WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring options study

  1. VAMOS: The verification and monitoring options study: Current research options for in-situ monitoring and verification of contaminant remediation and containment within the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsill, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R.D. [Tech Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Verification and Monitoring Options Study Project (VAMOS) was established to identify high-priority options for future vadose-zone environmental research in the areas of in-situ remediation monitoring, post-closure monitoring, and containment emplacement and verification monitoring. VAMOS examined projected needs not currently being met with applied technology in order to develop viable monitoring and verification research options. The study emphasized a compatible systems approach to reinforce the need for utilizing compatible components to provide user friendly site monitoring systems. To identify the needs and research options related to vadose-zone environmental monitoring and verification, a literature search and expert panel forums were conducted. The search included present drivers for environmental monitoring technology, technology applications, and research efforts. The forums included scientific, academic, industry, and regulatory environmental professionals as well as end users of environmental technology. The experts evaluated current and future monitoring and verification needs, methods for meeting these needs, and viable research options and directions. A variety of high-priority technology development, user facility, and technology guidance research options were developed and presented as an outcome of the literature search and expert panel forums.

  2. Retrieval options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  3. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  4. Study of the Cherokee Nuclear Station: projected impacts, monitoring plan, and mitigation options for Cherokee County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.; Schweitzer, M.; Scharre, P.; Pressman, B.

    1979-07-01

    This report inventories Cherokee County's capabilities and CNS project characteristics, projects expected impacts from the interaction of the two defines four options for Cherokee County decision makers, and presents a range of possible mitigation and monitoring plans for dealing with the problems identified. The four options and general implementation guidelines for each are presented after reviewing pertinent features of other mitigation and monitoring plans. The four options include (1) no action, (2) preventing impacts by preventing growth, (3) selective growth in designated areas as services can be supplied, and (4) maximum growth designed to attract as many in-movers as possible through a major program of capital investiments in public and private services. With the exception of the no action option, all plans deal with impacts according to some strategy determined by how the County wishes to manage growth. Solutions for impact problems depend on which growth strategy is selected and what additional resources are secured during the impact period. A monitoring program deals with the problems of data and projections uncertainty, while direct action is proposed to deal with the institutional problems of delay of the needed access road, timeing and location problems from the tax base mismatch, and lack of local planning capability.

  5. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  6. The safeguards options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  7. AFCI Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

  8. Monitoring protocols: Options, approaches, implementation, benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Jason W.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Pyke, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring and adaptive management are fundamental concepts to rangeland management across land management agencies and embodied as best management practices for private landowners. Historically, rangeland monitoring was limited to determining impacts or maximizing the potential of specific land uses—typically grazing. Over the past several decades, though, the uses of and disturbances to rangelands have increased dramatically against a backdrop of global climate change that adds uncertainty to predictions of future rangeland conditions. Thus, today’s monitoring needs are more complex (or multidimensional) and yet still must be reconciled with the realities of costs to collect requisite data. However, conceptual advances in rangeland ecology and management and changes in natural resource policies and societal values over the past 25 years have facilitated new approaches to monitoring that can support rangeland management’s diverse information needs. Additionally, advances in sensor technologies and remote-sensing techniques have broadened the suite of rangeland attributes that can be monitored and the temporal and spatial scales at which they can be monitored. We review some of the conceptual and technological advancements and provide examples of how they have influenced rangeland monitoring. We then discuss implications of these developments for rangeland management and highlight what we see as challenges and opportunities for implementing effective rangeland monitoring. We conclude with a vision for how monitoring can contribute to rangeland information needs in the future.

  9. Monitoring Options for CO2 Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, R.; Winthaegen, P.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of various monitoring techniques for CO2 storage that is structured into three categories-instrumentation in a well (monitoring well); instrumentation at the (near) surface (surface geophysical methods); and sampling at the (near) surface measuring CO2 concentration

  10. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are

  11. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Michael James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bean, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luke, Dale E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patterson, M. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, Alan K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonc, Vincent F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripp, Julia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center’s (INTEC’s) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  12. Inventory and monitoring options of peatlands at regional scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardi, Ciro; Sommer, Stefan; Seep, Kalev

    2010-01-01

    Determination of the spatial extent of peatlands and monitoring their status is important for the evaluation of soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gas fluxes. At European Level there is a need to provide accurate and updated estimate of the distribution of peatlands. Comparison of national data...... with EU wide land cover mapping shows that there is limited compatibility between the different data sets. In this study a methodology of standardized mapping and monitoring of peatlands at regional level (national to supra-national bio-climatic regions), is presented. This methodology, based...... for efficient monitoring and mapping of peatlands change....

  13. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  14. Cementitious waste option scoping study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This study investigates the nonseparations Cementitious Waste Option (CWO) as a means to achieve this goal. Under this option all liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and existing HLW calcine would be recalcined with sucrose, grouted, canisterized, and interim stored as a mixed-HLW for eventual preparation and shipment off-Site for disposal. The CWO waste would be transported to a Greater Confinement Disposal Facility (GCDF) located in the southwestern desert of the US on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All transport preparation, shipment, and disposal facility activities are beyond the scope of this study. CWO waste processing, packaging, and interim storage would occur over a 5-year period between 2013 and 2017. Waste transport and disposal would occur during the same time period.

  15. Inventory and monitoring options of peatlands at regional scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardi, Ciro; Sommer, Stefan; Seep, Kalev;

    2010-01-01

    on the enhanced integration of existing thematic maps through GIS analysis in combination with remote sensing, has been applied to Estonia, as study case. Existing national maps and field inventory of Estonian peatlands have been used for a GIS based evaluation of peatlands relevant information contained...

  16. Design Options Study. Volume III. Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    would be obtained for a 500,000 lb- or 600,000 lb-payload- aircraft is uncertain. Assesment of De3ign-Option Substitutien TO summnarize the preceding...exhaust smoke and prohibit fuel venting to the atmosphere. In accordance with APR 80-36, as discussed previously in conjunction with the noise...Laboratory in terms of combustor efficiency, specific NO Xvalues, and specific levels Of Visible smoke . In the Most recent EPA proposals. emission

  17. TEMPERATURE MONITORING OPTIONS AVAILABLE AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; D.L. Knudson; T. Unruh; B.M. Chase; K.L Davis

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced sensors for irradiation testing. To meet recent customer requests, an array of temperature monitoring options is now available to ATR users. The method selected is determined by test requirements and budget. Melt wires are the simplest and least expensive option for monitoring temperature. INL has recently verified the melting temperature of a collection of materials with melt temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 C with a differential scanning calorimeter installed at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). INL encapsulates these melt wires in quartz or metal tubes. In the case of quartz tubes, multiple wires can be encapsulated in a single 1.6 mm diameter tube. The second option available to ATR users is a silicon carbide temperature monitor. The benefit of this option is that a single small monitor (typically 1 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm or 1 mm diameter x 10 mm length) can be used to detect peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 C. Equipment has been installed at INL’s HTTL to complete post-irradiation resistivity measurements on SiC monitors, a technique that has been found to yield the most accurate temperatures from these monitors. For instrumented tests, thermocouples may be used. In addition to Type-K and Type-N thermocouples, a High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouple (HTIR-TC) was developed at the HTTL that contains commercially-available doped molybdenum paired with a niobium alloy thermoelements. Long duration high temperature tests, in furnaces and in the ATR and other MTRs, demonstrate that the HTIR-TC is accurate up to 1800 C and insensitive to thermal neutron interactions. Thus, degradation observed at temperatures above 1100 C with Type K and N thermocouples and decalibration due to transmutation with tungsten

  18. Comparatively speaking : a psycholinguistic study of optionality in grammar

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    GRAMMATICAL OPTIONALITY refers to the ability to realize the same meaning using more than one grammatical expression, as in the dative alternation, or the choice between active and passive encodings of a transitive event. Optionality has been studied extensively in the syntactic domain, and has provided numerous insights concerning the kinds of factors that influence production, the functional benefits of speaker choice, and the nature of syntactic development. In the present work, I inaugura...

  19. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  20. Direct cementitious waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafoe, R.E.; Losinski, S.J.

    1998-02-01

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target data of 2035. This study investigates the direct grouting of all ICPP calcine (including the HLW dry calcine and those resulting from calcining sodium-bearing liquid waste currently residing in the ICPP storage tanks) as the treatment method to comply with the settlement agreement. This method involves grouting the calcined waste and casting the resulting hydroceramic grout into stainless steel canisters. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for grouting treatment will be from 2013 through 2032, and all the HLW will be treated and in interim storage by the end of 2032.

  1. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065.

  2. Options for monitoring and estimating historical carbon emissions from forest degradation in the context of REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herold Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Measuring forest degradation and related forest carbon stock changes is more challenging than measuring deforestation since degradation implies changes in the structure of the forest and does not entail a change in land use, making it less easily detectable through remote sensing. Although we anticipate the use of the IPCC guidance under the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, there is no one single method for monitoring forest degradation for the case of REDD+ policy. In this review paper we highlight that the choice depends upon a number of factors including the type of degradation, available historical data, capacities and resources, and the potentials and limitations of various measurement and monitoring approaches. Current degradation rates can be measured through field data (i.e. multi-date national forest inventories and permanent sample plot data, commercial forestry data sets, proxy data from domestic markets and/or remote sensing data (i.e. direct mapping of canopy and forest structural changes or indirect mapping through modelling approaches, with the combination of techniques providing the best options. Developing countries frequently lack consistent historical field data for assessing past forest degradation, and so must rely more on remote sensing approaches mixed with current field assessments of carbon stock changes. Historical degradation estimates will have larger uncertainties as it will be difficult to determine their accuracy. However improving monitoring capacities for systematic forest degradation estimates today will help reduce uncertainties even for historical estimates.

  3. Luminosity monitor studies for TESLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoly, O. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Schulte, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The feasibility of a luminosity monitor based on a radiative Bhabha detector is investigated n the context of the TESLA linear collider. Another option based on low energy e{sup +}e{sup -} pair calorimetry is also discussed. In order to monitor the beam parameters at the interaction point by optimizing the luminosity, these detectors should be able to provide a relative measurement of the luminosity with a resolution better that 1% using a fraction of the TESLA bunch train. (author) 8 refs.

  4. MOOSES: Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Jon; Wehby, Joseph

    The Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) is a flexible data collection and analysis package for applied behavioral research that addresses the needs of researchers interested in live coding of observational data. MOOSES allows the researcher to design a coding system for a particular research question. General types…

  5. Options for a national framework for benefit distribution and their relation to community-based and national REDD+ monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, M.; Turnhout, E.; Vijge, M.J.; Herold, M.; Wits, T.; Besten, den J.W.; Balderas Torres, A.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring is a central element in the implementation of national REDD+ and may be essential in providing the data needed to support benefit distribution. We discuss the options for benefit sharing systems in terms of technical feasibility and political acceptability in respect of equity considerati

  6. Effectiveness monitoring for the aquatic and riparian component of the Northwest Forest Plan: conceptual framework and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; David B. Hohler; David P. Larsen; David E. Busch; Kim Kratz; Keith Reynolds; Karl F. Stein; Thomas Atzet; Polly Hays; Michael. Tehan

    2004-01-01

    An Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Plan (AREMP) for the Northwest Forest Plan is intended to characterize the ecological condition of watersheds and aquatic ecosystems. So to determine the effectiveness of the Northwest Forest Plan to meet relevant objectives, this report presents the conceptual foundation of options for use in pilot testing and...

  7. Options for a national framework for benefit distribution and their relation to community-based and national REDD+ monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, M.; Turnhout, E.; Vijge, M.J.; Herold, M.; Wits, T.; Besten, den J.W.; Balderas Torres, A.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring is a central element in the implementation of national REDD+ and may be essential in providing the data needed to support benefit distribution. We discuss the options for benefit sharing systems in terms of technical feasibility and political acceptability in respect of equity considerati

  8. A Study on Fuel Options for Power Generation in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerin Wangjiraniran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the impact of utilizing gas, coal and nuclear for longterm power generation on generation cost, emission and resource availability. A scenario-based energy accounting model has been applied for creating long-term future scenarios. A baseline scenario has been created on the basis of the existing power development plan (PDP. Three alternative scenarios of coal, nuclear and gas options have been projected for the period beyond the PDP, i.e. 2022-2030. The results indicate that nuclear has high potential for GHG mitigation and cost reduction. For coal option, the benefit of cost reduction would be diminished at carbon price above 40 USD/ton. However, clean technology development as well as the momentum of global trend will be the key factor for coal utilization. The results also show the need of fuel diversification in term of the natural gas reserve depletion. It is clearly seen that natural gas supply in Thailand would inevitably depends very much on the LNG import in long-term. Hence, attraction of natural gas in term of cheap domestic resource utilization will be vanished.

  9. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  10. "Provoking conversations": case studies of organizations where Option Grid™ decision aids have become 'normalized'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia, Peter; Elwyn, Glyn; Durand, Marie-Anne

    2017-08-18

    Implementing patient decision aids in clinic workflow has proven to be a challenge for healthcare organizations and physicians. Our aim was to determine the organizational strategies, motivations, and facilitating factors to the routine implementation of Option Grid™ encounter decision aids at two independent settings. Case studies conducted by semi-structured interview, using the Normalization Process Theory (NPT) as a framework for thematic analysis. Twenty three interviews with physicians, nurses, hospital staff and stakeholders were conducted at: 1) CapitalCare Medical Group in Albany, New York; 2) HealthPartners Clinics in Minneapolis, Minnesota. 'Coherent' motivations were guided by financial incentives at CapitalCare, and by a 'champion' physician at HealthPartners. Nurses worked 'collectively' at both settings and played an important role at sites where successful implementation occurred. Some physicians did not understand the perceived utility of Option Grid™, which led to varying degrees of implementation success across sites. The appraisal work (reflexive monitoring) identified benefits, particularly in terms of information provision. Physicians at both settings, however, were concerned with time pressures and the suitability of the tool for patients with low levels of health literacy. Although both practice settings illustrated the mechanisms of normalization postulated by the theory, the extent to which Option Grid™ was routinely embedded in clinic workflow varied between sites, and between clinicians. Implementation of new interventions will require attention to an identified rationale (coherence), and to the collective action, cognitive participation, and assessment of value by organizational members of the organization.

  11. A Study on the Efficiency of the Market for Dutch Long Term Call Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, F.A.; Veld, C.H.; Wei, J.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the efficiency of the market for 5 year call options which are traded on the European Options Exchange in Amsterdam.We study both delta, delta-vega, and delta-gamma neutral arbitrage portfolios.We do not detect any serious inefficiencies in the market for long term call options.This

  12. Diversifying the Social Studies: The Trend Toward Optional Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.

    1974-01-01

    Developments of alternative schools are reviwed, emphasizing differences in five types of public school options and the similarities of these types in respect to their social education programs. (Author/KM)

  13. The Study on Policy Options for Siting Hazardous Energy Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Oh [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    The problem of site allocation on locally unwanted land uses related to energy utilities that extended most recently is becoming a new energy policy issue due to the improvement of national standard of living and livelihood quality. Residents do not generally agree on establishing the construction of public energy utilities in their village due to NIMBY syndrome while they basically agree to have them. These circumstances made a big problem against mass production of industry society and the improvement of the national welfare. Locally unwanted land use related to energy utilities includes waste incineration system, nuclear power plant, coal fired power plant, oil and Gas storage tank, briquette manufacturing plant and etc. Opportunity for SOC projects carried out by central and local government is lost because of the regional egoism. The site dispute between government and residents obstructs optimal energy supply to be necessary for industry growth and the national welfare. The main objective of this study is to propose the policy option for finding a solution after surveying theory and background of site troubles and dispute factors. Final results of this study propose a solution on structural and institutional dispute. The former introduces three kinds of approaches such as tradition, compensation and negotiation. The transition of an environmentally sound energy consumption pattern and the improvement of energy efficiency could be carried out by traditional approaches. To claim the damage and offer the accommodation facilities could be settled by compensational approaches. The establishment of regional decentralization on NIMBY facilities could be settled by negotiatory approaches through fair share criteria. The latter proposes 1) 'polluter pays principle', 2) internalization of social cost and benefit on air or water pollution, 3) the behind - the - scene negotiation in a bid to settle a site dispute, 4) and supporting system for peripheral areas

  14. Options for a National Framework for Benefit Distribution and Their Relation to Community-Based and National REDD+ Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Skutsch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring is a central element in the implementation of national REDD+ and may be essential in providing the data needed to support benefit distribution. We discuss the options for benefit sharing systems in terms of technical feasibility and political acceptability in respect of equity considerations, and the kind of data that would be needed for the different options. We contrast output-based distribution systems, in which rewards are distributed according to performance measured in terms of carbon impacts, with input-based systems in which performance is measured in term of compliance with prescribed REDD+ activities. Output-based systems, which would require regular community carbon inventories to produce Tier 3 data locally, face various challenges particularly for the case of assessing avoided deforestation, and they may not be perceived as equitable. Input-based systems would require data on activities undertaken rather than change in stocks; this information could come from community-acquired data. We also consider how community monitored data could support national forest monitoring systems and the further development of national REDD+.

  15. Modeling the Costs and Environmental Benefits of Disposal Options for End-of-Life Electronic Equipment: The Case of Used Computer Monitors

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Karen; Macauley, Molly; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Cline, Sarah; Holsinger, Heather

    2001-01-01

    Managing the growing quantity of used electronic equipment poses challenges for waste management officials. In this paper, we focus on a large component of the electronic waste stream—computer monitors—and the disposal concerns associated with the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We develop a policy simulation model of consumers’ disposal options based on the costs of these options and their associated environmental impacts. For the stock of monitors disposed o...

  16. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase ECC and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in ECC can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  17. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  18. Industrial Chemistry Option in MSc Studies in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Arnon

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for and development of an industrial chemistry program in chemistry at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel. Includes an outline of the recommended 2-year curriculum and list of courses in this industrial chemistry option leading to a master of science degree. (Author/JN)

  19. Monitoring the outcomes of interventions against Taenia solium: options and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, M W; Garcia, H H; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M; Abela-Ridder, B

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in reducing the incidence of human neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium. Several intervention trials are currently assessing various options for control of T. solium transmission. A critical aspect of these trials will be the evaluation of whether the interventions have been successful. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate or valuable methods that should be used. Here, we undertake a critical assessment of the diagnostic tests which are currently available for human T. solium taeniasis and human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as their suitability for evaluation of intervention trial outcomes. Suggestions are made about which of the measures that are available for evaluation of T. solium interventions would be most suitable, and which methodologies are the most appropriate given currently available technologies. Suggestions are also made in relation to the most urgent research needs in order to address deficiencies in current diagnostic methods.

  20. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  1. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  2. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  3. ANALYSIS OF OPTION FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF STUDENTS STUDYING ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, VECHIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is important, entrepreneur plays a major role at micro and maroeconomic level. Entrepreneur is the manager and employee at the same time, is leader and innovator, his company provides products and services that society needs. Europe needs more entrepreneurs and those who want to follow the path of entrepreneurship needs to face multiple challenges that can be overcome when the future entrepreneur benefit from a complex entrepreneurship education. This paper aims, through applied questionnaire, to identify whether future economists are determined to choose the path of entrepreneurship and start a business on their own. Also, we wanted to identify the obstacles that interviewees consider that you have to struggle to start their business. We applied a questionnaire to students, final year bachelor's degree, studying economics. They were chosen because during the three years study several economic disciplines: microeconomics, macroeconomics, management, accounting, finance, law, economic analysis, the national economy, European policy.

  4. Study on distributed energy options in Skaftkaerr testbed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesola, A.; Hagstroem, M.; Vanhanen, J. (Gaia Consulting Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2011-07-01

    In the distributed energy production model electricity or heat is produced near the end-user in relatively small units - using very often local renewable energy sources. These are e.g. solar thermal or photovoltaic applications, wind power, fuel cells or other small-scale CHP technologies using e.g. bio-based fuels. Locally produced intermittent renewable electricity can be optimized by storing produced electricity and using it when electricity price is high. Electricity storage is an important part of smart grid development from the perspective of supply-demand flexibility. Heat can be stored as well using e.g. water tank placed either under or above the ground. Distributed energy production technologies are already utilized in domestic residential areas and the trend is emerging. Designing and planning needs to be emphasized in order to build and maintain technically and economically sustainable energy system. The objective of this study is to present the possibilities of distributed energy production and storage technologies. The study highlights available technologies and services of distributed energy production and helps to build up a testbed solution that could lead to demonstration-scale application in near future. This testbed is a part of developing process of Skaftkaerr area where energy efficiency and environmental issues are emphasized. In this report, feasible production and storage technologies are presented in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 introduces economical characteristics of studied technologies. Chapter 4 points out suitable technologies for Skaftkaerr area and presents profitability analysis of these technologies via two cases. Domestic actors in technology value chains are also presented in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 summarizes the study and its findings

  5. Engineering study of tank fill options for landfill closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, W.A.

    1996-09-27

    To prepare single-shell tanks for closure, it will be necessary to piece some type of load- bearing fill material inside the tanks to support the domes. Provision of internal support permits the simplifying assumption that the combined weight of the dome, the existing operational soil cover, and the surface barrier will eventually transfer to and be carried by the fill. This engineering study provides descriptions and evaluations of four alternative concepts for fitting and stabilizing nominally empty SSTs with fill materials. For this study it is assumed that 99 percent (or more) of tank wastes will be retrieved before closure is undertaken. The alternatives are: Gravel: tanks would be fitted with crushed aggregate using a rotating stinger apparatus installed in the central riser; Grout: tanks would be fitted with a pumpable, ex-situ mixed grout formulation; Hybrid: tanks would be fitted first with coarse aggregate, then with grout, producing a pre-placed aggregate concrete material; or Concrete: tank. would be filled with a highly-flowable, ex-situ mixed concrete formulation.

  6. ART attrition and risk factors among Option B+ patients in Haiti: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; Adler, Michelle; Yuhas, Krista; Myrtil, Martine; Young, Paul; François, Kesner; Grand'Pierre, Reynold; Lowrance, David

    2017-01-01

    In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health endorsed the "Option B+" strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and achieve HIV epidemic control. The objective of this paper is to assess and identify risk factors for attrition from the national ART program among Option B+ patients in the 12 months after ART initiation. This retrospective cohort study included patients newly initiating ART from October 2012-August 2013 at 68 ART sites covering 45% of all newly enrolled ART patients in all regions of Haiti. With data from electronic medical records, we carried out descriptive analysis of sociodemographic, clinical, and pregnancy-related correlates of ART attrition, and used a modified Poisson regression approach to estimate relative risks in a multivariable model. There were 2,166 Option B+ patients who initiated ART, of whom 1,023 were not retained by 12 months (47.2%). One quarter (25.3%) dropped out within 3 months of ART initiation. Protective factors included older age, more advanced HIV disease progression, and any adherence counseling prior to ART initiation, while risk factors included starting ART late in gestation, starting ART within 7 days of HIV testing, and using an atypical ART regimen. Our study demonstrates early ART attrition among Option B+ patients and contributes evidence on the characteristics of women who are most at risk of attrition in Haiti. Our findings highlight the importance of targeted strategies to support retention among Option B+ patients.

  7. Use, option and externality values: are contingent valuation studies in health care mis-specified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D

    2007-08-01

    A general population sample of Australian respondents completed a contingent valuation (CV) survey that asked them to value six scenarios. These varied according to whether the scenario was seeking to elicit: (i) use value; (ii) externality value; (iii) option value; or (iv) a combination. Results indicate that use plus externality and/or option value was significantly greater than use value alone. As CV studies in health (care) overwhelmingly focus on use value alone - often implicitly through study design rather than explicitly - this raises the possibility of mis-specification in CV research in health (care). The implications for CV in health (care) are considered.

  8. Modeling the Implied Volatility Surface-: A Study for S&P 500 Index Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to demonstrate a framework to model the implied volatilities of S&P 500 index options and estimate the implied volatilities of stock prices using stochastic processes. In this paper, three models are established to estimate whether the implied volatilities are constant during the whole life of options. We mainly concentrate on the Black-Scholes and Dumas’ option models and make the empirical comparisons. By observing the daily-recorded data of S&P 500 index, we study the volatility model and volatility surface. Results from numerical experiments show that the stochastic volatilities are determined by moneyness rather than constant. Our research is of vital importance, especially for forecasting stock market shocks and crises, as one of the applications.

  9. Study of the Option Ordering Policy concerning Perishable Farm Produce Based on Revenue Sharing Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing; LIU

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the two-echelon supply chain system which consists of single agricultural producers and retailers,and analyzes the impact of sharing ratio on the option ordering quantity,and retailers and producers’ expected profits.Studies have shown that in the case of decentralization,when the revenue sharing ratio is between 0 and 0.3,the option ordering quantity of farm produce is a decreasing function of the sharing ratio; when the revenue sharing ratio is between 0.3 and 1,the option ordering quantity of farm produce is an increasing function of sharing ratio; when the revenue sharing ratio is between 0.421 and 1,the agricultural producers and retailers’ expected profits are an increasing function of sharing ratio.Finally,through the numerical calculation,the applicability of the conclusions is verified,to provide a reference for the supply chain management practices.

  10. Feasibility Study for the Ivano-Frankivsk District Heating Repowering: Analysis of Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.; Popelka, A.; Laskarevsky, V.

    2002-03-20

    Part of the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation with the Ukraine Inter-Ministerial Commission on Climate Change, financed by the US Department of Energy. The project was implemented by a team consisting of the US company SenTech, Inc. and the Ukrainian company Esco-West. The main objective of the effort was to assess available alternatives of Ivano-Frankivsk (I-F) District Heating repowering and provide information for I-F's investment decision process. This study provides information on positive and negative technical and economic aspects of available options. Three options were analyzed for technical merit and economic performance: 1. Installation of cogeneration system based on Gas Turbine (GT) and Heat Recovery Heat Exchanger with thermal capacity of 30 MW and electrical capacity of 13.5 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. Equipment in this Option was sized for longest operating hours, about 8000 based on the available summer baseload. 2. Installation of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (GTCC) and Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) with thermal capacity 45 MW and electrical capacity of 58.7 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. The equipment was sized for medium, shoulder season thermal load, and some cooling was assumed during the summer operation for extension of operating hours for electricity production. 3. Retrofit of six existing boilers (NGB) with total thermal capacity of 255.9 MW by installation of modern control system and minor upgrades. This option assumes only heat production with minimum investment. The best economic performance and the largest investment cost would result from alternative GTCC. This alternative has positive Net Present Value (NPV) with discount rate lower than about 12%, and has IRR slightly above 12%. The

  11. ART attrition and risk factors among Option B+ patients in Haiti: A retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domerçant, Jean Wysler; Adler, Michelle; Yuhas, Krista; Myrtil, Martine; Young, Paul; François, Kesner; Grand’Pierre, Reynold; Lowrance, David

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In October 2012, the Haitian Ministry of Health endorsed the “Option B+” strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and achieve HIV epidemic control. The objective of this paper is to assess and identify risk factors for attrition from the national ART program among Option B+ patients in the 12 months after ART initiation. Design This retrospective cohort study included patients newly initiating ART from October 2012-August 2013 at 68 ART sites covering 45% of all newly enrolled ART patients in all regions of Haiti. Methods With data from electronic medical records, we carried out descriptive analysis of sociodemographic, clinical, and pregnancy-related correlates of ART attrition, and used a modified Poisson regression approach to estimate relative risks in a multivariable model. Results There were 2,166 Option B+ patients who initiated ART, of whom 1,023 were not retained by 12 months (47.2%). One quarter (25.3%) dropped out within 3 months of ART initiation. Protective factors included older age, more advanced HIV disease progression, and any adherence counseling prior to ART initiation, while risk factors included starting ART late in gestation, starting ART within 7 days of HIV testing, and using an atypical ART regimen. Discussion Our study demonstrates early ART attrition among Option B+ patients and contributes evidence on the characteristics of women who are most at risk of attrition in Haiti. Our findings highlight the importance of targeted strategies to support retention among Option B+ patients. PMID:28264045

  12. STUDIES ON TOOL WEAR CONDITION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Metin ERTUNÇ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wear mechanisms on cutting tools, especially for the drill bits, during the cutting operation have been investigated. As the importance of full automation in industry has gained substantial importance, tool wear condition monitoring during the cutting operation has been the subject of many investigators. Tool condition monitoring is very crucial in order to change the tool before breakage. Because tool breakage can cause considerable economical damage to both the machine tool and workpiece. In this paper, the studies on the monitoring of drill bit wear in literature have been introduced; the direct/indirect techniques used and sensor fusion techniques have been summarized. The methods which were proposed to determine tool wear evolution as processing the sensor signals collected have been provided and their references have been given for detailed information.

  13. Perpetual American vanilla option pricing under single regime change risk: an exhaustive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2009-07-01

    Perpetual American options are financial instruments that can be readily exercised and do not mature. In this paper we study in detail the problem of pricing this kind of derivatives, for the most popular flavour, within a framework in which some of the properties—volatility and dividend policy—of the underlying stock can change at a random instant of time but in such a way that we can forecast their final values. Under this assumption we can model actual market conditions because most relevant facts usually entail sharp predictable consequences. The effect of this potential risk on perpetual American vanilla options is remarkable: the very equation that will determine the fair price depends on the solution to be found. Sound results are found under the optics both of finance and physics. In particular, a parallelism among the overall outcome of this problem and a phase transition is established.

  14. Investigation Of In-Line Monitoring Options At H Canyon/HB Line For Plutonium Oxide Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-14

    H Canyon and HB Line have a production goal of 1 MT per year of plutonium oxide feedstock for the MOX facility by FY17 (AFS-2 mission). In order to meet this goal, steps will need to be taken to improve processing efficiency. One concept for achieving this goal is to implement in-line process monitoring at key measurement points within the facilities. In-line monitoring during operations has the potential to increase throughput and efficiency while reducing costs associated with laboratory sample analysis. In the work reported here, we mapped the plutonium oxide process, identified key measurement points, investigated alternate technologies that could be used for in-line analysis, and initiated a throughput benefit analysis.

  15. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, Patrick; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  16. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, Patrick; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  17. Liquid–Liquid Mixing Studies in Annular Centrifugal Contactors Comparing Stationary Mixing Vane Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardle, Kent E.

    2015-11-10

    Comparative studies of multiphase operation of annular centrifugal contactors showing the impact of housing stationary mixing vane configuration. A number of experimental results for several different mixing vane options are reported with selected measurements in a lab-scale 5 cm contactor and 12.5 cm engineering-scale unit. Fewer straight vanes give greater mixingzone hold-up compared to curved vanes. Quantitative comparison of droplet size distribution also showed a significant decrease in mean diameter for four straight vanes versus eight curved vanes. This set of measurements gives a compelling case for careful consideration of mixing vane geometry when evaluating hydraulic operation and extraction process efficiency of annular centrifugal contactors.

  18. Heat Exchanger Design Options and Tritium Transport Study for the VHTR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to consider heat exchanger options and tritium transport in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The heat exchanger options include types, arrangements, channel patterns in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE), coolant flow direction, and pipe configuration in shell-and-tube designs. Study considerations include: three types of heat exchanger designs (PCHE, shell-and-tube, and helical coil); single- and two-stage unit arrangements; counter-current and cross flow configurations; and straight pipes and U-tube designs in shell-and-tube type heat exchangers. Thermal designs and simple stress analyses were performed to estimate the heat exchanger options, and the Finite Element Method was applied for more detailed calculations, especially for PCHE designs. Results of the options study show that the PCHE design has the smallest volume and heat transfer area, resulting in the least tritium permeation and greatest cost savings. It is theoretically the most reliable mechanically, leading to a longer lifetime. The two-stage heat exchanger arrangement appears to be safer and more cost effective. The recommended separation temperature between first and second stages in a serial configuration is 800oC, at which the high temperature unit is about one-half the size of the total heat exchanger core volume. Based on simplified stress analyses, the high temperature unit will need to be replaced two or three times during the plant’s lifetime. Stress analysis results recommend the off-set channel pattern configuration for the PCHE because stress reduction was estimated at up to 50% in this configuration, resulting in a longer lifetime. The tritium transport study resulted in the development of a tritium behavior analysis code using the MATLAB Simulink code. In parallel, the THYTAN code, previously performed by Ohashi and Sherman (2007) on the Peach Bottom data, was revived

  19. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  20. Pricing Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  1. Options of sustainable groundwater supply from safe aquifers in areas with elevated arsenic - a case study from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakariya, M.; Bhattacharya, P.; Bromssen, M. V.

    2008-05-01

    Access to safe drinking water is a basic human right. Several millions of people, mainly in developing countries are affected by arsenic in drinking water and the global impact now makes it a top priority water quality issue. A wide gap between the number of exposed people and the pace of mitigation programmes in rural areas of developing countries is the main problem in providing safe drinking water. The main challenge is to develop a sustainable mitigation option that rural and disadvantaged people can adopt and implement themselves to overcome possible public heath hazards. During the recent years, new approaches have emerged in Bangladesh, primarily emerging out of people's own initiative. The local drillers target presumed safe aquifers on the basis of colour and texture of the sediments. A recent study by our research group revealed a distinct correlation between the colour characteristics of the sediments and the groundwater redox conditions. The coupling between the colour of sediments and the redox characteristics of groundwater may thus be used as a tool to assess the risk for As mobilization from the aquifers. The study showed that it is possible to assess the relative risk of high concentrations of As in aquifers if the colour characteristics of the sediments are known and thus, local drillers may target safe aquifers. For validating the sustainability of this mitigation option geological, hydrogeological and microbiological investigations are needed. The sustainability of the aquifers needs to be assessed by combining results from various field and laboratory investigations and by running predictive models. There is also a need to raise the awareness and thereby create a platform for motivating the local drillers to be educated in installing safe tubewells. Awareness raising and community mobilisation are two top priorities for implementing a sustainable safe water project in rural village areas. Significant preparation, attention, and focus must be

  2. Performance and Logistical Challenges of Alternative HIV-1 Virological Monitoring Options in a Clinical Setting of Harare, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Ondoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a low-cost virological failure assay (VFA on plasma and dried blood spot (DBS specimens from HIV-1 infected patients attending an HIV clinic in Harare. The results were compared to the performance of the ultrasensitive heat-denatured p24 assay (p24. The COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0, served as the gold standard. Using a cutoff of 5,000 copies/mL, the plasma VFA had a sensitivity of 94.5% and specificity of 92.7% and was largely superior to the VFA on DBS (sensitivity = 61.9%; specificity = 99.0% or to the p24 (sensitivity = 54.3%; specificity = 82.3% when tested on 302 HIV treated and untreated patients. However, among the 202 long-term ART-exposed patients, the sensitivity of the VFA decreased to 72.7% and to 35.7% using a threshold of 5,000 and 1,000 RNA copies/mL, respectively. We show that the VFA (either on plasma or on DBS and the p24 are not reliable to monitor long-term treated, HIV-1 infected patients. Moreover, achieving acceptable assay sensitivity using DBS proved technically difficult in a less-experienced laboratory. Importantly, the high level of virological suppression (93% indicated that quality care focused on treatment adherence limits virological failure even when PCR-based viral load monitoring is not available.

  3. Preferences for different insomnia treatment options in people with schizophrenia and related psychoses: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavie eWaters

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations and delusions can be intrusive and unwanted and often remain treatment-resistant. Due to recent progress in basic and clinical sciences, novel approaches such as sleep-based interventions are increasingly becoming offered to address the physical and mental health issues of people with severe mental illness. While the primary outcome is to improve sleep, studies have demonstrated that interventions that target symptoms of insomnia can also produce improvements in the severity of psychotic symptoms, quality of life and functional outcomes. This study presents qualitative data on the attitudes and preferences of people with schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorders to three different types of therapies for insomnia (standard pharmacological, melatonin-based, and cognitive and/or behaviour therapy. Interviews included discussions regarding the perceived advantages and limitations of different therapies, enablers to taking up the preferred option, as well as personal strategies that have helped respondents with sleep problems in the past. Results showed that, when given the choice, these individuals prefer psychological and behavioural-type therapy to other sleep interventions because of its potential to support and empower them in taking responsibility for their own recovery. Pharmacological therapies, by contrast, are viewed as useful in managing acute sleep problems, but only as a short-term solution. Overall, the findings underscore the need for patients’ active engagement when making decisions about treatment options.

  4. Comparative study of the efficacy of different treatment options in patients with chronic blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúa, M; Samudio, M; Fariña, N; Cibils, D; Laspina, F; Sanabria, R; Carpinelli, L; Mino de Kaspar, H

    2015-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of 3 treatment options in patients with chronic blepharitis. An experimental, randomized, controlled study was conducted on 45 patients (female 67%; Mean age: 40.5 years) diagnosed with chronic blepharitis, in order to compare the effectiveness of three treatment options. Group 1: eyelid hygiene with neutral shampoo three times/day; group 2: neutral shampoo eyelid hygiene plus topical metronidazole gel 0.75% twice/day; group 3: neutral eyelid hygiene with shampoo plus neomycin 3.5% and polymyxin 10% antibiotic ointment with 0.5% dexamethasone 3 times/day. The symptoms and signs were assessed by assigning scores from 0: no symptoms and/or signs; 1: mild symptoms and/or signs, 2: moderate symptoms and/or signs; and 3: severe symptoms and/or signs. A significant improvement was observed in the signs and symptoms in all 3 treatment groups. While groups 1 and 2 had more improvement in all variables studied (P<.05), Group 3 showed no clinical improvement for itching (P=.16), dry eye (P=.29), eyelashes falling (P=.16), and erythema at the eyelid margin (P=.29). Shampoo eyelid hygiene neutral and neutral shampoo combined with the use of metronidazole gel reported better hygiene results than neutral shampoo lid with antibiotic ointment and neomycin and polymyxin dexamethasone. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Deep UV to NIR Space Telescopes and Exoplanet Coronagraphs: A Trade Study on Throughput, Polarization, Mirror Coating Options and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Shaklan, Stuart; Give'on, Amir; Cady, Eric; Marchen, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Exoplanet program and the Cosmic Origins program are exploring technical options to combine the visible to NIR performance requirements of a space coronagraph with the general astrophysics requirements of a space telescope covering the deep UV spectrum. Are there compatible options in terms of mirror coatings and telescope architecture to satisfy both goals? In this paper, we address some of the main concerns, particularly relating to polarization in the visible and throughput in the UV. Telescope architectures employing different coating options compatible with current technology are considered in this trade study.

  6. Market Reaction to the Approval of Stock Option Plans: an Event Study of Bovespa Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Finotti Cordeiro Perobelli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to verify market reactions to Employee Stock Options Plans (ESOP proposals and awards in the Brazilian Stock Exchange from July 1994 to March 2007. In order to achieve such objective, event studies methodology was applied and the original sample (comprised by all companies that adopted ESOP during the survey period was divided according to employees’ eligibility to ESOP and CEOs bargain power. Using non-parametric tests (Sign Test e Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, we could verify that announcements of ESOP proposals and ESOP awards were not related to positive abnormal returns. As the opposite, returns around those announcements dates were negatives, in general. Such pattern could be explained by some theoretical consequences of ESOP plans: increase in the CEOs risky behavior, constrains in the dividend policy and CEOs opportunistic behavior by managing the timing of their voluntary disclosures around stock option awards. We also found evidences suggesting that employees´ eligibility is related to abnormal returns. When all employees are awarded, returns are even more negative. Possible explanations are indirect costs of capital pulverization and increase in the companies cost of capital due to the ESOP. Our findings suggest that an ESOP adoption in a poor governance environment can increase agency problems, instead of aligning CEOs and shareholders interests.

  7. The feasibility study I on the blanket fuel options for the ATW/HYPER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Bong Sang; Park, Won Seok; Meyer, M.K; Hayes, S.L

    2001-01-01

    The choice of a blanket fuel cycle technology and the fuel type for HYPER/ATW are important to develop an ADS with better economics, performance and safety. Even though several fuel types have been considered as an alternative of the blanket fuels for HYPER/ATW, the metal alloy and the dispersion fuels were selected as the candidate fuels for ADS, and the technical feasibilities for both fuels are evaluated in this report. General performance characteristics, fabrication abilities, technical aspects, safety aspects, economics, and non-proliferation aspects for each fuel type are reviewed and evaluated. And some technological problems are addressed in this report, focused on the development strategy, the roadmaps, and the flexibility to meet the missions and specific designs. This study has been performed at the first stage of conceptual design. Since it is under the lack of physical properties for each fuel material, no an attempt is made to select the best fuel option, but the more better fuel options are recommended.

  8. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Field Monitoring,Treatment Facility Monitoring and Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is a compilation of harmful algal bloom (HAB) related field monitoring data from the 2015 bloom season, treatment plant monitoring data from the 2013 and 2014 bloom seasons, and bench-scale treatment study data from 2015.

  9. Thumb-size ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imager for in-situ glucose monitoring as optional sensor of conventional dialyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogo, Kosuke; Mori, Keita; Qi, Wei; Hosono, Satsuki; Kawashima, Natsumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    We proposed the ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imaging for the realization of blood-glucose-level monitoring during dialytic therapy. Optical scattering and absorption caused by blood cells deteriorate the detection accuracy of glucose dissolved in plasma. Ultrasonic standing waves can agglomerate blood cells at nodes. In contrast, around anti-node regions, the amount of transmitted light increases because relatively clear plasma appears due to decline the number of blood cells. Proposed method can disperse the transmitted light of plasma without time-consuming pretreatment such as centrifugation. To realize the thumb-size glucose sensor which can be easily attached to dialysis tubes, an ultrasonic standing wave generator and a spectroscopic imager are required to be small. Ultrasonic oscillators are ∅30[mm]. A drive circuit of oscillators, which now size is 41×55×45[mm], is expected to become small. The trial apparatus of proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imager, whose size is 30×30×48[mm], also can be little-finger size in principal. In the experiment, we separated the suspension mixed water and micro spheres (Θ10[mm) into particles and liquid regions with the ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]). Furthermore, the spectrum of transmitted light through the suspension could be obtained in visible light regions with a white LED.

  10. Virtual Machines and Networks - Installation, Performance Study, Advantages and Virtualization Options

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ishtiaq; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3101

    2011-01-01

    The interest in virtualization has been growing rapidly in the IT industry because of inherent benefits like better resource utilization and ease of system manageability. The experimentation and use of virtualization as well as the simultaneous deployment of virtual software are increasingly getting popular and in use by educational institutions for research and teaching. This paper stresses on the potential advantages associated with virtualization and the use of virtual machines for scenarios, which cannot be easily implemented and/or studied in a traditional academic network environment, but need to be explored and experimented by students to meet the raising needs and knowledge-base demanded by the IT industry. In this context, we discuss various aspects of virtualization - starting from the working principle of virtual machines, installation procedure for a virtual guest operating system on a physical host operating system, virtualization options and a performance study measuring the throughput obtained ...

  11. A choice experiment analysis for solid waste disposal option: a case study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Chuen-Khee; Jamal, Othman

    2011-11-01

    In Malaysia, most municipal wastes currently are disposed into poorly managed 'controlled tipping' systems with little or no pollution protection measures. This study was undertaken to assist the relevant governmental bodies and service providers to identify an improved waste disposal management strategy. The study applied the choice experiment technique to estimate the nonmarket values for a number of waste disposal technologies. Implicit prices for environmental attributes such as psychological fear, land use, air pollution, and river water quality were estimated. Compensating surplus estimates incorporating distance from the residences of the respondents to the proposed disposal facility were calculated for a number of generic and technology-specific choice sets. The resulting estimates were higher for technology-specific options, and the distance factor was a significant determinant in setting an equitable solid waste management fee.

  12. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  13. Expanding contraceptive options for PMTCT clients: a mixed methods implementation study in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Theresa; Harries, Jane; Crede, Sarah; Green, Mackenzie; Constant, Deborah; Petruney, Tricia; Moodley, Jennifer

    2014-01-10

    Clients of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services in South Africa who use contraception following childbirth rely primarily on short-acting methods like condoms, pills, and injectables, even when they desire no future pregnancies. Evidence is needed on strategies for expanding contraceptive options for postpartum PMTCT clients to include long-acting and permanent methods. We examined the process of expanding contraceptive options in five health centers in Cape Town providing services to HIV-positive women. Maternal/child health service providers received training and coaching to strengthen contraceptive counseling for postpartum women, including PMTCT clients. Training and supplies were introduced to strengthen intrauterine device (IUD) services, and referral mechanisms for female sterilization were reinforced. We conducted interviews with separate samples of postpartum PMTCT clients (265 pre-intervention and 266 post-intervention) to assess knowledge and behaviors regarding postpartum contraception. The process of implementing the intervention was evaluated through systematic documentation and interpretation using an intervention tracking tool. In-depth interviews with providers who participated in study-sponsored training were conducted to assess their attitudes toward and experiences with promoting voluntary contraceptive services to HIV-positive clients. Following the intervention, 6% of interviewed PMTCT clients had the desired knowledge about the IUD and 23% had the desired knowledge about female sterilization. At both pre- and post-intervention, 7% of clients were sterilized and IUD use was negligible; by comparison, 75% of clients used injectables. Intervention tracking and in-depth interviews with providers revealed intervention shortcomings and health system constraints explaining the failure to produce intended effects. The intervention failed to improve PMTCT clients' knowledge about the IUD and sterilization or to increase use of

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel Option Study on Hybrid Reactor for Waste Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Hee; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    DUPIC nuclear fuel can be used in hybrid reactor by compensation of subcritical level through (U-10Zr) fuel. Energy production performance of Hyb-WT with DUPIC is grateful because it has high EM factor and performs waste transmutation at the same time. However, waste transmutation performance should be improved by different fissile fuel instead of (U-10Zr) fuel. SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) disposal is one of the problems in the nuclear industry. FFHR (Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor) is one of the most attractive option on reuse of SNF as a waste transmutation system. Because subcritical system like FFHR has some advantages compared to critical system. Subcritical systems have higher safety potential than critical system. Also, there is suppressed excess reactivity at BOC (Beginning of Cycle) in critical system, on the other hand there is no suppressed reactivity in subcritical system. Our research team could have designed FFHR for waste transmutation; Hyb-WT. Various researches have been conducted on fuel and coolant option for optimization of transmutation performance. However, Hyb-WT has technical disadvantage. It is required fusion power (Pfus) which is the key design parameter in FFHR is increased for compensation of decreasing subcritical level. As a result, structure material integrity is damaged under high irradiation condition by increasing Pfus. Also, deep burn of reprocessed SNF is limited by weakened integrity of structure material. Therefore, in this research, SNF option study will be conducted on DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactor) fuel, TRU fuel and DUPIC + TRU mixed fuel for optimization of Hyb-WT performance. Goal of this research is design check for low required fusion power and high waste transmutation. In this paper, neutronic analysis is conducted on Hyb-WT with DUPIC nuclear fuel. When DUPIC nuclear fuel is loaded in fast neutron system, supplement fissile materials need to be loaded together for compensation of low criticality

  15. SURGICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN PRESSURE ULCERS- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THE WORKHORSE FLAP OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja Rajan T. M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pressure ulcers can significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality by chronic infections. Radical debridement of all devitalised and infected tissues followed by a reconstructive algorithm for soft tissue padding over bony prominences to prevent recurrent breakdown are the mainstay of surgical management of pressure ulcers. Choice of the soft tissue flap for reconstruction is influenced by the dimensions of ulcers, local tissue availability and surgeon’s preferences. MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective study includes 140 patients with spinal injuries having pressure ulcers of NPUAP grade III and IV treated surgically over a period of four years. The demographics of pressure ulcers, the workhorse flap options as well as the outcome were analysed. RESULTS The pressure ulcers were seen predominantly in males (93.6% of 40-49 years’ age group (42.8%. Ischial pressure ulcers (n=104 constituted 74.2% followed by sacral pressure ulcers (n=24 that is 17.1% and trochanteric pressure ulcers (n=12 in 8.6%. Debridement and direct closure of wound were possible only in 10 cases. Majority (92.8% of patients needed additional tissues for wound coverage. Our workhorse fasciocutaneous flaps were rotation flaps from the gluteal region or posterior thigh with medial or lateral based designs (34.2%. Local muscle tissue was used in 64 cases (46% either as gluteal, tensor fascia lata and biceps femoris myocutaneous flaps or gluteus maximus, hamstring or gracilis muscle fillers in myoplasty. CONCLUSIONS Rotation flap along with myoplasty were our workhorse flap options in majority of the pressure ulcers. But, our future perspective is to spare muscle and use more fasciocutaneous perforator flaps for reconstruction according to evidence-based clinical practice.

