck, R.; Prat, E.; Reiche, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Rivkin, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Route Cantonale, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Juranić, P., E-mail: ishkhan.gorgisyan@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-04-02

    Simulation of THz streaking of photoelectrons created by X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser and reconstruction of the free-electron laser pulse lengths. Having accurate and comprehensive photon diagnostics for the X-ray pulses delivered by free-electron laser (FEL) facilities is of utmost importance. Along with various parameters of the photon beam (such as photon energy, beam intensity, etc.), the pulse length measurements are particularly useful both for the machine operators to measure the beam parameters and monitor the stability of the machine performance, and for the users carrying out pump–probe experiments at such facilities to better understand their measurement results. One of the most promising pulse length measurement techniques used for photon diagnostics is the THz streak camera which is capable of simultaneously measuring the lengths of the photon pulses and their arrival times with respect to the pump laser. This work presents simulations of a THz streak camera performance. The simulation procedure utilizes FEL pulses with two different photon energies in hard and soft X-ray regions, respectively. It recreates the energy spectra of the photoelectrons produced by the photon pulses and streaks them by a single-cycle THz pulse. Following the pulse-retrieval procedure of the THz streak camera, the lengths were calculated from the streaked spectra. To validate the pulse length calculation procedure, the precision and the accuracy of the method were estimated for streaking configuration corresponding to previously performed experiments. The obtained results show that for the discussed setup the method is capable of measuring FEL pulses with about a femtosecond accuracy and precision.

  18. The Hills are Alive: Dynamic Ridges and Valleys in a Strike-Slip Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Strike-slip fault zones have long been known for characteristic landforms such as offset and deflected rivers, linear strike-parallel valleys, and shutter ridges. Despite their common presence, questions remain about the mechanics of how these landforms arise or how their form varies as a function of slip rate, geomorphic process, or material properties. We know even less about what happens far from the fault, in drainage basin headwaters, as a result of strike-slip motion. Here we explore the effects of horizontal fault slip rate, bedrock erodibility, and hillslope diffusivity on river catchments that drain across an active strike-slip fault using the CHILD landscape evolution model. Model calculations demonstrate that lateral fault motion induces a permanent state of landscape disequilibrium brought about by fault offset-generated river lengthening alternating with abrupt shortening due to stream capture. This cycle of shifting drainage patterns and base level change continues until fault motion ceases thus creating a perpetual state of transience unique to strike-slip systems. Our models also make the surprising prediction that, in some cases, hillslope ridges oriented perpendicular to the fault migrate laterally in conjunction with fault motion. Ridge migration happens when slip rate is slow enough and/or diffusion and river incision are fast enough that the hillslopes can respond to the disequilibrium brought about by strike-slip motion. In models with faster slip rates, stronger rocks or less-diffusive hillslopes, ridge mobility is limited or arrested despite the fact that the process of river lengthening and capture continues. Fast-slip cases also develop prominent steep fault-facing hillslope facets proximal to the fault valley and along-strike topographic profiles with reduced local relief between ridges and valleys. Our results demonstrate the dynamic nature of strike-slip landscapes that vary systematically with a ratio of bedrock erodibility (K) and

  19. High voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  20. The verification of lightning location accuracy in Finland deduced from lightning strikes to trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Mäkelä, Jakke; Haapalainen, Jussi; Porjo, Niko

    2016-05-01

    We present a new method to determine the ground truth and accuracy of lightning location systems (LLS), using natural lightning strikes to trees. Observations of strikes to trees are being collected with a Web-based survey tool at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Since the Finnish thunderstorms tend to have on average a low flash rate, it is often possible to identify from the LLS data unambiguously the stroke that caused damage to a given tree. The coordinates of the tree are then the ground truth for that stroke. The technique has clear advantages over other methods used to determine the ground truth. Instrumented towers and rocket launches measure upward-propagating lightning. Video and audio records, even with triangulation, are rarely capable of high accuracy. We present data for 36 quality-controlled tree strikes in the years 2007-2008. We show that the average inaccuracy of the lightning location network for that period was 600 m. In addition, we show that the 50% confidence ellipse calculated by the lightning location network and used operationally for describing the location accuracy is physically meaningful: half of all the strikes were located within the uncertainty ellipse of the nearest recorded stroke. Using tree strike data thus allows not only the accuracy of the LLS to be estimated but also the reliability of the uncertainty ellipse. To our knowledge, this method has not been attempted before for natural lightning.

  1. ECONOMICS, GRIEVANCES, PROTECTWE-EMPLOYEE UNIONIZATION, AND THE 1978 MEMPHIS FIRE AND POLICE STRIKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Steven Palmer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 1978, police officers and fire fighters in Memphis, Tennessee walked off their jobs ostensibly over a salary dispute. While economics did indeed play a crucial role in the ultimate decision to strike, the walkouts were more the result of a sense of frustration among police officers and firefighters owing to their perception that the city administration had little respect for them and their unions. This paper discusses the events leading up to the 1978 Memphis fire and police strikes, the formation of unions in the Memphis police and fire departments, the political obstacles these municipal unions had to overcome, and how these strikes altered the relationship between the City of Memphis and all of its employee unions.The unionization of Memphis police and firefighters occurred not simply as part of a local or national trend, but came about due to specific grievances, controlled by local politics, influenced by national events. The 1978 strikes arose due to a breakdown in communication between a city administration that had little experience in dealing with unions, and its police officers and firefighters who had become more professional throughout the twentieth century and demanded recognition as such. Over the long term, the lessons learned from the strikes brought about a more stable relationship betweenthe City of Memphis and its municipal employees.

  2. Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Kaplan Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Dauble, Dennis D.

    2007-11-10

    Bio-indexing of hydroturbines is an important means to optimize passage conditions for fish by identifying operations for existing and new design turbines that minimize the probability of injury. Cost-effective implementation of bio-indexing requires the use of tools such as numerical and physical turbine models to generate hypotheses for turbine operations that can be tested at prototype scales using live fish. Numerical deterministic and stochastic blade strike models were developed for a 1:25-scale physical turbine model built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for the original design turbine at McNary Dam and for prototype-scale original design and replacement minimum gap runner (MGR) turbines at Bonneville Dam's first powerhouse. Blade strike probabilities predicted by both models were comparable with the overall trends in blade strike probability observed in both prototype-scale live fish survival studies and physical turbine model using neutrally buoyant beads. The predictions from the stochastic model were closer to the experimental data than the predictions from the deterministic model because the stochastic model included more realistic consideration of the aspect of fish approaching to the leading edges of turbine runner blades. Therefore, the stochastic model should be the preferred method for the prediction of blade strike and injury probability for juvenile salmon and steelhead using numerical blade-strike models.

  3. The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the constitutional right to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H J (Jaco Deacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context, and then proceeds to examine educators' right to strike as defined by the provisions of the Labour Relations Act. The unique implications of picketing in the education environment are then discussed, covering relevant questions such as where pickets may be held, the issue of picketing rules as well as unprotected pickets. Even though we are faced with a qualified right to strike as opposed to an unqualified right to education, the South African reality seems to be that striking teachers are handled with kid gloves. It is therefore concluded that the vast range of existing laws regulating protest action should be applied more effectively. One of the most important aspects should be the picketing rules, which should clearly determine whether picketing in fact contributes to resolution of the dispute, and how learners' interests and rights may best be actualised.

  4. Pulse mode operation of Love wave devices for biosensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, MI; McHale, G; Martin, F; Gizeli, E.; Melzak, KA

    2001-01-01

    In this work we present a novel pulse mode Love wave biosensor that monitors both changes in amplitude and phase. A series of concentrations of 3350 molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) solutions are used as a calibration sequence for the pulse mode system using a network analyzer and high frequency oscilloscope. The operation of the pulse mode system is then compared to the continuous wave network analyzer by showing a sequence of deposition and removal of a model mass layer of palmi...

