WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring highly conserved

  1. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  2. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  3. Constructing Conservation Impact: Understanding Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation NGOs

    Catherine Benson Wahlén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholars critically examine large conservation organisations to explore organisational intentions, practices, and outcomes. In parallel, other scholars have problematised audit cultures, suggesting that these seemingly good practices of evaluation and measurement are not neutral and instead have consequences for governance and power. This article combines literature on conservation NGOs, organisational theory, and audit culture to study the inner workings of conservation and to understand the construction of effectiveness and impact. I draw on semi-structured interviews to examine how a large, international conservation organisation, which I term the World Conservation Organisation (WCO; a pseudonym, coordinates monitoring and evaluation (M&E processes among its international, national, and local offices. I find individual staff within WCO make varying assumptions about the M&E policies and place different values on M&E, which results in different institutional logics towards M&E and a broader organisational failure to measure progress and reflect upon outcomes. The findings also show difficulties in translating broad organisational goals into specific project activities, underscoring tensions in implementation and limitations in M&E practice. I also find that organisational and managerial pressure to report success is greater than donor pressure, a finding that expands understandings of NGO-donor dynamics.

  4. Promoting Effective Monitoring and Conservation through Online ...

    ... communicates major findings of submitted records to relevant authorities concerned with conservation and advocacy thus contributing to a much wider sharing and dissemination of important aspects while contributing to avifaunal conservation. Through networking the system provides a highly attractive and authoritative, ...

  5. The impact of landsat satellite monitoring on conservation biology.

    Leimgruber, Peter; Christen, Catherine A; Laborderie, Alison

    2005-07-01

    Landsat 7's recent malfunctioning will result in significant gaps in long-term satellite monitoring of Earth, affecting not only the research of the Earth science community but also conservation users of these data. To determine whether or how important Landsat monitoring is for conservation and natural resource management, we reviewed the Landsat program's history with special emphasis on the development of user groups. We also conducted a bibliographic search to determine the extent to which conservation research has been based on Landsat data. Conservation biologists were not an early user group of Landsat data because a) biologists lacked technical capacity--computers and software--to analyze these data; b) Landsat's 1980s commercialization rendered images too costly for biologists' budgets; and c) the broad-scale disciplines of conservation biology and landscape ecology did not develop until the mid-to-late 1980s. All these conditions had changed by the 1990s and Landsat imagery became an important tool for conservation biology. Satellite monitoring and Landsat continuity are mandated by the Land Remote Sensing Act of 1992. This legislation leaves open commercial options. However, past experiments with commercial operations were neither viable nor economical, and severely reduced the quality of monitoring, archiving and data access for academia and the public. Future satellite monitoring programs are essential for conservation and natural resource management, must provide continuity with Landsat, and should be government operated.

  6. Commonalities and complementarities among approaches to conservation monitoring and evaluation

    Mascia, Michael B.; Pailler, Sharon; Thieme, Michele L.

    2014-01-01

    Commonalities and complementarities among approaches to conservation monitoring and evaluation (M&E) are not well articulated, creating the potential for confusion, misuse, and missed opportunities to inform conservation policy and practice. We examine the relationships among five approaches...... to conservation M&E, characterizing each approach in eight domains: the focal question driving each approach, when in the project cycle each approach is employed, scale of data collection, the methods of data collection and analysis, the implementers of data collection and analysis, the users of M&E outputs......, and the decisions informed by these outputs. Ambient monitoring measures status and change in ambient social and ecological conditions, independent of any conservation intervention. Management assessment measures management inputs, activities, and outputs, as the basis for investments to build management capacity...

  7. Wildlife conservation and rail track monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    n this paper we put forward an approach, first of its kind, to collectively address conservation of elephants by preventing their death being overrun by trains and monitoring the integrity of the rail track. It utilizes a unique method for deterring the elephants using infrasonic sound from cross...

  8. San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) Rare Plant Monitoring Review and Revision

    McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlik, Bruce M.; Rebman, Jon; Sutter, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The San Diego Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) was developed for the conservation of plants and animals in the south part of San Diego County, under the California Natural Community Conservation Planning Act of 1991 (California Department of Fish and Game) and the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S. Code 1531-1544.) The Program is on the leading edge of conservation, as it seeks to both guide development and conserve at-risk species with the oversight of both State and Federal agencies. Lands were identified for inclusion in the MSCP based on their value as habitat for at-risk plants or plant communities (Natural Community Conservation Planning, 2005). Since its inception in the mid-1990s the Program has protected over 100,000 acres, involving 15 jurisdictions and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) in the conservation of 87 taxa. Surveys for covered species have been conducted, and management and monitoring have been implemented at some high priority sites. Each jurisdiction or agency manages and monitors their conservation areas independently, while collaborating regionally for long-term protection. The San Diego MSCP is on the forefront of conservation, in one of the most rapidly growing urban areas of the country. The planning effort that developed the MSCP was state-of-the-art, using expert knowledge, spatial habitat modeling, and principles of preserve design to identify and prioritize areas for protection. Land acquisition and protection are ahead of schedule for most jurisdictions. Surveys have verified the locations of many rare plant populations known from earlier collections, and they provide general information on population size and health useful for further conservation planning. Management plans have been written or are in development for most MSCP parcels under jurisdictional control. Several agencies are developing databases for implementation

  9. Hierarchical Bayesian spatial models for multispecies conservation planning and monitoring.

    Carroll, Carlos; Johnson, Devin S; Dunk, Jeffrey R; Zielinski, William J

    2010-12-01

    Biologists who develop and apply habitat models are often familiar with the statistical challenges posed by their data's spatial structure but are unsure of whether the use of complex spatial models will increase the utility of model results in planning. We compared the relative performance of nonspatial and hierarchical Bayesian spatial models for three vertebrate and invertebrate taxa of conservation concern (Church's sideband snails [Monadenia churchi], red tree voles [Arborimus longicaudus], and Pacific fishers [Martes pennanti pacifica]) that provide examples of a range of distributional extents and dispersal abilities. We used presence-absence data derived from regional monitoring programs to develop models with both landscape and site-level environmental covariates. We used Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms and a conditional autoregressive or intrinsic conditional autoregressive model framework to fit spatial models. The fit of Bayesian spatial models was between 35 and 55% better than the fit of nonspatial analogue models. Bayesian spatial models outperformed analogous models developed with maximum entropy (Maxent) methods. Although the best spatial and nonspatial models included similar environmental variables, spatial models provided estimates of residual spatial effects that suggested how ecological processes might structure distribution patterns. Spatial models built from presence-absence data improved fit most for localized endemic species with ranges constrained by poorly known biogeographic factors and for widely distributed species suspected to be strongly affected by unmeasured environmental variables or population processes. By treating spatial effects as a variable of interest rather than a nuisance, hierarchical Bayesian spatial models, especially when they are based on a common broad-scale spatial lattice (here the national Forest Inventory and Analysis grid of 24 km(2) hexagons), can increase the relevance of habitat models to multispecies

  10. How conservative is routine personal dosimetry monitoring in diagnostic radiology?

    Boetticher, H. von; Lachmund, J.; Hoffmann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Dose values obtained by official personal radiation exposure monitoring are often considered equivalent to the effective dose of a person. This paper provides estimates of the extent of deviation between the two dose concepts under various conditions. Materials and Methods: Doses for patients and personnel were measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters for five different geometries at three work settings in a radiology department. Patients and personnel were simulated with anthropomorphic phantoms. Different types of protective clothing as well as permanent protection shields were considered in the calculations. Results: Dose values obtained by official personal dose monitoring are conservative only for specific radiation protection situations. With state-of-the-art personal protective equipment (wrap-around style lead apron with thyroid shield), the ratio between effective dose and personal dose varies between 0.6 and 1.25. Without thyroid protection the official personal dose systematically underestimates the effective dose: for protective clothing with 0.5 mm lead equivalent without thyroid shielding, the effective dose exceeds the personal dose by factors between 1.7 and 3.1. If protective clothing with lead equivalent 0.35 mm is used, this factor varies between 1.1 and 1.82. (orig.)

  11. Ecoregional-scale monitoring within conservation areas, in a rapidly changing climate

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of ecological systems can prove invaluable for resource management and conservation. Such monitoring can: (1) detect instances of long-term trend (either improvement or deterioration) in monitored resources, thus providing an early-warning indication of system change to resource managers; (2) inform management decisions and help assess the effects of management actions, as well as anthropogenic and natural disturbances; and (3) provide the grist for supplemental research on mechanisms of system dynamics and cause-effect relationships (Fancy et al., 2009). Such monitoring additionally provides a snapshot of the status of monitored resources during each sampling cycle, and helps assess whether legal standards and regulations are being met. Until the last 1-2 decades, tracking and understanding changes in condition of natural resources across broad spatial extents have been infrequently attempted. Several factors, however, are facilitating the achievement of such broad-scale investigation and monitoring. These include increasing awareness of the importance of landscape context, greater prevalence of regional and global environmental stressors, and the rise of landscape-scale programs designed to manage and monitor biological systems. Such programs include the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program (Moser et al., 2008), Canada's National Forest Inventory, the 3Q Programme for monitoring agricultural landscapes of Norway (Dramstad et al., 2002), and the emerging (US) Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (USDOI Secretarial Order 3289, 2009; Anonymous, 2011). This Special Section explores the underlying design considerations, as well as many pragmatic aspects associated with program implementation and interpretation of results from broad-scale monitoring systems, particularly within the constraints of high-latitude contexts (e.g., low road density, short field season, dramatic fluctuations in temperature). Although Alaska is

  12. Readings in Wildlife and Fish Conservation, High School Conservation Curriculum Project.

    Ensminger, Jack

    This publication is a tentative edition of readings on Wildlife and Fish Conservation in Louisiana, and as such it forms part of one of the four units of study designed for an experimental high school course, the "High School Conservation Curriculum Project." The other three units are concerned with Forest Conervation, Soil and Water…

  13. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Pavlacky, David C; Lukacs, Paul M; Blakesley, Jennifer A; Skorkowsky, Robert C; Klute, David S; Hahn, Beth A; Dreitz, Victoria J; George, T Luke; Hanni, David J

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1) coordination across organizations and regions, 2) meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3) rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17). We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri) in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1) determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2) estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous statistical

  14. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    David C Pavlacky

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1 coordination across organizations and regions, 2 meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3 rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17. We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1 determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2 estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous

  15. Habitat monitoring and conservation prioritisation of protected areas in Western Ghats, Kerala, India.

    Athira, K; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Saranya, K R L; Joseph, Shijo; Jaishanker, R

    2017-06-01

    Spatially explicit approach is essential to prioritise the ecosystems for biodiversity conservation. In the present study, the conservation status of 20 protected areas of the Western Ghats of Kerala, India, was analysed based on long-term changes in forests (1975-1985-1995-2005-2013), landscape level changes in fragmentation and forest fires (2005-2015). This study has shown that a significant forest loss occurred in protected areas before declaration. Idukki is one of the major protected areas which showed a drastic reduction (18.83%) in its forest cover. During 1985-1995, Periyar tiger reserve had lost 24.19 km 2 core 3 forest area followed by Peppara (18.54 km 2 ), Parambikulam (17.93 km 2 ), Chimmony (17.71 km 2 ), Peechi-Vazhani (12.31 km 2 ) and Neyyar (11.67 km 2 ). An area of 71.33 km 2 of the protected area was affected by fires in 2014. Overall protected area-wise decadal analysis indicates Periyar has the highest number of fire incidences followed by Wayanad, Kurinjimala, Silent Valley and Eravikulam. Disturbances in the form of fires and fragmentation still exist and may have significant conservation threat to flora and fauna. Among protected areas, many are having a probability to go under threat or dynamic stage. Chinnar, Thattekkad and Kurinjimala sanctuaries are representing high levels of vulnerability, or they are near to decline stage. Habitat level monitoring of the anthropogenic disturbances can be efficiently useful for the strategic conservation planning. The present study has provided geospatial database on spatial patterns of deforestation, fragmentation and forest fires in protected areas of Kerala. Conservation prioritization approach based on these parameters will be useful for the strategic planning in the state of Kerala.

  16. Use of monitoring data to support conservation management and policy decisions in Micronesia.

    Montambault, Jensen Reitz; Wongbusarakum, Supin; Leberer, Trina; Joseph, Eugene; Andrew, Wayne; Castro, Fran; Nevitt, Brooke; Golbuu, Yimnang; Oldiais, Noelle W; Groves, Craig R; Kostka, Willy; Houk, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive management implies a continuous knowledge-based decision-making process in conservation. Yet, the coupling of scientific monitoring and management frameworks remains rare in practice because formal and informal communication pathways are lacking. We examined 4 cases in Micronesia where conservation practitioners are using new knowledge in the form of monitoring data to advance marine conservation. These cases were drawn from projects in Micronesia Challenge jurisdictions that received funding for coupled monitoring-to-management frameworks and encompassed all segments of adaptive management. Monitoring in Helen Reef, Republic of Palau, was catalyzed by coral bleaching and revealed evidence of overfishing that led to increased enforcement and outreach. In Nimpal Channel, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), monitoring the recovery of marine food resources after customary restrictions were put in place led to new, more effective enforcement approaches. Monitoring in Laolao Bay, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was catalyzed by observable sediment loads from poor land-use practices and resulted in actions that reduced land-based threats, particularly littering and illegal burning, and revealed additional threats from overfishing. Pohnpei (FSM) began monitoring after observed declines in grouper spawning aggregations. This data led to adjusting marine conservation area boundaries and implementing market-based size class restrictions. Two themes emerged from these cases. First, in each case monitoring was conducted in a manner relevant to the social and ecological systems and integrated into the decision-making process. Second, conservation practitioners and scientists in these cases integrated culturally appropriate stakeholder engagement throughout all phases of the adaptive management cycle. More broadly, our study suggests, when describing adaptive management, providing more details on how monitoring and management activities are

  17. Clustering and Flow Conservation Monitoring Tool for Software Defined Networks

    Jesús Antonio Puente Fernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Prediction systems present some challenges on two fronts: the relation between video quality and observed session features and on the other hand, dynamics changes on the video quality. Software Defined Networks (SDN is a new concept of network architecture that provides the separation of control plane (controller and data plane (switches in network devices. Due to the existence of the southbound interface, it is possible to deploy monitoring tools to obtain the network status and retrieve a statistics collection. Therefore, achieving the most accurate statistics depends on a strategy of monitoring and information requests of network devices. In this paper, we propose an enhanced algorithm for requesting statistics to measure the traffic flow in SDN networks. Such an algorithm is based on grouping network switches in clusters focusing on their number of ports to apply different monitoring techniques. Such grouping occurs by avoiding monitoring queries in network switches with common characteristics and then, by omitting redundant information. In this way, the present proposal decreases the number of monitoring queries to switches, improving the network traffic and preventing the switching overload. We have tested our optimization in a video streaming simulation using different types of videos. The experiments and comparison with traditional monitoring techniques demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal maintaining similar values decreasing the number of queries to the switches.

  18. Clustering and Flow Conservation Monitoring Tool for Software Defined Networks.

    Puente Fernández, Jesús Antonio; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2018-04-03

    Prediction systems present some challenges on two fronts: the relation between video quality and observed session features and on the other hand, dynamics changes on the video quality. Software Defined Networks (SDN) is a new concept of network architecture that provides the separation of control plane (controller) and data plane (switches) in network devices. Due to the existence of the southbound interface, it is possible to deploy monitoring tools to obtain the network status and retrieve a statistics collection. Therefore, achieving the most accurate statistics depends on a strategy of monitoring and information requests of network devices. In this paper, we propose an enhanced algorithm for requesting statistics to measure the traffic flow in SDN networks. Such an algorithm is based on grouping network switches in clusters focusing on their number of ports to apply different monitoring techniques. Such grouping occurs by avoiding monitoring queries in network switches with common characteristics and then, by omitting redundant information. In this way, the present proposal decreases the number of monitoring queries to switches, improving the network traffic and preventing the switching overload. We have tested our optimization in a video streaming simulation using different types of videos. The experiments and comparison with traditional monitoring techniques demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal maintaining similar values decreasing the number of queries to the switches.

  19. Tilapia and human CLIC2 structures are highly conserved.

    Zeng, Jiao; Li, Zhengjun; Lui, Eei Yin; Lam, Siew Hong; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2018-01-08

    Chloride intracellular channels (CLICs) exist in soluble and membrane bound forms. We have determined the crystal structure of soluble Clic2 from the euryhaline teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Structural comparison of tilapia and human CLIC2 with other CLICs shows that these proteins are highly conserved. We have also compared the expression levels of clic2 in selected osmoregulatory organs of tilapia, acclimated to freshwater, seawater and hypersaline water. Structural conservation of vertebrate CLICs implies that they might play conserved roles. Also, tissue-specific responsiveness of clic2 suggests that it might be involved in iono-osmoregulation under extreme conditions in tilapia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra) in Denmark

    Søgaard, Bjarne; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Elmeros, Morten

    Monitoring and assessment of conservation status of the Eurasian Otter Lutra lutra in Denmark Søgaard B. ¹, Madsen A.B.¹, Elmeros M.¹ ¹Institute of Bioscience - Kaloe, Aarhus University. Keywords: Eurasian Otter; Monitoring; Conservation status According to the EU Habitats Directive Denmark has...... of the otter inside Denmark, DNA analysis of dead found otters in Schleswig-Holstein (North Germany) shows that “Danish” otter have crossed the border to Germany connecting the Danish population to the East German population, which spreads into Schleswig-Holstein from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern....

  1. High bandwidth beam current monitor

    Baltrusaitis, R.M.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Peterson, E.; Warn, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    A stripline directional coupler beam current monitor capable of measuring the time structure of a 30-ps electron beam bunch has been developed. The time response performance of the monitor compares very well with Cherenkov light produced in quartz by the electron beam. The four-pickup monitor is now used on a routine basis for measuring the beam duration, tuning for optimized beam bunching, and centering the bunch in the beam pipe

  2. A step towards seascape scale conservation: using vessel monitoring systems (VMS to map fishing activity.

    Matthew J Witt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conservation of marine ecosystems will require a holistic understanding of fisheries with concurrent spatial patterns of biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from the UK Government Vessel Monitoring System (VMS deployed on UK-registered large fishing vessels we investigate patterns of fisheries activity on annual and seasonal scales. Analysis of VMS data shows that regions of the UK European continental shelf (i.e. Western Channel and Celtic Sea, Northern North Sea and the Goban Spur receive consistently greater fisheries pressure than the rest of the UK continental shelf fishing zone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VMS provides a unique and independent method from which to derive patterns of spatially and temporally explicit fisheries activity. Such information may feed into ecosystem management plans seeking to achieve sustainable fisheries while minimising putative risk to non-target species (e.g. cetaceans, seabirds and elasmobranchs and habitats of conservation concern. With multilateral collaboration VMS technologies may offer an important solution to quantifying and managing ecosystem disturbance, particularly on the high-seas.

  3. Conservation

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  4. Conservation.

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  5. High temperature water chemistry monitoring

    Aaltonen, P.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants can be prevented or at least damped by water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry control or by the change of water chemistry. Successful water chemistry control needs regular and continuous monitoring of such water chemistry parameters like dissolved oxygen content, pH, conductivity and impurity contents. Conventionally the monitoring is carried out at low pressures and temperatures, which method, however, has some shortcomings. Recently electrodes have been developed which enables the direct monitoring at operating pressures and temperatures. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs

  6. Conservation and monitoring of a persecuted African lion population by Maasai warriors.

    Dolrenry, Stephanie; Hazzah, Leela; Frank, Laurence G

    2016-06-01

    Although Africa has many threatened species and biological hot spots, there are few citizen science schemes, particularly in rural communities, and there has been limited evaluation of existing programs. We engaged traditional Maasai warriors (pastoralist men aged 15 to 35) in community-based conservation and demographic monitoring of a persecuted African lion (Panthera leo) population. Through direct engagement, we investigated whether a citizen science approach employing local warriors, who had no formal education, could produce reliable data on the demographics, predation, and movements of a species with which their communities have been in conflict for generations. Warriors were given benefits such as literacy training and skill enhancement and engaged in the monitoring of the lions. The trained warriors reported on lion sign across an area nearly 4000 km(2) . Scientists worked together with the warriors to verify their reports and gather observations on the lion population. Using the verified reports and collected observations, we examined our scientific knowledge relative to the lion population preceding and during the citizen science program. Our observations showed that data quality and quantity improved with the involvement and training of the participants. Furthermore, because they engaged in conservation and gained personal benefits, the participants came to appreciate a species that was traditionally their foe. We believe engaging other local communities in biodiversity conservation and monitoring may be an effective conservation approach in rural Africa. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Technical evaluation on high aging, and performance conditions on long-term conservation program

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    In order to secure safety and safe operation of power plants, in every nuclear power plants, conservation actions based on preventive conservation are performed. They contain operative condition monitoring, patrolling inspection, and periodical tests on important systems and apparatus by operators under plant operation and condition monitoring by maintenance workers, and so on, and when finding out their abnormal conditions, their detailed survey is performed to adopt adequate countermeasures such as recovery, exchange, and so on. And, to equipments for nuclear power generation periodical conditions were obliged by legal examinations and by independent inspections. As a result of these conservation actions, even on a plant elapsed about 30 years since beginning of its operation it was thought that the plant was aged with elapsing time even if not recognizing any indication on its aged deterioration at that time. Therefore, for its concrete countermeasure, by supposing long-term operation of a plant with longer operation history, some technical evaluation on aged phenomena were carried out, to investigate on reflection of the obtained results to present conservation actions. Here were described on efforts on the high aging countermeasures, and performing conditions of long-term conservation in the Tsuruga Unit No. 1 Nuclear Power Station. (G.K.)

  8. Project Monitor: Part II. Conservation in small business: an exploratory study. Final report

    Hammond, P Y

    1979-08-01

    Project Monitor examined the energy conservation attitude and behavior of small samples of small business owners/operators in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, focusing on manufacturing concerns and retailers. Section I reports the findings on the energy conserving behavior of 92 smaller manufacturers and Section II identifies the factors which affect decision making concerning energy consuming activities by the owners/operators of 94 small retail establishments. In each, the impact of Project Pacesetter and of the coal strike and the general energy situation is considered. (MCW)

  9. High-resolution satellite imagery is an important yet underutilized resource in conservation biology.

    Boyle, Sarah A; Kennedy, Christina M; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E; de la Sancha, Noé U

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making.

  10. Recording, monitoring and managing the conservation of historic sites: a new application for BGS·SIGMA

    Tracey, Emily; Smith, Nichola; Lawrie, Ken

    2017-04-01

    The principles behind, and the methods of, digital data capture can be applied across many scientific, and other, disciplines, as can be demonstrated by the use of a custom modified version of the British Geological Survey's System for Integrated Geoscience Mapping, (BGS·SIGMA), for the capture of data for use in the conservation of Scottish built heritage. Historic Environment Scotland (HES), an executive agency of the Scottish Government charged with safeguarding the nation's historic environment, is directly responsible for 345 sites of national significance, most of which are built from stone. In common with many other heritage organisations, HES needs a system that can capture, store and present conservation, maintenance and condition indicator information for single or multiple historic sites; this system would then be used to better target and plan effective programmes of maintenance and repair. To meet this need, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has worked with HES to develop an integrated digital site assessment system that provides a refined survey process for stone-built (and other) historic sites. Based on BGS·SIGMA—an integrated workflow underpinned by a geo-spatial platform for data capture and interpretation—the new system is built on top of ESRI's ArcGIS software, and underpinned by a relational database. Users can, in the field or in the office, populate custom-built data entry forms to record maintenance issues and repair specifications for architectural elements ranging from individual blocks of stone to entire building elevations. Photographs, sketches, and digital documents can be linked to architectural elements to enhance the usability of the data. Predetermined data fields and supporting dictionaries constrain the input parameters, ensuring a high degree of standardisation in the datasets and, therefore, enabling highly consistent data extraction and querying. The GIS presentation of the data provides a powerful and versatile

  11. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved antigens.

    Hongzhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic antibody development is one of the fastest growing areas of the pharmaceutical industry. Generating high-quality monoclonal antibodies against a given therapeutic target is very crucial for the success of the drug development. However, due to immune tolerance, some proteins that are highly conserved between mice and humans are not very immunogenic in mice, making it difficult to generate antibodies using a conventional approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the impaired immune tolerance of NZB/W mice was exploited to generate monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved or self-antigens. Using two highly conserved human antigens (MIF and HMGB1 and one mouse self-antigen (TNF-alpha as examples, we demonstrate here that multiple clones of high affinity, highly specific antibodies with desired biological activities can be generated, using the NZB/W mouse as the immunization host and a T cell-specific tag fused to a recombinant antigen to stimulate the immune system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed an efficient and universal method for generating surrogate or therapeutic antibodies against "difficult antigens" to facilitate the development of therapeutic antibodies.

  12. Clinical Significance of Monitoring Serum β-HCG in the Conservative Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy

    Chen Xue

    2010-01-01

    To explore the clinical value of the serum β-HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) in the conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy, the serum β-HCG levels in 118 patients with ectopic pregnancy were measured with RIA. The results showed that the serum β-HCG levels in patients with successful conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy were all less than 200mIU/mL. The patients require a surgical treatment to reach <200mIU/mL serum β-HCG concentration were only 26.3%. There was significant difference between two groups (P<0.01). The monitoring of serum β-HCG was very useful in the diagnosis, the choice of treatment measures and the evaluation of conservative treatment effect of ectopic pregnancy. In the course of treatment of ectopic pregnancy, serum β-HCG is a good marker in determining the success or failure of treatment. (authors)

  13. Harvesting Adaptation to Biodiversity Conservation in Sawmill Industry: Technology Innovation and Monitoring Program

    Guillermo J. Martínez Pastur

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Social demands related to native forest ecosystems are based on an efficient management, with a balance between conservation and timber production. This paper describes the industry adaptation to a biodiversity program with an alternative regeneration method. The proposed method leaves 30% of the timber-quality forest as aggregated retention and 15 m² ha-1 basal area as dispersed retention. While many costs increased considerably, the incomes also may increase by applying new management strategies and technology innovation. A monitoring program was established in the harvested stands to evaluate the ecological functionality of the applied regeneration system (forest structure, climate change, regeneration dynamics, habitat quality and abiotic cycles. The implementation of an innovated technology and monitoring program in the forest and industry determined a balance between economic values and biodiversity conservation.

  14. [Conservative calibration of a clearance monitor system for waste material from nuclear medicine].

    Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2014-09-01

    Clearance monitor systems are used for gross gamma measurements of waste potentially contaminated with radioactivity. These measurements are to make sure that legal requirements, e.g. clearance criteria according to the german radiation protection ordinance, are met. This means that measurement results may overestimate, but must not underestimate the true values. This paper describes a pragmatic way using a calibrated Cs-137 point source to generate a conservative calibration for the clearance monitor system used in the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH). The most important nuclides used in nuclear medicine are considered. The measurement result reliably overestimates the true value of the activity present in the waste. The calibration is compliant with the demands for conservativity and traceability to national standards. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Coordinating for Arctic Conservation: Implementing Integrated Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring, Data Management and Reporting

    Gill, M.; Svoboda, M.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems and the biodiversity they support are experiencing growing pressure from various stressors (e.g. development, climate change, contaminants, etc.) while established research and monitoring programs remain largely uncoordinated, lacking the ability to effectively monitor, understand and report on biodiversity trends at the circumpolar scale. The maintenance of healthy arctic ecosystems is a global imperative as the Arctic plays a critical role in the Earth's physical, chemical and biological balance. A coordinated and comprehensive effort for monitoring arctic ecosystems is needed to facilitate effective and timely conservation and adaptation actions. The Arctic's size and complexity represents a significant challenge towards detecting and attributing important biodiversity trends. This demands a scaled, pan-arctic, ecosystem-based approach that not only identifies trends in biodiversity, but also identifies underlying causes. It is critical that this information be made available to generate effective strategies for adapting to changes now taking place in the Arctic—a process that ultimately depends on rigorous, integrated, and efficient monitoring programs that have the power to detect change within a "management" time frame. To meet these challenges and in response to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment's recommendation to expand and enhance arctic biodiversity monitoring, the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Working Group of the Arctic Council launched the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP). The CBMP is led by Environment Canada on behalf of Canada and the Arctic Council. The CBMP is working with over 60 global partners to expand, integrate and enhance existing arctic biodiversity research and monitoring efforts to facilitate more rapid detection, communication and response to significant trends and pressures. Towards this end, the CBMP has established three Expert Monitoring Groups representing major Arctic

  17. The Pajarito Monitor: a high-sensitivity monitoring system for highly enriched uranium

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.; Garcia, C.; Martinez, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Pajarito Monitor for Special Nuclear Material is a high-sensitivity gamma-ray monitoring system for detecting small quantities of highly enriched uranium transported by pedestrians or motor vehicles. The monitor consists of two components: a walk-through personnel monitor and a vehicle monitor. The personnel monitor has a plastic-scintillator detector portal, a microwave occupancy monitor, and a microprocessor control unit that measures the radiation intensity during background and monitoring periods to detect transient diversion signals. The vehicle monitor examines stationary motor vehicles while the vehicle's occupants pass through the personnel portal to exchange their badges. The vehicle monitor has four groups of large plastic scintillators that scan the vehicle from above and below. Its microprocessor control unit measures separate radiation intensities in each detector group. Vehicle occupancy is sensed by a highway traffic detection system. Each monitor's controller is responsible for detecting diversion as well as serving as a calibration and trouble-shooting aid. Diversion signals are detected by a sequential probability ratio hypothesis test that minimizes the monitoring time in the vehicle monitor and adapts itself well to variations in individual passage speed in the personnel monitor. Designed to be highly sensitive to diverted enriched uranium, the monitoring system also exhibits exceptional sensitivity for plutonium

  18. Golden Eagle Monitoring Plan for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan

    Wiens, David; Kolar, Patrick; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    This report describes options for monitoring the status and population trends of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) within the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) area of Southern California in maintaining stable or increasing population in the planning area. The report profiles the ecology of golden eagles in the region and provides a range of potential sampling options to address monitoring needs and objectives. This approach also focused on links between changes in human land-use, golden eagle nesting and foraging habitat conditions, and population dynamics. The report outlines how monitoring data from demographic, prey, and habitat studies were used to develop a predictive demographic model for golden eagles in the DRECP area. Results from the model simulations suggest increases in renewable energy development could have negative consequences for population trajectories. Results also suggest site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative impacts to the local population of eagles. A monitoring framework is proposed including: (1) annual assessments of site-occupancy and reproduction by territorial pairs of golden eagles (including rates at which sites become colonized or vacated over time); (2) estimates of survival, movements, and intensity of use of landscapes by breeding and non-breeding golden eagles; (3) periodic (conducted every two to four years) assessments of nesting and foraging habitats, prey populations, and associations with land-use and management activities; and (4) updating the predictive demographic model with new information obtained on eagles and associated population stressors. The results of this research were published in the Journal of Rapture Research, Wiens, David,Inman, Rich D., Esque, Todd C., Longshore, Kathleen M. and Nussear, Kenneth (2017). Spatial Demographic Models to Inform Conservation Planning of Golden Eagles in Renewable Energy Landscapes. 51(3):234-257.

  19. ABCE1 is a highly conserved RNA silencing suppressor.

    Kairi Kärblane

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1 is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference.

  20. Design of forest bird monitoring for strategic habitat conservation on Kaua'i Island, Hawai'i

    Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The purpose was to develop a monitoring program for Kaua`i forest birds in the USFWS Strategic Habitat Conservation and adaptive management frameworks. Monitoring within those frameworks is a tool to assess resource responses to management and conservation actions, and through an iterative learning process improve our understanding of species recovery, effective management, and knowledge gaps. This report provides only the monitoring component of both frameworks, and we apply the monitoring program to the East Alaka`i Protective Fence Project.

  1. Monitoring of Conservation Tillage and Tillage Intensity by Ground and Satellite Imagery

    M.A Rostami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Local information about tillage intensity and ground residue coverage is useful for policies in agricultural extension, tillage implement design and upgrading management methods. The current methods for assessing crop residue coverage and tillage intensity such as residue weighing methods, line-transect and photo comparison methods are tedious and time-consuming. The present study was devoted to investigate accurate methods for monitoring residue management and tillage practices. The satellite imagery technique was used as a rapid and spatially explicit method for delineating crop residue coverage and as an estimator of conservation tillage adoption and intensity. The potential of multispectral high-spatial resolution WorldView-2 local data was evaluated using the total of eleven satellite spectral indices and Linear Spectral Unmixing Analysis (LSUA. The total of ninety locations was selected for this study and for each location the residue coverage was measured by the image processing method and recorded as ground control. The output of indices and LSUA method were individually correlated to the control and the relevant R2 was calculated. Results indicated that crop residue cover was related to IPVI, RVI1, RVI2 and GNDVI spectral indices and satisfactory correlations were established (0.74 - 0.81. The crop residue coverage estimated from the LSUA approach was found to be correlated with the ground residue data (0.75. Two effective indices named as Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI with maximum R2 were considered for classification of tillage intensity. Results indicated that the classification accuracy with IPVI and RVI indices in different conditions varied from 78-100 percent and therefore in good agreement with ground measurement, observations and field records.

  2. Use of sibling relationship reconstruction to complement traditional monitoring in fisheries management and conservation of brown trout.

    Ozerov, Mikhail; Jürgenstein, Tauno; Aykanat, Tutku; Vasemägi, Anti

    2015-08-01

    Declining trends in the abundance of many fish urgently call for more efficient and informative monitoring methods that would provide necessary demographic data for the evaluation of existing conservation, restoration, and management actions. We investigated how genetic sibship reconstruction from young-of-the-year brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) juveniles provides valuable, complementary demographic information that allowed us to disentangle the effects of habitat quality and number of breeders on juvenile density. We studied restored (n = 15) and control (n = 15) spawning and nursery habitats in 16 brown trout rivers and streams over 2 consecutive years to evaluate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities. Similar juvenile densities both in restored and control spawning and nursery grounds were observed. Similarly, no differences in the effective number of breeders, Nb(SA) , were detected between habitats, indicating that brown trout readily used recently restored spawning grounds. Only a weak relationship between the Nb(SA) and juvenile density was observed, suggesting that multiple factors affect juvenile abundance. In some areas, very low estimates of Nb(SA) were found at sites with high juvenile density, indicating that a small number of breeders can produce a high number of progeny in favorable conditions. In other sites, high Nb(SA) estimates were associated with low juvenile density, suggesting low habitat quality or lack of suitable spawning substrate in relation to available breeders. Based on these results, we recommend the incorporation of genetic sibship reconstruction to ongoing and future fish evaluation and monitoring programs to gain novel insights into local demographic and evolutionary processes relevant for fisheries management, habitat restoration, and conservation. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Monitoring great ape and elephant abundance at large spatial scales: measuring effectiveness of a conservation landscape.