  16. Optional real-time display of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in the microscopic field of view: avoiding communication failures in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecklein, Veit M; Faber, Florian; Koch, Mandy; Mattmüller, Rudi; Schaper, Anika; Rudolph, Frank; Tonn, Joerg C; Schichor, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in neurosurgery has improved patient safety and outcomes. However, a pitfall in the use of IONM remains unsolved. Currently, there is no feasible way for surgeons to interpret IONM waves themselves during operations. Instead, they have to rely on verbal feedback from a neurophysiologist. This method is prone to communication failures, which can lead to delayed or false interpretation of the data. Direct visualization of IONM waves is a way to alleviate this problem and make IONM more effective. Microscope-integrated IONM (MI-IONM) was used in 163 cranial and spinal cases. We evaluated the feasibility, system stability and how well the system integrated into the surgical workflow. We used an IONM system that was connected to a surgical microscope. All IONM modalities used at our institution could be visualized as required, superimposed on the surgical field in the eyepiece of the microscope without obstructing the surgeon's field of vision. Use of MI-IONM was safe and reliable. It furthermore provided valuable intraoperative information. The system merely required a short learning curve. Only minor system problems without impact on surgical workflow occurred. MI-IONM proved to be especially useful in surgical cases where careful monitoring of nerve function is required, e.g., cerebellopontine angle surgery. Here, direct assessment of surgical action and IONM wave change was provided to the surgeon, if necessary (on-off control). MI-IONM is a useful extension of conventional IONM that provides optional real-time functional information to the surgeon on demand.

  17. Factors associated with retention in Option B+ in Malawi: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa M Hoffman

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Interventions that address partner disclosure and strengthen pre-ART education around the benefits of ART for maternal and child health should be evaluated to improve retention in Malawi’s Option B+ programme.

  18. 'Unstructured Data' Practices in Polar Institutions and Networks: a Case Study with the Arctic Options Project

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Arctic Options: Holistic Integration for Arctic Coastal-Marine Sustainability is a new three-year research project to assess future infrastructure associated with the Arctic Ocean regarding: (1) natural and living environment; (2) built environment; (3) natural resource development; and (4) governance. For the assessments, Arctic Options will generate objective relational schema from numeric data as well as textual data. This paper will focus on the ‘long tail of smaller, heterogeneous, and o...

  19. The Impact of the Prior Density on a Minimum Relative Entropy Density: A Case Study with SPX Option Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Neri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of finding probability densities that match given European call option prices. To allow prior information about such a density to be taken into account, we generalise the algorithm presented in Neri and Schneider (Appl. Math. Finance 2013 to find the maximum entropy density of an asset price to the relative entropy case. This is applied to study the impact of the choice of prior density in two market scenarios. In the first scenario, call option prices are prescribed at only a small number of strikes, and we see that the choice of prior, or indeed its omission, yields notably different densities. The second scenario is given by CBOE option price data for S&P500 index options at a large number of strikes. Prior information is now considered to be given by calibrated Heston, Schöbel–Zhu or Variance Gamma models. We find that the resulting digital option prices are essentially the same as those given by the (non-relative Buchen–Kelly density itself. In other words, in a sufficiently liquid market, the influence of the prior density seems to vanish almost completely. Finally, we study variance swaps and derive a simple formula relating the fair variance swap rate to entropy. Then we show, again, that the prior loses its influence on the fair variance swap rate as the number of strikes increases.

  20. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  1. Study on Application of Mobile Radiological Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The mobile radiological monitor has been applied for the radiation level of a nuclear facility in 2011. Based on the requirement, the monitor had been improved, it can measure and save the data of gamma-ray and neutron radiation level, the dose rate and the

  2. Analytic and Experimental Studies of the Errors in Numerical Methods for the Valuation of Options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Lin; J. J. H. Miller; G. I. Shishkin

    2008-01-01

    The value of a European option satisfies the Black-Scholes equation with appropriately specified final and boundary conditions. We transform the problem to an initial boundary value problem in dimensionless form. There are two parameters in the coefficients of the resulting linear parabolic partial differential equation. For a range of values of these parameters, the solution of the problem has a boundary or an initial layer. The initial function has a discontinuity in the first-order derivative, which leads to the appearance of an interior layer. We construct analytically the asymptotic solution of the equation in a finite domain. Based on the asymptotic solution we can determine the size of the artificial boundary such that the required solution in a finite domain in x and at the final time is not affected by the boundary. Also, we study computationally the behaviour in the maximum norm of the errors in numerical solutions in cases such that one of the parameters varies from finite (or pretty large) to small values, while the other parameter is fixed and takes either finite (or pretty large) or small values. Crank-Nicolson explicit and implicit schemes using centered or upwind approximations to the derivative are studied. We present numerical computations, which determine experimentally the parameter-uniform rates of convergence. We note that this rate is rather weak, due probably to mixed sources of error such as initial and boundary layers and the discontinuity in the derivative of the solution.

  3. Studies of Cs3Sb cathodes for the CLIC drive beam photo injector option

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Irene; Doebert, Steffen; Fedosseev, Valentine; Hessler, Christoph; Martyanov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Within the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) project, feasibility studies of a photo injector option for the drive beam as an alternative to its baseline design using a thermionic electron gun are on-going. This R&D program covers both the laser and the photocathode side. Whereas the available laser pulse energy in ultra-violet (UV) is currently limited by the optical defects in the 4thharmonics frequency conversion crystal induced by the0.14 ms long pulse trains, recent measurements of Cs3Sbphotocathodes sensitive to green light showed their potential to overcome this limitation. Moreover, using visible laser beams leads to better stability of produced electron bunches and one can take advantages of the availability of higher quality optics. The studied Cs3Sbphotocathodes have been produced in the CERN photo emission laboratory using the co-deposition technique and tested in a DC gun set-up. The analysis of data acquired during the cathode production process will be presented in this paper, as well as the r...

  4. Outcomes and satisfaction of two optional cadaveric dissection courses: A 3-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Diogo; Casal, Diogo; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Barata, Pedro; Moxham, Bernard J; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2017-03-01

    Teaching time dedicated to anatomy education has been reduced at many medical schools around the world, including Nova Medical School in Lisbon, Portugal. In order to minimize the effects of this reduction, the authors introduced two optional, semester-long cadaveric dissection courses for the first two years of the medical school curriculum. These courses were named Regional Anatomy I (RAI) and Regional Anatomy II (RAII). In RAI, students focus on dissecting the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and perineum. In RAII, the focus shifts to the head, neck, back, and upper and lower limbs. This study prospectively analyzes students' academic achievement and perceptions within the context of these two, newly-introduced, cadaveric dissection courses. Students' satisfaction was assessed anonymously through a questionnaire that included items regarding students' perception of the usefulness of the courses for undergraduate teaching, as well as with regards to future professional activity. For each of the three academic years studied, the final score (1 to 20) in General Anatomy (GA), RAI, and RAII was on average 14.26 ± 1.89; 16.94 ± 1.02; 17.49 ± 1.01, respectively. The mean results were lower in GA than RAI or RAII (P Educ 10: 127-136. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Mineral carbonation: energy costs of pretreatment options and insights gained from flow loop reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, Larry R.; O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Rush, Gilbert E.

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of carbon as a stable mineral carbonate has been proposed to mitigate environmental concerns that carbon dioxide may with time escape from its sequestered matrix using alternative sequestration technologies. A method has been developed to prepare stable carbonate products by reacting CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals in aqueous bicarbonate/chloride media at high temperature and pressure. Because this approach is inherently expensive due to slow reaction rates and high capital costs, studies were conducted to improve the reaction rates through mineral pretreatment steps and to cut expenses through improved reactor technology. An overview is given for the estimated cost of the process including sensitivity to grinding and heating as pretreatment options for several mineral feedstocks. The energy costs are evaluated for each pretreatment in terms of net carbon avoided. New studies with a high-temperature, high-pressure flow-loop reactor have yielded information on overcoming kinetic barriers experienced with processing in stirred autoclave reactors. Repeated tests with the flow-loop reactor have yielded insights on wear and failure of system components, on challenges to maintain and measure flow, and for better understanding of the reaction mechanism.

  6. Synthesis of the study performed by the IRSN regarding safety options of the ATMEA1 reactor; Synthese de l'examen mene par l'IRSN au sujet des options de surete du reacteur ATMEA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The ATMEA1 reactor is a new concept for next generation 1000 MWe pressurized water reactors. This report first recalls the context of the IRSN study of safety options regarding this reactor: a first phase for the examination of these options, and a second phase for the examination of the safety option report and complementary reports on topics identified in phase 1. The main conclusions of phase 1 are recalled, as well as the topics addressed during the several meetings. Then, it lists the significant issues addressed in the different reports associated with these meetings

  7. Decontamination options for Bacillus anthracis-contaminated drinking water determined from spore surrogate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Ellen; Burklund, Alison

    2010-10-01

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination alternatives for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were as follows: (i) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus), (ii) spore concentration in suspension (10(2) and 10(6) spores/ml), (iii) chemical characteristics of the decontaminant (sodium dichloro-S-triazinetrione dihydrate [Dichlor], hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate [Oxone], sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS), (iv) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%), and (v) exposure time to decontaminant (10 min to 1 h). Results from 138 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5% and Dichlor or sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2% were highly effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and a more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting the EPA biocide standard of greater than a 6-log kill after a 10-min exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS and Oxone were less effective as decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for a biocide, although they were found to be as effective for concentrations of 10(2) spores/ml. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  8. Suitability of MEMS Accelerometers for Condition Monitoring: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarbar, Alhussein; Mekid, Samir; Starr, Andrew; Pietruszkiewicz, Robert

    2008-02-06

    With increasing demands for wireless sensing nodes for assets control and condition monitoring; needs for alternatives to expensive conventional accelerometers in vibration measurements have been arisen. Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometer is one of the available options. The performances of three of the MEMS accelerometers from different manufacturers are investigated in this paper and compared to a well calibrated commercial accelerometer used as a reference for MEMS sensors performance evaluation. Tests were performed on a real CNC machine in a typical industrial environmental workshop and the achieved results are presented.

  9. 'Unstructured Data' Practices in Polar Institutions and Networks: a Case Study with the Arctic Options Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic Options: Holistic Integration for Arctic Coastal-Marine Sustainability is a new three-year research project to assess future infrastructure associated with the Arctic Ocean regarding: (1 natural and living environment; (2 built environment; (3 natural resource development; and (4 governance. For the assessments, Arctic Options will generate objective relational schema from numeric data as well as textual data. This paper will focus on the ‘long tail of smaller, heterogeneous, and often unstructured datasets’ that ‘usually receive minimal data management consideration’,as observed in the 2013 Communiqué from the International Forum on Polar Data Activities in Global Data Systems.

  10. Outcomes and Satisfaction of Two Optional Cadaveric Dissection Courses: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Diogo; Casal, Diogo; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Barata, Pedro; Moxham, Bernard J.; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2017-01-01

    Teaching time dedicated to anatomy education has been reduced at many medical schools around the world, including Nova Medical School in Lisbon, Portugal. In order to minimize the effects of this reduction, the authors introduced two optional, semester-long cadaveric dissection courses for the first two years of the medical school curriculum.…

  11. Evaluation of the Individualized Study Program: Reduced Study Load Option and Basic Skills Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Celeste M.

    The Individualized Study Program (ISP) at the University of California, Davis, which is designed to enhance retention of students with academic skill deficiencies, was evaluated. The target group was disadvantaged students who had not met the university's entrance requirements. Attention was focused on two aspects of the program: allowing students…

  12. Study on Lubricating Oil Monitoring Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng-bi

    2006-01-01

    Lubricating oil monitoring has been proven to be an effective method for detecting and diagnosing machinery failures and essential for realizing condition based maintenance. In this paper, mathematical statistics methods for determining the oil parameters featuring machinery failures and the parameters' probability distribution functions and their thresholds are put forward.

  13. The Impact on Family Functioning of Social Media Use by Depressed Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Andrew J; Knight, Tess; Germanov, Galit; Benstead, Michelle Lisa; Joseph, Claire Ingrid; Poole, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents. Method The current study draws upon data collected from parents within the family options randomized controlled trial that examined family ...

  14. The impact on family functioning of social media use by depressed adolescents: a qualitative analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew James Lewis; Tess eKnight; Galit eGermanov; Michelle Lisa Benstead; Claire Ingrid Joseph; Lucinda ePoole

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents.Method: The current study draws upon data collected within the Family Options randomized controlled trial that examined family-based interventions for...

  15. The Impact on Family Functioning of Social Media Use by Depressed Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of the Family Options Study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew James Lewis; Tess eKnight; Galit eGermanov; Michelle Lisa Benstead; Claire Ingrid Joseph; Lucinda ePoole

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents.Method: The current study draws upon data collected within the Family Options randomized controlled trial that examined family-based interventions for...

  16. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  17. Negative emissions—interactions with other mitigation options: a case study for South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowargana, Ping; Leduc, Sylvain; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Fuss, Sabine; Patrizio, Piera; Mesfun, Sennai; Kraxner, Florian

    2017-04-01

    BECCS (here the combination of forest-based bioenergy with carbon capture and storage) is seen as a promising tool to deliver large quantities of negative emissions needed to comply with ambitious climate stabilization targets. In many IPCC AR5 scenarios to stabilize GHG concentration at levels consistent with 2°C above pre-industrial levels, BECCS is an important feature contributing to more than 5% of global energy supply. However, a land-based mitigation option such as large-scale bioenergy production (w/o CCS) might interfere with other land-based mitigation options popular for their large co-benefits such as reforestation and reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+). We develop a systems approach to identify and quantify possible tradeoffs between REDD+ and BECCS with the help of remote sensing and engineering modeling and apply this for illustration to South East Asia. First results indicate that prioritizing REDD+ does imply that the BECCS potential remains limited. However, reforestation has the chance to be developed into a larger portfolio of land-based mitigation options such as bioenergy and BECCS, which still have a very good mitigation potential in terms of emissions, but at the same time help to conserve and restore ecosystems.

  18. Intracranial pressure monitoring, cerebral perfusion pressure estimation, and ICP/CPP-guided therapy: a standard of care or optional extra after brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, M A; Smith, M

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) is used to derive cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and to guide targeted therapy of acute brain injury (ABI) during neurointensive care. Here we provide a narrative review of the evidence for ICP monitoring, CPP estimation, and ICP/CPP-guided therapy after ABI. Despite its widespread use, there is currently no class I evidence that ICP/CPP-guided therapy for any cerebral pathology improves outcomes; indeed some evidence suggests that it makes no difference, and some that it may worsen outcomes. Similarly, no class I evidence can currently advise the ideal CPP for any form of ABI. 'Optimal' CPP is likely patient-, time-, and pathology-specific. Further, CPP estimation requires correct referencing (at the level of the foramen of Monro as opposed to the level of the heart) for MAP measurement to avoid CPP over-estimation and adverse patient outcomes. Evidence is emerging for the role of other monitors of cerebral well-being that enable the clinician to employ an individualized multimodality monitoring approach in patients with ABI, and these are briefly reviewed. While acknowledging difficulties in conducting robust prospective randomized studies in this area, such high-quality evidence for the utility of ICP/CPP-directed therapy in ABI is urgently required. So, too, is the wider adoption of multimodality neuromonitoring to guide optimal management of ICP and CPP, and a greater understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the different forms of ABI and what exactly the different monitoring tools used actually represent.

  19. Survey Probability and Factors affecting Farmers Participation in Future and Option Markets Case Study: Cotton product in Gonbad kavos city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. sakhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Farmers are facing with a variety of natural and unnatural risks in agricultural activities, and thus their income is unstable. A wide range of risks such as risks of production, price risk, financial and human risks, influence the income of agricultural products. One of the major risks that farmers faced is the risk of price volatility of agricultural products. Cotton is one of the agricultural products with high real price volatility. Numerous tools for marketing and risk management for agricultural products in the face of price risks are available. Futures and options contracts may be the most important available tools (to reduce price volatility in agricultural products. The purpose of the current study was to look at the possibility of farmers participations in the future and option markets that presented as a means to reduce the cotton prices volatility. The dependent variable for this purpose had four categories and these included: participate in both the market, participation in the future market, participation in the option market and participation in both future and option markets. Materials and Methods: data gathered with interview and completing 200 questionnaires of cotton growers using simple random sampling. Multinomial Logit Regression Model was used for data analysis. Results and Discussion: To measure content validity of the preliminary study the validity of confirmatory factor analysis were used. For calculating reliability, the pre-test done with 30 questionnaires and reliability, coefficient Cronbach alpha was 0.79. The independence of dependent variables categories was confirmed by Hausman test results. The Likelihood ratio and Wald showed these categories are not combinable. Results indicated into period 2014 -2015 and the sample under study, 35% of cotton growers unwilling to participate in future and option markets. Farmers willingness to participate in future and option market was 19% and %21

  20. NAFTA as an agricultural "policy option" for Mexico : a case study within a two-level framework

    OpenAIRE

    Røssaak, Camilla

    1996-01-01

    NAFTA AS AN AGRICULTURAL 'POLICY OPTION' FOR MEXICO: A CASE STUDY WITHIN A TWO- LEVEL FRAMEWORK The main focus of the thesis was the agricultural negotiation process between Mexico and the United States within the NAFTA process. I wanted to investigate to what extent this process led to changes in Mexican agricultural policy. Furthermore I wanted to find out whose interests were taken into consideration when Mexico negotiated agriculture in NAFTA. If so, was this done at the expense o...

  1. Patient INformation about Options for Treatment (PINOT): a prospective national study of information given to incident CKD Stage 5 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Rachael L; Howard, Kirsten; Webster, Angela C; Snelling, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Informed decision-making requires the presentation of all possible courses of action; however, it is unclear what proportion of Stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are routinely informed of all their treatment options. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of patient and unit characteristics on the type and timing of information provided. A prospective national multi-centre study of information was given to incident pre-emptive transplant, dialysis and conservatively managed patients in Australian renal units, over a 3-month period. Sixty-six of 73 renal units participated in the study. Seven hundred and twenty-one incident CKD Stage 5 patients including 102 who chose not to dialyse were identified. Of these, 603 (84%) were presented with information about their options prior to commencing treatment. Three quarters (n = 543) were presented with home dialysis, one-third (n = 230) pre-emptive transplantation and 65% (n = 470) were informed about conservative care as an option. Patients were more likely to receive information prior to commencing treatment if they were known to a nephrologist for more than 3 months (OR 7.29, 95% CI 3.86-13.79) or were treated in small units with < 100 dialysis patients (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.26-4.60). The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate at the time information was first presented was 13.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI 12.7-13.8) and mean serum creatinine was 449 μmol/L (95% CI 431-467). Most Australian patients were informed of their treatment options prior to starting treatment, albeit in late stage CKD. Earlier education and support for informed decision-making may help optimize the uptake of pre-emptive transplantation and home dialysis therapies.

  2. Modeling studies of water consumption for transportation fuel options: Hawaii, US-48

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. W.; Webber, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    flow restoration that has already been ordered requires that an additional 18.5 Mgal/d from East Maui streams and 12.5 Mgal/d from West Maui streams not be diverted for irrigation or other uses. Further environmental flow requirements based on a habitat-protective standard enumerated by the Department of Aquatic Resources could be an additional 45 Mgal/d. Thus, it is conceivable that over the next several years a total of 76 Mgal/d, which is 20%-30% of the irrigation water at existing sugarcane farms, could be appropriated away from agriculture on Maui. Many locals have never viewed the large-scale diversion of stream flow for agriculture as legitimate. Now that much of the plantation agriculture in Hawai'i has shut down due to lack of competitive economics, the discussion of the priority for use of 'old' agricultural water is prompting more water to be left in streams. At the same time, Hawai'i has goals for energy sustainability that include producing biofuels. Thus, Maui is a microcosm of the struggle for energy and water sustainability. Brief discussions of other studies on the water needs for transportation fuel options for the continental 48 U.S. states will also be presented.

  3. Case Study - Monitoring the Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PACURAR Ana Talida

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic cell represents one of the most dynamic and attractive way to converts renewable energy sources in electricity production. That means to convert solar energy into electricity. In this paper is presented a analogy between two types of photovoltaic panels installed, with educational role for students. Also the objective of this paper is to estimate the performance of photovoltaic panels and to provide the best solution for industry. These two types of photovoltaic panels were monitored at the same time and taking into account the same weather conditions. In introduction of this paper is a short description regarding the silicon, because it is considered to be the most frequently used material for photovoltaic cell production at industrial level. In this context are mentioned below photovoltaic cells: mono-crystalline, polycrystalline, ribbon silicon and amorphous silicon (thin film cells. It is also presented for all these types of cells the structure, the function, the advantages and the disadvantages.

  4. Study of an integrated electronic monitor for neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barelaud, B.; Nexon-Mokhtari, F.; Barrau, C.; Decossac, J.L.; Vareille, J.C. [Limoges Univ., 87 (France); Sarrabayrouse, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France). Lab. d`Automatique et d`Analyse des Systemes

    1994-12-31

    Many neutron beams monitors in 10 keV - 50 keV range are perturbed by gamma radiation impact. This new monitor uses two silicon (junction) diodes operating coincidence detection, combined with an electronic threshold to eliminate gamma background noise. The results and analyses presented here only concern feasibility studies. (D.L.). 11 refs.

  5. More options lead to more searching and worse choices in finding partners for romantic relationships online: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pai-Lu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-06-01

    It is not surprising that the Internet has become a means by which people expand their social networks and form close relationships. Almost every online-dating Web site provides members with search tools. However, do users truly benefit from more complete searches of a large pool of possibilities? The present study, based on the cognitive perspective, examined whether more search options triggered excessive searching, leading to worse choices and poorer selectivity. We argue that more search options lead to less selective processing by reducing users' cognitive resources, distracting them with irrelevant information, and reducing their ability to screen out inferior options. A total of 128 Taiwanese late adolescents and adults with experience in online romantic relationships participated in an experimental study. After entering the characteristics they found desirable in a partner in such a relationship, participants were randomly assigned to receive one of three levels of available profiles. The dependent measures consisted of the number of profiles searched, the average preference difference for all profiles viewed, the preference difference for the chosen profile, and the degree of selectivity. These measures were used to determine whether more attention was devoted to better alternatives and less attention to worse alternatives. The data supported the predictions. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.

  6. Use of the Paid Open Access Option in Hybrid Open Access Journals in Agriculture: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Kocher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use and usefulness of the hybrid open access publishing model in agricultural sciences using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. To ascertain the level of usage of the paid open access option in hybrid open access journals in agriculture, we studied the agriculture-related journals published by six commercial publishers. These publishers offer authors the option of paying a fee, often close to $3,000 per article, to make their article immediately freely available, usually with a Creative Commons license. We defined agriculture broadly but also assigned each journal to a subspecialty (e.g., animal science in order to see if there were differences based on these subdivisions. For each journal we gathered data for 2014-2015 and noted the total number of research articles and the number of those that were made freely available by authors paying the open access fee. To give context to our results we also surveyed local faculty in agricultural sciences, asking their reasons for considering the paid open access options and the sources of the funds to pay for it. Survey respondents were asked about their academic position and rank to see if there were differences to be noted. We also investigated the findability of the open access articles, noting if each individual publisher offered a way to easily locate all the freely available articles in a particular journal and if there are other avenues to easily locate these articles.

  7. Developing and Implementing Climate Change Adaptation Options in Forest Ecosystems: A Case Study in Southwestern Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Halofsky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will likely have significant effects on forest ecosystems worldwide. In Mediterranean regions, such as that in southwestern Oregon, USA, changes will likely be driven mainly by wildfire and drought. To minimize the negative effects of climate change, resource managers require tools and information to assess climate change vulnerabilities and to develop and implement adaptation actions. We developed an approach to facilitate development and implementation of climate change adaptation options in forest management. This approach, applied in a southwestern Oregon study region, involved establishment of a science–manager partnership, a science-based assessment of forest and woodland vulnerabilities to climate change, climate change education in multiple formats, hands-on development of adaptation options, and application of tools to incorporate climate change in planned projects. Through this approach, we improved local manager understanding of the potential effects of climate change in southwestern Oregon, and enabled evaluation of proposed management activities in the context of climatic stressors. Engaging managers throughout the project increased ownership of the process and outcomes, as well as the applicability of the adaptation options to on-the-ground actions. Science–management partnerships can effectively incorporate evolving science, regardless of the socio-political environment, and facilitate timely progress in adaptation to climate change.

  8. [Strategic options for the relationship-management between hospital and statutory health insurance - an explorative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, V; Rossbach, C

    2010-05-01

    This investigation examines the specific demands of statutory health insurance organisations on hospitals. The need for such an analysis is determined by the increasing competition in the German health care system in the past years. Hospitals are confronted with growing and perhaps conflictual demands on the hospital's stakeholders. An empirical investigation should provide first insight into the widely unexplored relationship between statutory health insurances and hospitals. For this reason, 23 explorative interviews with managers of hospitals and statutory health insurance organisations were conducted. The resulting demands are structured and assigned to identified areas of demand. Aspects which are important for statutory health insurance organisations and aspects that hospitals assume are important were compared. Thus, an existing gap was identified. Furthermore, options for statutory health insurance (dis-)satisfaction are shown. Such an analysis is essential for hospitals to develop and maintain a positive relationship to the statutory health insurances and to achieve competitive advantages. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  9. Trying to compensate. Latest ranking of CEO compensation finds stock options still key to pay as experts monitor for effects of SEC rule changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloro, Vince; Vesely, Rebecca; Zigmond, Jessica

    2007-07-30

    Despite past outcries from critics, stock options continue to play a starring, albeit smaller, role in compensation for CEOs at top companies, based on research by accounting professor Steven Balsam, left. Read about the 30 healthcare executives who brought home the biggest pay packages in our annual ranking of CEOs' compensation.

  10. Traffic monitoring using handheld GSM phones. Part B: Simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catalano, S.; Van der Zijpp, N.J.

    2002-01-01

    Revised version of LVV rapport, VK 2001.004. This report contains the description of a novel map-matching algorithm, and the results of a simulation study into the feasibility of traffic monitoring using handheld mobile phones.

  11. Biological characteristics as a part of pollution monitoring studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    Ecosystem modifications can be considered as an integral part of any pollution monitoring studies and in such cases community structure/diversity is of prime importance. Considering this advantage of aquatic life, pelagic and benthic communities...

  12. Climate change and maritime transport on the Saint Lawrence : exploratory study of adaptation options; Changements climatiques et transport maritime sur le Saint-Laurent : etude exploratoir d'options d'adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Arcy, P. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Quebec Region, PQ (Canada); Bibeault, J.F. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Raffa, R. [Transport Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Some climate change scenarios envisage a decrease in water levels in the Saint Lawrence Seaway, which could have appreciable impacts on commercial navigation. This study focused on climate adaptation options that would allow maritime and harbour activities to remain at their current level. The study was divided into two parts. The first part evaluated the modelled water levels in the river part of the St. Lawrence from Montreal to Quebec City. The evaluation was carried out using a numerical hydraulic model which integrated the results of the most recent climatic scenarios for the Great Lakes Basin, the Ottawa River and apprehended rising ocean levels. According to the worst case climatic scenario, the decrease in water levels could reach 1 meter in Montreal and 30 centimetres at Trois-Rivieres. Simulations identified the area around Becancour as the limit for the effect of water level decrease. New regulations to be adopted by the International Joint Committee will seek to share the impacts between the upstream, Great Lakes and the downstream, Saint Lawrence Seaway. The paper emphasized the complexity of predicting the recurrence of hydrological events of this magnitude because of the uncertainty of climatic conditions. The second part of the study presented 2 options for commercial navigation in changing water levels. The first option excluded any physical modification from the river, while the second included alteration work. The economic, environmental and social impacts of both options were discussed. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. A quasi-experimental study on a new service option for short-term residential care of older stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau PH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pui-hing Chau,1 Fannie Yeung,2 Tsz-wai Chan,1 Jean Woo2 1School of Nursing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Abstract: We conducted a quasi-experimental study to compare the effectiveness of a new short-term residential care option for stroke rehabilitation with that of usual day hospital care. Primary data were collected from stroke patients and their caregivers from June 2009 to May 2012. New service option users and their caregivers were recruited for the intervention group, while users of usual public geriatric day hospital care and their caregivers were recruited for the control group. The primary outcome measures were Modified Barthel Index (MBI and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE scores. Trained research assistants assessed the outcome measures at the beginning of the rehabilitation program (baseline and at a 4-month follow-up. Sixty and 128 stroke patients were recruited for the intervention and control groups, respectively; 50 and 105 participants, respectively, completed the 4-month follow-up. At 4-month follow-up, the intervention group had an increased MBI score of 15.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.8–19.8 and an MMSE score of 1.3 (95% CI 0.4–2.1. In comparison, the control group had an increased MBI score of 13.3 (95% CI 9.7–16.8 and an MMSE score of 1.1 (95% CI 0.4–1.9. Both groups showed a significant improvement in MBI and MMSE scores after 4 months, and there was no significant between-group difference. To conclude, the new service option and the usual care option showed similar improvement in rehabilitation outcomes at 4 months after baseline. Initiatives to provide alternative care options on a user-pay model should be encouraged to ensure a sustainable health care system. Keywords: rehabilitation, residential care, day hospital, stroke, elderly, Hong Kong

  14. Field-lysimeter and Column Studies As Complementary Survey Tools For Monitored Natural Attenuation (mna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totsche, K. U.; Hensel, D.; Jann, S.; Jaesche, P.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Scheibke, R.

    The contamination of the unsaturated soil zone with organic pollutants (PAH, BTEX, PCB, Phenols, etc.) and pollutant mixtures, e.g. light/dense non-aqueous phase liq- uids (L/D-NAPLs), represents a specific challenge for sanitation and remediation of contaminated sites. Monitored natural attenuation as an alternative option for remedi- ation of such sites requires (1) the proof of an effective pollutant reduction potential and (2) the proof that a further spreading of the contaminants and their potentially toxic metabolites is minimized to an acceptable minimum concentration level. These demands apply equally likely to contaminated soil and groundwater environments. However, a major problem arises when the task is to monitor the release and transport of contaminants within the unsaturated soil zone over a longer period (> 10 years) of time at an expenditure as small as possible. The aim of our presentation is to employ and test a survey technique to monitor pollutant release and redistribution within the unsaturated soil zone in the context of MNA. The proposed technique is based on the combination of laboratory-column and field-lysimeter studies. The first is used to ac- quire knowledge on the governing processes, the latter is used to monitor release and transport of the contaminants.

  15. Study on Venture Capital Investment Risk Avoiding Base on Option Pricing in Agricultural Production and Processing Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper uses the approaches and models of option theory to analyze two-stage venture capital investment in agricultural production and processing enterprises decision-making under uncertainty. Mathematics expressions of this two-stage venture capital investment decision-making are presented. An option value model about two-stage venture capital investment decision-making base on options pricing theory under the uncertainty is presented. Get the solution of option pricing model which we present.

  16. A Preliminary Study on Choosing Sports Tourism as a Leisure Time Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Stancu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: It has long been acknowledged that, when speaking about sports tourism, we must consider, on one side, tourism-an economic and social phenomenon that is specific to modern civilization and on the other side sports-the most widely spread social phenomenon in the world. No other events had such a complex unfolding than sports events, and tourism had undoubtedly become one of the world’s greatest industries. Our assumption was that physical education and sports teachers have successfully contributed to the accomplishment of objective of “forming the habit of practicing physical exercise for recreational, emulative and compensatory purposes throughout the life span”. Approach: To test this assumption we have initiated a sociological research: a questionnaire was applied on a sample of 50 persons. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential procedures. Results: The results allowed the confirmation of stated research hypotheses. We have shown that practicing a performance sport is significantly related with preference for risk, adventure tourism (Chi-square = 6,614, d.f. = 1, p = 0,010. Conclusions: Citizen’s option for sports tourism activities were shown to be relevant for physical education and sports teachers, in order to better organize their activities.

  17. Studies on nonsense mediated decay reveal novel therapeutic options for genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyam, Murali D

    2009-01-01

    Scientific breakthroughs have often led to commercially viable patents mainly in the field of engineering. Commercialization in the field of medicine has been restricted mostly to machinery and engineering on the one hand and therapeutic drugs for common chronic ailments such as cough, cold, headache, etc, on the other. Sequencing of the human genome has attracted the attention of pharmaceutical companies and now biotechnology has become a goldmine for commercialization of products and processes. Recent advances in our understanding of basic biological processes have resulted in the opening of new avenues for treatment of human genetic diseases, especially single gene disorders. A significant proportion of human genetic disorders have been shown to be caused due to degradation of transcripts for specific genes through a process called nonsense mediated decay (NMD). The modulation of NMD provides a viable therapeutic option for treatment of several genetic disorders and therefore has been a good prospect for patenting and commercialization. In this review the molecular basis for NMD and attempts to treat genetic diseases which result from NMD are discussed.

  18.  Euro Membership as a Real Option Trigger: An Empirical Study of EU15 Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    ) to exercise real options such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch suppliers, and to generally expand in the Euro-area. The results are robust after controlling for the size of the firms and their sales in the Euro-area. The results go beyond what......This empirical study of manufacturing firms (NAICS 33) in the EU15 countries shows that the introduction of the Euro has made Euro firms (firms based in one of the twelve Euro countries) more inclined than non-Euro firms (firms based in one of the three non-Euro countries: UK, Sweden and Denmark...

  19. Development of a telemedical monitoring concept for the care of malnourished geriatric home-dwelling patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Matthias; van den Berg, Neeltje; Kraft, Kathleen; Schmekel, Stefanie; Gärtner, Simone; Krüger, Janine; Meyer, Jens; Lerch, Markus M; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    Elderly patients are at high risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, promoting further morbidity which in turn decreases quality of life and increases the claiming of medical services and associated costs. Early and sustained administration of oral nutritional supplements has been shown to improve the nutritional status with robust clinical benefit. Many patients however, poorly adhere to prescribed supplements, so consistent monitoring is needed. Clinical monitoring usually ends with the discharge rendering the continuation of nutritional supplement therapy in the patient's home problematic. We developed a telemedicine based health care concept for intensive home monitoring. In a first randomized controlled prospective study we analyzed the feasibility of this innovative approach. The intervention group received oral nutritional supplements and telemedical monitoring with daily assessment of body weight, number of taken oral energy supplements and state of health. The control group received usual care. 13 patients were included in each group, eight patients of the intervention group left the study prematurely, five patients were closely monitored and used the devices for a mean 67 ± 63.5 days. Follow up data of body weight and BMI showed no relevant differences between both groups. The results and experiences gained in this pilot study demonstrate that telemedical systems provide encouraging new options to enable an intensive monitoring of malnourished patients. A continuous intensive therapy monitoring of this patient group however, is a particular challenge. Albeit possibilities, limitations and useful parameters were identified, which will be used to improve the conception in an ongoing prospective randomized trial.

  20. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method.

  1. Saliva Crystallization Occurs in Female Bornean Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus): Could It Be a New Option for Monitoring of Menstrual Cycle in Captive Great Apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubátová, Anna; Fedorova, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Saliva crystallization was previously studied in both humans and animals with various results. The study aimed to confirm of the presence of saliva crystallization in female Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), to evaluate the quality of samples which were collected from animals and processed by keepers, and to test preliminarily if the saliva crystallization could be connected with menstrual cycle and could serve as a cheap, quick and simple method for the basic monitoring of their reproductive status. The research was carried out from September 2014 to January 2015. Sampling of saliva was done in three female orangutans from three zoological gardens (Dvur Kralove, Usti nad Labem, Bojnice) daily, mostly by tongue prints on glass slides with ground edges or by sampling directly from the mouth using plastic spoons from which the saliva was transferred onto glass slides. Samples were evaluated by light microscopy with ×400 magnification. The quality of the sample and type of crystallization was assessed for two different approaches. In total, 246 samples were evaluated. We confirmed the presence of saliva crystallization in orangutans. The quality of samples was variable however acceptable. Unfortunately, it was impossible to detect exact fertile period in two females. However in one orangutan female, when the crystallization was evaluated by the approach typically used in humans, we discovered that saliva crystallization during the fertile period significantly differed from saliva crystallization in the non-fertile period. This points out the possibility of using saliva crystallization for detection of the fertile period in orangutans. However, further research was recommended.

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patricia Ingrid, Keller

    2012-01-01

    .... So for the present study we researched the possible strategies, identifying those options to successfully integrate the dimensions of sustainability into organizational development from a systems...

  3. Impact of FFS on farmer's adoption of IPM options for tomato: A case study from the Gezira State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mirghani Abdel Rahman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan pests and diseases are the major problem of vegetables production. Tomato crop is considered as the most important vegetable crop in the country according to its economic and nutrition value. There are many pest and diseases retarding tomato production such as whitefly, American bollworm, TYLCV and powdery mildew. Therefore some IPM options for tomato and onion were validated in FFS in order to help farmers in controlling the most important pests and diseases. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of FFS on farmer's adoption of IPM options for tomato in the Gezira State, Sudan. Field survey was used to collect data from three Farmer Field Schools in the Gezira State namely: Um Dagarsi, Hantoub and Faris in the 2009/2010 growing season. All FFS participants were used, i.e. 30 FFS- participants from each school. Equal number of non-FFS participants (90 was used for comparison, by using the simple random sampling technique. The collected data were statistically analyzed and interpreted using percentage, frequency distribution and chi-square test. The results showed that the FFS schools were positively affected farmer's adoption of IPM options for tomato. It can be concluded that the FFS approach is very efficient in the transfer of farm technology for vegetable farmers through their participation in various activities of FFS schools. Thus, FFS approach must become national policy, share authority of extension organizations in control and execution of FFS activities with farmer unions for more effective participations of clientele in all activities of the schools and More efforts should be exerted in distribution of all inputs to farmers with reasonable prices through various agricultural centres.

  4. Mars ISRU for Production of Mission Critical Consumables - Options, Recent Studies, and Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Paz, A.; Oryshchyn, L.; Araghi, K.; Muscatello, A.; Linne, D.; Kleinhenz, J.; Peters, T.

    2015-01-01

    In 1978, a ground breaking paper titled, "Feasibility of Rocket Propellant Production on Mars" by Ash, Dowler, and Varsi discussed how ascent propellants could be manufactured on the Mars surface from carbon dioxide collected from the atmosphere to reduce launch mass. Since then, the concept of making mission critical consumables such as propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables from local resources, commonly known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), for robotic and human missions to Mars has been studied many times. In the late 1990's, NASA initiated a series of Mars Human Design Reference Missions (DRMs), the first of which was released in 1997. These studies primarily focused on evaluating the impact of making propellants on Mars for crew ascent to Mars orbit, but creating large caches of life support consumables (water & oxygen) as a backup for regenerative life support systems for long-duration surface stays (>500 days) was also considered in Mars DRM 3.0. Until science data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter and subsequent robotic missions revealed that water may be widely accessable across the surface of Mars, prior Mars ISRU studies were limited to processing Mars atmospheric resources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and water vapor). In December 2007, NASA completed the Mars Human Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study which considered water on Mars as a potential resource for the first time in a human mission architecture. While knowledge of both water resources on Mars and the hardware required to excavate and extract the water were very preliminary, the study concluded that a significant reduction in mass and significant enhancements to the mission architecture were possible if Mars water resources were utilized. Two subsequent Mars ISRU studies aimed at reexamining ISRU technologies, processing options, and advancements in the state-of-the-art since 2007 and to better understand the volume and packaging associated

  5. Novel operative treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Regionally contaminated aquifers--toxicological relevance and remediation options (Bitterfeld case study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Susanne; Schirmer, Mario; Weiss, Holger; Wycisk, Peter; Grossmann, Jochen; Kaschl, Arno

    2004-12-15

    Large-scale contaminated megasites like Bitterfeld in eastern Germany are characterized by a regional contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater as a result of a long and varied history of chemical production. While the contaminants in soils and sediments mostly represent a localized problem, pollutants in groundwater may spread to uncontaminated areas and endanger receptors like surface water and drinking water wells according to the site-specific hydrologic regime. From the toxicological point of view, the contaminants at the Bitterfeld megasite represent a dangerous cocktail of various harmful substances coming from a multitude of sources. Appropriate remediation techniques must be able to remedy the specific problems arising from hot spot areas within the megasite in addition to preventing a further extension of the contaminated zone towards uncontaminated compartments. Therefore, a combination of specifically designed remediation technologies based on the pump and treat-principle with in situ technologies, such as reactive walls and monitored/enhanced natural attenuation, is necessary to efficiently address the miscellaneous challenges at this megasite. In this paper, the currently known contaminant distribution, the associated problems for human health and the environment and possible remediation strategies are presented for the Bitterfeld megasite.

  7. Social Studies Progress Monitoring and Intervention for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Sarah J.; Lembke, Erica S.; Curs, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technical adequacy of vocabulary-matching curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to identify and monitor the progress of 148 middle school students in social studies. In addition, the effectiveness of a reading comprehension intervention, Collaborative Strategic Reading (Klingner, Vaughn, Dimino, Schumm, & Bryant, 2001),…

  8. Cross - Currency Hedging Using Options

    OpenAIRE

    Suri, Akshay

    2006-01-01

    In today's competitive global markets, most firms are vulnerable to increasing fluctuation in foreign exchange, which is leading them to make use of Currency Derivatives to hedge their risks. Among the several derivatives available, Currency Options are the second most popular instrument used to hedge currency risk. Options are a very distinctive set of instruments that are available to hedge Currency risk. This study provides empirical evidence on why companies employ Currency Options to hed...

  9. Integrating futures studies with organizational development : design options for the scenario project "RSW2020"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twist, van M.J.W.; Steen, van der M.; Vlist, van der M.J.; Demkes, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Most futures studies are not used by managers and strategists and do not influence the direction of organizational development. Although the contribution of future studies to management is in theory all but self-evident, the practice in organizations is that futures knowledge is hardly used, or at m

  10. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS ON BINOMIAL TREE METHODS FOR AMERICAN LOOKBACK OPTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴民

    2001-01-01

    Lookback options are path-dependent options. In general, the binomial tree methods,as the most popular approaches to pricing options, involve a path dependent variable as well as the underlying asset price for lookback options. However, for floating strike lookback options, a single-state variable binomial tree method can be constructed. This paper is devoted to the convergence analysis of the single-state binomial tree methods both for discretely and continuously monitored American floating strike lookback options. We also investigate some properties of such options, including effects of expiration date, interest rate and dividend yield on options prices,properties of optimal exercise boundaries and so on.

  11. A Comparison of Platform Options for Deep-water Floating Offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: An Initial Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Diana L; Fowler, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    This analysis utilizes a 5 - MW VAWT topside design envelope created by Sandia National Laborator ies to compare floating platform options fo r each turbine in the design space. The platform designs are based on two existing designs, the OC3 Hywind spar - buoy and Principal Power's WindFloat semi - submersible. These designs are scaled using Froude - scaling relationships to determine an appropriately sized spar - buoy and semi - submersible design for each topside. Both the physical size of the required platform as well as mooring configurations are considered. Results are compared with a comparable 5 - MW HAWT in order to identify potential differences in the platform and mooring sizing between the VAWT and HAWT . The study shows that there is potential for cost savings due to reduced platform size requirements for the VAWT.

  12. Comparative study of two portable systems for oral anticoagulant monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Marta; Lafuente, Pedro José; Unanue, Iciar; Iriarte, José Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Portable prothrombin time (PT) monitors offer the potential for both simplifying and improving oral anticoagulation management. It is necessary to evaluate their concordance and correlation with other PT systems. Our objective was to evaluate the concordance and clinical correlation of two portable PT determination systems, ProTime (ITC) and CoaguChek S (Roche Diagnostics). In all, 20 healthy individuals and 60 anticoagulated patients stabilized over 3 months in a therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (INR) range between 2-3.5 were studied. A drop of capillary blood was obtained simultaneously from two different fingers of each patient and applied to the monitor's application zone. The mean INR of the patients' blood samples of the two monitors differed by 0.01 units (2.32+/-0.63 for Pro Time and 2.33+/-0.68 for CoaguChek). The percentage of simple concordance and the kappa index were 88.3 and 75.9%, respectively. The coefficient of correlation was 0.922. The mean difference (bias) between the monitors was 0.01. The portable PT monitors evaluated presented a high percentage of concordance in INR results.

  13. Experiment Study of Fiber Optic Sensing in Railway Security Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian Fan; De-Sheng Jiang; Wei-Lai Li

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at some security problems in railway running and the application condition of existing technology, this paper studies some issues of using fiber optic sensing technology in railway security monitoring. Through field experiment measuring the strain of the rail and analyzing the experiment data, the method of diagnosing the health condition of rail and wheel is investigated.

  14. Monitoring dental erosion by colour measurement : An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J. B.; Zijp, J. R.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a method to monitor dental erosion by evaluation of the colour change of teeth as a function of enamel loss, and to evaluate the reproducibility of the method used. Methods: Light reflectance spectra of 12 extracted human incisors were measured using

  15. Option price and market instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  16. eHealth in the primary prevention of cognitive decline; The Brain Aging Monitor study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, T.

    2016-01-01

    Based on this thesis, it can be concluded that using eHealth interventions on modifiable lifestyle risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer’s disease, appears to be a viable option. I describe the validation of a new online, fast-to-play self-monitor instrument aimed at f

  17. Referenced-site environmental document for a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility: backup waste management option for handling 1800 MTU per year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silviera, D.J.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cushing, C.E.; Marshall, A.; Scott, M.J.; Sewart, G.H.; Strenge, D.L.

    1985-06-01

    This environmental document includes a discussion of the purpose of a monitored retrievable storage facility, a description of two facility design concepts (sealed storage cask and field drywell), a description of three reference sites (arid, warm-wet, and cold-wet), and a discussion and comparison of the impacts associated with each of the six site/concept combinations. This analysis is based on a 15,000-MTU storage capacity and a throughput rate of up to 1800 MTU per year.

  18. Classroom Learning Communities in Educational Leadership: A Comparison Study of Three Delivery Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Carol; Polnick, Barbara; Fink, Raymond, II; Oescher, Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated the perceptions of educational leadership graduate students with regard to how well their face-to-face, online and hybrid classes built a sense of classroom community. Perceptions were measured using the Classroom Community Scale (CCS), which included three measures: total classroom community, connectedness,…

  19. Assessment of cleaner process options : a case study from petroleum refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, N. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy; Chevron Ltd., Pembroke Point (United Kingdom); Clift, R.; Basson, L. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy; Pouton, A.; White, N. [Chevron Ltd., Pembroke Point (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    A case study was used to illustrate the challenge of evaluating clean technologies and making modifications to an alkylation unit at a refinery in the United Kingdom. The alkylation unit used hydrogen flouride as an alkylation catalyst and generated fluoridic wastes that required further treatment. The alkylation process is used to produce a high value petroleum blend used for transport fuels. Acidic catalysts are used to eliminate the need for high temperatures and pressures. The study identified possible alterations to enable partial recycling. Different system boundaries were identified. The study considered technological, social, environmental and economic changes associated with the implementation of the process. A life cycle inventory of various processes considered for the refinery was presented. Possible technological changes that could avoid, reduce, or enable partial recycling waste were presented. Losses to relief systems, defluorinators, potassium hydroxide (KOH) treaters, and neutralization systems were also considered. Results of the study showed that the decision-making process involved trade-offs between costs and benefits with considerable uncertainties. It was concluded that the financial scale of projects cannot be used as a guide to systematic sustainability assessment. 50 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  1. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by using...... stocks' exposure to crude oil option information. Option-implied information can also help construct better mean-variance portfolios and better estimates of market beta....