  5. OBS records of Whale vocalizations from Lucky-strike segment of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, A.; Rai, A.; Singh, S. C.; Crawford, W. C.; Escartin, J.; Cannat, M.

    2009-12-01

    Passive seismic experiments to study seismicity require a long term deployment of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs). These instruments also record a large amount of non-seismogenic signals such as movement of large ships, air-gun shots, and marine mammal vocalizations. We report a bi-product of our passive seismic experiment (BBMOMAR) conducted around the Lucky-strike hydrothermal field of the slow-spreading mid-Atlantic ridge. Five multi-component ocean-bottom seismometers (recording two horizontal, one vertical and one pressure channel) were deployed during 2007-2008. During 13 months of deployment, abundant vocalizations of marine mammals have been recorded by all the five equipments. By analyzing the frequency content of data and their pattern of occurrence, we conclude that these low-frequency vocalizations (~20-40 Hz) typically corresponds to blue and fin-whales. These signals if not identified, could be mis-interpreted as underwater seismic/hydrothermal activity. Our data show an increase in the number of vocalizations recorded during the winter season relative to the summer. As part of the seismic monitoring of the Lucky-strike site, we anticipate to extend this study to the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 periods, after the recovery and deployment of the array during the BATHYLUCK09 cruise. Long-term and continuous records of calls of marine mammals provide valuable information that could be used to identify the species, study their seasonal behaviour and their migration paths. Our study suggestes that passive experiments such as ocean-bottom seismometers deployed at key locations, could provide useful secondary infromation about oceanic species besides recording seismicity, which is otherwise not possible without harming or interfering with their activity.

  6. Pulsed Joining Of Body-In-White Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnen, John [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this project was to develop cost efficient high quality pulsed welding (PW) technology for joining 6xxx Aluminum and High Strength Steel (with tensile strength above 580MPa) components enabling broad usage of hydroformed parts and leading to substantial weight reduction of cars and trucks to reduce US demand on petroleum, lower carbon emissions and energy expenditures. In general, pulsed welding is a form of impact welding where two dissimilar metal pieces are joined by accelerating one to velocities exceeding 300m/s at which point the first piece strikes the second and forms a weld. In this work, two methods were used to accelerate the flyer material: Electro-Magnetic (EM) pulse and Electro-Hydraulic (EH) pulse launching. The advantage of pulsed welding techniques is that welds can be formed between two materials that cannot otherwise be welded: high strength aluminum and high strength steel. The technical objectives of the project included: 1) developing cost affordable production feasible tooling design for PW of 6xxx aluminum to High Strength steel with strengths above 580MPa; 2) demonstrating that fabricated joints can exceed the required service load strength initially at the coupon level and then at the component level; 3) developing fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of joint formation and conditions leading to formation of high quality PW joint; and 4) creating a numerical model predicting the tooling and electric discharge parameters necessary for the joint formation and that satisfy the targeted strength parameters. The project successfully developed: 1) EM and EH pulsed welds between high strength aluminum with tensile strengths exceeding 240MPa and steels exceeding 580MPa; 2) pulsed welds of extrusions with strengths exceeding project requirements; 3) EM and EH flyer launch models and 4) weld interface formation models. However, the grant holder, Ford Motor Company, could see no path to commercialization and the work was

  7. Probability, consequences, and mitigation for lightning strikes of Hanford high level waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zach, J.J.

    1996-06-05

    The purpose of this report is to summarize selected lightning issues concerning the Hanford Waste Tanks. These issues include the probability of a lightning discharge striking the area immediately adjacent to a tank including a riser, the consequences of significant energy deposition from a lightning strike in a tank, and mitigating actions that have been or are being taken. The major conclusion of this report is that the probability of a lightning strike deposition sufficient energy in a tank to cause an effect on employees or the public is unlikely;but there are insufficient, quantitative data on the tanks and waste to prove that. Protection, such as grounding of risers and air terminals on existing light poles, is recommended.

  8. Probability, consequences, and mitigation for lightning strikes to Hanford site high-level waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zach, J.J.

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize selected lightning issues concerning the Hanford Waste Tanks. These issues include the probability of lightning discharge striking the area immediately adjacent to a tank including a riser, the consequences of significant energy deposition from a lightning strike in a tank, and mitigating actions that have been or are being taken. The major conclusion of this report is that the probability of a lightning strike depositing sufficient energy in a tank to cause an effect on employees or the public is unlikely;but there are insufficient, quantitative data on the tanks and waste to prove that. Protection, such as grounding of risers and air terminals on existing light poles, is recommended.

  9. Practice Makes Perfect?: The Changing Civilian Toll of CIA Drone Strikes in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Plaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available U.S. officials have recently claimed that the CIA has sharply reduced the number of civilian casualties resulting from covert Predator and Reaper drone strikes in the Taliban-controlled agencies of Northwest Pakistan. Critics, especially in Pakistan, along with human rights NGOs have, however, questioned these claims. This article examines independent databases tracking the drone strikes and finds that there is significant support for the U.S. officials’ claims, or at least for their more moderate assertions. It also briefly reviews the explanations that have been offered for the declining civilian death toll from drone strikes. It shows that there is reason to believe that this development is the deliberate result of adjustments to CIA targeting procedures and improvements in spy networks and technology, and thus is likely to prove broadly sustainable at least for the immediate future.

  10. Evaluation of blade-strike models for estimating the biological performance of large Kaplan hydro turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ploskey, G. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Bio-indexing of hydro turbines has been identified as an important means to optimize passage conditions for fish by identifying operations for existing and new design turbines that minimize the probability of injury. Cost-effective implementation of bio-indexing requires the use of tools such as numerical and physical turbine models to generate hypotheses for turbine operations that can be tested at prototype scales using live fish. Blade strike has been proposed as an index variable for the biological performance of turbines. Report reviews an evaluation of the use of numerical blade-strike models as a means with which to predict the probability of blade strike and injury of juvenile salmon smolt passing through large Kaplan turbines on the mainstem Columbia River.

  11. Effect of lightning strike on bromine intercalated graphite fiber/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Slabe, Melissa E.; Brink, Norman O.

    1991-01-01

    Laminar composites were fabricated from pristine and bromine intercalated pitch based graphite fibers. It was found that laminar composites could be fabricated using either pristine or intercalated graphite fibers using standard fabrication techniques. The intercalated graphite fiber composites had electrical properties which were markedly improved over both the corresponding pitch based and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based composites. Despite composites resistivities more than an order of magnitude lower for pitch based fiber composites, the lightning strike resistance was poorer than that of the Pan based fiber composites. This leads to the conclusion that the mechanical properties of the pitch fibers are more important than electrical or thermal properties in determining the lightning strike resistance. Based on indicated lightning strike tolerance for high elongation to failure materials, the use of vapor grown, rather than pitch based graphite fibers appears promising.

  12. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF STRIKE OF PISTON TO CYLINDER UNDER SUPERCHARGE CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余志壮; 宋正华; 董光能; 谢友柏

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes to the strike extent of piston to cylinder after engine supercharge design. Methods The lubrication model between the skirt of piston and liner is established by means of piston dynamics, combined with the hydrodynamic lubrication equation. Optimized numerical analysis method is employed in solving the dynamics and lubrication equations. The analyses about piston strike under two combustion gas pressures are performed. Results The peak values of maximum eccentricity under supercharge condition are much greater than under non-supercharge condition, which means a stronger impulsion of piston to cylinder wall and a greater possibility of scuffing. The horizontal velocities of piston in supercharge condition are larger, which illuminate the more unstable motion state. Conclusion The analysis gives a new conclusion. Combustion gas pressure plays an important role in the piston strike motion. Influences of supercharge should be taken into account so that the traditional product test items can be improved.