    Emma J Stokes

    Full Text Available Protected areas are fundamental to biodiversity conservation, but there is growing recognition of the need to extend beyond protected areas to meet the ecological requirements of species at larger scales. Landscape-scale conservation requires an evaluation of management impact on biodiversity under different land-use strategies; this is challenging and there exist few empirical studies. In a conservation landscape in northern Republic of Congo we demonstrate the application of a large-scale monitoring program designed to evaluate the impact of conservation interventions on three globally threatened species: western gorillas, chimpanzees and forest elephants, under three land-use types: integral protection, commercial logging, and community-based natural resource management. We applied distance-sampling methods to examine species abundance across different land-use types under varying degrees of management and human disturbance. We found no clear trends in abundance between land-use types. However, units with interventions designed to reduce poaching and protect habitats--irrespective of land-use type--harboured all three species at consistently higher abundance than a neighbouring logging concession undergoing no wildlife management. We applied Generalized-Additive Models to evaluate a priori predictions of species response to different landscape processes. Our results indicate that, given adequate protection from poaching, elephants and gorillas can profit from herbaceous vegetation in recently logged forests and maintain access to ecologically important resources located outside of protected areas. However, proximity to the single integrally protected area in the landscape maintained an overriding positive influence on elephant abundance, and logging roads--even subject to anti-poaching controls--were exploited by elephant poachers and had a major negative influence on elephant distribution. Chimpanzees show a clear preference for unlogged or

  4. Enhancing Conservation with High Resolution Productivity Datasets for the Conterminous United States

    Robinson, Nathaniel Paul

    Human driven alteration of the earth's terrestrial surface is accelerating through land use changes, intensification of human activity, climate change, and other anthropogenic pressures. These changes occur at broad spatio-temporal scales, challenging our ability to effectively monitor and assess the impacts and subsequent conservation strategies. While satellite remote sensing (SRS) products enable monitoring of the earth's terrestrial surface continuously across space and time, the practical applications for conservation and management of these products are limited. Often the processes driving ecological change occur at fine spatial resolutions and are undetectable given the resolution of available datasets. Additionally, the links between SRS data and ecologically meaningful metrics are weak. Recent advances in cloud computing technology along with the growing record of high resolution SRS data enable the development of SRS products that quantify ecologically meaningful variables at relevant scales applicable for conservation and management. The focus of my dissertation is to improve the applicability of terrestrial gross and net primary productivity (GPP/NPP) datasets for the conterminous United States (CONUS). In chapter one, I develop a framework for creating high resolution datasets of vegetation dynamics. I use the entire archive of Landsat 5, 7, and 8 surface reflectance data and a novel gap filling approach to create spatially continuous 30 m, 16-day composites of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1986 to 2016. In chapter two, I integrate this with other high resolution datasets and the MOD17 algorithm to create the first high resolution GPP and NPP datasets for CONUS. I demonstrate the applicability of these products for conservation and management, showing the improvements beyond currently available products. In chapter three, I utilize this dataset to evaluate the relationships between land ownership and terrestrial production

  5. Science deficiency in conservation practice: the monitoring of tiger populations in India

    Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Seidensticker, J.; Dinerstein, Eric; Smith, J.L.D.; McDougal, C.; Johnsingh, A.J.T.; Chundawat, Raghunandan S.; Thapar, V.

    2003-01-01

    Conservation practices are supposed to get refined by advancing scientific knowledge. We study this phenomenon in the context of monitoring tiger populations in India, by evaluating the 'pugmark census method' employed by wildlife managers for three decades. We use an analytical framework of modem animal population sampling to test the efficacy of the pugmark censuses using scientific data on tigers and our field observations. We identify three critical goals for monitoring tiger populations, in order of increasing sophistication: (1) distribution mapping, (2) tracking relative abundance, (3) estimation of absolute abundance. We demonstrate that the present census-based paradigm does not work because it ignores the first two simpler goals, and targets, but fails to achieve, the most difficult third goal. We point out the utility and ready availability of alternative monitoring paradigms that deal with the central problems of spatial sampling and observability. We propose an alternative sampling-based approach that can be tailored to meet practical needs of tiger monitoring at different levels of refinement.

  6. High-resolution finite-difference algorithms for conservation laws

    Towers, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of Total Variation Decreasing (TVD) schemes for 2-dimensional scalar conservation laws is constructed using either flux-limited or slope-limited numerical fluxes. The schemes are proven to have formal second-order accuracy in regions where neither u/sub x/ nor y/sub y/ vanishes. A new class of high-resolution large-time-step TVD schemes is constructed by adding flux-limited correction terms to the first-order accurate large-time-step version of the Engquist-Osher scheme. The use of the transport-collapse operator in place of the exact solution operator for the construction of difference schemes is studied. The production of spurious extrema by difference schemes is studied. A simple condition guaranteeing the nonproduction of spurious extrema is derived. A sufficient class of entropy inequalities for a conservation law with a flux having a single inflection point is presented. Finite-difference schemes satisfying a discrete version of each entropy inequality are only first-order accurate

  7. Dynamic Epigenetic Control of Highly Conserved Noncoding Elements

    Seridi, Loqmane

    2014-10-07

    Background Many noncoding genomic loci have remained constant over long evolutionary periods, suggesting that they are exposed to strong selective pressures. The molecular functions of these elements have been partially elucidated, but the fundamental reason for their extreme conservation is still unknown. Results To gain new insights into the extreme selection of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), we used a systematic analysis of multi-omic data to study the epigenetic regulation of such elements during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At the sequence level, HCNEs are GC-rich and have a characteristic oligomeric composition. They have higher levels of stable nucleosome occupancy than their flanking regions, and lower levels of mononucleosomes and H3.3, suggesting that these regions reside in compact chromatin. Furthermore, these regions showed remarkable modulations in histone modification and the expression levels of adjacent genes during development. Although HCNEs are primarily initiated late in replication, about 10% were related to early replication origins. Finally, HCNEs showed strong enrichment within lamina-associated domains. Conclusion HCNEs have distinct and protective sequence properties, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. These observations indicate that such elements are likely to have essential cellular functions, and offer insights into their epigenetic properties.

  8. Dynamic Epigenetic Control of Highly Conserved Noncoding Elements

    Seridi, Loqmane; Ryu, Tae Woo; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Background Many noncoding genomic loci have remained constant over long evolutionary periods, suggesting that they are exposed to strong selective pressures. The molecular functions of these elements have been partially elucidated, but the fundamental reason for their extreme conservation is still unknown. Results To gain new insights into the extreme selection of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), we used a systematic analysis of multi-omic data to study the epigenetic regulation of such elements during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At the sequence level, HCNEs are GC-rich and have a characteristic oligomeric composition. They have higher levels of stable nucleosome occupancy than their flanking regions, and lower levels of mononucleosomes and H3.3, suggesting that these regions reside in compact chromatin. Furthermore, these regions showed remarkable modulations in histone modification and the expression levels of adjacent genes during development. Although HCNEs are primarily initiated late in replication, about 10% were related to early replication origins. Finally, HCNEs showed strong enrichment within lamina-associated domains. Conclusion HCNEs have distinct and protective sequence properties, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. These observations indicate that such elements are likely to have essential cellular functions, and offer insights into their epigenetic properties.

  9. High cumulants of conserved charges and their statistical uncertainties

    Li-Zhu, Chen; Ye-Yin, Zhao; Xue, Pan; Zhi-Ming, Li; Yuan-Fang, Wu

    2017-10-01

    We study the influence of measured high cumulants of conserved charges on their associated statistical uncertainties in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With a given number of events, the measured cumulants randomly fluctuate with an approximately normal distribution, while the estimated statistical uncertainties are found to be correlated with corresponding values of the obtained cumulants. Generally, with a given number of events, the larger the cumulants we measure, the larger the statistical uncertainties that are estimated. The error-weighted averaged cumulants are dependent on statistics. Despite this effect, however, it is found that the three sigma rule of thumb is still applicable when the statistics are above one million. Supported by NSFC (11405088, 11521064, 11647093), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) (2016YFE0104800)

  10. Radiation monitoring in high energy research facility

    Miyajima, Mitsuhiro

    1975-01-01

    In High Energy Physics Research Laboratory, construction of high energy proton accelerator is in progress. The accelerator is a cascaded machine comprising Cockcroft type (50 keV), linac (20 MeV), booster synchrotron (500 MeV), and synchrotron (8-12 GeV). Its proton beam intensity is 1x10 13 photons/pulse, and acceleration is carried out at the rate of every 2 minutes. The essential problems of radiation control in high energy accelerators are those of various radiations generated secondarily by proton beam and a number of induced radiations simultaneously originated with such secondary particles. In the Laboratory, controlled areas are divided into color-coded four regions, red, orange, yellow and green, based on each dose-rate. BF 3 counters covered with thick paraffin are used as neutron detectors, and side-window GM tubes, NaI (Tl) scintillators and ionization chambers as γ-detectors. In red region, however, ionization chambers are applied to induced radiation detection, and neutrons are not monitored. NIM standards are adopted for the circuits of all above monitors considering easy maintenance, economy and interchangeability. Notwithstanding the above described systems, these monitors are not sufficient to complete the measurement of whole radiations over wide energy region radiated from the accelerators. Hence separate radiation field measurement is required periodically. An example of the monitoring systems in National Accelerator Laboratory (U.S.) is referred at the last section. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Conservation and management applications of the REEF volunteer fish monitoring program.

    Pattengill-Semmens, Christy V; Semmens, Brice X

    2003-01-01

    The REEF Fish Survey Project is a volunteer fish monitoring program developed by the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF). REEF volunteers collect fish distribution and abundance data using a standardized visual method during regular diving and snorkeling activities. Survey data are recorded on preprinted data sheets that are returned to REEF and optically digitized. Data are housed in a publicly accessible database on REEF's Web site (http://www.reef.org). Since the project's inception in 1993, over 40,000 surveys have been conducted in the coastal waters of North America, tropical western Atlantic, Gulf of California and Hawaii. The Fish Survey Project has been incorporated into existing monitoring programs through partnerships with government agencies, scientists, conservation organizations, and private institutions. REEF's partners benefit from the educational value and increased stewardship resulting from volunteer data collection. Applications of the data include an evaluation of fish/habitat interactions in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, the development of a multi-species trend analysis method to identify sites of management concern, assessment of the current distribution of species, status reports on fish assemblages of marine parks, and the evaluation of no-take zones in the Florida Keys. REEF's collaboration with a variety of partners, combined with the Fish Survey Project's standardized census method and database management system, has resulted in a successful citizen science monitoring program.

  12. Highly conserved small subunit residues influence rubisco large subunit catalysis.

    Genkov, Todor; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2009-10-30

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. With a deeper understanding of its structure-function relationships and competitive inhibition by O(2), it may be possible to engineer an increase in agricultural productivity and renewable energy. The chloroplast-encoded large subunits form the active site, but the nuclear-encoded small subunits can also influence catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, the 10 most conserved residues in all small subunits were substituted with alanine by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the small subunit gene family. All the mutant strains were able to grow photosynthetically, indicating that none of the residues is essential for function. Three of the substitutions have little or no effect (S16A, P19A, and E92A), one primarily affects holoenzyme stability (L18A), and the remainder affect catalysis with or without some level of associated structural instability (Y32A, E43A, W73A, L78A, P79A, and F81A). Y32A and E43A cause decreases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco, all but one (Glu-92) of the conserved residues are in contact with large subunits and cluster near the amino- or carboxyl-terminal ends of large subunit alpha-helix 8, which is a structural element of the alpha/beta-barrel active site. Small subunit residues Glu-43 and Trp-73 identify a possible structural connection between active site alpha-helix 8 and the highly variable small subunit loop between beta-strands A and B, which can also influence Rubisco CO(2)/O(2) specificity.

  13. Jewel scarabs (Chrysina sp.) in Honduras: key species for cloud forest conservation monitoring?

    Jocque, M; Vanhove, M P M; Creedy, T J; Burdekin, O; Nuñez-Miño, J M; Casteels, J

    2013-01-01

    Jewel scarabs, beetles in the genus Chrysina Kirby (Coleoptera: Rutelinae: Scarabaeidae), receive their name from the bright, often gold, green elytra that reflect light like a precious stone. Jewel scarabs are commonly observed at light traps in Mesoamerican cloud forests, and their association with mountain forests makes them potentially interesting candidates for cloud forest conservation monitoring. The absence of survey protocols and identification tools, and the little ecological information available are barriers. In the present study, collection of Chrysina species assembled during biodiversity surveys by Operation Wallacea in Cusuco National Park (CNP), Honduras, were studied. The aim of this overview is to provide an easy to use identification tool for in the field, hopefully stimulating data collection on these beetles. Based on the data associated with the collection localities, elevation distribution of the species in the park was analyzed. The limited data points available were complemented with potential distribution areas generated with distribution models based on climate and elevation data. This study is aimed at initializing the development of a survey protocol for Chrysina species that can be used in cloud forest conservation monitoring throughout Central America. A list of Chrysina species recorded from Honduras so far is provided. The six identified and one unidentified species recorded from CNP are easy to identify in the field based on color and straightforward morphological characteristics. Literature research revealed ten species currently recorded from Honduras. This low species richness in comparison with surrounding Central American countries indicates the poor knowledge of this genus in Honduras. Chrysina species richness in CNP increases with elevation, thereby making the genus one of a few groups of organisms where this correlation is observed, and rendering it a suitable invertebrate representative for cloud forest habitats in

  14. Monitoring and conservation of power station components; Ueberwachung der Konservierung von Kraftwerkskomponenten

    Weber, R.; Mohr, G. [Allianz-Zentrum fuer Technik GmbH (AZT), Ismaning (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    There are very many reasons why power station components should be treated and conserved as high-value industrial goods. Various considerations, such as transport type and distance and storage duration and location, then become important. This article deals with the special problems and considers the corresponding fundamentals on the basis of a specific example. Emphasis is given to the effects of atmosphere and climate but also to various corrosive mechanisms and to packing and conservation. (orig.) [German] Als hochwertige Industriegueter muessen Kraftwerkskomponenten aus unterschiedlichsten Gruenden konserviert werden. Dabei sind verschiedenerlei Gesichtspunkte massgeblich, wie Transportart und -weg sowie Lagerungsdauer und -ort. Hier wird anhand eines konkreten Beispiels ueber diese spezielle Problematik und die entsprechenden Grundlagen berichtet. Im Vordergrund stehen Einfluesse von Atmosphaere und Klima, aber auch diverse Korrosionsmechanismen sowie Verpackung und Konservierung. (orig.)

  15. Monitoring SLAC High Performance UNIX Computing Systems

    Lettsome, Annette K.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the effectiveness and efficiency of computers is important when working with high performance systems. The monitoring of such systems is advantageous in order to foresee possible misfortunes or system failures. Ganglia is a software system designed for high performance computing systems to retrieve specific monitoring information. An alternative storage facility for Ganglia's collected data is needed since its default storage system, the round-robin database (RRD), struggles with data integrity. The creation of a script-driven MySQL database solves this dilemma. This paper describes the process took in the creation and implementation of the MySQL database for use by Ganglia. Comparisons between data storage by both databases are made using gnuplot and Ganglia's real-time graphical user interface

  16. High voltage disconnect switch position monitoring

    Crampton, S W

    1983-08-01

    Unreliable position indication on high-voltage (HV) disconnect switches can result in equipment damage worth many times the cost of a disconnect switch. The benefits and limitations of a number of possible methods of reliably monitoring HV disconnect switches are assessed. Several methods of powering active devices at HV are noted. It is concluded that the most reliable way of monitoring switch position at reasonable cost would use a passive hermetically-sealed blade-position sensor located at HV, with a fibre-optic link between HV and ground. Separate sensors would be used for open and closed position indication. For maximum reliability the fibre-optic link would continue into the relay building. A passive magnetically actuated fibre-optic sensor has been built which demonstrates the feasibility of the concept. The sensor monitors blade position relative to the jaws in three dimensions with high resolution. A design for an improved passive magneto-optic sensor has significantly lower optical losses, allowing a single fibre-optic loop and 3 sensors to monitor closure of all phases of a disconnect switch. A similar loop would monitor switch opening. The improved sensor has a solid copper housing to provide greater immunity to fault currents, and to protect it from the environment and from physical damage. Two methods of providing a protected path for fibre-optics passing from HV to ground are proposed, one using a hollow porcelain switch-support insulator and the other using an additional small-diameter polymer insulator with optical fibres imbedded in its fibreglass core. A number of improvements are recommended which can be made to existing switches to increase their reliability. 16 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A high reliability oxygen deficiency monitoring system

    Parry, R.; Claborn, G.; Haas, A.; Landis, R.; Page, W.; Smith, J.

    1993-01-01

    The escalating use of cryogens at national laboratories in general and accelerators in particular, along with the increased emphasis placed on personnel safety, mandates the development and installation of oxygen monitoring systems to insure personnel safety in the event of a cryogenic leak. Numerous vendors offer oxygen deficiency monitoring systems but fail to provide important features and/or flexibility. This paper describes a unique oxygen monitoring system developed for the Magnet Test Laboratory (MTL) at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL). Features include: high reliability, oxygen cell redundancy, sensor longevity, simple calibration, multiple trip points, offending sensor audio and visual indication, global alarms for building evacuation, local and remote analog readout, event and analog data logging, EMAIL event notification, phone line voice status system, and multi-drop communications network capability for reduced cable runs. Of particular importance is the distributed topology of the system which allows it to operate in a stand-alone configuration or to communicate with a host computer. This flexibility makes it ideal for small applications such as a small room containing a cryogenic dewar, as well as larger systems which monitor many offices and labs in several buildings

  18. A high reliability oxygen deficiency monitoring system

    Parry, R.; Claborn, G.; Haas, A.; Landis, R.; Page, W.; Smith, J.

    1993-05-01

    The escalating use of cryogens at national laboratories in general and accelerators in particular, along with the increased emphasis placed on personnel safety, mandates the development and installation of oxygen monitoring systems to insure personnel safety in the event of a cryogenic leak. Numerous vendors offer oxygen deficiency monitoring systems but fail to provide important features and/or flexibility. This paper describes a unique oxygen monitoring system developed for the Magnet Test Laboratory (MTL) at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL). Features include: high reliability, oxygen cell redundancy, sensor longevity, simple calibration, multiple trip points, offending sensor audio and visual indication, global alarms for building evacuation, local and remote analog readout, event and analog data logging, EMAIL event notification, phone line voice status system, and multi-drop communications network capability for reduced cable runs. Of particular importance is the distributed topology of the system which allows it to operate in a stand-alone configuration or to communicate with a host computer. This flexibility makes it ideal for small applications such as a small room containing a cryogenic dewar, as well as larger systems which monitor many offices and labs in several buildings

  19. A synthesis of European seahorse taxonomy, population structure, and habitat use as a basis for assessment, monitoring and conservation.

    Woodall, Lucy C; Otero-Ferrer, Francisco; Correia, Miguel; Curtis, Janelle M R; Garrick-Maidment, Neil; Shaw, Paul W; Koldewey, Heather J

    2018-01-01

    Accurate taxonomy, population demography, and habitat descriptors inform species threat assessments and the design of effective conservation measures. Here we combine published studies with new genetic, morphological and habitat data that were collected from seahorse populations located along the European and North African coastlines to help inform management decisions for European seahorses. This study confirms the presence of only two native seahorse species ( Hippocampus guttulatus and H. hippocampus ) across Europe, with sporadic occurrence of non-native seahorse species in European waters. For the two native species, our findings demonstrate that highly variable morphological characteristics, such as size and presence or number of cirri, are unreliable for distinguishing species. Both species exhibit sex dimorphism with females being significantly larger. Across its range, H. guttulatus were larger and found at higher densities in cooler waters, and individuals in the Black Sea were significantly smaller than in other populations. H. hippocampus were significantly larger in Senegal. Hippocampus guttulatus tends to have higher density populations than H. hippocampus when they occur sympatrically. Although these species are often associated with seagrass beds, data show both species inhabit a wide variety of shallow habitats and use a mixture of holdfasts. We suggest an international mosaic of protected areas focused on multiple habitat types as the first step to successful assessment, monitoring and conservation management of these Data Deficient species.

  20. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  1. Monitoring the effects of different conservation treatments on paper-infecting fungi.

    Michaelsen, Astrid; Pinzari, Flavia; Barbabietola, Nicoletta; Piñar, Guadalupe

    2013-10-01

    Fungi are among the most degradative organisms inducing biodeterioration of paper-based items of cultural heritage. Appropriate conservation measures and restoration treatments to deal with fungal infections include mechanical, chemical, and biological methods, which entail effects on the paper itself and health hazards for humans. Three different conservation treatments, namely freeze-drying, gamma rays, and ethylene oxide fumigation, were compared and monitored to assess their short- (one month, T1) and long-term (one year, T2) effectiveness to inhibit fungal growth. After the inoculation with fungi possessing cellulose hydrolysis ability - Chaetomium globosum , Trichoderma viride, and Cladosporium cladosporioides - as single strains or as a mixture, different quality paper samples were treated and screened for fungal viability by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Results derived from both strategies were contradictory. Both gamma irradiation and EtO fumigation showed full efficacy as disinfecting agents when evaluated with cultivation techniques. However, when using molecular analyses, the application of gamma rays showed a short-term reduction in DNA recovery and DNA fragmentation; the latter phenomenon was also observed in a minor degree in samples treated with freeze-drying. When RNA was used as an indicator of long-term fungal viability, differences in the RNA recovery from samples treated with freeze-drying or gamma rays could be observed in samples inoculated with the mixed culture. Only the treatment with ethylene oxide proved negative for both DNA and RNA recovery. Therefore, DNA fragmentation after an ethylene oxide treatment can hamper future paleogenetic and archaeological molecular studies on the objects.

  2. Ultra Secure High Reliability Wireless Radiation Monitor

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be used for classified data

  3. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be

  4. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    Palmieri, V.G.; Bell, W.H.; Borer, K.; Casagrande, L.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.R.H.; Dezillie, B.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Hauler, F.; Jungermann, L.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Shea, V. O'; Ruggiero, G.; Sonderegger, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux

  5. Conservation and restoration of natural building stones monitored through non-destructive X-ray computed tomography

    Jacobs, P. Js; Cnudde, V.

    2003-04-01

    X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT) is a promising non-destructive imaging technique to study building materials. μCT analysis provides information on the internal structure and petrophysical properties of small samples (size up to 2 cm diameter and 6 cm height), with to date a maximum resolution of 10 μm for commercial systems (Skyscan 1072). μCT allows visualising and measuring complete three-dimensional object structures without sample preparation. Possible applications of the μCT-technique for the monitoring of natural building stones are multiple: (i) to determine non-destructively porosity based on 3D images, (ii) to visualise weathering phenomena at the μ-scale, (iii) to understand the rationale of weathering processes, (iv) to visualise the presence of waterrepellents and consolidation products, (v) to monitor the protective effects of these products during weathering in order to understand the underlying weathering mechanisms and (vi) to provide advise on the suitability of products for the treatment of a particular rock-type. μCT-technique in combination with micro-Raman spectroscopy could prove to be a powerful tool for the future, as the combination of 3D visualisation and 2D chemical determination of inorganic as well as organic components could provide new insights to optimise conservation and restoration techniques of building materials. Determining the penetration depth of restoration products, used to consolidate or to protect natural building stones from weathering, is crucial if the application of conservation products is planned. Every type of natural building stone has its own petrophysical characteristics and each rock type reacts differently on the various restoration products available on the market. To assess the penetration depth and the effectiveness of a certain restoration product, μCT technology in combination with micro-Raman spectroscopy could be applied. Due to its non-destructive character and its resolution down to

  6. Eucaryotic operon genes can define highly conserved syntenies

    Trachtulec, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2004), s. 1-6 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0997; GA MŠk LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : eukaryotic operon * conserved synteny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2004

  7. French citizens monitoring ordinary birds provide tools for conservation and ecological sciences

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent; Julliard, Romain; Couvet, Denis

    2012-10-01

    efficient scientific tool (numerous papers published in international peer-reviewed journals) which is furthermore highly cost-effective, with a reduced permanent staff in a state insitution coordonating the network and analysing the data, while a similar survey conducted by state staff only would cost more than one million euros annually. The future development of bio-economic dynamic models for providing scenarios of sustainable farming and logging to maintain biodiversity will further highlight the necessity of such volunteer monitoring for policy makers and decision planning. Scientific and logistic partnerships could be proposed to help developing such a monitoring scheme in China.

  8. Energy conservation and pomeron loops in high energy evolution

    Gustafson, Goesta

    2007-01-01

    We present a formalism which modifies the Mueller Dipole Model such that it incorporates energy-momentum conservation as well as important colour suppressed effects in the cascade evolution. The formalism is implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation program, and the results are compared to inclusive data from HERA and the Tevatron. We here find a generally very good agreement between our model and the experimental data. (author)

  9. A Novel and Cost-Effective Monitoring Approach for Outcomes in an Australian Biodiversity Conservation Incentive Program

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Zammit, Charles; Attwood, Simon J.; Burns, Emma; Shepherd, Claire L.; Kay, Geoff; Wood, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We report on the design and implementation of ecological monitoring for an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive scheme – the Environmental Stewardship Program. The Program uses competitive auctions to contract individual land managers for up to 15 years to conserve matters of National Environmental Significance (with an initial priority on nationally threatened ecological communities). The ecological monitoring was explicitly aligned with the Program’s policy objective and desired outcomes and was applied to the Program’s initial Project which targeted the critically endangered White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland ecological community in south eastern Australia. These woodlands have been reduced to <3% of their original extent and persist mostly as small remnants of variable condition on private farmland. We established monitoring sites on 153 farms located over 172,232 sq km. On each farm we established a monitoring site within the woodland patch funded for management and, wherever possible, a matched control site. The monitoring has entailed gathering data on vegetation condition, reptiles and birds. We also gathered data on the costs of experimental design, site establishment, field survey, and data analysis. The costs of monitoring are approximately 8.5% of the Program’s investment in the first four years and hence are in broad accord with the general rule of thumb that 5–10% of a program’s funding should be invested in monitoring. Once initial monitoring and site benchmarking are completed we propose to implement a novel rotating sampling approach that will maintain scientific integrity while achieving an annual cost-efficiency of up to 23%. We discuss useful lessons relevant to other monitoring programs where there is a need to provide managers with reliable early evidence of program effectiveness and to demonstrate opportunities for cost-efficiencies. PMID:23236399

  10. A novel and cost-effective monitoring approach for outcomes in an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive program.

    David B Lindenmayer

    Full Text Available We report on the design and implementation of ecological monitoring for an Australian biodiversity conservation incentive scheme - the Environmental Stewardship Program. The Program uses competitive auctions to contract individual land managers for up to 15 years to conserve matters of National Environmental Significance (with an initial priority on nationally threatened ecological communities. The ecological monitoring was explicitly aligned with the Program's policy objective and desired outcomes and was applied to the Program's initial Project which targeted the critically endangered White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland ecological community in south eastern Australia. These woodlands have been reduced to <3% of their original extent and persist mostly as small remnants of variable condition on private farmland. We established monitoring sites on 153 farms located over 172,232 sq km. On each farm we established a monitoring site within the woodland patch funded for management and, wherever possible, a matched control site. The monitoring has entailed gathering data on vegetation condition, reptiles and birds. We also gathered data on the costs of experimental design, site establishment, field survey, and data analysis. The costs of monitoring are approximately 8.5% of the Program's investment in the first four years and hence are in broad accord with the general rule of thumb that 5-10% of a program's funding should be invested in monitoring. Once initial monitoring and site benchmarking are completed we propose to implement a novel rotating sampling approach that will maintain scientific integrity while achieving an annual cost-efficiency of up to 23%. We discuss useful lessons relevant to other monitoring programs where there is a need to provide managers with reliable early evidence of program effectiveness and to demonstrate opportunities for cost-efficiencies.

  11. Concentrations of Elements in Hellbender Blood and Fish Fillets from the Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Mike J.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of contaminant monitoring surveys conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) blood and fish. Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus, Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), redhorse (Moxostoma anisorum, Moxostoma erythrurum), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus punctulatus, Micropterus Lacepede, Ambloplites rupestris), walleye (Sander vitreus), and sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) were collected from 17 sites as part of the Department's General Contaminant Monitoring Program. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and other sunfish (Lepomis megalotis, Lepomis cyanellus) were collected from 18 sites as part of the Department's Resource Assessment and Monitoring Program. Blood from hellbenders was collected from seven sites as part of the Department's Hellbender Monitoring Program.

  12. Usherin expression is highly conserved in mouse and human tissues.

    Pearsall, Nicole; Bhattacharya, Gautam; Wisecarver, Jim; Adams, Joe; Cosgrove, Dominic; Kimberling, William

    2002-12-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease that results in varying degrees of hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. Three types of Usher syndrome (I, II, and III) have been identified clinically with Usher type II being the most common of the three types. Usher type II has been localized to three different chromosomes 1q41, 3p, and 5q, corresponding to Usher type 2A, 2B, and 2C respectively. Usherin is a basement membrane protein encoded by the USH2A gene. Expression of usherin has been localized in the basement membrane of several tissues, however it is not ubiquitous. Immunohistochemistry detected usherin in the following human tissues: retina, cochlea, small and large intestine, pancreas, bladder, prostate, esophagus, trachea, thymus, salivary glands, placenta, ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, and testis. Usherin was absent in many other tissues such as heart, lung, liver, kidney, and brain. This distribution is consistent with the usherin distribution seen in the mouse. Conservation of usherin is also seen at the nucleotide and amino acid level when comparing the mouse and human gene sequences. Evolutionary conservation of usherin expression at the molecular level and in tissues unaffected by Usher 2a supports the important structural and functional role this protein plays in the human. In addition, we believe that these results could lead to a diagnostic procedure for the detection of Usher syndrome and those who carry an USH2A mutation.

  13. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Sulistyowati Sri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas and Pangolin (Manis javanica.for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  14. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Sulistyowati, Sri; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS) Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas) and Pangolin (Manis javanica).for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus) as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis) and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis) as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  15. RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Annual progress report for 1988

    Fruland, R.M.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the progress during 1988 of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects covering 16 hazardous waste facilities and 1 nonhazardous waste facility (the Solid Waste Landfill). Each of the projects is being conducted according to federal regulations based on the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the State of Washington Administrative Code. 21 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Biodiversity change is uncoupled from species richness trends : Consequences for conservation and monitoring

    Hillebrand, Helmut; Blasius, Bernd; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Chase, Jonathan M.; Downing, John A.; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hodapp, Dorothee; Larsen, Stefano; Lewandowska, Aleksandra M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Ryabov, Alexey B.

    Global concern about human impact on biological diversity has triggered an intense research agenda on drivers and consequences of biodiversity change in parallel with international policy seeking to conserve biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions. Quantifying the trends in biodiversity is

  17. Telomeric expression sites are highly conserved in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Christiane Hertz-Fowler

    Full Text Available Subtelomeric regions are often under-represented in genome sequences of eukaryotes. One of the best known examples of the use of telomere proximity for adaptive purposes are the bloodstream expression sites (BESs of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei. To enhance our understanding of BES structure and function in host adaptation and immune evasion, the BES repertoire from the Lister 427 strain of T. brucei were independently tagged and sequenced. BESs are polymorphic in size and structure but reveal a surprisingly conserved architecture in the context of extensive recombination. Very small BESs do exist and many functioning BESs do not contain the full complement of expression site associated genes (ESAGs. The consequences of duplicated or missing ESAGs, including ESAG9, a newly named ESAG12, and additional variant surface glycoprotein genes (VSGs were evaluated by functional assays after BESs were tagged with a drug-resistance gene. Phylogenetic analysis of constituent ESAG families suggests that BESs are sequence mosaics and that extensive recombination has shaped the evolution of the BES repertoire. This work opens important perspectives in understanding the molecular mechanisms of antigenic variation, a widely used strategy for immune evasion in pathogens, and telomere biology.

  18. Environmental DNA for freshwater fish monitoring: insights for conservation within a protected area

    Sara Fernandez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Many fish species have been introduced in wild ecosystems around the world to provide food or leisure, deliberately or from farm escapes. Some of those introductions have had large ecological effects. The north American native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 is one of the most widely farmed fish species in the world. It was first introduced in Spain in the late 19th century for sport fishing (Elvira 1995 and nowadays is used there for both fishing and aquaculture. On the other hand, the European native brown trout (Salmo trutta L. is catalogued as vulnerable in Spain. Detecting native and invasive fish populations in ecosystem monitoring is crucial, but it may be difficult from conventional sampling methods such as electrofishing. These techniques encompass some mortality, thus are not adequate for some ecosystems as the case of protected areas. Environmental DNA (eDNA analysis is a sensitive and non-invasive method that can be especially useful for rare and low-density species detection and inventory in water bodies. Methods In this study we employed two eDNA based methods (qPCR and nested PCR-RFLP to detect salmonid species from mountain streams within a protected area, The Biosphere Reserve and Natural Park of Redes (Upper Nalón Basin, Asturias, Northern Spain, where brown trout is the only native salmonid. We also measured some habitat variables to see how appropriate for salmonids the area is. The sampling area is located upstream impassable dams and contains one rainbow trout fish farm. Results Employing qPCR methodology, brown trout eDNA was detected in all the nine sampling sites surveyed, while nested PCR-RFLP method failed to detect it in two sampling points. Rainbow trout eDNA was detected with both techniques at all sites in the Nalón River’ (n1, n2 and n3. Salmonid habitat units and water quality were high from the area studied. Discussion In this study, a high quantity of rainbow trout eDNA was found

  19. Environmental DNA for freshwater fish monitoring: insights for conservation within a protected area.

    Fernandez, Sara; Sandin, Miguel M; Beaulieu, Paul G; Clusa, Laura; Martinez, Jose L; Ardura, Alba; García-Vázquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Many fish species have been introduced in wild ecosystems around the world to provide food or leisure, deliberately or from farm escapes. Some of those introductions have had large ecological effects. The north American native rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) is one of the most widely farmed fish species in the world. It was first introduced in Spain in the late 19th century for sport fishing (Elvira 1995) and nowadays is used there for both fishing and aquaculture. On the other hand, the European native brown trout ( Salmo trutta L.) is catalogued as vulnerable in Spain. Detecting native and invasive fish populations in ecosystem monitoring is crucial, but it may be difficult from conventional sampling methods such as electrofishing. These techniques encompass some mortality, thus are not adequate for some ecosystems as the case of protected areas. Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is a sensitive and non-invasive method that can be especially useful for rare and low-density species detection and inventory in water bodies. In this study we employed two eDNA based methods (qPCR and nested PCR-RFLP) to detect salmonid species from mountain streams within a protected area, The Biosphere Reserve and Natural Park of Redes (Upper Nalón Basin, Asturias, Northern Spain), where brown trout is the only native salmonid. We also measured some habitat variables to see how appropriate for salmonids the area is. The sampling area is located upstream impassable dams and contains one rainbow trout fish farm. Employing qPCR methodology, brown trout eDNA was detected in all the nine sampling sites surveyed, while nested PCR-RFLP method failed to detect it in two sampling points. Rainbow trout eDNA was detected with both techniques at all sites in the Nalón River' (n1, n2 and n3). Salmonid habitat units and water quality were high from the area studied. In this study, a high quantity of rainbow trout eDNA was found upstream and downstream of a fish farm located

  20. Radioactivity monitor for high-performance liquid chromatography

    Reeve, D.R.; Crozier, A.

    1977-01-01

    The coupling of a homogeneous radioactivity monitor to a liquid chromatograph involves compromises between the sensitivity of the monitor and the resolution and speed of analysis of the chromatograph. The theoretical relationships between these parameters are considered and expressions derived which make it possible to calculate suitable monitor operating conditions for most types of high-performance liquid chromatography

  1. Integration of species and ecosystem monitoring for selecting priority areas for biodiversity conservation: Case studies from the Palearctic of Russia

    Alexey A. Romanov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At the start of the third millennium, new opportunities have arisen in biogeographical research, namely in the generalisation, visualisation and cross-spectrum analysis of biological and geographical information and in the compilation of biogeographical maps and innovative models for regions that differ in the availability of distribution data. These tasks include long-term monitoring of plants and animals which are in danger of extinction, geographical analysis of biodiversity distribution and development of effective wildlife conservation strategies for specific regions. The studies of the Department of Biogeography of Moscow University on geography and biodiversity conservation are based on long-term field expeditions. The examples of the Asian Subarctic Mountains, the steppes of Central Kazakhstan and the urbanised north-west of Russia are used to illustrate Russian approaches to the use of biogeographical monitoring for the identification of priority areas for biodiversity conservation. The species populations of the higher plants and vertebrates listed in the Red Books have been considered as the basic units of biodiversity.