  2. Feasibility Study on: Reforestation of Degraded Grasslands in Indonesia as a Climate Change Mitigation Option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, A.; Naess, L.O.; Sutamihardja, R.T.M.; Gintings, N.

    1996-12-31

    The report deals with a cooperation project between Norway and Indonesia dealing with a feasibility study on sustainable reforestation of degraded grasslands in Indonesia. Poor forest management and uncontrolled land use changes contribute a significant share anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO{sub 2}, and one of many ways to reduce the CO{sub 2} emission is to encourage reforestation and better forest management. The report contains a brief overview of the issue of Imperata (alang-alang) grasslands, an outline of the present status, a discussion of potential costs and benefits associated with reforestation, and suggestions of strategies which could be applied to reach the desired goals. Case studies are presented from three locations where field work has been undertaken. The case studies provide baseline data about the sites and the imperata grasslands, experiences from earlier efforts to rehabilitate the grasslands, the common attitude to reforestation among the local communities, a discussion of the feasibility of reforestation, and finally, recommendations for the future. 142 refs., 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Development of Carbon Sequestration Options by Studying Carbon Dioxide-Methane Exchange in Hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Kristine Nicole

    Gas hydrates form naturally at high pressures (>4 MPa) and low temperatures (climate change point of view, a 100 ppm increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels over the past century is of urgent concern. A potential solution to both of these issues is to simultaneously exchange CH4 with CO 2 in natural hydrate reserves by forming more stable CO2 hydrates. This approach would minimize disturbances to the host sediment matrix of the seafloor while sequestering CO2. Understanding hydrate growth over time is imperative to prepare for large scale CH4 extraction coupled with CO2 sequestration. In this study, we performed macroscale experiments in a 200 mL high-pressure Jerguson cell that mimicked the pressure-temperature conditions of the seafloor. A total of 13 runs were performed under varying conditions. These included the formation of CH4 hydrates, followed by a CO2 gas injection and CO2 hydrate formation followed by a CH4 gas injection. Results demonstrated that once gas hydrates formed, they show "memory effect" in subsequent charges, irrespective of the two gases injected. This was borne out by the induction time data for hydrate formation that reduced from 96 hours for CH4 and 24 hours for CO2 to instant hydrate formation in both cases upon injection of a secondary gas. During the study of CH4-CO2 exchange where CH4 hydrates were first formed and CO2 gas was injected into the system, gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the cell indicated a pure CH4 gas phase, i.e., all injected CO2 gas entered the hydrate phase and remained trapped in hydrate cages for several hours, though over time some CO2 did enter the gas phase. Alternatively, during the CH 4-CO2 exchange study where CO2 hydrates were first formed, the injected CH4 initially entered the hydrate phase, but quickly gaseous CO2 exchanged with CH4 in hydrates to form more stable CO2 hydrates. These results are consistent with the better thermodynamic stability of CO2 hydrates, and this appears to be a

  4. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  5. Options for preventing postlaminectomy adhesion:a comparative study in rabbit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞军; 周跃

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To compare the various methods for prevention of peridural adhesion.Methods:Laminectomy was performed in lumbar1,3and 5segments in 30adult rabbits that were divided into5groups.A10mm×5mm dura was exposed,and then covered with autogenou puriffieds pearl fat(APPF)mixed with basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF)in Group A,with APPE treated with insulin in GroupB,with APPF in Group C,with2%sodium hyaluronate(SHA)in Group D,and uncovered in GroupE.The slide sections for histological study were observed at2,4,6,8and 12weeks postoperatively,The speciment were observed with a computed imaging analysis system at 4and8weeks postoperatively.

  6. Studies of Short Time Response Options for Potentially Hazardous Objects: Current and Forthcoming Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Greenaugh, Kevin C.; Seery, Bernard D.; Bambacus, Myra; Leung, Ronald Y.; Finewood, Lee; Dearborn, David S. P.; Miller, Paul L.; Weaver, Robert P.; Plesko, Catherine; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) are collaborating on Planetary Defense Research. The research program is organized around three case studies: 1. Deflection of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroid (PHA) 101955 Bennu (1999 RQ36)[OSIRIS-REx mission target], 2. Deflection of the secondary member of the PHA 65803 Didymos (1996 GT) [DART mission target], 3. Deflection of a scaled-down version of the comet 67PChuryumov-Gerasimenko [Rosetta mission target]. NASAGSFC is providing astrodynamics and spacecraft mission design expertise, while NNSA, DOE, LLNL, LANL and SNL are providing expertise in modeling the effects of kinetic impactor spacecraft and nuclear explosive devices on the target objects.

  7. Policy Options for Private Forest Owners in Western Balkans: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersudin AVDIBEGOVIĆ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Private forest owners start to play an important role in Western Balkans’ forestry and they are essential to the successful implementation of environmental policies. Little is known about how forest policy can support private forest owners in these countries and therefore this study was conducted though a qualitative method, based on personal interviews with representatives of 54 stakeholders that include state forest authorities and administration, private forest owners associations, forest science and research and private sector in Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The results show significant homogeneity across the region towards creation of independent interest forest owners associations based on financial support. Regression analysis identified stakeholder attitudes as significant predictors of policy preferences and also identified owners of production forest as more supportive of such policies

  8. Option of the European Steppe Frontier in Modern Russian and Ukrainian Cossacks Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslak V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to research the specific using of the frontier paradigm in the study on Cossack history by contemporary Russian and Ukrainian historiography. There are examined views of Russian and Ukrainian historians on the following issues: the genesis of the views on the Cossack communities as a special ethno-social organisms at Europe’s Great Frontier, the characteristics of the inter-ethnic contact zone in the stretch of steppes from the Dnipro to the Terek, the views on the interaction between Cossack communities and the non-Christian Cossack formations on the other side of the Christian-Muslim frontier, the emergence of the research approach based on the conception of the balance of confrontational and non-confrontational contacts and mutual impacts.

  9. Lifestyle modification and metformin as long-term treatment options for obese adolescents: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Margaret

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a serious health concern affecting over 155 million children in developed countries worldwide. Childhood obesity is associated with significantly increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychosocial functioning problems (i.e., depression and decreased quality of life. The two major strategies for management of obesity and associated metabolic abnormalities are lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy. This paper will provide the background rationale and methods of the REACH childhood obesity treatment program. Methods/design The REACH study is a 2-year multidisciplinary, family-based, childhood obesity treatment program. Seventy-two obese adolescents (aged 10-16 years and their parents are being recruited to participate in this randomized placebo controlled trial. Participants are randomized to receive either metformin or placebo, and are then randomized to a moderate or a vigorous intensity supervised exercise program for the first 12-weeks. After the 12-week exercise program, participants engage in weekly exercise sessions with an exercise facilitator at a local community center. Participants engage in treatment sessions with a dietitian and social worker monthly for the first year, and then every three months for the second year. The primary outcome measure is change in body mass index and the secondary outcome measures are changes in body composition, risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, changes in diet, physical activity, and psychosocial well-being (e.g., quality of life. It is hypothesized that participants who take metformin and engage in vigorous intensity exercise will show the greatest improvements in body mass index. In addition, it is hypothesized that participants who adhere to the REACH program will show improvements in body composition, physical activity, diet, psychosocial functioning and risk factor profiles for type 2

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions of waste management processes and options: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barrera, Belen; Hooda, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    Increasing concern about climate change is prompting organisations to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions. Waste management activities also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In the waste management sector, there has been an increasing diversion of waste sent to landfill, with much emphasis on recycling and reuse to prevent emissions. This study evaluates the carbon footprint of the different processes involved in waste management systems, considering the entire waste management stream. Waste management data from the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, London (UK), was used to estimate the carbon footprint for its (Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames) current source segregation system. Second, modelled full and partial co-mingling scenarios were used to estimate carbon emissions from these proposed waste management approaches. The greenhouse gas emissions from the entire waste management system at Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames were 12,347 t CO2e for the source-segregated scenario, and 11,907 t CO2e for the partial co-mingled model. These emissions amount to 203.26 kg CO2e t(-1) and 196.02 kg CO2e t(-1) municipal solid waste for source-segregated and partial co-mingled, respectively. The change from a source segregation fleet to a partial co-mingling fleet reduced the emissions, at least partly owing to a change in the number and type of vehicles.

  11. Tropical Peat Swamp Management Options: A Case Study Using System Dynamic in Southern Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical peat forest ecosystems have multiple benefits as regulating hydrological system, carbon storage, timber and non-timber products, and protecting the biodiversity. Lack of understanding of these functions, short-term economic benefits is more preferable despite reducing its ecological benefits. This study proposed a system dynamics model of tropical peat forest ecosystem in determining its optimum management for extractive utilizations (timber and non-timber forest products, environmental services, and biodiversity. A dynamics model was used to describe changes in peatland and forest cover, biomass accumulation and carbon storage, and total economic value of tropical peat forest ecosystem in Trumon and Singkil, Southern Aceh. The projection showed that peat forest ecosystem benefits would decline in the long term if degradations continue at the same rate over last decade. Efforts to change the primary peat forest to plantation would reduce the total economic value of ecosystem and biodiversity values at level -19.63% and -26.28% from current conditions. Carbon emissions were increased at 117.32 ton CO2 eq ha-1 year-1, higher than average of carbon losses from peatland oxidation. Preserving 50% of forest vegetation on moderate depth and protection very deep peatlands would reduce emission -6.96% to -35.06% and increase forest carbon storage at significant rate +15.06% to +63.32%, respectively. These mitigation schemes would improve the biodiversity and hydrological function. Forest rehabilitation with agroforestry practices will enhance carbon uptake, especially on degraded lands.

  12. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy option: A case study in development strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G.; Pate, R.; Hill, R.

    Renewable energy technologies, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaics (PV), and wind energy have made significant gains in cost and performance in the past decades. As a result, there have been high expectations on the part of the public for these sources to play a major role in future energy supply, especially as environmental concerns about conventional sources increase. Despite these past gains and high expectations, the global potential of renewable energy technologies still remains largely untapped, principally because of issues of industrialization and user acceptance. There is increasing recognition that government energy programs must incorporate a broader strategy than the traditional basic research role if they are to address these issues. Essential elements of this strategy are affordable technology, a healthy industry, sustained market growth, user acceptance, and equitable policy and financial environments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in solar electric conversion have already started the development of the required broader based effort. This paper presents the status of that work, using the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program as a case study.

  13. Preliminary study of impact of fuel options on performance of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Montanez, P.; Bezler, P.

    2002-01-01

    A study of the sensitivity to fuel type and composition on the performance of two Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) concepts is presented. The performance measures are the specific impulse and the thrust/weight (T/W) ratio, and the concepts considered are based on the NERVA and ESCORT reactors. For the NERVA concept use of alternative fissile materials showed significant reductions in core mass which improves the values of T/W. However, launch safety considerations may be the dominant factor in selection of fissile material. The use of ternary carbide based fuels allows higher exhaust temperatures, but due to their higher density reduces T/W. The use of molybdenum based cermets, and cermets which use UN or UC2 fuel allow for significant reductions in the reactor mass, and thus an increase in T/W. However, the use of molybdenum reduces the exhaust temperature. Both these results for the NERVA and ESCORT based systems indicate the need to axially zone the core. The lower temperature but lighter material should be used in the cooler (<2500 K) parts of the core, and the heavier, higher temperature material should be used in the outlet end of the core. In addition, the thermal response, and implied stress is estimated for the NERVA concept. .

  14. Retrospective study on therapy options of brain metastases surgery versus stereotactic radiotherapy with the linear accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Fortunati, M K S

    2001-01-01

    Background: in the therapy of brain metastases there has been a great progress in the last years. It was shown, that more aggressive therapies can not only extend the survival of the patients, but also improve quality of life. The major question of this study was, whether surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy with the linear accelerator show better results in behalf of the survival. Beside this major question many parameters regarding the patient or his primary cancer were examined. Methods: from the 1st of January 1995 until the 30th of June 2000 233 patients with one or more brain metastases have been treated in the Wagner Jauregg Landesnervenkrankenhaus Oberoesterreich (WJ LNKH OeO). The LINAC has been established on the 1st of July 1997. The patients have been distributed in three groups: 1. LINAC-group: 81 patients have been treated from the 1st of July 1997 until the 30th of June 2000 with the LINAC. 2. Surgery-group: 81 patients have been operated from the 1st of July 1997 until the 30th June 2000. 3 Co...

  15. Evaluation of organics removal options. A case study from a zero liquid discharge power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quagraine, Emmanuel K.; Hill, Keith Dean; Omorogbe, Fredrick [Shand Power Station, Estevan (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    Although the role of organics in power plant cycle chemistry still appears to be controversial, their adverse effects in the course of makeup water treatment are very familiar and include fouling of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the organic/bio-fouling experience in a boiler makeup water treatment train for a zero liquid discharge plant, which draws on treated sewage water and surface water for cooling and utilizes the cooling tower blowdown to make distillate water from an evaporator prior to final treatment with a mixed bed demineralizer. In a case study, which is the focus of this paper, the performance of the pilot plants of two recommended organic removal techniques (i.e. reverse osmosis and organic trap resin) were compared to the existing activated carbon bed for organic removal prior to the mixed beds. Parameters evaluated for these three techniques (before and after each unit) include bacteria plate counts, organic carbons, inorganic nutrients (e.g. NH{sub 3}-N, [NO{sub 3}{sup -}+ NO{sub 2}{sup -}]-N, P, Mn, and Fe), known parameters that could significantly impact on the performance of the mixed beds (i.e. SiO{sub 2}, Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}), and various others like pH, conductivity, turbidity, HCO{sub 3}{sup -} etc. The effects of oxidizing (i.e. bleach) and non-oxidizing (glutaraldehyde) biocides on the performance of the activated carbon filter were also evaluated.

  16. Studies on prevalence, risk indicators and control options for tick infestation in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nady M. Asmaa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was conducted at Benisuef district to determine the current situation and associated determinants of tick infestations in ruminants and to assess the efficacy of three different types of insecticides against tick infestation under field conditions. Total of (1082 animals of different species (540 cattle, 230 buffaloes, 108 of each sheep & goats and 96 camels were selected randomly and examined carefully for tick infestation. About (30.1% of total observed animals were found tick infested with highest rate in cattle (60.5% followed by goats (25.9%, buffaloes (17.8%, sheep (14.8% while no tick infestation recorded in camels. The most prevalent tick's species affecting ruminants was Boophilus annulatus (26.5% followed by Hyalomma anatolicum (6.1% then Rhipicephalus turanicus (3.4%. Regarding the associated risk factors, tick infestation was found statistically significant (P 3 years (78.8% followed by at age, ≤2 months (57.8% and during summer months were found highly significant (P < 0.01 in cattle ( 76.5% followed by goats and sheep (33.3% & 22.9% resp., comparing with results in winter. The preferred sites of ticks' attachment to infested animals were udders and external genitalia (70.7% of each then Neck & chest (63.0% of each, inner thighs (61.1%, perineum (41.7%, ears (14.6%, around eyes (11.7%. The obtained results revealed that poor husbandry practices of small holder farmers be a determinant making the animals more prone to tick infestation in this district. Improving the hygienic conditions associated with treatment of infested cattle with Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg b.wt, S/C and spraying of Deltamethrin (1% for surrounding environment twice every 14 days are recommended for control of tick infestation under field condition.

  17. Pain alleviation during castration of piglets: a comparative study of different farm options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, F; Scollo, A; Contiero, B; Ravagnani, A; Tavella, G; Bernardini, D; De Benedictis, G M; Edwards, S A

    2016-12-01

    Pain alleviation associated with castration of piglets is an important welfare issue. The present study compares the effect of different approaches and products suitable for farmer use, with the aim to alleviate pain due to castration in piglets. A randomized within-litter design, with 28 replicate litters, compared 7 treatments: handling () restraint of the piglet and manipulation of the scrotum, castration without pain relief (), 2 treatments (, ) with different concentrations of tetracaine (2 and 6%) applied topically 10 min before and immediately post-surgery, and 3 treatments with i.m. injection of different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs () 10 min prior to surgery (-meloxicam, -ketoprofen, -tolfenamic acid). Efficacy of pain relief was assessed during a 300 min period after castration by serum cortisol, behavior (walking, lying, suckling, in the nest, isolated and pain related: tremors, rubbing the rear, hunching, wagging of the tail), facial expression and scrotal skin pressure sensitivity. C pigs had greater serum cortisol concentration than all other groups at 60 min post-surgery ( < 0.001), while H pigs had lower concentrations than pigs given topical anesthesia ( < 0.001) though not injected analgesia. No treatment differences were significant at 180 min, but at 300 min cortisol concentration was greater in T2 and T6 piglets than those given NSAIDs ( = 0.03). These treatment differences were mirrored by the pressure sensitivity of the scrotum; in comparison with C piglets, those given NSAIDs showed a reduced sensitivity ( 0.003) but those given local anesthesia did not ( = 0.15). C pigs showed increased frequency of pain-related behavior in the first 30 min in comparison with all other treatments, more time isolated than H or NSAID treatments, and more time standing inactive than H or K treatments. No behavioral differences were apparent after 60 min. No differences in facial expressions were observed among treatments. In conclusion, on

  18. A Study of the electronic information monitoring of bruxism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinglu Zhang; Xinmin Yin; Zongxin Yao

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Bruxism is the term used for teeth grinding or jaw clenching. An electronic monitor of bruxism was developed to evaluate bruxism duration and frequency. Methods: Ten cases were selected in the Department of Prosthodontics of Jiangsu Stomatological Hospital to evaluate the monitor. A stabilization occlusal splint was fabricated for each of the 10 cases. The vertical dimension for each splint was 0.5 mm lower than mandibular postural position. Some sensors had been prearranged at each splint which could transfer the variation of the biting force into electronic signals. The data of sleeping duration, grinding duration and grinding frequency were recorded with this new type of bruxism monitor, which had been specifically invented to study bruxism. Results:The data from 10 bruxism cases were collected and the results were considered reliable. Subjects nocturnal duration parameters did not change significantly from night-to-night. Conclusion:The bruxiam monitor can automatically measure and record bruxism data using an occlusal splint. This device is valuable for diagnosis and evaluation of bruxism.

  19. Comparative study of optical fiber cure-monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Peter A.; Powell, Graham R.; Fernando, Gerard F.; Waters, David N.; France, Chris M.; Spooncer, Ronald C.

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study undertaken for different types of optical fiber sensor developed to monitor the cure of an epoxy resin system. The optical fiber sensors used to monitor the cure process were based on transmission spectroscopy, evanescent wave spectroscopy and refractive index monitoring. The transmission sensor was prepared by aligning two optical fibers within a specially prepared sleeve with a gap between the optical fiber end-faces. During cure, resin from the specimen flowed into the gap between the optical fibers allowing transmission spectra of the resin to be obtained. The evanescent wave sensor was prepared by stripping the cladding from a high refractive index core optical fiber. The prepared sensor was embedded in the sample and attenuated total reflectance spectra recorded from the resin/core boundary. Refractive index monitoring was undertaken using a high refractive index core optical fiber which had a small portion of its cladding removed. The prepared sensor was embedded in the resin specimen and light from a single wavelength source was launched into the fiber. Changes in the guiding characteristics of the sensor due to refractive index changes at the resin/core boundary were used to monitor the progress of the cure reaction. The transmission and evanescent wave spectroscopy sensors were used to follow changes in characteristic near-infrared absorption bands of the resin over the range 1450 - 1700 nm during the cure reaction. Consequently these techniques required tunable wavelength sources covering specific wavelength ranges. However, the refractive index based sensor used a single wavelength source. Therefore the equipment costs for this type of sensor were considerably less. Additionally, the refractive index sensor did not require a single wavelength source at any particular wavelength and could be applied to any spectral region in which the optical fiber would transmit light. The advantages and disadvantages of these

  20. Menopause: Weighing Your Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Menopause Weighing Your Treatment Options Past Issues / Winter 2017 ... What led you to study older women and menopause? I started studying women's health many years ago ...

  1. CONDITIONAL ASIAN OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Runhuan Feng; Volkmer, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    Conditional Asian options are recent market innovations, which offer cheaper and long-dated alternatives to regular Asian options. In contrast with payoffs from regular Asian options which are based on average asset prices, the payoffs from conditional Asian options are determined only by average prices above certain threshold. Due to the limited inclusion of prices, conditional Asian options further reduce the volatility in the payoffs than their regular counterparts and have been promoted i...

  2. Implementing Monitoring Systems in Mobile Applications – a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian DOSPINESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the evolution of mobile applications allowed the developers to become more and more creative. In this way, we can imagine many applications models with a real impact in the real life. In this article we are trying to present a case study for a monitoring sys-tem using the Android platform and the benefits of computer networks. We use the power of mobile sockets and mobile threads, integrating them in a complex architecture in order to ob-tain a real monitoring system. As an immediate application, we propose a baby monitoring sys-tems so that the children could be remotely supervised by their parents. The case study is based on an Android mobile client-server architecture and also uses the capabilities offered by the phone’s speaker and microphone. We intend to have a robust application and that’s why we in-itially preferred Network Service Discovery and Android P2P, but these functionalities are im-plemented starting with Android 4.1. So, we emulated all these functionalities by using a model based on sockets and server sockets.

  3. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Stefka; Vasileva, Liliya; Ivanova, Stanislava; Peikova, Lily; Obreshkova, Danka

    2015-01-01

    The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993 as 'a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures'. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized.

  4. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Stefka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO in 1993 as ‘a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures’. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized.

  5. Examining mutable reform options for urban schools with multilevel analysis in the National Educational Longitudinal Study:88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John Kyle

    2000-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of science course taking and school urbanicity on students' science achievement levels. More specifically, this study analyzed the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) with multilevel techniques to investigate mutable reform options for urban schools in the area of science achievement. This study provided a unique insight into current research because all analyses were conducted with both ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and multilevel modeling techniques. Results from the comparison of OLS and multilevel techniques showed little effect on either overestimation or underestimation between the OLS weighted sample and the multilevel analysis. Although the differences between these two analyses were small, the multilevel techniques were optimized when the differences between schools was largest. Results from the multilevel and weighted analyses produced large differences when compared against the unweighted analysis. The unweighted sample consistently overestimated the coefficients of slope for each of the predictor variables. Because of these findings, researchers should be strongly cautioned against interpreting analyses run with the NELS:88 dataset without a weighted sample or without multilevel techniques. The results from the multiple regression analysis in both multilevel modeling and weighted OLS indicated that students who had parents who attended a school event, were not afraid to ask questions in science class, spent more time on homework each week, did not attend a school where science was taught in a non-English language, and had parents who belonged to a parent/teacher organization scored higher in terms of student science achievement than did their urban counterparts who did not meet these qualifications. From these results, several recommendations were made for schools concerning ways they could improve science education, including fostering attitudes of inquiry in science, increasing the

  6. Interferon Beta-1a (AVONEX® as a Treatment Option for Untreated Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (AXIOM: A Prospective, Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and safety of first-line disease-modifying therapies (DMT for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS has been demonstrated in pivotal, randomized trials, but these studies do not reflect the routine care setting where treatment gaps or switches are common. The Avonex as Treatment Option for Untreated MS Patients (AXIOM trial assessed the efficacy of newly-initiated intramuscular interferon beta-1a (IM IFNb-1a after a treatment-free interval, with particular consideration of the previous course of disease and therapy. The AXIOM trial was an open, 12-month, observational, non-interventional study with a retrospective and a prospective part conducted in Germany. RRMS patients with a treatment-free interval of at least three months were included and treated with IFNb-1a for up to 12 months. Relapse rate, disability progression, injection-related parameters and quality of life observed during the prospective part were compared with retrospectively-collected data. Two hundred and thirty five RRMS patients participated in AXIOM. The mean relapse rate decreased from 1.1 in the three months before baseline to 0.2 per quarter during the twelve-month observational period; the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score improved during twelve months of IM IFNb-1a treatment, while the Expanded Disability Status Scale score did not change over the course of this study. Compared to previous DMTs (IM IFNb-1a, subcutaneous IFNb-1a (SC IFNb-1a, SC IFNb-1b, glatiramer acetate, the patients experienced less injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms, with a stated improved quality of life. IM IFNb-1a was effective and well accepted in RRMS patients with no or discontinued previous therapy. These results from the routine care setting may inform optimization of DMT treatment in RRMS, but need confirmation in further studies.

  7. Analysis of Options Contract, Option Pricing in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tamidy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk is an essential component in the production and sale of agricultural products. Due to the nature of agricultural products, the people who act in this area including farmers and businesspersons encounter unpredictable fluctuations of prices. On the other hand, the firms that process agricultural products also face fluctuation of price of agricultural inputs. Given that the Canola is considered as one of the inputs of product processing factories, control of unpredictable fluctuations of the price of this product would increase the possibility of correct decision making for farmers and managers of food processing industries. The best available tool for control and management of the price risk is the use of future markets and options. It is evident that the pricing is the main pillar in every trade. Therefore, offering a fair price for the options will be very important. In fact, options trading in the options market create cost insurance stopped. In this way, which can reduce the risks of deflation created in the future, if the person entitled to the benefits of the price increase occurs in the future. Unlike the futures, market where the seller had to deliver the product on time, in the options market, there is no such compulsion. In addition, this is one of the strengths of this option contract, because if there is not enough product for delivery to the futures market as result of chilling, in due course, the farmers suffer, but in the options market there will be a loss. In this study, the setup options of rape, as a product, as well as inputs has been paid for industry. Materials and Methods: In this section. The selection criteria of the disposal of asset base for valuation of European put options and call option is been introduced. That for obtain this purpose, some characteristics of the goods must considered: 1-Unpredictable fluctuations price of underlying asset 2 -large underlying asset cash market 3- The possibility

  8. A study of reactor monitoring method with neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, Kunihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the methodology of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) monitoring with neural networks, which create the plant models by the learning of the past normal operation patterns. The concept of this method is to detect the symptom of small anomalies by monitoring the deviations between the process signals measured from an actual plant and corresponding output signals from the neural network model, which might not be equal if the abnormal operational patterns are presented to the input of the neural network. Auto-associative network, which has same output as inputs, can detect an kind of anomaly condition by using normal operation data only. The monitoring tests of the feedforward neural network with adaptive learning were performed using the PWR plant simulator by which many kinds of anomaly conditions can be easily simulated. The adaptively trained feedforward network could follow the actual plant dynamics and the changes of plant condition, and then find most of the anomalies much earlier than the conventional alarm system during steady state and transient operations. Then the off-line and on-line test results during one year operation at the actual NPP (PWR) showed that the neural network could detect several small anomalies which the operators or the conventional alarm system didn't noticed. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis suggests that the plant models by neural networks are appropriate. Finally, the simulation results show that the recurrent neural network with feedback connections could successfully model the slow behavior of the reactor dynamics without adaptive learning. Therefore, the recurrent neural network with adaptive learning will be the best choice for the actual reactor monitoring system. (author)

  9. Emergency power supply for households. A study on wishes and options; Noodstroomvoorziening voor huishoudens. Een onderzoek naar wensen en mogelijkheden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouwels, W.

    2007-03-04

    The objective of this study is to list the options and desirability of emergency power supply for households. The study maps practical information in relation to emergency power supply and contributes to insight in the development of security of supply. Moreover, research has been conducted among consumers, the outcome of which contributes to the existing scientific knowledge in relation to the theory of planned behavior and risk perception. Moreover, the study provides insight in the consumers' purchase intentions with regard to emergency power supply and the coming about of this intention. The first part addresses the technical aspects of this project, i.e. the need for and the solutions regarding emergency power supply. In the second part, the human aspect in this project is addressed, with main focus on the theory of planned behavior and risk perception. [mk]. [Dutch] Het doel van het huidige onderzoek is het inventariseren van de mogelijkheden en wenselijkheid van noodstroomvoorziening voor huishoudens. In het onderzoek is praktische informatie met betrekking tot noodstroomvoorzieningen in kaart gebracht en een bijdrage geleverd aan het inzicht in de ontwikkeling van de leveringszekerheid. Tevens is er onderzoek gedaan onder consumenten waarvan de uitkomsten een bijdrage leveren aan de reeds aanwezige wetenschappelijke kennis met betrekking tot de theorie van gepland gedrag en risicoperceptie. Daarnaast geeft het onderzoek inzicht in de aanschafintentie voor een noodstroomvoorziening door consumenten en de totstandkoming van deze intentie. Het eerste deel gaat in op de technische aspecten van dit project, te weten de noodzaak en de oplossingen met betrekking tot noodstroomvoorzieningen. In het tweede deel wordt ingegaan op het menselijke aspect binnen dit project, met als speerpunt de theorie van gepland gedrag en risicoperceptie.

  10. The Impact on Family Functioning of Social Media Use by Depressed Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of the Family Options Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; Knight, Tess; Germanov, Galit; Benstead, Michelle Lisa; Joseph, Claire Ingrid; Poole, Lucinda

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents. The current study draws upon data collected from parents within the family options randomized controlled trial that examined family based interventions for adolescent depression (12-18 years old) in Melbourne, Australia (2012-2014). Inclusion in the trial required adolescents to meet diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Disorders. The transcripts of sessions were examined using qualitative thematic analysis. The transcribed sessions consisted of 56 h of recordings in total from 39 parents who took part in the interventions. The thematic analysis explored parental perceptions of their adolescent's use of social media (SM) and access to Internet content, focusing on the possible relationship between adolescent Internet use and the adolescent's depressive disorder. Two overarching themes emerged as follows: the sense of loss of parental control over the family environment and parents' perceived inability to protect their adolescent from material encountered on the Internet and social interactions via SM. Parents within the context of family based treatments felt that prolonged exposure to SM exposed their already vulnerable child to additional stressors and risks. The thematic analysis uncovered a sense of parental despair and lack of control, which is consistent with their perception of SM and the Internet as relentless and threatening to their parental authority and family cohesion.

  11. The impact on family functioning of social media use by depressed adolescents: a qualitative analysis of the Family Options Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew James Lewis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent depression is a prevalent mental health problem, which can have a major impact on family cohesion. In such circumstances, excessive use of the Internet by adolescents may exacerbate family conflict and lack of cohesion. The current study aims to explore these patterns within an intervention study for depressed adolescents.Method: The current study draws upon data collected within the Family Options randomized controlled trial that examined family-based interventions for adolescent depression (12-18 years old in Melbourne (2012-2014. Inclusion in the trial required meeting diagnosis for a Major depressive disorder via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Disorders (KID-SCID. The transcripts of sessions from 7 group treatments were examined using qualitative thematic analysis. The transcribed sessions consisted of 56 hours of recordings in total from 39 parents who took part in the interventions.Results: The thematic analysis explored parental perceptions of their adolescent’s use of social media and access to Internet content, focusing on the possible relationship between adolescent Internet use and the adolescent’s depressive disorder. Two overarching themes emerged: The sense of loss of parental control over the family environment, and parents’ perceived inability to protect their adolescent from material encountered on the Internet and social interactions via social media.Conclusions: The excessive use of social media often interacted with cyber-bullying and altered the adolescent’s understanding of friendship. Parents within the context of family based treatments felt that prolonged exposure to social media exposed their already vulnerable child to cyber-bullying. The thematic analysis uncovered a sense of parental despair and lack of control, which is consistent with their perception of social media and the internet as relentless and threatening to their parental authority and family cohesion.

  12. The Interaction between Real Options and Financial Hedging: An Empirical Study of Danish Non-Financial Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    The interaction between real options and financial hedging is analyzed empirically. A majority of Danish non-financial companies either (1) chooses at times not to hedge an exchange rate operating exposure financially due to the possibility of the company to react to changes in exchange rates...... by undertaking real actions (exercising real options) such as to abandon a market or establish production in a foreign country or (2) thinks it is likely that they will actually react to changes in exchange rates by undertaking such real actions. The role of real options in actual management of exchange rate...... exposures depends on the economic sector in which the company operates and the size of the company. Companies in Materials (and Consumer Discretionary) are significantly more inclined to undertake various real actions than is the case with companies in Industrials. The same holds for small and large...

  13. Dual vs. single computer monitor in a Canadian hospital Archiving Department: a study of efficiency and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Godbout, Sylvie T; Bellemare, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of clinical coding by Archivists (also known as Clinical Coders in some other countries) using single and dual computer monitors. In the present context, processing a record corresponds to checking the available information; searching for the missing physician information; and finally, performing clinical coding. We collected data for each Archivist during her use of the single monitor for 40 hours and during her use of the dual monitor for 20 hours. During the experimental periods, Archivists did not perform other related duties, so we were able to measure the real-time processing of records. To control for the type of records and their impact on the process time required, we categorised the cases as major or minor, based on whether acute care or day surgery was involved. Overall results show that 1,234 records were processed using a single monitor and 647 records using a dual monitor. The time required to process a record was significantly higher (p= .071) with a single monitor compared to a dual monitor (19.83 vs.18.73 minutes). However, the percentage of major cases was significantly higher (p= .000) in the single monitor group compared to the dual monitor group (78% vs. 69%). As a consequence, we adjusted our results, which reduced the difference in time required to process a record between the two systems from 1.1 to 0.61 minutes. Thus, the net real-time difference was only 37 seconds in favour of the dual monitor system. Extrapolated over a 5-year period, this would represent a time savings of 3.1% and generate a net cost savings of $7,729 CAD (Canadian dollars) for each workstation that devoted 35 hours per week to the processing of records. Finally, satisfaction questionnaire responses indicated a high level of satisfaction and support for the dual-monitor system. The implementation of a dual-monitor system in a hospital archiving department is an efficient option in the context of scarce human resources and has the

  14. Comparative study of different treatment options of grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcers to reduce the incidence of amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poras Chaudhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the efficacy of antiseptic dressings, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and recombinant human platelet derived growth factor (rhPDGF for two reasons: i to reduce the incidence of lower limb amputations in diabetic foot ulcer; ii to limit the duration of stay in the hospital. A prospective randomized trial was conducted on 60 patients with stage III and IV diabetic foot ulcers (International Association of Enterostomal Therapy classification and patients were divided randomly in three different therapy groups - antiseptics, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, recombinant platelet derived growth factor, with 20 patients in each group. Patients were managed initially on inpatient and then on outpatient basis till the ulcer healed completely. Results among three groups were compared using unpaired T test and the level of significance was set at P<0.05 using ANOVA. This study compares the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, antiseptic dressings, and rhPDGF in grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcers. P value (0.0348 was significant for complete wound contraction while p value healing time (0.6534 and ulcer size (0.0593 in the groups was not significant. PDGF is safe, effective and easy to apply. Results are comparable with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy and cost of treatment is lower than other therapies. Diabetic foot ulcer management requires multidisciplinary and aggressive approach. PDGF should be recommended for all grade III and IV diabetic foot ulcer at least 8 weeks old. HBO is equally good an option but has limitations and side effects.

  15. Evaluation of call options

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道平

    2002-01-01

    The European and American call options,for which the prices of their underlying asset follow compound Poisson process,are evaluated by a probability method.Formulas that can be used to evaluate the options are obtained,which include not only the elements of an option:the price of the call option,the exercise price and the expiration date,but also the riskless interest rate,nevertheless exclude the volatility of the underlying asset.In practice,the evaluated results obtained by these formulas can proved references of making strategic decision for an investor who buys the call option and a company who sells the call option.

  16. Assessments of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in decision making: a systematic review of studies using the OPTION instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couet, N.; Desroches, S.; Robitaille, H.; Vaillancourt, H.; Leblanc, A.; Turcotte, S.; Elwyn, G.; Legare, F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have no clear overview of the extent to which health-care providers involve patients in the decision-making process during consultations. The Observing Patient Involvement in Decision Making instrument (OPTION) was designed to assess this. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review studies t

  17. Farmers' Options to Address Water Scarcity in a Changing Climate: Case Studies from two Basins in Mediterranean Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Lisandro; Poblete, David; Meza, Francisco; Kerrigan, George

    2016-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean areas faces tremendous challenges because of its exposure to hydroclimatic variability, increasing competition for water from different sectors, and the possibility of a climatic change. In this context, efficient management of water resources emerges as a critical issue. This requires the adoption of technological innovations, investment in infrastructure, adequate institutional arrangements, and informed decision makers. To understand farmers' perceptions and their implementation of climate change adaptation strategies with regards to water management, primary information was captured in the Limarí and Maule river basins in Chile. Farmers identified stressors for agriculture; climate change, droughts, and lack of water appeared as the most relevant stressors compared to others productive, economic, and institutional factors; revealing a rising relevance of climate related factors. While most producers perceived climate changes in recent years (92.9 %), a significant proportion (61.1 %) claim to have experienced drought, whereas only a fraction (31.9 %) have implemented a strategy to deal with this situation. Identified actions were classified in four groups: investments for water accumulation, modernization of irrigation systems, rationalization of water use, and partnership activities. Using a multinomial logit model these strategies were related to socioeconomic and productive characteristics. Results show that gender and farm size are relevant for investments, implementation and improvement of irrigation systems. For all the strategies described, access to weather information was a relevant element. The study provides empirical evidence of a recent increase in the importance assigned to climate factors by producers and adaptation options that can be supported by agricultural policy.

  18. A study of space station needs, attributes and architectural options. Final briefing: Cost working group discussion session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The economic factors involved in the design and utilization of the space station are investigated. Topics include the economic benefits associated with research and production, the orbit transfer vehicle, and satellite servicing. Program costs and design options are examined. The possibilities of financing from the private sector are discussed.

  19. A Preliminary Feasibility Study On Seismic Monitoring Of Polymer Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P. K.; Park, C.; Lim, B.; Nam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Polymer flooding using water with soluble polymers is an enhanced oil recovery technique, which intends to maximize oil-recovery sweep efficiency by minimizing fingering effects and as a result creating a smooth flood front; polymer flooding decreases the flow rates within high permeability zone while enhances those of lower permeabilities. Understanding of fluid fronts and saturations is critical to not only optimizing polymer flooding but also monitoring the efficiency. Polymer flooding monitoring can be made in single well scale with high-resolution wireline logging, in inter-well scale with tomography, and in reservoir scale with surface survey. For reservoir scale monitoring, this study makes a preliminary feasibility study based on constructing rock physics models (RPMs), which can bridge variations in reservoir parameters to the changes in seismic responses. For constructing RPMs, we change reservoir parameters with consideration of polymer flooding to a reservoir. Time-lapse seismic data for corresponding RPMs are simulated using a time-domain staggered-finite-difference modeling with implementation of a boundary condition of conventional perfect match layer. Analysis on time-lapse seismic data with respect to the changes in fluid front and saturation can give an insight on feasibility of surface seismic survey to polymer flooding. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2012T100201588). Myung Jin Nam was partially supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MEST) (No. 2011-0014684).

  20. GSM-R信令监测选择录音系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of an Optional Voice Recording System Based on GSM-R Signaling Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余松平; 蔡志平; 吴建进; 谷凤芝

    2014-01-01

    Traditional voice recording system based on GSM-R has limitations that communication events and part of calls can’ t be recor-ded,and the need for special support of the GSM-R network. In this paper,the Optional Voice Recording System ( OVRS) based on the GSM-R signaling monitoring is proposed,with signaling monitoring technologies to analyze the process of calling signaling,recording voice alternatively according to recording rules and tracking communication events relating to voice call,which effectively solves the a-bove problem. The OVRS is easy to plan,manage,secure,operate and maintain. First,the hardware architecture and software system de-signing of OVRS are introduced. Second,the key technologies of OVRS are elaborated,which includes the automatic identification of the signaling link,optional recording and DXC equipment control. Finally,the system implementation and experimental results are described, and the system application prospects,social benefits and future work are explained.%基于GSM-R的传统的录音系统具有通信事件和部分通话无法记录的局限,并且需要GSM-R网络的特别支持。文中提出了一种基于GSM-R信令监测的选择录音系统( OVRS),通过信令监测技术,对呼叫信令流程进行分析,根据录音规则选择性地记录语音和与语音通话相关的事件,有效解决了以上问题,具有易规划、易管理、安全保密、易操作、易维护的特点。首先介绍了OVRS系统的硬件架构和软件系统设计;然后,阐述了系统包含的信令链路自动识别、选择录音、DXC设备控制等关键技术;最后,描述了系统的实现方案和实验结果,并对该系统的应用前景和社会效益、未来的工作进行了展望。

  1. Correction Methods for Organic Carbon Artifacts when Using Quartz-Fiber Filters in Large Particulate Matter Monitoring Networks: The Regression Method and Other Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling and handling artifacts can bias filter-based measurements of particulate organic carbon (OC). Several measurement-based methods for OC artifact reduction and/or estimation are currently used in research-grade field studies. OC frequently is not artifact-corrected in larg...

  2. Equity Portfolio Management Using Option Price Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    We survey the recent academic literature that uses option-implied information to construct equity portfolios. Studies show that equity managers can earn a positive alpha by using information in individual equity options, by using stocks' exposure to information in market index options, and by usi...

  3. Smart garment for trunk posture monitoring: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Man

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor postures of the spine have been considered in association with a number of spinal musculoskeletal disorders, including structural deformity of the spine and back pain. Improper posturing for the patients with spinal disorders may further deteriorate their pain and deformities. Therefore, posture training has been proposed and its rationale is to use the patient's own back muscles to keep the spine within the natural curvature. A posture training device may help to facilitate this therapeutic approach by providing continuous posture monitoring and feedback signals to the patient when "poor" posture is detected. In addition, the users of the device may learn good postural habits that could carry over into their whole life. Methods A smart garment with integrated accelerometers and gyroscopes, which can detect postural changes in terms of curvature variation of the spine in the sagittal and coronal planes, has been developed with intention to facilitate posture training. The smart garment was evaluated in laboratory tests and with 5 normal subjects during their daily activities. Results Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system is Conclusion The smart garment has been developed to be a portable and user-friendly trunk posture monitoring system and it could be used for collection of the trunk posture information and provision of instant feedback to the user if necessary for posture training purpose. The current pilot study demonstrated that the posture of normal subjects could be monitored and trained via this smart garment. With further clinical investigations, this system could be considered in some flexible spinal deformities such as scoliosis and kyphosis.

  4. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  5. Case study feasibility analysis of renewable energy supply options for small to medium-sized tourist accommodations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, G.J.; Lockington, D.A.; Baldock, T.E. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Queensland, 3rd Floor, Hawken Building, Brisbane, St Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    This paper outlines a feasibility analysis of renewable energy supply (RES) for small to medium-scale tourist operations (less than 100 beds) dependent on stand-alone supplies. The analysis utilised the power load data from three accommodation case studies that had RES/hybrids already installed. The accommodation sites, chosen from diverse locations within Australia, varied in both climatic and geographic characteristics. The assessment criteria for the analysis were net present cost (NPC), renewable factor (RF) and payback time. The specific operational characteristics of the tourism accommodation sector, such as 24-h operation, comfort provision and low tolerance for failure, necessitates a separate assessment of RES viability for this sector, rather than relying on similar assessments from other commercial and domestic sectors, which may not be representative. This study utilised RES assessment software, HOMER (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, US) in order to compare the present RES/hybrid configuration to diesel generator-only (genset-only), RES-only and optimised RES/hybrid configurations. Analysis of both actual data and modeling results demonstrated that RES can adequately and reliably meet the power demand for stand-alone small to medium-scale tourist accommodations. Optimisation, achieved by further addition of RES to the existing configurations, reduced NPC in the majority of cases, with the added benefit of increased RF. Furthermore, NPC for these optimised RES/hybrid configurations were comparable to the optimised genset-only configurations. Modeling of conversions to RES-only configurations demonstrated this option as uneconomical unless existing RF was already high. Results indicated that wind energy conversion systems (WECS), rather than photovoltaics, were the most economical RES for sampled hybrid systems. For example, the payback time of the WECS/hybrids was approximately 3-4 years compared to PV/hybrids at 6-7 years. Hydrogen fuel cells and

  6. [Interventional neuroradiology: current options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikora, István; Marosfői, Miklós; Berentei, Zsolt; Gubucz, István

    2015-04-26

    Modern interventional neuroradiology has a leading role in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and it provides more and more important treatment options for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and the management of correlated pain. During the last decades interventional neuroradiology has played a primary role in the treatment of intracranial berry aneurysms due to the continuous technical improvements. Ongoing studies proved superiority of mechanical stent-thrombectomy in acute proximal occlusion of cerebral arteries. Less invasive neurointerventional methods, such as vertebroplasty, are widely used in osteoporotic and neoplastic pathologic fractures of the vertebral bodies. These treatments should be performed in a specialized center by well trained physicians.

  7. [Comparative study of two techniques of ciclosporine monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Rim; El Jebari, Hanène; Gaïes, Emna; Charfi, Ons; Jebabli, Nadia; Thouraya, Riahi; Ben Messaouda, Mhamed; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis; Salouage, Issam; Trabelsi, Sameh

    2015-01-01

    Ciclosporine (CsA) is an immunosuppressant drug used in bone marrow transplantation in order to extend allograft survival. Despite its efficiency, CsA can expose to therapeutic failure or to toxicity because of underdosing or overdosage. So, many techniques of monitoring CsA in blood were used, the referance one is the chromatographic technique then, the automated techniques: fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) and chimiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). In this study, we aimed to compare the results of CsA concentrations measured by the two automised techniques. Statistical studies showed that the two techniques were repeatable and reproductible. Results obtained by FPIA were slightly higher than those obtained by CMIA but without a significative difference. In conclusion, FPIA technique could be used to measure CsA blood concentration in replacement of CMIA in case of technical problems.

  8. A simulation study of the energy-efficient options for upgrading and retrofitting a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Zbigniew; Mikosz, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Many municipal wastewater treatment plants are retrofitted with membrane filtration that replaces secondary clarification. Such a solution saves space and improves overall treatment efficiency but at the cost of increased energy consumption and reduced potential for energy recovery from sewage sludge. Thus, the plant takes a step back from reaching energy self-sufficiency. In the presented case study, two alternative upgrade options were simulated for a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant in Poland: the first one assumed optimization of the existing bioreactor, and the other - installation of microfiltration membrane units inside the bioreactor. In both cases, anaerobic digestion of waste sludge with biogas utilization is planned. The results have shown that while under both upgrade options, the plant's capacity can be effectively increased by approximately 50%, their effects on the plant's energy balance will be very different. Although the installation of membrane modules accompanied by the construction of anaerobic digestion tanks improves the plant's energy balance, it will remain negative. The option of optimizing the existing biological treatment system produces a positive energy balance with more energy produced from biogas than consumed. Thus, the plant is able to approach energy self-sufficiency. It has been concluded that retrofitting the plants with membrane filtration is not always the best option from the energy balance point of view and it should be preceded with a detailed analysis on a case-by-case basis.

  9. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  10. Flood Monitoring and Hydrologic Studies Using Retracked Satellite Radar Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Shum, C.; Lee, H.; Alsdorf, D.; Schwartz, F.