  13. [Lightning strikes and lightning injuries in prehospital emergency medicine. Relevance, results, and practical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A

    2013-01-01

    Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with lightning injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a lightning strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A lightning strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and lightning injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a lightning strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with lightning injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible lightning.

  14. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  15. An explanation of trans-ionospheric pulse pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, H -C

    2016-01-01

    Trans-ionospheric pulse pairs are the most powerful natural radio signals on the Earth and associated with lightning. They have been discovered for two decades by satellites, but their origin still remains elusive. Here we attribute these radio signals to relativistic electrons produced by cloud-to-ground lightning. When these electrons strike the ground, radio bursts are emitted towards space in a narrow cone. This model naturally explains the interval, duration, polarization, coherence and bimodal feature of the pulse pairs. Based on electron parameters inferred from x-ray observation of lightning, the calculated signal intensity agrees with the measurement of satellites. Our results are useful to develop global warning system of storms and hurricane based on GPS satellites.

  16. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well define...

  17. Topographic Evolution of the Eastern Alps. The Influence of Strike-Slip Faulting Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Bartosch, Thorsten; Robl, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    We present results of a numerical model that is used to investigate aspects of the landscape evolution of the Eastern European Alps in the Miocene. The model allows the consideration of strike-slip faulting - an inherent feature of the Miocene tectonics - within a viscous medium. Mechanical deformation is coupled with a landscape evolution model to describe surface processes. For the input variables, the activity history of strike-slip faulting in the Eastern Alps is compiled from literature sources. The results present a major improvement in the predicted topographic development over earlier models in terms of the location and build-up of valleys and mountain ranges that form in response to the strike-slip faulting activity. Intra-montane basin formation is predicted and the metamorphic dome of the Tauern Window evolves dynamically in the simulations, related to well-known east-west striking strike-slip faults in the region. Interestingly, the metamorphic dome formation is predicted by the model without explicit consideration of the low-angle detachments bounding the dome in the west and east, suggesting that metamorphic domes need not form in extensional environments. The model under-predicts the mean elevation of the Eastern Alps by several hundreds of meters, which is interpreted in terms of an independent non-convergence related event of the last 5 My, that has been inferred previously from other field data. Time series analysis of elevations reveals a clear correlation between maximum height and the amount of strike-slip activity and a nonequilibrium state between uplift and erosion. We interpret this in terms of for future topographical growth of the Eastern Alps. This interpretation is consistent with slope-elevation statistics of both model and field oberservation.

  18. Ankle and knee kinetics between strike patterns at common training speeds in competitive male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhman, Daniel; Melcher, Daniel; Paquette, Max R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of foot strike and common speeds on sagittal plane ankle and knee joint kinetics in competitive rear foot strike (RFS) runners when running with a RFS pattern and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) pattern. Sixteen competitive habitual male RFS runners ran at two different speeds (i.e. 8 and 6 min mile(-1)) using their habitual RFS and an imposed FFS pattern. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess a potential interaction between strike pattern and speed for selected ground reaction force (GRF) variables and, sagittal plane ankle and knee kinematic and kinetic variables. No foot strike and speed interaction was observed for any of the kinetic variables. Habitual RFS yielded a greater loading rate of the vertical GRF, peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak knee eccentric extensor power, peak dorsiflexion and sagittal plane knee range of motion compared to imposed FFS. Imposed FFS yielded greater maximum vertical GRF, peak ankle plantarflexor moment, peak ankle eccentric plantarflexor power and sagittal plane ankle ROM compared to habitual RFS. Consistent with previous literature, imposed FFS in habitual RFS reduces eccentric knee extensor and ankle dorsiflexor involvement but produce greater eccentric ankle plantarflexor action compared to RFS. These acute differences between strike patterns were independent of running speeds equivalent to typical easy and hard training runs in competitive male runners. Current findings along with previous literature suggest differences in lower extremity kinetics between habitual RFS and imposed FFS running are consistent among a variety of runner populations.

  19. Discharge pulse phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model was developed which places radiation induced discharge pulse results into a unified conceptual framework. Only two phenomena are required to interpret all space and laboratory results: (1) radiation produces large electrostatic fields inside insulators via the trapping of a net space charge density; and (2) the electrostatic fields initiate discharge streamer plasmas similar to those investigated in high voltage electrical insulation materials; these streamer plasmas generate the pulsing phenomena. The apparent variability and diversity of results seen is an inherent feature of the plasma streamer mechanism acting in the electric fields which is created by irradiation of the dielectrics. The implications of the model are extensive and lead to constraints over what can be done about spacecraft pulsing.

  20. Pulsed ELDOR detected NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schosseler, P.; Wacker, Th.; Schweiger, A.

    1994-07-01

    A pulsed EPR method for the determination of small hyperfine interactions in disordered systems is described. A selective preparation pulse of frequency ω mw(1) excites allowed and forbidden transitions, thereby burning spectral holes into the EPR line. The positions of the holes caused by the excitation of forbidden transitions correspond to the nuclear transition frequencies of the spin system. A selective detection pulse of frequency ω mw(2) creates an FID with integrated intensity proportional to the magnetization at frequency ω mw(2). The entire hole pattern is obtained by recording the integrated intensity of the FID while varying the frequency difference Δω mw=ω mw(1)-ω mw(2) step by step.

  1. Herophilus on pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonasin, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first detailed study of the pulse (sphygmology is associated in antiquity with Herophilus (the end of the 4th century BCE, an Alexandrian physician, renowned for his anatomical discoveries. The scholars also attribute to him a discovery of a portable and adjustable water-clock, used for measuring ‘natural’ and ‘unnatural’ pulse and, accordingly, temperature of the patient. In the article we translate the principal ancient evidences and comment upon them. We study both the practical aspects of ancient sphygmology and the theoretical speculations associated with it. Ancient theory of proportion and musical harmony allowed to build a classification of the pulses, but the medical experience did not fit well in the Procrustean bed of this rather simple theory.

  2. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umebidai Kidugawa Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Applied Laser Technology Institute, Tsuruga Head Office, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 65-20 Kizaki Tsuruga Fukui 914-8585 (Japan); Technical Research and Development Institute, Kumagai Gumi Co., Ltd., 2-1 Tsukudo, Shinjuku Tokyo 162-8557 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  3. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi

    2012-07-01

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  4. Pulse Indicator Continuous Cardiac Output for Hemodynamics Monitoring in Patients with Septic Shock%脉搏指示连续心排血量监测(PiCCO)在脓毒症休克患者血流动力学监测中的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze patients with septic shock pulse wave indicates continuous cardiac output monitoring (Picco) clinical value, to provide a reference for future clinical use. Methods January 2013—2014 in March during outpatient sep-sis patients admitted to 40 cases for the study, depending on the admission of hemodynamic monitoring methods divided into two groups, the study group and the control group 20 cases. Two were used for routine monitoring (control group), Picco monitoring (study group) to guide clinical treatment (fluid resuscitation, inotropic drugs, vasoconstrictor drugs, etc.). Results The mean arterial pressure in the two groups of patients after treatment of the initial value and compare, P 0.05). Conclusion Picco be monitored in patients with septic shock hemodynamic parameters with good results, it is worth further study in late.%目的:观察脓毒症休克患者采用脉波指示连续心排血量监测(PiCCO)的效果,并分析其临床应用价值。方法将医院2012年1月—2014年3月期间门诊收入的脓毒症50例患者选为研究对象,按照患者就诊时血动力指标的监测方式不同分成两组:研究组25例,对照组25例。两组分别采用常规监测(对照组)、PiCCO监测(研究组)指导临床治疗(液体复苏、正性肌力药物、血管收缩药物等)。结果两组患者的平均动脉压在初始值比较(P<0.01);研究组患者入院3 d内不同时点GEDI、PPV、SVV检测值比较,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。组间在去甲肾上腺素和就诊1周输液量比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论脓毒症休克患者予以PiCCO监测血流动力学指标具有良好效果,值得在后期进一步研究。