  2. Homologous high-throughput expression and purification of highly conserved E coli proteins

    Duchmann Rainer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic factors and a dysregulated immune response towards commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. Animal models demonstrated that the normal intestinal flora is crucial for the development of intestinal inflammation. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal flora, it has been difficult to design experiments for detection of proinflammatory bacterial antigen(s involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Several studies indicated a potential association of E. coli with IBD. In addition, T cell clones of IBD patients were shown to cross react towards antigens from different enteric bacterial species and thus likely responded to conserved bacterial antigens. We therefore chose highly conserved E. coli proteins as candidate antigens for abnormal T cell responses in IBD and used high-throughput techniques for cloning, expression and purification under native conditions of a set of 271 conserved E. coli proteins for downstream immunologic studies. Results As a standardized procedure, genes were PCR amplified and cloned into the expression vector pQTEV2 in order to express proteins N-terminally fused to a seven-histidine-tag. Initial small-scale expression and purification under native conditions by metal chelate affinity chromatography indicated that the vast majority of target proteins were purified in high yields. Targets that revealed low yields after purification probably due to weak solubility were shuttled into Gateway (Invitrogen destination vectors in order to enhance solubility by N-terminal fusion of maltose binding protein (MBP, N-utilizing substance A (NusA, or glutathione S-transferase (GST to the target protein. In addition, recombinant proteins were treated with polymyxin B coated magnetic beads in order to remove lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Thus, 73% of the targeted proteins could be expressed and purified in large-scale to give soluble proteins in the range of 500

  3. Visualization of conserved structures by fusing highly variable datasets.

    Silverstein, Jonathan C; Chhadia, Ankur; Dech, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Reality (VR) environment. The accuracy of the fusions was determined qualitatively by comparing the transformed atlas overlaid on the appropriate CT. It was examined for where the transformed structure atlas was incorrectly overlaid (false positive) and where it was incorrectly not overlaid (false negative). According to this method, fusions 1 and 2 were correct roughly 50-75% of the time, while fusions 3 and 4 were correct roughly 75-100%. The CT dataset augmented with transformed dataset was viewed arbitrarily in user-centered perspective stereo taking advantage of features such as scaling, windowing and volumetric region of interest selection. This process of auto-coloring conserved structures in variable datasets is a step toward the goal of a broader, standardized automatic structure visualization method for radiological data. If successful it would permit identification, visualization or deletion of structures in radiological data by semi-automatically applying canonical structure information to the radiological data (not just processing and visualization of the data's intrinsic dynamic range). More sophisticated selection of control points and patterns of warping may allow for more accurate transforms, and thus advances in visualization, simulation, education, diagnostics, and treatment planning.

  4. Strategies for the conservation monitoring of resident landbirds and wintering neotropical migrants in the Americas

    Steven C. Latta; C. John Ralph; Geoffrey R. Geupel

    2005-01-01

    Many international, regional, and local partner organizations have agreed in the need to establish long-term bird monitoring and research programs in the Americas. However, the challenge of developing national or international monitoring programs is difficult often because of the lack of qualified biologists or other resources in key regions. More fundamentally,...

  5. Analytic, high β, flux conserving equilibria for cylindrical tokamaks

    Sigmar, D.J.; Vahala, G.

    1978-09-01

    Using Grad's theory of generalized differential equations, the temporal evolution from low to high β due to ''adiabatic'' and nonadiabatic (i.e., neutral beam injection) heating of a cylindrical tokamak plasma with circular cross section and peaked current profiles is calculated analytically. The influence of shaping the initial safety factor profile and the beam deposition profile and the effect of minor radius compression on the equilibrium is analyzed

  6. Analytic, high β, flux conserving equilibria for cylindrical tokamaks

    Sigmar, D.J.; Vahala, G.

    1978-01-01

    Using Grad's theory of generalized differential equations, the temporal evolution from low to high β due to ''adiabatic'' and nonadiabatic (i.e., neutral beam injection) heating of a cylindrical tokamak plasma with circular cross section and peaked current profiles is calculated analytically. The influence of shaping the initial safety factor profile and the beam deposition profile and the effect of minor radius compression on the equilibrium is analyzed

  7. Grizzly bear monitoring by the Heiltsuk people as a crucible for First Nation conservation practice

    William G. Housty

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Guided by deeply held cultural values, First Nations in Canada are rapidly regaining legal authority to manage natural resources. We present a research collaboration among academics, tribal government, provincial and federal government, resource managers, conservation practitioners, and community leaders supporting First Nation resource authority and stewardship. First, we present results from a molecular genetics study of grizzly bears inhabiting an important conservation area within the territory of the Heiltsuk First Nation in coastal British Columbia. Noninvasive hair sampling occurred between 2006 and 2009 in the Koeye watershed, a stronghold for grizzly bears, salmon, and Heiltsuk people. Molecular demographic analyses revealed a regionally significant population of bears, which congregate at the Koeye each salmon-spawning season. There was a minimum of 57 individual bears detected during the study period. Results also pointed to a larger than expected source geography for salmon-feeding bears in the study area (> 1000 km², as well as early evidence of a declining trend in the bear population potentially explained by declining salmon numbers. Second, we demonstrate and discuss the power of integrating scientific research with a culturally appropriate research agenda developed by indigenous people. Guided explicitly by principles from Gvi'ilas or customary law, this research methodology is coupled with Heiltsuk culture, enabling results of applied conservation science to involve and resonate with tribal leadership in ways that have eluded previous scientific endeavors. In this context, we discuss the effectiveness of research partnerships that, from the outset, create both scientific programs and integrated communities of action that can implement change. We argue that indigenous resource management requires collaborative approaches like ours, in which science-based management is embedded within a socially and culturally appropriate

  8. All-in-one: a versatile gas sensor based on fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy for monitoring postharvest fruit conservation and ripening.

    Jochum, Tobias; Rahal, Leila; Suckert, Renè J; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2016-03-21

    In today's fruit conservation rooms the ripening of harvested fruit is delayed by precise management of the interior oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Ethylene (C2H4), a natural plant hormone, is commonly used to trigger fruit ripening shortly before entering the market. Monitoring of these critical process gases, also of the increasingly favored cooling agent ammonia (NH3), is a crucial task in modern postharvest fruit management. The goal of this work was to develop and characterize a gas sensor setup based on fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy for fast (time resolution of a few minutes) and non-destructive process gas monitoring throughout the complete postharvest production chain encompassing storage and transport in fruit conservation chambers as well as commercial fruit ripening in industrial ripening rooms. Exploiting a micro-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for analyte gas confinement and sensitivity enhancement, the sensor features simultaneous quantification of O2, CO2, NH3 and C2H4 without cross-sensitivity in just one single measurement. Laboratory measurements of typical fruit conservation gas mixtures showed that the sensor is capable of quantifying O2 and CO2 concentration levels with accuracy of 3% or less with respect to reference concentrations. The sensor detected ammonia concentrations, relevant for chemical alarm purposes. Due to the high spectral resolution of the gas sensor, ethylene could be quantified simultaneously with O2 and CO2 in a multi-component mixture. These results indicate that fiber enhanced Raman sensors have a potential to become universally usable on-site gas sensors for controlled atmosphere applications in postharvest fruit management.

  9. Sleep-Dependent Reductions in Reality-Monitoring Errors Arise from More Conservative Decision Criteria

    Westerberg, Carmen E.; Hawkins, Christopher A.; Rendon, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    Reality-monitoring errors occur when internally generated thoughts are remembered as external occurrences. We hypothesized that sleep-dependent memory consolidation could reduce them by strengthening connections between items and their contexts during an afternoon nap. Participants viewed words and imagined their referents. Pictures of the…

  10. Marsh Fritillary (Euphydryasaurinia) in the Czech Republic: monitoring, metapopulation structure, and conservation of an endangered butterfly

    Hůla, V.; Konvička, Martin; Pavlíčko, A.; Fric, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2004), s. 231-241 ISSN 0785-8760 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6007306; GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : monitoring * metapopulation structure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2004

  11. High-throughput sequencing, characterization and detection of new and conserved cucumber miRNAs.

    Germán Martínez

    Full Text Available Micro RNAS (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In plants, a great number of conserved and specific miRNAs, mainly arising from model species, have been identified to date. However less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in vegetal species with agricultural and/or horticultural importance. Here we report a combined approach of bioinformatics prediction, high-throughput sequencing data and molecular methods to analyze miRNAs populations in cucumber (Cucumis sativus plants. A set of 19 conserved and 6 known but non-conserved miRNA families were found in our cucumber small RNA dataset. We also identified 7 (3 with their miRNA* strand not previously described miRNAs, candidates to be cucumber-specific. To validate their description these new C. sativus miRNAs were detected by northern blot hybridization. Additionally, potential targets for most conserved and new miRNAs were identified in cucumber genome.In summary, in this study we have identified, by first time, conserved, known non-conserved and new miRNAs arising from an agronomically important species such as C. sativus. The detection of this complex population of regulatory small RNAs suggests that similarly to that observe in other plant species, cucumber miRNAs may possibly play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  12. High sensitivity on-line monitor for radioactive effluent

    Sasaki, Toshimi [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Sendai (Japan); Ishizuka, Akira; Abe, Eisuke; Inoue, Yasuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Doi, Akira

    1983-04-01

    A new approach for a highly sensitive effluent monitor is presented. The free flow type monitor, which consists of a straightener, nozzle, monitoring section and ..gamma..-ray detector, is demonstrated to be effective in providing long term stability. The 160 start-and-stop cycles of effluent discharge were repeated in a 120-h testing period. Results showed a background increase was not observed for the free flow type monitor. The background count rate was calibrated to the lowest detection limit to be 2.2 x 10/sup -2/ Bq/ml for a 300 s measurement time.

  13. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  14. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  15. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  16. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  17. Individual monitoring in high-energy stray radiation fields

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the lack of passive or active devices that could be considered as personal dosemeters in high-energy stray fields one can at present only perform individual monitoring around high energy accelerators. Of all detectors currently available it is shown that the NTA film is the most suitable method for individually monitoring the neutron exposure of more than 3000 persons regularly, reliably, and cost effectively like at CERN. (author)

  18. APPLICATION OF THE QUALITY NORMS TO THE MONITORING AND THE PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION ANALYSIS OF THE CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Massimo Andretta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the study of the indoor microclimate has assumed increasing importance, especially for the problems associated with the conservation of the cultural heritage housed in museums, galleries and libraries. In this paper, we describe the most important national standards relative to the procedures for the measurements and the analysis of the environmental conditions regarding the preservation of the works of art. These methods are related to the measurement techniques, which have to be applied for monitoring and analyzing the microclimatic conditions of museums, galleries and archives; these norms report, also, the threshold reference values for optimal climatic conditions. Furthermore, we present some considerations on the importance and on the foundations of the proposed scientific/methodological approaches. Finally, we have done a reasoned analysis on some reference values reported by the international regulations with some considerations on the possible chemical/physical mechanisms of degradation of the valuable objects.

  19. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  20. Using spatial mark-recapture for conservation monitoring of grizzly bear populations in Alberta.

    Boulanger, John; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2018-03-26

    One of the challenges in conservation is determining patterns and responses in population density and distribution as it relates to habitat and changes in anthropogenic activities. We applied spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods, combined with density surface modelling from five grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) management areas (BMAs) in Alberta, Canada, to assess SECR methods and to explore factors influencing bear distribution. Here we used models of grizzly bear habitat and mortality risk to test local density associations using density surface modelling. Results demonstrated BMA-specific factors influenced density, as well as the effects of habitat and topography on detections and movements of bears. Estimates from SECR were similar to those from closed population models and telemetry data, but with similar or higher levels of precision. Habitat was most associated with areas of higher bear density in the north, whereas mortality risk was most associated (negatively) with density of bears in the south. Comparisons of the distribution of mortality risk and habitat revealed differences by BMA that in turn influenced local abundance of bears. Combining SECR methods with density surface modelling increases the resolution of mark-recapture methods by directly inferring the effect of spatial factors on regulating local densities of animals.

  1. A conserved signaling network monitors delivery of sphingolipids to the plasma membrane in budding yeast.

    Clarke, Jesse; Dephoure, Noah; Horecka, Ira; Gygi, Steven; Kellogg, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    In budding yeast, cell cycle progression and ribosome biogenesis are dependent on plasma membrane growth, which ensures that events of cell growth are coordinated with each other and with the cell cycle. However, the signals that link the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis to membrane growth are poorly understood. Here we used proteome-wide mass spectrometry to systematically discover signals associated with membrane growth. The results suggest that membrane trafficking events required for membrane growth generate sphingolipid-dependent signals. A conserved signaling network appears to play an essential role in signaling by responding to delivery of sphingolipids to the plasma membrane. In addition, sphingolipid-dependent signals control phosphorylation of protein kinase C (Pkc1), which plays an essential role in the pathways that link the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis to membrane growth. Together these discoveries provide new clues as to how growth--dependent signals control cell growth and the cell cycle. © 2017 Clarke et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Balancing forest-regeneration probabilities and maintenance costs in dry grasslands of high conservation priority

    Bolliger, Janine; Edwards, Thomas C.; Eggenberg, Stefan; Ismail, Sascha; Seidl, Irmi; Kienast, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural land has resulted in forest regeneration in species-rich dry grasslands across European mountain regions and threatens conservation efforts in this vegetation type. To support national conservation strategies, we used a site-selection algorithm (MARXAN) to find optimum sets of floristic regions (reporting units) that contain grasslands of high conservation priority. We sought optimum sets that would accommodate 136 important dry-grassland species and that would minimize forest regeneration and costs of management needed to forestall predicted forest regeneration. We did not consider other conservation elements of dry grasslands, such as animal species richness, cultural heritage, and changes due to climate change. Optimal sets that included 95–100% of the dry grassland species encompassed an average of 56–59 floristic regions (standard deviation, SD 5). This is about 15% of approximately 400 floristic regions that contain dry-grassland sites and translates to 4800–5300 ha of dry grassland out of a total of approximately 23,000 ha for the entire study area. Projected costs to manage the grasslands in these optimum sets ranged from CHF (Swiss francs) 5.2 to 6.0 million/year. This is only 15–20% of the current total estimated cost of approximately CHF30–45 million/year required if all dry grasslands were to be protected. The grasslands of the optimal sets may be viewed as core sites in a national conservation strategy.

  3. High qualitative and quantitative conservation of alternative splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Irimia, Manuel; Mørk, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important contributor to proteome diversity and is regarded as an explanatory factor for the relatively low number of human genes compared with less complex animals. To assess the evolutionary conservation of AS and its developmental regulation, we have investigated...... the qualitative and quantitative expression of 21 orthologous alternative splice events through the development of 2 nematode species separated by 85-110 Myr of evolutionary time. We demonstrate that most of these alternative splice events present in Caenorhabditis elegans are conserved in Caenorhabditis briggsae....... Moreover, we find that relative isoform expression levels vary significantly during development for 78% of the AS events and that this quantitative variation is highly conserved between the 2 species. Our results suggest that AS is generally tightly regulated through development and that the regulatory...

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs and Artificial Intelligence Revolutionizing Wildlife Monitoring and Conservation

    Luis F. Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveying threatened and invasive species to obtain accurate population estimates is an important but challenging task that requires a considerable investment in time and resources. Estimates using existing ground-based monitoring techniques, such as camera traps and surveys performed on foot, are known to be resource intensive, potentially inaccurate and imprecise, and difficult to validate. Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, artificial intelligence and miniaturized thermal imaging systems represent a new opportunity for wildlife experts to inexpensively survey relatively large areas. The system presented in this paper includes thermal image acquisition as well as a video processing pipeline to perform object detection, classification and tracking of wildlife in forest or open areas. The system is tested on thermal video data from ground based and test flight footage, and is found to be able to detect all the target wildlife located in the surveyed area. The system is flexible in that the user can readily define the types of objects to classify and the object characteristics that should be considered during classification.

  5. Molecular tracing of confiscated pangolin scales for conservation and illegal trade monitoring in Southeast Asia

    Zhang, Huarong; Miller, Mark P.; Yang, Feng; Chan, Hon Ki; Gaubert, Philippe; Ades, Gary; Fischer, Gunter A

    2015-01-01

    Despite being protected by both international and national regulations, pangolins are threatened by illegal trade. Here we report mitochondrial DNA identification and haplotype richness estimation, using 239 pangolin scale samples from two confiscations in Hong Kong. We found a total of 13 genetically distinct cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) haplotypes in two confiscations (13 and ten haplotypes respectively, with ten shared haplotypes between confiscations). These haplotypes clustered in two distinct clades with one clade representing the Sunda pangolin (Manisjavanica). The other clade did not match with any known Asian pangolin sequences, and likely represented a cryptic pangolin lineage in Asia. By fitting sample coverage and rarefaction/regression models to our sample data, we predicted that the total number of COI haplotypes in two confiscations were 14.86 and 11.06 respectively, suggesting that our sampling caught the majority of haplotypes and that we had adequately characterized each confiscation. We detected substantial sequence divergence among the seized scales, likely evidencing that the Sunda pangolins were harvested over wide geographical areas across Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the value of applying DNA forensics for illegal wildlife trade monitoring.

  6. Molecular tracing of confiscated pangolin scales for conservation and illegal trade monitoring in Southeast Asia

    Huarong Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being protected by both international and national regulations, pangolins are threatened by illegal trade. Here we report mitochondrial DNA identification and haplotype richness estimation, using 239 pangolin scale samples from two confiscations in Hong Kong. We found a total of 13 genetically distinct cytochrome c oxidase I (COI haplotypes in two confiscations (13 and ten haplotypes respectively, with ten shared haplotypes between confiscations. These haplotypes clustered in two distinct clades with one clade representing the Sunda pangolin (Manisjavanica. The other clade did not match with any known Asian pangolin sequences, and likely represented a cryptic pangolin lineage in Asia. By fitting sample coverage and rarefaction/regression models to our sample data, we predicted that the total number of COI haplotypes in two confiscations were 14.86 and 11.06 respectively, suggesting that our sampling caught the majority of haplotypes and that we had adequately characterized each confiscation. We detected substantial sequence divergence among the seized scales, likely evidencing that the Sunda pangolins were harvested over wide geographical areas across Southeast Asia. Our study illustrates the value of applying DNA forensics for illegal wildlife trade monitoring.

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Artificial Intelligence Revolutionizing Wildlife Monitoring and Conservation.

    Gonzalez, Luis F; Montes, Glen A; Puig, Eduard; Johnson, Sandra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-14

    Surveying threatened and invasive species to obtain accurate population estimates is an important but challenging task that requires a considerable investment in time and resources. Estimates using existing ground-based monitoring techniques, such as camera traps and surveys performed on foot, are known to be resource intensive, potentially inaccurate and imprecise, and difficult to validate. Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), artificial intelligence and miniaturized thermal imaging systems represent a new opportunity for wildlife experts to inexpensively survey relatively large areas. The system presented in this paper includes thermal image acquisition as well as a video processing pipeline to perform object detection, classification and tracking of wildlife in forest or open areas. The system is tested on thermal video data from ground based and test flight footage, and is found to be able to detect all the target wildlife located in the surveyed area. The system is flexible in that the user can readily define the types of objects to classify and the object characteristics that should be considered during classification.

  8. Genes involved in complex adaptive processes tend to have highly conserved upstream regions in mammalian genomes

    Kohane Isaac

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genome sequencing suggest a remarkable conservation in gene content of mammalian organisms. The similarity in gene repertoire present in different organisms has increased interest in studying regulatory mechanisms of gene expression aimed at elucidating the differences in phenotypes. In particular, a proximal promoter region contains a large number of regulatory elements that control the expression of its downstream gene. Although many studies have focused on identification of these elements, a broader picture on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of different biological processes has not been addressed in mammals. The regulatory complexity may strongly correlate with gene function, as different evolutionary forces must act on the regulatory systems under different biological conditions. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the conservation of promoters upstream of genes classified in different functional categories. Results By conducting a rank correlation analysis between functional annotation and upstream sequence alignment scores obtained by human-mouse and human-dog comparison, we found a significantly greater conservation of the upstream sequence of genes involved in development, cell communication, neural functions and signaling processes than those involved in more basic processes shared with unicellular organisms such as metabolism and ribosomal function. This observation persists after controlling for G+C content. Considering conservation as a functional signature, we hypothesize a higher density of cis-regulatory elements upstream of genes participating in complex and adaptive processes. Conclusion We identified a class of functions that are associated with either high or low promoter conservation in mammals. We detected a significant tendency that points to complex and adaptive processes were associated with higher promoter conservation, despite the fact that they have emerged

  9. Cost-Effective Large-Scale Occupancy-Abundance Monitoring of Invasive Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus Vulpecula on New Zealand's Public Conservation Land.

    Andrew M Gormley

    Full Text Available There is interest in large-scale and unbiased monitoring of biodiversity status and trend, but there are few published examples of such monitoring being implemented. The New Zealand Department of Conservation is implementing a monitoring program that involves sampling selected biota at the vertices of an 8-km grid superimposed over the 8.6 million hectares of public conservation land that it manages. The introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus Vulpecula is a major threat to some biota and is one taxon that they wish to monitor and report on. A pilot study revealed that the traditional method of monitoring possums using leg-hold traps set for two nights, termed the Trap Catch Index, was a constraint on the cost and logistical feasibility of the monitoring program. A phased implementation of the monitoring program was therefore conducted to collect data for evaluating the trade-off between possum occupancy-abundance estimates and the costs of sampling for one night rather than two nights. Reducing trapping effort from two nights to one night along four trap-lines reduced the estimated costs of monitoring by 5.8% due to savings in labour, food and allowances; it had a negligible effect on estimated national possum occupancy but resulted in slightly higher and less precise estimates of relative possum abundance. Monitoring possums for one night rather than two nights would provide an annual saving of NZ$72,400, with 271 fewer field days required for sampling. Possums occupied 60% (95% credible interval; 53-68 of sampling locations on New Zealand's public conservation land, with a mean relative abundance (Trap Catch Index of 2.7% (2.0-3.5. Possum occupancy and abundance were higher in forest than in non-forest habitats. Our case study illustrates the need to evaluate relationships between sampling design, cost, and occupancy-abundance estimates when designing and implementing large-scale occupancy-abundance monitoring programs.

  10. Development of miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity

    Shi Huilu; Tuo Xianguo; Xi Dashun; Tang Rong; Mu Keliang; Yang Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity which design based on single chip microcomputer, it can continue monitoring γ dose rate and then choose wire or wireless communications to sent the monitoring data to host according to the actual conditions. It has two kinds of power supply system, AC power supply system and battery which can be chose by concrete circumstances. The design idea and implementation technology of hardware and software and the system structure of the monitor are detailed illustrated in this paper. The experimental results show that measurable range is 0.1 mR/h-200 mR/h, the sensitivity of γ is 90 cps/mR/h, dead time below 200 us, error of stability below ±10%. (authors)

  11. Monitoring of geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    2001-04-01

    Geological repositories for disposal of high level radioactive waste are designed to provide isolation of the waste from human environment for many thousands of years. This report discusses the possible purposes for monitoring geological repositories at the different stages of a repository programme, the use that may be made of the information obtained and the techniques that might be applied. This report focuses on the different objectives that monitoring might have at various stages of a programme, from the initiation of work on a candidate site, to the period after repository closure. Each objective may require somewhat different types of information, or may use the same information in different ways. Having evaluated monitoring requirements, the report concludes with a brief evaluation of available monitoring techniques

  12. Conservative Management for Stable High Ankle Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    Knapik, Derrick M; Trem, Anthony; Sheehan, Joseph; Salata, Michael J; Voos, James E

    High ankle "syndesmosis" injuries are common in American football players relative to the general population. At the professional level, syndesmotic sprains represent a challenging and unique injury lacking a standardized rehabilitation protocol during conservative management. PubMed, Biosis Preview, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and EMBASE databases were searched using the terms syndesmotic injuries, American football, conservative management, and rehabilitation. Clinical review. Level 3. When compared with lateral ankle sprains, syndesmosis injuries result in significantly prolonged recovery times and games lost. For stable syndesmotic injuries, conservative management features a brief period of immobilization and protected weightbearing followed by progressive strengthening exercises and running, and athletes can expect to return to competition in 2 to 6 weeks. Further research investigating the efficacy of dry needling and blood flow restriction therapy is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these techniques in the rehabilitation process. Successful conservative management of stable syndesmotic injuries in professional American football athletes requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy, injury mechanisms, diagnosis, and rehabilitation strategies utilized in elite athletes.

  13. Constrained dansyl derivatives reveal bacterial specificity of highly conserved thymidylate synthases.

    Calò, Sanuele; Tondi, Donatella; Ferrari, Stefania; Venturelli, Alberto; Ghelli, Stefano; Costi, Maria Paola

    2008-03-25

    The elucidation of the structural/functional specificities of highly conserved enzymes remains a challenging area of investigation, and enzymes involved in cellular replication are important targets for functional studies and drug discovery. Thymidylate synthase (TS, ThyA) governs the synthesis of thymidylate for use in DNA synthesis. The present study focused on Lactobacillus casei TS (LcTS) and Escherichia coli TS (EcTS), which exhibit 50 % sequence identity and strong folding similarity. We have successfully designed and validated a chemical model in which linear, but not constrained, dansyl derivatives specifically complement the LcTS active site. Conversely, chemically constrained dansyl derivatives showed up to 1000-fold improved affinity for EcTS relative to the inhibitory activity of linear derivatives. This study demonstrates that the accurate design of small ligands can uncover functional features of highly conserved enzymes.

  14. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    Guermond, J. L.

    2010-09-17

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  15. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    Guermond, J. L.; Pasquetti, R.

    2010-01-01

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  16. Birding for and with People: Integrating Local Participation in Avian Monitoring Programs within High Biodiversity Areas in Southern Mexico

    Humberto Berlanga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological monitoring is a powerful tool for understanding ecological patterns and processes, implementing sound management practices, and determining wildlife conservation strategies. In Mexico, regional long-term bird monitoring has been undertaken only over the last decade. Two comprehensive programs have incorporated bird monitoring as the main tool for assessing the impact of human productive activities on birds and habitats at local and regional levels: the Integrated Ecosystem Management (IEM and the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Mexico (CBMM. These programs are implemented in supremely important biodiverse regions in the southern and southeastern states of Mexico. Bird monitoring activities are based on the recruitment and participation of local people linked to sustainable productive projects promoted by the CBMM or IEM. Through a series of training workshops delivered by specialists, local monitors receive equipment and coordinate to become part of a large monitoring network that facilitates regional covertures. This data currently being obtained by local people will enable the mid- and long-term assessment of the impacts of sustainable human productive activities on birds and biodiversity. Community-based bird monitoring programs are a promising opportunity for enhancing scientific knowledge, improving sustainable practices, and supporting wildlife conservation in areas of high biodiversity.

  17. Highly conserved non-coding sequences are associated with vertebrate development.

    Adam Woolfe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to protein coding sequence, the human genome contains a significant amount of regulatory DNA, the identification of which is proving somewhat recalcitrant to both in silico and functional methods. An approach that has been used with some success is comparative sequence analysis, whereby equivalent genomic regions from different organisms are compared in order to identify both similarities and differences. In general, similarities in sequence between highly divergent organisms imply functional constraint. We have used a whole-genome comparison between humans and the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, to identify nearly 1,400 highly conserved non-coding sequences. Given the evolutionary divergence between these species, it is likely that these sequences are found in, and furthermore are essential to, all vertebrates. Most, and possibly all, of these sequences are located in and around genes that act as developmental regulators. Some of these sequences are over 90% identical across more than 500 bases, being more highly conserved than coding sequence between these two species. Despite this, we cannot find any similar sequences in invertebrate genomes. In order to begin to functionally test this set of sequences, we have used a rapid in vivo assay system using zebrafish embryos that allows tissue-specific enhancer activity to be identified. Functional data is presented for highly conserved non-coding sequences associated with four unrelated developmental regulators (SOX21, PAX6, HLXB9, and SHH, in order to demonstrate the suitability of this screen to a wide range of genes and expression patterns. Of 25 sequence elements tested around these four genes, 23 show significant enhancer activity in one or more tissues. We have identified a set of non-coding sequences that are highly conserved throughout vertebrates. They are found in clusters across the human genome, principally around genes that are implicated in the regulation of development

  18. A high arctic experience of uniting research and monitoring

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring is science keeping our thumb on the pulse of the environment to detect any changes of concern for societies. Basic science is the question-driven search for fundamental processes and mechanisms. Given the firm root of monitoring in human interests and needs, basic sciences have often been regarded as scientifically "purer"—particularly within university-based research communities. We argue that the dichotomy between "research" and "monitoring" is an artificial one, and that this artificial split clouds the definition of scientific goals and leads to suboptimal use of resources. We claim that the synergy between the two scientific approaches is well distilled by science conducted under extreme logistic constraints, when scientists are forced to take full advantage of both the data and the infrastructure available. In evidence of this view, we present our experiences from two decades of uniting research and monitoring at the remote research facility Zackenberg in High Arctic Greenland. For this site, we show how the combination of insights from monitoring with the mechanistic understanding obtained from basic research has yielded the most complete understanding of the system—to the benefit of all, and as an example to follow. We therefore urge scientists from across the continuum from monitoring to research to come together, to disregard old division lines, and to work together to expose a comprehensive picture of ecosystem change and its consequences.

  19. 20:60:20--differences in energy behaviour and conservation between and within households with electricity monitors.

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed.

  20. 20∶60∶20 - Differences in Energy Behaviour and Conservation between and within Households with Electricity Monitors

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed. PMID:24642946

  1. InSAR deformation monitoring of high risk landslides

    Singhroy, V.; Li, J.

    2013-05-01

    During the past year there were at least twenty five media reports of landslides and seismic activities some fatal, occurring in various areas in Canada. These high risk geohazards sites requires high resolution monitoring both spatially and temporally for mitigation purposes, since they are near populated areas and energy, transportation and communication corridors. High resolution air photos, lidar and satellite images are quite common in areas where the landslides can be fatal. Radar interferometry (InSAR) techniques using images from several radar satellites are increasingly being used in slope stability assessment. This presentation provides examples of using high-resolution (1-3m) frequent revisits InSAR techniques from RADARSAT 2 and TerraSAR X to monitor several types of high-risk landslides affecting transportation and energy corridors and populated areas. We have analyses over 200 high resolution InSAR images over a three year period on geologically different landslides. The high-resolution InSAR images are effective in characterizing differential motion within these low velocity landslides. The low velocity landslides become high risk during the active wet spring periods. The wet soils are poor coherent targets and corner reflectors provide an effective means of InSAR monitoring the slope activities.

  2. The highly reintegrative approach of electronic monitoring in the Netherlands

    Boone, M.M.; Kooij, van der M.; Rap, S.E.

    2017-01-01

    This contribution describes the way electronic monitoring (EM) is organized and implemented in the Netherlands. It will become clear that the situation in the Netherlands is characterized by, in particular, two features. The application of EM is highly interwoven with the Probation Service and its

  3. A Permanent Automated Real-Time Passive Acoustic Monitoring System for Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Marco Brunoldi

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the EU Life+ project named LIFE09 NAT/IT/000190 ARION, a permanent automated real-time passive acoustic monitoring system for the improvement of the conservation status of the transient and resident population of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus has been implemented and installed in the Portofino Marine Protected Area (MPA, Ligurian Sea. The system is able to detect the simultaneous presence of dolphins and boats in the area and to give their position in real time. This information is used to prevent collisions by diffusing warning messages to all the categories involved (tourists, professional fishermen and so on. The system consists of two gps-synchronized acoustic units, based on a particular type of marine buoy (elastic beacon, deployed about 1 km off the Portofino headland. Each one is equipped with a four-hydrophone array and an onboard acquisition system which can record the typical social communication whistles emitted by the dolphins and the sound emitted by boat engines. Signals are pre-filtered, digitized and then broadcast to the ground station via wi-fi. The raw data are elaborated to get the direction of the acoustic target to each unit, and hence the position of dolphins and boats in real time by triangulation.

  4. Using Spatial Information Technologies as Monitoring Devices in International Watershed Conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa

    Yaw A. Twumasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies—Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing—in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region’s entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing

  5. Using spatial information technologies as monitoring devices in international watershed conservation along the Senegal River Basin of West Africa.

    Merem, Edmund C; Twumasi, Yaw A

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present the applications of spatial technologies-Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing-in the international monitoring of river basins particularly analyzing the ecological, hydrological, and socio-economic issues along the Senegal River. The literature on multinational water crisis has for decades focused on mediation aspects of trans-boundary watershed management resulting in limited emphasis placed on the application of advances in geo-spatial information technologies in multinational watershed conservation in the arid areas of the West African sub-region within the Senegal River Basin for decision-making and monitoring. While the basin offers life support in a complex ecosystem that stretches across different nations in a mostly desert region characterized by water scarcity and subsistence economies, there exists recurrent environmental stress induced by both socio-economic and physical factors. Part of the problems consists of flooding, drought and limited access to sufficient quantities of water. These remain particularly sensitive issues that are crucial for the health of a rapidly growing population and the economy. The problems are further compounded due to the threats of climate change and the resultant degradation of almost the region's entire natural resources base. While the pace at which the institutional framework for managing the waters offers opportunities for hydro electricity and irrigated agriculture through the proliferation of dams, it has raised other serious concerns in the region. Even where data exists for confronting these issues, some of them are incompatible and dispersed among different agencies. This not only widens the geo-spatial data gaps, but it hinders the ability to monitor water problems along the basin. This study will fill that gap in research through mix scale methods built on descriptive statistics, GIS and remote sensing techniques by generating spatially referenced data to supplement

  6. High Temperature Transducers for Online Monitoring of Microstructure Evolution

    Lissenden, Cliff [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Tittmann, Bernhard [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-30

    A critical technology gap exists relative to online condition monitoring (CM) of advanced nuclear plant components for damage accumulation; there are not capable sensors and infrastructure available for the high temperature environment. The sensory system, monitoring methodology, data acquisition, and damage characterization algorithm that comprise a CM system are investigated here. Thus this work supports the DOE mission to develop a fundamental understanding of advanced sensors to improve physical measurement accuracy and reduce uncertainty. The research involves a concept viability assessment, a detailed technology gap analysis, and a technology development roadmap.

  7. Low level neutron monitoring using high pressure 3He detectors

    Pszona, S.

    1995-01-01

    Three detectors, two spherical proportional counters and an ionisation chamber, all filled with 3 He to pressures of 160 kPa, 325 kPa and 1 MPa respectively have been experimentally studied with respect to their use for low level neutron monitoring. The ambient dose equivalent responses and the energy resolutions of these detectors have been determined. It is shown that spectral analysis of the signals from these detectors not only gives high sensitivity with regard to ambient dose equivalent but also improves the quality of the measurements. A special instrumentation for low level neutron monitoring is described in which a quality control method has been implemented. (Author)

  8. High resolution and simultaneous monitoring of airborne radionuclides

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Muguntha Manikandan, N.; Komura, K.

    2005-01-01

    By using 11 extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory, it became possible to investigate temporal variations of airborne 212 Pb (T 1/2 =10.6 h) along with 210 Pb and 7 Be with order of magnitude higher time resolution. Then, we have measured airborne nuclides at three monitoring points, (1) roof of our laboratory (LLRL; 40 m ASL), (2) Shinshiku Plateau (640 m ASL) located about 8 km from LLRL as a comparison of vertical distribution, and (3) Hegura Island (10 m ASL) at about 50 km from Wajima located north of Noto Peninsula facing on the Sea of Japan (about 180 km to the north-northeast of LLRL), to investigate influence of Asian continent. Airborne nuclides were collected by high volume air samplers at intervals of a few hours at either two or three points simultaneously. In the same manner, high resolution monitoring was carried out also at the time of passage of typhoon and cold front. In this study, we observed drastic temporal variations of airborne radionuclides and correlations of multiple monitoring points. The results indicate that high resolution and simultaneous monitoring is very useful to understand dynamic state of variations of airborne nuclides due to short and long-term air-mass movement. (author)

  9. Beam position monitors for the high brightness lattice

    Ring, T.

    1985-06-01

    Engineering developments associated with the high brightness lattice and the projected change in machine operating parameters will inherently affect the diagnostics systems and devices installed at present in the storage ring. This is particularly true of the beam position monitoring (BPI) system. The new sixteen unit cell lattice with its higher betatron tune values and the limited space available in the redesigned machine straights for fitting standard BPI vessels forces a fundamental re-evaluation of the beam position monitor system. The design aims for the new system are based on accepting the space limitations imposed while still providing the monitor points required to give good radial and vertical closed orbit plots. The locations of BPI's in the redesigned machine straights is illustrated. A description of the new BPI assemblies and their calibration is given. The BPI's use capacitance button type pick-ups; their response is described. (U.K.)