    2008-12-01

    Nadir, pulse-limited radar altimetry measurements have been used to monitor large surface-water bodies. In spite of progress, there is a need for a robust and automated procedure, which allows classification and stage measurements in small water bodies, which lying along the orbital path, using multiple radar altimeter measurements. Here we used an algorithm, which is mainly based on radar scatter waveform response and statistical analysis of mean and standard deviation of the resulting water level change to classify surface- waters from other land covers. We tested the algorithm using 10-Hz retracked radar altimetry measurements from TOPEX over regions including the Amazon River basin, the Prairie Pothole Region in North America, and south-western Taiwan. The estimated water-level stages are compared with data from available stage measurements, and altimetry data available from public data centers. We also applied the algorithm to study the 1997 hundred-year Red River flood, and the June 2008 fifty-year flood in the Upper Midwest of the United States. For the1997 flood, it is found that the flooded regions detected by altimetry include the Red River Basin in North Dakota and Minnesota, the Missouri River Basin in North Dakota and South Dakota, the Minnesota River Basin and the Mississippi River Basin in Minnesota and Iowa. The extent of the flood agrees with the USGS record. The observed water height in Grand Forks reaches 6 meters above the normal. The ENVISAT altimetry is shown to be able to track the ebb and recede of the 2008 Iowa City flood. The results of this study could be applied to provide improved accuracy and potentially automated classification of nadir radar altimetry observed small inland water body measurements for hydrologic studies and for flood monitoring.

  11. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated.

  12. Comparison of image quality between mammography dedicated monitor and UHD 4K monitor, using standard mammographic phantom: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, You Sung; Kim, Jeong A [Dept. of Radiology, Inje Unveristy Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Using standard mammographic phantom images, we compared the image quality obtained between a mammography dedicated 5 megapixel monitor (5M) and a UHD 4K (4K) monitor with digital imaging and communications in medicine display, to investigate the possibility of clinical application of 4K monitors. Three different exposures (autoexposure, overexposure and underexposure) images of mammographic phantom were obtained, and six radiologists independently evaluated the images in 5M and 4K without image modulation, by scoring of fibers, groups of specks and masses within the phantom image. The mean score of each object on both monitors was independently analyzed, using t-test and interobserver reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of SPSS. The overall mean scores of fiber, group of specks, and mass in 5M were 4.25, 3.92, and 3.28 respectively, and scores obtained in 4K monitor were 3.81, 3.58, and 3.14, respectively. No statistical difference was seen in scores of fiber and mass between the two monitors at all exposure conditions, but the score of group of specks in 4K was statistically lower in the overall (p = 0.0492) and in underexposure conditions (p = 0.012). The ICC for interobserver reliability was excellent (0.874). Our study suggests that since the mammographic phantom images are appropriate with no significant difference in image quality observed between the two monitors, the 4K monitor could be used for clinical studies. Since this is a small preliminary study using phantom images, the result may differ in actual mammographic images, and subsequent investigation with clinical mammographic images is required.

  13. Preliminary studies of a new monitor ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Maíra T; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V E

    2010-01-01

    A new monitor ionization chamber was developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) in order to monitor X-ray beams. The main difference of this monitor ionization chamber in relation to other monitor chambers is its geometry, which consists of a ring-shaped sensitive volume. Because of this geometry, the monitor chamber has a central hole through which the direct radiation beam passes. The operational characteristics of the monitor chamber were evaluated: saturation, ion collection efficiency and polarity effect. Besides these tests, the short- and medium-term stabilities of its response were also evaluated. During the tests the leakage current was always negligible. All results showed values within those recommended internationally (IEC, 1997. Medical electrical equipment-dosimeters with ionization chambers and/or semi-conductor detectors as used in X-ray diagnostic imaging. IEC 61674. International Electrotechnical Commission, Genève). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment Options for Myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Myopia is a significant public health problem and its prevalence may be increasing over time. The main treatment options of single vision spectacle lenses, contact lenses, and refractive surgery do not slow the accompanying eye growth or retard the physiological changes associated with excessive axial elongation. High myopia is a predisposing factor for retinal detachment, myopic retinopathy, and glaucoma, contributing to loss of vision and blindness. The high prevalence of myopia and its prominence as a public health problem emphasize the importance of finding effective treatments that slow myopia progression and axial elongation. Treatments that have been investigated include various types of spectacle lenses and contact lenses, as well as pharmaceutical agents such as atropine and pirenzepine. The bulk of evidence from well-conducted studies shows that overall, most therapies for myopia have small treatment benefits that last for a relatively short period of time or have significant side effects. Some therapies may be more effective in subsets of myopic children. This review of treatment options for myopia will emphasize recent results from well-designed clinical studies and will suggest possible future therapies. PMID:19390466

  15. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  16. Achalasia: Treatment Options Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of all current forms of treatment of achalasia is to enable the patient to eat without disabling symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, coughing or choking. Historically, this has been accomplished by mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter fibres, either by means of pneumatic dilation (PD or by open surgical myotomy. The addition of laparoscopic myotomy and botulinum toxin (BTX injection to the therapeutic armamentarium has triggered a recent series of reviews to determine the optimal therapeutic approach. Both PD and BTX have excellent short term (less than three months efficacy in the majority of patients. New data have been published that suggest that PD and BTX (with repeat injections can potentially obtain long term efficacy. PD is still considered the first-line treatment by most physicians; its main disadvantage is risk of perforation. BTX injection is evolving as an excellent, safe option for patients who are considered high risk for more invasive procedures. Laparoscopic myotomy with combined antireflux surgery is an increasingly attractive option in younger patients with achalasia, but long term follow-up studies are required to establish its efficacy and the potential for reflux-related sequelae.

  17. Spent fuel verification options for final repository safeguards in Finland. A study on verification methods, their feasibility and safety aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautamaeki, J.; Tiitta, A. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    The verification possibilities of the spent fuel assemblies from the Olkiluoto and Loviisa NPPs and the fuel rods from the research reactor of VTT are contemplated in this report. The spent fuel assemblies have to be verified at the partial defect level before the final disposal into the geologic repository. The rods from the research reactor may be verified at the gross defect level. Developing a measurement system for partial defect verification is a complicated and time-consuming task. The Passive High Energy Gamma Emission Tomography and the Fork Detector combined with Gamma Spectrometry are the most potential measurement principles to be developed for this purpose. The whole verification process has to be planned to be as slick as possible. An early start in the planning of the verification and developing the measurement devices is important in order to enable a smooth integration of the verification measurements into the conditioning and disposal process. The IAEA and Euratom have not yet concluded the safeguards criteria for the final disposal. E.g. criteria connected to the selection of the best place to perform the verification. Measurements have not yet been concluded. Options for the verification places have been considered in this report. One option for a verification measurement place is the intermediate storage. The other option is the encapsulation plant. Crucial viewpoints are such as which one offers the best practical possibilities to perform the measurements effectively and which would be the better place in the safeguards point of view. Verification measurements may be needed both in the intermediate storages and in the encapsulation plant. In this report also the integrity of the fuel assemblies after wet intermediate storage period is assessed, because the assemblies have to stand the handling operations of the verification measurements. (orig.)

  18. Quantifying the economic benefit of groundwater monitoring: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer, F. van; Marsman, A.; Janssen, G.M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Usually the design of the monitoring system is based on the relation between the monitoring effort and the uncertainty of the information. Often the estimation error standard deviation is used as a criterion for the design. Despite the fact that, for scientists, the standard deviation as a measure o

  19. BENEFIT MONITORING AND EVALUATION (BME: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ridwan Malik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, the ultimate benefits of health development projects are reflected as increased incomes or tangible improvements in quality of life. They will only be forth coming if services provided by project have more direct effect for those who use the services. However the effects of health programs might be direct or indirect so that they are difficult to be measured comparing with other sectors. The study team conducted a study on Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation (BME by using The Rural Health and Population Project (ADB Ill-Loan No.1299-lno as objective of the study. The study was conducted in the year 2000, however, the results of this study is relevant to be published due to it is difficult to find the references, which showed the experiences of the BME study in the health sector. The prime objective of the Rural Health and Population Project was to assist the Government in raising the health status of the population and reducing total fertility rates through the improvement of quality, relevance, efficiency and effectiveness of community-based rural health and family planning (FP delivery system. The Project adopted the following three strategic initiatives: (1 to change the role and orientation of the district hospital; (2 to improve community-based rural health, nutrition and FP service delivery and capabilities; and (3 to strengthen the organization and management at district level. To examine the extent, to which these reforms through the project implementation have intended benefits and effects, both individually and collectively, the evaluation team conducted a study to evaluate the progress on the field implementation of these reforms in the area of the project. The evaluation  of benefits of projects will be conducted, whether or not the benchmarks of benefit monitoring was adequately documented when the project is prepared. The study team using a conceptual  model called a Logical Framework (LF a set of cause

  20. Monitoring the Veterinary Medical Student Experience: An Institutional Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, RoseAnn; Mavis, Brian E; Lloyd, James W; Grabill, Chandra M; Henry, Rebecca C; Patterson, Coretta C

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary medical school challenges students academically and personally, and some students report depression and anxiety at rates higher than the general population and other medical students. This study describes changes in veterinary medical student self-esteem (SE) over four years of professional education, attending to differences between high and low SE students and the characteristics specific to low SE veterinary medical students. The study population was students enrolled at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 2006 to 2012. We used data from the annual anonymous survey administered college-wide that is used to monitor the curriculum and learning environment. The survey asked respondents to rate their knowledge and skill development, learning environment, perceptions of stress, skill development, and SE. Participants also provided information on their academic performance and demographics. A contrasting groups design was used: high and low SE students were compared using logistic regression to identify factors associated with low SE. A total of 1,653 respondents met inclusion criteria: 789 low SE and 864 high SE students. The proportion of high and low SE students varied over time, with the greatest proportion of low SE students during the second-year of the program. Perceived stress was associated with low SE, whereas perceived supportive learning environment and skill development were associated with high SE. These data have provided impetus for curricular and learning environment changes to enhance student support. They also provide guidance for additional research to better understand various student academic trajectories and their implications for success.

  1. [Safety study of long-term video-electroencephalogram monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, M; Vivanco, R; Massot, A; Jiménez, J; Roquer, J; Rocamora, R

    2014-01-01

    The increased morbidity and mortality and poorer quality of life associated with drug-resistant epilepsy justify admitting patients to epilepsy monitoring units (EMU). These units employ methods that promote the occurrence of seizures, which involves a risk of secondary adverse events. The aim of our study is to characterise and quantify these adverse events in a Spanish EMU. A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of patients admitted consecutively to our EMU. Patients admitted due to status epilepticus, clusters of seizures, or as participants in a clinical trial were excluded. We included 175 patients, of whom 92.1% (161) did not suffer any adverse events. Status epilepticus was present in 3.4% (6); 1.7% (3) had traumatic injury, 1.7% (3) had interictal or postictal psychosis, and 1.1% (2) had cardiorespiratory impairment. There were no risk factors associated with these adverse events. The most frequently-identified adverse events were status epilepticus, traumatic injury, interictal or postictal psychosis, and cardiorespiratory disorders. The frequency of these adverse events was similar to that seen in international literature. The complications detected do not contraindicate VEEGM. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Health monitoring studies on composite structures for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.; Roach, D.; Hansche, B.; Meza, R.; Robinson, N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper discusses ongoing work to develop structural health monitoring techniques for composite aerospace structures such as aircraft control surfaces, fuselage sections or repairs, and reusable launch vehicle fuel tanks. The overall project is divided into four tasks: Operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage detection. Five composite plates were constructed to study delaminations, disbonds, and fluid retention issues as the initial step in creating an operational system. These four square feet plates were graphite-epoxy with nomex honeycomb cores. The diagnostic measurements are composed of modal tests with a scanning laser vibrometer at over 500 scan points per plate covering the frequency range up to 2000 Hz. This data has been reduced into experimental dynamics matrices using a generic, software package developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The continuing effort will entail performing a series of damage identification studies to detect, localize, and determine the extent of the damage. This work is providing understanding and algorithm development for a global NDE technique for composite aerospace structures.

  3. LHC Transvers Profile Monitors studies (MD on May 6th, 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E; Dehning, B; Emery, J; Lefevre, T; Gras, JJ; Jeff, A; Rabiller, A; Roncarolo, F; Sapinski, M; Kain, V; Pojer, M; Bartosik, H; Salvant, B

    2011-01-01

    This note contains the preliminary results of the LHC MD that took place on 6-May-2011 (from 2 to 10 a.m.), dedicated to study Wire Scanners (WS), Synchrotron Radiation Monitors (BSRT) and Beam Gas Ionization Monitors (BGI). The MD aimed at performing different studies on the individual monitors as well as at cross calibrating them with beams composed of bunches with different transverse emittances in stable conditions. At the same time, it was possible to perform calibration studies with the Abort Gap Monitor (AGM) and Longitudinal Density Monitor (LDM) that share the extracted light with the BSRT.

  4. Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring studies: a new study method for risk management in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

    2015-02-01

    The evolving regulatory landscape has heightened the need for innovative, proactive, efficient and more meaningful solutions for 'real-world' post-authorization safety studies (PASS) that not only align with risk management objectives to gather additional safety monitoring information or assess a pattern of drug utilization, but also satisfy key regulatory requirements for marketing authorization holder risk management planning and execution needs. There is a need for data capture across the primary care and secondary care interface, or for exploring use of new medicines in secondary care to support conducting PASS. To fulfil this need, event monitoring has evolved. The Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring (SCEM) study is a new application that enables a cohort of patients prescribed a medicine in the hospital and secondary care settings to be monitored. The method also permits the inclusion of a comparator cohort of patients receiving standard care, or another counterfactual comparator group, to be monitored concurrently, depending on the study question. The approach has been developed in parallel with the new legislative requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake a risk management plan as part of post-authorization safety monitoring. SCEM studies recognize that the study population comprises those patients who may have treatment initiated under the care of specialist health care professionals and who are more complex in terms of underlying disease, co-morbidities and concomitant medications than the general disease population treated in primary care. The aims of this paper are to discuss the SCEM new-user study design, rationale and features that aim to address possible bias (such as selection bias) and current applications.

  5. Approximate option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  6. Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia (SamExo): study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Deborah; McColl, Elaine; Powell, Christine J; Shen, Jing; Sloper, John; Steen, Nick; Taylor, Robert; Tiffin, Peter; Vale, Luke; Clarke, Michael P

    2012-10-16

    Childhood intermittent exotropia [X(T)] is a type of strabismus (squint) in which one eye deviates outward at times, usually when the child is tired. It may progress to a permanent squint, loss of stereovision and/or amblyopia (reduced vision). Treatment options for X(T) include eye patches, glasses, surgery and active monitoring. There is no consensus regarding how this condition should be managed, and even when surgery is the preferred option clinicians disagree as to the optimal timing. Reports on the natural history of X(T) are limited, and there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence on the effectiveness or efficiency of surgery compared with active monitoring. The SamExo (Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia) pilot study has been designed to test the feasibility of such a trial in the UK. an external pilot patient randomised controlled trial. four UK secondary ophthalmology care facilities at Newcastle NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Moorfields Eye Hospital and York NHS Trust. children aged between 6 months and 16 years referred with suspected and subsequently diagnosed X(T). Recruitment target is a total of 144 children over a 9-month period, with 120 retained by 9-month outcome visit.Randomisation: permuted blocks stratified by collaborating centre, age and severity of X(T). initial clinical assessment; randomisation (eye muscle surgery or active monitoring); 3-, 6- and 9-month (primary outcome) clinical assessments; participant/proxy completed questionnaire covering time and travel costs, health services use and quality of life (Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire); qualitative interviews with parents to establish reasons for agreeing or declining participation in the pilot trial. recruitment and retention rates; nature and extent of participation bias; nature and extent of biases arising from crossover or loss to follow-up; reasons for agreeing/declining participation; variability of cure rates

  7. Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia (SamExo: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buck Deborah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood intermittent exotropia [X(T] is a type of strabismus (squint in which one eye deviates outward at times, usually when the child is tired. It may progress to a permanent squint, loss of stereovision and/or amblyopia (reduced vision. Treatment options for X(T include eye patches, glasses, surgery and active monitoring. There is no consensus regarding how this condition should be managed, and even when surgery is the preferred option clinicians disagree as to the optimal timing. Reports on the natural history of X(T are limited, and there is no randomised controlled trial (RCT evidence on the effectiveness or efficiency of surgery compared with active monitoring. The SamExo (Surgery versus Active Monitoring in Intermittent Exotropia pilot study has been designed to test the feasibility of such a trial in the UK. Methods Design: an external pilot patient randomised controlled trial. Setting: four UK secondary ophthalmology care facilities at Newcastle NHS Hospitals Foundation Trust, Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Moorfields Eye Hospital and York NHS Trust. Participants: children aged between 6 months and 16 years referred with suspected and subsequently diagnosed X(T. Recruitment target is a total of 144 children over a 9-month period, with 120 retained by 9-month outcome visit. Randomisation: permuted blocks stratified by collaborating centre, age and severity of X(T. Interventions: initial clinical assessment; randomisation (eye muscle surgery or active monitoring; 3-, 6- and 9-month (primary outcome clinical assessments; participant/proxy completed questionnaire covering time and travel costs, health services use and quality of life (Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire; qualitative interviews with parents to establish reasons for agreeing or declining participation in the pilot trial. Outcomes: recruitment and retention rates; nature and extent of participation bias; nature and extent of biases arising from crossover or

  8. Biotelemetric Wireless Intracranial Pressure Monitoring: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Behfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of intracranial pressure (ICP is of great importance in management of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs. The existing clinically established ICP measurement methods require catheter insertion in the cranial cavity. This increases the risk of infection and hemorrhage. Thus, noninvasive but accurate techniques are attractive. In this paper, we present two wireless, batteryless, and minimally invasive implantable sensors for continuous ICP monitoring. The implants comprise ultrathin (50 μm flexible spiral coils connected in parallel to a capacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS pressure sensor. The implantable sensors are inductively coupled to an external on-body reader antenna. The ICP variation can be detected wirelessly through measuring the reader antenna’s input impedance. This paper also proposes novel implant placement to improve the efficiency of the inductive link. In this study, the performance of the proposed telemetry system was evaluated in a hydrostatic pressure measurement setup. The impact of the human tissues on the inductive link was simulated using a 5 mm layer of pig skin. The results from the in vitro measurement proved the capability of our developed sensors to detect ICP variations ranging from 0 to 70 mmHg at 2.5 mmHg intervals.

  9. A study on impact monitoring using a piezoelectric paint sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dong Hoon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Bok; Kang, Lae Hyong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The piezoelectric paint sensor is a paint type sensor comprising of an epoxy and piezoelectric powder, which is the main component of a piezoelectric material. This sensor can be easily attached to any type of structure as compared to other sensors because it is viable to directly apply it on structures, as in the case with a typical paint. In this study, the capability of piezoelectric paint sensor for impact detection was evaluated. In Particular, the applications of the piezoelectric paint sensor for railroad vehicles were considered. There have been various cases reported about the damages caused by flying gravel to the under-cover of the railroad vehicle during operation. In order to prevent this, real-time monitoring of the large under-cover surface of the railroad vehicle is unavoidable. Under the assumption of vehicle application, sensor sensitivities were measured after multiple and prolonged exposure to thermal cycle environment -20⁓60 degrees Celsius). Sensitivity evaluation of paint sensor under environmental conditions was conducted in an aluminum specimen. In results, despite the small variations in sensitivity, we could confirm the applicability of this paint sensor for impact detection even after a severe environmental exposure test.

  10. Perceptions of entrepreneurship as a career option in South Africa: An exploratory study among grade 12 learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Burger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Job creation and poverty alleviation are two pressing challenges facing South Africa today. South Africa’s capacity to address the high unemployment and poverty levels are partly hampered by a poorly developed entrepreneurial culture. An entrepreneurial culture that enhances the supply of effective entrepreneurs at all age and population groups could contribute to economic growth and address both unemployment and poverty. This article investigates the perceptions of entrepreneurship as career option by Grade 12 learners in a specific region in South Africa, as the youth could be viewed as the logical group from which new entrepreneurs should emerge in future. The majority of the surveyed learners seem to have a positive disposition towards small business entrepreneurship as an eventual career, although considerable differences exist in terms of self-image, locality and ethnic backgrounds.

  11. Development of remedial process options: Phase II, Feasibility study: Installation Restoration Program, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronk, T.A.; Smuin, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schlosser, R.M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This technical memorandum develops process options which are appropriate for environmental restoration activities at Naval Air Station Fallon (NAS Fallon), Nevada. Introduction of contaminants to the environment has resulted from deliberate disposal activities (both through dumping and landfilling) and accidental spills and leaks associated with normal activities at NAS Fallon over its lifetime of operation. Environmental sampling results indicate that the vast majority of contaminants of concern are petroleum hydrocarbon related. These contaminants include JP-4, JP-5, leaded and unleaded gasoline, waste oils and lubricants, hydraulic fluids, and numerous solvents and cleaners. The principal exposure pathways of concern associated with NAS Fallon contaminants appear to be the surface flows and shallow drainage systems to which the base contributes. Available data indicate NAS Fallon IR Program sites are not contributing excessive contamination to surface flows emanating from the base. Contaminants appear to be contained in a relatively immobile state in the shallow subsurface with little or no contaminant migration off site.

  12. Informed Option Trading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Jong (Cyriel)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe use a sequential trade model to clarify two mechanisms following the introduction of an option that may lead to increased efficiency in the underlying. On the one hand, market makers learn from trades in the option market and set more accurate prices. On the other hand, the proportion

  13. DIAGNOSTIC OPPORTUNITIES OF NEUROOPHTHALMOLOGIC INSPECTION AT RS: ROLE OF AN OPTICAL COHERENT TOMOGRAPHY AND THE VISUAL CAUSED POTENTIALS IN EARLY DIAGNOSTICS OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND MONITORING OF A CONDITION OF THE VISUAL ANALYZER AT PATIENTS WITH VARIOUS OPTIONS OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Andreyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of 70 patients with different options of a course of multiple sclerosis is conducted. Reliable decrease in thickness of a layer of a neuroepithelium and macular volume of a retina at patients with various options of a course of the multiple sclerosis, more expressed is noted at primary progressing and secondary progressing current options, and the patients who have transferred an optical neuritis. The functional violations at the level of an optic nerve according to the visual caused potentials – increase in a latence and decrease in amplitude of the P100 component are revealed. Possibility of application of methods of an optical coherent tomography and the visual caused potentials for diagnostics and monitoring of pathological process is shown at multiple sclerosis.

  14. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  15. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  16. Continuous mine environmental monitoring system - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, D.P.; Sahu, H.B. [Regional Engineering College, Rourkela (India)

    2001-07-01

    The introduction of continuous remote environmental monitoring and control systems in modern coal mines is a great step forward in achieving increased mine safety, higher productivity and effective utilization of manpower. They provide alarms and displays of early warnings and impending dangerous conditions in the mine. They also provide facilities to monitor and control air quality, differential pressure, noise etc. Telemetry systems have distinct advantages over the old tube bundle techniques and are being increasingly used. This article discusses in detail the basic components and the functioning of telemonitoring systems in use with special reference to Colliery A, a degree-1 gassy coal mine worked by the bord and pillar method. The system monitors and processes data on temperature, methane and carbon monoxide. 1 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  18. Neurobiological correlates of EMDR monitoring - an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pagani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is a recognized first-line treatment for psychological trauma. However its neurobiological bases have yet to be fully disclosed. METHODS: Electroencephalography (EEG was used to fully monitor neuronal activation throughout EMDR sessions including the autobiographical script. Ten patients with major psychological trauma were investigated during their first EMDR session (T0 and during the last one performed after processing the index trauma (T1. Neuropsychological tests were administered at the same time. Comparisons were performed between EEGs of patients at T0 and T1 and between EEGs of patients and 10 controls who underwent the same EMDR procedure at T0. Connectivity analyses were carried out by lagged phase synchronization. RESULTS: During bilateral ocular stimulation (BS of EMDR sessions EEG showed a significantly higher activity on the orbito-frontal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in patients at T0 shifting towards left temporo-occipital regions at T1. A similar trend was found for autobiographical script with a higher firing in fronto-temporal limbic regions at T0 moving to right temporo-occipital cortex at T1. The comparisons between patients and controls confirmed the maximal activation in the limbic cortex of patients occurring before trauma processing. Connectivity analysis showed decreased pair-wise interactions between prefrontal and cingulate cortex during BS in patients as compared to controls and between fusiform gyrus and visual cortex during script listening in patients at T1 as compared to T0. These changes correlated significantly with those occurring in neuropsychological tests. CONCLUSIONS: The ground-breaking methodology enabled our study to image for the first time the specific activations associated with the therapeutic actions typical of EMDR protocol. The findings suggest that traumatic events are processed at cognitive level following successful

  19. Monitoring Levothyroxine Dose during Pregnancy: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhi Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women can influence the outcome for mother and fetus at all stages of pregnancy. As the fetus is entirely dependent on maternal thyroid hormones for its development until about 13 weeks of gestation, it is important to ensure adequate thyroxine substitution in pregnant women during the first trimester. Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to explore whether hypothyroidic pregnant women are adequately levothyroxine (L-T4 substituted in early pregnancy. Approach: During March 2008 to July 2009, 93 pregnant females with thyroid diseases were followed at the outpatient department of INMAS. At the first visit 86 patients were on L-T4 substitution for hypothyroidism. Seven other patients had hyperthyroidism. The patients were regularly followed every 4-8 weeks during pregnancy for dose adjustment. Before each visit serum Free Thyroxine (FT4 and TSH concentrations were determined. Results: Of the 86 patients on thyroxine substitution for hypothyroidism 56 (65.12% had serum TSH values within the reference range at their first TSH test. Thirty (34.9% had TSH values outside the reference range. In 5 patients TSH was 4 increase at the first evaluation during pregnancy was 17.46±30.8µg day1. In the 50 patients who needed to increase L-T4, 26% reached a definitive therapeutic dosage within 12th week of pregnancy, 24% within the 20th week and 50% within the 31st week. Conclusion/Recommendations: In 34.9% of pregnant women on L-T4 substitution for hypothyroidism, serum TSH values were abnormal when first tested and they had increased chances of fetal loss if not treated timely. Thyroid function in pregnant women on thyroxine substitution should be monitored as soon as pregnancy has been confirmed and carefully followed during pregnancy.

  20. A study on drug safety monitoring program in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance is useful in assuring the safety of medicines and protecting the consumers from their harmful effects. A number of single drugs as well as fixed dose combinations have been banned from manufacturing, marketing and distribution in India. An important issue about the availability of banned drugs over the counter in India is that sufficient adverse drug reactions data about these drugs have not been reported. The most common categories of drugs withdrawn in the last decade were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (28%, antidiabetics (14.28%, antiobesity (14.28%, antihistamines (14.28%, gastroprokinetic drugs (7.14%, breast cancer and infertility drugs (7.14%, irritable bowel syndrome and constipation drugs (7.14% and antibiotics (7.14%. Drug withdrawals from market were made mainly due to safety issues involving cardiovascular events (57.14% and liver damage (14.28%. Majority of drugs have been banned since 3-5 years in other countries but are still available for sale in India. The present study compares the drug safety monitoring systems in the developed countries such as the USA and UK and provides implications for developing a system that can ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in India. Absence of a gold standard for a drug safety surveillance system, variations in culture and clinical practice across countries makes it difficult for India to completely adopt another country′s practices. There should be a multidisciplinary approach towards drug safety that should be implemented throughout the entire duration spanning from drug discovery to usage by consumers.

  1. Real Time Pricing as a Default or Optional Service for C&ICustomers: A Comparative Analysis of Eight Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper,Nicole; Ting, Michael; Neenan, Bernie

    2005-08-01

    Demand response (DR) has been broadly recognized to be an integral component of well-functioning electricity markets, although currently underdeveloped in most regions. Among the various initiatives undertaken to remedy this deficiency, public utility commissions (PUC) and utilities have considered implementing dynamic pricing tariffs, such as real-time pricing (RTP), and other retail pricing mechanisms that communicate an incentive for electricity consumers to reduce their usage during periods of high generation supply costs or system reliability contingencies. Efforts to introduce DR into retail electricity markets confront a range of basic policy issues. First, a fundamental issue in any market context is how to organize the process for developing and implementing DR mechanisms in a manner that facilitates productive participation by affected stakeholder groups. Second, in regions with retail choice, policymakers and stakeholders face the threshold question of whether it is appropriate for utilities to offer a range of dynamic pricing tariffs and DR programs, or just ''plain vanilla'' default service. Although positions on this issue may be based primarily on principle, two empirical questions may have some bearing--namely, what level of price response can be expected through the competitive retail market, and whether establishing RTP as the default service is likely to result in an appreciable level of DR? Third, if utilities are to have a direct role in developing DR, what types of retail pricing mechanisms are most appropriate and likely to have the desired policy impact (e.g., RTP, other dynamic pricing options, DR programs, or some combination)? Given a decision to develop utility RTP tariffs, three basic implementation issues require attention. First, should it be a default or optional tariff, and for which customer classes? Second, what types of tariff design is most appropriate, given prevailing policy objectives, wholesale market

  2. Expensing options solves nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  3. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  4. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  5. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  6. [Fingolimod compassionate use program: case study on the concept of a therapy option for multiple sclerosis prior to marketing approval].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J; Linker, R A; Hartung, H P; Meergans, M; Ortler, S; Tracik, F

    2012-12-01

    In order to meet the needs of therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS) new immune therapies with a user-friendly application and better effectiveness together with good tolerability are necessary. With respect to its potential to improve MS therapy, patients with a high medical need were given access to Fingolimod even before marketing approval. Therefore, a compassionate use program unique in the field of MS was initiated. In total 137 centers participated (75 % outpatient neurologists and 25 % hospitals). Within 19 weeks 135 patients were enrolled to receive Fingolimod. The patients in the compassionate use program can be representatively described as showing hardly controllable disease activity and progression with currently available, often poorly tolerated therapy. The compassionate use program for these patients offered better control of the disease with Fingolimod. The adverse events were as expected. The Fingolimod compassionate use program demonstrated the need for this new therapeutic option. Patients who were not yet sufficiently treated were provided with an effective therapy with a good safety profile and a user-friendly administration form.

  7. An optional focusing SELENE extension to conventional neutron guides: A case study for the ESS instrument BIFROST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, U. B.; Bertelsen, M.; Stahn, J.; Lefmann, K.

    2017-04-01

    The high brilliance at the European Spallation Source (ESS) will allow for performing experiments with much smaller samples than at present neutron facilities and in much more complex sample environments. However the higher flux also results in higher background from unwanted neutrons not originating from scattering of the sample. We here present a new design idea for beam delivery, where a 165 m ballistic guide system with good transport properties is followed by a 4-8 m SELENE guide system similar to Montel optics used for X-ray optics. We have investigated the system by detailed Monte-Carlo simulations using McStas. We show that under certain conditions, this set-up works surprisingly well, with a brilliance transfer of 20-60% for neutrons of wavelength 4 Å and above. We demonstrate that the guide system is able to focus the beam almost perfectly onto samples sizes in the range of 0.1-2 mm. We furthermore show that our SELENE system is insensitive to gravity and to realistic values of guide waviness. We argue that this guide system can be useful as an optional guide insert when small samples are used in the vicinity of bulky sample environment, e.g. for high-field or high-pressure experiments.

  8. Implementation of a real option in a sustainable supply chain: an empirical study of alkaline battery recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2014-06-01

    Green supply chain management (GSCM) has emerged as a key approach for enterprises seeking to become environmentally sustainable. This paper aims to evaluate and describe the advantages of a GSCM approach by analysing practices and performance consequences in the battery recycling sector. It seeks to integrate works in supply chain management (SCM), environmental management, performance management and real option (RO) theory into one framework. In particular, life cycle assessment (LCA) is applied to evaluate the environmental impact of a battery recycling plant project, and life cycle costing (LCC) is applied to evaluate its economic impact. Firms, also understanding the relevance of GSCM, have often avoided applying the green principles because of the elevated costs that such management involved. Such costs could also seem superior to the potential advantages since standard performance measurement systems are internally and business focused; for these reasons, we consider all the possible value deriving also by uncertainty associated to a green project using the RO theory. This work is one of the few and pioneering efforts to investigate GSCM practices in the battery recycling sector.

  9. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    introduced two model energy codes Pawnee Nation should consider for adoption. Summary of Current and Expected Future Electricity Usage The research team provided a summary overview of electricity usage patterns in current buildings and included discussion of known plans for new construction. Utility Options Review Pawnee Nation electric utility options were analyzed through a four-phase process, which included: 1) summarizing the relevant utility background information; 2) gathering relevant utility assessment data; 3) developing a set of realistic Pawnee electric utility service options, and 4) analyzing the various Pawnee electric utility service options for the Pawnee Energy Team’s consideration. III. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor market developments in the bio-energy industry, establish contacts with research institutions with which the tribe could potentially partner in grant-funded research initiatives. In addition, a substantial effort by the Kaw and Cherokee tribes is underway to pursue wind development at the Chilocco School Site in northern Oklahoma where Pawnee is a joint landowner. Pawnee Nation representatives should become actively involved in these development discussions and should explore the potential for joint investment in wind development at the Chilocco site.

  10. Modalities of Invasive Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Critically Ill Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacq, Gwenaëlle; Gritti, Karine; Carré, Cécile; Fleury, Nadège; Lang, Annie; Courau-Courtois, Josette; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Legriel, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    Few studies assessed modalities of invasive arterial pressure monitoring (IAPM). We evaluated effects on measured values of various combinations of transducer level, catheter access site, and patient position...

  11. GPR monitoring of oil displacement - A laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present laboratory experiments where we address the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) capability of monitoring oil displacement processes in porous media. This has significant applications in near-subsurface environments where remediation of contaminant such as oil-derived liquids is c

  12. Monitoring consumer confidence in food safety: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Frewer, L.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Renes, R.J.; Wit, de W.; Timmers, J.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: In response to the potential for negative economic and societal effects resulting from a low level of consumer confidence in food safety, it is important to know how confidence is potentially influenced by external events. The aim of this article is to describe the development of a monitor

  13. GPR monitoring of oil displacement - A laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miorali, M.; Slob, E.C.; Arts, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present laboratory experiments where we address the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) capability of monitoring oil displacement processes in porous media. This has significant applications in near-subsurface environments where remediation of contaminant such as oil-derived liquids is

  14. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag; Dacinia Crina Petrescu; Ovidiu Călin Safirescu; Mihaela Hetvary; Ioan Gheorghe Oroian; Dumitru Vâju

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas) are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green tech...

  15. Housing Options for Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different services. The services are based on the lifestyle and health care needs of the residents. Below are some options for senior living. Active adult communitiesActive adult communities are neighborhoods made for older ...

  16. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...

  17. ACCOUNTING FOR OPTIONS AND ANALYSIS OF USE OF OPTION COMBINATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Derun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of accounting for options in Ukraine, namely: value expression of initial cost of options, their revaluation, accounting of premiums, financial assets and financial liabilities and variation margin. The paper offers ways of solution of these problems which based on harmonization with IAS 32, IAS 39, IFRS 7 and IFRS 9. The study considers option combination strategies (straddle, strangle, strap, strip and approaches of identification of possible financial results for investors which use these strategies. Examples of possible financial results are provided for buyers and sellers of options which use option combination strategies.

  18. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of thei...

  19. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  20. Study on mining investment decisions based on delay options and expansion options%基于延迟期权和扩张期权的矿业投资决策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 郑明贵; 木日根

    2012-01-01

    矿业项目投资回收期长,不确定因素多,传统评价方法在评价策略性选择权时完全不考虑投资过程中实际存在的不确定性,造成短视决策.文中首先介绍了实物期权的概念、主要类型及定价方法;其次建立了基于延迟期权和扩张期权的矿业投资决策模型;最后以江西省某钼矿投资项目为例进行应用.结果表明:所建立的模型比较全面地反映了矿业投资项目的总体价值,为矿业投资决策提供了一种较好的思路与方法.%Mining projects have long payback period and much uncertainty. For traditional evaluation method, the uncertainty in evaluating strategic options is riot taken into account, resulting in short-sighted decision -makings. First, the concept of real options, the main types and pricing methods are introduced in the paper; then, a mining investment decision-making model based on the delay options and the expansion options is established; finally, the model is interpreted with the case of a molybdenum mine in Jiangxi Province. The results indicate that the models reflect the overall value of the mining investment projects, and provide better ideas and methods for mining investment decisions.

  1. Is reverse total shoulder arthroplasty a feasible treatment option for failed shoulder arthroplasty? A retrospective study of 44 cases with special regards to stemless and stemmed primary implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschen, M; Franetzki, B; Witt, K-A; Liem, D; Steinbeck, J

    2017-08-01

    Is reverse total shoulder arthroplasty a feasible treatment option for failed shoulder arthroplasty? A retrospective study of 44 cases with special regards to stemless and stemmed primary implants. Due to humeral or glenoid bone-loss and rotator cuff insufficiency reverse total shoulder arthroplasty often means the only remaining treatment option in revision shoulder arthroplasty. This study investigates the clinical outcome of patients treated with a reverse total shoulder in revision cases with special regard to stemless and stemmed primary implants. From 2010 to 2012 60 failed shoulder arthroplasties were converted to reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Forty-four patients were available for follow-up after a mean of 24 months. Patients were assessed with X-rays, Constant- and ASES Score and a questionnaire about their subjective satisfaction. The total number of observed complications was seven (16%). Ninety-eight percent of the patients were satisfied with their clinical result. Patients achieved a mean normalized constant score of 70.2% and a mean ASES Score of 65.3. Patients with stemless primary implants achieved a higher normalized constant score than patients with stemmed primary implants (82 vs. 61.8%; p = 0009). Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty provides satisfactory clinical results and a high patient satisfaction in revision shoulder arthroplasty. The complication rate needs to be considered and discussed with the patient prior to surgery. Presence or absence of a stem of revised shoulder arthroplasties interferes with the outcome. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: (Retrospective study).

  2. Agricultural vulnerability in Bangladesh to climate change induced sea level rise and options for adaptation: a study of a coastal Upazila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anowarul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the vulnerabilities of agriculture in coastal regions of Bangladesh to the different adverse effects of sea level rise induced hazards, and also identifies option for future agricultural adaptations. It reveals that due to sea level rise, agriculture of the study area has already experienced noticeable adverse impacts especially in terms of area of inundation, salinity intrusion and reduction in crop production. The study is conducted based on both primary and secondary data. A total 303 out of 1200 respondents from three coastal villages were randomly interviewed. Samples are drawn proportionately from three villages. Descriptive and inferential statistics and logistic regression have been done to analysis data. The study find that the agricultural land, production of crops, local crop varieties, income and employment facilities of the farmers is highly vulnerable to various SLR induced hazards. Selection of various adaptive options such as control of saline water intrusion into agricultural land, coastal afforestation, cultivation of saline tolerant crops, homestead and floating gardening, embankment cropping and increase of income through alternative livelihoods are emerging need for sustainable coastal agricultural development. Therefore, this paper argues that further development and implementation of such adaptive measures could help to minimize vulnerabilities of agriculture in the long run.

  3. Beam Impedance Studies of the PS Beam Gas Ionization Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Avgidis, Fotios

    2016-01-01

    The Beam Gas Ionization monitor (BGI) is a device for continuous beam size monitoring that is intended to be installed in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) during the extended year-end technical stop from December 2016 to April 2017. With the objective of determining the impedance contribution of the BGI vacuum chamber to the overall beam impedance, we report on RF measurements on the device in a laboratory frame, measurement data analysis, and RF simulations of the structure under investigation. For the impedance contribution characterization of the BGI, the following approach has been followed: First, the EM fields inside a simplified BGI model that doesn’t include any of the internal components of the vacuum chamber have been simulated. RF measurements have been performed on the same empty structure showing great agreement between measurement and simulation and thus verifying the validity of the model. Second, simulations have been executed on a fully assembled BGI model that includes all the internal ele...

  4. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-11-10

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

  5. A study on Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monitoring of Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated and surveyed the current situation of the policy of Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monitoring in Beijing based on the experimental unit over China carried out by National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation. Then analysed the guarantee of the implement considering the characteristics of programming and construction, policy and regulation in Beijing. Finally presented the frame system of Geographic National (Urban) Conditions Monit...

  6. The Optional VenaTech{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Convertible{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Vena Cava Filter: Experimental Study in Sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanche, Alain F., E-mail: le_blanche.alain@chu-amiens.fr [University of Picardie-Jules Verne (France); Ricco, Jean-Baptiste [University of Poitiers (France); Bonneau, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (I.N.R.A.) and Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris (APHP), Centre of Research in Interventional Imaging - CRII (France); Reynaud, Philippe [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP) APHP, Department of Respiratory Diseases (France)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Retrieval of optional caval filters may be impaired by filter tilting, migration, fracture, or embedding in the IVC wall. The goal of this experimental study was to evaluate a new optional filter, convertible by unlocking and removing the filter head. Methods: Forty-nine Pre-Alp sheep (average weight, 55 kg) were anesthetized. IVC was catheterized via the right femoral vein (n = 46) or via the internal jugular vein (n = 3) with a 12.9-F sheath. VenaTech{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Convertible{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} IVC filters were inserted as either permanent filters (n = 14) or as filters to be converted. Conversion was immediately after deployment (n = 19) or delayed after 1, 3, or 6 months (n = 20). Filter delivery, deployment, and conversion with measurement of migration and tilting were evaluated by cavography. Incorporation of the filter's stabilizers and arms in the IVC wall was assessed by gross anatomy. Results: Delivery system insertion, filter release, and immediate conversion were successful in all cases. Delayed conversion was completed in all but one sheep, due to insufficient snare tension. Complimentary balloon-catheter inflation was required in 12 of 20 delayed conversions to achieve filter opening. In all 49 sheep, no thrombosis, migration, or significant tilting occurred. Within 4 weeks of conversion, the filter's stabilizers and arms were incorporated into the IVC wall. Upon removal, the filter head was free of intimal growth. Conclusions: The VenaTech{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} Convertible{sup Trade-Mark-Sign} optional IVC filter was successfully implanted in all sheep with no migration or tilting. Conversion at various dates by filter head removal was feasible in all but one case.

  7. Reflection in Learning through a Self-monitoring Device: Design Research on EEG Self-Monitoring during a Study Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Durall

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of self-monitoring technologies has created opportunities for gaining awareness about one’s own behavior and reflecting on it. In teaching and learning, there is interest in using self-monitoring technologies, but very few studies have explored the possibilities. In this paper, we present a design study that investigates a technology (called Feeler that guides students to follow a specific learning script, monitors changes in their electroencephalogram (EEG while studying, and later provides visualization of the EEG data. The results are two-fold: (1 the hardware/software prototype and (2 the conclusions from the proof-of-concept research conducted with the prototype and six participants. In the research, we collected qualitative data from interviews to identify whether the prototype supported students to develop their reflective skills. The thematic analysis of the interviews showed that the Feeler’s learning script and visualization of the EEG data supported greater levels of reflection by fostering students’ curiosity, puzzlement, and personal inquiry. The proof-of-concept research also provided insights into several factors, such as the value of personal experience, the challenge of assumptions, and the contextualization of the data that trigger reflective thinking. The results validate the design concept and the role of the prototype in supporting awareness of and reflection about students’ mental states when they perform academic tasks.

  8. Well, that's what came with it. A qualitative study of U.S. mothers' perceptions of healthier default options for children's meals at fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Holly K M; Borzekowski, Dina L G

    2015-04-01

    Using a qualitative design, this study investigated mothers' perceptions of food choices and default options, for children, at fast-food restaurants. Mothers of 3- to 8-year-old children (n = 40) participated in phone interviews. Mothers praised fast-food restaurants for offering healthier choices, but voiced concerns about quality of the food. Half worried about meat products and several were distressed by the processing involved with food and beverages. Many said that their children wanted to visit fast-food restaurants because of advertised toys and not food offerings. Half liked bundled meals, as long as they could choose the specific items that were included. Having healthier defaults might eliminate battles, reduce forgetfulness and facilitate ordering. Most mothers favored healthier defaults because it would help "other parents." This small study provides strong support for offering healthier options at fast-food restaurants. Restaurants, schools and other food venues should design children's meals that make the healthy choice the easy choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring daily function in persons with transfemoral amputations using a commercial activity monitor: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mark V; Deeny, Sean; McCarthy, Cliodhna; Valentin, Juliana; Jayaraman, Arun

    2014-12-01

    To assess in a feasibility study the mobility of persons with transfemoral amputations using data collected from a popular, consumer-oriented activity monitor (Fitbit). Observational cohort study. Research hospital outpatient evaluation. Nine subjects with transfemoral amputations (4 women and 5 men, ages 21-64 years) and Medicare functional assessments (K level) of K3 (n = 7), K2 (n = 1), and K4 (n = 1). One-week monitoring of physical activity using the Fitbit One activity monitor. Daily estimates of step counts, distance walked, floors/stairs climbed, calories burned, and proprietary Fitbit activity scores. For each day, the amount of time in each of the following levels of activity was also reported: sedentary, lightly active, fairly active, and highly active. The percentage of movement time above the fairly active level had a predictable relationship to the designated K level. The average activity measures show decreased levels of activity for obese subjects (body mass index >30). Estimated step counts were highly predictive/redundant with estimated miles walked without setting individual stride lengths. Using linear regression prediction models, calorie estimates were found to be highly dependent on subject age, height, and weight, whereas the proprietary activity score was independent of all 3 demographic factors. This feasibility study demonstrates that the Fitbit activity monitor estimates the activity of subjects with transfemoral amputations, producing results that correlate with their K-level functional activity classifications. The Fitbit activity score is independent of individual variations in age, weight, and height compared with estimated calories for this small sample size. These tools may provide useful insights into prosthetic use in an at-home environment. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pediatric Glaucoma: Pharmacotherapeutic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Monica; Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2016-06-01

    Childhood glaucoma is a major therapeutic challenge for pediatric ophthalmologists and glaucoma specialists worldwide. Management depends on the etiology and age at presentation. A variety of drugs are available for the control of intraocular pressure in children; however, none of these drugs have been licensed by the regulatory agencies for use in children. Furthermore, evidence gained from randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population is sparse, and little is known regarding the use of newer anti-glaucoma preparations. This evidence-based review aims to discuss the available pharmacotherapeutic options for glaucoma in children. Topical adrenoceptor blockers, topical and systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin (PG) analogs, adrenoceptor agonists, parasympathomimetics, and combined preparations are available for use in children, but usually as an off-label indication. Therefore, it is important to recognize that serious side effects have been reported, even with topical drops, and measures to reduce systemic absorption should be taken. Most drugs have been shown to have comparable ocular hypotensive effects, with the lowest occurrence of systemic side effects with PG analogs. Whereas a newly introduced prostaglandin analog, tafluprost, and some other preservative-free preparations have shown promising results in adult glaucoma patients, no pediatric reports are available as yet. Future studies may describe their role in treating pediatric glaucoma. This review also shares some suggested treatment pathways for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG), developmental glaucoma, aphakic/pseudophakic glaucoma, and uveitic glaucoma.

  11. Option-implied measures of equity risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Bo-Young; Christoffersen, Peter; Vainberg, Gregory;

    2012-01-01

    Equity risk measured by beta is of great interest to both academics and practitioners. Existing estimates of beta use historical returns. Many studies have found option-implied volatility to be a strong predictor of future realized volatility. We find that option-implied volatility and skewness a...... able to reflect sudden changes in the structure of the underlying company....

  12. Cross-sectoral assessment of mitigation options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.

    1997-01-01

    options and polity areas where there may be synergistic effects between climate change mitigation and national development objectives, The country study for Tanzania has identified forestry and land use activities and the agricultural sectors as some of the main drivers in the future growth of greenhouse...... gas emissions, Forestry, land use and agriculture are at the same time key economic and social development areas, This means that options leading to improved performance of these activities can reduce future greenhouse gas emissions and imply increasing welfare, A potential for win-win options has...... similarly been assessed in the country study for Zimbabwe, The options include in particular efficiency improvements in industrial plants and in the energy sector, A new methodological issue in the country study for Zimbabwe is the comparable assessment of greenhouse gas reductions options for multiple...