  5. Pulsed Artificial Electrojet Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2008-12-01

    Traditional techniques for generating low frequency signals in the ULF/ELF range (.1-100 Hz) and rely on ground based Horizontal Electric Dipole (HED) antennas. It is, furthermore, well known that a Vertical Electric Dipole (VED) is by more than 50 dB more efficient than a HED with the same dipole current moment. However, the prohibitively long length of VED antennas in the ELF/ULF range coupled with voltage limitations due to corona discharge in the atmosphere make them totally impracticable. In this paper we discuss a novel concept, inspired by the physics of the equatorial electrojet, that allows for the conversion of a ground based HED to a VED in the E-region of the equatorial ionosphere with current moment comparable to the driving HED. The paper focuses in locations near the dip-equator, where the earth's magnetic is in predominantly in the horizontal direction. The horizontal electric field associated with a pulsed HED drives a large Hall current in the ionospheric E-region, resulting in a vertical current. It is shown that the pulsed vertical current in the altitude range 80-130 km, driven by a horizontal electric field of, approximately, .1 mV/m at 100 km altitude, is of the order of kA. This results in a pulsed VED larger than 106 A-m. Such a pulsed VED will drive ELF/ULF pulses with amplitude in excess of .1 nT at a lateral range larger than few hundred kilometers. This is by three orders of magnitude larger than the one expected by a HED with comparable current moment. The paper will conclude with the description of a sneak-through technique that allows for creating pulsed electric fields in the ionosphere much larger than expected from steady state oscillatory HED antennas.

  6. Two pulse recoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneja, Navin; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-08-01

    The paper describes a family of novel recoupling pulse sequences in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR, called two pulse recoupling. These pulse sequences can be employed for both homonuclear and heteronuclear recoupling experiments and are robust to dispersion in chemical shifts and rf-inhomogeneity. The homonuclear pulse sequence consists of a building block (π)ϕ(π) - ϕ where ϕ =π/4n, and n is number of blocks in a rotor period. The recoupling block is made robust to rf-inhomogeneity by extending it to (π)ϕ(π) - ϕ(π) π + ϕ(π) π - ϕ . The heteronuclear recoupling pulse sequence consists of a building block (π)ϕ1(π)-ϕ1 and (π)ϕ2(π)-ϕ2 on channel I and S, where ϕ1 = 3π/8n, ϕ2 = π/8n and n is number of blocks in a rotor period. The recoupling block is made robust to rf-inhomogeneity by extending it to (π)ϕ1(π)-ϕ1(π) π +ϕ1(π) π -ϕ1 and (π)ϕ2(π)-ϕ2(π) π +ϕ2(π) π -ϕ2 on two channels respectively. The recoupling pulse sequences mix the z magnetization. Experimental quantification of this method is shown for 13Cα-13CO homonuclear recoupling in a sample of Glycine and 15N-13Cα heteronuclear recoupling in Alanine. Application of this method is demonstrated on a sample of tripeptide N-formyl-[U-13C,15N]-Met-Leu-Phe-OH (MLF). Compared to R-sequences (Levitt, 2002), these sequences are more robust to rf-inhomogeneity and give better sensitivity, as shown in Fig. 3.

  7. Examination of Height of Transmission Line and Lightning Striking Distance concerning Lightning Shielding Effect Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Sekioka, Shozo; Yokoyama, Shigeru

    We examined the lightning frequency reported by Eriksson and the lightning current distribution shown in IEC 62305-1. The lightning striking coefficient is assumed to be related to height of structures. The lightning current distribution to ground which was applicable to the electro-geometric model is estimated. Using the assumption of lightning striking distance coefficient and the estimated lightning current distribution, we calculated the lightning frequency and the lightning current distribution, concerning lightning shielding effect in transmission lines. The calculation results of the lightning frequency and the lightning current distributions were compared with the observation results, and agree satisfactorily with them.

  8. Research on Line Patrol Strategy of 110kV Transmission Line after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning faults occupy in the majority of instantaneous fault and reclosing can usually be successful, so power supply can be restored without immediate patrol in many cases. Firstly, this paper introduces the lightning fault positioning and identifying method. Then test electrical performance of insulators after lightning strike from 110kV lines. Data shows that lightning strike has little effect on the electric performance of insulator. Finally, illustrating disposal process of the 110 kV transmission line after lightning fault, certifying that the power supply reliability be ensured without line patrol.

  9. Rapid Prediction of Damage to Struck and Striking Vessels in a Collision Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    solutions for the structural behaviour of this assembly under deep collapse. By suming up the crushing force of each super-element, it is possible to determine the total contact load between the two involved ships.A number of parameter studies are presented where the sensitivity of the damage to the loading...... conditions and striking positions are illustrated. Furthermore, the difference between longitudinal and transverse bow stiffening has been examined. Transversely stiffened bows are shown to be significantly softer than longitudinally stiffened bows.Thirty collision events with five different striking vessels...

  10. Vådområder, flyvepladser og risiko for bird strikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Hounisen, Jens Peder

    2015-01-01

    Rapporten udgør en opdatering af Teknisk anvisning nr. 23 fra DMU (Christensen & Hounisen 2006), omhandlende risikovurdering for bird strikes (kollisioner mellem fugle og fly) i danske lufthavne ved etablering af vådområder nær disse. Rapporten analyserer relationen mellem ændrede forekomster af...... søer og enge/moser indenfor lufthavnenes sikkerhedszoner på 13 km og forekomsten af bird strikes i perioden 2006-2013. Anbefalinger til placering og størrelse af vådområder i lufthavnenes sikkerhedszoner er opdateret på baggrund af rapportens resultater....

  11. Vådområder, flyvepladser og risiko for bird strikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Hounisen, Jens Peder

    2015-01-01

    Rapporten udgør en opdatering af Teknisk anvisning nr. 23 fra DMU (Christensen & Hounisen 2006), omhandlende risikovurdering for bird strikes (kollisioner mellem fugle og fly) i danske lufthavne ved etablering af vådområder nær disse. Rapporten analyserer relationen mellem ændrede forekomster af...... søer og enge/moser indenfor lufthavnenes sikkerhedszoner på 13 km og forekomsten af bird strikes i perioden 2006-2013. Anbefalinger til placering og størrelse af vådområder i lufthavnenes sikkerhedszoner er opdateret på baggrund af rapportens resultater....

  12. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  13. Pulsed Electron Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Germann, Matthias; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2013-01-01

    A technique of pulsed low-energy electron holography is introduced that allows for recording highly resolved holograms within reduced exposure times. Therefore, stacks of holograms are accumulated in a pulsed mode with individual acquisition times as short as 50 {\\mu}s. Subsequently, these holograms are aligned and finally superimposed. The resulting holographic record reveals previously latent high-order interference fringes and thereby pushing interference resolution into the sub-nanometer regime. In view of the non-damaging character of low-energy electrons, the method is of particular interest for structural analysis of fragile biomolecules.