  10. The conservation pattern of short linear motifs is highly correlated with the function of interacting protein domains

    Wang Yiguo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many well-represented domains recognize primary sequences usually less than 10 amino acids in length, called Short Linear Motifs (SLiMs. Accurate prediction of SLiMs has been difficult because they are short (often Results Our combined approach revealed that SLiMs are highly conserved in proteins from functional classes that are known to interact with a specific domain, but that they are not conserved in most other protein groups. We found that SLiMs recognized by SH2 domains were highly conserved in receptor kinases/phosphatases, adaptor molecules, and tyrosine kinases/phosphatases, that SLiMs recognized by SH3 domains were highly conserved in cytoskeletal and cytoskeletal-associated proteins, that SLiMs recognized by PDZ domains were highly conserved in membrane proteins such as channels and receptors, and that SLiMs recognized by S/T kinase domains were highly conserved in adaptor molecules, S/T kinases/phosphatases, and proteins involved in transcription or cell cycle control. We studied Tyr-SLiMs recognized by SH2 domains in more detail, and found that SH2-recognized Tyr-SLiMs on the cytoplasmic side of membrane proteins are more highly conserved than those on the extra-cellular side. Also, we found that SH2-recognized Tyr-SLiMs that are associated with SH3 motifs and a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif are more highly conserved. Conclusion The interactome of protein domains is reflected by the evolutionary conservation of SLiMs recognized by these domains. Combining scoring matrixes derived from peptide libraries and conservation analysis, we would be able to find those protein groups that are more likely to interact with specific domains.

  11. Species Richness and Community Structure on a High Latitude Reef: Implications for Conservation and Management

    Wayne Houston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wealth of research on the Great Barrier Reef, few detailed biodiversity assessments of its inshore coral communities have been conducted. Effective conservation and management of marine ecosystems begins with fine-scale biophysical assessments focused on diversity and the architectural species that build the structural framework of the reef. In this study, we investigate key coral diversity and environmental attributes of an inshore reef system surrounding the Keppel Bay Islands near Rockhampton in Central Queensland, Australia, and assess their implications for conservation and management. The Keppels has much higher coral diversity than previously found. The average species richness for the 19 study sites was ~40 with representatives from 68% of the ~244 species previously described for the southern Great Barrier Reef. Using scleractinian coral species richness, taxonomic distinctiveness and coral cover as the main criteria, we found that five out of 19 sites had particularly high conservation value. A further site was also considered to be of relatively high value. Corals at this site were taxonomically distinct from the others (representatives of two families were found here but not at other sites and a wide range of functionally diverse taxa were present. This site was associated with more stressful conditions such as high temperatures and turbidity. Highly diverse coral communities or biodiversity ‘hotspots’ and taxonomically distinct reefs may act as insurance policies for climatic disturbance, much like Noah’s Arks for reefs. While improving water quality and limiting anthropogenic impacts are clearly important management initiatives to improve the long-term outlook for inshore reefs, identifying, mapping and protecting these coastal ‘refugia’ may be the key for ensuring their regeneration against catastrophic climatic disturbance in the meantime.

  12. Computation and Analysis of High Rocky Slope Safety in a Water Conservancy Project

    Meng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated method, covering the actual monitoring analysis, practical geological model, and theoretical mathematical simulation model, is systematically proposed and successfully applied. Deformation characteristic of a unique high rocky slope was firstly analyzed from multiple angles and multiple layers by changeable elevations and distances. Arrangements of monitoring points were listed and monitoring equipment was designed to comprise a complete monitoring system. Present larger displacement was concluded for bottom larger displacement caused by water erosion and middle larger displacement formed by seepage. Temporal and spatial displacements rule study of multiple-points linkage effects with water factor proved this conclusion. To better excavate useful message and analyze the deep rule from the practical monitoring data, the slope geological model was conducted and rock mechanic parameters were researched. Finally, a unique three-dimensional finite element model was applied to approach the structure character using numerical simulations. The corresponding strength criterion was used to determine the safety coefficient by selecting a typical section. Subsequently, an integrated three-dimensional finite element model of the slope and dam was developed and more detailed deformation evolution mechanism was revealed. This study is expected to provide a powerful and systematic method to analyze very high, important, and dangerous slopes.

  13. Corrosion monitoring using high-frequency guided ultrasonic waves

    Fromme, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion develops due to adverse environmental conditions during the life cycle of a range of industrial structures, e.g., offshore oil platforms, ships, and desalination plants. Both pitting corrosion and generalized corrosion leading to wall thickness loss can cause the degradation of the structural integrity. The nondestructive detection and monitoring of corrosion damage in difficult to access areas can be achieved using high frequency guided waves propagating along the structure from accessible areas. Using standard ultrasonic transducers with single sided access to the structure, guided wave modes were generated that penetrate through the complete thickness of the structure. The wave propagation and interference of the different guided wave modes depends on the thickness of the structure. Laboratory experiments were conducted and the wall thickness reduced by consecutive milling of the steel structure. Further measurements were conducted using accelerated corrosion in a salt water bath and the damage severity monitored. From the measured signal change due to the wave mode interference the wall thickness reduction was monitored. The high frequency guided waves have the potential for corrosion damage monitoring at critical and difficult to access locations from a stand-off distance.

  14. Impact of local empowerment on conservation practices in a highly developed country

    Engen, Sigrid; Hausner, Vera Helene

    2017-01-01

    Source at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/conl.12369 Community-based conservation, where local decision makers are responsible for balancing conservation and development, is often preferred to exclusion- ary conservation that prioritizes use-limitation through strict regulation. Un- raveling the evidence for conservation impact of different governance regimes is challenging. Focusing on conservation practices before and after a reform can provide an early indication of behaviora...

  15. Model My Watershed: A high-performance cloud application for public engagement, watershed modeling and conservation decision support

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Mayorga, E.; McFarland, M.; Robbins, A.; Haag, S.; Shokoufandeh, A.; Evans, B. M.; Arscott, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Model My Watershed Web app (https://app.wikiwatershed.org/) and the BiG-CZ Data Portal (http://portal.bigcz.org/) and are web applications that share a common codebase and a common goal to deliver high-performance discovery, visualization and analysis of geospatial data in an intuitive user interface in web browser. Model My Watershed (MMW) was designed as a decision support system for watershed conservation implementation. BiG CZ Data Portal was designed to provide context and background data for research sites. Users begin by creating an Area of Interest, via an automated watershed delineation tool, a free draw tool, selection of a predefined area such as a county or USGS Hydrological Unit (HUC), or uploading a custom polygon. Both Web apps visualize and provide summary statistics of land use, soil groups, streams, climate and other geospatial information. MMW then allows users to run a watershed model to simulate different scenarios of human impacts on stormwater runoff and water-quality. BiG CZ Data Portal allows users to search for scientific and monitoring data within the Area of Interest, which also serves as a prototype for the upcoming Monitor My Watershed web app. Both systems integrate with CUAHSI cyberinfrastructure, including visualizing observational data from CUAHSI Water Data Center and storing user data via CUAHSI HydroShare. Both systems also integrate with the new EnviroDIY Water Quality Data Portal (http://data.envirodiy.org/), a system for crowd-sourcing environmental monitoring data using open-source sensor stations (http://envirodiy.org/mayfly/) and based on the Observations Data Model v2.

  16. Use of ancient sedimentary DNA as a novel conservation tool for high-altitude tropical biodiversity.

    Boessenkool, Sanne; McGlynn, Gayle; Epp, Laura S; Taylor, David; Pimentel, Manuel; Gizaw, Abel; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Brochmann, Christian; Popp, Magnus

    2014-04-01

    Conservation of biodiversity may in the future increasingly depend upon the availability of scientific information to set suitable restoration targets. In traditional paleoecology, sediment-based pollen provides a means to define preanthropogenic impact conditions, but problems in establishing the exact provenance and ecologically meaningful levels of taxonomic resolution of the evidence are limiting. We explored the extent to which the use of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) may complement pollen data in reconstructing past alpine environments in the tropics. We constructed a record of afro-alpine plants retrieved from DNA preserved in sediment cores from 2 volcanic crater sites in the Albertine Rift, eastern Africa. The record extended well beyond the onset of substantial anthropogenic effects on tropical mountains. To ensure high-quality taxonomic inference from the sedaDNA sequences, we built an extensive DNA reference library covering the majority of the afro-alpine flora, by sequencing DNA from taxonomically verified specimens. Comparisons with pollen records from the same sediment cores showed that plant diversity recovered with sedaDNA improved vegetation reconstructions based on pollen records by revealing both additional taxa and providing increased taxonomic resolution. Furthermore, combining the 2 measures assisted in distinguishing vegetation change at different geographic scales; sedaDNA almost exclusively reflects local vegetation, whereas pollen can potentially originate from a wide area that in highlands in particular can span several ecozones. Our results suggest that sedaDNA may provide information on restoration targets and the nature and magnitude of human-induced environmental changes, including in high conservation priority, biodiversity hotspots, where understanding of preanthropogenic impact (or reference) conditions is highly limited. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. High spatial resolution mapping of land cover types in a priority area for conservation in the Brazilian savanna

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Hess, L. L.; Davis, F. W.; Caylor, K. K.; Nackoney, J.; Antunes Daldegan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Savannas are heterogeneous landscapes consisting of highly mixed land cover types that lack clear distinct boundaries. The Brazilian Cerrado is a Neotropical savanna considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation due to its biodiversity richness and rapid transformation of its landscape by crop and pasture activities. The Cerrado is one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes and only 2.2% of its original extent is strictly protected. Accurate mapping and monitoring of its ecosystems and adjacent land use are important to select areas for conservation and to improve our understanding of the dynamics in this biome. Land cover mapping of savannas is difficult due to spectral similarity between land cover types resulting from similar vegetation structure, floristically similar components, generalization of land cover classes, and heterogeneity usually expressed as small patch sizes within the natural landscape. These factors are the major contributor to misclassification and low map accuracies among remote sensing studies in savannas. Specific challenges to map the Cerrado's land cover types are related to the spectral similarity between classes of land use and natural vegetation, such as natural grassland vs. cultivated pasture, and forest ecosystem vs. crops. This study seeks to classify and evaluate the land cover patterns across an area ranked as having extremely high priority for future conservation in the Cerrado. The main objective of this study is to identify the representativeness of each vegetation type across the landscape using high to moderate spatial resolution imagery using an automated scheme. A combination of pixel-based and object-based approaches were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types. The random forest classifier was used to map the major ecosystems present across the area, and demonstrated to have an effective result with 68% of overall accuracy. Post

  18. Proteome-wide mapping of the Drosophila acetylome demonstrates a high degree of conservation of lysine acetylation

    Weinert, Brian T; Wagner, Sebastian A; Horn, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by acetylation and phosphorylation regulates most cellular processes in living organisms. Surprisingly, the evolutionary conservation of phosphorylated serine and threonine residues is only marginally higher than that of unmodified serines and threonines....... With high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 1981 lysine acetylation sites in the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster. We used data sets of experimentally identified acetylation and phosphorylation sites in Drosophila and humans to analyze the evolutionary conservation of these modification sites...... between flies and humans. Site-level conservation analysis revealed that acetylation sites are highly conserved, significantly more so than phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, comparison of lysine conservation in Drosophila and humans with that in nematodes and zebrafish revealed that acetylated lysines...

  19. Reshaping conservation

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  20. Monitoring of newborns at high risk for brain injury

    Pisani, Francesco; Spagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of surviving preterm newborns and to the recognition of therapeutic hypothermia as the current gold standard in newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, there has been a growing interest in the implementation of brain monitoring tools in newborns at high risk for neurological disorders. Among the most frequent neurological conditions and presentations in the neonatal period, neonatal seizures and neonatal status epilepticus, paroxysmal non-epileptic motor p...

  1. High power beam profile monitor with optical transition radiation

    Denard, J.C.; Piot, P.; Capek, K.; Feldl, E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple monitor has been built to measure the profile of the high power beam (800 kW) delivered by the CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab. The monitor uses the optical part of the forward transition radiation emitted from a thin carbon foil. The small beam size to be measured, about 100 μm, is challenging not only for the power density involved but also for the resolution the instrument must achieve. An important part of the beam instrumentation community believes the radiation being emitted into a cone of characteristic angle 1/γ is originated from a region of transverse dimension roughly λγ; thus the apparent size of the source of transition radiation would become very large for highly relativistic particles. This monitor measures 100 μm beam sizes that are much smaller than the 3.2 mm λγ limit; it confirms the statement of Rule and Fiorito that optical transition radiation can be used to image small beams at high energy. The present paper describes the instrument and its performance. The authors tested the foil in, up to 180 μA of CW beam without causing noticeable beam loss, even at 800 MeV, the lowest CEBAF energy

  2. Low-Intensity Agricultural Landscapes in Transylvania Support High Butterfly Diversity: Implications for Conservation

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  3. High-order conservative discretizations for some cases of the rigid body motion

    Kozlov, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Modified vector fields can be used to construct high-order structure-preserving numerical integrators for ordinary differential equations. In the present Letter we consider high-order integrators based on the implicit midpoint rule, which conserve quadratic first integrals. It is shown that these integrators are particularly suitable for the rigid body motion with an additional quadratic first integral. In this case high-order integrators preserve all four first integrals of motion. The approach is illustrated on the Lagrange top (a rotationally symmetric rigid body with a fixed point on the symmetry axis). The equations of motion are considered in the space fixed frame because in this frame Lagrange top admits a neat description. The Lagrange top motion includes the spherical pendulum and the planar pendulum, which swings in a vertical plane, as particular cases

  4. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  5. Traveling waves and conservation laws for highly nonlinear wave equations modeling Hertz chains

    Przedborski, Michelle; Anco, Stephen C.

    2017-09-01

    A highly nonlinear, fourth-order wave equation that models the continuum theory of long wavelength pulses in weakly compressed, homogeneous, discrete chains with a general power-law contact interaction is studied. For this wave equation, all solitary wave solutions and all nonlinear periodic wave solutions, along with all conservation laws, are derived. The solutions are explicitly parameterized in terms of the asymptotic value of the wave amplitude in the case of solitary waves and the peak of the wave amplitude in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. All cases in which the solution expressions can be stated in an explicit analytic form using elementary functions are worked out. In these cases, explicit expressions for the total energy and total momentum for all solutions are obtained as well. The derivation of the solutions uses the conservation laws combined with an energy analysis argument to reduce the wave equation directly to a separable first-order differential equation that determines the wave amplitude in terms of the traveling wave variable. This method can be applied more generally to other highly nonlinear wave equations.

  6. Corrosion monitoring using high-frequency guided waves

    Fromme, P.

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion can develop due to adverse environmental conditions during the life cycle of a range of industrial structures, e.g., offshore oil platforms, ships, and desalination plants. Generalized corrosion leading to wall thickness loss can cause the reduction of the strength and thus degradation of the structural integrity. The monitoring of corrosion damage in difficult to access areas can be achieved using high frequency guided waves propagating along the structure from accessible areas. Using standard ultrasonic wedge transducers with single sided access to the structure, guided wave modes were selectively generated that penetrate through the complete thickness of the structure. The wave propagation and interference of the different guided wave modes depends on the thickness of the structure. Laboratory experiments were conducted for wall thickness reduction due to milling of the steel structure. From the measured signal changes due to the wave mode interference the reduced wall thickness was monitored. Good agreement with theoretical predictions was achieved. The high frequency guided waves have the potential for corrosion damage monitoring at critical and difficult to access locations from a stand-off distance.

  7. Unattented mode monitoring of high resolution gamma-ray spectra

    Smith, B.G.R.; Van Dyck, P.; Debraix, P.

    1991-01-01

    An Isotope Monitoring System (IMS) for unattended spectrum acquisition is described. This consists of a simple low cost flexible software package running on a Compaq 80386 and controlling up to 4 Canberra Packard System 100 multi-channel analyzer (MCA) cards. The IMS permits the independent configuration of each of the 4 MCA cards for different monitoring cycles and for different spectrum acquisition cycles each being based upon different trigger criteria. In this way IMS is able to automatically identify events, time tag them, and acquire and store valid spectra corresponding to those event. An additional feature of IMS permits to run a Multigroup Analysis (MGA) software package for the determination of plutonium isotopic compositions in batch mode. One particular application is discussed which consists of 4 high resolution gamma-ray detector systems connected together to the IMS for unattended spectrum acquisition. The off-line batch mode analysis of the spectra using MGA is also discussed

  8. [Monitoring evaluation system for high-specialty hospitals].

    Fajardo Dolci, Germán; Aguirre Gas, Héctor G; Robledo Galván, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Hospital evaluation is a fundamental process to identify medical units' objective compliance, to analyze efficiency of resource use and allocation, institutional values and mission alignment, patient safety and quality standards, contributions to research and medical education, and the degree of coordination among medical units and the health system as a whole. We propose an evaluation system for highly specialized regional hospitals through the monitoring of performance indicators. The following are established as base thematic elements in the construction of indicators: safe facilities and equipment, financial situation, human resources management, policy management, organizational climate, clinical activity, quality and patient safety, continuity of care, patients' and providers' rights and obligations, teaching, research, social responsibility, coordination mechanisms. Monitoring refers to the planned and systematic evaluation of valid and reliable indicators, aimed at identifying problems and opportunity areas. Moreover, evaluation is a powerful tool to strengthen decision-making and accountability in medical units.

  9. Advanced targeted monitoring of high temperature components in power plants

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Jovanovic, A. [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article presents the idea of targeted monitoring of high-temperature pressurized components in fossil-fueled power plants, implemented within a modular software system and using, in addition to pressure and temperature data, also displacement and strain measurement data. The concept has been implemented as a part of a more complex company-oriented Internet/Intranet system of MPA Stuttgart (ALIAS). ALIAS enables to combine smoothly the monitoring results with those of the off-line analysis, e. g. sensitivity analyses, comparison with preceding experience (case studies), literature search, search in material databases -(experimental and standard data), nonlinear FE-analysis, etc. The concept and the system have been implemented in real plant conditions several power plants in Germany and Europe: one of these applications and its results are described more in detail in the presentation. (orig.) 9 refs.

  10. Oxide thickness measurement for monitoring fuel performance at high burnup

    Jaeger, M.A.; Van Swam, L.F.P.; Brueck-Neufeld, K.

    1991-01-01

    For on-site monitoring of the fuel performance at high burnup, Advanced Nuclear Fuels uses the linear scan eddy current method to determine the oxide thickness of irradiated Zircaloy fuel cans. Direct digital data acquisition methods are employed to collect the data on magnetic storage media. This field-proven methodology allows oxide thickness measurements and rapid interpretation of the data during the reactor outages and makes it possible to immediately reinsert the assemblies for the next operating cycle. The accuracy of the poolside measurements and data acquisition/interpretation techniques have been verified through hot cell metallographic measurements of rods previously measured in the fuel pool. The accumulated data provide a valuable database against which oxide growth models have been benchmarked and allow for effective monitoring of fuel performance. (orig.) [de

  11. Advanced targeted monitoring of high temperature components in power plants

    Roos, E; Maile, K; Jovanovic, A [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    The article presents the idea of targeted monitoring of high-temperature pressurized components in fossil-fueled power plants, implemented within a modular software system and using, in addition to pressure and temperature data, also displacement and strain measurement data. The concept has been implemented as a part of a more complex company-oriented Internet/Intranet system of MPA Stuttgart (ALIAS). ALIAS enables to combine smoothly the monitoring results with those of the off-line analysis, e. g. sensitivity analyses, comparison with preceding experience (case studies), literature search, search in material databases -(experimental and standard data), nonlinear FE-analysis, etc. The concept and the system have been implemented in real plant conditions several power plants in Germany and Europe: one of these applications and its results are described more in detail in the presentation. (orig.) 9 refs.

  12. MtDNA COI-COII marker and drone congregation area: an efficient method to establish and monitor honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) conservation centres.

    Bertrand, Bénédicte; Alburaki, Mohamed; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Mougel, Florence; Garnery, Lionel

    2015-05-01

    Honeybee subspecies have been affected by human activities in Europe over the past few decades. One such example is the importation of nonlocal subspecies of bees which has had an adverse impact on the geographical repartition and subsequently on the genetic diversity of the black honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera. To restore the original diversity of this local honeybee subspecies, different conservation centres were set up in Europe. In this study, we established a black honeybee conservation centre Conservatoire de l'Abeille Noire d'Ile de France (CANIF) in the region of Ile-de-France, France. CANIF's honeybee colonies were intensively studied over a 3-year period. This study included a drone congregation area (DCA) located in the conservation centre. MtDNA COI-COII marker was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of CANIF's honeybee populations and the drones found and collected from the DCA. The same marker (mtDNA) was used to estimate the interactions and the haplotype frequency between CANIF's honeybee populations and 10 surrounding honeybee apiaries located outside of the CANIF. Our results indicate that the colonies of the conservation centre and the drones of the DCA show similar stable profiles compared to the surrounding populations with lower level of introgression. The mtDNA marker used on both DCA and colonies of the conservation centre seems to be an efficient approach to monitor and maintain the genetic diversity of the protected honeybee populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Determining the drivers of population structure in a highly urbanized landscape to inform conservation planning.

    Thomassen, Henri A; Harrigan, Ryan J; Semple Delaney, Kathleen; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Pease, Katherine; Wayne, Robert K; Smith, Thomas B

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the environmental contributors to population structure is of paramount importance for conservation in urbanized environments. We used spatially explicit models to determine genetic population structure under current and future environmental conditions across a highly fragmented, human-dominated environment in Southern California to assess the effects of natural ecological variation and urbanization. We focused on 7 common species with diverse habitat requirements, home-range sizes, and dispersal abilities. We quantified the relative roles of potential barriers, including natural environmental characteristics and an anthropogenic barrier created by a major highway, in shaping genetic variation. The ability to predict genetic variation in our models differed among species: 11-81% of intraspecific genetic variation was explained by environmental variables. Although an anthropogenically induced barrier (a major highway) severely restricted gene flow and movement at broad scales for some species, genetic variation seemed to be primarily driven by natural environmental heterogeneity at a local level. Our results show how assessing environmentally associated variation for multiple species under current and future climate conditions can help identify priority regions for maximizing population persistence under environmental change in urbanized regions. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. A highly conserved tyrosine of Tim-3 is phosphorylated upon stimulation by its ligand galectin-9

    Weyer, Philipp S. van de; Muehlfeit, Michael; Klose, Christoph; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Walz, Gerd; Kuehn, E. Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Tim-3 is a member of the TIM family of proteins (T-cell immunoglobulin mucin) involved in the regulation of CD4+ T-cells. Tim-3 is a T H 1-specific type 1 membrane protein and regulates T H 1 proliferation and the development of tolerance. Binding of galectin-9 to the extracellular domain of Tim-3 results in apoptosis of T H 1 cells, but the intracellular pathways involved in the regulatory function of Tim-3 are unknown. Unlike Tim-1, which is expressed in renal epithelia and cancer, Tim-3 has not been described in cells other than neuronal or T-cells. Using RT-PCR we demonstrate that Tim-3 is expressed in malignant and non-malignant epithelial tissues. We have cloned Tim-3 from an immortalized liver cell carcinoma line and identified a highly conserved tyrosine in the intracellular tail of Tim-3 (Y265). We demonstrate that Y265 is specifically phosphorylated in vivo by the interleukin inducible T cell kinase (ITK), a kinase which is located in close proximity of the TIM genes on the allergy susceptibility locus 5q33.3. Stimulation of Tim-3 by its ligand galectin-9 results in increased phosphorylation of Y265, suggesting that this tyrosine residue plays an important role in downstream signalling events regulating T-cell fate. Given the role of TIM proteins in autoimmunity and cancer, the conserved SH2 binding domain surrounding Y265 could represent a possible target site for pharmacological intervention

  15. An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

    Austin, Kemen G.; Lee, Michelle E.; Clark, Connie; Forester, Brenna R.; Urban, Dean L.; White, Lee; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Poulsen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion strategy, while simultaneously committing to minimize negative environmental impacts of oil palm agriculture. This study estimates the extent and location of suitable land for oil palm cultivation in Gabon, based on an analysis of recent trends in plantation permitting. We use the resulting suitability map to evaluate two proposed approaches to minimizing negative environmental impacts: a High Carbon Stock (HCS) approach, which emphasizes forest protection and climate change mitigation, and a High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, which focuses on safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystems. We quantify the forest area, carbon stock, and biodiversity resources protected under each approach, using newly developed maps of priority species distributions and forest biomass for Gabon. We find 2.7-3.9 Mha of suitable or moderately suitable land that avoid HCS areas, 4.4 million hectares (Mha) that avoid HCV areas, and 1.2-1.7 Mha that avoid both. This suggests that Gabon’s oil palm production target could likely be met without compromising important ecosystem services, if appropriate safeguards are put in place. Our analysis improves understanding of suitability for oil palm in Gabon, determines how conservation strategies align with national targets for oil palm production, and informs national land use planning.

  16. Long-term monitoring data provide evidence of declining species richness in a river valued for biodiversity conservation

    Freeman, Mary C.; Hagler, Megan M.; Bumpers, Phillip M.; Wheeler, Kit; Wengerd, Seth J.; Freeman, Byron J.

    2017-01-01

    Free-flowing river segments provide refuges for many imperiled aquatic biota that have been extirpated elsewhere in their native ranges. These biodiversity refuges are also foci of conservation concerns because species persisting within isolated habitat fragments may be particularly vulnerable to local environmental change. We have analyzed long-term (14- and 20-y) survey data to assess evidence of fish species declines in two southeastern U.S. rivers where managers and stakeholders have identified potentially detrimental impacts of current and future land uses. The Conasauga River (Georgia and Tennessee) and the Etowah River (Georgia) form free-flowing headwaters of the extensively dammed Coosa River system. These rivers are valued in part because they harbor multiple species of conservation concern, including three federally endangered and two federally threatened fishes. We used data sets comprising annual surveys for fish species at multiple, fixed sites located at river shoals to analyze occupancy dynamics and temporal changes in species richness. Our analyses incorporated repeated site-specific surveys in some years to estimate and account for incomplete species detection, and test for species-specific (rarity, mainstem-restriction) and year-specific (elevated frequencies of low- or high-flow days) covariates on occupancy dynamics. In the Conasauga River, analysis of 26 species at 13 sites showed evidence of temporal declines in colonization rates for nearly all taxa, accompanied by declining species richness. Four taxa (including one federally endangered species) had reduced occupancy across the Conasauga study sites, with three of these taxa apparently absent for at least the last 5 y of the study. In contrast, a similar fauna of 28 taxa at 10 sites in the Etowah River showed no trends in species persistence, colonization, or occupancy. None of the tested covariates showed strong effects on persistence or colonization rates in either river. Previous studies

  17. Research and Monitoring Special Use Permit [Minnesota Zoo's Prairie Butterfly Conservation Program on Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge : 2016

    Department of the Interior — The Minnesota Zoo’s Prairie Butterfly Conservation Program partners with numerous federal, state, and local agencies to establish the world’s first and only ex situ...

  18. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  19. Design and realization of high voltage disconnector condition monitoring system

    Shi, Jinrui; Xu, Tianyang; Yang, Shuixian; Li, Buoyang

    2017-08-01

    The operation status of the high voltage disconnector directly affects the safe and stable operation of the power system. This article uses the wireless frequency hopping communication technology of the communication module to achieve the temperature acquisition of the switch contacts and high voltage bus, to introduce the current value of the loop in ECS, and judge the operation status of the disconnector by considering the ambient temperature, calculating the temperature rise; And through the acquisition of the current of drive motor in the process of switch closing and opening, and fault diagnosis of the disconnector by analyzing the change rule of the drive motor current, the condition monitoring of the high voltage disconnector is realized.

  20. A high resolution, single bunch, beam profile monitor

    Norem, J.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient linear colliders require very small beam spots to produce high luminosities with reasonable input power, which limits the number of electrons which can be accelerated to high energies. The small beams, in turn, require high precision and stability in all accelerator components. Producing, monitoring and maintaining beams of the required quality has been, and will continue to be, difficult. A beam monitoring system which could be used to measure beam profile, size and stability at the final focus of a beamline or collider has been developed and is described here. The system uses nonimaging bremsstrahlung optics. The immediate use for this system would be examining the final focus spot at the SLAC/FFTB. The primary alternatives to this technique are those proposed by P. Chen / J. Buon, which analyses the energy and angular distributions of ion recoils to determine the aspect ratio of the electron bunch, and a method proposed by Shintake, which measures intensity variation of compton backscattered photons as the beam is moved across a pattern of standing waves produced by a laser

  1. Data on electrical energy conservation using high efficiency motors for the confidence bounds using statistical techniques.

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Memon, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Manzoor

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we describe details of the data used in the research paper "Confidence bounds for energy conservation in electric motors: An economical solution using statistical techniques" [1]. The data presented in this paper is intended to show benefits of high efficiency electric motors over the standard efficiency motors of similar rating in the industrial sector of Pakistan. We explain how the data was collected and then processed by means of formulas to show cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors in terms of three important parameters: annual energy saving, cost saving and payback periods. This data can be further used to construct confidence bounds for the parameters using statistical techniques as described in [1].

  2. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, ranging from 52,166 to 72,133 transcripts per assembly. We have also predicted a set of proteins and validated it with a high-confidence protein database from three closely related species (H. vulgare, B. distachyon and O. sativa). We have obtained gene family...... clusters for the four species using OrthoMCL and analyzed their inferred phylogenetic relationships. Our results indicate that VRN2 is a candidate gene for differentiating vernalization and non-vernalization types in the Lolium-Festuca complex. Grouping of the gene families based on their BLAST identity...... enabled us to divide ortholog groups into those that are very conserved and those that are more evolutionarily relaxed. The ratio of the non-synonumous to synonymous substitutions enabled us to pinpoint protein sequences evolving in response to positive selection. These proteins may explain some...

  3. Cortical cytasters: a highly conserved developmental trait of Bilateria with similarities to Ctenophora

    Salinas-Saavedra Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytasters (cytoplasmic asters are centriole-based nucleation centers of microtubule polymerization that are observable in large numbers in the cortical cytoplasm of the egg and zygote of bilaterian organisms. In both protostome and deuterostome taxa, cytasters have been described to develop during oogenesis from vesicles of nuclear membrane that move to the cortical cytoplasm. They become associated with several cytoplasmic components, and participate in the reorganization of cortical cytoplasm after fertilization, patterning the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral body axes. Presentation of the hypothesis The specific resemblances in the development of cytasters in both protostome and deuterostome taxa suggest that an independent evolutionary origin is unlikely. An assessment of published data confirms that cytasters are present in several protostome and deuterostome phyla, but are absent in the non-bilaterian phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora. We hypothesize that cytasters evolved in the lineage leading to Bilateria and were already present in the most recent common ancestor shared by protostomes and deuterostomes. Thus, cytasters would be an ancient and highly conserved trait that is homologous across the different bilaterian phyla. The alternative possibility is homoplasy, that is cytasters have evolved independently in different lineages of Bilateria. Testing the hypothesis So far, available published information shows that appropriate observations have been made in eight different bilaterian phyla. All of them present cytasters. This is consistent with the hypothesis of homology and conservation. However, there are several important groups for which there are no currently available data. The hypothesis of homology predicts that cytasters should be present in these groups. Increasing the taxonomic sample using modern techniques uniformly will test for evolutionary patterns supporting homology, homoplasy, or secondary loss of

  4. A highly conserved amino acid in VP1 regulates maturation of enterovirus 71.

    Yong-Xin Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in children, causing severe clinical outcomes and even death. Here, we report an important role of the highly conserved alanine residue at position 107 in the capsid protein VP1 (VP1A107 in the efficient replication of EV71. Substitutional mutations of VP1A107 significantly diminish viral growth kinetics without significant effect on viral entry, expression of viral genes and viral production. The results of mechanistic studies reveal that VP1A107 regulates the efficient cleavage of the VP0 precursor during EV71 assembly, which is required, in the next round of infection, for the transformation of the mature virion (160S into an intermediate or A-particle (135S, a key step of virus uncoating. Furthermore, the results of molecular dynamic simulations and hydrogen-bond networks analysis of VP1A107 suggest that flexibility of the VP1 BC loop or the region surrounding the VP1107 residue directly correlates with viral infectivity. It is possible that sufficient flexibility of the region surrounding the VP1107 residue favors VP0 conformational change that is required for the efficient cleavage of VP0 as well as subsequent viral uncoating and viral replication. Taken together, our data reveal the structural role of the highly conserved VP1A107 in regulating EV71 maturation. Characterization of this novel determinant of EV71 virulence would promote the study on pathogenesis of Enteroviruses.

  5. CpG methylation differences between neurons and glia are highly conserved from mouse to human.

    Kessler, Noah J; Van Baak, Timothy E; Baker, Maria S; Laritsky, Eleonora; Coarfa, Cristian; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-01-15

    Understanding epigenetic differences that distinguish neurons and glia is of fundamental importance to the nascent field of neuroepigenetics. A recent study used genome-wide bisulfite sequencing to survey differences in DNA methylation between these two cell types, in both humans and mice. That study minimized the importance of cell type-specific differences in CpG methylation, claiming these are restricted to localized genomic regions, and instead emphasized that widespread and highly conserved differences in non-CpG methylation distinguish neurons and glia. We reanalyzed the data from that study and came to markedly different conclusions. In particular, we found widespread cell type-specific differences in CpG methylation, with a genome-wide tendency for neuronal CpG-hypermethylation punctuated by regions of glia-specific hypermethylation. Alarmingly, our analysis indicated that the majority of genes identified by the primary study as exhibiting cell type-specific CpG methylation differences were misclassified. To verify the accuracy of our analysis, we isolated neuronal and glial DNA from mouse cortex and performed quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing at nine loci. The pyrosequencing results corroborated our analysis, without exception. Most interestingly, we found that gene-associated neuron vs. glia CpG methylation differences are highly conserved across human and mouse, and are very likely to be functional. In addition to underscoring the importance of independent verification to confirm the conclusions of genome-wide epigenetic analyses, our data indicate that CpG methylation plays a major role in neuroepigenetics, and that the mouse is likely an excellent model in which to study the role of DNA methylation in human neurodevelopment and disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Evolutionary conservation of essential and highly expressed genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Scharfe Maren

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The constant increase in development and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics poses a serious threat to human health. New sequencing technologies are now on the horizon that will yield massive increases in our capacity for DNA sequencing and will revolutionize the drug discovery process. Since essential genes are promising novel antibiotic targets, the prediction of gene essentiality based on genomic information has become a major focus. Results In this study we demonstrate that pooled sequencing is applicable for the analysis of sequence variations of strain collections with more than 10 individual isolates. Pooled sequencing of 36 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates revealed that essential and highly expressed proteins evolve at lower rates, whereas extracellular proteins evolve at higher rates. We furthermore refined the list of experimentally essential P. aeruginosa genes, and identified 980 genes that show no sequence variation at all. Among the conserved nonessential genes we found several that are involved in regulation, motility and virulence, indicating that they represent factors of evolutionary importance for the lifestyle of a successful environmental bacterium and opportunistic pathogen. Conclusion The detailed analysis of a comprehensive set of P. aeruginosa genomes in this study clearly disclosed detailed information of the genomic makeup and revealed a large set of highly conserved genes that play an important role for the lifestyle of this microorganism. Sequencing strain collections enables for a detailed and extensive identification of sequence variations as potential bacterial adaptation processes, e.g., during the development of antibiotic resistance in the clinical setting and thus may be the basis to uncover putative targets for novel treatment strategies.

  7. A guide to calculating habitat-quality metrics to inform conservation of highly mobile species

    Bieri, Joanna A.; Sample, Christine; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Earl, Julia E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Federico, Paula; Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Semmens, Darius J.; Skraber, T.; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady J.

    2018-01-01

    Many metrics exist for quantifying the relative value of habitats and pathways used by highly mobile species. Properly selecting and applying such metrics requires substantial background in mathematics and understanding the relevant management arena. To address this multidimensional challenge, we demonstrate and compare three measurements of habitat quality: graph-, occupancy-, and demographic-based metrics. Each metric provides insights into system dynamics, at the expense of increasing amounts and complexity of data and models. Our descriptions and comparisons of diverse habitat-quality metrics provide means for practitioners to overcome the modeling challenges associated with management or conservation of such highly mobile species. Whereas previous guidance for applying habitat-quality metrics has been scattered in diversified tracks of literature, we have brought this information together into an approachable format including accessible descriptions and a modeling case study for a typical example that conservation professionals can adapt for their own decision contexts and focal populations.Considerations for Resource ManagersManagement objectives, proposed actions, data availability and quality, and model assumptions are all relevant considerations when applying and interpreting habitat-quality metrics.Graph-based metrics answer questions related to habitat centrality and connectivity, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify basic spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require the least data.Occupancy-based metrics answer questions about likelihood of persistence or colonization, are suitable for populations that undergo localized extinctions, quantify spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require a moderate amount of data.Demographic-based metrics answer questions about relative or absolute population size, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify demographic

  8. Habitat Re-Creation (Ecological Restoration) as a Strategy for Conserving Insect Communities in Highly Fragmented Landscapes.