  13. Pyroprocessing of Oxidized Sodium-Bonded Fast Reactor Fuel -- an Experimental Study of Treatment Options for Degraded EBR-II Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. D. Herrmann; L. A. Wurth; N. J. Gese

    2013-09-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess pyrochemical treatment options for degraded EBR-II fuel. As oxidized material, the degraded fuel would need to be converted back to metal to enable electrorefining within an existing electrometallurgical treatment process. A lithium-based electrolytic reduction process was studied to assess the efficacy of converting oxide materials to metal with a particular focus on the impact of zirconium oxide and sodium oxide on this process. Bench-scale electrolytic reduction experiments were performed in LiCl-Li2O at 650 °C with combinations of manganese oxide (used as a surrogate for uranium oxide), zirconium oxide, and sodium oxide. The experimental study illustrated how zirconium oxide and sodium oxide present different challenges to a lithium-based electrolytic reduction system for conversion of select metal oxides to metal.

  14. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  15. Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin Study - Vibration Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) tested two identical gearboxes. One was tested on the NWTCs 2.5 MW dynamometer and the other was field tested in a turbine in a nearby wind plant. In the field, the test gearbox experienced two oil loss events that resulted in damage to its internal bearings and gears. Since the damage was not severe, the test gearbox was removed from the field and retested in the NWTCs dynamometer before it was disassembled. During the dynamometer retest, some vibration data along with testing condition information were collected. These data enabled NREL to launch a Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin project, as described in this report. The main objective of this project was to evaluate different vibration analysis algorithms used in wind turbine condition monitoring (CM) and find out whether the typical practices are effective. With involvement of both academic researchers and industrial partners, the project sets an example on providing cutting edge research results back to industry.

  16. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high.......g. due to vandalism, the charge supply circuit is disconnected. More electrical vehicles on the market are capable today of quick charging up to 50 kW power level. The feasibility of Central Stations with fast charging/swapping option, their capacity, design, costs and grid impact, as well as battery...

  17. A study on the condition monitoring for safety-related electric cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Hwan; Ahn, S. P.; Yeo, S. M.; Kang, Y. S.; Ahn, S. M.; Kim, I. S.; Kim, D. S.; Kang, J. S. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this report, we have studied compositions and characteristics of various types of insulation material for cables in Nuclear Power Plant. We arrange relationship with condition monitoring methods. Also, we propose new condition monitoring method using third harmonic frequency. We test the proposed method with CV cables. We also describe about feature of condition monitoring such as application, theory, characteristic, thereby other engineer can confirm to advantage and disadvantage for each method, and possibly choice adequate condition monitoring method for various types of cables.

  18. Intensive monitoring of duloxetine : results of a web-based intensive monitoring study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härmark, Linda; van Puijenbroek, Eugene; van Grootheest, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Duloxetine (Cymbalta(A (R))) is a serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) re-uptake inhibitor indicated for the treatment of depression, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and general anxiety disorder. The aim of this study is to gain insight in the user and safety profile of duloxetine in daily

  19. Thermal test options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  20. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner.

  1. The hydrogen hybrid option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  2. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 3. Study bases and system design considerations (Appendices). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Volume 3 (Appendices) provides a tabulation of the bases and assumptions used in the study as well as preconceptual design description and cost estimates of the facilities and transportation systems necessary to implement the various study cases.

  3. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Geomagnetic Storm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture geomagnetic storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of geomagnetic storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during geomagnetic storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.

  4. Geoelectric Monitoring Studies for the Carbon Dioxide Geological Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosha, T.; Ishido, T.; Nishi, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Self-potential (SP) anomalies of negative polarity are frequently observed near deep wells. These anomalies appear to be caused by an underground electrochemical mechanism similar to a galvanic cell: the metallic well casing acts as a vertical electronic conductor connecting regions of differing redox potential. Electrons flow upward though the casing from a deeper reducing environment to a shallower oxidizing environment, and simultaneously a compensating vertical flow of ions is induced in the surrounding formation to maintain charge neutrality. If the redox potential in the deeper region is then increased by injecting an oxidizing substance, the difference in redox potential between the shallower and deeper regions will be reduced, resulting in an SP increase near the wellhead. We have been monitoring earth-surface SP during gas injection tests at various sites in Japan. When air was injected into a 100-meter well within a geothermal field, a remarkable simultaneous increase in SP centered on the wellhead was observed. A small but unmistakable SP increase also took place near the wellhead when CO2 was slowly injected, which we believe was caused by local pH reduction at depth resulting from dissolution of the injected CO2 in the aquifer fluid. SP changes were also observed in Yubari, geological sequestration test site in Japan, where one well injected CO2 into a coal bed and the fluid containing CH4 was produced from a nearby well. The CO2 content of the fluid was also monitored. SP increased substantially around the injection wellhead, but no significant SP changes attributable to the injection were observed near the production wellhead. This is consistent with the observation that CO2 did not break through into the production well during the experiment. We believe that SP measurements at the earth surface represent a new and promising technique for sensing the approach of CO2 to well casings deep within the subsurface.

  5. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  6. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  7. Performance monitoring in autism spectrum disorders: A systematic literature review of event-related potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüpen, Philippa; Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina F; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by impairments in social-emotional situations, executive functioning, and behavioral regulation. These symptoms may be related to deficits in performance monitoring, i.e., the ability to observe and evaluate one's own behavior and performance which is necessary for the regulation of future behavior. The present literature review investigated electroencephalic correlates of performance monitoring in ASD. Event-related potentials (ERPs) considered in this review included internal performance monitoring components (error-related negativity, error positivity), external performance monitoring components (feedback-related negativity, feedback-P3), and observational performance monitoring components (observer error-related negativity, observer feedback-related negativity). The majority of studies point to reduced internal performance monitoring in ASD. External performance monitoring in reward-processing paradigms, where rewards are independent of performance, seems to be intact in ASD. So far, no studies have investigated the observer error-related negativity in ASD. Available data on the observer feedback-related negativity are inconclusive, since only two studies with differential study results investigated this construct in ASD. In general, results suggest that individuals with ASD have problems with internal performance monitoring and with learning from external, abstract feedback. In contrast, the processing of external, concrete feedback seems to be largely intact in ASD.

  8. Our Energy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  9. Idaho's Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  10. Implementing the Instructional Coach Role as a Professional Development Option: A Case Study of the Change Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubek, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes and participation in professional development activities of key stakeholders as related to the change of position from an Instructional Support Teacher to an Instructional Coach. Specifically, this study aimed to provide a detailed and extensive review of the implementation process and…

  11. Healthy option preferences of rural restaurant customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothwehr, Faryle; Snetselaar, Linda; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Hradek, Christine; Sepulveda, Marisol

    2010-11-01

    In preparation for an intervention study in three rural Iowa restaurants, 250 customers were surveyed regarding their interest in dietary change, perceptions of the restaurant, and interest in healthy options. Customers were ages 18 to 88, with a mean age of 52, and 53% were women. Most agreed that the restaurant offers healthy meals. Options customers stated they were most likely to order if available included meat that is baked or broiled, whole-wheat bread, fresh fruit or steamed vegetables, and regular salad dressing on the side. They were least interested in low-fat sour cream, low-fat salad dressing, low-fat milk, low-calorie dessert, and holding high-fat ingredients. Women were more likely to indicate interest in healthy options than were men. Interest in several options was also positively associated with age. Increasing the healthy options in restaurants may be especially effective in changing the dietary intake of women and older adults.

  12. The FOBIMO (FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring) initiative—Towards a standardised protocol for soft-bottom benthic foraminiferal monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Joachim; Alve, Elisabeth; Geslin, Emmanuelle; Jorissen, Frans; Korsun, Sergei; Spezzaferri, Silva; Abramovich, Sigal; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Armynot du Chatelet, Eric; Barras, Christine; Bergamin, Luisa; Bicchi, Erica; Bouchet, Vincent; Cearreta, Alejandro; Di Bella, Letizia; Dijkstra, Noortje; Trevisan Disaro, Sibelle; Ferraro, Luciana; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Gennari, Giordana; Golikova, Elena; Haynert, Kristin; Hess, Silvia; Husum, Katrine; Martins, Virginia; McGann, Mary; Oron, Shai; Romano, Elena; Mello Sousa, Silvia; Tsujimoto, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The European Community Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was established to provide guidelines for monitoring the quality of marine ecosystems. Monitoring the status of marine environments is traditionally based on macrofauna surveys, for which standardised methods have been established. Benthic foraminifera are also good indicators of environmental status because of their fast turnover rates, high degree of specialisation, and the preservation of dead assemblages in the fossil record. In spite of the growing interest in foraminiferal bio-monitoring during the last decades, no standardised methodology has been proposed until today. The aim of the FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring (FOBIMO) expert workshop, held in June 2011 at Fribourg, Switzerland, which assembled 37 scientists from 24 research groups and 13 countries, was to develop a suite of standard methods. This paper presents the main outcome of the workshop, a list of motivated recommendations with respect to sampling devices, sample storage, treatment, faunal analysis and documentation. Our recommendations fulfil the criteria imposed both by scientific rigour and by the practical limitations of routine studies. Hence, our aim is to standardise methodologies used in bio-monitoring only and not to limit the use of different methods in pure scientific studies. Unless otherwise stated, all recommendations concern living (stained) benthic foraminiferal assemblages. We have chosen to propose two types of recommendations. Mandatory recommendations have to be followed if a study wants to qualify as sound and compatible to the norms. The most important of these recommendations are the interval from 0 to 1 cm below the sediment surface has to be sampled, and an interface corer or box corer that keeps the sediment surface intact is to be used for offshore surveys. A grab sampler must not be deployed in soft sediments. Three replicate samples are to be taken and analysed separately. Samples are to be washed on a

  13. Landfill monitoring using remote sensing: a case study of Glina, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboaea, Cristina; Petrescu, Florian

    2013-10-01

    Landfill monitoring is one of the most important components of waste management. This article presents a case study on landfill monitoring using remote sensing technology. The study area was the Glina landfill, one of the largest municipal waste disposal sites in Romania. The methodology consisted of monitoring the differences of temperature computed for several distinct waste disposal zones with respect to a ground reference area, all of them located within the landfill site. The remote sensing data used were Landsat satellite multi-temporal data. The differences of temperature were computed using Landsat thermal infrared data. The study confirmed the use of multi-temporal Landsat imagery as a complementary data source.

  14. Monitorizing nitinol alloy surface reactions for biofouling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinu, C.Z. [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Photenhauerstrasse 108, Dresden (Germany); Dinca, V.C. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: valentina.dinca@inflpr.ro; Soare, S. [UNIBUC-MICROGEN, University of Bucharest, Centre for Research, Education and Consulting in Microbiology, Genetics and Biotechnology (MICROGEN), Splaiul Independentei, 91-95, RO 76201 Bucharest (Romania); Moldovan, A. [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Photenhauerstrasse 108, Dresden (Germany); Smarandache, D. [UNIBUC-MICROGEN, University of Bucharest, Centre for Research, Education and Consulting in Microbiology, Genetics and Biotechnology (MICROGEN), Splaiul Independentei, 91-95, RO 76201 Bucharest (Romania); Scarisoareanu, N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Barbalat, A. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Birjega, R. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Bucharest (Romania); DiStefano, V. Ferrari [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Electronics, Rome (Italy)

    2007-07-31

    Growth and deposition of unwanted bacteria on implant metal alloys affect their use as biomedical samples. Monitoring any bacterial biofilm accumulation will provide early countermeasures. For a reliable antifouling strategy we prepared nitinol (NiTi) thin films on Ti-derived substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. As the microstructure of Ti-alloy is dictated by the tensile strength, fatigue and the fracture toughness we tested the use of hydrogen as an alloying element. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigated the crystalline structure, chemical composition and respectively the surface morphology of the nitinol hydrogen and hydrogen-free samples. Moreover, the alloys were integrated and tested using a cellular metric and their responses were systematic evaluated and quantified. Our attractive approach is meant to select the suitable components for an effective and trustworthy anti-fouling strategy. A greater understanding of such processes should lead to novel and effective control methods that would improve in the future implant stability and capabilities.

  15. Study on Monitoring Rock Burst through Drill Pipe Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to identify the danger of rock burst from the response of drill pipe torque during drilling process to overcome many defects of the conventional volume of drilled coal rubble method. It is based on the relationship of rock burst with coal stress and coal strength. Through theoretic analysis, the change mechanism of drill pipe torque and the relationship of drill pipe torque with coal stress, coal strength, and drilling speed are investigated. In light of the analysis, a new device for testing drill pipe torque is developed and a series of experiments is performed under different conditions; the results show that drill pipe torque linearly increases with the increase of coal stress and coal strength; the faster the drilling speed, the larger the drill pipe torque, and vice versa. When monitoring rock burst by drill pipe torque method, the index of rock burst is regarded as a function in which coal stress index and coal strength index are principal variables. The results are important for the forecast of rock burst in coal mine.

  16. Monitorizing nitinol alloy surface reactions for biofouling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, C. Z.; Dinca, V. C.; Soare, S.; Moldovan, A.; Smarandache, D.; Scarisoareanu, N.; Barbalat, A.; Birjega, R.; Dinescu, M.; DiStefano, V. Ferrari

    2007-07-01

    Growth and deposition of unwanted bacteria on implant metal alloys affect their use as biomedical samples. Monitoring any bacterial biofilm accumulation will provide early countermeasures. For a reliable antifouling strategy we prepared nitinol (NiTi) thin films on Ti-derived substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. As the microstructure of Ti-alloy is dictated by the tensile strength, fatigue and the fracture toughness we tested the use of hydrogen as an alloying element. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigated the crystalline structure, chemical composition and respectively the surface morphology of the nitinol hydrogen and hydrogen-free samples. Moreover, the alloys were integrated and tested using a cellular metric and their responses were systematic evaluated and quantified. Our attractive approach is meant to select the suitable components for an effective and trustworthy anti-fouling strategy. A greater understanding of such processes should lead to novel and effective control methods that would improve in the future implant stability and capabilities.

  17. ICARUS-4 : a database of energy reduction options for the Netherlands, 1995-2020 : sector study for the non-ferrous metals industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this report we describe the energy consumption in 1995 and the energy saving options that exist within the non-ferro base metal industry (SBI/NACE 27.4-5) in the Netherlands. The data will be included in the ICARUS-4 database which gives an inventory of the technological options for energy saving

  18. ICARUS-4 : a database of energy reduction options for the Netherlands, 1995-2020 : sector study for the non-ferrous metals industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we describe the energy consumption in 1995 and the energy saving options that exist within the non-ferro base metal industry (SBI/NACE 27.4-5) in the Netherlands. The data will be included in the ICARUS-4 database which gives an inventory of the technological options for energy saving

  19. Treatment options for hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Amy; Miller, Emily S; Wisner, Katherine L

    2017-01-09

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a severe and prolonged form of nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. HG affects 0.3-2% of pregnancies and is defined by dehydration, ketonuria, and more than 5% body weight loss. Initial pharmacologic treatment for HG includes a combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine. Additional interventions include ondansetron or dopamine antagonists such as metoclopramide or promethazine. The options are limited for women who are not adequately treated with these medications. We suggest that mirtazapine is a useful drug in this context and its efficacy has been described in case studies. Mirtazapine acts on noradrenergic, serotonergic, histaminergic, and muscarinic receptors to produce antidepressant, anxiolytic, antiemetic, sedative, and appetite-stimulating effects. Mirtazapine is not associated with an independent increased risk of birth defects. Further investigation of mirtazapine as a treatment for HG holds promise to expand treatment options for women suffering from HG.

  20. A cluster randomized trial of routine HIV-1 viral load monitoring in Zambia: study design, implementation, and baseline cohort characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Koethe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The benefit of routine HIV-1 viral load (VL monitoring of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-constrained settings is uncertain because of the high costs associated with the test and the limited treatment options. We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial to compare the use of routine VL testing at ART-initiation and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, versus our local standard of care (which uses immunological and clinical criteria to diagnose treatment failure, with discretionary VL testing when the two do not agree. METHODOLOGY: Dedicated study personnel were integrated into public-sector ART clinics. We collected participant information in a dedicated research database. Twelve ART clinics in Lusaka, Zambia constituted the units of randomization. Study clinics were stratified into pairs according to matching criteria (historical mortality rate, size, and duration of operation to limit the effect of clustering, and independently randomized to the intervention and control arms. The study was powered to detect a 36% reduction in mortality at 18 months. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From December 2006 to May 2008, we completed enrollment of 1973 participants. Measured baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the study arms. Enrollment was staggered by clinic pair and truncated at two matched sites. CONCLUSIONS: A large clinical trial of routing VL monitoring was successfully implemented in a dynamic and rapidly growing national ART program. Close collaboration with local health authorities and adequate reserve staff were critical to success. Randomized controlled trials such as this will likely prove valuable in determining long-term outcomes in resource-constrained settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00929604.

  1. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  2. Study of structure of marine specialist activity in an ergative system on monitoring and managing automatic control parameters of safe navigation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholichev S. N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of structures' common features and dynamics of the technical object tuning circuit performing automatic adjustment of safe navigation options has been conducted for the first time in the theory of ergative systems. The research of the structure and process of ergative system functioning including an automatic control system with the option of safe navigation conditions has been fulfilled. The function of signals' selection performing optimal control law reconfiguration of the mentioned system has been given, and some sequence of marine specialist activities allowing solve the problem of navigation safety has been composed. The ergative system retargeted by the ship specialist has a two-tier hierarchy. The first level is an automatic control of the safe navigation parameter, and the second is the level of reconfiguration where the ship specialist changes the parameters of regulation act. The two-level hierarchical representation of the ergative navigation security settings management system makes it possible to introduce the concept of reconfiguration of regulation level as ship specialist activity which is to reduce the uncertainty in the environment in the operation of this layer. Such a reduction can be achieved as a result of exposure to the upper level associated with ideas of the ship specialist on the regulation of safe navigation parameters of the vessel on the lower level – the level of direct control automatic safe navigation option. As a result of studying the activities of the ship specialist in the ergative system on monitoring and managing automatic control parameters of safe navigation process it has been found that the main task of the ship specialist in the operation within the ergative system ensuring the navigation safety is to monitor the input and output of the automatic control system, decisions on the choice of reconfiguration laws regulating signal on the basis of information about deviations and the

  3. Comparison between major repair and replacement options for a bridge deck life cycle assessment: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Dabous Saleh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material production, manufacturing, transportation, usage, and end of lifeprocessing are usually the main contributors defining the life cycle assessment (LCA. Bridge infrastructure is important to the economy and the society. Over their life cycle, highway bridges experience several stressors that can significantly affect their structural performance and therefore require rehabilitation. This paper discusses the life cycle analysis of bridge rehabilitation decisions and demonstrates the analysis with a case study of a bridge located in Ontario, Canada. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed for two rehabilitation strategies: major repair and replacement. The study focuses on evaluating the different life cycle phases of the bridge deck by assessing their carbon dioxide emission, energy consumption and cost. Also, the paper presents the impact of the different elements within each phase to identify the most contributing elements. The LCA of the bridge deck is analyzed and estimated with the aid of CES EduPack 2016 software that includes a database of more than 4000 different materials and more than 200 manufacturing processes. Analysis of the case study shows that material phase causes significant life cycle impact. The study concluded that the deck replacement yields higher environmental impact and life cycle cost compared to repairing and strengthening the deck.

  4. Control options for river water improvement: a case study of TDS and inorganic nitrogen in the Crocodile river (South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Deksissa, T

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available . This study focusedon two water quality problems: Progressive increases in the concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) as a measure of salinity, and the concentrations of nitrate-plus-nitrite and ammonia (as inorganic nitrogen) as a measure...

  5. R&D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-StateStudies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary LayoutOption Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI {at} Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed R&D activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac.

  6. Options for laser compression of matter to study dense-plasma phases at low entropy, including metallization of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Oparin, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Aoki, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-Ku, Yokohama 227 (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The potential of high-power lasers for detailed studies of strongly coupled plasmas at low entropy is discussed, emphasizing multiple-shock techniques. Some outstanding features like metallization in solids and related ionization phase transitions in the fluid phase{emdash}predicted theoretically, but not yet observed experimentally{emdash}are reviewed. Planar multiple shock compression of solid hydrogen is described, using reverberating shocks between massive liners and, alternatively, a stepped pressure pulse acting from one side. In the latter case, shock splitting and a rarefaction shock show up at the metallic phase transition. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a novel treatment option for infective endocarditis: a retrospective clinical study in 32 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Aviva; Krymko, Hanna; Richardson, Justin; Zalzstein, Eli; Ioffe, Viktoriya

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a life-threatening infectious syndrome, with high morbidity and mortality. Current treatments for infective endocarditis include intravenous antibiotics, surgery, and involve a lengthy hospital stay. We hypothesised that adjunctive recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment for infective endocarditis may facilitate faster resolution of vegetations and clearance of positive blood cultures, and therefore decrease morbidity and mortality. This retrospective study included follow-up of patients, from 1997 through 2014, including clinical presentation, causative organism, length of treatment, morbidity, and mortality. We identified 32 patients, all of whom were diagnosed with endocarditis and were treated by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Among all, 27 patients (93%) had positive blood cultures, with the most frequent organisms being Staphylococcus epidermis (nine patients), Staphylococcus aureus (six patients), and Candida (nine patients). Upon treatment, in 31 patients (97%), resolution of vegetations and clearance of blood cultures occurred within hours to few days. Out of 32 patients, one patient (3%) died and three patients (9%) suffered embolic or haemorrhagic events, possibly related to the recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. None of the patients required surgical intervention to assist vegetation resolution. In conclusion, it appears that recombinant tissue plasminogen activator may become an adjunctive treatment for infective endocarditis and may decrease morbidity as compared with current guidelines. Prospective multi-centre studies are required to validate our findings.

  8. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  9. Management options of varicoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy.

  10. Feasibility study in aspect of thermal integrity on the dry storage expansion options for CANDU spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y.; Song, M. J. [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, K. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    In order to expand the capability of the CANDU spent fuel dry storage facilities of the at Wolsong, the alternative concepts based on MACSTOR are suggested to replace with existing concrete silo of Wolsong. For this, the feasibility of its design changes from original MACSTOR is examined in term of heat transfer and thermal hydraulic. In this study, the configuration of the module was conceptually changed from its original 2 rows to 3 and 4 rows for review. Under normal operation, the results of heat transfer and thermal hydraulic shows that storage module can feasibly accomodate four rows of storage cylinders within allowable range in terms of maximum allowable temperature of the fuel basket.

  11. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a ...

  12. First metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis: current fixation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jared L; McGlamry, Michael C

    2011-04-01

    This article reviews the current literature on first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis rates using various forms of fixation, as well as reviewing biomechanical studies comparing the strengths of the different fixation options that are available.

  13. A STUDY ON INFORMAL MARKET CLUSTER ACTIVITIES CONCENTRATING AROUND MENDI MARKET AREA: IS RELOCATION THE BEST OPTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undiri Kima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The market provides a means of survival for the local and urban communities. The local farmers, local artisans, and other informal sectors find the market as their source of income and food and a place of relaxation. They find the market as a place where they meet friends. The article seeks to understand and analyze how informal sectors cluster groups agglomerate in and around the Mendi Local Market (LM area of Papua New Guinea. This research has made particular reference to Street Vendors (SV who are operating their daily activities in and along the market corridor and exert their influences to the LM and the public. The study provides the scenario to understand the impact of the social relations of the informal street vendors and their daily associated influences on LM. This article seeks to trace and to understand how informal market clusters are operating and concentrating around the local market. The conclusion suggests that the relationships of the informal sector, street vendors, and local market should be promoted through an appropriate inclusive policy and regulatory environment.The market provides a means of survival for the local and urban communities. The local farmers, local artisans, and other informal sectors find the market as their source of income and food and a place of relaxation. They find the market as a place where they meet friends. The article seeks to understand and analyze how informal sectors cluster groups agglomerate in and around the Mendi Local Market (LM area of Papua New Guinea. This research has made particular reference to Street Vendors (SV who are operating their daily activities in and along the market corridor and exert their influences to the LM and the public. The study provides the scenario to understand the impact of the social relations of the informal street vendors and their daily associated influences on LM. This article seeks to trace and to understand how informal market clusters are operating

  14. Community-Based Tourism - Option for Forest-Dependent Communities in 1A IUCN Protected Areas? Cameroon Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgin Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, ‘exponential’ growth in IUCN protected lands has occurred in the last 25 years. Approximately 6% of protected areas are ‘Strict Nature Reserve[s]’ (1A with emphasis on conservation and strict restrictions on human access. Before Bakossi Forest Reserve (Cameroon had 1A protection, 95% of local families used the Reserve for their livelihood. They farmed cash crops, collected fire wood, timber, and food with incomes equivalent to US$35,000/annually/family. Post-protection, the Reserve’s local communities lacked support to develop alternative livelihoods, and 75% reported being intercepted illegally trespassing by Reserve guards. Without illegal activity economic impacts would have been substantially greater. Protection has also meant foregone national income from timber and coffee exports. We used Bakossi Forest Reserve as a case study to identify issues facing local communities excluded from the Reserve that traditionally provided their livelihood. We also investigated potential alternative family livelihoods based on critical evaluation of the literature. We identified ‘exceptional’ community-based tourism potential. We also found that Cameroon was the first African country to develop community-based forestry with the dual roles of conservation and poverty alleviation. Using this model, community-based tourism could be a cost-effectively initiative to deliver the same dual roles as community-based forestry.

  15. Are PEEK-on-Ceramic Bearings an Option for Total Disc Arthroplasty? An In Vitro Tribology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskey, Ryan; Ciccarelli, Lauren; Lui, Melissa K C; Kurtz, Steven M

    2016-11-01

    endplates were the primary sources of wear and demonstrated an abrasive wear mechanism. Under idealized and impingement conditions, the ceramic core also demonstrated slight polishing of the articulating surface but the change in mass was unmeasurable. During abrasive testing, the titanium transfer on the core was shown to polish over 5 MC of testing. In all cases and consistent with previous studies of other PEEK bearing couples, the particle size was primarily ceramic wear rate (0.7 ± 0.1 mm(3)/MC) appears comparable to the published wear rates for other polymer-on-hard bearing couples (0.3-6.7 mm(3)/MC) and within the range of 0.2 to 1.9 mm(3)/MC reported for PEEK-on-PEEK cervical disc designs. The particles, based on size and morphology, also suggest the wear mechanism is comparable between the PEEK-on-ceramic couple and other polymer-on-ceramic orthopaedic couples. The PEEK-on-ceramic bearing considered in this study is a novel bearing couple for use in total disc arthroplasty devices and will require clinical evaluation to fully assess the bearing couple and total disc design. However, the wear rates under idealized and adverse conditions, and particle size and morphology, suggest that PEEK-on-ceramic bearings may be a reasonable alternative to polyethylene-on-CoCr and metal-on-metal bearings currently used in cervical TDRs.

  16. Dialysis access, infections, and hospitalisations in unplanned dialysis start patients: results from the OPTiONS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark D; Vanga, Satyanarayana Reddy; Koch, Michael; Aarup, Michael; Qureshi, Abdul R; Lindholm, Bengt; Rutherford, Peter

    2017-03-16

    Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) associates with worse clinical outcomes, higher utilisation of healthcare resources, lower chances to select dialysis modality and UPS patients typically commenced in-centre haemodialysis (HD) with central venous catheter (CVC). We evaluated patient outcomes and healthcare utilisation depending on initial dialysis access (CVC or PD catheter) and subsequent pathway of UPS patients. In this study patient demographics, access procedures, hospitalisations, and major infectious complications were analysed over 12 months in 270 UPS patients. PD technique survival and impact of switching from HD to PD was examined along with logistic regression to investigate factors predicting AV fistula formation. 72 UPS patients started with PD catheter and 198 with CVC. PD patients were older and more comorbid but had a significantly lower number of access procedures while there was no difference in hospitalisation or major infections. 13/72 initial PD patients switched to HD and 1-year technique survival was 79%. 158/198 patients remained on HD and 73/158 reported permanent access formation. Older age, OR = 0.34 (CI,0.17-0.68) and cardiac failure, OR = 0.31(CI,0.13-0.78), were significant negative predictors of receiving fistula. Younger patients, OR = 0.29 (CI, 0.11-0.79) and those who received AVF, OR = 0.11 (CI,0.03-0.38), had significantly lower odds of death. UPS with initial PD was possible in many patients and was associated with lower requirement for access procedures. AVF formation in UPS patients starting on HD was associated with better 1-year survival. Modality switching in UPS patients requires careful clinical management, including clinical practice patterns promoting permanent HD access formation.

  17. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  18. [Study on real-time wearable monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuhong; Wang, Tianhao; Li, Chenming

    2013-02-01

    In order to study the way of evaluating human performance under heat and cold stresses, we developed a wearable physiological monitoring system-intelligent belt system, capable of providing real-time, continuous and dynamic monitoring of multiple physiological parameters. The system has following features: multiuser communication, high integration, strong environment adaptability, dynamic features and real time physiological monitoring ability. The system uses sensing belts and elastic belts to acquire physiological parameters, uses WIFI to build wireless network monitoring for multiuser, and uses Delphi to develop data processing software capable of real-time viewing, storagng, processing, and alerting. With four different intensity-activity trials on six subjects and compared with standard laboratory human physiological acquisition instruments, the system was proved to be able to acquire accu-rate physiological parameters such as ECG, respiration, multi-point body temperatures, and body movement. The system worked steadily and reliably. This wearable real-time monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses can solve the problem facing our country that human heat stress and cold stress monitoring technology is insufficient, provide new methods and new ways for monitoring and evaluation of human heat and cold stresses under real task or stress environment, and provide technical platform for the study on human ergonomics.

  19. An Investigation of the Glucose Monitoring Practices of Nurses in Stroke Care: A Descriptive Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Laird

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose derangement is commonly observed among adults admitted to hospital with acute stroke. This paper presents the findings from a descriptive cohort study that investigated the glucose monitoring practices of nurses caring for adults admitted to hospital with stroke or transient ischaemic attack. We found that a history of diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with initiation of glucose monitoring and higher frequency of that monitoring. Glucose monitoring was continued for a significantly longer duration of days for adults with a history of diabetes mellitus, when compared to the remainder of the cohort. As glucose monitoring was not routine practice for adults with no history of diabetes mellitus, the detection and treatment of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia events could be delayed. There was a significant positive association between the admission hospital that is most likely to offer stroke unit care and the opportunity for glucose monitoring. We concluded that adults with acute stroke, irrespective of their diabetes mellitus status prior to admission to hospital, are vulnerable to both hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic events. This study suggests that the full potential of nurses in the monitoring of glucose among hospitalised adults with stroke has yet to be realised.

  20. [Justification of regulations for the use of computers with LCD monitor during academic studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M I; Sazanyuk, Z I; Laponova, E D; Voronova, B Z; Lashneva, I P

    2014-01-01

    In the article there are reported the results of studies of the effect on the functional state of the body of schoolchildren curriculum with the use of personal computers with LCD monitors. The resistance to the development of visual and general fatigue in schoolchildren -users of personal computers with LCD monitors was found to be higher because they provide a more favorable environment for visual work in comparison with monitors based on cathode-ray tube. The use of LED lighting in classrooms contributes to the creation a more favorable light environment than in fluorescent lighting and reduces fatigable impact (both general and visual) of classes with the use of personal computers.

  1. Studies of beam heating of proton beam profile monitor SEM's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovich, Zarko; Osiecki, Thomas H.; Kopp, Sacha E.; /Texas U.

    2005-05-01

    The authors present calculations of the expected temperature rise of proton beam profile monitors due to beam heating. The profile monitors are secondary emission monitors (SEM's) to be made of Titanium foils. The heating is studied to understand whether there is any loss of tension or alignment of such devices. Additionally, calculations of thermally-induced dynamic stress are presented. Ti foil is compared to other materials and also to wire SEM's. The calculations were initially performed for the NuMI beam, where the per-pulse intensity is quite high; for completeness the calculations are also performed for other beam energies and intensities.

  2. Vitrified waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, D.A.; Kimmitt, R.R.

    1998-02-01

    A {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste (HLW) now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a target date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of all ICPP calcine, including the existing and future HLW calcine resulting from calcining liquid Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW). Currently, the SBW is stored in the tank farm at the ICPP. Vitrification of these wastes is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the calcined waste and casting the vitrified mass into stainless steel canisters that will be ready to be moved out of the Idaho for disposal by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) until they are sent to a HLW national repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from 2013 through 2032; all HLW will be treated and in storage by the end of 2032.

  3. Dupuytren Contracture Recurrence Following Treatment With Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CORDLESS [Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren Long-Term Evaluation of Safety Study]): 5-Year Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Clayton A; Blazar, Philip; Coleman, Stephen; Kaplan, F Thomas D; Smith, Ted; Lindau, Tommy

    2015-08-01

    Collagenase Option for Reduction of Dupuytren Long-Term Evaluation of Safety Study was a 5-year noninterventional follow-up study to determine long-term efficacy and safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) treatment for Dupuytren contracture. Patients from previous CCH clinical studies were eligible. Enrolled patients were evaluated annually for contracture and safety at 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after their first injection (0.58 mg) of CCH. In successfully treated joints (≤ 5° contracture following CCH treatment), recurrence was defined as 20° or greater worsening (relative to day 30 after the last injection) with a palpable cord or any medical/surgical intervention to correct new/worsening contracture. A post hoc analysis was also conducted using a less stringent threshold (≥ 30° worsening) for comparison with criteria historically used to assess surgical treatment. Of 950 eligible patients, 644 enrolled (1,081 treated joints). At year 5, 47% (291 of 623) of successfully treated joints had recurrence (≥ 20° worsening)-39% (178 of 451) of metacarpophalangeal and 66% (113 of 172) of proximal interphalangeal joints. At year 5, 32% (198 of 623) of successfully treated joints had 30° or greater worsening (metacarpophalangeal 26% [119 of 451] and proximal interphalangeal 46% [79 of 172] joints). Of 105 secondary interventions performed in the successfully treated joints, 47% (49 of 105) received fasciectomy, 30% (32 of 105) received additional CCH, and 23% (24 of 105) received other interventions. One mild adverse event was attributed to CCH treatment (skin atrophy [decreased ring finger circumference from thinning of Dupuytren tissue]). Antibodies to clostridial type I and/or II collagenase were found in 93% of patients, but over the 5 years of follow-up, this did not correspond to any reported clinical adverse events. Five years after successful CCH treatment, the overall recurrence rate of 47% was comparable with published recurrence rates after

  4. Whole-Home Dehumidifiers: Field-Monitoring Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Tom; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Johnson, Russell

    2014-09-23

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) initiated a WHD field-metering study to expand current knowledge of and obtain data on WHD operation and energy consumption in real-world applications. The field study collected real-time data on WHD energy consumption, along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and various outdoor conditions expected to affect WHD performance and efficiency. Although the metering study collected similar data regarding air conditioner operation, this report discusses only WHDs. The primary objectives of the LBNL field-metering study are to (1) expand knowledge of the configurations, energy consumption profiles, consumer patterns of use (e.g., relative humidity [RH] settings), and environmental parameters of whole-home dehumidification systems; and (2) develop distributions of hours of dehumidifier operation in four operating modes: off, standby, fan-only, and compressor (also called dehumidification mode). Profiling energy consumption entails documenting the power consumption, duration of power consumption in different modes, condensate generation, and properties of output air of an installed system under field conditions of varying inlet air temperature and RH, as well as system configuration. This profiling provides a more detailed and deeper understanding of WHD operation and its complexities. This report describes LBNL’s whole-home dehumidification field-metering study conducted at four homes in Wisconsin and Florida. The initial phase of the WHD field-metering study was conducted on one home in Madison, Wisconsin, from June to December of 2013. During a second phase, three Florida homes were metered from June to October of 2014. This report presents and examines data from the Wisconsin site and from the three Florida sites.

  5. 77 FR 33541 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... receipt of Commission approval and prior to the product launch, the Exchange will issue a circular...). Design of the Product SPBAS options reflect the difference between the Special Opening Quotation (``SOQ... these surveillance procedures shall be adequate to monitor trading in options on these option...

  6. The price of correlation risk: evidence from equity options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.; Maenhout, P.J.; Vilkov, G.

    2009-01-01

    We study whether exposure to marketwide correlation shocks affects expected option returns, using data on S&P100 index options, options on all components, and stock returns. We find evidence of priced correlation risk based on prices of index and individual variance risk. A trading strategy

  7. Can saliva offer an advantage in monitoring of diabetes mellitus? – A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, Preethi; Subhas G Babu; Sucheta, Kumari N.; Shetty, Shishir R.; Rangare, Anusha L.; Castelino, Renita L.; Fazil, Areekat K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes Mellitus is emerging as a major health problem over these years. Present method of blood glucose monitoring by venepuncture is invasive leading to reduced patient compliance and thereby ineffective judicious monitoring. The need of the hour is to direct research in the direction of establishing painless and more acceptable blood glucose analysis method.The objective of the study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the concentrations of salivary glucose and blood gluco...

  8. Wide-field monitoring strategy for the study of fast optical transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskin, Grigory; Bondar, Sergey; Karpov, Sergey; Guarnieri, Adriano; Bartolini, Corrado; Greco, Giuseppe; Piccioni, Adalberto

    2010-10-01

    We discuss the strategy of search for fast optical transients accompanying gamma-ray bursts by means of continuous monitoring of wide sky fields with high temporal resolution. We describe the design, performance and results of our cameras, FAVOR and TORTORA. Also we discuss the perspectives of this strategy and possible design of next-generation equipment for wide-field monitoring which will be able to detect optical transients and to study their color and polarization properties with high time resolution.

  9. Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction.

  10. Study on attribute characterization for reservoir dynamic monitoring by seismic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Study on characterizing reservoir parameters dynamic variations by time-lapse seismic attributes is the theoretical basis for effectively distinguishing reservoir parameters variations and conducting time-lapse seismic interpretation,and it is also a key step for time-lapse seismic application in real oil fields. Based on the rock physical model of unconsolidated sandstone,the different effects of oil saturation and effective pressure variations on seismic P-wave and S-wave velocities are calculated and analyzed. Using numerical simulation on decoupled wave equations,the responses of seismic amplitude with different offsets to reservoir oil saturation variations are analyzed,pre-stack time-lapse seismic attributes differences for oil saturation and effective pressure variations of P-P wave and P-S converted wave are calculated,and time-lapse seismic AVO (Amplitude Versus Offset) response rules of P-P wave and P-S converted wave to effective pressure and oil saturation variations are compared. The theoretical modeling study shows that it is feasible to distinguish different reservoir parameters dynamic variations by pre-stack time-lapse seismic information,including pre-stack time-lapse seismic attributes and AVO information,which has great potential in improving time-lapse seismic interpreta-tion precision. It also shows that the time-lapse seismic response mechanism study on objective oil fields is especially important in establishing effective time-lapse seismic data process and interpreta-tion scheme.

  11. Achilles tendinosis: treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L; Jung, Hong-Geun

    2015-03-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options.

  12. Management options for reducing the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruden, Amy; Larsson, D.G. Joakim; Amézquita, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    determinants via environmental pathways, with the ultimate goal of extending the useful life span of antibiotics. We also examined incentives and disincentives for action. Methods: We focused on management options with respect to limiting agricultural sources; treatment of domestic, hospital, and industrial......Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance...... wastewater; and aquaculture. Discussion: We identified several options, such as nutrient management, runoff control, and infrastructure upgrades. Where appropriate, a cross-section of examples from various regions of the world is provided. The importance of monitoring and validating effectiveness...

  13. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  14. Tracking Models for Optioned Portfolio Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianfeng

    In this paper we study a target tracking problem for the portfolio selection involving options. In particular, the portfolio in question contains a stock index and some European style options on the index. A refined tracking-error-variance methodology is adopted to formulate this problem as a multi-stage optimization model. We derive the optimal solutions based on stochastic programming and optimality conditions. Attention is paid to the structure of the optimal payoff function, which is shown to possess rich properties.

  15. THE REAL OPTIONS OF CAPITAL BUDGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martins

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional techniques of capital budget, as the deducted cash flow and the net value present, do not incorporate existing flexibilities in an investment project, they tend to distort the value of certain investments, mainly those that are considered in scenes of uncertainty and risk. Therefore, this study intends to demonstrate that the Real Options Theory (TOR is a useful methodology to evaluate and to indicate the best option for project of expansion investment. To reach the considered objective the procedure method was used a case study, having as unit of case the Resort Praia Hotel do Litoral Norte of Salvador. This study was developed of the following form: first it identified the traditional net value present and later it was incorporated the volatileness of each analyzed uncertainty. Second, as the real options are analogous to the financial options, it was necessary to identify elements that composed the terminologies of the financial options with intention to get the value of the real option. For this model of options pricing of Black & Scholes jointly with a computational simulator was used (SLS to get the expanded net value present. As a result of this study it was possible to evidence that using the traditional tool of capital budget Net Value Present (VPL is negative, therefore the project of expansion of the Hotel would be rejected. While for the application of methodology TOR the project presents positive Expanded Present Value which would represent an excellent chance of investment. Key-word: Capital budget, Real options, Analysis of investments.

  16. Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Georgiana NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between managerial turnover and equity-based compensation. I investigate whether stock options act to bond executives to their firms and whether retention of managers is a motivation of companies in designing CEO incentive contracts. The results show that stock options do negatively influence the probability of a CEO leaving the company. The monetary cost of losing the value of equity-based compensation package keeps the manager with his company. I also fin...

  17. Awareness during anaesthesia for surgery requiring evoked potential monitoring: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritish J Korula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evoked potential monitoring such as somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP or motor-evoked potential (MEP monitoring during surgical procedures in proximity to the spinal cord requires minimising the minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs below the anaesthetic concentrations normally required (1 MAC to prevent interference in amplitude and latency of evoked potentials. This could result in awareness. Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of awareness while administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics for these unique procedures. The secondary objective was to assess the adequacy of our anaesthetic technique from neurophysiologist′s perspective. Methods: In this prospective observational pilot study, 61 American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 patients undergoing spinal surgery for whom intraoperative evoked potential monitoring was performed were included; during the maintenance phase, 0.7-0.8 MAC of isoflurane was targeted. We evaluated the intraoperative depth of anaesthesia using a bispectral (BIS index monitor as well as the patients response to surgical stimulus (PRST scoring system. Post-operatively, a modified Bruce questionnaire was used to verify awareness. The adequacy of evoked potential readings was also assessed. Results: Of the 61 patients, no patient had explicit awareness. Intraoperatively, 19 of 61 patients had a BIS value of above sixty at least once, during surgery. There was no correlation with PRST scoring and BIS during surgery. Fifty-four out of 61 patient′s evoked potential readings were deemed ′good′ or ′fair′ for the conduct of electrophysiological monitoring. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates that administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics to facilitate evoked potential monitoring does not result in explicit awareness. However, larger studies are needed to verify this. The conduct of SSEP electrophysiological monitoring was satisfactory with the use of this

  18. Webcams for bird detection and monitoring: a demonstration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Willem W; Vermeulen, Bart; Stuckens, Jan; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Van Ranst, Marc; Coppin, Pol

    2010-01-01

    Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  19. Some studies on condition monitoring techniques for on line condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of mine winder motor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar. Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Survey of existing literature reveals that no serious attempt has been made so far to monitor the health of mine winder motors. The electrical motors are the critical equipment of the mine winders which require constant condition monitoring for planning the right time for their maintenance and thus ensure maximum machineavailability. In this research work an online condition monitoring instrumentation system has been developed based on axial flux, current and vibration monitoring technique for mine winder motor. The online condition monitoring instrumentation system is noninvasive in nature and can be connected with mine winder motors which are in operation. The developed instrumentation system would be able to diagnose the health of mine winder motor and the motor fault of incipient nature can be pinpointed by the trend analysis of the frequency spectrum of time varying signal of axial flux, motor current and vibration.

  20. Monitoring historical masonry structures with operational modal analysis: Two case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, L. F.; Marques, L.; Lourenço, P. B.; De Roeck, G.; Campos-Costa, A.; Roque, J.

    2010-07-01

    The paper addresses two complex case studies of modal and structural identification of monuments in Portugal: the Clock Tower of Mogadouro and the Church of Jerónimos Monastery, in Lisbon. These are being monitored by University of Minho with vibration, temperature and relative air humidity sensors. Operational modal analysis is being used to estimate the modal parameters, followed by statistical analysis to evaluate the environmental effects on the dynamic response. The aim is to explore damage assessment in masonry structures at an early stage by vibration signatures, as a part of a health monitoring process that helps in the preservation of historical constructions. The paper presents the necessary preliminary dynamic analysis steps before the monitoring task, which includes installation of the monitoring system, system identification and subsequent FE model updating analysis, automatic modal identification and investigation of the influence of the environment on the identified modal parameters.

  1. QRAC-the-Code: a comprehension monitoring strategy for middle school social studies textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Sheri; Riccomini, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Requirements for reading and ascertaining information from text increase as students advance through the educational system, especially in content-rich classes; hence, monitoring comprehension is especially important. However, this is a particularly challenging skill for many students who struggle with reading comprehension, including students with learning disabilities. A randomized pre-post experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a comprehension monitoring strategy (QRAC-the-Code) for improving the reading comprehension of 323 students in grades 6 and 7 in inclusive social studies classes. Findings indicated that both general education students and students with learning disabilities who were taught a simple comprehension monitoring strategy improved their comprehension of textbook content compared to students who read independently and noted important points. In addition, students in the comprehension monitoring condition reported using more reading strategies after the intervention. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  2. Epidemiological study of epilepsy by monitoring prescriptions of antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, R; Borselli, G; Marinai, C; Borgheresi, A; Cavalieri, A

    1995-07-28

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a simple and effective method of acquiring epidemiological information about epilepsy. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions was collected, the utilization pattern being based on defined daily doses (DDDs). Antiepileptic drugs are epidemiological tracers of epilepsy due to their chronic and highly specific usage. Consequently, a prevalence rate for the whole population may be obtained by using DDDs. Data on antiepileptic drug prescriptions for a period of 6 months in 1992 and 6 months in 1993 indicate a utilization of approximately 7 DDDs of antiepileptic drugs per 1,000 inhabitants. The prevalence of epilepsy was estimated by correcting the exposure calculated in DDDs by a factor of 0.68. In our sample, the prevalence of the disease was 5.2 per 1,000 inhabitants in 1992 and 4.9 per 1,000 in 1993. Physician prescriptions were concentrated on four compounds, namely phenobarbital, carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenytoin, which together represented 90% of total antiepileptic drug prescriptions.

  3. Nuclear Track Detectors for Environmental Studies and Radiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoor, S. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); PRD, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: manzoor@bo.infn.it; Balestra, S.; Cozzi, M.; Errico, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kumar, A. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Dept. of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Eng. and Tech., Longowal 148 106 India (India); Margiotta, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Popa, V. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Institute of Space Sciences, Bucharest R-77125 (Romania); Qureshi, I.E. [PRD, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Togo, V. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Several improvements were made for Nuclear Track Detectors (NTDs) used for environmental studies and for particle searches. A new method was used to determine the bulk etch rate of CR39 and Makrofol NTDs. It is based on the simultaneous measurement of the diameter and of the height of etch-pit cones caused by relativistic heavy ions (158 A GeV Pb{sup 82+} and In{sup 49+} ions) and their fragments. The use of alcohol in the etching solution improves the surface quality of NTDs and it raises their thresholds. The detectors were used for the determination of nuclear fragmentation cross sections of Iron and Silicon ions of 1.0 and 0.41 GeV/nucleon. These measurements are important for the determination of doses in hadrontherapy and for doses received by astronauts. The detectors were also used in the search of massive particles in the cosmic radiation, for the determination of the mass spectrum of cosmic rays and for the evaluation of Po{sup 210}{alpha}-decay and of natural radon concentrations.