  14. Bedload pulses in a hydropower affected alpine gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Johann; Kreisler, Andrea; Rindler, Rolf; Hauer, Christoph; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the sediment resupply and transport dynamics at the Upper Drau River upstream of Lienz (Eastern Tyrol, Austria). Due to a hydropower plant, a 24 km long river reach of this alpine gravel bed river is under residual flow conditions, although sediment is still resupplied into the reach through many active torrents and tributaries. As a result, sediment deposition in the residual flow reach intensified, hence increasing maintenance efforts to stabilize this river section and ensure flood protection. In combination with a new sediment management program, a continuous bedload monitoring system was installed 2 km downstream of the residual reach in 2001 to support the development of adapted sediment management strategies. The surrogate bedload monitoring system consists of 16 impact plate geophones, installed over a 17 m wide cross section. The unprecedented 15-year dataset of high-resolution bedload intensity revealed a complex process of gravel storage and intermittent resupply from the residual reach, allowing the authors a detailed analysis of frequently occurring bedload pulses. These transport features are triggered by increased discharges during floods in the residual reach and created pronounced anticlockwise bedload hysteresis or, with a temporal shift to the event peak, caused distinct shifts in the bedload activity downstream. Bedload pulses produce very high bedload fluxes while in transit, tend to increase bedload flux in the post-event phase, and can alter and reduce the upstream sediment storage leading to a lowering of bedload availability for future pulses. The observed time lags between main discharge events and the arrival of the macro-pulses are correlated with mean water discharge during pulse propagation, thus enabling a prediction of the pulse arrival at the monitoring station solely based on the hydrograph. In combination with the hydrological setup of the reach, the observed bedload pulse time lags allowed an estimation of

  15. [Accuracy of a pulse oximeter during hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, C; Fukada, T; Hasegawa, R; Satoh, K; Furuya, Y; Ohe, Y

    1996-04-01

    The accuracy of the pulse oximeter was examined in hypoxic patients. We studied 11 cyanotic congenital heart disease patients during surgery, and compared the arterial oxygen saturation determined by both the simultaneous blood gas analysis (CIBA-CORNING 288 BLOOD GAS SYSTEM, SaO2) and by the pulse oximeter (DATEX SATELITE, with finger probe, SpO2). Ninty sets of data on SpO2 and SaO2 were obtained. The bias (SpO2-SaO2) was 1.7 +/- 6.9 (mean +/- SD) %. In cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, SpO2 values were significantly higher than SaO2. Although the reason is unknown, in constantly hypoxic patients, SpO2 values are possibly over-estimated. In particular, pulse oximetry at low levels of saturation (SaO2 below 80%) was not as accurate as at a higher saturation level (SaO2 over 80%). There was a positive correlation between SpO2 and SaO2 (linear regression analysis yields the equation y = 0.68x + 26.0, r = 0.93). In conclusion, the pulse oximeter is useful to monitor oxygen saturation in constantly hypoxic patients, but the values thus obtained should be compared with the values measured directly when hypoxemia is severe.

  16. SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David O; Grunewald, Elliot D

    2013-11-12

    Technologies applicable to SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling are disclosed, including SNMR acquisition apparatus and methods, SNMR processing apparatus and methods, and combinations thereof. SNMR acquisition may include transmitting two or more SNMR pulse sequences and applying a phase shift to a pulse in at least one of the pulse sequences, according to any of a variety cycling techniques. SNMR processing may include combining SNMR from a plurality of pulse sequences comprising pulses of different phases, so that desired signals are preserved and indesired signals are canceled.

  17. Power Transformer Intelligence Monitor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jianshe; Shi Lei

    2006-01-01

    An auto-monitoring system has been created that could monitor the main parameter of power transformers. It reads data of V&I by precision rectifier circuit and amplifier, and converted electric energy into pulse signal by means of sensor technique and pulse converter circuit, it is sent into microcomputer to process, completed monitoring to power transformer parameters and running state by software system. It can register all kinds of key data, and provide all kinds of virtual technical data for managing sections and can auto-form all kinds of electric annual reports and monthly reports analysis graphs such as managing graphs. It notably improves the safety and reliability of transformer, with strong anti-jamming technique and unique function, it can be used on the transformers in railway' s self-closing lines and all kinds of transformer stations.

  18. Pulse distortion in single-mode fibers. 3: Chirped pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuse, D

    1981-10-15

    The theory of pulse distortion in single-mode fibers is extended to include laser sources that suffer a linear wavelength sweep (chirp) during the duration of the pulse. The transmitted pulse is expressed as a Fourier integral whose spectral function is given by an analytical expression in closed form. The rms width of the transmitted pulse is also expressed in closed form. Numerical examples illustrate the influence of the chirp on the shape and rms width of the pulse. A somewhat paradoxical situation exists. A given input pulse can be made arbitrarily short by a sufficiently large amount of chirping, and, after a given fiber length, this chirped pulse returns to its original width. But at this particular distance an unchirped pulse would be only [equiation] times longer. Thus chirping can improve the rate of data transmission by only 40%.

  19. Solid-state pulse forming module with adjustable pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Langning; Liu, Jinliang; Qiu, Yongfeng; Chu, Xu; Zhang, Qingmeng

    2017-03-01

    A new solid-state pulse forming module is described in this paper. The pulse forming module is fabricated on a glass ceramic substrate, with the dimension of 250 mm × 95 mm × 4 mm. By changing the copper strips used in the pulse forming modules, the pulse duration of the obtained pulsed can range from 80 ns to 140 ns. Both the simulation and tests show that the pulse forming module has a good pulse forming ability. Under a high voltage in microsecond's time, the new pulse forming modules can hold off a voltage up to 25 kV higher than that of the previous study. In addition, future optimization for the field enhancement near the thin electrode edge has been proposed and simulated.

  20. Non-volcanic tremor in Cascadia: Segmented along strike, anti-correlated with earthquakes, and offset from the locked zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarko, D. C.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Allen, R. M.; Porritt, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the spatial and temporal correlation of slow slip events monitored by GPS observations and non-volcanic tremor (NVT) monitored by seismic signals, is a recently discovered type of deformation thought to occur immediately down-dip from the seismogenic zone along several subduction margins. Owing to the wealth of geodetic and seismic observatories in Washington and Vancouver Island, ETS in northern Cascadia has been the subject of numerous studies over the last half-decade, while the rest of the margin has received considerably less attention. We will present a comprehensive review of tremor activity along the southern Cascadia margin between 2005 and 2007 using both semi-automated and fully-automated source location routines. We will also utilize the fully-automated routine to expand the scope to include the entire Cascadia margin and episodes after 2007, including the great 2008 ETS episode which spans nearly the entire length of the margin. The along-strike length of activity of an individual episode varies between 30 to 900 km, evolving in a very complex manner with periods of steady and halting migration and frequent along-strike jumps (30-600 km). The initiation and termination points of laterally-continuous tremor activity appear to be repeatable features between NVT episodes which support the hypothesis of segmentation within the ETS zone. The distribution of tremor epicenters occur within a narrow band confined by the surface projections of the 30 and 40 km contours of the subducting plate interface. We find the tremor zone is spatially offset by as much as 50 km down-dip from the thermally- and geodetically-defined transition zone, which may decrease the efficiency of stress transmission and slip propagation during either transient or seismogenic deformation episodes. Intriguingly, NVT activity is spatially anti-correlated with local seismicity, suggesting the two processes occur mutually exclusive of one another. We propose

  1. Ultrafast optomechanical pulse picking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfein, Nikolai; Holzberger, Simon; Pupeza, Ioachim

    2017-01-01

    State-of-the-art optical switches for coupling pulses into and/or out of resonators are based on either the electro-optic or the acousto-optic effect in transmissive elements. In high-power applications, the damage threshold and other nonlinear and thermal effects in these elements impede further improvements in pulse energy, duration, and average power. We propose a new optomechanical switching concept which is based solely on reflective elements and is suitable for switching times down to the ten-nanosecond range. To this end, an isolated section of a beam path is moved in a system comprising mirrors rotating at a high angular velocity and stationary imaging mirrors, without affecting the propagation of the beam thereafter. We discuss three variants of the concept and exemplify practical parameters for its application in regenerative amplifiers and stack-and-dump enhancement cavities. We find that optomechanical pulse picking has the potential to achieve switching rates of up to a few tens of kilohertz while supporting pulse energies of up to several joules.