    Shuey, John A

    2013-12-05

    Because of their vast diversity, measured by both numbers of species as well as life history traits, insects defy comprehensive conservation planning. Thus, almost all insect conservation efforts target individual species. However, serious insect conservation requires goals that are set at the faunal level and conservation success requires strategies that conserve intact communities. This task is complicated in agricultural landscapes by high levels of habitat fragmentation and isolation. In many regions, once widespread insect communities are now functionally trapped on islands of ecosystem remnants and subject to a variety of stressors associated with isolation, small population sizes and artificial population fragmentation. In fragmented landscapes ecological restoration can be an effective strategy for reducing localized insect extinction rates, but insects are seldom included in restoration design criteria. It is possible to incorporate a few simple conservation criteria into restoration designs that enhance impacts to entire insect communities. Restoration can be used as a strategy to address fragmentation threats to isolated insect communities if insect communities are incorporated at the onset of restoration planning. Fully incorporating insect communities into restoration designs may increase the cost of restoration two- to three-fold, but the benefits to biodiversity conservation and the ecological services provided by intact insect communities justify the cost.

  9. Real-time database for high resolution neutron monitor measurements

    Steigies, Christian T.; Rother, Oliver M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Heber, Bernd [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide network of standardised neutron monitors is, after 50 years, still the state-of-the-art instrumentation to measure spectral variations of the primary cosmic ray component. These measurements are an ideal complement to space based cosmic ray measurements. Data from the approximately 50 IGY and NM64 neutron monitors is stored locally but also available through data collections sites like the World Data Center (WDC) or the IZMIRAN ftp server. The data from the WDC is in a standard format, but only hourly values are available. IZMIRAN collects the data in the best available time resolution, but the data arrives on the ftp server only hours, sometimes days, after the measurements. Also, the high time-resolution measurements of the different stations do not have a common format, a conversion routine for each station is needed before they can be used for scientific analysis. Supported by the 7th framework program of the European Commission, we are setting up a real-time database where high resolution cosmic ray measurements will be stored and accessible immediately after the measurement. Stations that do not have 1-minute resolution measurements will be upgraded to 1-minute or better resolution with an affordable standard registration system, that will submit the measurements to the database via the internet in real-time.

  10. Image thresholding in the high resolution target movement monitor

    Moss, Randy H.; Watkins, Steve E.; Jones, Tristan H.; Apel, Derek B.; Bairineni, Deepti

    2009-03-01

    Image thresholding in the High Resolution Target Movement Monitor (HRTMM) is examined. The HRTMM was developed at the Missouri University of Science and Technology to detect and measure wall movements in underground mines to help reduce fatality and injury rates. The system detects the movement of a target with sub-millimeter accuracy based on the images of one or more laser dots projected on the target and viewed by a high-resolution camera. The relative position of the centroid of the laser dot (determined by software using thresholding concepts) in the images is the key factor in detecting the target movement. Prior versions of the HRTMM set the image threshold based on a manual, visual examination of the images. This work systematically examines the effect of varying threshold on the calculated centroid position and describes an algorithm for determining a threshold setting. First, the thresholding effects on the centroid position are determined for a stationary target. Plots of the centroid positions as a function of varying thresholds are obtained to identify clusters of thresholds for which the centroid position does not change for stationary targets. Second, the target is moved away from the camera in sub-millimeter increments and several images are obtained at each position and analyzed as a function of centroid position, target movement and varying threshold values. With this approach, the HRTMM can accommodate images in batch mode without the need for manual intervention. The capability for the HRTMM to provide automated, continuous monitoring of wall movement is enhanced.

  11. Butterflies of the high altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    Emma eDespland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 500 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats as well as in high and low altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life-history strategies and relationships with host plants.

  12. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-07-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1 nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 μrad over a dynamic range of approximately ±20 μm.

  13. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-01-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10 12 ). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data

  14. Passive and Active Monitoring on a High Performance Research Network.

    Matthews, Warren

    2001-05-01

    The bold network challenges described in ''Internet End-to-end Performance Monitoring for the High Energy and Nuclear Physics Community'' presented at PAM 2000 have been tackled by the intrepid administrators and engineers providing the network services. After less than a year, the BaBar collaboration has collected almost 100 million particle collision events in a database approaching 165TB (Tera=10{sup 12}). Around 20TB has been exported via the Internet to the BaBar regional center at IN2P3 in Lyon, France, for processing and around 40 TB of simulated events have been imported to SLAC from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An unforseen challenge has arisen due to recent events and highlighted security concerns at DoE funded labs. New rules and regulations suggest it is only a matter of time before many active performance measurements may not be possible between many sites. Yet, at the same time, the importance of understanding every aspect of the network and eradicating packet loss for high throughput data transfers has become apparent. Work at SLAC to employ passive monitoring using netflow and OC3MON is underway and techniques to supplement and possibly replace the active measurements are being considered. This paper will detail the special needs and traffic characterization of a remarkable research project, and how the networking hurdles have been resolved (or not!) to achieve the required high data throughput. Results from active and passive measurements will be compared, and methods for achieving high throughput and the effect on the network will be assessed along with tools that directly measure throughput and applications used to actually transfer data.

  15. Cosmetic results in early stage breast cancer patients with high-dose brachytherapy after conservative surgery

    Torres, Felipe; Pineda, Beatriz E

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: to reveal cosmetic results in patients at early stages of low risk breast cancer treated with partial accelerated radiotherapy using high dose rate brachytherapy. Methods and materials: from March 2001 to July 2003,14 stages l and ll breast cancer patients were treated at the Colombian national cancer institute in Bogota with conservative surgery and radiotherapy upon the tumor bed (partial accelerated radiotherapy), using interstitial implants with iridium 192 (high dose rate brachytherapy) with a dose of 32 Gys, over 4 days, at 8 fractions twice a day. Results: with an average follow up of 17.7 months, good cosmetic results were found among 71.4 % of patients and excellent results among 14.3% of patients, furthermore none of the patients neither local nor regional or distant relapses. Conclusion: among patients who suffer from breast cancer at early stages, it showed is possible to apply partial accelerated radiotherapy upon the tumor bed with high doses over 4 days with good to excellent cosmetic results

  16. Small non-flying mammals from conserved and altered areas of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado: comments on their potencial use for monitoring environment

    BONVICINO C. R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Atlantic Forests and two Cerrado areas in Brazil were sampled for non-flying small mammal fauna. In each biome one area with altered and another with almost unaltered vegetation (national parks, were chosen to investigate these fauna. Species richness of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado was comparable in the conserved as well as in the altered areas. Data suggested that species could be divided into different ecological categories according to distribution, use of altered and/or relatively unaltered vegetation and habitat specificity. Within these ecological categories some species are appropriate indicators for monitoring environmental quality and degradation. Useful guidelines for wildlife management planning, including selecting areas for conservation units and their better boundary delimitation can ensue.

  17. Small non-flying mammals from conserved and altered areas of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado: comments on their potencial use for monitoring environment

    C. R. BONVICINO

    Full Text Available Two Atlantic Forests and two Cerrado areas in Brazil were sampled for non-flying small mammal fauna. In each biome one area with altered and another with almost unaltered vegetation (national parks, were chosen to investigate these fauna. Species richness of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado was comparable in the conserved as well as in the altered areas. Data suggested that species could be divided into different ecological categories according to distribution, use of altered and/or relatively unaltered vegetation and habitat specificity. Within these ecological categories some species are appropriate indicators for monitoring environmental quality and degradation. Useful guidelines for wildlife management planning, including selecting areas for conservation units and their better boundary delimitation can ensue.

  18. Designing monitoring for conservation impact assessment in water funds in Latin America: an approach to address water-data scarcity (Invited)

    Nelson, J. L.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Ziv, G.; Wolny, S.; Vogl, A. L.; Tallis, H.; Bremer, L.

    2013-12-01

    The risk of water scarcity is a rising threat in a rapidly changing world. Communities and investors are using the new institution of water funds to enact conservation practices in watersheds to bolster a clean, predictable water supply for multiple stakeholders. Water funds finance conservation activities to support water-related ecosystem services, and here we relate our work to develop innovative approaches to experimental design of monitoring programs to track the effectiveness of water funds throughout Latin America. We highlight two examples: the Fund for the Protection of Water (FONAG), in Quito, Ecuador, and Water for Life, Agua por la Vida, in Cali, Colombia. Our approach is meant to test whether a) water funds' restoration and protection actions result in changes in water quality and/or quantity at the site scale and the subwatershed scale, and b) the suite of investments for the whole water fund reach established goals for improving water quality and/or quantity at the basin scale or point of use. Our goal is to create monitoring standards for ecosystem-service assessment and clearly demonstrate translating those standards to field implementation in a statistically robust and cost-effective way. In the gap between data-intensive methods requiring historic, long-term water sampling and more subjective, ad hoc assessments, we have created a quantitative, land-cover-based approach to pairing conservation activity with appropriate controls in order to determine the impact of water-fund actions. To do so, we use a statistical approach in combination with open-source tools developed by the Natural Capital Project to optimize water funds' investments in nature and assess ecosystem-service provision (Resource Investment Optimization System, RIOS, and InVEST). We report on the process of identifying micro-, subwatershed or watershed matches to serve as controls for conservation 'impact' sites, based on globally-available land cover, precipitation, and soil data

  19. Swertia chirayta, a Threatened High-Value Medicinal Herb: Microhabitats and Conservation Challenges in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Bharat Kumar Pradhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of threats, identifying favorable growing conditions, and predicting future population scenarios are vital for the conservation and management of threatened species. This study investigated the availability, microhabitat characteristics, threat status, and community associations of Swertia chirayta, a highly threatened Himalayan medicinal herb, in 22 populations in Sikkim, India, using the vertical belt transect method. Of the 14 microhabitats identified, open grassy slope emerged as the most favorable and wet grassy slope as the least favorable for S. chirayta. The species was dominant in 8 of the 10 major plant communities identified. Among 9 major types of disturbance identified, human movement and collection of non-timber forest products appeared as the biggest threats to S. chirayta. Disturbances significantly affected the availability of the species. S. chirayta, though under high anthropogenic threat, maintains high microhabitat pliability, which is vital for its conservation and management, provided immediate conservation measures are taken.

  20. Evaluation of highly conserved hsp65-specific nested PCR primers for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Priyadarshini, P; Tiwari, K; Das, A; Kumar, D; Mishra, M N; Desikan, P; Nath, G

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a new nested set of primers designed for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex targeting a highly conserved heat shock protein gene (hsp65). The nested primers were designed using multiple sequence alignment assuming the nucleotide sequence of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv hsp65 genome as base. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium species along with other non-mycobacterial and fungal species were included to evaluate the specificity of M. tuberculosis hsp65 gene-specific primers. The sensitivity of the primers was determined using serial 10-fold dilutions, and was 100% as shown by the bands in the case of M. tuberculosis complex. None of the other non M. tuberculosis complex bacterial and fungal species yielded any band on nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The first round of amplification could amplify 0.3 ng of the template DNA, while nested PCR could detect 0.3 pg. The present hsp65-specific primers have been observed to be sensitive, specific and cost-effective, without requiring interpretation of biochemical tests, real-time PCR, sequencing or high-performance liquid chromatography. These primer sets do not have the drawbacks associated with those protocols that target insertion sequence 6110, 16S rDNA, rpoB, recA and MPT 64.

  1. A highly conserved basidiomycete peptide synthetase produces a trimeric hydroxamate siderophore.

    Brandenburger, Eileen; Gressler, Markus; Leonhardt, Robin; Lackner, Gerald; Habel, Andreas; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2017-08-25

    The model white-rot basidiomycete Ceriporiopsis ( Gelatoporia ) subvermispora B encodes putative natural product biosynthesis genes. Among them is the gene for the seven-domain nonribosomal peptide synthetase CsNPS2. It is a member of the as-yet uncharacterized fungal type VI siderophore synthetase family which is highly conserved and widely distributed among the basidiomycetes. These enzymes include only one adenylation (A) domain, i.e., one complete peptide synthetase module and two thiolation/condensation (T-C) di-domain partial modules which, together, constitute an AT 1 C 1 T 2 C 2 T 3 C 3 domain setup. The full-length CsNPS2 enzyme (274.5 kDa) was heterologously produced as polyhistidine fusion in Aspergillus niger as soluble and active protein. N 5 -acetyl- N 5 -hydroxy-l-ornithine (l-AHO) and N 5 - cis -anhydromevalonyl- N 5 -hydroxy-l-ornithine (l-AMHO) were accepted as substrates, as assessed in vitro using the substrate-dependent [ 32 P]ATP-pyrophosphate radioisotope exchange assay. Full-length holo -CsNPS2 catalyzed amide bond formation between three l-AHO molecules to release the linear l-AHO trimer, called basidioferrin, as product in vitro , which was verified by LC-HRESIMS. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that type VI family siderophore synthetases are widespread in mushrooms and have evolved in a common ancestor of basidiomycetes. Importance : The basidiomycete nonribosomal peptide synthetase CsNPS2 represents a member of a widely distributed but previously uninvestigated class (type VI) of fungal siderophore synthetases. Genes orthologous to CsNPS2 are highly conserved across various phylogenetic clades of the basidiomycetes. Hence, our work serves as a broadly applicable model for siderophore biosynthesis and iron metabolism in higher fungi. Also, our results on the amino acid substrate preference of CsNPS2 supports further understanding of the substrate selectivity of fungal adenylation domains. Methodologically, this report highlights the

  2. Differential Regulation of Receptor Activation and Agonist Selectivity by Highly Conserved Tryptophans in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding Site

    Williams, Dustin K.; Stokes, Clare; Horenstein, Nicole A.; Papke, Roger L.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown previously that a highly conserved Tyr in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligand-binding domain (LBD) (α7 Tyr188 or α4 Tyr195) differentially regulates the activity of acetylcholine (ACh) and the α7-selective agonist 3-(4-hydroxy,2-methoxybenzylidene)anabaseine (4OH-GTS-21) in α4β2 and α7 nAChR. In this study, we mutated two highly conserved LBD Trp residues in human α7 and α4β2 and expressed the receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes. α7 Re...

  3. Forest bird monitoring protocol for strategic habitat conservation and endangered species management on O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Island of O'ahu, Hawai'i

    Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Banko, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot forest bird survey and a consequent forest bird monitoring protocol that was developed for the O'ahu Forest National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. The pilot survey was conducted to inform aspects of the monitoring protocol and to provide a baseline with which to compare future surveys on the Refuge. The protocol was developed in an adaptive management framework to track bird distribution and abundance and to meet the strategic habitat conservation requirements of the Refuge. Funding for this research was provided through a Science Support Partnership grant sponsored jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS).

  4. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  5. Long-term monitoring for conservation management: Lessons from a case study integrating remote sensing and field approaches in floodplain forests.

    Rodríguez-González, Patricia María; Albuquerque, António; Martínez-Almarza, Miguel; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    Implementing long-term monitoring programs that effectively inform conservation plans is a top priority in environmental management. In floodplain forests, historical pressures interplay with the complex multiscale dynamics of fluvial systems and require integrative approaches to pinpoint drivers for their deterioration and ecosystem services loss. Combining a conceptual framework such as the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) with the development of valid biological indicators can contribute to the analysis of the driving forces and their effects on the ecosystem in order to formulate coordinated conservation measures. In the present study, we evaluate the initial results of a decade (2004-2014) of floodplain forest monitoring. We adopted the DPSIR framework to summarize the main drivers in land use and environmental change, analyzed the effects on biological indicators of foundation trees and compared the consistency of the main drivers and their effects at two spatial scales. The monitoring program was conducted in one of the largest and best preserved floodplain forests in SW Europe located within Doñana National Park (Spain) which is dominated by Salix atrocinerea and Fraxinus angustifolia. The program combined field (in situ) surveys on a network of permanent plots with several remote sensing sources. The accuracy obtained in spectral classifications allowed shifts in species cover across the whole forest to be detected and assessed. However, remote sensing did not reflect the ecological status of forest populations. The field survey revealed a general decline in Salix populations, especially in the first five years of sampling -a factor probably associated with a lag effect from past human impact on the hydrology of the catchment and recent extreme climatic episodes (drought). In spite of much reduced seed regeneration, a resprouting strategy allows long-lived Salix individuals to persist in complex spatial dynamics. This suggests the beginning

  6. Acacia shrubs respond positively to high severity wildfire: Implications for conservation and fuel hazard management.

    Gordon, Christopher E; Price, Owen F; Tasker, Elizabeth M; Denham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    High severity wildfires pose threats to human assets, but are also perceived to impact vegetation communities because a small number of species may become dominant immediately after fire. However there are considerable gaps in our knowledge about species-specific responses of plants to different fire severities, and how this influences fuel hazard in the short and long-term. Here we conduct a floristic survey at sites before and two years after a wildfire of unprecedented size and severity in the Warrumbungle National Park (Australia) to explore relationships between post-fire growth of a fire responsive shrub genera (Acacia), total mid-story vegetation cover, fire severity and fuel hazard. We then survey 129 plots surrounding the park to assess relationships between mid-story vegetation cover and time-since-fire. Acacia species richness and cover were 2.3 and 4.3 times greater at plots after than before the fire. However the same common dominant species were present throughout the study. Mid-story vegetation cover was 1.5 times greater after than before the wildfire, and Acacia species contribution to mid-story cover increased from 10 to 40%. Acacia species richness was not affected by fire severity, however strong positive associations were observed between Acacia and total mid-story vegetation cover and severity. Our analysis of mid-story vegetation recovery showed that cover was similarly high between 2 and 30years post-fire, then decreased until 52years. Collectively, our results suggest that Acacia species are extremely resilient to high severity wildfire and drive short to mid-term increases in fuel hazard. Our results are discussed in relation to fire regime management from the twin perspectives of conserving biodiversity and mitigating human losses due to wildfire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A dominant EV71-specific CD4+ T cell epitope is highly conserved among human enteroviruses.

    Ruicheng Wei

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in determining the immunopathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of CD4+ T cells in EV71 infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD, has yet to be elucidated. We applied a sophisticated method to identify promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes contained within the sequence of the EV71 polyprotein. Fifteen epitopes were identified, and three of them are dominant ones. The most dominant epitope is highly conserved among enterovirus species, including HFMD-related coxsackieviruses, HFMD-unrelated echoviruses and polioviruses. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cells specific to the epitope indeed cross-reacted with the homolog of poliovirus 3 Sabin. Our findings imply that CD4+ T cell responses to poliovirus following vaccination, or to other enteroviruses to which individuals may be exposed in early childhood, may have a modulating effect on subsequent CD4+ T cell response to EV71 infection or vaccine.

  8. Comparative analyses reveal high levels of conserved colinearity between the finger millet and rice genomes.

    Srinivasachary; Dida, Mathews M; Gale, Mike D; Devos, Katrien M

    2007-08-01

    Finger millet is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) grass that belongs to the Chloridoideae subfamily. A comparative analysis has been carried out to determine the relationship of the finger millet genome with that of rice. Six of the nine finger millet homoeologous groups corresponded to a single rice chromosome each. Each of the remaining three finger millet groups were orthologous to two rice chromosomes, and in all the three cases one rice chromosome was inserted into the centromeric region of a second rice chromosome to give the finger millet chromosomal configuration. All observed rearrangements were, among the grasses, unique to finger millet and, possibly, the Chloridoideae subfamily. Gene orders between rice and finger millet were highly conserved, with rearrangements being limited largely to single marker transpositions and small putative inversions encompassing at most three markers. Only some 10% of markers mapped to non-syntenic positions in rice and finger millet and the majority of these were located in the distal 14% of chromosome arms, supporting a possible correlation between recombination and sequence evolution as has previously been observed in wheat. A comparison of the organization of finger millet, Panicoideae and Pooideae genomes relative to rice allowed us to infer putative ancestral chromosome configurations in the grasses.

  9. A highly conserved metalloprotease effector enhances virulence in the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Sanz-Martín, José M; Pacheco-Arjona, José Ramón; Bello-Rico, Víctor; Vargas, Walter A; Monod, Michel; Díaz-Mínguez, José M; Thon, Michael R; Sukno, Serenella A

    2016-09-01

    Colletotrichum graminicola causes maize anthracnose, an agronomically important disease with a worldwide distribution. We have identified a fungalysin metalloprotease (Cgfl) with a role in virulence. Transcriptional profiling experiments and live cell imaging show that Cgfl is specifically expressed during the biotrophic stage of infection. To determine whether Cgfl has a role in virulence, we obtained null mutants lacking Cgfl and performed pathogenicity and live microscopy assays. The appressorium morphology of the null mutants is normal, but they exhibit delayed development during the infection process on maize leaves and roots, showing that Cgfl has a role in virulence. In vitro chitinase activity assays of leaves infected with wild-type and null mutant strains show that, in the absence of Cgfl, maize leaves exhibit increased chitinase activity. Phylogenetic analyses show that Cgfl is highly conserved in fungi. Similarity searches, phylogenetic analysis and transcriptional profiling show that C. graminicola encodes two LysM domain-containing homologues of Ecp6, suggesting that this fungus employs both Cgfl-mediated and LysM protein-mediated strategies to control chitin signalling. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Pig epidermal growth factor precursor contains segments that are highly conserved among species

    Jørgensen, P E; Jensen, L.G.; Sørensen, B S

    1998-01-01

    segment with that of the human, the rat and the mouse EGF precursors, in order to identify highly conserved domains. The examined part of the precursor contains EGF itself and six so-called EGF-like modules. The overall amino acid identity among the four species is 64%. However, the amino acid identity...... differed from around 30% in some segments to around 70% in others. The highest amino acid identity, 71%, was observed for a 345-aa segment that contains three EGF-like modules and which is homologous to a part of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor). The amino acid identities are 64% for EGF...... itself, and 50-67% for the remaining three EGF-like modules. The segment of the LDL receptor that is homologous to a part of the EGF precursor is important for the function of the LDL receptor, and EGF-like modules seem to be involved in protein-protein interactions in a number of proteins. In conclusion...

  11. Current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan

    Chan, D.Y.-L.; Yang, K.-H.; Hsu, C.-H.; Chien, M.-H.; Hong, G.-B.

    2007-01-01

    Growing concern in Taiwan has arisen about energy consumption and its adverse environmental impact. The current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan, including the iron and steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, textiles and electric/electrical industries has been presented. Since the energy consumption of the top 100 energy users (T100) comprised over 50% of total industry energy consumption, focusing energy consumption reduction efforts on T100 energy users can achieve significant results. This study conducted on-site energy audits of 314 firms in Taiwan during 2000-2004, and identified potential electricity savings of 1,022,656 MWH, fuel oil savings of 174,643 kiloliters (KL), steam coal savings of 98,620 ton, and natural gas (NG) savings of 10,430 kilo cubic meters. The total potential energy saving thus was 489,505 KL of crude oil equivalent (KLOE), representing a reduction of 1,447,841 ton in the carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 39,131-ha plantation forest

  12. Self managing monitoring for highly elastic large scale Cloud deployments

    Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Barker, Adam David

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure as a Service computing exhibits a number of properties, which are not found in conventional server deployments. Elasticity is among the most significant of these properties which has wide reaching implications for applications deployed in cloud hosted VMs. Among the applications affected by elasticity is monitoring. In this paper we investigate the challenges of monitoring large cloud deployments and how these challenges differ from previous monitoring problems. In order to mee...

  13. High precision conformal radiotherapy employing conservative margins in childhood benign and low-grade brain tumours

    Jalali, Rakesh; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Sharma, Dayananda S.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To report local control and follow up outcome data of high precision conformal radiotherapy in childhood brain tumours. Materials and methods: Between December 1999 and December 2002, 26 children (17 boys and 9 girls, median age 11.5 years) with incompletely excised or recurrent benign and low-grade brain tumours [13 craniopharyngiomas, 11 low-grade gliomas (LGG) and 2 others] were treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy (CRT) (12 patients) and stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) (14 patients). Gross tumour volume (GTV) included neuro-imaging based visible tumour and/or resected tumour bed. Clinical target volume (CTV) consisted of GTV + 5 mm margin and planning target volume (PTV) consisted of additional 5 mm margin for CRT and 2 mm for SCRT. Treatment was delivered with 3-9 conformal fixed fields to a median dose of 54 Gy/30 fractions. Results: The actuarial 2 and 3 year disease free and overall survival was 96 and 100%, respectively (median follow up: 25 months, range 12-47 months). Radiological follow up available in 25 patients revealed complete response in 1, partial regression in 10, stable disease in 13 and progression in 1 patient (within the CTV). One patient with craniopharyngioma on a routine imaging revealed a mild asymptomatic cyst enlargement, which resolved with conservative management. A patient with chiasmatic glioma developed cystic degeneration and hydrocephalus 9 months after SCRT requiring cyst drainage and placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusion: High-precision conformal techniques delivering irradiation to a computer generated target volume employing 7-10 mm 3D margins beyond the visible tumour and/or resected tumour bed appear to be safe in children with incompletely resected or recurrent benign and low-grade brain tumours, based on these data

  14. Multi-year high-frequency hydrothermal monitoring of selected high-threat Cascade Range volcanoes

    Crankshaw, I. M.; Archfield, S. A.; Newman, A. C.; Bergfeld, D.; Clor, L. E.; Spicer, K. R.; Kelly, P. J.; Evans, W. C.; Ingebritsen, S. E.

    2018-05-01

    From 2009 to 2015 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) systematically monitored hydrothermal behavior at selected Cascade Range volcanoes in order to define baseline hydrothermal and geochemical conditions. Gas and water data were collected regularly at 25 sites on 10 of the highest-risk volcanoes in the Cascade Range. These sites include near-summit fumarole groups and springs/streams that show clear evidence of magmatic influence (high 3He/4He ratios and/or large fluxes of magmatic CO2 or heat). Site records consist mainly of hourly temperature and hydrothermal-flux data. Having established baseline conditions during a multiyear quiescent period, the USGS reduced monitoring frequency from 2015 to present. The archived monitoring data are housed at (doi:10.5066/F72N5088). These data (1) are suitable for retrospective comparison with other continuous geophysical monitoring data and (2) will provide context during future episodes of volcanic unrest, such that unrest-related variations at these thoroughly characterized sites will be more clearly recognizable. Relatively high-frequency year-round data are essential to achieve these objectives, because many of the time series reveal significant diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variability that would tend to mask unrest signals in the absence of baseline data. Here we characterize normal variability for each site, suggest strategies to detect future volcanic unrest, and explore deviations from background associated with recent unrest.

  15. The Highly Conserved Proline at Position 438 in Pseudorabies Virus gH Is Important for Regulation of Membrane Fusion

    Schröter, Christina; Klupp, Barbara G.; Fuchs, Walter; Gerhard, Marika; Backovic, Marija; Rey, Felix A.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion in herpesviruses requires viral glycoproteins (g) gB and gH/gL. While gB is considered the actual fusion protein but is nonfusogenic per se, the function of gH/gL remains enigmatic. Crystal structures for different gH homologs are strikingly similar despite only moderate amino acid sequence conservation. A highly conserved sequence motif comprises the residues serine-proline-cysteine corresponding to positions 437 to 439 in pseudorabies virus (PrV) gH. The PrV-gH structure sho...

  16. Seismic response monitoring of the Arno river masonry embankment during the conservation works after the Lungarno Torrigiani riverbank landslide (Florence - May 25, 2016)

    Lotti, Alessia; Pazzi, Veronica; Chiara, Paolo; Lombardi, Luca; Nocentini, Massimiliano; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Geohazards are the most relevant processes that can damage or increase the risk of human beings, properties, critical and transport infrastructures, and environment itself. They also could involve the interruption of human activities. The concepts of disaster risk reduction and disaster risk management involve the development, improvement, and application of policies, strategies, and practices to minimize disaster risks throughout society. Since 1972 (UNESCO Convention) the identification, protection, and preservation of cultural and natural heritage has been recognized to be of outstanding value to humanity, and a key resource to build resilient societies. Nevertheless, world architectural wealth is accumulating damages and heavy losses because of both materials deterioration and exceptional natural or man-made events. The "health" of buildings/structures/infrastructures may be evaluate by its deterioration or damage level. Thus, structure dynamic characterization and microtremor analysis are considered powerful techniques, even thought seismic noise techniques in densely populated area are hardly to carry out because of the background noise due to the human activities. A wide bibliography about buildings/structures/infrastructures seismic dynamic characterization is counterposed to a missing one about their seismic response during conservation/safety works, even thought the seismic vibration monitoring (SVM) is widely used. On May 25, 2016 a riverbank landslide seriously damaged a portion roughly 100 m long of the Lungarno Torrigiani historical masonry embankment wall (left river bank of the Florence urban stretch of the Arno river, between Ponte alle Grazie e Ponte Vecchio). The street next to the embankment wall collapsed, and the earth fill material was fully retained by the embankment wall that did not collapse but seriously deformed towards the Arno river, fracturing itself in three main areas (a cusp roughly in the middle of the damaged wall, where is also

  17. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    Walston, S.; Chung, C.; Fitsos, P.; Gronberg, J.; Ross, M.; Khainovski, O.; Kolomensky, Y.; Loscutoff, P.; Slater, M.; Thomson, M.; Ward, D.; Boogert, S.; Vogel, V.; Meller, R.; Lyapin, A.; Malton, S.; Miller, D.; Frisch, J.; Hinton, S.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.; White, G.; Orimoto, T.; Hayano, H.; Honda, Y.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2005-01-01

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved - ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns

  18. RNA expression in a cartilaginous fish cell line reveals ancient 3′ noncoding regions highly conserved in vertebrates

    Forest, David; Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Bayne, Christopher J.; Barnes, David W.

    2007-01-01

    We have established a cartilaginous fish cell line [Squalus acanthias embryo cell line (SAE)], a mesenchymal stem cell line derived from the embryo of an elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark S. acanthias. Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) first appeared >400 million years ago, and existing species provide useful models for comparative vertebrate cell biology, physiology, and genomics. Comparative vertebrate genomics among evolutionarily distant organisms can provide sequence conservation information that facilitates identification of critical coding and noncoding regions. Although these genomic analyses are informative, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. Using ESTs defining mRNAs derived from the SAE cell line, we identified lengthy and highly conserved gene-specific nucleotide sequences in the noncoding 3′ UTRs of eight genes involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Conserved noncoding 3′ mRNA regions detected by using the shark nucleotide sequences as a starting point were found in a range of other vertebrate orders, including bony fish, birds, amphibians, and mammals. Nucleotide identity of shark and human in these regions was remarkably well conserved. Our results indicate that highly conserved gene sequences dating from the appearance of jawed vertebrates and representing potential cis-regulatory elements can be identified through the use of cartilaginous fish as a baseline. Because the expression of genes in the SAE cell line was prerequisite for their identification, this cartilaginous fish culture system also provides a physiologically valid tool to test functional hypotheses on the role of these ancient conserved sequences in comparative cell biology. PMID:17227856

  19. Gains of ubiquitylation sites in highly conserved proteins in the human lineage

    Kim Dong Seon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-translational modification of lysine residues of specific proteins by ubiquitin modulates the degradation, localization, and activity of these target proteins. Here, we identified gains of ubiquitylation sites in highly conserved regions of human proteins that occurred during human evolution. Results We analyzed human ubiquitylation site data and multiple alignments of orthologous mammalian proteins including those from humans, primates, other placental mammals, opossum, and platypus. In our analysis, we identified 281 ubiquitylation sites in 252 proteins that first appeared along the human lineage during primate evolution: one protein had four novel sites; four proteins had three sites each; 18 proteins had two sites each; and the remaining 229 proteins had one site each. PML, which is involved in neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration, acquired three sites, two of which have been reported to be involved in the degradation of PML. Thirteen human proteins, including ERCC2 (also known as XPD and NBR1, gained human-specific ubiquitylated lysines after the human-chimpanzee divergence. ERCC2 has a Lys/Gln polymorphism, the derived (major allele of which confers enhanced DNA repair capacity and reduced cancer risk compared with the ancestral (minor allele. NBR1 and eight other proteins that are involved in the human autophagy protein interaction network gained a novel ubiquitylation site. Conclusions The gain of novel ubiquitylation sites could be involved in the evolution of protein degradation and other regulatory networks. Although gains of ubiquitylation sites do not necessarily equate to adaptive evolution, they are useful candidates for molecular functional analyses to identify novel advantageous genetic modifications and innovative phenotypes acquired during human evolution.

  20. High risks of losing genetic diversity in an endemic Mauritian gecko: implications for conservation.

    Steeves Buckland

    Full Text Available Genetic structure can be a consequence of recent population fragmentation and isolation, or a remnant of historical localised adaptation. This poses a challenge for conservationists since misinterpreting patterns of genetic structure may lead to inappropriate management. Of 17 species of reptile originally found in Mauritius, only five survive on the main island. One of these, Phelsuma guimbeaui (lowland forest day gecko, is now restricted to 30 small isolated subpopulations following severe forest fragmentation and isolation due to human colonisation. We used 20 microsatellites in ten subpopulations and two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers in 13 subpopulations to: (i assess genetic diversity, population structure and genetic differentiation of subpopulations; (ii estimate effective population sizes and migration rates of subpopulations; and (iii examine the phylogenetic relationships of haplotypes found in different subpopulations. Microsatellite data revealed significant population structure with high levels of genetic diversity and isolation by distance, substantial genetic differentiation and no migration between most subpopulations. MtDNA, however, showed no evidence of population structure, indicating that there was once a genetically panmictic population. Effective population sizes of ten subpopulations, based on microsatellite markers, were small, ranging from 44 to 167. Simulations suggested that the chance of survival and allelic diversity of some subpopulations will decrease dramatically over the next 50 years if no migration occurs. Our DNA-based evidence reveals an urgent need for a management plan for the conservation of P. guimbeaui. We identified 18 threatened and 12 viable subpopulations and discuss a range of management options that include translocation of threatened subpopulations to retain maximum allelic diversity, and habitat restoration and assisted migration to decrease genetic erosion and inbreeding for the viable

  1. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  2. High-Performance Contaminant Monitor for Spacecraft, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vision for Space Exploration demands increasing reliance on real-time trace gas monitors onboard spacecraft. Present grab samples and badges will be inadequate...

  3. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: many monitored persons = high exposure?

    Nitschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radiation affects the entire population in Germany, and most of Germany's inhabitants are exposed to medical radiation in their lifetime. Occupational radiation exposure, however, is a kind of exposure affecting only a limited and well-defined group of the population, and this radiation exposure has been recorded and monitored as precisely as technically possible ever since the radiation protection laws made occupational radiation exposure monitoring a mandatory obligation. Official personal dosimetry applying passive dosemeters in fact does not offer direct protection against the effects of ionizing radiation, as dosemeter read-out and dose calculation is a post-exposure process. But it nevertheless is a rewarding monitoring duty under radiation protection law, as is shown by the radiation exposure statistics accumulated over decades: in spite of the number of monitored persons having been increasing over the years, the total exposure did not, due to the corresponding improvements in occupational radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  4. High-frequency ultrasound for intraoperative margin assessments in breast conservation surgery: a feasibility study

    Doyle, Timothy E; Neumayer, Leigh A; Factor, Rachel E; Ellefson, Christina L; Sorensen, Kristina M; Ambrose, Brady J; Goodrich, Jeffrey B; Hart, Vern P; Jensen, Scott C; Patel, Hemang

    2011-01-01

    In addition to breast imaging, ultrasound offers the potential for characterizing and distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tissues due to their different microstructures and material properties. The aim of this study was to determine if high-frequency ultrasound (20-80 MHz) can provide pathology sensitive measurements for the ex vivo detection of cancer in margins during breast conservation surgery. Ultrasonic tests were performed on resected margins and other tissues obtained from 17 patients, resulting in 34 specimens that were classified into 15 pathology categories. Pulse-echo and through-transmission measurements were acquired from a total of 57 sites on the specimens using two single-element 50-MHz transducers. Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed were obtained from time-domain waveforms. The waveforms were further processed with fast Fourier transforms to provide ultrasonic spectra and cepstra. The ultrasonic measurements and pathology types were analyzed for correlations. The specimens were additionally re-classified into five pathology types to determine specificity and sensitivity values. The density of peaks in the ultrasonic spectra, a measure of spectral structure, showed significantly higher values for carcinomas and precancerous pathologies such as atypical ductal hyperplasia than for normal tissue. The slopes of the cepstra for non-malignant pathologies displayed significantly greater values that differentiated them from the normal and malignant tissues. The attenuation coefficients were sensitive to fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. Specificities and sensitivities for differentiating pathologies from normal tissue were 100% and 86% for lobular carcinomas, 100% and 74% for ductal carcinomas, 80% and 82% for benign pathologies, and 80% and 100% for fat necrosis and adenomas. Specificities and sensitivities were also determined for differentiating each pathology type from the other four using a multivariate

  5. High-frequency ultrasound for intraoperative margin assessments in breast conservation surgery: a feasibility study

    Hart Vern P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to breast imaging, ultrasound offers the potential for characterizing and distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tissues due to their different microstructures and material properties. The aim of this study was to determine if high-frequency ultrasound (20-80 MHz can provide pathology sensitive measurements for the ex vivo detection of cancer in margins during breast conservation surgery. Methods Ultrasonic tests were performed on resected margins and other tissues obtained from 17 patients, resulting in 34 specimens that were classified into 15 pathology categories. Pulse-echo and through-transmission measurements were acquired from a total of 57 sites on the specimens using two single-element 50-MHz transducers. Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed were obtained from time-domain waveforms. The waveforms were further processed with fast Fourier transforms to provide ultrasonic spectra and cepstra. The ultrasonic measurements and pathology types were analyzed for correlations. The specimens were additionally re-classified into five pathology types to determine specificity and sensitivity values. Results The density of peaks in the ultrasonic spectra, a measure of spectral structure, showed significantly higher values for carcinomas and precancerous pathologies such as atypical ductal hyperplasia than for normal tissue. The slopes of the cepstra for non-malignant pathologies displayed significantly greater values that differentiated them from the normal and malignant tissues. The attenuation coefficients were sensitive to fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. Specificities and sensitivities for differentiating pathologies from normal tissue were 100% and 86% for lobular carcinomas, 100% and 74% for ductal carcinomas, 80% and 82% for benign pathologies, and 80% and 100% for fat necrosis and adenomas. Specificities and sensitivities were also determined for differentiating each

  6. Groundwater conservation and monitoring activities in the middle Brenta River plain (Veneto Region, Northern Italy: preliminary results about aquifer recharge

    Andrea Sottani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the middle Brenta River plain there is a unconfined aquifer that represents an important groundwater resource in Veneto region. In this area the main groundwater recharge factor is related to the stream seepage: the water dispersion from the Brenta river is active with variable intensity from the foothill to the alignment Nove di Bassano - Cartigliano (Province of Vicenza. In order to mitigate the expected groundwater effects, due to future important waterworks withdrawals provided by the regional water resources management plans, an experimental project of Managed Aquifer Recharge has started, by means of the realization of some river transversal ramps. The construction of pilot works, partially completed, were preceded by a specific hydrogeological monitoring program, aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness of the MAR actions in terms of comparison between pre-and post-operam conditions. Thanks to the development of a site-specific methodology, aimed to the quantification of the artificial infiltration rate, and after some years of monitoring controls of the hydrological and hydrogeological regimes, it is now possible to evaluate the extent and the rate of the recharge effects in groundwater due to ramps realization. The monitoring plan will be continued in the medium-long term. Some innovative approaches, based for example on the use of groundwater temperature measurements as recharge tracer, will help to validate the preliminary results.

  7. Myanmar Ecological Forecasting: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor, Map, and Analyze Mangrove Forests in Myanmar for Enhanced Conservation

    Weber, Samuel J.; Keddell, Louis; Kemal, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves supply many essential environmental amenities, such as preventing soil erosion, filtering water pollution, and protecting shorelines from harmful waves, floods, storms and winds. The Mangroves in Myanmar not only provide citizens with a food source, but they also offer firewood, charcoal, and construction materials. The depletion of mangroves is threatening more than the biodiversity however; Myanmar's fiscal livelihood is also in harm's way. Mangroves are valued at $100,000 to $277,000 per square kilometer and if managed in a sustainable fashion, can infuse constant income to the emerging Myanmarese economy. This study analyzed three coastline regions, the Ayeyarwady Delta, Rakhine and Tanintharyi, and mapped the spatial extent of mangrove forest during the dry season in 2000 and 2013. The classifications were derived from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat 8 Operation Land Imager (OLI) imagery, as well as the Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) digital elevation model information. This data was atmospherically corrected, mosaicked, masked and classified in ENVI, followed by ArcGIS to perform raster calculations and create final products. Forest degradation collected from 2000 to 2013 was later used to forecast the density and health of Mangroves in the year 2030. These results were subsequently presented to project partners Dr. Peter Leimgruber and Ellen Aiken at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in Front Royal, VA. After the presentation of the project to the partners, these organizations formally passed on to the Myanmar Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Forestry for policy makers and forest managers to utilize in order to protect the Myanmar mangrove ecosystem while sustaining a healthy economy.

  8. Geometrid moth assemblages reflect high conservation value of naturally regenerated secondary forests in temperate China

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The widespread destruction of mature forests in China has led to massive ecological degradation, counteracted in recent decades by substantial efforts to promote forest plantations and protect secondary forest ecosystems. The value of the resulting forests for biodiversity conservation is widely

  9. Liberals, Conservatives and Romantic Nationalists in Interwar Education Policy in Greece: "The High Mountains" Episode

    Athanasiades, Harris

    2015-01-01

    Greek historiography of interwar education policy unproblematically accepts the assumption that the bone of contention between the "Liberal demoticists" and the "Conservative purists" was the language issue; particularly whether "demotic" or "katharevousa" should be the language of instruction in schooling.…

  10. Gene co-regulation is highly conserved in the evolution of eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

    Snel, B.; Noort, V. van; Huynen, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Differences between species have been suggested to largely reside in the network of connections among the genes. Nevertheless, the rate at which these connections evolve has not been properly quantified. Here, we measure the extent to which co-regulation between pairs of genes is conserved over

  11. High-resolution global irradiance monitoring from photovoltaic systems

    Buchmann, Tina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Siegmund, Alexander; Meilinger, Stefanie; Mayer, Bernhard; Pinitz, Sven; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and regional differentiated power forecasts are required to guarantee an efficient and economic energy transition towards renewable energies. Amongst other renewable energy technologies, e.g. wind mills, photovoltaic systems are an essential component of this transition being cost-efficient and simply to install. Reliable power forecasts are however required for a grid integration of photovoltaic systems, which among other data requires high-resolution spatio-temporal global irradiance data. Hence the generation of robust reviewed global irradiance data is an essential contribution for the energy transition. To achieve this goal our studies introduce a novel method which makes use of photovoltaic power generation in order to infer global irradiance. The method allows to determine high-resolution temporal global irradiance data (one data point every 15 minutes at each location) from power data of operated photovoltaic systems. Due to the multitude of installed photovoltaic systems (in Germany) the detailed spatial coverage is much better than for example only using global irradiance data from conventional pyranometer networks (e.g. from the German Weather Service). Our designated method is composed of two components: a forward component, i.e. to conclude from predicted global irradiance to photovoltaic (PV) power, and a backward component, i.e. from PV power with suitable calibration to global irradiance. The forward process is modelled by using the radiation transport model libRadtran (B. Mayer and A. Kylling (1)) for clear skies to obtain the characteristics (orientation, size, temperature dependence, …) of individual PV systems. For PV systems in the vicinity of a meteorological station, these data are validated against calibrated pyranometer readings. The forward-modelled global irradiance is used to determine the power efficiency for each photovoltaic system using non-linear optimisation techniques. The backward component uses the power efficiency

  12. Androgen receptor status is highly conserved during tumor progression of breast cancer.

    Grogg, André; Trippel, Mafalda; Pfaltz, Katrin; Lädrach, Claudia; Droeser, Raoul A; Cihoric, Nikola; Salhia, Bodour; Zweifel, Martin; Tapia, Coya

    2015-11-09

    highly conserved during tumor progression and a change only occurs in a small fraction (4.1 %). Our study supports the notion that targeting AR could be effective for many BC patients and that re-testing of AR status in formerly negative or mixed type BC's is recommended.

  13. Androgen receptor status is highly conserved during tumor progression of breast cancer

    Grogg, André; Trippel, Mafalda; Pfaltz, Katrin; Lädrach, Claudia; Droeser, Raoul A.; Cihoric, Nikola; Salhia, Bodour; Zweifel, Martin; Tapia, Coya

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of new and more efficient anti-androgen drugs targeting androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is becoming an increasingly important area of investigation. This would potentially be most useful in triple negative BC (TNBC), where better therapies are still needed. The assessment of AR status is generally performed on the primary tumor even if the tumor has already metastasized. Very little is known regarding discrepancies of AR status during tumor progression. To determine the prevalence of AR positivity, with emphasis on TNBCs, and to investigate AR status during tumor progression, we evaluated a large series of primary BCs and matching metastases and recurrences. AR status was performed on 356 primary BCs, 135 matching metastases, and 12 recurrences using a next-generation Tissue Microarray (ngTMA). A commercially available AR antibody was used to determine AR-status by immunohistochemistry. AR positivity was defined as any nuclear staining in tumor cells ≥1 %. AR expression was correlated with pathological tumor features of the primary tumor. Additionally, the concordance rate of AR expression between the different tumor sites was determined. AR status was positive in: 87 % (307/353) of primary tumors, 86.1 % (105/122) of metastases, and in 66.7 % (8/12) of recurrences. TNBC tested positive in 11.4 %, (4/35) of BCs. A discrepant result was seen in 4.3 % (5/117) of primary BC and matching lymph node (LN) metastases. Three AR negative primary BCs were positive in the matching LN metastasis, representing 17.6 % of all negative BCs with lymph node metastases (3/17). Two AR positive primary BCs were negative in the matching LN metastasis, representing 2.0 % of all AR positive BCs with LN metastases (2/100). No discrepancies were seen between primary BC and distant metastases or recurrence (n = 17). Most primary (87 %) and metastasized (86.1 %) BCs are AR positive including a significant fraction of TNBCs (11.4 %). Further, AR status is highly

  14. Conservation hotspots for the turtles on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Hsiang-Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%, olive ridley (27.1% and loggerhead turtles (8.7%. Most olive ridley (81.7% and loggerhead (82.1% turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0% and entangled (31.8%. Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E, but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W. The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful.

  15. Conservation hotspots for the turtles on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Huang, Hsiang-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%), olive ridley (27.1%) and loggerhead turtles (8.7%). Most olive ridley (81.7%) and loggerhead (82.1%) turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0%) and entangled (31.8%). Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E), but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W). The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful.

  16. An Approach for Selection of Flow Regime and Models for Conservative Evaluation of a Vessel Integrity Monitoring System for Water-Cooled Vacuum Vessels

    Pointer, W. David; Ruggles, Arthur E.

    2003-01-01

    Thin-walled vacuum containment vessels cooled by circulating water jackets are often utilized in research and industrial applications where isolation of equipment or experiments from the influences of the surrounding environment is desirable. The development of leaks in these vessels can result in costly downtime for the facility. A Vessel Integrity Monitoring System (VIMS) is developed to detect leak formation and estimate the size of the leak to allow evaluation of the risk associated with continued operation. A wide range of leak configurations and fluid flow phenomena are considered in the evaluation of the rate at which a tracer gas dissolved in the cooling jacket water is transported into the vacuum vessel. A methodology is presented that uses basic fluid flow models and careful evaluation of their ranges of applicability to provide a conservative estimate of the transport rates for the tracer gas and hence the time required for the VIMS to detect a leak of a given size

  17. Development of a Land Use Mapping and Monitoring Protocol for the High Plains Region: A Multitemporal Remote Sensing Application

    Price, Kevin P.; Nellis, M. Duane

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a practical protocol that employs multitemporal remotely sensed imagery, integrated with environmental parameters to model and monitor agricultural and natural resources in the High Plains Region of the United States. The value of this project would be extended throughout the region via workshops targeted at carefully selected audiences and designed to transfer remote sensing technology and the methods and applications developed. Implementation of such a protocol using remotely sensed satellite imagery is critical for addressing many issues of regional importance, including: (1) Prediction of rural land use/land cover (LULC) categories within a region; (2) Use of rural LULC maps for successive years to monitor change; (3) Crop types derived from LULC maps as important inputs to water consumption models; (4) Early prediction of crop yields; (5) Multi-date maps of crop types to monitor patterns related to crop change; (6) Knowledge of crop types to monitor condition and improve prediction of crop yield; (7) More precise models of crop types and conditions to improve agricultural economic forecasts; (8;) Prediction of biomass for estimating vegetation production, soil protection from erosion forces, nonpoint source pollution, wildlife habitat quality and other related factors; (9) Crop type and condition information to more accurately predict production of biogeochemicals such as CO2, CH4, and other greenhouse gases that are inputs to global climate models; (10) Provide information regarding limiting factors (i.e., economic constraints of pumping, fertilizing, etc.) used in conjunction with other factors, such as changes in climate for predicting changes in rural LULC; (11) Accurate prediction of rural LULC used to assess the effectiveness of government programs such as the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) Conservation Reserve Program; and (12) Prediction of water demand based on rural LULC that can be related to rates of

  18. Monitoring coastal wetlands in a highly dynamic tropical environment

    Saynor, M.J.; Finlayson, C.M.; Spiers, A.; Eliot, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Alligator Rivers Region in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia has been selected by government and collaborating agencies as a key study area for the monitoring of natural and human-induced coastal change. The Region contains the floodplain wetlands of Kakadu National Park which have been recognised internationally for their natural and cultural heritage value. A coastal monitoring program for assessing and monitoring environmental change in the Alligator Rivers Region has been established at the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist. This program has developed a regional capacity to measure and assess change on the wetlands, floodplains and coastline within the region. Field assessment and monitoring procedures have been developed for the program. The assessment procedures require use of georeferencing and data handling techniques to facilitate comparison and relational overlay of a wide variety of information. Monitoring includes regular survey of biophysical and cultural processes on the floodplains; such as the extension of tidal creeks and mangroves, shoreline movement, dieback in Melaleuca wetlands, and weed invasion of freshwater wetlands. A differential Global Positioning System is used to accurately georeference spatial data and a Geographic Information System is then used to store and assess information. The assessment and monitoring procedures can be applied to the wet-dry tropics in general. These studies are all particularly pertinent with the possibility of greenhouse gases causing global warming and potential sea-level rise, a major possible threat to the valued wetlands of Kakadu National Park, and across the wet-dry tropics in general

  19. Wildlife laws monitoring as an adaptive management tool in protected area management in Ghana: a case of Kakum Conservation Area.

    Wiafe, Edward Debrah

    2016-01-01

    The wildlife laws of Ghana alienated the rural communities from forests and material well-being depended upon for their livelihood and this manifests itself in the progressive conflict between the park patrol staff and poachers from the fringes of the protected areas. The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of quantification of patrol efforts on indicators of illegal hunting activities that occur in rainforest protected areas, as a result of monitoring patrol operations and modifying the original plan. The specific objectives were to determine the optimal patrol efforts necessary to reduce illegal wildlife use to minimal; and the influence of the rainfall and seasonal activities on illegal wildlife use. The results indicated that as the patrol efforts increased the encounter with illegal wildlife use also increased until a certain point that the encounter rates started decreasing. Neither rainfall nor seasonal activities influenced the illegal activities and the patrol efforts. The protection staff of rainforest protected areas would work effectively to bring down illegal wildlife off-take to the barest minimum if monitored, quantified and provide feed-back. Illegal wildlife off-take can also be reduced by the protection staff if the original plans are made flexible to be adjusted. Recommendations for further studies have been made.

  20. Flexible High Energy-Conversion Sensing Materials for Structural Health Monitoring, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The applicant is developing flexible highly-efficient piezoelectric materials for use in structural health monitoring (SHM) as contemplated in the solicitation...

  1. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor, Map, and Forecast Mangrove Extent and Deforestation in Myanmar for Enhanced Conservation

    Ferraro, C. P.; Jensen, D.; Disla, C.

    2013-12-01

    Mangrove ecosystems offer several significant services including providing habitat and spawning grounds for a diverse range of species, protecting coastal communities from storms and other natural disasters, and contributing resources and income for local residents. Currently, Myanmar is undergoing a period of rapid economic development which has led to increased pressure on the extensive mangrove habitat in the Ayeyarwady River Delta in southern Myanmar. In this study, we partnered with the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute to examine changes to mangrove extent between 1989 and 2013 using Landsat 4, 7, and 8 imagery in combination with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from ASTER stereoscopic imagery. Classification was performed using a Random Forests model and accuracy was assessed using higher resolution ASTER imagery and local expertise on mangrove distribution. Results show a large and consistent decline in mangrove cover during the study period. The data provided by this assessment was subsequently used to forecast potential vulnerability and changes to mangrove habitat up to 2030. A multi-layered perceptron was used to model transition potentials for vulnerability forecasting. Forest managers in Myanmar will be able to use the mangrove change maps and forecasts to evaluate current policies and focus future ones to maximize effectiveness. Data and methodology resulting from this project will be useful for future mangrove and land-cover mapping projects in this region.

  2. Energy conservation in the Netherlands 1995-2006. Update on the basis of the Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Energiebesparing in Nederland 1995-2006. Update op basis van het Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Gerdes, J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [SenterNovem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verdonk, M. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Pouwels, H. [Centraal bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Voorburg/Heerlen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    Results are presented of realized energy savings in the Netherlands for the period 1995-2006 for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services, transport, refineries and electricity, and for the national level. The figures on energy savings are based on the 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Savings', a common methodology and database to calculate the amount of energy savings. A description of the methodology used can be found elsewhere. Results are presented for savings on final energy use, conversion in end-use sectors (co-generation) and conversion in the energy sector. National savings for the period 1995-2006 equal 0.9% per year on average, with a decreasing tendency in recent years. For end-use sectors the highest figure is found for agriculture (2.1%) and the lowest figure for transport (0.4%). An uncertainty analysis reveals that the margin for the national savings figure is {+-} 0.3 percent-point. [Dutch] In dit rapport worden de energiebesparingcijfers gepresenteerd voor de periode 1995-2006, berekend volgens het Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing (PME). De besparing wordt berekend voor de verbruiksectoren industrie, huishoudens, transport, land- en tuinbouw, diensten en raffinaderijen, de elektriciteitscentrales en het nationale niveau. De nationale besparing in de periode 1995-2006 bedroeg gemiddeld ruim 0,9% per jaar. Als er vanaf 1995 niet zou zijn bespaard, dan zou het energiegebruik in 2006 ongeveer 11% hoger zijn geweest. Per sector varieert de besparing tussen 0,4% voor Transport en 2,1% voor de Land- en tuinbouw (inclusief 0,4% door warmte/kracht). In de figuur wordt het verloop van de gemiddelde jaarlijkse besparing vanaf 1995 gegeven. De nationale besparing blijkt na 2000 geleidelijk af te nemen. Hetzelfde geldt voor de Industrie en, met fluctuaties, Huishoudens en Transport. De besparing door warmte/kracht-productie bij verbruikers is ook afgenomen na 2000. Hetzelfde geldt voor besparing bij centrales, hoewel hier in 2006 een

  3. A High-Resolution Sensor Network for Monitoring Glacier Dynamics

    Edwards, S.; Murray, T.; O'Farrell, T.; Rutt, I. C.; Loskot, P.; Martin, I.; Selmes, N.; Aspey, R.; James, T.; Bevan, S. L.; Baugé, T.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets due to ice flow/ice-berg calving are a major uncertainty affecting sea-level rise forecasts. Latterly GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) have been employed extensively to monitor such glacier dynamics. Until recently however, the favoured methodology has been to deploy sensors onto the glacier surface, collect data for a period of time, then retrieve and download the sensors. This approach works well in less dynamic environments where the risk of sensor loss is low. In more extreme environments e.g. approaching the glacial calving front, the risk of sensor loss and hence data loss increases dramatically. In order to provide glaciologists with new insights into flow dynamics and calving processes we have developed a novel sensor network to increase the robustness of data capture. We present details of the technological requirements for an in-situ Zigbee wireless streaming network infrastructure supporting instantaneous data acquisition from high resolution GNSS sensors thereby increasing data capture robustness. The data obtained offers new opportunities to investigate the interdependence of mass flow, uplift, velocity and geometry and the network architecture has been specifically designed for deployment by helicopter close to the calving front to yield unprecedented detailed information. Following successful field trials of a pilot three node network during 2012, a larger 20 node network was deployed on the fast-flowing Helheim glacier, south-east Greenland over the summer months of 2013. The utilisation of dual wireless transceivers in each glacier node, multiple frequencies and four ';collector' stations located on the valley sides creates overlapping networks providing enhanced capacity, diversity and redundancy of data 'back-haul', even close to ';floor' RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) levels around -100 dBm. Data loss through radio packet collisions within sub-networks are avoided through the

  4. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  5. High-Quality 3d Models and Their Use in a Cultural Heritage Conservation Project

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.

    2017-08-01

    Cultural heritage digitization and 3D modelling processes are mainly based on laser scanning and digital photogrammetry techniques to produce complete, detailed and photorealistic three-dimensional surveys: geometric as well as chromatic aspects, in turn testimony of materials, work techniques, state of preservation, etc., are documented using digitization processes. The paper explores the topic of 3D documentation for conservation purposes; it analyses how geomatics contributes in different steps of a restoration process and it presents an overview of different uses of 3D models for the conservation and enhancement of the cultural heritage. The paper reports on the project to digitize the earthenware frieze of the Ospedale del Ceppo in Pistoia (Italy) for 3D documentation, restoration work support, and digital and physical reconstruction and integration purposes. The intent to design an exhibition area suggests new ways to take advantage of 3D data originally acquired for documentation and scientific purposes.

  6. A High-Accuracy Linear Conservative Difference Scheme for Rosenau-RLW Equation

    Jinsong Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the initial-boundary value problem for Rosenau-RLW equation. We propose a three-level linear finite difference scheme, which has the theoretical accuracy of Oτ2+h4. The scheme simulates two conservative properties of original problem well. The existence, uniqueness of difference solution, and a priori estimates in infinite norm are obtained. Furthermore, we analyze the convergence and stability of the scheme by energy method. At last, numerical experiments demonstrate the theoretical results.

  7. Hearing sensitivity in context: Conservation implications for a highly vocal endangered species

    Owen, Megan A.; Keating, Jennifer L.; Denes, Samuel K.; Hawk, Kathy; Fiore, Angela; Thatcher, Julie; Becerra, Jennifer; Hall, Suzanne; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing sensitivity is a fundamental determinant of a species’ vulnerability to anthropogenic noise, however little is known about the hearing capacities of most conservation dependent species. When audiometric data are integrated with other aspects of species’ acoustic ecology, life history, and characteristic habitat topography and soundscape, predictions can be made regarding probable vulnerability to the negative impacts of different types of anthropogenic noise. Here we used an adaptive ...

  8. Innovative Surgical Management of the Synovial Chondromatosis of Temporo-Mandibular Joints: Highly Conservative Surgical Technique.

    Ionna, Franco; Amantea, Massimiliano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Ballini, Andrea; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Aversa, Corrado; De Cecio, Rossella; Russo, Daniela; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is an uncommon disease characterized by a benign nodular cartilaginous proliferation arising from the joint synovium, bursae, or tendon sheaths. Although the temporomandibular joint is rarely affected by neoplastic lesions, SC is the most common neoplastic lesion of this joint. The treatment of this disease consists in the extraoral surgery with a wide removal of the lesion; in this study, the authors described a more conservative intraoral surgical approach. Patient with SC of temporomandibular joint typically refer a limitation in the mouth opening, together with a persistent not physiological mandibular protrusion and an appearance of a neoformation located at the right preauricular region: the authors reported 1 scholar patient. After biopsy of the neoformation, confirming the synovial chondromatosis, the patient underwent thus to the surgical excision of the tumor, via authors' conservative transoral approach, to facilitate the enucleation of the neoformation. The mass fully involved the pterygo-maxillary fossa with involvement of the parotid lodge and of the right TMJ: this multifocal extension suggested for a trans-oral surgical procedure, in the light of the suspicion of a possible malignant nature of the neoplasm. Our intraoral conservative approach to surgery is aimed to reduce the presence of unaesthetic scars in preauricular and facial regions, with surgical results undoubtedly comparable to the traditional surgical techniques much more aggressive. Our technique could be a valid, alternative, and safe approach to treat this rare and complex kind of oncological disease.

  9. Automatic high frequency monitoring for improved lake and reservoir management

    Marcé, R.; George, G.; Buscarinu, P.; Deidda, M.; Dunalska, J.; de Eyto, E.; Flaim, G.; Grossart, H. P.; Istvánovics, V.; Lenhardt, M.; Moreno-Ostos, E.; Obrador, B.; Ostrovsky, I.; Pierson, D. C.; Potužák, Jan; Poikane, S.; Rinke, K.; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S.; Staehr, P. A.; Šumberová, Kateřina; Waajen, G.; Weyhenmeyer, G. A.; Weathers, K. C.; Zion, M.; Ibelings, B. W.; Jennings, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 20 (2016), s. 10780-10794 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14045 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : monitoring of water resources * water reservoir management * sensors Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.198, year: 2016

  10. Intra-hole fluid convection: High-resolution temperature monitoring

    Čermák, Vladimír; Šafanda, Jan; Krešl, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 348, č. 3-4 (2008), s. 464-479 ISSN 0022-1694 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : temperature monitoring * convection * fluid dynamics * borehole logging Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.305, year: 2008

  11. Self-Monitoring of Gaze in High Functioning Autism

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Nadel, Jacqueline; Martin, Jean-Claude; Simonin, Jerome; Bailleul, Pauline; Wang, Yun; Gepner, Daniel; Le Barillier, Florence; Constant, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Atypical visual behaviour has been recently proposed to account for much of social misunderstanding in autism. Using an eye-tracking system and a gaze-contingent lens display, the present study explores self-monitoring of eye motion in two conditions: free visual exploration and guided exploration via blurring the visual field except for the focal…

  12. A high resolution, single bunch, beam profile monitor

    Norem, J.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a beam monitoring system which could be used to measure beam profile, size and stability at the final forms of a beamline or collider. The system uses nonimaging bremsstrahlung optics. The immediate use for this system would be examining the final focus spot at the SLAC/FFTR

  13. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1989

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality

  14. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2011 Missouri Department of Conservation general contaminant monitoring program

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillet samples of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis), golden redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from six sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation’s Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs were collected from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at eight of the sites, and crayfish from two sites. Following preparation and analysis of the samples, highlights of the data were as follows: cadmium and lead residues were most elevated in crayfish tissue samples from the Big River at Cherokee Landing, with 1 to 8 micrograms per gram dry weight and 22 to 45 micrograms per gram dry weight, respectively. Some dorsal muscle plugs from largemouth bass collected from Clearwater Lake, Lake St. Louis, Noblett Lake, Hazel Creek Lake, and Harrison County Lake contained mercury residues (1.7 to 4.7 micrograms per gram dry weight) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Criterion of 1.5 micrograms per gram dry weight of fish tissue (equivalent to 0.30 micrograms per gram wet weight).

  15. High temperature corrosion control and monitoring for processing acidic crudes

    Cross, C. [Betz/GE Water and Process Technologies, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of processing heavy crudes and bitumen in a reliable and economical way was discussed. Many refiners use a conservative approach regarding the rate at which they use discounted crudes or depend upon capital-intensive upgrades to equipment. New strategies based on data-driven decisions are needed in order to obtain the greatest benefit from heavy feedstock. The feasibility of successfully processing more challenging feed can be estimated more accurately by better understanding the interactions between a particular feed and a particular crude unit. This presentation reviewed newly developed techniques that refiners can use to determine the feeds corrosion potential and the probability for this potential to manifest itself in a given crude unit. tabs., figs.

  16. Evaluation of sampling equipment for RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] monitoring in a deep unconfined aquifer

    Kasper, R.B.; Serkowski, J.A.

    1988-02-01

    Acceptable sampling devices identified include gas-operated bladder pumps and bailers constructed of nonreactive materials. In arid portions of the western United States, depths to ground water, which are often greater than 100 feet, make the use of bailers extremely time consuming. The efficiency of gas-operated bladder pumps decreases with depth, and special design and construction is often needed to accommodate higher gas pressures. Commercially available sampling pumps were evaluated for their suitability as sampling and purging equipment for installation in monitoring wells in a deep, unconfined aquifer. The test was conducted in a well where the depth to ground water was 340 feet. The objective was to identify equipment capable of discharge rates suitable for sampling (∼0.025 gpm) and, if possible, for purging (>1 gpm). The potential for physical or chemical alteration of the water sample was evaluated from literature sources and not specifically tested. Four positive-displacement pumps were tested, consisting of two bladder pumps, a gas-driven piston pump, and a mechanically-driven pump. All pumps could be installed in a 2-inch diameter well, although this was not important for the planned application. 4 refs., 1 tab

  17. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic and affect the accuracy of conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. We quantified change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compared estimates of occupied habitat derived from dynamic presence-background (i.e., presence-only data) climatic models with estimates derived from dynamic occupancy models that included a direct measure of food availability. We then compared estimates that incorporate fine-resolution spatial data on the availability of key ecological resources (i.e., functional habitats) with more common approaches that focus on broader climatic suitability or vegetation cover (due to the absence of fine-resolution data). The occupancy models produced significantly (P increase or decrease in the area of one functional habitat (foraging or nesting) did not necessarily correspond to an increase or decrease in the other. Thus, an increase in the extent of occupied area may not equate to improved habitat quality or function. We argue these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists but often go unnoticed because of limited data over relevant spatial and temporal scales and lack of spatial data on the availability of key resources. Understanding changes in the relative availability of functional habitats is crucial to informing conservation planning and accurately assessing extinction risk for mobile resource specialists. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Crystal structure of AFV3-109, a highly conserved protein from crenarchaeal viruses

    Quevillon-Cheruel Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extraordinary morphologies of viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea clearly distinguish them from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. Moreover, their genomes code for proteins that to a large extend have no related sequences in the extent databases. However, a small pool of genes is shared by overlapping subsets of these viruses, and the most conserved gene, exemplified by the ORF109 of the Acidianus Filamentous Virus 3, AFV3, is present on genomes of members of three viral familes, the Lipothrixviridae, Rudiviridae, and "Bicaudaviridae", as well as of the unclassified Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus, STIV. We present here the crystal structure of the protein (Mr = 13.1 kD, 109 residues encoded by the AFV3 ORF 109 in two different crystal forms at 1.5 and 1.3 Å resolution. The structure of AFV3-109 is a five stranded β-sheet with loops on one side and three helices on the other. It forms a dimer adopting the shape of a cradle that encompasses the best conserved regions of the sequence. No protein with a related fold could be identified except for the ortholog from STIV1, whose structure was deposited at the Protein Data Bank. We could clearly identify a well bound glycerol inside the cradle, contacting exclusively totally conserved residues. This interaction was confirmed in solution by fluorescence titration. Although the function of AFV3-109 cannot be deduced directly from its structure, structural homology with the STIV1 protein, and the size and charge distribution of the cavity suggested it could interact with nucleic acids. Fluorescence quenching titrations also showed that AFV3-109 interacts with dsDNA. Genomic sequence analysis revealed bacterial homologs of AFV3-109 as a part of a putative previously unidentified prophage sequences in some Firmicutes.

  19. Comparative analyses of six solanaceous transcriptomes reveal a high degree of sequence conservation and species-specific transcripts

    Ouyang Shu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae is a family of closely related species with diverse phenotypes that have been exploited for agronomic purposes. Previous studies involving a small number of genes suggested sequence conservation across the Solanaceae. The availability of large collections of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs for the Solanaceae now provides the opportunity to assess sequence conservation and divergence on a genomic scale. Results All available ESTs and Expressed Transcripts (ETs, 449,224 sequences for six Solanaceae species (potato, tomato, pepper, petunia, tobacco and Nicotiana benthamiana, were clustered and assembled into gene indices. Examination of gene ontologies revealed that the transcripts within the gene indices encode a similar suite of biological processes. Although the ESTs and ETs were derived from a variety of tissues, 55–81% of the sequences had significant similarity at the nucleotide level with sequences among the six species. Putative orthologs could be identified for 28–58% of the sequences. This high degree of sequence conservation was supported by expression profiling using heterologous hybridizations to potato cDNA arrays that showed similar expression patterns in mature leaves for all six solanaceous species. 16–19% of the transcripts within the six Solanaceae gene indices did not have matches among Solanaceae, Arabidopsis, rice or 21 other plant gene indices. Conclusion Results from this genome scale analysis confirmed a high level of sequence conservation at the nucleotide level of the coding sequence among Solanaceae. Additionally, the results indicated that part of the Solanaceae transcriptome is likely to be unique for each species.

  20. NFAT5 regulates HIV-1 in primary monocytes via a highly conserved long terminal repeat site.

    Shahin Ranjbar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To replicate, HIV-1 capitalizes on endogenous cellular activation pathways resulting in recruitment of key host transcription factors to its viral enhancer. RNA interference has been a powerful tool for blocking key checkpoints in HIV-1 entry into cells. Here we apply RNA interference to HIV-1 transcription in primary macrophages, a major reservoir of the virus, and specifically target the transcription factor NFAT5 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 5, which is the most evolutionarily divergent NFAT protein. By molecularly cloning and sequencing isolates from multiple viral subtypes, and performing DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift, and promoter mutagenesis transfection assays, we demonstrate that NFAT5 functionally interacts with a specific enhancer binding site conserved in HIV-1, HIV-2, and multiple simian immunodeficiency viruses. Using small interfering RNA to ablate expression of endogenous NFAT5 protein, we show that the replication of three major HIV-1 viral subtypes (B, C, and E is dependent upon NFAT5 in human primary differentiated macrophages. Our results define a novel host factor-viral enhancer interaction that reveals a new regulatory role for NFAT5 and defines a functional DNA motif conserved across HIV-1 subtypes and representative simian immunodeficiency viruses. Inhibition of the NFAT5-LTR interaction may thus present a novel therapeutic target to suppress HIV-1 replication and progression of AIDS.

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Pathogenic Fungi Reveals Highly Expressed Conserved Cell Wall Proteins

    Jackson Champer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a quantitative proteomics tally of the most commonly expressed conserved fungal proteins of the cytosol, the cell wall, and the secretome. It was our goal to identify fungi-typical proteins that do not share significant homology with human proteins. Such fungal proteins are of interest to the development of vaccines or drug targets. Protein samples were derived from 13 fungal species, cultured in rich or in minimal media; these included clinical isolates of Aspergillus, Candida, Mucor, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides species. Proteomes were analyzed by quantitative MSE (Mass Spectrometry—Elevated Collision Energy. Several thousand proteins were identified and quantified in total across all fractions and culture conditions. The 42 most abundant proteins identified in fungal cell walls or supernatants shared no to very little homology with human proteins. In contrast, all but five of the 50 most abundant cytosolic proteins had human homologs with sequence identity averaging 59%. Proteomic comparisons of the secreted or surface localized fungal proteins highlighted conserved homologs of the Aspergillus fumigatus proteins 1,3-β-glucanosyltransferases (Bgt1, Gel1-4, Crf1, Ecm33, EglC, and others. The fact that Crf1 and Gel1 were previously shown to be promising vaccine candidates, underlines the value of the proteomics data presented here.