  4. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem W. Verstraeten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  5. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  6. Different options for noble gas categorization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Martin

    2010-05-01

    For noble gas monitoring it is crucial to support the decision makers who need to decide whether a decection may indicate a potential nuclear test. Several parameters are available that may help to distinguish a legitimate civilian source from a nuclear explosion. The most promising parameters are: (a) Anomaly observations with respect to the history of concentrations found at that site. (b) Isotopic activity ratios can be used to separate a nuclear reactor domain from the parameter space that is specific for nuclear explosions. (c) Correlation with source-receptor-sensitivities related to known civilian sources as determined by atmospheric transport simulations. A combination of these can be used to categorize an observation. So far, several initial ideas have been presented but the issue of noble gas categorisation has been postponed with the argument that further scientific studies and additional experience have to be awaited. This paper presents the principles of different options for noble gas categorisation and considers how they would meet the interests of different classes of member states. It discusses under different points of view what might be the best approach for the noble gas categorisation scheme.

  7. Essay on Option Pricing, Hedging and Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel

    Quantitative finance is concerned about applying mathematics to financial markets.This thesis is a collection of essays that study different problems in this field: How efficient are option price approximations to calibrate a stochastic volatilitymodel? (Chapter 2) How different is the discretely...... sampled realized variance from the continuouslysampled realized variance? (Chapter 3) How can we do static hedging for a payoff with two assets? (Chapter 4) Can we apply fast Fourier Transform methods to efficiently use interest rateMarkov-functional models? Can we extend them to accommodate othertypes...... stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005 to 2009. Discretely Sampled Variance Options: A Stochastic Approximation Approach In this paper, we expand Drimus and Farkas (2012) framework to price variance options on discretely sampled...

  8. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green technology using an advanced oxidation process with bio-filter (O3BioFilter, and “do nothing”. Environment protection, social equity, technical performance, economic efficiency and political feasibility were the criteria selected for analysis, within a focus-group. Several qualitative and quantitative methods were used: evaluation matrix, weighted cost-effectiveness and break-even point. The results of the first two indicate that the O3BioFilter has the best score, but not much higher than the conventional alternative (10% higher, revealing a possible path-dependency to familiar technologies. This analysis is not a ready-made solution valid in any case, nor a direct indication of “the best choice”, but a decision tool in the adoption and implementation of sustainable water public policies.

  9. Current sedation and monitoring practice for colonoscopy: an International Observational Study (EPAGE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froehlich, F; Harris, JK; Wietlisbach, V;

    2006-01-01

    in endoscopy centers internationally. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational study included consecutive patients referred for colonoscopy at 21 centers in 11 countries. Endoscopists reported sedation and monitoring practice, using a standard questionnaire for each patient. RESULTS: 6004 patients were......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Sedation and monitoring practice during colonoscopy varies between centers and over time. Knowledge of current practice is needed to ensure quality of care and help focus future research. The objective of this study was to examine sedation and monitoring practice...... included in this study, of whom 53 % received conscious/moderate sedation during colonoscopy, 30 % received deep sedation, and 17 % received no sedation. Sedation agents most commonly used were midazolam (47 %) and opioids (33 %). Pulse oximetry was done during colonoscopy in 77 % of patients, blood...

  10. U.S. Geological Survey geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2017-09-14

    BackgroundThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is an ongoing, long-term program. This program, which began in 1949, includes hydrologic monitoring networks and investigative studies that describe the effects of waste disposal on water contained in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and the availability of water for long-term consumptive and industrial use. Interpretive reports documenting study findings are available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors; other Federal, State, and local agencies; private firms; and the public at https://id.water.usgs.gov/INL/Pubs/index.html. Information contained within these reports is crucial to the management and use of the aquifer by the INL and the State of Idaho. USGS geohydrologic studies and monitoring are done in cooperation with the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  11. Current management options for tyrosinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shabrawi MH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mortada Hassan El-Shabrawi, Naglaa Mohamed KamalPediatric Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Hypertyrosinemia is observed in three inherited disorders of tyrosine metabolism. Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I (HTT-I, or hepatorenal tyrosinemia, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH gene. HTT-I is associated with severe involvement of the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system, and is due to toxic accumulation of metabolites of tyrosine, such as succinylacetone. HTT-I is the inborn error with the highest incidence of progression to hepatocellular carcinoma. Elevated succinylacetone, in dried filter paper blood samples, or in plasma or urine, is pathognomonic and diagnostic for HTT-I and is the most reliable neonatal screening method. Liver transplantation is the definitive management, but the need for this is markedly decreased by the combined dietary and drug management. A diet low in tyrosine and phenylalanine, plus nitisinone (2-[2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NCTB are considered the gold standard management options. Carnitine and 1,25-OH-vitamin D are adjuvant therapy. Strict follow up with succinylacetone level for monitoring of treatment should be done. Abdominal ultrasonography and abdominal computerized tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging should also be done for surveillance of the possible development of hepatocellular carcinoma.Keywords: tyrosinemia, management, NTBC, hepatocellular carcinoma

  12. Community pharmacists, medication monitoring, and the routine nature of refills: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew J; Doucette, William R

    2014-01-01

    To describe the attitudes, contextual factors, and behaviors associated with medication monitoring in the dispensing process by community pharmacists. Descriptive qualitative research with semistructured interviews. Midwestern community pharmacies or telephone. 12 licensed community pharmacists from chain, independent, and grocery pharmacies. 45-minute, semistructured interviews were conducted to gather detailed live experiences and perspectives pertinent to the study objective. Transcripts were coded descriptively and interpretively, originating with the input and monitoring process domains of the Health Collaboration Model. A thematic dichotomy was interpreted in the analysis. All participants discussed both (1) the technical and routine nature of their work, and (2) the problem-solving and relational aspects of practice. More specifically, medication monitoring was constrained by busyness, lack of patient interest, and the routine nature of refills, although to varying extents. Some predominantly responded to unique circumstances such as patient question-asking, prior memory of a patient interaction or service utilization, or technical issues such as medication cost. Others added unprompted questions of varying specificity when handing off the prescription to understand patient medication experiences. Pharmacists felt challenged by nonadherence monitoring because workflows made this information difficult to access and late refills were prevalent. Community pharmacies seeking to increase medication monitoring in the dispensing process may target the routine nature of refills and the availability of monitoring information.

  13. A Study of Multi-Signal Monitoring System Establishment for Hemodynamic Energy Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YeonSoo Shin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deaths due to cardiovascular diseases are increasing worldwide, and multi-signal monitoring systems to diagnose such diseases are under development. However, only a few researches are underway for devices that monitor hemodynamic energy, which is a marker for pulsatile flow generated by the contraction and relaxation of the heart. Therefore, this study aimed to integrate multiple monitoring devices into a single device, while also incorporating hemodynamic energy monitoring. Blood pressure and flow were measured with two channels each, while electrocardiogram (ECG, photoplethysmography (PPG, and temperature were measured with one channel each. All signals were processed at hardware level, and then converted into analog voltage. The seven signals were then converted into digital signals with a data acquisition board (DAQ. The software was developed with Labview™ (National Instruments, U.S.A to form a graphic user interface (GUI on a tablet computer (ACER, U.S.A through USB 2.0, to allow for monitoring and analysis of the signals obtained. Development of this system successfully formed a multi-signal monitoring system that integrates multiple signals into one device. Future directions include development of cardiovascular diagnosis algorithm and evaluation of the system via preclinical animal experiments.

  14. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including...... ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  15. Study for Reactor Monitoring using Anti-neutrino Detection in the Neos experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bo Young; Sun, Gwang Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Eun Ju [ISB, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-05-15

    In this study we describe a feasibility study of reactor monitoring using antineutrino detection in the Neutrino Experiment for Oscillation at Short baseline (NEOS) at Hanbit power plant. Recently, in the perspective of nonproliferation issues and misuse of nuclear energy as a fast-growing nuclear energy industry, the application of anti-neutrino measurement has been proposed and the feasibility studies has been carried out as a novel technology for monitoring the burning process of nuclear power reactor. The NEOS detector with 1000 L Gd-doped liquid scintillator was installed in tendon gallery at Hanbit power station unit 5 and has been collecting close to 2000 IBD events per day with the signal to noise ratio of ∼ 20. As a preliminary result, we demonstrate the possibility of monitoring nuclear power reactor with the IBD counting rate during reactor power ON, ramping up, and OFF.

  16. Multicenter Study of Posaconazole Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: Exposure-Response Relationship and Factors Affecting Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E.; Chen, Sharon C.-A.; Ng, Kingsley; Pont, Lisa; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Posaconazole has an important role in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), although poor and variable bioavailability remains an important clinical concern. Therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole concentrations has remained contentious, with the use of relatively small patient cohorts in previous studies hindering the assessment of exposure-response relationships. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between posaco...

  17. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change.

  18. Evaluation of the performance of diagnosis monitors in use in Salvador city: pilot study; Avaliacao do desempenho de monitores diagnostico em uso na cidade de Salvador: estudo piloto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Igor; Geambastiani, Paulo; Ferreira, Mario; Macedo, Eric; Navarro, Marcus; Navarro, Valeria; Pereira, Lara; Jesus, Evandro de; Leite, Handerson Jorge Dourado, E-mail: lem.labprosaud@ifba.edu.br [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LABPROSAUD/IFBA), Salvador , BA (Brazil). Lab. de Produtos para Saude; Lins, Carolina [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Radiologically, the image quality is the accuracy of the representation of the patient's anatomy. Considering the importance of the performance of the monitors to the overall effectiveness of a practice of diagnostic imaging, the objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of diagnostic monitors in use, using the method described in the report 03 of the AAPA and Spanish protocol, using calibrated instrumentation traceable to NIST and to RBC. The results of the monitors evaluated to date show 100% compliance for geometric distortion tests and internal reflection and 0% compliance to the dependence of luminance test. (author)

  19. [Study on the relationship between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and perinatal prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junling; Kuang, Jingxia; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the association between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and the perinatal prognosis, as well as the characteristics of perinatal situations. A retrospective study on the clinical data of 88 cases intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and prognosis that were treated in our hospital from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2014 was carried out. Relationship between prenatal monitoring index in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and perinatal prognosis, together with the epidemiological features of infants were analyzed. The incidence rates of perinatal meconium stained amniotic fluid, asphyxia neonatorum, premature and fetal distress were significantly higher in the study group than those in the controls, with differences statistically significant (P intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, with most frequently seen as meconium stained amniotic fluid. It was necessary to monitor the level of prenatal CG, ALT, AST, TBIL and TBA in puerperant in predicting the perinatal prognosis.

  20. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in young cryptogenic ischemic stroke: A 3-week ECG Holter monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanak, Daniel; Hutyra, Martin; Kral, Michal; Bartkova, Andrea; Zapletalova, Jana; Fedorco, Marian; Veverka, Tomas; Vindis, David; Dornak, Tomas; Skala, Tomas; Skoloudik, David; Taborsky, Milos; Kanovsky, Petr

    2015-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation is known very frequent cause of ischemic stroke. Undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is thus often considered a possible cause of cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS). The aim of this prospective study was to detect PAF using ECG Holter monitoring and determinate whether prolongation of the Holter monitoring to 3 weeks would increase the detection rates of PAF in young CIS patients ≤ 50 years. The study set consisted of IS patients ≤ 50 years enrolled in the HISTORY (Heart and Ischemic STrOke Relationship studY) study (NCT01541163). CIS was defined according to the TOAST criteria including the absence of ultrasonographic or angiographic signs of atherosclerosis, vasculitis or dissection. Admission ECG, serum levels of high sensitive Troponin T (hs TnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), markers of thrombophilia, transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and 24-hour ECG-Holter monitoring were performed in all patients. In case of negative 24-h ECG Holter, an additional 3-weeks monitoring was done. Of the 105 enrolled patients ≤ 50 years, 95 (90%) were identified as cryptogenic (49 males, mean age 39.1 ± 8.2 years). All CIS patients had normal admission ECG. In total, PAF was detected in 9 (9.5%, 95% CI: 3.5% - 17.8%) patients; in two during 24-h ECG Holter and in seven during 3-weeks Holter monitoring. Patients with PAF had more frequently elevated admission hs TnT and NT-proBNP levels (P - 0.0001). PAF was detected in 9.5% of young CIS patients and 3-weeks ECG Holter monitoring increased the detection rate.

  1. Exploring options for integrated nutrient management in semi-arid tropics using farmer field schools: a case study in Mbeere District, eastern Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onduru, D.D.; Preez, Du C.C.; Muchena, F.N.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Jager, de A.

    2008-01-01

    The farmer field school (FFS) approach was used in semi-arid eastern Kenya in the period 2002–2003 to explore technology options for addressing declining soil fertility and to institute learning processes on integrated nutrient management (INM).
    The farmer field school (FFS) approach was used in

  2. ICARUS-4 : a database of energy reduction options for the Netherlands, 1995-2020 : Sector study for the Metals Products and Electrotechnical Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this report we describe the energy consumption in 1995 and the energy saving options that exist within the metal products and electrotechnical industry (SBI/NACE 28-32, 34-35) in the Netherlands. The data will be included in the ICARUS-4 database which gives an inventory of the technological opti

  3. ICARUS-4 : a database of energy reduction options for the Netherlands, 1995-2020 : Sector study for the Metals Products and Electrotechnical Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we describe the energy consumption in 1995 and the energy saving options that exist within the metal products and electrotechnical industry (SBI/NACE 28-32, 34-35) in the Netherlands. The data will be included in the ICARUS-4 database which gives an inventory of the technological opti

  4. Large scale wildlife monitoring studies: statistical methods for design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Simons, T.R.; Farnsworth, G.L.; Bailey, L.L.; Sauer, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Techniques for estimation of absolute abundance of wildlife populations have received a lot of attention in recent years. The statistical research has been focused on intensive small-scale studies. Recently, however, wildlife biologists have desired to study populations of animals at very large scales for monitoring purposes. Population indices are widely used in these extensive monitoring programs because they are inexpensive compared to estimates of absolute abundance. A crucial underlying assumption is that the population index (C) is directly proportional to the population density (D). The proportionality constant, b, is simply the probability of 'detection' for animals in the survey. As spatial and temporal comparisons of indices are crucial, it is necessary to also assume that the probability of detection is constant over space and time. Biologists intuitively recognize this when they design rigid protocols for the studies where the indices are collected. Unfortunately, however in many field studios the assumption is clearly invalid. We believe that the estimation of detection probability should be built into the monitoring design through a double sampling approach. A large sample of points provides an abundance index, and a smaller sub-sample of the same points is used to estimate detection probability. There is an important need for statistical research on the design and analysis of these complex studies. Some basic concepts based on actual avian, amphibian, and fish monitoring studies are presented in this article.

  5. Controversial reversal of nuclear option

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due introduction of climate change prevention measures. Recent developments indicate the advantages of nuclear option over other possible options in terms of sustainable development. However, a large number of controversial issues on nuclear energy make its...

  6. Monitoring success of remediation: seven case studies of moisture and mold damaged buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Hyvärinen, Anne; Putus, Tuula; Nevalainen, Aino

    2008-07-25

    Based on seven case studies of buildings that underwent different degrees of moisture and mold damage remediation, we aimed to develop methodology for assessment of the success of the remediation process. Methods used in gauging the success included technical monitoring of performance of building structures and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, microbial monitoring of indoor air quality (IAQ), and health effects studies of building occupants. The assessment was based on measurable change in the situations before and after remediation. Based on technical monitoring, remediation was successful in three cases, with partial improvement noted in three cases, whereas no remediation was conducted in one case. Based on microbial monitoring, improvement was detected in one, partial improvement in two and no improvement in two cases, whereas no follow-up was conducted in two cases. Health effect studies (mainly self-reported health status) showed improvement in one case, partial improvement in two cases, and no improvement in two cases, whereas no follow-up was conducted in one case, and in one case, follow-up failed due to low response rate. The results illustrate that it is possible to monitor the effects of remediation using various metrics. However, in some cases, no improvement could be observed in IAQ or occupant health, even if the remediation was considered technically successful, i.e. the remediation was fully completed as recommended. This could be due to many reasons, including: 1) all damage may not have been addressed adequately; 2) IAQ or health may not have been perceived improved regardless of remediation; and/or 3) the methods used may not have been sensitive/specific enough to detect such improvement within the 6-12 months follow-up periods after completion of the remediation. There is a need to further develop tools for monitoring and assessment of the success of moisture damage remediation in buildings.

  7. The usefulness of air quality monitoring and air quality impact studies before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in developing countries. Mexico City, a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.A.; Torres, R.J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Section de Contaminacion Ambiental

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in several developing countries in the world. This phenomenon seems to be related to the growth of both the urban population in large cities and the number of old and poorly maintained car fleets. The expected rise of population in the next century in countries which suffer from lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential for the worsening of the air quality. The worldwide promote policy to phase out lead in gasolines has not proved to be an adequate option in improving the environmental quality. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) represents a case in which the introduction of reformulated gasolines in an old car fleet has resulted in the reduction of the airborne lead levels but has worsened the ozone concentration of its urban atmosphere. This paper critically analyzes the chronological evolution of the ozone air pollution problem in MCMA after the successive occurrence of several changes in the formulation of low leaded and unleaded gasolines. It also presents evidences of the usefulness potential of air quality monitoring activities and air quality impact studies on the definition of realistic fuel reformulation policies of developing countries. (author)

  8. Supporting Option B+ scale up and strengthening the prevention of mother-to-child transmission cascade in central Malawi: results from a serial cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herce, Michael E; Mtande, Tiwonge; Chimbwandira, Frank; Mofolo, Innocent; Chingondole, Christine K; Rosenberg, Nora E; Lancaster, Kathy E; Kamanga, Esmie; Chinkonde, Jacqueline; Kumwenda, Wiza; Tegha, Gerald; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Hoffman, Irving F; Martinson, Francis E; Stein, Eva; van der Horst, Charles M

    2015-08-12

    We established Safeguard the Family (STF) to support Ministry of Health (MoH) scale-up of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+) and to strengthen the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade from HIV testing and counseling (HTC) through maternal ART provision and post-delivery early infant HIV diagnosis (EID). To these ends, we implemented the following interventions in 5 districts: 1) health worker training and mentorship; 2) couples' HTC and male partner involvement; 3) women's psychosocial support groups; and 4) health and laboratory system strengthening for EID. We conducted a serial cross-sectional study using facility-level quarterly (Q) program data and individual-level infant HIV-1 DNA PCR data to evaluate STF performance on PMTCT indicators for project years (Y) 1 (April-December 2011) through 3 (January-December 2013), and compared these results to national averages. Facility-level uptake of HTC, ART, infant nevirapine prophylaxis, and infant DNA PCR testing increased significantly from quarterly baselines of 66 % (n/N = 32,433/48,804), 23 % (n/N = 442/1,958), 1 % (n/N = 10/1,958), and 52 % (n/N = 1,385/2,644) to 87 % (n/N = 39,458/45,324), 96 % (n/N = 2,046/2,121), 100 % (n/N = 2,121/2,121), and 62 % (n/N = 1,462/2,340), respectively, by project end (all p < 0.001). Quarterly HTC, ART, and infant nevirapine prophylaxis uptake outperformed national averages over years 2-3. While transitioning EID laboratory services to MoH, STF provided first-time HIV-1 DNA PCR testing for 2,226 of 11,261 HIV-exposed infants (20 %) tested in the MoH EID program in STF districts from program inception (Y2) through Y3. Of these, 78 (3.5 %) tested HIV-positive. Among infants with complete documentation (n = 608), median age at first testing decreased from 112 days (interquartile range, IQR: 57-198) in Y2 to 76 days (IQR: 46-152) in Y3 (p < 0.001). During Y3 (only year with national data for

  9. Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of Incontinence Diarrhea Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding a Doctor ...

  10. A Consistent Pricing Model for Index Options and Volatility Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Kokholm, Thomas

    options on the underlying asset. The model has the convenient feature of decoupling the vanilla skews from spot/volatility correlations and allowing for different conditional correlations in large and small spot/volatility moves. We show that our model can simultaneously fit prices of European options......We propose and study a flexible modeling framework for the joint dynamics of an index and a set of forward variance swap rates written on this index, allowing options on forward variance swaps and options on the underlying index to be priced consistently. Our model reproduces various empirically...... on S&P 500 across strikes and maturities as well as options on the VIX volatility index. The calibration of the model is done in two steps, first by matching VIX option prices and then by matching prices of options on the underlying....

  11. Protective effects of parental monitoring of children's media use: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Reimer, Rachel A; Nathanson, Amy I; Walsh, David A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2014-05-01

    Children spend more time with electronic media than they do in any other activity, aside from sleep. Many of the negative effects that stem from media exposure may be reduced by parental monitoring of children's media use; however, there lacks a clear understanding of the mechanisms and extent of these protective effects. To determine the prospective effects of parental monitoring of children's media on physical, social, and academic outcomes. Prospective cohort design. Data were collected by in-home and in-school surveys in 2 communities in Iowa and Minnesota, where 1323 third- (n = 430), fourth- (n = 446), and fifth- (n = 423) grade students participated. A primary caregiver and teachers also provided data about the student. Participants in the current study were recruited to participate in a social ecological model-based obesity prevention program. Body mass index, average weekly sleep, school performance, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. RESULTS Structural equation modeling revealed that parental monitoring of children's media influences children's sleep, school performance, and prosocial and aggressive behaviors and that these effects are mediated through total screen time and exposure to media violence. Parental monitoring of media has protective effects on a wide variety of academic, social, and physical child outcomes. Pediatricians and physicians are uniquely positioned to provide scientifically based recommendations to families; encouraging parents to monitor children's media carefully can have a wide range of health benefits for children.

  12. SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring: a case study for normal strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, S.; Zhang, H. B.; Ou, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    The stress history of concrete structures that have survived an earthquake can serve as a critical index to evaluate the health of the structure. There are currently few reliable monitoring methods to assess concrete stress after a seismic event. Piezoelectric-based smart aggregate (SA) provides an innovative experimental approach to monitor stress on concrete. The principle of SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring is based on the assumption that concrete stress can be reliably predicted by the average output voltages of limited SAs with an acceptable margin of error. In this study, the meso-scale randomness of concrete was evaluated throughout the overall stress range of concrete and the influence of different load paths was considered. Four cylindrical specimens of normal strength concrete were embedded with a total of 24 SAs. The SA output sensitivity curve in the paths of loading-unloading with different amplitudes and monotonic loading up to failure was obtained. Monitoring errors were analyzed during pre- and post-peak stages from the experimental results. This research suggests that SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring for normal strength concrete is reliable.

  13. Bioindicator plants as monitoring tools for urban and industrial pollutant sources - case studies from Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soja, G.; Schafler, P.; Gerzabek, M. [Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf (Austria). Dept. of Environmental Research

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents two examples for the application of bioindicator techniques in environmental monitoring projects. The results presented here refer to the quantitation of the effects of environmental parameters on the behaviour of bioindicator plants. a.) Environmental monitoring of an industrial pollutant emitter in a rural environment. For monitoring the environmental impact of a coal-fired power plant, an extensive multi-annual monitoring programme had been established four years prior to the start of operation of the power plant. The programme included analyses of soils and field crops and the physiological responses of crop plants in non-filtered and carbon-filtered open-top chambers (OTC). b.) Monitoring of ozone effects on bioindicator plants in a large city and its rural environs. In a two-year multi-location study, the region of Vienna was analysed along a profile from the west to the southeast of the city for visual ozone injury of bioindicator plants. Meteorological conditions and air pollutant concentrations were recorded in detail at 9 out of 25 indicator stations. The resulting dataset was processed with multivariate techniques. (orig.)

  14. Studying an inexpensive wire discone antenna as a candidate for TVWS spectrum monitoring / sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available -Petersburg, Russia, 8-10 October 2014 Studying an Inexpensive Wire Discone Antenna as a Candidate for TVWS Spectrum Monitoring / Sensing Albert A. Lysko1 , Andy Lee2, Arno Hart3, David L. Johnson4 1Meraka Institute Council for Scientific and Industrial Research...

  15. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  16. Developmental changes in error monitoring : An event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, Jan R.; van der Meere, Jacob J.; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, R.J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental trajectory of error monitoring. For this purpose, children (age 7-8), young adolescents (age 13-14) and adults (age 23-24) performed a Go/No-Go task and were compared on overt reaction time (RT) performance and on event-related potentials (ER

  17. Required sample size for monitoring stand dynamics in strict forest reserves: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Bart De Cuyper; Kris Vandekerkhove; Noel Lust

    2000-01-01

    Stand dynamics in European strict forest reserves are commonly monitored using inventory densities of 5 to 15 percent of the total surface. The assumption that these densities guarantee a representative image of certain parameters is critically analyzed in a case study for the parameters basal area and stem number. The required sample sizes for different accuracy and...

  18. Stability study of the higher order mode beam position monitors at the Accelerating cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, L; Jones., R M

    2014-01-01

    erating cavities at FLASH linac, DESY, are equipped with electronics for beam position monitoring, which are based on HOM signals from special couplers. These monitors provide the beam position without additional vacuum components and at low cost. Moreover, they can be used to align the beam in the cavities to reduce the HOM effects on the beam. However, the HOMBPM (Higher Order Mode based Beam Position Monitor) shows an instability problem over time. In this paper, we will present the status of studies on this issue. Several methods are utilized to calibrate the HOMBPMs. These methods include DLR (Direct Linear Regression), and SVD (Singular Value Decomposition). We found that SVD generally is more suitable for HOMBPM calibration. We focus on the HOMBPMs at 1.3 GHz cavities. Techniques developed here are applicable to 3.9 ...

  19. Case studies of high-sensitivity monitoring of natural and engineered slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Lienhart

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available High-sensitivity monitoring solutions are crucial for early warning systems of earth structures. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of such systems for natural and engineered slopes using two case studies. At the Gradenbach Observatory, one key element of the monitoring system is a large fiber optic strain rosette embedded in the slope. We demonstrate that the strain rosette can depict landslide deformations much earlier than geodetic sensors like GPS or total stations and is therefore well suitable for an early warning system. In a second application we report the construction of a reinforced earth structure using geogrids. A distributed fiber optic measurement system was installed to measure the current operating grade of the geogrids within the earth structure. About 2 km of Brillouin sensing cables were installed in the project area. It is demonstrated that the developed monitoring system is well suited for assessing the current state of health of reinforced earth structures.

  20. Study on Clinical Application of Nerve Monitor in Parotid Tumor Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-peng; JIA Bao-jun; AO Jian-hua; QU Dan-yang; SHENG Yan-jiao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study is to explore the application value of the nerve monitor adopted to pinpoint facial nerves before anatomization during a parotid tumor surgery. Methods Facial nerves of 36 patients were pinpointed by N800 nerve monitor produced by Shandong Weigao Group Medical Polymer Co. Ltd before being anatomized and exposed in parotid surgeries in order to protect the corresponding facial nerve branch and complete the related surgery. Results All the facial nerves of the 36 patients were located precisely and 108 related facial nerves were suc-cessfully anatomized and protected without any damage. Conclusion Pinpointing the facial nerve branch with a nerve monitor before anatomization pro-motes not only the efficiency of the surgery but also the safety of it and is proved to be more significant in a secondary surgery.

  1. Case studies of high-sensitivity monitoring of natural and engineered slopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Werner Lienhart

    2015-01-01

    High-sensitivity monitoring solutions are crucial for early warning systems of earth structures. In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of such systems for natural and engineered slopes using two case studies. At the Gradenbach Observatory, one key element of the monitoring system is a large fiber optic strain rosette embedded in the slope. We demonstrate that the strain rosette can depict landslide deformations much earlier than geodetic sensors like GPS or total stations and is therefore well suitable for an early warning system. In a second application we report the construction of a reinforced earth structure using geogrids. A distributed fiber optic measurement system was installed to measure the current operating grade of the geogrids within the earth structure. About 2 km of Brillouin sensing cables were installed in the project area. It is demonstrated that the developed monitoring system is well suited for assessing the current state of health of reinforced earth structures.

  2. New Methods with Capped Options for Pricing American Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongya Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two new methods: improved binomial methods and improved least square MonteCarlo methods (LSM, for pricing American options. These two methods are developed using the nice capped options which have closed-form formulas. Numerical examples are provided to verify that these two new methods are pretty efficient.

  3. Options for promoting high-biodiversity REDD+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, Steve; Mcnally, Richard; Grieg-Gran, Maryanne; Roe, Dilys; Mohammed, Essam Yassin

    2011-11-15

    International climate and biodiversity conventions agree that to be effective in the long term, strategies to reduce emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks, and sustainable forest management (REDD+), must not undermine biodiversity. But how do countries achieve 'high-biodiversity REDD+' in practice? At a global level, options include immediate policy strengthening in international negotiations; promotion of co-benefit standards; and financial incentives and preferences for buying countries. At a national level, developing countries can also promote high-biodiversity REDD+ through more coherent policies; integrated planning; regulatory and economic instruments; and improved monitoring of biodiversity impacts.

  4. James Bay air quality study : report on the results of field monitoring in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-08

    An air quality study in James Bay was conducted, in order to establish general levels of pollutants in outdoor air in the James Bay area of Victoria, British Columbia. The primary sources of air pollution in the area include light duty and heavy duty vehicle traffic, helicopters, floatplanes, and marine vessels such as cruise ships, passenger ferries, commercial fishing and whale watching boats, and recreation motorboats. Air quality monitoring represented the first phase of the project. The second phase involved a detailed pollutant dispersion model including all emission sources. This report described the use of sampling equipment and the measurement of nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, fine particulate matter and contributing sources, and volatile organic compounds, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene/xylene and naphthalene. Supporting data, including traffic counts, wind speed and direction, precipitation, and cruise ship schedules were collected to assist in the interpretation of the field monitoring results. For each of these pollutants, the report provided responses to several questions, such as defining each pollutant; describing the sources of each pollutant in the James Bay neighbourhood; presenting the results of the field monitoring; discussing the limitations of the monitoring equipment and sampling design; interpreting the results; comparing monitored levels to those measured at other times or locations; and comparing monitored levels to air quality standards or guidelines. Conclusions about each pollutant were presented. It was concluded that phase 2 pollutant dispersion modelling should include estimates of 1-hour, 24-hour, and seasonal average pollutant levels at varying elevations above ground level, with a focus on residential apartment buildings in the study area. 5 tabs., 52 figs., 7 appendices.

  5. Case study on the maintenance of a construction monitoring using USN-based data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangyong; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the adoption of emerging ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technologies for instrumentation within a variety of sustainability systems. USN is emerging as a sensing paradigm that is being newly considered by the sustainability management field as an alternative to traditional tethered monitoring systems. Researchers have been discovering that USN is an exciting technology that should not be viewed simply as a substitute for traditional tethered monitoring systems. In this study, we investigate how a movement monitoring measurement system of a complex building is developed as a research environment for USN and related decision-supportive technologies. To address the apparent danger of building movement, agent-mediated communication concepts have been designed to autonomously manage large volumes of exchanged information. In this study, we additionally detail the design of the proposed system, including its principles, data processing algorithms, system architecture, and user interface specifics. Results of the test and case study demonstrate the effectiveness of the USN-based data acquisition system for real-time monitoring of movement operations.

  6. Case Study on the Maintenance of a Construction Monitoring Using USN-Based Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the adoption of emerging ubiquitous sensor network (USN technologies for instrumentation within a variety of sustainability systems. USN is emerging as a sensing paradigm that is being newly considered by the sustainability management field as an alternative to traditional tethered monitoring systems. Researchers have been discovering that USN is an exciting technology that should not be viewed simply as a substitute for traditional tethered monitoring systems. In this study, we investigate how a movement monitoring measurement system of a complex building is developed as a research environment for USN and related decision-supportive technologies. To address the apparent danger of building movement, agent-mediated communication concepts have been designed to autonomously manage large volumes of exchanged information. In this study, we additionally detail the design of the proposed system, including its principles, data processing algorithms, system architecture, and user interface specifics. Results of the test and case study demonstrate the effectiveness of the USN-based data acquisition system for real-time monitoring of movement operations.

  7. Expanding contraceptive options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The goals of Family Health International (FHI) have been to introduce a variety of birth control options to people in developing countries, and to provide information to the user on the advantages and disadvantages of each method. FHI has worked with many developing countries in clinical trials of established as well as new contraceptive methods. These trials played an important part in making 2 sterilization procedures, laparoscopy and minilaparotomy popular for women. Further research improved the methods and have made them the most popular in the world, chosen by 130 million users. FHI is doing clinical trials on a new IUD, that is a copper bearing T-shaped device called the TCu380A. they have collected data on over 10,000 women using IUD's and early analysis indicates TCu380A is more effective than others. FHI is also evaluating devices such as Norplant that will prevent pregnancy up to 5 years by implanting the capsules in the arm. More than 8,000 women are being tested to determine the acceptability of implants in different geographical locations. Other research groups are doing work in 10 additional countries: Bangladesh will expand its program to 24,000 women and Nepal to 8,000 women. Trials are also being conducted on progestogen pills, since they do not lesson the volume of milk in breast feeding. FHI has also worked to introduce creative community-based distribution channels. In one case, specially trained health workers delivered contraceptives door-to-door in over 150,000 households. They found that 2 of 3 women accepted the pills and in a follow up survey 90% were still using them. FHI is now focusing on ways to improve moving new contraceptives from clinical testing on everyday use. They will coordinate training programs, educational material, media campaigns, and efforts with other international organizations, government agencies, and family planning groups.

  8. The Study on the in Advance of Default Options with a Jump-Diffusion%带跳扩散的可提前到期的违约期权研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方开娟; 傅毅; 张寄洲

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, by the method of partial differential equation, we study the pricing problems of the stock option when the subsidiary corporation defaults. With the jump-diffusion assumption, the acceleration of maturity of the option will be considered.The stock option of the time-interval has been analyzed by the structured form method.The mathematical model of the the stock option and the expression of the solution are obtained.%用偏微分方程的方法,研究子公司是否违约,对母公司的股票期权的定价 的影响问题.在跳扩散的前提假设下,利用结构化方法,考虑当子公司违约时,母公司股票期权的可提前到期性,分时段进行分析,并给出了母公司期权定价的数学模型和解的表达式.

  9. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  10. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ingrid, Keller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of business strategies that build value throughout the supply chain of goods and services and simultaneously contribute to sustainability is one of the most difficult to address in practice. So for the present study we researched the possible strategies, identifying those options to successfully integrate the dimensions of sustainability into organizational development from a systems perspective and its possibilities and limitations. The characteristic activities of the five possible choices - risk management, image building and reputation, productivity and efficiency, innovation and market development - can be implemented in pure form, in combination or sequentially. In this way you can build competitive advantages in the context of sustainability, which allows the company to achieve greater chance of success, not only in the short term but also medium and long term.

  11. 基于实物期权法的石油开采项目评价方法研究%Study on real options project evaluation method of oil extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠耀绩; 孙曼

    2011-01-01

    Oil exploitation project has typical characteristics of real options, many foreign scholars in the field of real option applications and other aspects of the study, the domestic situation of the specific conditions for the oil law, application of real options is also rare.This article describes the basic theory of Real Options and features, and Blaek-Scholes pricing model using a case study, and compared with the traditional net present value analysis, the net present value method underestimated the value of the project, while the real options law fully considered the flexibility of the project value under uncertainty, thus further ensuring the scientific nature of oil production decisions.%石油开采项目具有典型的实物期权特征,国外许多学者对实物期权方法在油田等方面的应用进行了研究,国内针对油田具体实际情况进行实物期权法的应用研究还很少.本文介绍了实物期权法的基本理论和特点,并采用Blaek-Scholes定价模型进行了案例分析,且与传统的净现值法对比分析,得出净现值法低估了项目的价值,而实物期权法则充分考虑了项目不确定条件下的灵活性价值,因而进一步保证了石油开采决策的科学性.

  12. Acceptability Study of "Ascenso": An Online Program for Monitoring and Supporting Patients with Depression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, H Daniel; Carrasco, Álvaro; Moessner, Markus; Cáceres, Cristian; Gloger, Sergio; Rojas, Graciela; Perez, J Carola; Vanegas, Jorge; Bauer, Stephanie; Krause, Mariane

    2016-07-01

    Major depression is a highly prevalent and severe mental disease. Despite the effective treatment options available, the risk of relapse is high. Interventions based on information and communication technologies generate innovative opportunities to provide support to patients after they completed treatment for depression. This acceptability study evaluated the Internet-based program Apoyo, Seguimiento y Cuidado de Enfermedades a partir de Sistemas Operativos (ASCENSO) in terms of its feasibility and acceptability in a sample of 35 patients in Chile. The study reveals high rates of acceptance and satisfaction among patients who actively used the program. As obstacles, patients mentioned technical problems, a lack of contact with other participants, and an insufficient connection between the program and the health service professionals. ASCENSO appears to be a promising complement to regular care for depression. Following improvements of the program based on participants' feedback, future research should evaluate its efficacy and cost-effectiveness.

  13. An observational study on patient admission in the anaesthesia gas monitor and minimum alveolar concentration monitoring: A deficiency with huge impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Narayan, Anilkumar; Yunus, Md; Kumar, Sanjay; Prakash, Avinash; Sahoo, Sarasa Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) monitoring is an integral part of modern-day anaesthesia. Both MAC and MAC-awake are age dependant, and age of the patient needs to be entered in the monitor. This study was aimed to assess the practice of patient birth year entry in the anaesthesia monitor and its impact on MAC monitoring. Sixty volatile anaesthetic-based general anaesthetics (GAs) were observed silently in two tertiary care teaching hospitals with regard to 'birth year' entry in the patient monitor. The impact on MAC for non-entry of age was assessed. The observed MAC reading and the MAC corrected for age (MACage) of the patients were noted. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences in observed MAC and MACage values. P MAC was similar to MACage in patients aged 40 ± 5 years (36-45 years group). Nearly 79.41% of the observed MACs were incorrect; 55.88% patients were potentially underdosed whereas 23.53% were overdosed. Omitting patient age entry in the monitor results in erroneous MAC values, exposing patients <40 years to underdosing and older patients to overdose.

  14. An observational study on patient admission in the anaesthesia gas monitor and minimum alveolar concentration monitoring: A deficiency with huge impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Md Reazaul Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC monitoring is an integral part of modern-day anaesthesia. Both MAC and MAC-awake are age dependant, and age of the patient needs to be entered in the monitor. This study was aimed to assess the practice of patient birth year entry in the anaesthesia monitor and its impact on MAC monitoring. Methods: Sixty volatile anaesthetic-based general anaesthetics (GAs were observed silently in two tertiary care teaching hospitals with regard to 'birth year' entry in the patient monitor. The impact on MAC for non-entry of age was assessed. The observed MAC reading and the MAC corrected for age (MACage of the patients were noted. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences in observed MAC and MACagevalues. P <0.05 was significant. Results: Sixty GAs of patients aged between 10 and 68 years were observed; 96.67% anaesthetics were conducted without entering 'birth year'. Thirty-four patients (mean age 35.14 ± 15.38 years were further assessed for impact of non-entry of age. The observed MAC was similar to MACage in patients aged 40 ± 5 years (36–45 years group. Nearly 79.41% of the observed MACs were incorrect; 55.88% patients were potentially underdosed whereas 23.53% were overdosed. Conclusion: Omitting patient age entry in the monitor results in erroneous MAC values, exposing patients <40 years to underdosing and older patients to overdose.

  15. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  16. Beach monitoring using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: results of a multi-temporal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Marco; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Vacchi, Matteo; Firpo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing. In this study, we show how we applied small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the study of topographic changes of a beach in Italy, NW Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed the same stretch of coastline three times in 5 months, obtaining ortophotos and digital elevation models of the beach using a structure from motion approach. We then calculated the difference in beach topography between each time step, and we related topography changes to both human and natural modifications of the beach morphology that can be inferred from aerial photos or wave data. We conclude that small drones have the potential to open new possibilities for beach monitoring studies, and can be successfully employed for multi-temporal monitoring studies at relatively low cost.

  17. Wireless non-invasive continuous respiratory monitoring with FMCW radar: a clinical validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, K; Breteler, M J M; van Wolfwinkel, L; Rheineck Leyssius, A T; Kossen, S; Kalkman, C J; van Zaane, B; Peelen, L M

    2016-12-01

    Altered respiratory rate is one of the first symptoms of medical conditions that require timely intervention, e.g., sepsis or opioid-induced respiratory depression. To facilitate continuous respiratory rate monitoring on general hospital wards a contactless, non-invasive, prototype monitor was developed using frequency modulated continuous wave radar. We aimed to study whether radar can reliably measure respiratory rate in postoperative patients. In a diagnostic cross-sectional study patients were monitored with the radar and the reference monitor (pneumotachograph during mechanical ventilation and capnography during spontaneous breathing). Eight patients were included; yielding 796 min of observation time during mechanical ventilation and 521 min during spontaneous breathing. After elimination of movement artifacts the bias and 95 % limits of agreement for mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing were -0.12 (-1.76 to 1.51) and -0.59 (-5.82 to 4.63) breaths per minute respectively. The radar was able to accurately measure respiratory rate in mechanically ventilated patients, but the accuracy decreased during spontaneous breathing.

  18. Monitoring studies should consider temporal variability to reveal relations between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA WOJCIECHOWSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of monitoring cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic environments is to reveal the relationship between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables. Studies typically correlate data that were simultaneously sampled. However, samplings occur sparsely over time and may not reveal the short-term responses of cyanobacterial abundance to environmental changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that stronger cyanobacteria x environment relationships in monitoring are found when the temporal variability of sampling points is incorporated in the statistical analyses. To this end, we investigated relationships between cyanobacteria and seven environmental variables that were sampled twice yearly for three years across 11 reservoirs, and data from an intensive monitoring in one of these reservoirs. Poor correlations were obtained when correlating data simultaneously sampled. In fact, the 'highly recurrent' role of phosphorus in cyanobacteria blooms is not properly observed in all sampling periods. On the other hand, the strongest correlation values for the total phosphorus x cyanobacteria relationship were observed when we used the variation of sampling points. We have also shown that environment variables better explain cyanobacteria when a time lag is considered. We conclude that, in cyanobacteria monitoring, the best approach to reveal determinants of cyanobacteria blooms is to consider environmental variability.

  19. Atmospheric pollution in the Tula Industrial Corridor studied using a bio monitor and nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Hidalgo (Mexico); Lopez R, M. C.; Longoria, L. C. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    This study deals with the application of nuclear analytical techniques to analyze trace elements in the biological monitor Tillandsia usneoides. Biological monitors provides an alternative advantageous way of particulate matter sampling in air pollution studies, since there is no need of special sampling devices, accumulation time can be as long as desired. T. usneoides, which occurs naturally throughout Mexico, was used to monitor air quality of Tula-Vito-Apasco (TVA) industrial corridor at central Mexico. This area is considered one of the critical zones of the country because of atmospheric contaminants high concentration. Particulate matter is regulated by Mexican norms, but its chemical composition is not. Plants were transplanted from a clean environment to four sites at the TVA corridor, and exposed for 12 weeks from February to April 2008. Trace element accumulation of plants was determined by particle induced X-ray emission and neutron activation analysis. Results reveal differences in trace elements distribution among sites in the TVA corridor. Furthermore, anthropogenic elements (S, V) and crustal elements (Ca) in T. usneoides exhibit high levels. Highly toxic elements such as Hg, As and Cr although present at trace levels, showed un enrichment relative to the initial values, when transplanted to the TVA corridor. Results show that monitoring with T. usneoides allows a first approximation of air sources to provide insights of the atmospheric pollution in the TVA corridor. (Author)

  20. Optimization of a Coastal Environmental Monitoring Network Based on the Kriging Method: A Case Study of Quanzhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring is fundamental in assessing environmental quality and to fulfill protection and management measures with permit conditions. However, coastal environmental monitoring work faces many problems and challenges, including the fact that monitoring information cannot be linked up with evaluation, monitoring data cannot well reflect the current coastal environmental condition, and monitoring activities are limited by cost constraints. For these reasons, protection and management measures cannot be developed and implemented well by policy makers who intend to solve this issue. In this paper, Quanzhou Bay in southeastern China was selected as a case study; and the Kriging method and a geographic information system were employed to evaluate and optimize the existing monitoring network in a semienclosed bay. This study used coastal environmental monitoring data from 15 sites (including COD, DIN, and PO4-P to adequately analyze the water quality from 2009 to 2012 by applying the Trophic State Index. The monitoring network in Quanzhou Bay was evaluated and optimized, with the number of sites increased from 15 to 24, and the monitoring precision improved by 32.9%. The results demonstrated that the proposed advanced monitoring network optimization was appropriate for environmental monitoring in Quanzhou Bay. It might provide technical support for coastal management and pollutant reduction in similar areas.

  1. Option generation in decision making: Ideation beyond memory retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eDel Missier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to prescriptive decision theories, the generation of options for choice is a central aspect of decision making. A too narrow representation of the problem may indeed limit the opportunity to evaluate promising options. However, despite the theoretical and applied significance of this topic, the cognitive processes underlying option generation are still unclear. In particular, while a cued recall account of option generation emphasizes the role of memory and executive control, other theoretical proposals stress the importance of ideation processes based on various search and thinking processes. Unfortunately, relevant behavioral evidence on the cognitive processes underlying option generation is scattered and inconclusive. In order to reach a better understanding, we carried out an individual-differences study employing a wide array of cognitive predictors, including measures of episodic memory, semantic memory, cognitive control, and ideation fluency. The criterion tasks consisted of three different poorly-structured decision-making scenarios, and the participants were asked to generate options to solve these problems. The main criterion variable of the study was the number of valid options generated, but also the diversity and the quality of generated options were examined. The results showed that option generation fluency and diversity in the context of ill-structured decision making are supported by ideation ability even after taking into account the effects of individual differences in several other aspects of cognitive functioning. Thus, ideation processes, possibly supported by search and thinking processes, seem to contribute to option generation beyond basic associative memory retrieval. The findings of the study also indicate that generating more options may have multifaceted consequences for choice, increasing the quality of the best option generated but decreasing the mean quality of the options in the generated set.

  2. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis.

  3. Square(2) - A Web Application for Data Monitoring in Epidemiological and Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Krabbe, Christine; Schössow, Janka; Albers, Martin; Radke, Dörte; Henke, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Valid scientific inferences from epidemiological and clinical studies require high data quality. Data generating departments therefore aim to detect data irregularities as early as possible in order to guide quality management processes. In addition, after the completion of data collections the obtained data quality must be evaluated. This can be challenging in complex studies due to a wide scope of examinations, numerous study variables, multiple examiners, devices, and examination centers. This paper describes a Java EE web application used to monitor and evaluate data quality in institutions with complex and multiple studies, named Square(2). It uses the Java libraries Apache MyFaces 2, extended by BootsFaces for layout and style. RServe and REngine manage calls to R server processes. All study data and metadata are stored in PostgreSQL. R is the statistics backend and LaTeX is used for the generation of print ready PDF reports. A GUI manages the entire workflow. Square(2) covers all steps in the data monitoring workflow, including the setup of studies and their structure, the handling of metadata for data monitoring purposes, selection of variables, upload of data, statistical analyses, and the generation as well as inspection of quality reports. To take into account data protection issues, Square(2) comprises an extensive user rights and roles concept.