  2. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  3. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  4. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  5. Time Out: The Viewing Experience and Reactions to the 1987 NFL Players' Strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James R.

    The 1987 NFL players' strike provided an opportunity to evaluate the importance of media gratification and viewing involvement in the development of audience reactions to a major sports labor conflict that produced gratification denial. Two groups of viewers of professional football--183 adult males in the Memphis, Tennessee area, interviewed by…

  6. The Student Strike at the National Autonomous University of Mexico: A Political Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Robert A.; Mina, Liliana

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes political tensions related to student strikes at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), 1998-2000, which were sparked by proposed tuition fees. Discusses conflict between social justice sentiments focused on free and egalitarian access to higher education versus market-driven views promoting selective, competitive higher…

  7. Data Citation and Availability: Striking a Balance Between the Ideal and the Practical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapgood, Mike; Knipp, Delores J.; Knipp

    2016-11-01

    This editorial explores some of the challenges that arise when the space weather community seeks to implement AGU data policy. It shows that many important space weather data sets are hard to cite to modern standards and encourages community discussion on how best to strike a balance between the ideals of that data policy and its practical implementation.

  8. Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.

  9. Making inference from wildlife collision data: inferring predator absence from prey strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosack, Geoffrey R.; Barry, Simon C.

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife collision data are ubiquitous, though challenging for making ecological inference due to typically irreducible uncertainty relating to the sampling process. We illustrate a new approach that is useful for generating inference from predator data arising from wildlife collisions. By simply conditioning on a second prey species sampled via the same collision process, and by using a biologically realistic numerical response functions, we can produce a coherent numerical response relationship between predator and prey. This relationship can then be used to make inference on the population size of the predator species, including the probability of extinction. The statistical conditioning enables us to account for unmeasured variation in factors influencing the runway strike incidence for individual airports and to enable valid comparisons. A practical application of the approach for testing hypotheses about the distribution and abundance of a predator species is illustrated using the hypothesized red fox incursion into Tasmania, Australia. We estimate that conditional on the numerical response between fox and lagomorph runway strikes on mainland Australia, the predictive probability of observing no runway strikes of foxes in Tasmania after observing 15 lagomorph strikes is 0.001. We conclude there is enough evidence to safely reject the null hypothesis that there is a widespread red fox population in Tasmania at a population density consistent with prey availability. The method is novel and has potential wider application. PMID:28243534

  10. Transactions after 9/11: the banal face of the preemptive strike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amoore, L.; de Goede, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the deployment of transactions data of many kinds has become the banal face of the war on terror's preemptive strike. Because the failure to predict and prevent 9/11 is partly thought to be a failure to 'connect the dots' of available intelligence, post 9/11 policies seek to r

  11. Electromiographic and kinematic characteristics of Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, O P; Magini, Marcio

    2008-12-01

    A kinematic and electromyographic analysis of Kung Fu (KF) Yau-Man palm strikes without impact is presented. An empirical model applied to data obtained by a high-speed camera describes the kinematic characteristics of the movement. The electromyographic patterns of the biceps brachii, brachioradialis and triceps brachii muscles were studied during the strike in the time (root mean square) and frequency (wavelet transform) domains. Eight KF practitioners participated in the investigation. A wooden board was placed in front of the subjects, and they were asked to perform the strike imagining a target above the board. The results show that the Yau-Man KF palm strike has very similar kinematic characteristics to a simple moderate speed elbow extension movement. All practitioners positioned themselves in relation to the wooden board in a way to achieve their highest hand speeds in the instant their hands crossed the board. The analyses of the electromyography data shows a well developed muscle coordination of the practitioners in agreement with kinematic results. The results of this paper are important not only for improving the performance of practitioners but also to demonstrate the applicability of KF in the process of motor control development.

  12. 20 CFR 655.733 - What is the third LCA requirement, regarding strikes and lockouts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the third LCA requirement, regarding... Visas in Specialty Occupations § 655.733 What is the third LCA requirement, regarding strikes and... the validity period of the LCA....

  13. A numerical model for bird strike on sidewall structure of an aircraft nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the potential of using the coupled smooth particles hydrodynamic (SPH and finite element (FE method to predict the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in bird strike events, bird-strike tests on the sidewall structure of an aircraft nose are carried out and numerically simulated. The bird is modeled with SPH and described by the Murnaghan equation of state, while the structure is modeled with finite elements. A coupled SPH–FE method is developed to simulate the bird-strike tests and a numerical model is established using a commercial software PAM-CRASH. The bird model shows no signs of instability and correctly modeled the break-up of the bird into particles. Finally the dynamic response such as strains in the skin is simulated and compared with test results, and the simulated deformation and fracture process of the sidewall structure is compared with images recorded by a high speed camera. Good agreement between the simulation results and test data indicates that the coupled SPH–FE method can provide a very powerful tool in predicting the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in events of bird strike.

  14. Penarroya a strike-slip controlled basin of early Westphalian age in Southwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.H. (Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain))

    1999-01-01

    The sedimentary and tectonic history is discussed of the Penarroya-Belmez-Espiel Coalfield in the province of Cordoba, Sierra Morena, SW Spain. This is an elongate, narrow intramontane basin, the Penarroya Basin, which formed as a result of strike-slip movements on a possible transform fault immediately NE of the Badajoz-Cordoba shear zone. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Penarroya a strike-slip controlled basin of early Westphalian age in Southwest Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.H. [Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    The sedimentary and tectonic history is discussed of the Penarroya-Belmez-Espiel Coalfield in the province of Cordoba, Sierra Morena, SW Spain. This is an elongate, narrow intramontane basin, the Penarroya Basin, which formed as a result of strike-slip movements on a possible transform fault immediately NE of the Badajoz-Cordoba shear zone. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Foot strike patterns and hind limb joint angles during running in Hadza hunter-gatherers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Pontzer

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Unlike other habitually barefoot populations which prefer FFS while running, Hadza men preferred MFS, and Hadza women and juveniles preferred RFS. Sex and age differences in foot strike behavior among Hadza adults may reflect differences in running experience, with men learning to prefer MFS as they accumulate more running experience.

  17. Agreement reached at Unilever after three-week strike over plant closures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2008-01-01

    In mid October 2007, staff at the Unilever plant in the Netherlands went on strike for over three weeks in protest against the group’s plan to close three of the country’s six Unilever plants. The trade unions believe that the closures are unnecessary and are calling for job guarantees for employees

  18. Why Teach a 100-Year-Old Strike?: The "Bread and Roses" Centenary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Norm

    2012-01-01

    Today's movement in support of the 99 percent is a reminder that throughout U.S. history, a major engine of change has been grass-roots organizing and solidarity. Major history textbooks, however, downplay the role of ordinary people in shaping events--especially those who formed labor unions and used the strike to assert their rights. One of the…

  19. Airport operator and aircraft operator in case of bird strike. Relations, obligations and liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia KACZYŃSKA-ADAMCZYK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air transport is subject to various risks. One of them is bird strike hazard. Despite numerous regulations concerning prevention from this type of occurrence, it is not possible to eliminate them entirely.Bird strikes most often take place during take-off and landing, that is on or in the vicinity of an airport. For that reason airport operators are the first parties that can be made accountable for this occurence. International law imposes numerous responsibilities on airport operators in terms of bird strike hazard prevention on air operations, thus placing airport operators in a “key position” in the system of safety. However, the party that suffers significant damages in the first instance, is the aircraft operator. If a bird strike takes place on or in the vicinity of an airport, an aicraft operator can sue the airport operator for compensation of damages. Generally, the issue of indemnity is subject to out of court negotiations, however instances in which there is a lack of agreement between the parties, i.e. airport operator, aircraft operator or their insurers, lead to legal proceedings for compensation.This article attempts to illustrate the relationship between air traffic participants such as airport operators and aircraft operators in connection with their obligations and liability, particulary taking into account the legal obligations of an airport operator.