  2. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

  3. Acoustic emission monitoring from a lab scale high shear granulator--a novel approach.

    Watson, N J; Povey, M J W; Reynolds, G K; Xu, B H; Ding, Y

    2014-04-25

    A new approach to the monitoring of granulation processes using passive acoustics together with precise control over the granulation process has highlighted the importance of particle-particle and particle-bowl collisions in acoustic emission. The results have shown that repeatable acoustic results could be obtained but only when a spray nozzle water addition system was used. Acoustic emissions were recorded from a transducer attached to the bowl and an airborne transducer. It was found that the airborne transducer detected very little from the granulation and only experienced small changes throughout the process. The results from the bowl transducer showed that during granulation the frequency content of the acoustic emission shifted towards the lower frequencies. Results from the discrete element model indicate that when larger particles are used the number of collisions the particles experience reduces. This is a result of the volume conservation methodology used in this study, therefore larger particles results in less particles. These simulation results coupled with previous theoretical work on the frequency content of an impacting sphere explain why the frequency content of the acoustic emissions reduces during granule growth. The acoustic system used was also clearly able to identify when large over-wetted granules were present in the system, highlighting its benefit for detecting undesirable operational conditions. High-speed photography was used to study if visual changes in the granule properties could be linked with the changing acoustic emissions. The high speed photography was only possible towards the latter stages of the granulation process and it was found that larger granules produced a higher magnitude of acoustic emission across a broader frequency range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  5. Impacts of Tropical Forest Disturbance Upon Avifauna on a Small Island with High Endemism: Implications for Conservation

    Martin Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are rapidly being lost across Southeast Asia and this is predicted to have severe implications for many of the region′s bird species. However, relationships between forest disturbance and avifaunal assemblages remain poorly understood, particularly on small island ecosystems such as those found in the biodiversity ′hotspot′ of Wallacea. This study examines how avifaunal richness varies across a disturbance gradient in a forest reserve on Buton Island, southeast Sulawesi. Particular emphasis is placed upon examining responses in endemic and red-listed species with high conservation importance. Results indicate that overall avian richness increases between primary and 30-year-old regenerating secondary forest and then decreases through disturbed secondary forest, but is highest in cleared farmland. However, high species richness in farmland does not signify high species distinctiveness; bird community composition here differs significantly from that found in forest sites, and is poor in supporting forest specialists and endemic species. Certain large-bodied endemics such as the Knobbed Hornbill (Rhyticeros cassidix appear to be sensitive to moderate disturbance, with populations occurring at greatest density within primary forest. However, overall endemic species richness, as well as that of endemic frugivores and insectivores, is similar in primary and secondary forest types. Results indicate that well-established secondary forest in particular has an important role in supporting species with high conservational importance, possessing community composition similar to that found in primary forest and supporting an equally high richness of endemic species.

  6. Study on Communication Methods for Electric Power High-voltage Equipment Monitoring System

    Jia Yu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of high-voltage equipment in substations is beneficial for early detection of faults. The use of wireless sensor networks to build monitoring system is an effective way, but the data collection is a difficult task. The author introduces a real-time monitoring system based on ZIGBEE and mobile communication technology. The system includes multiple monitoring points and terminal platforms. Each monitoring point consists of a number of sensor nodes to form a ZIGBEE network, detecting relevant parameters, coordinator node data collected one by one, known as linear transmission, and finally to the monitoring platform through the mobile communication network. This paper presents a fusion algorithm for monitoring cell data acquisition to reduce the amount of data uploaded to the base station. In addition, multi-hop routing algorithm based on opportunistic routing is proposed to balance network energy and improve network transmission rate and efficiency.

  7. Noise exposure and hearing conservation practices in an industry with high incidence of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss.

    Daniell, William E; Swan, Susan S; McDaniel, Mary M; Stebbins, John G; Seixas, Noah S; Morgan, Michael S

    2002-10-01

    Washington State has experienced a striking increase in workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. This cross-sectional study examined noise exposures and hearing conservation practices in one industry with a high rate of hearing loss claims. We evaluated 10 representative foundries with personal noise dosimetry, management interviews, employee interviews, and existing audiometry. Noise levels routinely exceeded 85 dBA. All companies were out of compliance with hearing conservation regulations. Most employees with important findings on audiograms were not aware of their findings. There was a significant positive correlation between management-interview scores and worksite-average employee-interview scores (r = 0.70, P = 0.02). Companies where more effort is put into hearing conservation program activities can achieve a greater positive impact on employee awareness. However, there were broad deficiencies even in the better programs in this sample, suggesting that workers in this industry probably face a continuing substantial risk of occupational hearing loss. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    Hashem, Anwar M. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Van Domselaar, Gary [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing (China); She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sui, Jianhua [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); He, Runtao [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Marasco, Wayne A. [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Li, Xuguang, E-mail: Sean.Li@hc-sc.gc.ca [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  9. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    Hashem, Anwar M.; Van Domselaar, Gary; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D.; Sui, Jianhua; He, Runtao; Marasco, Wayne A.; Li, Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. → Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. → The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. → The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  10. A high-order relaxation method with projective integration for solving nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    Lafitte, Pauline; Melis, Ward; Samaey, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    We present a general, high-order, fully explicit relaxation scheme which can be applied to any system of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple dimensions. The scheme consists of two steps. In a first (relaxation) step, the nonlinear hyperbolic conservation law is approximated by a kinetic equation with stiff BGK source term. Then, this kinetic equation is integrated in time using a projective integration method. After taking a few small (inner) steps with a simple, explicit method (such as direct forward Euler) to damp out the stiff components of the solution, the time derivative is estimated and used in an (outer) Runge-Kutta method of arbitrary order. We show that, with an appropriate choice of inner step size, the time step restriction on the outer time step is similar to the CFL condition for the hyperbolic conservation law. Moreover, the number of inner time steps is also independent of the stiffness of the BGK source term. We discuss stability and consistency, and illustrate with numerical results (linear advection, Burgers' equation and the shallow water and Euler equations) in one and two spatial dimensions.

  11. Radiation control monitoring system on the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    Minowa, Y.; Nakazawa, T.; Sato, K.; Kikuchi, H.; Nomura, T.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation control monitoring system of the HTTR is divided into three subsystems; exhaust monitoring equipment, room air monitoring equipment, dose equivalent rate monitoring equipment. The exhaust monitoring equipment consists of exhaust gas monitors, exhaust dust monitors, and a tritium and carbon sampling device at normal operation of the reactor. Accident gas monitors are also provided for the emergency. The tritium and carbon sampling device uses cupper oxide as a oxidizer, and ethanol amine as a sampling materials which collects continuously tritium and carbon in dust during about one month and is measured by a liquid scintillation counter. The accident gas monitors consist of two channels, for a low and a high range. The high range-gas monitor consists of two ionization chambers: one encloses argon gas and the other encloses xenon gas. Average energy of various gamma-rays, hence, accident exposure dose of the public can be estimated with the comparison of the sensitivity of two kinds of ionization chambers. The dose equivalent rate monitoring equipment consists of silicon semiconductor detectors for gamma-ray, a ionization chamber for gamma-ray, a BF 3 counter for neutron, and accident area monitors which are located in the reactor container. The message of 'check dose !' or 'temporary evacuation !' can be send to the workers in the reactor with a light and a sound. A computer system collects the radiation monitoring data every 10 sec cycle and accumulates them in a server computer. The leakage and the dispersion of helium gas must be taken into account on the radiation control monitoring system of the HTTR. (Suetake, M.)

  12. A new world monkey microsatellite (ap74) highly conserved in primates

    Oklander, Luciana Ines; Steinberg, Eliana Ruth; Dolores Mudry, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Given their great variability, microsatellites or STRS became the most commonly used genetic markers over the last 15 years. The analysis of these markers requires minimum quantities of DNA, allowing the use of noninvasive samples, such as feces or hair. We amplified the microsatellite ap74 in blood and hair samples in order to analyze the levels of genomic conservation among a wide range of primates including: lemur catta, alouatta caraya, ateles belzebuth, ateles chamek, pan troglodytes, papio sp., and Homo sapiens. in all cases we obtained amplification products that exhibited similar size both in monkeys and human (oscillating between 126 and 176 bp), except in the lemur where the detected fragment presented a size of approximately 1000 bp. the analysis of the nucleotide sequences permitted the evaluation of the molecular modifications experienced during the evolutionary process in primates.

  13. Systematic Raptor Monitoring as conservation tool: 12 year results in the light of landscape changes in Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli National Park

    Konstantinos Poirazidis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli National Park forms part of the Natura 2000 network in a region of Greece and represents one of the most diverse landscapes for raptors (birds of prey breeding in Europe. It is adjacent to Bulgaria and Turkey and is a renowned biodiversity hotspot. WWF Greece established a Systematic Raptor Monitoring scheme in this area in 2001.This study summarises the results of the first 12 years of monitoring in the National Park. Overall, 25 to 27 raptor species were recorded by pooling data, of which20 species reproduced in the National Park. Raptors with continuous presence in the National Park exhibited stable, species-specific inter-annual variation. An average of 348±15.4 raptor territories were distributed throughout the National Park for all species. The Common buzzard (Buteo buteo and the Short-toed eagle (Circaetus gallicus were the most common species year-round, followed by the Lesser-spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina and Booted eagle (Aquila pennata. The Long-legged buzzard (Buteo rufinus, Honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus and Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus exhibited a noticeable drop in population numbers over the study period. A significant new entry was the re-appearance of the White-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla, which was recorded breeding again in the region after a 21-year absence. Species trends, along with their ecological traits, are discussed with respect to landscape changes in Dadia NP and minimum viable population and territory thresholds are proposed to outline essential conservation issues. Although a multi-year balance of the total number of occupied territories for all species was recorded, the number of common species increased compared to specialist species which had smaller, declining populations. The abandoning of traditional livestock farming, which induces an increase in closed-canopy forest coverage, might have led to the decline of the Lesser-spotted eagle, Long-legged buzzard and Honey

  14. Online Vce measurement method for wear-out monitoring of high power IGBT modules

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    A simple Vce online monitoring circuit is presented in this paper. It allows an accurate wear out prediction of IGBT modules, in high-power applications, during normal converter operation. Bipolar measurement allows monitoring of both IGBT and antiparallel diode. The circuit uses two serial...... offset due to diodes' forward voltage temperature dependency. Using four diodes one can monitor voltages on all power devices in a converter leg....

  15. Innovative Health Monitoring Techniques for High Temperature Composites

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High temperature composite materials, which include ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), carbon-carbon and polyimide composites, will be essential for future space...

  16. Three Conservation Applications of Astronaut Photographs of Earth: Tidal Flat Loss (Japan), Elephant Impacts on Vegetation (Botswana), and Seagrass and Mangrove Monitoring (Australia)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Robinson, Julie A.; Minorukashiwagi; Maggiesuzuki; Duanenellis, M.; Bussing, Charles E.; Leelong, W. J.; McKenzie, Andlen J.

    2000-01-01

    NASA photographs taken from low Earth orbit can provide information relevant to conservation biology. This data source is now more accessible due to improvements in digitizing technology, Internet file transfer, and availability of image processing software. We present three examples of conservation-related projects that benefited from using orbital photographs. (1) A time series of photographs from the Space Shuttle showing wetland conversion in Japan was used as a tool for communicating about the impacts of tidal flat loss. Real-time communication with astronauts about a newsworthy event resulted in acquiring current imagery. These images and the availability of other high resolution digital images from NASA provided timely public information on the observed changes. (2) A Space Shuttle photograph of Chobe National Park in Botswana was digitally classified and analyzed to identify the locations of elephant-impacted woodland. Field validation later confirmed that areas identified on the image showed evidence of elephant impacts. (3) A summary map from intensive field surveys of seagrasses in Shoalwater Bay, Australia was used as reference data for a supervised classification of a digitized photograph taken from orbit. The classification was able to distinguish seagrasses, sediments and mangroves with accuracy approximating that in studies using other satellite remote sensing data. Orbital photographs are in the public domain and the database of nearly 400,000 photographs from the late 1960s to the present is available at a single searchable location on the Internet. These photographs can be used by conservation biologists for general information about the landscape and in quantitative applications.

  17. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  18. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes

    Daniel J Hui

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings.

  19. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes.

    Hui, Daniel J; Edmonson, Shyrie C; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Pien, Gary C; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Camire, Rodney M; Ertl, Hildegund; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings.

  20. Long-Term Monitoring of Fresco Paintings in the Cathedral of Valencia (Spain) Through Humidity and Temperature Sensors in Various Locations for Preventive Conservation

    Zarzo, Manuel; Fernández-Navajas, Angel; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2011-01-01

    We describe the performance of a microclimate monitoring system that was implemented for the preventive conservation of the Renaissance frescoes in the apse vault of the Cathedral of Valencia, that were restored in 2006. This system comprises 29 relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors: 10 of them inserted into the plaster layer supporting the fresco paintings, 10 sensors in the walls close to the frescoes and nine sensors measuring the indoor microclimate at different points of the vault. Principal component analysis was applied to RH data recorded in 2007. The analysis was repeated with data collected in 2008 and 2010. The resulting loading plots revealed that the similarities and dissimilarities among sensors were approximately maintained along the three years. A physical interpretation was provided for the first and second principal components. Interestingly, sensors recording the highest RH values correspond to zones where humidity problems are causing formation of efflorescence. Recorded data of RH and temperature are discussed according to Italian Standard UNI 10829 (1999). PMID:22164100

  1. Long-Term Monitoring of Fresco Paintings in the Cathedral of Valencia (Spain Through Humidity and Temperature Sensors in Various Locations for Preventive Conservation

    Angel Fernández-Navajas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the performance of a microclimate monitoring system that was implemented for the preventive conservation of the Renaissance frescoes in the apse vault of the Cathedral of Valencia, that were restored in 2006. This system comprises 29 relative humidity (RH and temperature sensors: 10 of them inserted into the plaster layer supporting the fresco paintings, 10 sensors in the walls close to the frescoes and nine sensors measuring the indoor microclimate at different points of the vault. Principal component analysis was applied to RH data recorded in 2007. The analysis was repeated with data collected in 2008 and 2010. The resulting loading plots revealed that the similarities and dissimilarities among sensors were approximately maintained along the three years. A physical interpretation was provided for the first and second principal components. Interestingly, sensors recording the highest RH values correspond to zones where humidity problems are causing formation of efflorescence. Recorded data of RH and temperature are discussed according to Italian Standard UNI 10829 (1999.

  2. Hearing sensitivity in context: Conservation implications for a highly vocal endangered species

    Megan A. Owen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hearing sensitivity is a fundamental determinant of a species’ vulnerability to anthropogenic noise, however little is known about the hearing capacities of most conservation dependent species. When audiometric data are integrated with other aspects of species’ acoustic ecology, life history, and characteristic habitat topography and soundscape, predictions can be made regarding probable vulnerability to the negative impacts of different types of anthropogenic noise. Here we used an adaptive psychoacoustic technique to measure hearing thresholds in the endangered giant panda; a species that uses acoustic communication to coordinate reproduction. Our results suggest that giant pandas have functional hearing into the ultrasonic range, with good sensitivity between 10.0 and 16.0 kHz, and best sensitivity measured at 12.5–14.0 kHz. We estimated the lower and upper limits of functional hearing as 0.10 and 70.0 kHz respectively. While these results suggest that panda hearing is similar to that of some other terrestrial carnivores, panda hearing thresholds above 14.0 kHz were significantly lower (i.e., more sensitive than those of the polar bear, the only other bear species for which data are available. We discuss the implications of this divergence, as well as the relationship between hearing sensitivity and the spectral parameters of panda vocalizations. We suggest that these data, placed in context, can be used towards the development of a sensory-based model of noise disturbance for the species.

  3. A Method of High Throughput Monitoring Crop Physiology Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Multispectral Imaging.

    Wang, Heng; Qian, Xiangjie; Zhang, Lan; Xu, Sailong; Li, Haifeng; Xia, Xiaojian; Dai, Liankui; Xu, Liang; Yu, Jingquan; Liu, Xu

    2018-01-01

    We present a high throughput crop physiology condition monitoring system and corresponding monitoring method. The monitoring system can perform large-area chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and multispectral imaging. The monitoring method can determine the crop current condition continuously and non-destructively. We choose chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and relative reflectance of multispectral as the indicators of crop physiological status. Using tomato as experiment subject, the typical crop physiological stress, such as drought, nutrition deficiency and plant disease can be distinguished by the monitoring method. Furthermore, we have studied the correlation between the physiological indicators and the degree of stress. Besides realizing the continuous monitoring of crop physiology, the monitoring system and method provide the possibility of machine automatic diagnosis of the plant physiology. Highlights: A newly designed high throughput crop physiology monitoring system and the corresponding monitoring method are described in this study. Different types of stress can induce distinct fluorescence and spectral characteristics, which can be used to evaluate the physiological status of plants.

  4. 77 FR 11785 - Energy Conservation Program: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for High...

    2012-02-28

    ... standards for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Accordingly, DOE will hold a public meeting to discuss..._standards/commercial/high_intensity_discharge_lamps.html . DATES: The Department will hold a public meeting... Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Framework Document for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, EERE-2010-BT-STD...

  5. A high-sensitive and quantitative in-line monitoring method for transplutonium elements separation processes

    Zhu Rongbao; Wang Shiju; Xu Yingpu; Zhang Zengrui

    1986-04-01

    A high-sensitive monitoring device and a quantitative analys technigue for transplutonium elements separation processes are described. X-ray and low energy γ-ray are measured by means of a scintillation monitor with two NaI(Tl) thin crystals. The α spectra of the fluents of ion-exchange column is measured by means of Si(Au) surface barrier in-line monitor. The construction of the monitors, auxiliary electronics, investigation result for the α spectra character of thick source and the calibration method were described. The determination results for extracting process of 243 Am and 244 Cm by ion-exchange chromatography were given. The sensitivity of total adding amount for 243 Am using the 4π scintillation monitor is better than 0.1 μCi. The precision of 243 Am and 244 Cm concentration determination using Si(Au) monitor is +- 5%. The precision of the two metals contents in containers is about +- 10%

  6. Surgical versus conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the lower leg (anterior tibial cortex, navicular and fifth metatarsal base): a systematic review

    Mallee, Wouter H.; Weel, Hanneke; van Dijk, C. Niek; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine

    2015-01-01

    To compare surgical and conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the anterior tibial cortex, navicular and proximal fifth metatarsal. Systematic searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and PEDro were performed to identify relevant prospective and retrospective

  7. Curli Fibers Are Highly Conserved between Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli with Respect to Operon Structure and Regulation

    Römling, Ute; Bian, Zhao; Hammar, Mårten; Sierralta, Walter D.; Normark, Staffan

    1998-01-01

    Mouse-virulent Salmonella typhimurium strains SR-11 and ATCC 14028-1s express curli fibers, thin aggregative fibers, at ambient temperature on plates as judged by Western blot analysis and electron microscopy. Concomitantly with curli expression, cells develop a rough and dry colony morphology and bind the dye Congo red (called the rdar morphotype). Cloning and characterization of the two divergently transcribed operons required for curli biogenesis, csgBA(C) and csgDEFG, from S. typhimurium SR-11 revealed the same gene order and flanking genes as in Escherichia coli. The divergence of the curli region between S. typhimurium and E. coli at the nucleotide level is above average (22.4%). However, a high level of conservation at the protein level, which ranged from 86% amino acid homology for the fiber subunit CsgA to 99% homology for the lipoprotein CsgG, implies functional constraints on the gene products. Consequently, S. typhimurium genes on low-copy-number plasmids were able to complement respective E. coli mutants, although not always to wild-type levels. rpoS and ompR are required for transcriptional activation of (at least) the csgD promoter. The high degree of conservation at the protein level and the identical regulation patterns in E. coli and S. typhimurium suggest similar roles of curli fibers in the same ecological niche in the two species. PMID:9457880

  8. Conserved host response to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in human cell culture, mouse and macaque model systems

    McDermott Jason E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding host response to influenza virus infection will facilitate development of better diagnoses and therapeutic interventions. Several different experimental models have been used as a proxy for human infection, including cell cultures derived from human cells, mice, and non-human primates. Each of these systems has been studied extensively in isolation, but little effort has been directed toward systematically characterizing the conservation of host response on a global level beyond known immune signaling cascades. Results In the present study, we employed a multivariate modeling approach to characterize and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks between these three model systems after infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype. Using this approach we identified functions and pathways that display similar behavior and/or regulation including the well-studied impact on the interferon response and the inflammasome. Our results also suggest a primary response role for airway epithelial cells in initiating hypercytokinemia, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of H5N1 viruses. We further demonstrate that we can use a transcriptional regulatory model from the human cell culture data to make highly accurate predictions about the behavior of important components of the innate immune system in tissues from whole organisms. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of a global regulatory network modeling conserved host response between in vitro and in vivo models.

  9. Tactile shoe inlays for high speed pressure monitoring

    Drimus, Alin; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of flexible tactile sensor shoe inlays for humanoid robots. Their design is based on a sandwich structure of flexible layers with a thin sheet of piezoresistive rubber as main transducer element. The layout and patterning of top and bottom electrodes give 1024...... pressure sensitive cells and the use of high speed electronics and multiplexing algorithms provides frame rates of 100 Hz. The sensors tolerate overloads while showing a consistent output. The developed prototypes show a high potential not only for robotics, but also for use in sensorised human prosthetics....

  10. Development of a high-resolution electron-beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Muto, Toshiya; Hayano, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    We present a high-resolution and real-time beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) developed in the KEK-ATF damping ring. The monitor system has an X-ray imaging optics with two FZPs. In this monitor, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. The expected spatial resolution for the selected photon energy of 3.235 keV is less than 1 μm. With the beam profile monitor, we succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. It is greatly expected that the beam profile monitor will be used in high-brilliance light sources and low-emittance accelerators. (author)

  11. High-frequency monitoring of stream water physicochemistry on sub ...

    2018-04-03

    Apr 3, 2018 ... The island's climate is strongly influenced by its hyperoceanic position ... with these conditions are high relative humidity, cloud-cover and strong westerly .... weather systems have on sub-surface soil temperature dynamics on the ..... integration of telemetered data with process models for glacial meltwater ...

  12. High-Cadence Transit Timing Variation Monitoring of Extrasolar Planets

    Naef D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report ground-based high-cadence transit timing observations of the extrasolar planet WASP-2b. We achieve a typical timing error of 15-30 sec. The data show no significant deviations from the predicted ephemeris.

  13. Negative Binomial charts for monitoring high-quality processes

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    Good control charts for high quality processes are often based on the number of successes between failures. Geometric charts are simplest in this respect, but slow in recognizing moderately increased failure rates p. Improvement can be achieved by waiting until r > 1 failures have occurred, i.e. by

  14. Monitoring aged reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography columns

    Bolck, A; Smilde, AK; Bruins, CHP

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach for the quality assessment of routinely used reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography columns is presented. A used column is not directly considered deteriorated when changes in retention occur. If attention is paid to the type and magnitude of the changes,

  15. Monitoring paneer for Listeria monocytogenes - A high risk food ...

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed and applied to spiked and natural paneer samples to detect Listeria monocytogenes, a high risk food pathogen. The sensitivity of the assay on L. monocytogenes spiked paneer samples was 104 cells prior to enrichment, was improved to 103 cells after 4 h ...

  16. Early amplitude‐integrated electroencephalography for monitoring neonates at high risk for brain injury

    Gabriel Fernando Todeschi Variane

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study supports previous results and demonstrates the utility of amplitude‐integrated electroencephalography for monitoring brain function and predicting early outcome in the studied groups of infants at high risk for brain injury.

  17. High school drinking mediates the relationship between parental monitoring and college drinking: A longitudinal analysis

    Vincent Kathryn B

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background College drinking is a significant public health problem. Although parental monitoring and supervision reduces the risk for alcohol consumption among younger adolescents, few studies have investigated the impact of earlier parental monitoring on later college drinking. This study examined whether parental monitoring indirectly exerts a protective effect on college drinking by reducing high school alcohol consumption. Methods A longitudinal cohort of 1,253 male and female students, ages 17 to 19, attending a large, public, mid-Atlantic university was studied at two time points. First, data on high school parental monitoring and alcohol consumption were gathered via questionnaire during the summer prior to college entry. Second, during the first year of college, past-year alcohol consumption was measured via a personal interview. Multiple regression models tested the relationship between parental monitoring and past year alcohol use (i.e., number of drinks per drinking day. Results Holding constant demographics, SAT score, and religiosity, parental monitoring had a significant protective effect on both high school and college drinking level. However, the association between parental monitoring and college drinking level became non-significant once high school drinking level was held constant. Conclusion While parental monitoring did not directly influence college alcohol consumption, evidence for mediation was observed, whereby parental monitoring had an indirect influence on college drinking through reductions in high school drinking. Initiatives that promote effective parenting might be an important strategy to curb high-risk drinking among older adolescents. More research is needed to understand the nature and degree of parent-child communication that is necessary to extend the protective influence of parents into the college years.

  18. A high resolution beam profile monitor using Bremsstrahlung

    Norem, J.

    1988-01-01

    The development of efficient high energy linear colliders in the 1 TeV range requires final focus systems capable of producing beam spot sizes on the order of 1--20 nm, about three orders of magnitude smaller than those produced at the SLC. Although beam line designs exist which can, in principle, produce the required optics, the construction of quadrupoles with the size and precision required will be challenging. Field errors in these quads must be small and should be verified experimentally, which is difficult with existing technology. This paper describes a proposal to use bremsstrahlung from heavy targets to measure high energy beam profiles and positions with a resolution approaching a few nm. The method is also applicable to tests of other final focus systems (flat beams, plasma lenses) at lower energies. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Field monitoring of column shortenings in a high-rise building during construction.

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-10-24

    The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1) a wireless sensing system and (2) the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes), which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  20. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians.

    Rowley, Jodi; Brown, Rafe; Bain, Raoul; Kusrini, Mirza; Inger, Robert; Stuart, Bryan; Wogan, Guin; Thy, Neang; Chan-Ard, Tanya; Trung, Cao Tien; Diesmos, Arvin; Iskandar, Djoko T; Lau, Michael; Ming, Leong Tzi; Makchai, Sunchai; Truong, Nguyen Quang; Phimmachak, Somphouthone

    2010-06-23

    With an understudied amphibian fauna, the highest deforestation rate on the planet and high harvesting pressures, Southeast Asian amphibians are facing a conservation crisis. Owing to the overriding threat of habitat loss, the most critical conservation action required is the identification and strict protection of habitat assessed as having high amphibian species diversity and/or representing distinctive regional amphibian faunas. Long-term population monitoring, enhanced survey efforts, collection of basic biological and ecological information, continued taxonomic research and evaluation of the impact of commercial trade for food, medicine and pets are also needed. Strong involvement of regional stakeholders, students and professionals is essential to accomplish these actions.

  1. Analytical monitoring of systems for the production of high-purity, desalinated water

    Kunert, I.

    1988-01-01

    The purity requirements to be met by high-purity water currently push the most sensitive analytical methods to their utmost limits of sensitivity. The required degree of purity of the water at present can only be achieved by application of membrane processes, and pre-purification of the feedwater to a quality corresponding to that of the raw water source. The contribution in hand discusses the analytical monitoring of the raw water treatment plant, the water treatment prior to the treatment by reverse osmosis, monitoring and control of the modules for reverse osmosis, and the monitoring of high-purity water production for the microelectronics industry. (orig./RB) [de

  2. A High Elevation Climate Monitoring Network: Strategy and Progress

    Redmond, K. T.

    2004-12-01

    Populations living at low elevations are critically dependent on processes and resources at higher elevations. Most western U.S. streamflow begins as mountain snowmelt. Observational evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that climate variations in a given geographic domain can and do exhibit different characteristics and temporal behavior at different elevations. Subtleties in the interplay between topography and airflow can significantly affect precipitation patterns. However, there are very few systematic, long-term, in-situ, climate quality, high-altitude observational time series with hourly resolution for the western North American mountains to investigate these issues at the proper scales. Climate at high elevations is severely undersampled, a consequence of the harsh physical environment, and demands on sensors, maintenance, access, communications, time, and budgets. Costs are higher, human presence is limited, AC power is often not available, and there are permitting and aesthetic constraints. The observational strategy should include these main elements: 1) All major mountain ranges should be sampled. 2) Along-axis and cross-axis sampling for major mountain chains. 3) Approximately 5-10 sites per state (1 per 56000 sq km to 1 per 28000 sq km). 4) Highest sites as high as possible within each state, but at both high relative and absolute elevations. 5) Free air exposures at higher sites. 6) Utilize existing measurements and networks, and extend existing records, when possible. 7) AC power to prevent ice/rime when practical. 8) Temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, solar radiation as main elements, others as feasible. 9) Hourly readings, and real time communication whenever possible. 10) Absence of local artificial influences, site stable for next 5-10 decades. 11) Current and historical measurements accessible via World Wide Web when possible. 12) Hydro measurements (precipitation, snow water content and depth) are not

  3. [Highly pathogenic avian influenza--monitoring of migratory waterfowl].

    Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2006-10-01

    Since 1979, the group belonging to Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary Public Health and the Avian Zoonoses Research Centre, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University is continuing isolation of avian influenza virus from such migratory waterfowls as whistling swan, pintail and tufted dugs flying from Siberia and/or northern China. They have already isolated many interesting influenza viruses. Serotype of the isolates is various; some H5 and H7 and human types of viruses were also isolated; and its pathogenicity for chickens is not high. It was interested that low pathogenic H5N3 virus isolated from whistling swan acquired severe pathogenicity during passage in chicks.

  4. High accuracy digital aging monitor based on PLL-VCO circuit

    Zhang Yuejun; Jiang Zhidi; Wang Pengjun; Zhang Xuelong

    2015-01-01

    As the manufacturing process is scaled down to the nanoscale, the aging phenomenon significantly affects the reliability and lifetime of integrated circuits. Consequently, the precise measurement of digital CMOS aging is a key aspect of nanoscale aging tolerant circuit design. This paper proposes a high accuracy digital aging monitor using phase-locked loop and voltage-controlled oscillator (PLL-VCO) circuit. The proposed monitor eliminates the circuit self-aging effect for the characteristic of PLL, whose frequency has no relationship with circuit aging phenomenon. The PLL-VCO monitor is implemented in TSMC low power 65 nm CMOS technology, and its area occupies 303.28 × 298.94 μm 2 . After accelerating aging tests, the experimental results show that PLL-VCO monitor improves accuracy about high temperature by 2.4% and high voltage by 18.7%. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Generating high gray-level resolution monochrome displays with conventional computer graphics cards and color monitors.

    Li, Xiangrui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Xu, Pengjing; Jin, Jianzhong; Zhou, Yifeng

    2003-11-30

    Display systems based on conventional computer graphics cards are capable of generating images with about 8-bit luminance resolution. However, most vision experiments require more than 12 bits of luminance resolution. Pelli and Zhang [Spatial Vis. 10 (1997) 443] described a video attenuator for generating high luminance resolution displays on a monochrome monitor, or for driving just the green gun of a color monitor. Here we show how to achieve a white display by adding video amplifiers to duplicate the monochrome signal to drive all three guns of any color monitor. Because of the lack of the availability of high quality monochrome monitors, our method provides an inexpensive way to achieve high-resolution monochromatic displays using conventional, easy-to-get equipment. We describe the design principles, test results, and a few additional functionalities.

  6. Catchment-scale conservation units identified for the threatened Yarra pygmy perch (Nannoperca obscura) in highly modified river systems.

    Brauer, Chris J; Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation caused by human activities alters metapopulation dynamics and decreases biological connectivity through reduced migration and gene flow, leading to lowered levels of population genetic diversity and to local extinctions. The threatened Yarra pygmy perch, Nannoperca obscura, is a poor disperser found in small, isolated populations in wetlands and streams of southeastern Australia. Modifications to natural flow regimes in anthropogenically-impacted river systems have recently reduced the amount of habitat for this species and likely further limited its opportunity to disperse. We employed highly resolving microsatellite DNA markers to assess genetic variation, population structure and the spatial scale that dispersal takes place across the distribution of this freshwater fish and used this information to identify conservation units for management. The levels of genetic variation found for N. obscura are amongst the lowest reported for a fish species (mean heterozygosity of 0.318 and mean allelic richness of 1.92). We identified very strong population genetic structure, nil to little evidence of recent migration among demes and a minimum of 11 units for conservation management, hierarchically nested within four major genetic lineages. A combination of spatial analytical methods revealed hierarchical genetic structure corresponding with catchment boundaries and also demonstrated significant isolation by riverine distance. Our findings have implications for the national recovery plan of this species by demonstrating that N. obscura populations should be managed at a catchment level and highlighting the need to restore habitat and avoid further alteration of the natural hydrology.

  7. High Elevation Refugia for Bombus terricola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Conservation and Wild Bees of the White Mountain National Forest.

    Tucker, Erika M; Rehan, Sandra M

    2017-01-01

    Many wild bee species are in global decline, yet much is still unknown about their diversity and contemporary distributions. National parks and forests offer unique areas of refuge important for the conservation of rare and declining species populations. Here we present the results of the first biodiversity survey of the bee fauna in the White Mountain National Forest (WMNF). More than a thousand specimens were collected from pan and sweep samples representing 137 species. Three species were recorded for the first time in New England and an additional seven species were documented for the first time in the state of New Hampshire. Four introduced species were also observed in the specimens collected. A checklist of the species found in the WMNF, as well as those found previously in Strafford County, NH, is included with new state records and introduced species noted as well as a map of collecting locations. Of particular interest was the relatively high abundance of Bombus terricola Kirby 1837 found in many of the higher elevation collection sites and the single specimen documented of Bombus fervidus (Fabricius 1798). Both of these bumble bee species are known to have declining populations in the northeast and are categorized as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  8. Characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein, highly conserved in metazoans, and essential for embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Ji Qiongmei; Huang, C.-H.; Peng Jianbin; Hashmi, Sarwar; Ye Tianzhang; Chen Ying

    2007-01-01

    We report here the identification and characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein that contains a G-patch, a coiled-coil, and several short tryptophan-tryptophan repeats highly conserved in metazoan species. To analyze their functional role in vivo, we cloned nematode stip-1 genes and determined the spatiotemporal pattern of Caenorhabditis elegans STIP-1 protein. RNA analyses and Western blots revealed that stip-1 mRNA was produced via trans-splicing and translated as a 95-kDa protein. Using reporter constructs, we found STIP-1 to be expressed at all developmental stages and in many tissue/cell types including worm oocyte nuclei. We found that STIP-1 is targeted to the nucleus and forms large polymers with a rod-like shape when expressed in mammalian cells. Using deletion mutants, we mapped the regions of STIP-1 involved in nuclear import and polymer assembly. We further showed that knockdown of C. elegans stip-1 by RNA interference arrested development and resulted in morphologic abnormalities around the 16-cell stage followed by 100% lethality, suggesting its essential role in worm embryogenesis. Importantly, the embryonic lethal phenotype could be faithfully rescued with Drosophila and human genes via transgenic expression. Our data provide the first direct evidence that STIP have a conserved essential nuclear function across metazoans from worms to humans

  9. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    Qiang Jiaxi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle, are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS, the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  10. A novel series connected batteries state of high voltage safety monitor system for electric vehicle application.

    Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  11. Construction of a high resolution electron beam profile monitor

    Norem, J.; Dawson, J.; Haberichter, W.; Novak, W.; Reed, L.; Yang, X.F.

    1993-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung from an electron beam on a heavy target can be used to image the beam profile using collimators and slits. The limiting resolution using this system is determined by Fresnel diffraction, and is ∼ √(λd/2), where λ is the photon wavelength and d is determined by the linear dimensions of the system. For linear colliders this resolution could be a few nm. The highest resolution requires detectors which see only high energy, (small λ), photons, and this is accomplished by converting photons to pairs, and detecting Cherenkov light in a nearly forward angle with a CCD detector or streak camera. Tests are planned at the Argonne APS and SLAC FFTB

  12. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    Mogensen, S L; Jakobsen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two-center st......INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two...

  13. Hair as a long-term retrospective cortisol calendar in orang-utans (Pongo spp.): new perspectives for stress monitoring in captive management and conservation.