  4. Goals and options in keeping preterm babies warm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, A J; Freer, Y

    2011-01-01

    More than 50 years after Silverman showed the association between temperature control and mortality, recent data again stress the importance of the thermal environment of the preterm infant. The goals of care are straightforward: maintain a normal body temperature, ensure a stable thermal environment and avoid cold stress; but the options to achieve them are many and less certain. There is a problem in defining a 'normal' temperature. A single measurement will tell nothing about whether the baby is using energy for thermal balance. The preterm baby should be monitored with the continuous recording and display of a central and peripheral temperature. This will give an early indication of cold stress before any change is seen in the central temperature. Reducing evaporative heat losses at birth has improved temperatures on admission, although no studies have shown any effect on outcome. No data have shown that the use of incubators is any better than radiant heaters.

  5. Disc degeneration: current surgical options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Schizas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain attributed to lumbar disc degeneration poses a serious challenge to physicians. Surgery may be indicated in selected cases following failure of appropriate conservative treatment. For decades, the only surgical option has been spinal fusion, but its results have been inconsistent. Some prospective trials show superiority over usual conservative measures while others fail to demonstrate its advantages. In an effort to improve results of fusion and to decrease the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, total disc replacement techniques have been introduced and studied extensively. Short-term results have shown superiority over some fusion techniques. Mid-term results however tend to show that this approach yields results equivalent to those of spinal fusion. Nucleus replacement has gained some popularity initially, but evidence on its efficacy is scarce. Dynamic stabilisation, a technique involving less rigid implants than in spinal fusion and performed without the need for bone grafting, represents another surgical option. Evidence again is lacking on its superiority over other surgical strategies and conservative measures. Insertion of interspinous devices posteriorly, aiming at redistributing loads and relieving pain, has been used as an adjunct to disc removal surgery for disc herniation. To date however, there is no clear evidence on their efficacy. Minimally invasive intradiscal thermocoagulation techniques have also been tried, but evidence of their effectiveness is questioned. Surgery using novel biological solutions may be the future of discogenic pain treatment. Collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists in this multidisciplinary field will undoubtedly shape the future of treating symptomatic disc degeneration.

  6. ANALYSIS OF AN INTERDISCIPLINARY OPTIONAL COURSE: GEOINFORMTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN STĂNILĂ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, we presented the concept of curriculum and analysed aspects related to the introduction of school-based curriculum in secondary education in Romania. The objective of this study was to analyse the curriculum of a Geoinformatics optional course, the “annual plan”, the “learning unit plan”, the learning activities included in the Geoinformatics optional course, the students’ achievement in this course and their views on the subject matter. In order to identify the students’ opinions about the course, we used the questionnaire as the survey method. We concluded that this optional course met the students’ expectations and interests, being correlated to the prospects of evolution of the knowledge-based society.

  7. Essay on Option Pricing, Hedging and Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel

    Quantitative finance is concerned about applying mathematics to financial markets.This thesis is a collection of essays that study different problems in this field: How efficient are option price approximations to calibrate a stochastic volatilitymodel? (Chapter 2) How different is the discretely...... sampled realized variance from the continuouslysampled realized variance? (Chapter 3) How can we do static hedging for a payoff with two assets? (Chapter 4) Can we apply fast Fourier Transform methods to efficiently use interest rateMarkov-functional models? Can we extend them to accommodate othertypes...... variance. We investigated the impact of their assumptions and we present an adjustment for their formula. Our adjustment provides a better approximation to price discretely sampled realized variance options under different market scenarios Static Hedging for Two-Asset Options In this paper we derive...

  8. Monitoring antimalarial safety and tolerability in clinical trials: A case study from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpimbaza Arthur

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New antimalarial regimens, including artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs, have been adopted widely as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Although these drugs appear to be safe and well-tolerated, experience with their use in Africa is limited and continued assessment of safety is a priority. However, no standardized guidelines for evaluating drug safety and tolerability in malaria studies exist. A system for monitoring adverse events in antimalarial trials conducted in Uganda was developed. Here the reporting system is described, and difficulties faced in analysing and interpreting the safety results are illustrated, using data from the trials. Case description Between 2002 and 2007, eleven randomized, controlled clinical trials were conducted to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of different antimalarial regimens for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. The approach to adverse event monitoring was similar in all studies. A total of 5,614 treatments were evaluated in 4,876 patients. Differences in baseline characteristics and patterns of adverse event reporting were noted between the sites, which limited the ability to pool and analyse data. Clinical failure following antimalarial treatment confounded associations between treatment and adverse events that were also common symptoms of malaria, particularly in areas of lower transmission intensity. Discussion and evaluation Despite prospectively evaluating for adverse events, limitations in the monitoring system were identified. New standardized guidelines for monitoring safety and tolerability in antimalarial trials are needed, which should address how to detect events of greatest importance, including serious events, those with a causal relationship to the treatment, those which impact on adherence, and events not previously reported. Conclusion Although the World Health Organization has supported the development of

  9. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  10. Asset allocation using option-implied moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaludin, H.; Abdullah, M. H.; Tolos, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study uses an option-implied distribution as the input in asset allocation. The computation of risk-neutral densities (RND) are based on the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index option and its constituents. Since the RNDs estimation does not incorporate risk premium, the conversion of RND into risk-world density (RWD) is required. The RWD is obtained through parametric calibration using the beta distributions. The mean, volatility, and covariance are then calculated to construct the portfolio. The performance of the portfolio is evaluated by using portfolio volatility and Sharpe ratio.

  11. Pricing Power Options within the Heston Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti N.I. Ibrahim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have presented evidence that certain financial assets may exhibit stochastic volatility or jumps, which cannot be captured within the Black-Scholes environment. This work investigates the valuation of power options when the variance follows the Heston model of stochastic volatility. A closed form representation of the characteristic function of the process is derived from the partial differential equation (PDE of the replicating portfolio. The characteristic function is essential for the computation of the European power option prices via the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT technique. Numerical results are presented. © 2012 Published by NTMSCI Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of NTMSCI Publication Society

  12. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Habitat Monitoring Study, 2011 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Thom, Ronald M.; Wright, Cynthia L.

    2012-03-22

    The Ecosystem Monitoring Program is a collaborative effort between the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (LCREP), University of Washington, Wetland Ecosystem Team (UW), US Geological Survey, Water Science Center (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, hereafter NOAA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the program is to conduct emergent wetland monitoring aimed at characterizing salmonid habitats in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) from the mouth of the estuary to Bonneville Dam (Figure 1). This is an ecosystem based monitoring program focused on evaluating status and trends in habitat and reducing uncertainties regarding these ecosystems to ultimately improve the survival of juvenile salmonids through the LCRE. This project comprehensively assesses habitat, fish, food web, and abiotic conditions in the lower river, focusing on shallow water and vegetated habitats used by juvenile salmonids for feeding, rearing and refugia. The information is intended to be used to guide management actions associated with species recovery, particularly that of threatened and endangered salmonids. PNNL’s role in this multi-year study is to monitor the habitat structure (e.g., vegetation, topography, channel morphology, and sediment type) as well as hydrologic patterns.

  13. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Habitat Monitoring Study, 2011 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaufmann, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cullinan, Valerie I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thom, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wright, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Ecosystem Monitoring Program is a collaborative effort between the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (LCREP), University of Washington, Wetland Ecosystem Team (UW), US Geological Survey, Water Science Center (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, hereafter NOAA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory (PNNL). The goal of the program is to conduct emergent wetland monitoring aimed at characterizing salmonid habitats in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) from the mouth of the estuary to Bonneville Dam (Figure 1). This is an ecosystem based monitoring program focused on evaluating status and trends in habitat and reducing uncertainties regarding these ecosystems to ultimately improve the survival of juvenile salmonids through the LCRE. This project comprehensively assesses habitat, fish, food web, and abiotic conditions in the lower river, focusing on shallow water and vegetated habitats used by juvenile salmonids for feeding, rearing and refugia. The information is intended to be used to guide management actions associated with species recovery, particularly that of threatened and endangered salmonids. PNNL’s role in this multi-year study is to monitor the habitat structure (e.g., vegetation, topography, channel morphology, and sediment type) as well as hydrologic patterns.

  14. Scour Monitoring System for Subsea Pipeline Based on Active Thermometry: Numerical and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Du

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A scour monitoring system for subsea pipeline based on active thermometry is proposed in this paper. The temperature reading of the proposed system is based on a distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensing technique. A thermal cable acts as the main component of the system, which consists of a heating belt, armored optical fibers and heat-shrinkable tubes which run parallel to the pipeline. The scour-induced free span can be monitored through different heat transfer behaviors of in-water and in-sediment scenarios during heating and cooling processes. Two sets of experiments, including exposing different lengths of the upper surface of the pipeline to water and creating free spans of various lengths, were carried out in laboratory. In both cases, the scour condition was immediately detected by the proposed monitoring system, which confirmed the system is robust and very sensitive. Numerical study of the method was also investigated by using the finite element method (FEM with ANSYS, resulting in reasonable agreement with the test data. This brand new system provides a promising, low cost, highly precise and flexible approach for scour monitoring of subsea pipelines.

  15. Study on Wireless Network Communication in Stage Hydraulic Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel stage hydraulic monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional wired system, the proposed system is a flexible working method and can save the cost. Furthermore, it has the low power consumption, high safety, and large scale network. The real-time pressure and flow data can be collected by using the nodes in ZigBee network. The fault detection and diagnosis process was used in this study, which was facilitated by measuring pressure of flow. When the monitored data exceeds the normal range, some failure may occur in the stage hydraulic system. If any failure occurs in the circuit, the maintainers can be informed immediately, which can greatly improve maintenance efficiency, ensuring the failure to be eliminated in time. Meanwhile, we can take advantage of wireless sensor network (WSN to connect the multiple loops and then monitor the loops by using ZigBee technology, which greatly improves the efficiency of monitoring.

  16. Action-Monitoring Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea - A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Song Chou

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with a broad range of frontal lobe dysfunctions. However, no study has investigated action monitoring, a crucial domain of frontal cognitive functions, in patients with OSA. By using the modified Flanker task, we tested the hypothesis that patients with OSA have an impaired action monitoring function. We recruited 25 untreated patients with moderate-severe OSA and 12 control participants who were matched for age, sex, apolipoprotein E4, and education level. Every enrolled participant underwent a standard overnight laboratory-based polysomnography and completed a modified Flanker task. Compared with the controls, the patients with OSA presented a significantly lower correct response rate in all trials (78.9% vs 95.9%, P = .008, congruent trials (84.7% vs 98.3%, P = .016, and incongruent trials (77.4% vs 94.7%, P = .009. The post-error correction rate was significantly lower in the patients with OSA than in the controls (74.9% vs 93.8%, P = .005. Furthermore, strong significant correlations were observed between the arousal index and correct rate in all trials (r = -0.390, P < .05 and in the incongruent trials (r = -0.429, P < .01, as well as between the arousal index and rate of post-error correction (r = -0.435, P < .01. We concluded that the action monitoring function was impaired in the patients with OSA. Sleep fragmentation was a major determinant of impaired action monitoring in these patients.

  17. A Study on the Estimation Method of Risk Based Area for Jetty Safety Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Wook Nam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of safety-monitoring systems was highlighted by the unprecedented collision between a ship and a jetty in Yeosu. Accordingly, in this study, we introduce the concept of risk based area and develop a methodology for a jetty safety-monitoring system. By calculating the risk based areas for a ship and a jetty, the risk of collision was evaluated. To calculate the risk based areas, we employed an automatic identification system for the ship, stopping-distance equations, and the regulation velocity near the jetty. In this paper, we suggest a risk calculation method for jetty safety monitoring that can determine the collision probability in real time and predict collisions using the amount of overlap between the two calculated risk based areas. A test was conducted at a jetty control center at GS Caltex, and the effectiveness of the proposed risk calculation method was verified. The method is currently applied to the jetty-monitoring system at GS Caltex in Yeosu for the prevention of collisions.

  18. Error detection capability of a novel transmission detector: a validation study for online VMAT monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasler, Marlies; Michel, Kilian; Marrazzo, Livia; Obenland, Michael; Pallotta, Stefania; Björnsgard, Mari; Lutterbach, Johannes

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize a new single large-area ionization chamber, the integral quality monitor system (iRT, Germany), for online and real-time beam monitoring. Signal stability, monitor unit (MU) linearity and dose rate dependence were investigated for static and arc deliveries and compared to independent ionization chamber measurements. The dose verification capability of the transmission detector system was evaluated by comparing calculated and measured detector signals for 15 volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. The error detection sensitivity was tested by introducing MLC position and linac output errors. Deviations in dose distributions between the original and error-induced plans were compared in terms of detector signal deviation, dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics and 2D γ-evaluation (2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm). The detector signal is linearly dependent on linac output and shows negligible (good correlation between DVH metrics and detector signal deviation was found (e.g. PTV D mean: R 2  =  0.97). Positional MLC errors of 1 mm and errors in linac output of 2% were identified with the transmission detector system. The extensive tests performed in this investigation show that the new transmission detector provides a stable and sensitive cumulative signal output and is suitable for beam monitoring during patient treatment.

  19. Use of shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A.; Rus, G.; Saffari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains as a major healthcare issue. Limitations in current diagnosis and treatment monitoring techniques imply that there is still a need for improvements. The efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis is still low, generating under and over diagnoses. High intensity focused ultrasound ablation is an emerging treatment modality, which enables the noninvasive ablation of pathogenic tissue. Clinical trials are being carried out to evaluate its longterm efficacy as a focal treatment for prostate cancer. Successful treatment of prostate cancer using non-invasive modalities is critically dependent on accurate diagnostic means and is greatly benefited by a real-time monitoring system. While magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard for prostate imaging, its wider implementation for prostate cancer diagnosis remains prohibitively expensive. Conventional ultrasound is currently limited to guiding biopsy. Elastography techniques are emerging as a promising real-time imaging method, as cancer nodules are usually stiffer than adjacent healthy prostatic tissue. In this paper, a new transurethral approach is proposed, using shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer. A finite-difference time domain model is developed for studying the feasibility of the method, and an inverse problem technique based on genetic algorithms is proposed for reconstructing the location, size and stiffness parameters of the tumour. Preliminary results indicate that the use of shear waves for diagnosis and monitoring ablation of prostate cancer is feasible.

  20. Split-dosed MiraLAX/Gatorade is an effective, safe, and tolerable option for bowel preparation in low-risk patients: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasena, Jason B; Muthusamy, V Raman; Jamal, M Mazen

    2012-07-01

    -Sp=4.12, Mlax-Si=6.25, and Mlax-Sp=4.8. Go-Sp resulted in significantly better cleansing than Go-Si (P0.05). Subjects rated the taste and overall experience of Mlax/Gatorade preparation better than Golytely (PGatorade subjects were willing to repeat the same preparation vs. 75% for Golytely subjects (PGatorade was an effective, safe, and tolerable option for bowel preparation before colonoscopy in the low-risk patients in this study. MiraLAX/Gatorade appears to be more tolerable than Golytely as a bowel cleansing regimen and was the preferred agent by the patients in this study.

  1. Literature Review of the State of the Art for Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) for a Series of Oil Quality Monitoring Sensors for Shipboard Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    development of new technologies for application in platform specific lubricating oil condition monitoring systems. The current study is primarily focused on...technologies requises comprennent : technologies de capteurs , options de transmission de données, conception d’un réseau d’acquisition de données, options...technologies, as well as the development of new technologies for application in platform specific lubricating oil condition monitoring systems. The

  2. Spontaneous monitoring of adverse reactions to drugs by Italian dermatologists: a pilot study. Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    During 1988, the Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia (GISED) coordinated a pilot study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of a system for spontaneous monitoring of adverse drug reactions in dermatological practice in Italy. Approximately 400 dermatologists were asked to collaborate, and 141 agreed to the study. Procedures similar to those well established in other surveillance programs (including the use of standard forms and standardized assessment procedure) were adopted. In a 2-month period 775 reports were collected, of which 711 were maintained after careful evaluation. The general profile of the adverse reactions reported was in accordance with the experience derived by other spontaneous surveillance programs. The main purpose of spontaneous reporting systems is the identification of new reactions, and a model analysis was proposed, in our study, with reference to skin reactions to bamifylline. The demonstration of the feasibility of a drug-monitoring program in Italy, where little tradition exists in the area, is the most important result of our study.

  3. Making real options really work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

    2004-12-01

    As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets.

  4. MR monitoring of focused ultrasonic surgery of renal cortex: experimental and simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, K; Damianou, C A; Colucci, V; Unger, E; Cline, H H; Jolesz, F A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided and -monitored noninvasive ultrasonic surgery can be performed in highly perfused tissues from outside the body. A simulation study was performed to evaluate the optimal sonication parameters. An MR-compatible positioning device was then used to manipulate a focused ultrasound transducer in an MR imager, which was used to sonicate kidneys of five rabbits at various power levels and different durations. Temperature elevation during sonication was monitored with a T1-weighted spoiled gradient-echo sequence. The simulation study demonstrated that a sharply focused transducer and relatively short sonication times (30 seconds or less) are necessary to prevent damage to the overlying skin and muscle tissue, which have a much lower blood perfusion rate than kidney. The experiments showed that the imaging sequence was sensitive enough to show temperature elevation during sonication, thereby indicating the location of the beam focus. Histologic evaluations showed that kidney necrosis could be consistently induced without damage to overlying skin and muscle. The study demonstrated that highly perfused tissues such as the renal cortex can be coagulated from outside the body with focused ultrasound and that MR imaging can be used to guide and monitor this surgery.

  5. Implied Volatility of Interest Rate Options: An Empirical Investigation of the Market Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Hansen, Charlotte Strunk

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the empirical properties of the volatility implied in options on the 13-week US Treasury bill rate. These options have not been studied previously. It is shown that a European style put option on the interest rate is equivalent to a call option on a zero-coupon bond. We apply the LIBOR...

  6. Implied Volatility of Interest Rate Options: An Empirical Investigation of the Market Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Hansen, Charlotte Strunk

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the empirical properties of the volatility implied in options on the 13-week US Treasury bill rate. These options have not been studied previously. It is shown that a European style put option on the interest rate is equivalent to a call option on a zero-coupon bond. We apply the LIBOR...

  7. Corporate governance and the design of stock option programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sautner; M. Weber

    2008-01-01

    Investors and academics increasingly criticize that various design features of executive stock option (ESO) plans reflect self-dealing by managers and the inability of corporate governance mechanisms in monitoring executives (managerial power hypothesis). We use a unique and not publicly available d

  8. Comparative study of gas-analyzing systems designed for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.

    2017-06-01

    Determining the composition of combustion products is important in terms of both control of emissions into the atmosphere from thermal power plants and optimization of fuel combustion processes in electric power plants. For this purpose, the concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and sulfur oxides in flue gases is monitored; in case of solid fuel combustion, fly ash concentration is monitored as well. According to the new nature conservation law in Russia, all large TPPs shall be equipped with continuous emission monitoring and measurement systems (CEMMS) into the atmosphere. In order to ensure the continuous monitoring of pollutant emissions, direct round-the-clock measurements are conducted with the use of either domestically produced or imported gas analyzers and analysis systems, the operation of which is based on various physicochemical methods and which can be generally used when introducing CEMMS. Depending on the type and purposes of measurement, various kinds of instruments having different features may be used. This article represents a comparative study of gas-analysis systems for measuring the content of polluting substances in exhaust gases based on various physical and physicochemical analysis methods. It lists basic characteristics of the methods commonly applied in the area of gas analysis. It is proven that, considering the necessity of the long-term, continuous operation of gas analyzers for monitoring and measurement of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere, as well as the requirements for reliability and independence from aggressive components and temperature of the gas flow, it is preferable to use optical gas analyzers for the aforementioned purposes. In order to reduce the costs of equipment comprising a CEMMS at a TPP and optimize the combustion processes, electrochemical and thermomagnetic gas analyzers may also be used.

  9. "Ultrasound Monitoring of Temperature Change during Interstitial Laser Thermotherapy of Liver: An In Vitro Study"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gorji-Ara

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/objective: In thermal tissue ablation, it is very important to control the increase in the temperature for having an efficient ablation therapy. We conducted this study to determine the efficacy of measuring pixel shift of ultrasound B-mode images as a function of change in tissue temperature. Materials and Methods: By fixing some microthermocouples in liver tissues, temperature at different points was monitored invasively in vitro during laser-induced thermotherapy. According to our results, optimum power and exposure time were determined for ultrasound temperature monitoring. Simultaneously, noninvasive temperature monitoring was performed with ultrasound B-mode images. These images were saved on computer from 25ºC to 95ºC with 10 ºC steps. The speed of sound changes with each 10°C temperature change that produce virtual shifts in the scatter positions. Using an image processing method, the pixel shift due to 10 °C temperature change was extracted by motion detection. Results: The cubic regression function between the mean pixel shifts on ultrasound B-mode images caused by the change in speed of sound, which in turn was a function of the mean change in temperature, was evaluated. When temperature increased, pixel shift occurs in ultrasound images. The maximum pixel shift was observed between 60 to 70 ºC (temperature changes (ΔT of 35–45 ºC. After 70ºC, the local pixel shift due to change in the speed of sound in liver tissue had an irregular decreasing. Pearson correlation coefficient between invasive and non-invasive measurements for 10°C temperature changes was 0.93 and the non-linear function was suitable for monitoring of temperature. Conclusion: Monitoring of changes in temperature based on pixel shifts observed in ultrasound B-mode images in interstitial laser thermotherapy of liver seems a good modality.

  10. Monitoring Central Venous Catheter Resistance to Predict Imminent Occlusion: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Joshua; Tang, Li; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Brennan, Rachel C; Shook, David R; Stokes, Dennis C; Monagle, Paul; Curtis, Nigel; Worth, Leon J; Allison, Kim; Sun, Yilun; Flynn, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Long-term central venous catheters are essential for the management of chronic medical conditions, including childhood cancer. Catheter occlusion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent complications, including bloodstream infection, venous thrombosis, and catheter fracture. Therefore, predicting and pre-emptively treating occlusions should prevent complications, but no method for predicting such occlusions has been developed. We conducted a prospective trial to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of catheter-resistance monitoring, a novel approach to predicting central venous catheter occlusion in pediatric patients. Participants who had tunneled catheters and were receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation underwent weekly catheter-resistance monitoring for up to 12 weeks. Resistance was assessed by measuring the inline pressure at multiple flow-rates via a syringe pump system fitted with a pressure-sensing transducer. When turbulent flow through the device was evident, resistance was not estimated, and the result was noted as "non-laminar." Ten patients attended 113 catheter-resistance monitoring visits. Elevated catheter resistance (>8.8% increase) was strongly associated with the subsequent development of acute catheter occlusion within 10 days (odds ratio = 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-21.5; p change in resistance greater than 8.8% or a non-laminar result predicted subsequent occlusion (odds ratio = 6.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-22.8; p = 0.002; sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 63%). Participants rated catheter-resistance monitoring as highly acceptable. In this pediatric hematology and oncology population, catheter-resistance monitoring is feasible, acceptable, and predicts imminent catheter occlusion. Larger studies are required to validate these findings, assess the predictive value for other clinical outcomes, and determine the impact of pre-emptive therapy. Clinicaltrials

  11. Methane : its role in climate change and options for control

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study on CH4, (its role in climate change and options for control), aimed at a scenario analysis to assess future climate change under reduced methane emissions. At the same time improving the quality of CH4 emission inventories and estimating the costs of emission reductions between 2010 and 2100. In this thesis 28 major options to control or mitigate methane emissions from different sources were identified. The effectiveness and costs of these options were assessed. This resulted in a ...

  12. THE EFFECTS OF CHANGING MARGIN LEVELS ON FUTURES OPTIONS PRICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanling GU; Juan LI

    2006-01-01

    The paper studies the effects of changing margin levels on the price of futures options and how to organize a market maker's position. Black model (1976) becomes a special case of this paper.The paper prices futures options by duplicating them and adopting the theory of Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (BSDEs for short). Furthermore, the price of a futures option is the unique solution to a nonlinear BSDE.

  13. PRICING AND HEDGING OPTION UNDER PORTFOLIO CONSTRAINED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏刚; 陈世平

    2001-01-01

    The authors employ convex analysis and stochastic control approach to study the question of hedging contingent claims with portfolio constrained to take values in a given closed, convex subset of RK, and extend the results of Gianmario Tessitore and Jerzy Zabczyk[6] on pricing options in multiasset and multinominal model.

  14. Treatment Options for Mallet Finger : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen M.; Beets, Michiel R.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Rood, Akkie; Welters, Carlo F. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mallet finger is a common injury. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the different treatment options of mallet injuries and their indications, outcomes, and potential complications. Methods: A literature-based study was conducted using the PubMed database comprising world

  15. The Strategic Options of Supreme Audit Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Carrington, Thomas; Catasús, Bino

    2017-01-01

    Based on the theory of professional competition, this paper identifies and investigates four strategic options of supreme audit institutions (SAIs) through a case study of four Nordic national audit offices: a performance auditing strategy; a financial auditing strategy; a portfolio strategy...

  16. Philippines : PPP Options in Irrigation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes an analytical framework to determine the extent to which Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is a viable and effective business option for developing and modernizing the irrigation sector in the Philippines. It focuses on: (a) assessing and providing recommendations to address the policy, regulatory and institutional constraints that limit the recourse to PPP as a tool to ...

  17. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsela, Andrew S; Jones, Adele M; Collins, Richard N; Waite, T David

    2012-02-01

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations.

  18. A Feasibility Study for Life Signs Monitoring via a Continuous-Wave Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Soldovieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a feasibility study for life signs detection using a continuous-wave radar working in the band around 4 GHz. The data-processing is carried out by using two different data processing approaches, which are compared about the possibility to characterize the frequency behaviour of the breathing and heartbeat activity. The two approaches are used with the main aim to show the possibility of monitoring the vital signs activity in an accurate and reliable way.

  19. Column flotation monitoring based on electrical capacitance volume tomography: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, Didied; Harjanto, Sri; Nugraha, Harisma; Huda, Mahfudz Al; Taruno, Warsito Purwo

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary study of column flotation monitoring process using electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) was conducted. ECVT was one of the monitoring systems which based on the capacitance measurement. It was used to understand the phenomenon that occurs inside the column in a three-dimensional (3-D) image. A linear back projection (LBP) algorithm technique was used to reconstruct the 3-D ECVT images from all measurement data obtained in this study. As a preliminary study, the effect of gas injection in the two-phase (liquid and gas) system was conducted. This study is conducted to assess the possibility of ECVT system in the monitoring of column flotation process. The experiments were conducted by using column flotation with 5 cm diameter and 150 cm height in which a sparger was installed at the bottom of column to inject air inside the column. 32-CH rectangular ECVT sensor was installed at 13 cm above the sparger and placed around the column. The gas injection variations used were 2-7 l/min with interval 1 l/min and all experiments were conducted at room temperature. Based on the signal and image analysis, the signals and 3-D ECVT images showed differences when the gas injection was varied. An increase in gas injection will decrease the fluctuation of signal intensity which correlates to the 3-D ECVT images. Average signals obtained by ECVT when given gas injection variations were in the range of 440.09 to 453.62 mV from high to low gas injection. Based on these results, ECVT has a prospect as an imaging tool to monitor the column flotation process. And also, hopefully, based on the analysis of 3-D images generated by ECVT system, the metallurgical performance would be analyzed in the further researches.

  20. The experience of family members of ICU patients who require extensive monitoring: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claudia DiSabatino; Custard, Kristi

    2014-09-01

    A mixed methods study using family research with a phenomenological approach (n = 5 families) was conducted to explore family members' perceptions about the extensive monitoring technology used on their critically ill family member after cardiac surgery, as experienced when family members initially visited the patient in the cardiovascular intensive care unit. Five relevant themes emerged: overwhelmed by all of the machines; feelings of uncertainty; methods of coping; meaning of the numbers on the machines; and need for education.

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies for a Bio-Impedance Vital-Sign Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Bio -impedance can be used for peripheral pulse detection as a non-invasive method for continuous vital sign monitoring. The objective of this study...was to evaluate the commercially available electrode materials that might be useful as wearable electrodes for the measurement of bio -impedance puse...Reproducibility and sensitivity of the bio -impedance measurement were comparable to the sensitivities of the pulse oximeter, laser Doppler, and

  2. Perceptions and experiences of participants in a study of in-vehicle monitoring of teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Farmer, Charles M; Jenness, James W

    2010-08-01

    To assess the perceptions and experiences of participants in a study of a device that monitored teenagers' driving. A device that continuously monitors and reports risky driving maneuvers was installed in vehicles of 84 newly licensed teenagers. Study groups varied by whether parents had access to a Web site that summarized their teenagers' driving and by whether in-vehicle alerts provided feedback to drivers. Recruitment of subjects and problems with the device were documented. Teenagers and parents were interviewed after removal of the device. Although the study was conducted in a large urban area, recruitment progressed slowly. Parents who declined to participate usually said their teenagers opposed it, or they were concerned about intruding on the privacy of their children or jeopardizing trust with them. Both parents and teenagers thought in-vehicle alerts helped teenagers drive more safely, although two thirds of teenagers tried to drown out the alerts with loud music. Parents found the Web site useful but reported fewer Web site visits over time. Most parents would prefer receiving information through summary report cards rather than through a Web site. Both parents and teenagers thought the overall system was effective in improving teenagers' driving. Most parents said the Web site and/or device helped them talk to their teenagers about their driving. Parents thought the most effective system would be an in-vehicle alert with immediate parental notification; teenagers preferred a system allowing them to correct behavior before parental notification. The difficulties in recruiting families for a study of in-vehicle monitoring and feedback technology suggest that gaining broad acceptance may be challenging. Although many teenagers were annoyed by the technology, most said they drove more safely because of it. Sending report cards to parents and allowing teenagers to correct behavior before parents are notified may increase the usefulness and acceptability of

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PERINATAL OUTCOME IN LOW RISK PREGNANCIES WITH CTG MONITORING AND INTERMITTENT AUSCULTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimala Ratna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available EFM was introduced into widespread clinical practice in the 1970s to 1980s on the premise that it would facilitate early detection of abnormal FHR patterns thought to be associated with hypoxia thus allowing earlier intervention to prevent foetal neurological damage and/or death. There is a lack of evidence of benefit supporting the use of the admission CTG in low-risk pregnancy. In this study we the aim to evaluate the effects of Cardiotocograph Foetal Monitoring on perinatal outcome in low risk Obstetric population and determine the cost effective and reliable method of fetal monitoring that is applicable to low-risk population. METHODOLOGY A prospective randomized study conducted on 200 low risk pregnant women in labour divided into 2 groups of 100 each. Group A includes those monitored with admission CTG and Group B includes those monitored with intermittent auscultation (IA. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS The demographic features, parity and gestational age in both the groups were comparable; 10 out of the 100 in CTG group had meconium stained liquor whereas 15 of them had meconium in IA group; 71% of the patients in CTG group had normal delivery, whereas it was 84% in IA group. Incidence of LSCS was 23% in CTG group as against 9% in IA group. A ‘P’ value of 0.02, RR of 2 5 for operative deliveries in CTG group was observed which was significant. Incidence of AVD was 6% in CTG group and 7% in IA group with a p value of <0.05, which is statistically significant. The incidence of MSL, APGAR scores at 1, 5 and 10 minutes and NICU admissions were comparable in both the groups. There was no significant difference in babies with low APGAR <7 at 5 min and NICU admissions in both the groups. In our study the sensitivity of CTG was 63.63%, specificity 80.35%, positive predictive value 33.3%, negative predictive value 94.93%. The low sensitivity and high false positives led to the intervention in delivery and increase in operative delivery with no

  4. Price versus value of marine monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Nygård

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring data facilitate the basic understanding of changes taking place in nature and provide information for making management decisions, but environmental monitoring is often considered expensive. Here, we apply the concept of value of information to evaluate the value of marine monitoring in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive context. We estimated the costs of the Finnish marine monitoring program and used the costs and economic benefits estimates of the Finnish marine strategy to assess the value of environmental monitoring. The numbers were applied to scenarios with different levels of information available prior to management decision-making. Monitoring costs were related to the value of perfect information prior to the management decision, assuming that managers will choose the management option that maximizes the benefits. The underlying assumptions of the conceptual model are that more accurate information about the status facilitates the selection of an optimal set of measures to achieve the environmental objectives and the related welfare gains from the improved environmental status. Our results emphasize the fact that monitoring is an essential part of effective marine management. Importantly, our study show that the value of marine monitoring data is an order of magnitude greater than the resources currently spent on monitoring and that an improved knowledge base can facilitate the planning of more cost-effective measures.

  5. Acoustic monitoring (RFM of total hip arthroplasty results of a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger AC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction At present there are no reliable non-traumatic and non-invasive methods to analyse the healing process and loosening status after total hip replacement. Therefore early as well as late loosening of prosthesis and interface component problems are difficult to be found or diagnosed at any time. Methods In a cadaver study the potential application of Resonance Frequency Monitoring (RFM will be evaluated as a non-invasive and non-traumatic method to monitor loosening and interface problems in hip replacement. In a 65 year old female cadaver different stability scenarios for a total hip replacement (shaft, head/modular head and cup, ESKA, Luebeck, Germany are simulated in cemented and cement less prosthesis and then analysed with RFM. The types of stability vary from secure/press-fit to interface-shaft disruption. Results The RFM shows in cemented as well as cement less prosthesis significant intra-individual differences in the spectral measurements with a high dynamic (20 dB difference corresponding to the factor 100 (10000%, regarding the simulated status of stability in the prosthesis system. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate RFM as a highly sensitive non-invasive and non-traumatic method to support the application of RFM as a hip prosthesis monitoring procedure. The data obtained shows the possibility to use RFM for osteointegration surveillance and early detection of interface problems, but will require further evaluation in clinical and experimental studies.

  6. Monitoring activities of teenagers to comprehend their habits: study protocol for a mixed-methods cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bélanger, Mathieu; Caissie, Isabelle; Beauchamp, Jacinthe; O’Loughlin, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine; Mancuso, Michelina

    2013-01-01

    Background Efforts to increase physical activity in youth need to consider which activities are most likely to be sustained over time in order to promote lifelong participation in physical activity. The Monitoring Activities of Teenagers to Comprehend their Habits (MATCH) study is a prospective cohort study that uses quantitative and qualitative methods to develop new knowledge on the sustainability of specific physical activities. Methods/design Eight hundred and forty-three grade 5 and 6 st...

  7. Concept of Complex Environmental Monitoring Network - Vardzia Rock Cut City Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashvili, Mikheil; Vacheishvili, Nikoloz; Margottini, Claudio; Basilaia, Giorgi; Chkhaidze, Davit; Kvavadze, Davit; Spizzichino, Daniele; Boscagli, Franceso; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Adikashvili, Luka; Navrozashvili, Levan

    2016-04-01

    displacement and deformation of Vardzia cliff by means of Ground-based SAR (GBSAR) interferometry, continuous photo fixation of ongoing destruction. Works were started in 2014 from the development of network concept and at the end of year 2015 installation of all major components were accomplished. Special Wi-Fi network was installed, using 5.8 GHz frequency to online connect all the station to the central data center in Tbilisi and the same time avoiding complex network of wires on cultural monument. Acquired Data and network status can be seen online on Vardzia.IliaUni.edu.ge. For the management of considerable data flow special Internet Of Thing (IOT) server was developed. First streams of data are already collected and processing started, initial results already obtained and given in current presentation. It should be outlined that Vardzia complex monitoring network does not represent unitary technical or conceptual solution, but it is a constantly developing model to be farther extended by adding more monitoring points and/or increasing monitored parameters. It is extremely important to test and validate given approach in reality, enabling use of these technologies in the study and conservation projects of other, similar monuments.

  8. ARBRE monitoring - ecology of short rotation coppice. Four year study involving wildlife monitoring of commercial SCR plantations planted on arable land and arable control plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.D.; Bishop, J.D.; McKay, H.V.; Sage, R.B.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) funded project monitoring wildlife within and around a number of commercially managed Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) plantations aimed at using the information gathered to assess the ecological impact of SRC plantations on the wildlife in the area. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of the monitoring programme examining the distribution of flora and fauna within the plantations, and the monitoring of birds, plants, insects and butterflies. The greater diversity of wildlife and plants in the SRC plots, the higher densities of birds, and the increasing number of butterfly species are discussed along with the increased mean number of invertebrate orders with subsequent growth of willow coppices, and the habitats at the edges of the plots and at headlands designed for access to machinery within the plots.

  9. Risk-based decision-making framework for the selection of sediment dredging option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a risk-based decision-making framework for the selection of sediment dredging option. Descriptions using case studies of the newly integrated, holistic and staged framework were followed. The first stage utilized the historical dredging monitoring data and the contamination level in media data into Ecological Risk Assessment phases, which have been altered for benefits in cost, time and simplicity. How Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can be used to analyze and prioritize dredging areas based on environmental, socio-economic and managerial criteria was described for the next stage. The results from MCDA will be integrated into Ecological Risk Assessment to characterize the degree of contamination in the prioritized areas. The last stage was later described using these findings and analyzed using MCDA, in order to identify the best sediment dredging option, accounting for the economic, environmental and technical aspects of dredging, which is beneficial for dredging and sediment management industries.

  10. A Consistent Pricing Model for Index Options and Volatility Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    on the underlying asset. The model has the convenient feature of decoupling the vanilla skews from spot/volatility correlations and allowing for different conditional correlations in large and small spot/volatility moves. We show that our model can simultaneously fit prices of European options on S&P 500 across......We propose and study a flexible modeling framework for the joint dynamics of an index and a set of forward variance swap rates written on this index, allowing options on forward variance swaps and options on the underlying index to be priced consistently. Our model reproduces various empirically...... strikes and maturities as well as options on the VIX volatility index. The calibration of the model is done in two steps, first by matching VIX option prices and then by matching prices of options on the underlying....

  11. Essential Tremor (ET): Surgical Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t respond to propranolol, primidone, or other common ET medications and whose tremor has become debilitating, there ... treatments were first introduced. Current surgical options for ET include Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) , Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy , ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  15. Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly ...

  16. Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Urethral Cancer Treatment Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Urethral Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  17. Optical surface scanning for respiratory motion monitoring in radiotherapy: a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekke, Susanne Lise; Mahmood, Faisal; Helt-Hansen, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the feasibility of a surface scanning system (Catalyst) for respiratory motion monitoring of breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). DIBH is used to reduce the radiation dose to the heart and lung. In contrast to RPM, a compet......Purpose. We evaluated the feasibility of a surface scanning system (Catalyst) for respiratory motion monitoring of breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). DIBH is used to reduce the radiation dose to the heart and lung. In contrast to RPM...... and 3: the Quasar phantom was used to study if the angle of the monitored surface affects the amplitude of the recorded signal. Results. Experiment 1: we observed comparable period estimates for both systems. The amplitudes were 8 ± 0.1 mm (Catalyst) and 4.9 ± 0.1 mm (RPM). Independent check with in...... 1. Experiment 3: an increased (fixed) surface angle during breathing motion resulted in an overestimated amplitude with RPM, while the amplitude estimated by Catalyst was unaffected. Conclusion. Our study showed that Catalyst can be used as a better alternative to the RPM. With Catalyst...

  18. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS): Results of Operator's Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Raylund; Summers, Harold; Cronkhite, James

    1996-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the feasibility of a state-of-the-art health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) to provide monitoring of critical mechanical systems on the helicopter, including motors, drive train, engines, and life-limited components. The implementation of HUMS and cost integration with current maintenance procedures was assessed from the operator's viewpoint in order to achieve expected benefits from these systems, such as enhanced safety, reduced maintenance cost, and increased availability. An operational HUMS that was installed and operated under an independent flight trial program was used as a basis for this study. The HUMS equipment and software were commercially available. Based on the results of the feasibility study, the HUMS used in the flight trial program generally demonstrated a high level of reliability in monitoring the rotor system, engines, drive train, and life-limited components. The system acted as a sentinel to warn of impending failures. A worn tail rotor pitch bearing was detected by HUMS, which had the capability for self testing to diagnose system and sensor faults. Examples of potential payback to the operator with HUMS were identified, including reduced insurance cost through enhanced safety, lower operating costs derived from maintenance credits, increased aircraft availability, and improved operating efficiency. The interfacing of HUMS with current operational procedures was assessed to require only minimal revisions to the operator's maintenance manuals. Finally the success in realizing the potential benefits from HUMS technology was found to depend on the operator, helicopter manufacturer, regulator (FAA), and HUMS supplier working together.

  19. Image monitoring on the behavior study of three genetic groups of confined goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Maria da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of three genetic groups of confined goats by image monitoring using nine unneutered goats of the Azul, Graúna and Moxotó genotypes. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (genetic groups × periods - morning, afternoon and night, with three replications. Animals were monitored by video cameras placed at the ceiling of each stall for 10 days. There were interaction factors in the frequency of behavioral categories: interaction with the trough, self-cleaning, standing bipedally, social interaction, and other activities. Azul, Graúna and Moxotó native goats kept in the same environment under the same system of containment and feeding show different frequencies and durations in their behaviors, which are influenced by the period of the day.

  20. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety, gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production. D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centi-meter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite. In addition, this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit. Intro-duced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and ac-quired the differential interferometry based on case study data. The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  1. Telecommunication monitoring is a method for studies of the effect of heliomagnetic fluctuations on cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisov, S M; Vishnevsky, V V; Ragulskaya, M V

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents the results of 9-year biogeophysical monitoring (1998-2007) of spatial and time effects of space weather and atmospheric and climatic factors on the status of normal subjects, which was carried out simultaneously in geographical areas situated at different latitudes. Requirements to conditions of long-term telecommunication biogeophysical monitoring studies are formulated, providing the reliability and reproducibility of the experiment results. The results indicate that the role of atmospheric and climatic factors in modification of dynamic regimens of human body functioning is significantly higher in subjects living at lower latitudes. The spatial and time regularities of the effects of space and physical factors on human body were detected (the latitude, time, trigger, amplitude, synergetic, and cumulative effects of the population averaging of the reaction). These effects indicate that human body belongs to a class of open nonlinear dynamic systems with all characteristics intrinsic of it.

  2. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety,gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production.D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centimeter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite.In addition,this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit.Introduced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and acquired the differential interferometry based on case study data.The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  3. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  4. The effectiveness of Google GLASS as a vital signs monitor in surgery: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammed Husnain; Aydin, Abdullatif; Lowdon, Alexandra; Ahmed, Hamza Ibn; Muir, Gordon H; Khan, M Shamim; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Google GLASS as a vital signs monitor in a surgical setting and identify potential uses. This prospective, observational and comparative study recruited novice (n = 24), intermediate (n = 8) and expert urologists (n = 5). All candidates performed a procedure on the GreenLight Simulator within a simulated setting using a standard vital signs monitor and then the Google GLASS. The time taken to respond to abnormal vital signs during both sessions was recorded. A quantitative survey was used to assess the usability and acceptability of the Google GLASS surgery. The majority (84%) of participants responded quicker to abnormal signs with the Google GLASS compared to a standard monitor (p = 0.0267). The average simulation score during a standard-monitor and GLASS-session scored to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.253). All parameters of simulation were also similar in both sessions including average sweep speed (p = 0.594), average blood loss (p = 0.761) and average grams vaporised (p = 0.102). Surgical performance between both sessions was similar and not hampered by the use of Google GLASS. Furthermore, 81% of candidates stated the GLASS was comfortable to wear during the procedure. This study has demonstrated that head-mounted displays such as the Google GLASS are potentially useful in surgery to aid patient care without hampering the surgeons view. It is hoped that the innovation and evolution of these devices triggers the potential future application of such devices within the medical field. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Second line treatment options for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passero, Frank C; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2017-08-18

    ABTRACT Introduction: Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC) refractory to first-line therapy have a dismal prognosis and limited therapeutic options, with only one option consisting of nanoliposomal irinotecan in combination with fluorouracil and folinic acid which was approved by FDA based upon results of the phase III NAPOLI-1 study. Areas covered: We performed a literature search for relevant published clinical trials, abstracts of trials in progress and ongoing or planned trials for the second line treatment of APC using Pubmed.com, ClinicalTrials.gov and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) abstract search as sources. We present an in-depth analysis of the phase I-III clinical trials determining the role and efficacy of second-line treatment in patients with APC. We also describe ongoing studies and rationale for future investigation. Expert opinion: Despite advances in first-line therapy such as gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel and FOLFIRINOX in APC, median overall survival remains less than 12 months, highlighting the need to develop second-line therapies. In order to establish much needed effective second-line treatment options, we need cooperative efforts among institutions and community practices in enrolling these refractory patients in clinical trials. It should be emphasized that in addition to chemotherapy options, all patients should have the opportunity to consult with nutritionist, social worker and palliative care health providers to assist with goals of care, symptom management and end of life discussions.

  6. Monitoring endemic livestock diseases using laboratory diagnosticdata: A simulation study to evaluate the performance of univariateprocess monitoring control algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Dorea, Fernanda; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2016-01-01

    (number of sentinel herds tested in the surveillance system) on the performance of the algorithms. Three univariate process monitoring control algorithms were compared: Shewart p Chart 1 (PSHEW), Cumulative Sum2 (CUSUM) and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average3 (EWMA). Increases in seroprevalence were......, it was possible to assess the accuracy and timeliness of the surveillance system working in real-time. The results showed that EWMA and PSHEW had higher CumSe (when compared with the CUSUM) from week 1 until the end of the period for all simulated scenarios. Changes in seroprevalence from 0.10 to 0.20 were more...... easily detected (higher CumSe) than changes from 0.10 to 0.15 for all three algorithms. Similar results were found with EWMA and PSHEW, based on the median time to detection. Changes in the seroprevalence were detected later with CUSUM, compared to EWMA and PSHEW for the different scenarios. Increasing...

  7. Barriers to self-monitoring of blood glucose among adults with diabetes in an HMO: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Mary B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that patients at greatest risk for diabetes complications are least likely to self-monitor blood glucose. However, these studies rely on self-reports of monitoring, an unreliable measure of actual behavior. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between patient characteristics and self-monitoring in a large health maintenance organization (HMO using test strips as objective measures of self-monitoring practice. Methods This cross-sectional study included 4,565 continuously enrolled adult managed care patients in eastern Massachusetts with diabetes. Any self-monitoring was defined as filling at least one prescription for self-monitoring test strips during the study period (10/1/92–9/30/93. Regular SMBG among test strip users was defined as testing an average of once per day for those using insulin and every other day for those using oral sulfonylureas only. Measures of health status, demographic data, and neighborhood socioeconomic status were obtained from automated medical records and 1990 census tract data. Results In multivariate analyses, lower neighborhood socioeconomic status, older age, fewer HbA1c tests, and fewer physician visits were associated with lower rates of self-monitoring. Obesity and fewer comorbidities were also associated with lower rates of self-monitoring among insulin-managed patients, while black race and high glycemic level (HbA1c>10 were associated with less frequent monitoring. For patients taking oral sulfonylureas, higher dose of diabetes medications was associated with initiation of self-monitoring and HbA1c lab testing was associated with more frequent testing. Conclusions Managed care organizations may face the greatest challenges in changing the self-monitoring behavior of patients at greatest risk for poor health outcomes (i.e., the elderly, minorities, and people living in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods.