  20. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  1. Changes in Kicking Pattern: Effect of Experience, Speed, Accuracy, and Effective Striking Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to…

  2. The Danger of Selectively Changing the Rules in Youth Sport: The Case of the Strike Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Cesar R.

    2010-01-01

    Albeit well-intentioned, the practice of selectively changing the strike zone to promote young players' welfare is critically flawed. After discussing the central purpose of competitive sport, the duty of officials, and the significance of impartiality in officiating, this article demonstrates that this practice presents numerous practical…

  3. A numerical model for bird strike on sidewall structure of an aircraft nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jun; Li Yulong; Gao Xiaosheng; Yu Xiancheng

    2014-01-01

    In order to examine the potential of using the coupled smooth particles hydrodynamic (SPH) and finite element (FE) method to predict the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in bird strike events, bird-strike tests on the sidewall structure of an aircraft nose are carried out and numerically simulated. The bird is modeled with SPH and described by the Murnaghan equation of state, while the structure is modeled with finite elements. A coupled SPH-FE method is developed to simulate the bird-strike tests and a numerical model is established using a commercial software PAM-CRASH. The bird model shows no signs of instability and correctly modeled the break-up of the bird into particles. Finally the dynamic response such as strains in the skin is simulated and compared with test results, and the simulated deformation and fracture process of the sidewall structure is compared with images recorded by a high speed camera. Good agreement between the simulation results and test data indicates that the coupled SPH-FE method can provide a very powerful tool in predicting the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in events of bird strike.

  4. Trade Space Study for the Performance of Hard Armor Versus Threat Striking Velocity at Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-15/025 TRADE SPACE STUDY FOR...official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of trade names in this report does not...September 2013 – September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRADE SPACE STUDY FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF HARD ARMOR VERSUS THREAT STRIKING VELOCITY AT RANGE 5a

  5. The Media and Teachers' Strikes: NSW 1981. ATF Research Papers. Issue Number Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rob

    An analysis is presented of the media and public reaction to a strike by state school teachers in New South Wales in 1981. It is pointed out that the media, intentionally and/or unintentionally, provided a biased view of teacher-related issues, which operated at an ideological level against the immediate and long-term interests of teachers.…

  6. 29 CFR 901.5 - Agreement to refrain from strike or lockout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 901.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY COLLECTIVE BARGAINING COMMISSION POLICY STATEMENT ON COLLECTIVE BARGAINING DISPUTES AND APPLICABLE PROCEDURES § 901.5 Agreement to refrain from strike or lockout. As part of its conditions for entering the dispute, the Commission may...

  7. Agreement reached at Unilever after three-week strike over plant closures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grünell

    2008-01-01

    In mid October 2007, staff at the Unilever plant in the Netherlands went on strike for over three weeks in protest against the group’s plan to close three of the country’s six Unilever plants. The trade unions believe that the closures are unnecessary and are calling for job guarantees for employees

  8. Making inference from wildlife collision data: inferring predator absence from prey strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Caley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife collision data are ubiquitous, though challenging for making ecological inference due to typically irreducible uncertainty relating to the sampling process. We illustrate a new approach that is useful for generating inference from predator data arising from wildlife collisions. By simply conditioning on a second prey species sampled via the same collision process, and by using a biologically realistic numerical response functions, we can produce a coherent numerical response relationship between predator and prey. This relationship can then be used to make inference on the population size of the predator species, including the probability of extinction. The statistical conditioning enables us to account for unmeasured variation in factors influencing the runway strike incidence for individual airports and to enable valid comparisons. A practical application of the approach for testing hypotheses about the distribution and abundance of a predator species is illustrated using the hypothesized red fox incursion into Tasmania, Australia. We estimate that conditional on the numerical response between fox and lagomorph runway strikes on mainland Australia, the predictive probability of observing no runway strikes of foxes in Tasmania after observing 15 lagomorph strikes is 0.001. We conclude there is enough evidence to safely reject the null hypothesis that there is a widespread red fox population in Tasmania at a population density consistent with prey availability. The method is novel and has potential wider application.

  9. Does Three Strikes Really Deter? A Statistical Analysis of Its Impact on Crime Rates in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John; Datta, Anusua

    2009-01-01

    This study uses California crime statistics for the years 1984-2004, to determine what effect, if any, the increased sentencing standards under the three-strikes legislation in California have had in deterring crime. This study follows a new approach in differentiating between the incapacitation effect and the deterrent effect of the law.…

  10. The Bellevue Teachers Strike and Its Implications for the Future of Postindustrial Reform Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Daniel F.; Nitta, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Striking for nine days in 2008, teachers in Bellevue carved a distinctive path through the contradictory movements for professional reform unionism and national accountability. In addition to compensation, Bellevue's teachers struck over the top-down prescriptive management epitomized by the Gates Foundation supported "Curriculum Web."…

  11. Accelerations due to impact at heel strike using below-knee prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsveld, van H.W.L.; Grootenboer, H.J.; Vries, de J.

    1990-01-01

    The acceleration in the sagittal plane of the prosthetic tube at heel strike in normal walking was measured in five healthy amputees with their definitive below-knee prosthesis, every subject using six different prosthetic feet, wearing sport shoes as well as leather shoes. The experiments were carr

  12. Synthesis and testing of a conducting polymeric composite material for lightning strike protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, A.; Krukiewicz, K.; Turczyn, R.; Sul, P.; Łasica, A.; Catalanotti, G.; Bilewicz, M.

    2017-02-01

    Lightning strike protection is one of the important issues in the modern maintenance problems of aircraft. This is due to a fact that the most of exterior elements of modern aircraft is manufactured from polymeric composites which are characterized by isolating electrical properties, and thus cannot carry the giant electrical charge when the lightning strikes. This causes serious damage of an aircraft structure and necessity of repairs and tests before returning a vehicle to operation. In order to overcome this problem, usually metallic meshes are immersed in the polymeric elements. This approach is quite effective, but increases a mass of an aircraft and significantly complicates the manufacturing process. The approach proposed by the authors is based on a mixture of conducting and dielectric polymers. Numerous modeling studies which are based on percolation clustering using kinetic Monte Carlo methods, finite element modeling of electrical and mechanical properties, and preliminary experimental studies, allow achieving an optimal content of conducting particles in a dielectric matrix in order to achieve possibly the best electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, simultaneously. After manufacturing the samples with optimal content of a conducting polymer, mechanical and electrical characterization as well as high-voltage testing was performed. The application of such a material simplifies manufacturing process and ensures unique properties of aircraft structures, which allows for minimizing damage after lightning strike, as well as provide electrical bounding and grounding, interference shielding, etc. The proposed solution can minimize costs of repair, testing and certification of aircraft structures damaged by lightning strikes.

  13. Defining the effective impact mass of elbow and shoulder strikes in ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, Thomas B

    2015-03-01

    Reconstruction of real-life events can be used to investigate the relationship between the mechanical parameters of the impact and concussion risk. Striking mass has typically been approximated as being the mass of the body part coming into contact with the head without accounting for the force applied by the striking athlete. Thus, the purpose of this study was to measure the effective impact mass of three common striking techniques in ice hockey. Fifteen participants were instructed to strike a suspended 50th percentile Hybrid III headform at least three times with their elbow or shoulder. Effective impact mass was calculated by measuring the change in velocity of the player and the headform. Mean effective impact mass for the extended elbow, tucked-in elbow, and shoulder check conditions were 4.8, 3.0, and 12.9 kg, respectively. Peak linear accelerations were lower than the values associated with concussion in American football which could be a reflection of the methodology used in this study as well as inherent differences between both sports.