  8. 基于SDN的流量监控研究%SDN-based Trafifc Monitoring Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帅; 王松生; 檀朝红; 魏亮

    2016-01-01

    SDN-based traffic monitoring study is a modern 1G/10G/40G network visibility fabric that leverages high-performance, open Ethernet switches to provide pervasive security monitoring and visibility of an organization’s network trafifc at ultra-low CapEx/OpEx costs.It is a next-generation Network Packet Broker (NPB) that addresses the chalenges of current NPB-based monitoring solutions. Using an SDN-centric architecture, it enables scale-out fabric for enterprise-wide monitoring with a single pane of glass for operational simplicity. Multi-tenancy lets multiple IT teams (NetOps, DevOps, SecOps) simultaneously perform network monitoring using tenant-speciifc passive/inline tools and policies.The characteristics refered have been veriifed on the UMS platform which is our own data monitoring system.%基于SDN的流量监控系统是一种现代1G/10G/40G网络监视连接结构,采用高性能、开放式以太网交换机以超低资本支出/运营支出成本来对组织的网络流量进行无处不在的安全监控和流量监视。它是全新设计的新一代网络数据包代理(NPB),旨在服目前基于NPB的监控解决方案所面临的难题。基于SDN的流量监控系统以SDN为中心的体系结构,具备以下特点:实现了横向扩展连接结构,从而可以在整个企业范围内进行监控;采用单一平台进行管理,使操作变得轻松简单;提供多租户机制,使多个IT团队(NetOps、 DevOps、 SecOps)能够采用具体租户专用的被动式/在线式工具和策略来同时执行网络监控。上述特性均在自有数据监控平台UMS上得到验证。

  9. Monitoring for social learning : insights from Brazilian NGOs and Dutch farmer study groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guijt, I.; Proost, J.

    2002-01-01

    The process of monitoring can help to trigger learning. As collective monitoring is constructed as part of a social partnership, the generalised and superficial statements on how monitoring is to be implemented that prevail will not suffice for the diversity of contexts in which joint monitoring is

  10. Environmental Monitoring in the Small Business: A Case Study on this Process in a Company of the Real Estate Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bassi Sutter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is observed a gap in the literature regard to studies related to strategic planning in small businesses, specifically related to environmental monitoring. As a result of this gap, this study aimed to understand how a small real estate company monitors the environment in which it operates. To develop the study, we opted for a descriptive and qualitative approach, based on the method of a single case study. The conceptual foundations used for structuring the field research took into account a secondary data survey on strategic planning, environmental analysis in strategic planning, conceptualization of small and medium sized business (SMB and environment monitoring in SMB’s The study also has shown that although the respondents assert they perform environmental monitoring consistently, the process as described in the literature is not formal and systematic in the company studied. It has been observed efforts of the partners in this direction, but such activities are still restricted to the owners of the company. Given the proposed objective of this research, the case study did outline the main characteristics of the monitoring process of a small company in the construction sector. The study therefore contributes to broaden the knowledge about the structure of environmental monitoring in small businesses, enriching the theme that is still underdeveloped. In the business context, this study contributes pointing out factors that could be better developed by company managers and may serve as an example for other small businesses that are in the early stages of its environmental monitoring system development.

  11. Monitoring recovery after laser surgery of the breast with optical tomography: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Yates, Tara D.; Gibson, Adam; Everdell, Nicholas; Arridge, Simon R.; Chicken, Dennis W.; Douek, Michael; Keshtgar, Mohammed R. S.

    2005-04-01

    Results are presented of a study to monitor the changes in the optical properties of breast tissue over a 12-month period after interstitial laser photocoagulation treatment of a fibroadenoma. The study involved generating cross-sectional images of the breast with a multichannel time-resolved imaging system and a nonlinear image reconstruction algorithm. Images of the internal absorbing and scattering properties revealed the expected initial inflammatory response, followed by the development of low-scattering cysts consistent with corresponding ultrasound examinations. Although results indicate that purely qualitative images can potentially provide clinically valuable data, means of enhancing diagnostic information by overcoming present limitations of the approach are discussed.

  12. Design of a mobile laboratory for ventilation studies and indoor air pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Lin, C.I.; Pepper, J.H.

    1978-04-01

    The design and fabrication of a mobile laboratory for research and development studies of ventilation requirements and energy utilization in residential and commercial buildings are described. Functionality, flexibility, and versatility have been stressed without sacrificing appearance and operator convenience. It is believed that modifications of and additions to the mobile laboratory (such as adding the capability to monitor building energy flow) can be made with a minimum of inconvenience. The studies being performed will provide data needed for the establishment of energy efficient ventilation standards.

  13. Advancing internal erosion monitoring using seismic methods in field and laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Minal L.

    This dissertation presents research involving laboratory and field investigation of passive and active methods for monitoring and assessing earthen embankment infrastructure such as dams and levees. Internal erosion occurs as soil particles in an earthen structure migrate to an exit point under seepage forces. This process is a primary failure mode for dams and levees. Current dam and levee monitoring practices are not able to identify early stages of internal erosion, and often the result is loss of structure utility and costly repairs. This research contributes to innovations for detection and monitoring by studying internal erosion and monitoring through field experiments, laboratory experiments, and social and political framing. The field research in this dissertation included two studies (2009 and 2012) of a full-scale earthen embankment at the IJkdijk in the Netherlands. In both of these tests, internal erosion occurred as evidenced by seepage followed by sand traces and boils, and in 2009, eventual failure. With the benefit of arrays of closely spaced piezometers, pore pressure trends indicated internal erosion near the initiation time. Temporally and spatially dense pore water pressure measurements detected two pore water pressure transitions characteristic to the development of internal erosion, even in piezometers located away from the backward erosion activity. At the first transition, the backward erosion caused anomalous pressure decrease in piezometers, even under constant or increasing upstream water level. At the second transition, measurements stabilized as backward erosion extended further upstream of the piezometers, as shown in the 2009 test. The transitions provide an indication of the temporal development and the spatial extent of backward erosion. The 2012 IJkdijk test also included passive acoustic emissions (AE) monitoring. This study analyzed AE activity over the course of the 7-day test using a grid of geophones installed on the

  14. Intensive irradiation studies, monitoring and commissioning data analysis on the ATLAS MDT chambers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071390; Susinno, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS MDT chambers have been extensively studied, starting from irradiation test to commissioning activities. First, a detailed description of high rate and high background tests is given. These tests have been carried out on a small ATLAS-like MDT chamber, by the Cosenza and Roma TRE groups. The precision tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer, in fact, have to operate for more than 10 years in the harsh LHC background, due mainly to low energy neutrons and photons. Aging effects, such as the deterioration of the tube themselves can appear and difficulties in pattern recognition and tracking may occur. Moreover an upgrade to Super-LHC is foreseen. Then, there is an accurate description of the MDTGnam package, the official software for the on-line monitoring of MDT performances. When dealing with a complex apparatus, such as the ATLAS experiment, an on-line monitoring system is a fundamental tool. The GNAM project, developed by Cosenza, Pavia, Pisa and Napoli groups, is a monitoring framework to be us...

  15. Study on Semi-Parametric Statistical Model of Safety Monitoring of Cracks in Concrete Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongshi Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cracks are one of the hidden dangers in concrete dams. The study on safety monitoring models of concrete dam cracks has always been difficult. Using the parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of cracks in concrete dams, with the help of the semi-parametric statistical theory, and considering the abnormal behaviors of these cracks, the semi-parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of concrete dam cracks is established to overcome the limitation of the parametric model in expressing the objective model. Previous projects show that the semi-parametric statistical model has a stronger fitting effect and has a better explanation for cracks in concrete dams than the parametric statistical model. However, when used for forecast, the forecast capability of the semi-parametric statistical model is equivalent to that of the parametric statistical model. The modeling of the semi-parametric statistical model is simple, has a reasonable principle, and has a strong practicality, with a good application prospect in the actual project.

  16. Performance Studies of the Vibration Wire Monitor on the Test Stand with Low Energy Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic

  17. The role of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board in a clinical trial: The CRISIS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubkov, Richard; Casper, T. Charles; Dean, J. Michael; Anand, K. J. S.; Zimmerman, Jerry; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Berger, John; Harrison, Rick; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Objective Randomized clinical trials are commonly overseen by a data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) comprised of experts in medicine, ethics, and biostatistics. DSMB responsibilities include protocol approval, interim review of study enrollment, protocol compliance, safety, and efficacy data. DSMB decisions can affect study design and conduct, as well as reported findings. Researchers must incorporate DSMB oversight into the design, monitoring, and reporting of randomized trials. Design Case study, narrative review. Methods The DSMB’s role during the comparative pediatric Critical Illness Stress-Induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) Prevention Trial is described. Findings The NIH-appointed CRISIS DSMB was charged with monitoring sample size adequacy and feasibility, safety with respect to adverse events and 28-day mortality, and efficacy with respect to the primary nosocomial infection/sepsis outcome. The Federal Drug Administration also requested DSMB interim review before opening CRISIS to children below one year of age. The first interim analysis found higher 28-day mortality in one treatment arm. The DSMB maintained trial closure to younger children, and requested a second interim data review six months later. At this second meeting, mortality was no longer of concern, while a weak efficacy trend of lower infection/sepsis rates in one study arm emerged. As over 40% of total patients had been enrolled, the DSMB elected to examine conditional power, and unmask treatment arm identities. Upon finding somewhat greater efficacy in the placebo arm, the DSMB recommended stopping CRISIS due to futility. Conclusions The design and operating procedures of a multicenter randomized trial must consider a pivotal DSMB role. Maximum study design flexibility must be allowed, and investigators must be prepared for protocol modifications due to interim findings. The DSMB must have sufficient clinical and statistical expertise to assess potential importance of interim

  18. Accuracy evaluation of the optical surface monitoring system on EDGE linear accelerator in a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Fogliata, Antonella; Stravato, Antonella; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) requires dedicated systems to monitor the patient position during the treatment to avoid target underdosage due to involuntary shift. The optical surface monitoring system (OSMS) is here evaluated in a phantom-based study. The new EDGE linear accelerator from Varian (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) integrates, for cranial lesions, the common cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and kV-MV portal images to the optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), a device able to detect real-time patient׳s face movements in all 6 couch axes (vertical, longitudinal, lateral, rotation along the vertical axis, pitch, and roll). We have evaluated the OSMS imaging capability in checking the phantoms׳ position and monitoring its motion. With this aim, a home-made cranial phantom was developed to evaluate the OSMS accuracy in 4 different experiments: (1) comparison with CBCT in isocenter location, (2) capability to recognize predefined shifts up to 2° or 3cm, (3) evaluation at different couch angles, (4) ability to properly reconstruct the surface when the linac gantry visually block one of the cameras. The OSMS system showed, with a phantom, to be accurate for positioning in respect to the CBCT imaging system with differences of 0.6 ± 0.3mm for linear vector displacement, with a maximum rotational inaccuracy of 0.3°. OSMS presented an accuracy of 0.3mm for displacement up to 1cm and 1°, and 0.5mm for larger displacements. Different couch angles (45° and 90°) induced a mean vector uncertainty < 0.4mm. Coverage of 1 camera produced an uncertainty < 0.5mm. Translations and rotations of a phantom can be accurately detect with the optical surface detector system.

  19. Wireless miniature implantable devices and ASICs for monitoring, treatment, and study of glaucoma and cardiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric Y.

    Glaucoma affects about 65 million people and is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Although the condition is irreversible and incurable, early detection is vital to slowing and even stopping the progression of the disease. Our work focuses on the design, fabrication, and assembly of a continuous active glaucoma intraocular pressure (IOP) monitor that provides clinicians with the necessary data to more accurately diagnose and treat patients. Major benefits of an active monitoring device include the potential to develop a closed-loop treatment system and to operate independently for extended periods of time. The fully wireless operation uses gigahertzfrequency electromagnetic wave propagation, which allows for an orientation independent transfer of power and data over reasonable distances. Our system is comprised of a MEMS capacitive sensor, capacitive power storage array, ASIC, and monopole antenna assembled into a biocompatible liquid crystal polymer (LCP) package. We have performed in vivo trials on rabbits, both chronic and acute, to validate system functionality, fully wireless feasibility, and biocompatibility. Heart failure (HF) affects approximately 2% of the adult population in developed countries and 6-10% of people over the age of 65. Continuous monitoring of blood pressure, flow, and chemistry from a minimally invasive device can serve as a diagnostic and early-warning system for cardiac health. We developed a miniaturized system attached to the outer surface of an FDA approved stent, used as both the antenna for wireless telemetry/powering and structural support. The system comprises of a MEMS pressure sensor, ASIC for the sensor interface and wireless capabilities, LCP substrate, and FDA approved stent. In vivo studies on pigs validated functionality and fully wireless operation and demonstrate the feasibility of a stent-based wireless implant for continuous monitoring of blood pressure as well as other parameters including oxygen, flow

  20. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Shih-Hong; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2017-07-18

    Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems), thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle) to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK) technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs). The digital surface model (DSM) and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan's Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data are about 37% between -1 m and 1 m, and 66% between -2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  1. Subsidence monitoring system for offshore applications: technology scouting and feasibility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandro, R.; Dacome, C.; Mosconi, A.; Roncari, G.

    2015-11-01

    Because of concern about possible impacts of hydrocarbon production activities on coastal-area environments and infrastructures, new hydrocarbon offshore development projects in Italy must submit a monitoring plan to Italian authorities to measure and analyse real-time subsidence evolution. The general geological context, where the main offshore Adriatic fields are located, is represented by young unconsolidated terrigenous sediments. In such geological environments, sea floor subsidence, caused by hydrocarbon extraction, is quite probable. Though many tools are available for subsidence monitoring onshore, few are available for offshore monitoring. To fill the gap ENI (Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi) started a research program, principally in collaboration with three companies, to generate a monitoring system tool to measure seafloor subsidence. The tool, according to ENI design technical-specification, would be a robust long pipeline or cable, with a variable or constant outside diameter (less than or equal to 100 mm) and interval spaced measuring points. The design specifications for the first prototype were: to detect 1 mm altitude variation, to work up to 100 m water depth and investigation length of 3 km. Advanced feasibility studies have been carried out with: Fugro Geoservices B.V. (Netherlands), D'Appolonia (Italy), Agisco (Italy). Five design (using three fundamental measurements concepts and five measurement tools) were explored: cable shape changes measured by cable strain using fiber optics (Fugro); cable inclination measured using tiltmeters (D'Appolonia) and measured using fiber optics (Fugro); and internal cable altitude-dependent pressure changes measured using fiber optics (Fugro) and measured using pressure transducers at discrete intervals along the hydraulic system (Agisco). Each design tool was analysed and a rank ordering of preferences was performed. The third method (measurement of pressure changes), with the solution proposed by Agisco, was

  2. Accuracy evaluation of the optical surface monitoring system on EDGE linear accelerator in a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail: Antonella.Fogliata@humanitas.it; Stravato, Antonella; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2016-07-01

    Frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) requires dedicated systems to monitor the patient position during the treatment to avoid target underdosage due to involuntary shift. The optical surface monitoring system (OSMS) is here evaluated in a phantom-based study. The new EDGE linear accelerator from Varian (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) integrates, for cranial lesions, the common cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and kV-MV portal images to the optical surface monitoring system (OSMS), a device able to detect real-time patient's face movements in all 6 couch axes (vertical, longitudinal, lateral, rotation along the vertical axis, pitch, and roll). We have evaluated the OSMS imaging capability in checking the phantoms' position and monitoring its motion. With this aim, a home-made cranial phantom was developed to evaluate the OSMS accuracy in 4 different experiments: (1) comparison with CBCT in isocenter location, (2) capability to recognize predefined shifts up to 2° or 3 cm, (3) evaluation at different couch angles, (4) ability to properly reconstruct the surface when the linac gantry visually block one of the cameras. The OSMS system showed, with a phantom, to be accurate for positioning in respect to the CBCT imaging system with differences of 0.6 ± 0.3 mm for linear vector displacement, with a maximum rotational inaccuracy of 0.3°. OSMS presented an accuracy of 0.3 mm for displacement up to 1 cm and 1°, and 0.5 mm for larger displacements. Different couch angles (45° and 90°) induced a mean vector uncertainty < 0.4 mm. Coverage of 1 camera produced an uncertainty < 0.5 mm. Translations and rotations of a phantom can be accurately detect with the optical surface detector system.

  3. Preliminary Study of UAS Equipped with Thermal Camera for Volcanic Geothermal Monitoring in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hong Chio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared cameras sense the temperature information of sensed scenes. With the development of UASs (Unmanned Aircraft Systems, thermal infrared cameras can now be carried on a quadcopter UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle to appropriately collect high-resolution thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring in a local area. Therefore, the quadcopter UAS used to acquire thermal images for volcanic geothermal monitoring has been developed in Taiwan as part of this study to overcome the difficult terrain with highly variable topography and extreme environmental conditions. An XM6 thermal infrared camera was employed in this thermal image collection system. The Trimble BD970 GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer board was also carried on the quadcopter UAV to gather dual-frequency GNSS observations in order to determine the flying trajectory data by using the Post-Processed Kinematic (PPK technique; this will be used to establish the position and orientation of collected thermal images with less ground control points (GCPs. The digital surface model (DSM and thermal orthoimages were then produced from collected thermal images. Tests conducted in the Hsiaoyukeng area of Taiwan’s Yangmingshan National Park show that the difference between produced DSM and airborne LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data are about 37% between −1 m and 1 m, and 66% between −2 m and 2 m in the area surrounded by GCPs. As the accuracy of thermal orthoimages is about 1.78 m, it is deemed sufficient for volcanic geothermal monitoring. In addition, the thermal orthoimages show some phenomena not only more globally than do the traditional methods for volcanic geothermal monitoring, but they also show that the developed system can be further employed in Taiwan in the future.

  4. Individual Differences in Fifth Graders' Literacy and Academic Language Predict Comprehension Monitoring Development: An Eye-Movement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth graders' (n = 52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children…

  5. Recognition For Index Option Contracts U nder IAS 39 And IFRS 9 – The Case Of Option Contracts Bound To BIST 30 Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nevran Karaca; Tansel Hacıhasanoğlu; Şuayyip Doğuş Demirci

    2014-01-01

    .... Within the scope of the study, it is aimed to indicate accounting regulations and procedures to be followed under IAS 39 and IFRS 9 for option contracts whi ch traded in Futures and Options Exchange...

  6. Emotional speculative behavior in the option market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Corea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social media data have been proved to be effective in augmenting stock price forecasting models before ([8], [12], but given the intrinsic speculative nature of traders who may use these innovative datasets, it appears more reasonable to investigate the relation between the Twitter data and the stock option prices. The underlying hypothesis is indeed that speculative trading strategies as the ones based on social media inference are may be more effective if evaluated on speculative instruments instead of simple stock prices. Consistent with previous works, it has been then studied on an intraday basis for three major technology stocks over a two-month period the relation between investors’ sentiment and basic financial products. A set of different variables has been created to include different interactions between sentiment and option prices, and a statistical selection model has been put in charge of identifying the most relevant correlations. The results are quite mixed: social media data seem to be indeed useful for predicting some option prices, but no others, and in particular are able to better explain single companies’ option price oscillations rather than the ones related to general indexes such as the Nasdaq-100.

  7. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  8. [Immunological treatment options for schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, N; Krause, D; Weidinger, E; Schwarz, M

    2014-04-01

    The pathophysiological mechanism leading to dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia is still unclear. Inflammation seems to play a key role. A dysfunction in the activation of the type 1 immune response is associated with decreased activity of the key enzyme of the tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism, indolamine-2.3-dioxygenase (IDO), results in a higher production of kynurenine acid (KYNA)--an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist--in the central nervous system (CNS) and decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission. The differential activation of microglial cells and astrocytes, which serve as immune cells in the CNS, contributes to the TH1-TH2 immune imbalance. Antipsychotics, all acting as dopamine D2 receptor antagonists show several shortcomings. The immune effects of antipsychotics rebalance partly the imbalance of the type-1/type-2 immune response and the overproduction of KYNA. The inflammation is associated with higher prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and higher cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Increasing evidence from clinical studies with COX-2 inhibitors points to an advantageous effect of anti-inflammatory therapy in schizophrenia, especially in the early stages of the disease. Further options of immunomodulatory therapy in schizophrenia are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database(GMOD)and Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database (GMOD) is a decision support database and tool that provides cost and performance information for GHG mitigation options for the power, cement, refinery, landfill and pulp and paper sectors. The GMOD includes approximately 450 studies fo...

  10. Safety of timber: An analysis of quality control options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovryga, A.; Stapel, P.; Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    The quality assurance of timber properties is important for the safety of timber structures. In the current study, the quality control options of timber are analysed under the prism of the different growth regions. Therefore, these options - machine and output control - are simulated in accordance w

  11. Validation of MODIS and SEVIRI Active Fire Monitoring products over Western Romania. Case study: Arad County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanea, Lavinia; Alina Ristea, Mihaela

    2014-05-01

    At the national level, the issue of wildfire monitoring represents a long debated topic. However, in the present situation, fire management requires various improvements in terms of detection, monitoring and post-fire analysis. The objectives of this study are to validate the data provided by MODIS (Terra and Aqua) Active Fire Monitoring and SEVIRI (MSG) FIR (Active Fire Monitoring) satellite products, with wildfires field data from The Romanian General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations (IGSU) (1), to chart the efficiency of satellite products in locating fires and study their strengths and weaknesses using a SWOT analysis (2). This is the initial step of a larger project that aims to implement an online Geographic Information System for fire management that will ease wildfire data manipulation and facilitate the decision making process. In order to do so, the current study objectives must be achieved. Our general strategy is to determine the consistency of direct (field measurements) and indirect (satellite data) observations. Depending on the amount of field information, the fire characteristics (location, frequency, extension area, moment of occurrence, type of fire, and others) will be studied through a statistical analysis. The products show some peculiar restrictiveness like spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we will process and interpret satellite products to identify wildfires according to the data from IGSU using specialized software. The case study for the application of these procedures is a set of fire events from Arad county - Romania, that occurred between 2007 and 2013. In order to do so, it is important to compare results from different sensors with field information through various methods and to use only consistent results. The results will play an important role in achieving the above mentioned informational system, which will integrate field information, satellite data and values of parameters that influence the evolution of

  12. Treatment Options in Kleptomania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania is a rare disorder with inability or great difficulty in resisting impulses of stealing. People with this disorder are compelled to steal things, generally things of little or no value. This disorder usually begins during puberty and usually last until late adulthood; in some cases lasts throughout the person's life. People with this disorder are likely to have a comorbid conditions like mood disorders. Individuals with the disorder are usually referred for treatment due to the comorbid psychiatric complaints rather than kleptomanic behaviour per se. On the other hand literature lacks of studies about the treatment of kleptomania. A wide variety of therapeutic strategies have been proposed for its treatment, among them psychoanalytic oriented psychotherapy, behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy. Some medications that are used for people diagnosed with kleptomania are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, mood stabilizers and opioid antagonists. There is evidence from numerous case studies that a variety of cognitive behavioral therapy techniques are effective in the treatment of kleptomania and it is favored over other approaches such as psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapies. Studies to date suggest that cognitive behavioral therapy when used in combination with medication, is more effective than medication alone.

  13. 三峡电站厂房钢衬蜗壳不同埋设方式抗震分析%Anti-seismic Study on Different Embedment Options for Steel-lined Spiral Case in the Three Gorges Hydropower Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲玲; 戴湘和; 彭定

    2012-01-01

    混流式水轮机发电机组钢衬蜗壳有不同埋设方式,三峡水轮发电机组钢衬蜗壳是目前世界上混流式水轮机最大的蜗壳,左岸电站全部为保压方案.针对右岸水电站厂房钢衬蜗壳2种埋设方案,建立三维有限元模型,研究蜗壳保压方案和垫层方案的固有振动特性和地震响应,采用振型叠加反应谱法计算地震动力响应,分析不同蜗壳埋设方案对结构的自振特性及地震响应的影响.分析结果表明:就抗地震作用而言,2种方案都是可取的,垫层方案略优于保压方案.%There are various embedment options for the steel-lined spiral case of Francis turbine unit. Only constant-pressure option was adopted in the steel-lined spiral case in the left bank hydropower plant of Three Gorges Project. To study the earthquake resistance of two embedment options for spiral case in the right bank hydropower plant, this paper presents a 3D finite element model to study the natural frequencies and seismic responses of steel-lined spiral case embedded under constant-pressure and embedded with supporting lining layer. Dynamic response of earthquake is calculated by the superposition of vibration modes. The analysis results indicate that different embedment options have little impact on structural natural frequency and seismic response. Both embedment options are feasible in earthquake resistance design, with the latter slightly better than the former.

  14. A study on real-time fault monitoring detection method of bearing using the infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Tae [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Jong; Hong, Dong Pyo [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Chonbuk Nationa University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Since real-time monitoring system like a fault early detection has been very important, infrared thermography technique as a new diagnosis method was proposed. This study is focused on the damage detection and temperature characteristic analysis of ball bearing using the non-destructive infrared thermography method. In this paper, for the reliability assessment, infrared experimental data were compared with the frequency data of the existing. As results, the temperature characteristics of ball bearing were analyzed under various loading conditions. Finally it was confirmed that the infrared technique was useful for real-time detection of the bearing damages.

  15. Study on Wireless Network Communication in Stage Hydraulic Monitoring System Based on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A novel stage hydraulic monitoring system based on Internet of Things (IoT) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional wired system, the proposed system is a flexible working method and can save the cost. Furthermore, it has the low power consumption, high safety, and large scale network. The real-time pressure and flow data can be collected by using the nodes in ZigBee network. The fault detection and diagnosis process was used in this study, which was facilitated by measuring ...

  16. Macromycetes of oak forests in the Łagiewnicki Forest (Central Poland - monitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ławrynowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycological observations were carried out in the years 1994- 1996 in two permanent plots in a ca. 90-year-old oak forest (Calamagrostio-Quercetum petraeae in the Las Łagiewnicki Forest, a large forest complex within the borders of the city of Łódź. The study was conducted in the frame of the international project "Mycological monitoring in European oak forests". During the 3 years (15 observations 124 species of macromycetes were identified: 50 mycorrhizal, 72 saprobic and 2 parasitic species. Among them, 7 species inscribed on the Red List of threatened macromycetes in Poland (Wojewoda and Ławrynowicz 1992 were found.

  17. Proof-of-Concept Studies for a Local Tie Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeing, Benno; Behrend, Dirk; Gipson, John; Nothnagel, Axel

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results of proof-of-concept studies for an automatic monitoring system of local site ties. The system is based on the usage of robotic total stations. A set of tests were performed with a Leica TCA2003 total station on the local network of Goddard s Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) and the 5-m VLBI antenna at this site. Both the TCA2003 and the VLBI antenna are controlled from a Matlab-coded control program. Running specific observational programs, data were collected that indicate that the reference point of the VLBI antenna can be automatically determined with an accuracy of 1 mm or better.

  18. Telephone monitoring and support for veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Craig S; DiLandro, Caryn; Corwin, Kim N; Drescher, Kent D; Cooney, Jean H; Gusman, Fred

    2006-10-01

    Dropout from outpatient mental health treatment may contribute to high rates of relapse and rehospitalization among veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In a quasi-experimental cohort study, 87 male and 17 female veterans discharging from residential PTSD treatment received either standard referral to outpatient care (N = 77) or standard referrals supplemented by biweekly telephone calls (N = 27). Telephone monitoring and support was feasible and acceptable to 85% of clients. Compared to prior patient cohorts, clients receiving telephone support were twice as likely (88% vs. 43%) to complete an outpatient visit within 1 month of discharge and reported higher satisfaction with care.

  19. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  20. Investment opportunities as real options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rovčanin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity (optional approach to capital investment appraisal represents, completely new theoretical and methodological framework for investment analysis. Compared to traditional, discount cash flow (DCF model of analysis, the optional approach provides opportunity for valuation and managing flexibility, i.e. possibility of approaching (amending the previous decisions in compliance with market changes. Risk and uncertainty are inevitably following the capital investment. Therefore, the importance of optional approach to investments is also that it provides possible better “treatment” of risks in the investment analysis, and also more rational allocation of resources, accordingly. This approach should be of more interest to the Countries in transition, considering the limited financial sources as well as risk and uncertainty are emphasized.

  1. Accounting treatment of currency options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currency options are often used to mitigate currency risk resulting from corporate activities. Their implementation can be complex, and there could be problems if the essential elements and principles are not fully understood. Although they are not the simplest financial products, currency options are interesting and useful to those who are trying to make a step forward in the area of currency risk management. This paper aims to present the general principles and specifics of accounting records and valuation of currency options used for hedging against risk. It is a complex process which, in addition to numerous conditions, also involves the implementation of accounting rules that deviate from the generally accepted accounting principles.

  2. Treatment options in trigeminal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is 4.3 per 100,000 persons per year, with a slightly higher incidence for women (5.9/100,000) compared with men (3.4/100,000). There is a lack of certainty regarding the aetiology and pathophysiology of TN. The treatment of TN can be very challenging despite the numerous options patients and physicians can choose from. This multitude of treatment options poses the question as to which treatment fits which patient best. The preferred medical treatment for TN consists of anticonvulsant drugs, muscle relaxants and neuroleptic agents. Large-scale placebo-controlled clinical trials are scarce. For patients refractory to medical therapy, Gasserian ganglion percutaneous techniques, gamma knife surgery and microvascular decompression are the most promising invasive treatment options. PMID:21179603

  3. How to study optimal timing of PET/CT for monitoring of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vach, Werner; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Fischer, Barbara Malene Bjerregaard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The use of PET/CT for monitoring treatment response in cancer patients after chemo- or radiotherapy is a very promising approach to optimize cancer treatment. However, the timing of the PET/CT-based evaluation of reduction in viable tumor tissue is a crucial question. We investigated how...... to plan and analyze studies to optimize this timing. Methods: General considerations about studying the optimal timing are given and four fundamental steps are illustrated using data from a published study. Results: The optimal timing should be examined by optimizing the schedule with respect...... to predicting the overall individual time course we can observe in the case of dense measurements. The optimal timing needs not to and should not be studied by optimizing the association with the prognosis of the patient. Conclusions: The optimal timing should be examined in specific ‘schedule optimizing...

  4. Database study of lenalidomide (Revlimid) in Germany: monitoring off-label use [Monitoring des Off-Label-Use von Lenalidomid (Revlimid) in Deutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Dörks, Michael; Langner, Ingo; Behr, Sigrid; Timmer, Antje; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2013-01-01

    [english] Background: Lenalidomide, a derivate of thalidomide, in combination with dexamethasone is indicated for the treatment of multiple myeloma in patients who have received at least one prior therapy. In the USA, lenalidomide is also licensed for the treatment of a certain form of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Monitoring of off-label use in Germany is part of the risk management plan mandated by the regulatory authority. Material and methods: Our retrospective epidemiological study wa...

  5. Multicenter study of posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: exposure-response relationship and factors affecting concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E; Chen, Sharon C-A; Ng, Kingsley; Pont, Lisa; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Posaconazole has an important role in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), although poor and variable bioavailability remains an important clinical concern. Therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole concentrations has remained contentious, with the use of relatively small patient cohorts in previous studies hindering the assessment of exposure-response relationships. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between posaconazole concentration and clinical outcomes and adverse events and to assess clinical factors and drug interactions that may affect posaconazole concentrations. Medical records were reviewed for patients who received posaconazole and had ≥1 concentration measured at six hospitals in Australia. Data from 86 patients with 541 posaconazole concentrations were included in the study. Among 72 patients taking posaconazole for prophylaxis against IFIs, 12 patients (17%) developed a breakthrough fungal infection; median posaconazole concentrations were significantly lower than in those who did not develop fungal infection (median [range], 289 [50 to 471] ng/ml versus 485 [0 to 2,035] ng/ml; P posaconazole concentration was a significant predictor of breakthrough fungal infection via binary logistic regression (P posaconazole exposure, including coadministration with proton pump inhibitors, metoclopramide, phenytoin or rifampin, and the H(2) antagonist ranitidine (P posaconazole exposure (P posaconazole concentrations are common and are associated with breakthrough fungal infection, supporting the utility of monitoring posaconazole concentrations to ensure optimal systemic exposure.

  6. Retaining clients in an outcome monitoring evaluation study: HIV prevention efforts in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryce D; Kalayil, Elizabeth J; Patel-Larson, Alpa; Chen, Brenda; Vaughan, Marla

    2012-02-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) conducted outcome monitoring studies on evidence-based interventions (EBIs) provided by CDC-funded community-based organizations (CBOs). Critical to the success of outcome monitoring was the ability of CBOs to recruit and retain clients in evaluation studies. Two EBIs, Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) and Healthy Relationships, were evaluated using repeated measure studies, which require robust follow-up retention rates to increase the validity and usefulness of the findings. The retention rates were high for both VOICES/VOCES CBOs (95.8% at 30 days and 91.1% at 120 days), and Healthy Relationships CBOs (89.5% at 90 days and 83.5% at 180 days). This paper presents an overview of the retention of clients, challenges to follow-up, and strategies developed by CBOs to achieve high retention rates. These strategies and rates are discussed within the context of the CBOs' target populations and communities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Comparative study of the suitability of two lichen species for trace element atmospheric monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2013-07-01

    Lichens have been widely used in monitoring studies. Consequently, it is very useful to study the suitability of lichen species to monitor pollutants allowing in this way the best choice. The aim of this study was to compare the accumulation of trace elements by two epiphytic lichen species Canoparmelia texana (Tuck) Elix and Hale and Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg.) Zahlbr. Five samples of each species were collected during the period from November 2010 in a same site far from downtown Sao Paulo city. Lichens collected from tree barks were cleaned, freeze-dried, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Aliquots of lichen samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced gamma activities were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a digital spectrum analyzer. Concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, V and Zn were determined in both lichen species. The results demonstrated that both species can be used for evaluating air quality. The element concentrations showed difference between lichen species and also among their sampling periods. These differences may be attributed to the distinct mechanisms of element absorption by lichens as well as various other factors that affect their element accumulation. The comparative evaluation made calculating the ratios between C. texana species sample and that in Usnea amblyoclada for elemental concentrations indicated that, in general, foliose C. texana present similar or higher concentrations than those presented by fruticose Usnea. (author)

  8. Treatment options for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Scheid, Dewey C

    2007-08-15

    The frequency of sleep disruption and the degree to which insomnia significantly affects daytime function determine the need for evaluation and treatment. Physicians may initiate treatment of insomnia at an initial visit; for patients with a clear acute stressor such as grief, no further evaluation may be indicated. However, if insomnia is severe or long-lasting, a thorough evaluation to uncover coexisting medical, neurologic, or psychiatric illness is warranted. Treatment should begin with nonpharmacologic therapy, addressing sleep hygiene issues and exercise. There is good evidence supporting the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy. Exercise improves sleep as effectively as benzodiazepines in some studies and, given its other health benefits, is recommended for patients with insomnia. Hypnotics generally should be prescribed for short periods only, with the frequency and duration of use customized to each patient's circumstances. Routine use of over-the-counter drugs containing antihistamines should be discouraged. Alcohol has the potential for abuse and should not be used as a sleep aid. Opiates are valuable in pain-associated insomnia. Benzodiazepines are most useful for short-term treatment; however, long-term use may lead to adverse effects and withdrawal phenomena. The better safety profile of the newer-generation nonbenzodiazepines (i.e., zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopidone, and ramelteon) makes them better first-line choices for long-term treatment of chronic insomnia.

  9. Methodology for locale-scale monitoring for the PROTHEGO project: the Choirokoitia case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Cuca, Branka; Danezis, Chris; Cigna, Francesca; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2016-10-01

    PROTHEGO (PROTection of European Cultural HEritage from GeO-hazards) is a collaborative research project funded in the framework of the Joint Programming Initiative on Cultural Heritage and Global Change (JPICH) - Heritage Plus in 2015-2018 (www.prothego.eu). PROTHEGO aims to make an innovative contribution towards the analysis of geohazards in areas of cultural heritage, and uses novel space technology based on radar interferometry (InSAR) to retrieve information on ground stability and motion in the 400+ UNESCO's World Heritage List monuments and sites of Europe. InSAR can be used to measure micro-movements to identify geo-hazards. In order to verify the InSAR image data, field and close range measurements are necessary. This paper presents the methodology for local-scale monitoring of the Choirokoitia study site in Cyprus, inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List, and part of the demonstration sites of PROTHEGO. Various field and remote sensing methods will be exploited for the local-scale monitoring, static GNSS, total station, leveling, laser scanning and UAV and compared with the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry results. The in-situ measurements will be taken systematically in order to document any changes and geo-hazards that affect standing archaeological remains. In addition, ground truth from in-situ visits will provide feedback related to the classification results of urban expansion and land use change maps. Available archival and current optical satellite images will be used to calibrate and identify the level of risk at the Cyprus case study site. The ground based geotechnical monitoring will be compared and validated with InSAR data to evaluate cultural heritage sites deformation trend and to understand its behaviour over the last two decades.

  10. Ambulatory EEG NeuroMonitor platform for engagement studies of children with development delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ruhi; Consul-Pacareu, Sergi; Abusaud, Mohammed; Sahadat, Md N.; Morshed, Bashir I.

    2013-05-01

    Engagement monitoring is crucial in many clinical and therapy applications such as early learning preschool classes for children with developmental delays including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or cerebral palsy; as it is challenging for the instructors to evaluate the individual responses of these children to determine the effectiveness of the teaching strategies due to the diverse and unique need of each child who might have difficulty in verbal or behavioral communication. This paper presents an ambulatory scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) NeuroMonitor platform to study brain engagement activities in natural settings. The developed platform is miniature (size: 2.2" x 0.8" x 0.36", weight: 41.8 gm with 800 mAh Li-ion battery and 3 snap leads) and low-power (active mode: 32 mA low power mode: under 5mA) with 2 channels (Fp1, Fp2) to record prefrontal cortex activities of the subject in natural settings while concealed within a headband. The signals from the electrodes are amplified with a low-power instrumentation amplifier; notch filtered (fc = 60Hz), then band-passed by a 2nd-order Chebyshev-I low-pass filter cascaded with a 2nd-order low-pass (fc = 125Hz). A PSoC ADC (16-bit, 256 sps) samples this filtered signal, and can either transmit it through a Class-2 Bluetooth transceiver to a remote station for real-time analysis or store it in a microSD card for offline processing. This platform is currently being evaluated to capture data in the classroom settings for engagement monitoring of children, aimed to study the effectiveness of various teaching strategies that will allow the development of personalized classroom curriculum for children with developmental delays.

  11. Genetic association studies of performance monitoring and learning from feedback: The role of dopamine and serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullsperger, M.

    2010-01-01

    Performance monitoring is essential for optimization of action outcomes. Research consistently implicates the posterior medial frontal cortex, particularly the rostral cingulate zone, in monitoring for unfavorable action outcomes, signaling the need for adjustments and learning from feedback.

  12. ON FORECASTING STOCK OPTIONS VOLATILITY: EVIDENCE FROM LONDON INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL FUTURES AND OPTIONS EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRCEA ASANDULUI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Options’ volatility forecasting represented, in the last decades, a very interesting and frequent domain of research in financial econometrics due to its importance in option pricing, portfolio selection, risk management and other financial activities. The aim of this study is to realize a comparative analysis of the performances obtained by several forecast models in forecasting stock options volatility.For this, we consider the volatility of the 4 most traded options at Euronext London International Financial Futures and Options Stock Exchange (Euronext.Liffe in the period 2009-2010.When analyzing and forecasting these stock options we use the period January 2009-May 2011; using this base period, we determine the models that describe better the evolution of the volatility. Based on these models we realize forecasts that are finally compared with the real values recorded in the next 10 trading days.In relation with the differences that appear, we determine the forecast errors and by these we identify the best models and the ones that generate the biggest errors.

  13. "We need to talk!" Barriers to GPs' communication about the option of physician-assisted suicide and their ethical implications: results from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Ina C; Jung, Corinna; Elger, Bernice; Bally, Klaus

    2016-10-26

    GPs usually care for their patients for an extended period of time, therefore, requests to not only discontinue a patient's treatment but to assist a patient in a suicide are likely to create intensely stressful situations for physicians. However, in order to ensure the best patient care possible, the competent communication about the option of physician assisted suicide (PAS) as well as the assessment of the origin and sincerity of the request are very important. This is especially true, since patients' requests for PAS can also be an indicator for unmet needs or concerns. Twenty-three qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted to in-depth explore this multifaceted, complex topic while enabling GPs to express possible difficulties when being asked for assistance. The analysis of the gathered data shows three main themes why GPs may find it difficult to professionally communicate about PAS: concerns for their own psychological well-being, conflicting personal values or their understanding of their professional role. In the discussion part of this paper we re-assess these different themes in order to ethically discuss and analyse how potential barriers to professional communication concerning PAS could be overcome.

  14. Speaking one's second language under time pressure: an ERP study on verbal self-monitoring in German-Dutch bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Schiller, Niels O

    2009-03-01

    This study addresses how verbal self-monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) are affected by time pressure when a task is performed in a second language as opposed to performance in the native language. German-Dutch bilinguals were required to perform a phoneme-monitoring task in Dutch with and without a time pressure manipulation. We obtained an ERN following verbal errors that showed an atypical increase in amplitude under time pressure. This finding is taken to suggest that under time pressure participants had more interference from their native language, which in turn led to a greater response conflict and thus enhancement of the amplitude of the ERN. This result demonstrates once more that the ERN is sensitive to psycholinguistic manipulations and suggests that the functioning of the verbal self-monitoring system during speaking is comparable to other performance monitoring, such as action monitoring.

  15. Conversion options for Peterhead Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibble, I.R.; O' Donnell, I.H. [Scottish Hydro-Electric plc, Perth (United Kingdom); Hunt, G.F. [Thermoflow Ltd., Tewkesbury (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The two gas/oil-fired 660 MW generating sets at Scottish Hydro-Electric's Peterhead Power Station were originally commissioned in 1981/2 and in order to remain competitive it was essential to upgrade the plant. This paper describes the plant performance aspects of a study carried out by Scottish Hydro-Electric to identify the possible routes for plant modification and the associated efficiency of each option. Scottish Hydro-Electric employed the suite of Thermoflow programs to carry out the performance study. These programs had sufficient flexibility to model the performance of the original plant and then to analyse the variety of re-powering options available, using the original accurate modes as the basis. (author)

  16. Monitoring Social Learning Processes in Adaptive Comanagement: Three Case Studies from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Cundill

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning provides the basis for fostering transitions toward adaptive comanagement. Understanding the ways in which arenas for collaboration and learning are created, and the outcomes of these processes in different contexts, is therefore crucial. This paper presents the results of an experimental research process that identified a small set of key variables that influence effective collaboration and learning, and tested a methodology for monitoring these in a collaborative way in three case studies in South Africa. The small set of key variables tested in this study was sensitive enough to register change over a period of 18 months. Results suggest that the background conditions necessary for social learning can be externally managed during an initiative, with positive outcomes for collaboration and learning. Monitoring outcomes suggest that for learning to be effective, a balance needs to be sought between maintaining key individuals within the system, preventing rigidity and vulnerability when this is achieved, and encouraging active participation within communities of practice. Effective facilitation by an 'honest broker' is one of the ways in which this can be achieved. The results point to an over simplification in the rhetoric that currently surrounds the learning outcomes of multilevel networks, and challenges the idea that democratic structures are necessarily important for effective natural resource management at the community level.

  17. The Study of a Beam Profile Monitor based on Faraday Cup Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. M.; Park, S. H.; Kim, S. G.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal can then be discharged to measure a small current equivalent to the number of impinging ions. The beam current can be measured and used to determine the number of ions or electrons hitting the cup. Recently, beam profile monitor (BPM) based on Faraday cup array (FCA), which represented beam position through the spatial and temporal distribution of the beam current, has been studied due to advantages of measure of wide-range ion beam current. FCA system is divided into a FC, an electrical circuit and display parts. We have studied FCA to monitor beam profile on an electrostatic accelerator with wide-range ion current. In this paper, we represented basic characteristics and designs for the fabricated FCA. FCA system, which consisted of FC system, electronic readout system, and output display, was suggested to measure ion beam current, efficiently. FC system consisted of a collimator, suppressor, tiny FC, insulator frame, and circuit board divided into elec PCB, cap PCB, and con PCB. FC size was 4 mm diameters and FCA system was considered as 8 x 8 array and whole size of 8 x 8 mm''2. FCA system was set-up in vacuum chamber and an integrator and output display parts were formed out of chamber to minimize number of feed-through.

  18. Final report on fiscal year 1992 activities for the environmental monitors line-loss study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenoyer, J.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-09

    The work performed on this Environmental Monitors Line-Loss Study has been performed under Contract Numbers MLW-SVV-073750 and MFH-SVV-207554. Work on the task was initiated mid-December 1991, and this report documents and summarizes the work performed through January 18, 1993. The sections included in this report summarize the work performed on the Environmental Monitors Line-Loss Study. The sections included in this report are arranged to reflect individual sub-tasks and include: descriptions of measurement systems and procedures used to obtain cascade impactor samples and laser spectrometer measurements from multiple stacks and locations; information on data acquisition, analyses, assessment, and software; discussion of the analyses and measurement results from the cascade impactor and laser spectrometer systems and software used; discussion on the development of general test methods and procedures for line-loss determinations; an overall summary and specific conclusions that can be made with regard to efforts performed on this task during FY 1992 and FY 1993. Supporting information for these sections is included in this report as appendices.

  19. Holter monitoring for the screening of cardiac disease in diabetes mellitus: The non-invasive Holter monitoring observation of new cardiac events in diabetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Yoko M; Ueshima, Kenji; Nohara, Ryuji; Mizunuma, Yoshimi; Segawa, Ikuo; Tanaka-Mizuno, Sachiko; Yasuno, Shinji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Hiramori, Katsuhiko; Kihara, Yasuki

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the usefulness of Holter monitoring to detect cardiac disease and predict future cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic diabetic patients. This is a multi-centre, prospective study in 406 asymptomatic diabetic patients. They were categorized into three groups based on findings of Holter monitoring. A total of 377 met inclusion criteria and were classified as low (n = 172), moderate (n = 136) and high risk (n = 69). In total, 86 in moderate and 53 in high risk receive further evaluation. In total, 29 in moderate and 25 in high risk were diagnosed as cardiac disease and 12 required additional treatment, including coronary intervention. Over 1.8 years of mean follow-up, 11 (16.5 per 1000 person-years) experienced cardiovascular events. The cumulative incidence in moderate and high risk was higher than that in low risk (p = 0.029 and p = 0.014, respectively). Our study suggests that Holter monitoring may be a useful screening tool to detect cardiac disease and predict future cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic diabetic patients.

  20. The support of multidimensional approaches in integrate monitoring for SEA: a case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, C. M.; Selicato, M.

    2013-01-01

    During the centuries, the seaside has represented a crucial pole for future human development and civilization. The use of the sea for transport and trade and the overwhelming availability of food derived from coastal waters have encouraged and strengthened the growth of urban settlements. In the same time, the human pressure menaces to destroy coastal habitats and consequently their carrying capacity that allows for many essential functions. Low-impact activities are often replaced, on the surface, by new intensive ones that are attractive in the short term, but that in the long term undermine by reducing the resilience of the coast. It is clear that, in a perspective of sustainable development, economically efficient and socially equitable use of coastal areas need to be supported inside strategies to correct these weaknesses. The definition of such strategies and their implementation in the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is an essential tool for supporting decisions and of monitoring. The issues of monitoring, more in particular, have been the subject of study and modelling by the use of Dynamic Spatial Data Analysis (DSDA), in the case of the SEA of the Coastal Plan of the Italian Apulia Region, as an information instrument for regulating the anthropogenic changes; a possibility to implement the analysis of environmental sensitivity and propensity to Coastal erosion has been explored, in order to control the level of human pressure on land. The monitoring system should provide an automatic "alert" when the dimension and the velocity of the change of land use overpass some threshold of environmental pressure.