  14. Making inference from wildlife collision data: inferring predator absence from prey strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Peter; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Barry, Simon C

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife collision data are ubiquitous, though challenging for making ecological inference due to typically irreducible uncertainty relating to the sampling process. We illustrate a new approach that is useful for generating inference from predator data arising from wildlife collisions. By simply conditioning on a second prey species sampled via the same collision process, and by using a biologically realistic numerical response functions, we can produce a coherent numerical response relationship between predator and prey. This relationship can then be used to make inference on the population size of the predator species, including the probability of extinction. The statistical conditioning enables us to account for unmeasured variation in factors influencing the runway strike incidence for individual airports and to enable valid comparisons. A practical application of the approach for testing hypotheses about the distribution and abundance of a predator species is illustrated using the hypothesized red fox incursion into Tasmania, Australia. We estimate that conditional on the numerical response between fox and lagomorph runway strikes on mainland Australia, the predictive probability of observing no runway strikes of foxes in Tasmania after observing 15 lagomorph strikes is 0.001. We conclude there is enough evidence to safely reject the null hypothesis that there is a widespread red fox population in Tasmania at a population density consistent with prey availability. The method is novel and has potential wider application.

  15. The Role of Near-Fault Relief in Creating and Maintaining Strike-Slip Landscape Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, S.; Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Geomorphic landforms, such as shutter ridges, offset river terraces, and deflected stream channels, are often used to assess the activity and slip rates of strike-slip faults. However, in some systems, such as parts of the Marlborough Fault System (South Island, NZ), an active strike-slip fault does not leave a strong landscape signature. Here we explore the factors that dampen or enhance the landscape signature of strike-slip faulting using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development model (CHILD). We focus on variables affecting the length of channel offsets, which enhance the signature of strike-slip motion, and the frequency of stream captures, which eliminate offsets and reduce this signature. We model a strike-slip fault that passes through a mountain ridge, offsetting streams that drain across this fault. We use this setup to test the response of channel offset length and capture frequency to fault characteristics, such as slip rate and ratio of lateral to vertical motion, and to landscape characteristics, such as relief contrasts controlled by erodibility. Our experiments show that relief downhill of the fault, whether generated by differential uplift across the fault or by an erodibility contrast, has the strongest effect on offset length and capture frequency. This relief creates shutter ridges, which block and divert streams while being advected along a fault. Shutter ridges and the streams they divert have long been recognized as markers of strike-slip motion. Our results show specifically that the height of shutter ridges is most responsible for the degree to which they create long channel offsets by preventing stream captures. We compare these results to landscape metrics in the Marlborough Fault System, where shutter ridges are common and often lithologically controlled. We compare shutter ridge length and height to channel offset length in order to assess the influence of relief on offset channel features in a real landscape. Based on our

  16. Forward voltage short-pulse technique for measuring high power laser array junction temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Byron L. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Frazin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Baker, Nathaniel R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of measuring the temperature of the P-N junction within the light-emitting region of a quasi-continuous-wave or pulsed semiconductor laser diode device. A series of relatively short and low current monitor pulses are applied to the laser diode in the period between the main drive current pulses necessary to cause the semiconductor to lase. At the sufficiently low current level of the monitor pulses, the laser diode device does not lase and behaves similar to an electronic diode. The voltage across the laser diode resulting from each of these low current monitor pulses is measured with a high degree of precision. The junction temperature is then determined from the measured junction voltage using their known linear relationship.

  17. Strike-slip faulting at Thebes Gap, Missouri and Illinois: Implications for New Madrid tectonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard W.; Schultz, Art

    1994-04-01

    Numerous NNE and NE striking strike-slip faults and associated normal faults, folds, and transtensional grabens occur in the Thebes Gap area of Missouri and Illinois. These structures developed along the northwestern margin of the buried Reelfoot rift of Precambrian-Cambrian age at the northern edge of the Mississippi embayment. They have had a long-lived and complex structural history. This is an area of recent moderate seismicity, approximately 45 km north of the New Madrid seismic zone. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that these faults were active during the Middle Ordovician. They were subsequently reactivated between the Early Devonian and Late Cretaceous, probably in response to both the Acadian and Ouachita orogenies. Deformation during this period was characterized by strongly faulted and folded Ordovician through Devonian rocks. In places, these deformed rocks are overlain with angular unconformity by undeformed Cretaceous strata. Fault motion is interpreted as dominantly strike slip. A still younger period of reactivation involved Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic formations as young as the Miocene or Pliocene Mounds Gravel. These formations have experienced both minor high-angle normal faulting and subsequent major, right-lateral strike-slip faulting. En echelon north-south folds, ENE striking normal faults, regional fracture patterns, and drag folds indicate the right-lateral motion for this major episode of faulting which predates deposition of Quaternary loess. Several nondefinitive lines of evidence suggest Quaternary faulting. Similar fault orientations and kinematics, as well as recent seismicity and proximity, clearly suggest a structural relationship between deformation at Thebes Gap and tectonism associated with the New Madrid area.

  18. Using avian radar to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Halstead, Brian J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Laughlin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Radar systems designed to detect avian activity at airfields are useful in understanding factors that influence the risk of bird and aircraft collisions (bird strikes). We used an avian radar system to measure avian activity at Beale Air Force Base, California, USA, during 2008 and 2009. We conducted a 2-part analysis to examine relationships among avian activity, bird strikes, and meteorological and time-dependent factors. We found that avian activity around the airfield was greater at times when bird strikes occurred than on average using a permutation resampling technique. Second, we developed generalized linear mixed models of an avian activity index (AAI). Variation in AAI was first explained by seasons that were based on average migration dates of birds at the study area. We then modeled AAI by those seasons to further explain variation by meteorological factors and daily light levels within a 24-hour period. In general, avian activity increased with decreased temperature, wind, visibility, precipitation, and increased humidity and cloud cover. These effects differed by season. For example, during the spring bird migration period, most avian activity occurred before sunrise at twilight hours on clear days with low winds, whereas during fall migration, substantial activity occurred after sunrise, and birds generally were more active at lower temperatures. We report parameter estimates (i.e., constants and coefficients) averaged across models and a relatively simple calculation for safety officers and wildlife managers to predict AAI and the relative risk of bird strike based on time, date, and meteorological values. We validated model predictability and assessed model fit. These analyses will be useful for general inference of avian activity and risk assessment efforts. Further investigation and ongoing data collection will refine these inference models and improve our understanding of factors that influence avian activity, which is necessary to inform

  19. Extreme impact and cavitation forces of a biological hammer: strike forces of the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus

    OpenAIRE

    Patek, S. N.; Caldwell, R L

    2005-01-01

    Mantis shrimp are renowned for their unusual method of breaking shells with brief, powerful strikes of their raptorial appendages. Due to the extreme speeds of these strikes underwater, cavitation occurs between their appendages and hard-shelled prey. Here we examine the magnitude and relative contribution of the impact and cavitation forces generated by the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. We present the surprising finding that each strike generates two brief, high-amplitude f...

  20. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Continued Oversight Needed as Program Plans to Begin Development of New Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    a reduction of 88 percent since 2014. Page 15 GAO-16-390 F-35 Joint Strike Fighter • The time spent on scrap , rework, and repair in the...Nearing Completion and F-35 Program is Addressing Technical Risks 7 Manufacturing and Reliability Progress Continue 12 DOD’s Approach to Managing...F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft by Variant 14 Figure 7: Reduction in Average Monthly F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Part Shortage Occurrences at