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Stalder, Tobias; van Schaik, Carolus P

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the method of hair cortisol analysis is applicable to orang-utans (Pongo spp.) and can help to advance the objective monitoring of stress in non-human primates. Specifically, we examined whether fundamental prerequisites for hair cortisol analysis are given in orang-utans and, subsequently, whether segmental hair analysis may provide a retrospective calendar of long-term cortisol levels. For this, hair samples were examined from 71 zoo-living orang-utans (38 males, mean age=22.5years; 33 females, mean age=24years) for which detailed records of past living conditions were available. Hair samples were cut from defined body regions and were analyzed either in full length or in segments. Results showed that hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were unrelated to age or sex of the individual animal. HCC were found to be higher in orang-utans, with perceived long-term stressful periods (mean HCC=43.6±26.5pg/mg, n=13) compared to animals without perceived stressful periods (19.3±5.5pg/mg, n=55, P40cm. The possibility of obtaining a retrospective calendar of stress-related cortisol changes through hair analysis was further supported by data of three case studies showing close correspondence between the segmental HCC results and keeper reports of stress exposure during the respective time periods. Finally, low within-animal variation in HCC from different body regions (CV%: 14.3) suggested that this method may also be applicable to naturally shed hair, e.g., as found in nests of wild orang-utans and other great apes. Therefore, using HCC may provide an ideal non-invasive tool for both captive management as well as conservation in orang-utans and potentially other great apes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine amino acid triplet required for HIV-1 Nef function

    Meuwissen Pieter J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nef protein of HIV facilitates virus replication and disease progression in infected patients. This role as pathogenesis factor depends on several genetically separable Nef functions that are mediated by interactions of highly conserved protein-protein interaction motifs with different host cell proteins. By studying the functionality of a series of nef alleles from clinical isolates, we identified a dysfunctional HIV group O Nef in which a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine (VGF region, which links a preceding acidic cluster with the following proline-rich motif into an amphipathic surface was deleted. In this study, we aimed to study the functional importance of this VGF region. Results The dysfunctional HIV group O8 nef allele was restored to the consensus sequence, and mutants of canonical (NL4.3, NA-7, SF2 and non-canonical (B2 and C1422 HIV-1 group M nef alleles were generated in which the amino acids of the VGF region were changed into alanines (VGF→AAA and tested for their capacity to interfere with surface receptor trafficking, signal transduction and enhancement of viral replication and infectivity. We found the VGF motif, and each individual amino acid of this motif, to be critical for downregulation of MHC-I and CXCR4. Moreover, Nef’s association with the cellular p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2, the resulting deregulation of cofilin and inhibition of host cell actin remodeling, and targeting of Lck kinase to the trans-golgi-network (TGN were affected as well. Of particular interest, VGF integrity was essential for Nef-mediated enhancement of HIV virion infectivity and HIV replication in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For targeting of Lck kinase to the TGN and viral infectivity, especially the phenylalanine of the triplet was essential. At the molecular level, the VGF motif was required for the physical interaction of the adjacent proline-rich motif with Hck. Conclusion Based on these findings, we

  15. Ancient Exaptation of a CORE-SINE Retroposon into a Highly Conserved Mammalian Neuronal Enhancer of the Proopiomelanocortin Gene

    Bumaschny, Viviana F; Low, Malcolm J; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC) is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5′ distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE) retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution. PMID:17922573

  16. Ancient exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon into a highly conserved mammalian neuronal enhancer of the proopiomelanocortin gene.

    Andrea M Santangelo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5' distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution.

  17. Monitoring of the tensor polarization of high energy deuteron beams; Monitoring tenzornoj polyarizatsii dejtronnykh puchkov vysokoj ehnergii

    Zolin, L S; Litvinenko, A G; Pilipenko, Yu K; Reznikov, S G; Rukoyatkin, P A; Fimushkin, V V

    1998-12-01

    The method of determining the tensor component of high energy polarized deuteron beams, based on measuring of the tensor analyzing power in the deuteron stripping reaction, is discussed. This method is convenient for monitoring during long time runs on the tensor polarized deuteron beams. The method was tested in the 5-days run at the LHE JINR accelerator with the 3 and 9 GeV/c tensor polarized deuterons. The results made it possible to estimate the beam polarization stability in time 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Object-oriented Approach to High-level Network Monitoring and Management

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2000-01-01

    An absolute prerequisite for the management of large investigating methods to build high-level monitoring computer networks is the ability to measure their systems that are built on top of existing monitoring performance. Unless we monitor a system, we cannot tools. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the hope to manage and control its performance. In this underlying systems at NASA Langley Research Center, paper, we describe a network monitoring system that we use an object-oriented approach for the design, we are currently designing and implementing. Keeping, first, we use UML (Unified Modeling Language) to in mind the complexity of the task and the required model users' requirements. Second, we identify the flexibility for future changes, we use an object-oriented existing capabilities of the underlying monitoring design methodology. The system is built using the system. Third, we try to map the former with the latter. APIs offered by the HP OpenView system.

  19. Using Wireless Sensor Networks to Achieve Intelligent Monitoring for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Jianghai Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR can incorporate wireless sensor network (WSN technology to improve safety and economic competitiveness. WSN has great potential in monitoring the equipment and processes within nuclear power plants (NPPs. This technology not only reduces the cost of regular monitoring but also enables intelligent monitoring. In intelligent monitoring, large sets of heterogeneous data collected by the WSN can be used to optimize the operation and maintenance of the HTGR. In this paper, WSN-based intelligent monitoring schemes that are specific for applications of HTGR are proposed. Three major concerns regarding wireless technology in HTGR are addressed: wireless devices interference, cybersecurity of wireless networks, and wireless standards selected for wireless platform. To process nonlinear and non-Gaussian data obtained by WSN for fault diagnosis, novel algorithms combining Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KECA and support vector machine (SVM are developed.

  20. High-resolution radon monitoring and hydrodynamics at Mount Vesuvius

    Cigolini, Corrado; Salierno, Francesco; Gervino, Gianpiero; Bergese, Paolo; Marino, Ciro; Russo, Massimo; Prati, Paolo; Ariola, Vincenzo; Bonetti, Roberto; Begnini, Stefania

    A yearlong high-resolution radon survey has been carried on at Mount Vesuvius, starting in May 1998. Radon activities were acquired by exposing charcoal canisters and track-etch detectors. Sampling stations were deployed along two major summit faults and around the caldera bottom. Volcanically-related earthquakes, with MD ≥ 2.5, may be discriminated from regional seismic events since their cumulative radon anomalies are recorded from stations located along all the above structural features. On the contrary, radon anomalies correlated to regional earthquakes, with MD ≥ 4, are essentially recorded by the sampling sites located along the two summit faults (whose roots extend deeper into the Tertiary basement rocks that underlay the volcano). Radon migration to the surface is ruled by convection within a porous medium of relatively low porosity (ϕ ≈ 10-5), suggesting that fluid motion is strongly localised along fractures. It is suggested that fluid pressure build up, followed by fluid release and migration during incipient fracturing of the porous medium, precede the onset of volcanically-induced earthquakes.

  1. Identification of immunogenic HLA-B7 "Achilles' heel" epitopes within highly conserved regions of HIV

    De Groot, Anne S; Rivera, Daniel S; McMurry, Julie A

    2008-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in class I human leukocyte antigen molecules (HLA) have been shown to determine susceptibility to HIV infection as well as the rate of progression to AIDS. In particular, the HLA-B7 supertype has been shown to be associated with high viral loads and rapid progression to dise...

  2. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-03-01

    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  3. Scale Morphology and Micro-Structure of Monitor Lizards (Squamata: Varanidae: Varanus spp.) and their Allies: Implications for Systematics, Ecology, and Conservation.

    Bucklitsch, Yannick; Böhme, Wolfgang; Koch, André

    2016-08-17

    ., is erected for this enigmatic monitor lizard species. Furthermore, we propose a taxonomic splitting of the morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous subgenus Euprepiosaurus comprising the Pacific or mangrove and the tree monitor lizards, respectively, again based on the SEM data. Thus, for the members of the highly arboreal V. prasinus species group erection of a new subgenus, Hapturosaurus subgen. nov., is justified based on the autapomorphic scale shape in concert with further morphological, phylogenetic and ecological evidence. In addition, V. reisingeri originally described as a distinct species is considered conspecific with the wide-spread V. prasinus due to joint synapormorphic features in the ventral scale micro-structure. Consequently, V. prasinus is (again) rendered polytypic with the taxon reisingeri being assigned subspecies status here.        In conclusion, the established scalation characters allow discrimination of single species even among closely-related Varanus species, such as the members of the V. indicus species group. Together with a recently published identification key for Southeast Asian monitor lizards based on macroscopic phenotypic characters (Koch et al. 2013), the SEM-pictures of the present study may serve as additional references for the microscopic identification of CITES-relevant monitor lizard skins and products, respectively.

  4. Research on monitoring technology of axial gap change about high-speed rotating machinery

    Zhang Xiaochan; Liu Fanglei; Hu Shihua; Xie Qing; Li Zhen

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes that the only measuring point of high-speed rotating machinery (speed monitoring transducer) measuring the operation of the axial gap change and application. According to mechanism analysis the speed monitoring transducer's signal, prove its amplitude changes including the axial gap change information. To carry out the speed monitoring transducer qualitative and quantitative axial gap change research, Find the output signal amplitude and clearance change corresponding relationship formula of speed monitoring transducer, define the measurement method. Based on the above analsis, manufacture the single channel measurement devices and multiple unit measurement system, provide an important fault decision of high-speed rotating machinery, it can be applied to new equipment development and production. (authors)

  5. Ontario Hydro's environmental monitoring program for HV [high voltage] transmission line projects

    Braekevelt, P.N.

    1991-01-01

    Responsible monitoring and control of environmental impacts is key to obtaining future needed approvals for new high voltage (HV) transmission line projects. Ontario Hydro's environmental monitoring program was developed as a highly structured, self-imposed monitoring system to relieve government agencies of the responsibility of developing a similar external program. The goal was to be self-policing. The historical development, program structure, standards, priority ratings, documentation, communication and computerization of the program is described. The most effective way to minimize environmental impacts is to avoid sensitive features at the route selection stage, well before any construction takes place. The environmental monitoring program is based on the following blueprint: each crew member is responsible for environmental protection; environmental problems are to be resolved at the lowest level possible; potential concerns should be resolved before they become problems; known problems should be dealt with quickly to minimize impacts; team members should work cooperatively; and formal and regular communication is emphasized

  6. A highly conserved Poc1 protein characterized in embryos of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica: localization and functional studies.

    Cécile Fourrage

    Full Text Available Poc1 (Protein of Centriole 1 proteins are highly conserved WD40 domain-containing centriole components, well characterized in the alga Chlamydomonas, the ciliated protazoan Tetrahymena, the insect Drosophila and in vertebrate cells including Xenopus and zebrafish embryos. Functions and localizations related to the centriole and ciliary axoneme have been demonstrated for Poc1 in a range of species. The vertebrate Poc1 protein has also been reported to show an additional association with mitochondria, including enrichment in the specialized "germ plasm" region of Xenopus oocytes. We have identified and characterized a highly conserved Poc1 protein in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica. Clytia Poc1 mRNA was found to be strongly expressed in eggs and early embryos, showing a punctate perinuclear localization in young oocytes. Fluorescence-tagged Poc1 proteins expressed in developing embryos showed strong localization to centrioles, including basal bodies. Anti-human Poc1 antibodies decorated mitochondria in Clytia, as reported in human cells, but failed to recognise endogenous or fluorescent-tagged Clytia Poc1. Injection of specific morpholino oligonucleotides into Clytia eggs prior to fertilization to repress Poc1 mRNA translation interfered with cell division from the blastula stage, likely corresponding to when neosynthesis normally takes over from maternally supplied protein. Cell cycle lengthening and arrest were observed, phenotypes consistent with an impaired centriolar biogenesis or function. The specificity of the defects could be demonstrated by injection of synthetic Poc1 mRNA, which restored normal development. We conclude that in Clytia embryos, Poc1 has an essentially centriolar localization and function.

  7. On-Line Fuel Failure Monitor for Fuel Testing and Monitoring of Gas Cooled Very High Temperature Reactors

    Hawari, Ayman I.; Bourham, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) utilize the TRISO microsphere as the fundamental fuel unit in the core. The TRISO microsphere (∼ 1-mm diameter) is composed of a UO2 kernel surrounded by a porous pyrolytic graphite buffer, an inner pyrolytic graphite layer, a silicon carbide (SiC) coating, and an outer pyrolytic graphite layer. The U-235 enrichment of the fuel is expected to range from 4%-10% (higher enrichments are also being considered). The layer/coating system that surrounds the UO2 kernel acts as the containment and main barrier against the environmental release of radioactivity. To understand better the behavior of this fuel under in-core conditions (e.g., high temperature, intense fast neutron flux, etc.), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a fuel testing program that will take place at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During this project North Carolina State University (NCSU) researchers will collaborate with INL staff for establishing an optimized system for fuel monitoring for the ATR tests. In addition, it is expected that the developed system and methods will be of general use for fuel failure monitoring in gas cooled VHTRs.

  8. Monitoring the Lavina di Roncovetro (RE, Italy) landslide by integrating traditional monitoring systems and multiple high-resolution topographic datasets

    Fornaciai, Alessandro; Favalli, Massimiliano; Gigli, Giovanni; Nannipieri, Luca; Mucchi, Lorenzo; Intieri, Emanuele; Agostini, Andrea; Pizziolo, Marco; Bertolini, Giovanni; Trippi, Federico; Casagli, Nicola; Schina, Rosa; Carnevale, Ennio

    2016-04-01

    Tha Lavina di Roncovetro landslide is located in the Enza Valley (Reggio Emilia, Italy). It extends from the top of Mount Staffola down to the Tassobbio River. Since the clay fraction is dominant, it follows that the landslide can be considered as a fluid-viscous mudflow, which can reach a down flow maximum rate of 10 m/day. The landslide started between the middle and the end of the XIX century and since then it has had a rapid evolution mainly characterized by the rapid retrogression of the crown to the extent that now reaches the top of Mount Staffola. In the last 20 years, about 100,000 m3 of bedrock descended from the main scarp into the landslide body. The total volume of the landslide is inferred to be of ~ 3×106 m3. In the frame of EU Wireless Sensor Network for Ground Instability Monitoring - Wi-GIM project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/001033), the Roncovetro landslide is periodically monitored by traditional monitoring systems and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) survey. In addition, an airborne LIDAR survey and a photographic acquisition from a small aircraft were carried out on April 2014 and October 2014, respectively. The traditional monitoring system consists of a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) survey and a robotized total station (RTS). TLS acquisitions have focused on the upper and more active sector of the earthflow and were carried out since May 2014. By comparing TLS data taken at different times, the general deformational field of the landslide can be reconstructed and the displacements affecting the retaining structures built on the landslide crown quantified. The time resolution of both TLS and RTS acquisition is about 6 per year. . Three high-resolution photogrammetric surveys performed using an UAV were carried out on November 2014, July 2015 and January 2016. Starting from the acquired photos and applying photogrammetry and Structure From Motion (SFM) algorithms integrated in the Photoscan Agisoft software, the high-resolution 3D models of the

  9. Validation of New Crack Monitoring Technique for Victoria Class High-Pressure Air Bottles

    2014-06-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et développement pour la défense Canada Validation of new crack monitoring technique for Victoria ...Validation of new crack monitoring technique for Victoria class high-pressure air bottles Ian Thompson John R. MacKay Defence Research and Development...Canada Scientific Report DRDC-RDDC-2014-R81 June 2014 © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (Department of National Defence), 2014 © Sa Majesté

  10. Frameworks to monitor and predict resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Martin, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 30,000 CPU cores which filter events at up to 100 kHz input rate. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger, this enables detailed monitoring of the system and allows for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. This talk will present an overview of how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on both CPU usage and dataflow over the data-acquisition network during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special `Enhanced Bias' event selection. This mechanism will be explained along with how is used to profile expected resource usage and output event-rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  11. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219969; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger thus enabling detailed monitoring of the system and allowing for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special ‘Enhanced Bias’ event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  12. Constrained instanton and baryon number non-conservation at high energies

    Sil'vestrov, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    The main subject of this paper is the calculation of corrections to instanton action ΔS∼(mρ) 4 log(mρ)/g 2 (ρ is the intanton radius) in the SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. The total cross section for baryon number violating processes at high energies is usually parametrized as σ tat ∝exp(4π/αF(ε)), where α=g 2 /4π, ε=√s/E 0 , E 0 =√6πm w /α. In the present paper the third nontrivial term of the F(ε) expansion is obtained. The unknown correction to F(ε) are expected to be of the order of ε 8/3 . The total cross section is extremely sensitive to the value of single instanton action. For sufficiently heavy Higgs boson the ρ-dependent part of the instanton action is changed drastically. 21 refs.; 1 fig

  13. Design of a self-calibration high precision micro-angle deformation optical monitoring scheme

    Gu, Yingying; Wang, Li; Guo, Shaogang; Wu, Yun; Liu, Da

    2018-03-01

    In order to meet the requirement of high precision and micro-angle measurement on orbit, a self-calibrated optical non-contact real-time monitoring device is designed. Within three meters, the micro-angle variable of target relative to measuring basis can be measured in real-time. The range of angle measurement is +/-50'', the angle measurement accuracy is less than 2''. The equipment can realize high precision real-time monitoring the micro-angle deformation, which caused by high strength vibration and shock of rock launching, sun radiation and heat conduction on orbit and so on.

  14. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-Performance Monitoring Architecture for Large-Scale Distributed Systems Using Event Filtering

    Maly, K.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring is an essential process to observe and improve the reliability and the performance of large-scale distributed (LSD) systems. In an LSD environment, a large number of events is generated by the system components during its execution or interaction with external objects (e.g. users or processes). Monitoring such events is necessary for observing the run-time behavior of LSD systems and providing status information required for debugging, tuning and managing such applications. However, correlated events are generated concurrently and could be distributed in various locations in the applications environment which complicates the management decisions process and thereby makes monitoring LSD systems an intricate task. We propose a scalable high-performance monitoring architecture for LSD systems to detect and classify interesting local and global events and disseminate the monitoring information to the corresponding end- points management applications such as debugging and reactive control tools to improve the application performance and reliability. A large volume of events may be generated due to the extensive demands of the monitoring applications and the high interaction of LSD systems. The monitoring architecture employs a high-performance event filtering mechanism to efficiently process the large volume of event traffic generated by LSD systems and minimize the intrusiveness of the monitoring process by reducing the event traffic flow in the system and distributing the monitoring computation. Our architecture also supports dynamic and flexible reconfiguration of the monitoring mechanism via its Instrumentation and subscription components. As a case study, we show how our monitoring architecture can be utilized to improve the reliability and the performance of the Interactive Remote Instruction (IRI) system which is a large-scale distributed system for collaborative distance learning. The filtering mechanism represents an Intrinsic component integrated

  16. Expression and genomic analysis of midasin, a novel and highly conserved AAA protein distantly related to dynein

    Gibbons I R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The largest open reading frame in the Saccharomyces genome encodes midasin (MDN1p, YLR106p, an AAA ATPase of 560 kDa that is essential for cell viability. Orthologs of midasin have been identified in the genome projects for Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Results Midasin is present as a single-copy gene encoding a well-conserved protein of ~600 kDa in all eukaryotes for which data are available. In humans, the gene maps to 6q15 and encodes a predicted protein of 5596 residues (632 kDa. Sequence alignments of midasin from humans, yeast, Giardia and Encephalitozoon indicate that its domain structure comprises an N-terminal domain (35 kDa, followed by an AAA domain containing six tandem AAA protomers (~30 kDa each, a linker domain (260 kDa, an acidic domain (~70 kDa containing 35–40% aspartate and glutamate, and a carboxy-terminal M-domain (30 kDa that possesses MIDAS sequence motifs and is homologous to the I-domain of integrins. Expression of hemagglutamin-tagged midasin in yeast demonstrates a polypeptide of the anticipated size that is localized principally in the nucleus. Conclusions The highly conserved structure of midasin in eukaryotes, taken in conjunction with its nuclear localization in yeast, suggests that midasin may function as a nuclear chaperone and be involved in the assembly/disassembly of macromolecular complexes in the nucleus. The AAA domain of midasin is evolutionarily related to that of dynein, but it appears to lack a microtubule-binding site.

  17. Toxicity and cosmetic result of partial breast high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for conservatively operated early breast cancer

    Xiu Xia; Tripuraneni Prabhakar; Giap Huan; Lin Ray; Chu Colin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Objective To study the method, side effects and cosmetic outcome of high- dose-rate (HDR) accelerated partial breast interstitial irradiation (APBI) alone in early stage breast cancer' after conservative surgery. Methods: From February 2002 to June 2003,47 breast cancer lesions from 46 patients suffering from stage I/II breast cancer were treated with HDR 192 Ir APBI after conservative surgery. All patients were over 40 year-old, with T1-2N0-1 (≤3 lymph nodes positive), surgical margin > 1-2 mm, but those having lobular or inflammatory breast cancer were excluded. HDR brachytherapy with 34 Gy, 10 fractions/5 days was used after surgery, toxic reaction and cosmetic outcome were observed in one month, 6 and 12 months respectively. Results: Follow up of 1846 months, 34 months was carried out for the whole group. During the treatment, acute reactions including: erythema, edema, tenderness and infection, all under I-II grade, none of III-IV grade were observed in 21 patients(46%); late toxicity reactions: skin fibrosis, breast tenderness, fat necrosis, and telangiectasia, totally 20 patients (43%) were observed: 2 patients in III grade but one patient received 6 cycle chemotherapy. The result of cosmetic outcome evaluation was excellent or good, at 6 months 95% and 12 months 98%, respectively, but there was no recurfence. Conclusions: Excellent and favorable cosmetic results are noted after APBI by interstitial alone. Acute and late reactions are few. Long term observation is necessary for the rate of' local control. (authors)

  18. Type GQS-1 high pressure steam manifold water level monitoring system

    Li Nianzu; Li Beicheng; Jia Shengming

    1993-10-01

    The GQS-1 high pressure steam manifold water level monitoring system is an advanced nuclear gauge that is suitable for on-line detecting and monitor in high pressure steam manifold water level. The physical variable of water level is transformed into electrical pulses by the nuclear sensor. A computer is equipped for data acquisition, analysis and processing and the results are displayed on a 14 inch color monitor. In addition, a 4 ∼ 20 mA output current is used for the recording and regulation of water level. The main application of this gauge is for on-line measurement of high pressure steam manifold water level in fossil-fired power plant and other industries

  19. The Methodical Instrumentarium for Analytical Monitoring of Markets for High-Tech Products

    Mikaelian Suren G.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at clarifying the essential characteristics of high-tech products and specifying the features of analytical monitoring of markets for high-tech products. The conceptual approaches to interpretation of the essence of high-tech products as a basic concept in the categorical apparatus for researching the systemic and complex processes of technological development have been clarified. The most efficient instruments for assessing innovation processes in the high-tech sphere have been systematized. The methodical instrumentarium for analytical monitoring of the markets for high-tech products has been clarified. The terminology of a high-tech product has been clarified in order to formulate the methodical instrumentarium for analytical monitoring of market for high-tech products. It has been determined that «high-tech products» are the original basic concept in the categorical apparatus for researching the systemic and complex processes of the high-tech market that needs to be concretized. Conceptual approaches to the essence of high-tech products have been systematized.

  20. Distinct activation phenotype of a highly conserved novel HLA-B57-restricted epitope during dengue virus infection.

    Townsley, Elizabeth; Woda, Marcia; Thomas, Stephen J; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V; Nisalak, Ananda; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Green, Sharone; Stephens, Henry A F; Rothman, Alan L; Mathew, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Variation in the sequence of T-cell epitopes between dengue virus (DENV) serotypes is believed to alter memory T-cell responses during second heterologous infections. We identified a highly conserved, novel, HLA-B57-restricted epitope on the DENV NS1 protein. We predicted higher frequencies of B57-NS1(26-34) -specific CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals undergoing secondary rather than primary DENV infection. However, high tetramer-positive T-cell frequencies during acute infection were seen in only one of nine subjects with secondary infection. B57-NS1(26-34) -specific and other DENV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells, as well as total CD8(+) T cells, expressed an activated phenotype (CD69(+) and/or CD38(+)) during acute infection. In contrast, expression of CD71 was largely limited to DENV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells. In vitro stimulation of cell lines indicated that CD71 expression was differentially sensitive to stimulation by homologous and heterologous variant peptides. CD71 may represent a useful marker of antigen-specific T-cell activation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. An Intelligent Monitoring Network for Detection of Cracks in Anvils of High-Press Apparatus.

    Tian, Hao; Yan, Zhaoli; Yang, Jun

    2018-04-09

    Due to the endurance of alternating high pressure and temperature, the carbide anvils of the high-press apparatus, which are widely used in the synthetic diamond industry, are prone to crack. In this paper, an acoustic method is used to monitor the crack events, and the intelligent monitoring network is proposed to classify the sound samples. The pulse sound signals produced by such cracking are first extracted based on a short-time energy threshold. Then, the signals are processed with the proposed intelligent monitoring network to identify the operation condition of the anvil of the high-pressure apparatus. The monitoring network is an improved convolutional neural network that solves the problems that may occur in practice. The length of pulse sound excited by the crack growth is variable, so a spatial pyramid pooling layer is adopted to solve the variable-length input problem. An adaptive weighted algorithm for loss function is proposed in this method to handle the class imbalance problem. The good performance regarding the accuracy and balance of the proposed intelligent monitoring network is validated through the experiments finally.

  2. Application of Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring under the CAFF Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program: Designing and Implementing Terrestrial Monitoring to Establish the Canadian High Arctic Research Station as a Flagship Arctic Environmental Monitoring Site

    McLennan, D.; Kehler, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) is scheduled for completion in July 2017 and is the northern science component of Polar Knowledge Canada (POLAR). A mandated goal for POLAR is to establish the adjacent Experimental and Reference Area (ERA) as an Arctic Flagship monitoring site that will track change in Arctic terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems. Situated in the community of Cambridge Bay, CHARS provides the opportunity to draw on the Indigenous Knowledge of local residents to help design and conduct the monitoring, and to operate 12 months a year. Monitoring at CHARS will be linked to networks nationally and internationally, and is being designed so that change in key indicators can be understood in terms of drivers and processes, modeled and scaled up regionally, and used to predict important changes in critical indicators. As a partner in the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP), the monitoring design for terrestrial ecosystems follows approaches outlined by the CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group, who have listed key monitoring questions and identified a list of important Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). To link drivers to FECs we are proposing a multi-scaled approach: 1) an Intensive Monitoring Area to establish replicated monitoring plots that track change in snow depth and condition, active layer depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil solution chemistry that are spatially and temporally linked to changes in microbiological activity, CO2/CH4 net ecosystem flux, vegetation relative frequency, species composition, growth and foliar nutrient concentration, arthropod abundance, lemming abundance and health, and shorebird/songbird abundance and productivity. 2) These intensive observations are supported by watershed scale measures that will monitor, during the growing season, lemming winter nest abundance, songbird, shorebird and waterfowl staging and nesting, and other observations; in the winter we will

  3. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  4. Integrating Landsat Data and High-Resolution Imagery for Applied Conservation Assessment of Forest Cover in Latin American Heterogenous Landscapes

    Thomas, N.; Rueda, X.; Lambin, E.; Mendenhall, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Large intact forested regions of the world are known to be critical to maintaining Earth's climate, ecosystem health, and human livelihoods. Remote sensing has been successfully implemented as a tool to monitor forest cover and landscape dynamics over broad regions. Much of this work has been done using coarse resolution sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS in combination with moderate resolution sensors, particularly Landsat. Finer scale analysis of heterogeneous and fragmented landscapes is commonly performed with medium resolution data and has had varying success depending on many factors including the level of fragmentation, variability of land cover types, patch size, and image availability. Fine scale tree cover in mixed agricultural areas can have a major impact on biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability but may often be inadequately captured with the global to regional (coarse resolution and moderate resolution) satellite sensors and processing techniques widely used to detect land use and land cover changes. This study investigates whether advanced remote sensing methods are able to assess and monitor percent tree canopy cover in spatially complex human-dominated agricultural landscapes that prove challenging for traditional mapping techniques. Our study areas are in high altitude, mixed agricultural coffee-growing regions in Costa Rica and the Colombian Andes. We applied Random Forests regression tree analysis to Landsat data along with additional spectral, environmental, and spatial variables to predict percent tree canopy cover at 30m resolution. Image object-based texture, shape, and neighborhood metrics were generated at the Landsat scale using eCognition and included in the variable suite. Training and validation data was generated using high resolution imagery from digital aerial photography at 1m to 2.5 m resolution. Our results are promising with Pearson's correlation coefficients between observed and predicted percent tree canopy cover of .86 (Costa

  5. High resolution, high sensitivity, dynamic distributed structural monitoring using optical frequency domain reflectometry

    Kreger, Stephen T.; Sang, Alex K.; Garg, Naman; Michel, Julia

    2013-05-01

    Fiber-optic ultrasonic transducers are an important component of an active ultrasonic testing system for structural health monitoring. Fiber-optic transducers have several advantages such as small size, light weight, and immunity to electromagnetic interference that make them much more attractive than the current available piezoelectric transducers, especially as embedded and permanent transducers in active ultrasonic testing for structural health monitoring. In this paper, a distributed fiber-optic laser-ultrasound generation based on the ghost-mode of tilted fiber Bragg gratings is studied. The influences of the laser power and laser pulse duration on the laser-ultrasound generation are investigated. The results of this paper are helpful to understand the working principle of this laser-ultrasound method and improve the ultrasonic generation efficiency.

  6. Conservation Value

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  7. A new approach for agroecosystems monitoring using high-revisit multitemporal satellite data series

    Diez, M.; Moclán, C.; Romo, A.; Pirondini, F.

    2014-10-01

    With increasing population pressure throughout the world and the need for increased agricultural production there is a definite need for improved management of the world's agricultural resources. Comprehensive, reliable and timely information on agricultural resources is necessary for the implementation of effective management decisions. In that sense, the demand for high-quality and high-frequency geo-information for monitoring of agriculture and its associated ecosystems has been growing in the recent decades. Satellite image data enable direct observation of large areas at frequent intervals and therefore allow unprecedented mapping and monitoring of crops evolution. Furthermore, real time analysis can assist in making timely management decisions that affect the outcome of the crops. The DEIMOS-1 satellite, owned and operated by ELECNOR DEIMOS IMAGING (Spain), provides 22m, 3-band imagery with a very wide (620-km) swath, and has been specifically designed to produce high-frequency revisit on very large areas. This capability has been proved through the contracts awarded to Airbus Defence and Space every year since 2011, where DEIMOS-1 has provided the USDA with the bulk of the imagery used to monitor the crop season in the Lower 48, in cooperation with its twin satellite DMCii's UK-DMC2. Furthermore, high density agricultural areas have been targeted with increased frequency and analyzed in near real time to monitor tightly the evolution. In this paper we present the results obtained from a campaign carried out in 2013 with DEIMOS-1 and UK-DMC2 satellites. These campaigns provided a high-frequency revisit of target areas, with one image every two days on average: almost a ten-fold frequency improvement with respect to Landsat-8. The results clearly show the effectiveness of a high-frequency monitoring approach with high resolution images with respect to classic strategies where results are more exposed to weather conditions.

  8. Qualification, commissioning and in situ monitoring of high heat flux plasma facing components

    Escourbiac, F. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: frederic.escourbiac@cea.fr; Durocher, A.; Grosman, A.; Cismondi, F.; Courtois, X.; Farjon, J.L.; Schlosser, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Merola, M.; Tivey, R. [ITER Team, CEA/Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2007-10-15

    Up-to-date development of actively cooled high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing components (PFC) prototypes only allows reduced margins with regards to the ITER thermal requirements. Additionally, perfect quality cannot be ensured along series manufacturing: the presence of flaws which impair the heat transfer capability of the component, in particular at the interface armour/heat sink appears to be statistically unavoidable. In order to ensure a successful series production, a qualification methodology of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components is proposed. Secondly, advanced non-destructive techniques developed for HHF PFC commissioning are detailed with definition of acceptance criteria. Finally, innovative diagnostics for in situ monitoring during plasma operations or tokamak shutdowns are investigated in order to prevent immediate damage (safety monitoring); or evaluate component degradation (health monitoring). This work takes into account the relevance to Tore Supra, and is applied to W7X and ITER Divertor HHF PFC.

  9. Monitoring of homogeneity of fuel compacts for high-temperature reactors

    Mottet, P.; Guery, M.; Chegne, J.

    Apparatus using either gamma transmission or gamma scintillation spectrometry (with NaI(Tl) detector) was developed for monitoring the homogeneity of distribution of fissile and fertile particles in fuel compacts for high-temperature reactors. Three methods were studied: Longitudinal gamma transmission which gives a total distribution curve of heavy metals (U and Th); gamma spectrometry with a well type scintillator, which rapidly gives the U and Th count rates per fraction of compact; and longitudinal gamma spectrometry, giving axial distribution curves for uranium and thorium; apparatus with four scintillators and optimization of the parameters for the measurement, permitting significantly decreasing the duration of the monitoring. These relatively simple procedures should facilitate the industrial monitoring of high-temperature reactor fuel

  10. High Temperatures Health Monitoring of the Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipe Systems

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Takano, Nobuyuki; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic probes were designed, fabricated and tested for high temperature health monitoring system. The goal of this work was to develop the health monitoring system that can determine the height level of the condensed water through the pipe wall at high temperature up to 250 deg while accounting for the effects of surface perturbation. Among different ultrasonic probe designs, 2.25 MHz probes with air backed configuration provide satisfactory results in terms of sensitivity, receiving reflections from the target through the pipe wall. A series of tests were performed using the air-backed probes under irregular conditions, such as surface perturbation and surface disturbance at elevated temperature, to qualify the developed ultrasonic system. The results demonstrate that the fabricated air-backed probes combined with advanced signal processing techniques offer the capability of health monitoring of steam pipe under various operating conditions.

  11. Development of an abort gap monitor for high-energy proton rings

    Beche, Jean-Francois; Byrd, John; De Santis, Stefano; Denes, Peter; Placidi, Massimo; Turner, William; Zolotorev, Max

    2004-01-01

    The fill pattern in proton synchrotrons usually features an empty gap, longer than the abort kicker raise time, for machine protection. This gap is referred to as the ''abort gap'' and any particles, which may accumulate in it due to injection errors and diffusion between RF buckets, would be lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, during the kicker firing. In large proton rings, due to the high energies involved, it is vital to monitor the build up of charges in the abort gap with a high sensitivity. We present a study of an abort gap monitor based on a photomultiplier with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source using a Hamamatsu 5916U MCP-PMT and compare them to the specifications for the Large Hadron Collider

  12. Development of an Abort Gap Monitor for High-Energy Proton Rings

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-01-01

    The fill pattern in proton synchrotrons usually features an empty gap, longer than the abort kicker raise time, for machine protection. This gap is referred to as the 'abort gap', and any particles, which may accumulate in it due to injection errors and diffusion between RF buckets, would be lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, during the kicker firing. In large proton rings, due to the high energies involved, it is vital to monitor the build up of charges in the abort gap with a high sensitivity. We present a study of an abort gap monitor based on a photomultiplier with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source using a Hamamatsu 5916U MCP-PMT and compare them to the specifications for the Large Hadron Collider

  13. Qualification, commissioning and in situ monitoring of high heat flux plasma facing components

    Escourbiac, F.; Durocher, A.; Grosman, A.; Cismondi, F.; Courtois, X.; Farjon, J.L.; Schlosser, J.; Merola, M.; Tivey, R.

    2007-01-01

    Up-to-date development of actively cooled high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing components (PFC) prototypes only allows reduced margins with regards to the ITER thermal requirements. Additionally, perfect quality cannot be ensured along series manufacturing: the presence of flaws which impair the heat transfer capability of the component, in particular at the interface armour/heat sink appears to be statistically unavoidable. In order to ensure a successful series production, a qualification methodology of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components is proposed. Secondly, advanced non-destructive techniques developed for HHF PFC commissioning are detailed with definition of acceptance criteria. Finally, innovative diagnostics for in situ monitoring during plasma operations or tokamak shutdowns are investigated in order to prevent immediate damage (safety monitoring); or evaluate component degradation (health monitoring). This work takes into account the relevance to Tore Supra, and is applied to W7X and ITER Divertor HHF PFC

  14. High-resolution Electrical Resistivity Tomography monitoring of a tracer test in a confined aquifer

    Wilkinson, P. B.; Meldrum, P. I.; Kuras, O.; Chambers, J. E.; Holyoake, S. J.; Ogilvy, R. D.

    2010-04-01

    A permanent geoelectrical subsurface imaging system has been installed at a contaminated land site to monitor changes in groundwater quality after the completion of a remediation programme. Since the resistivities of earth materials are sensitive to the presence of contaminants and their break-down products, 4-dimensional resistivity imaging can act as a surrogate monitoring technology for tracking and visualising changes in contaminant concentrations at much higher spatial and temporal resolution than manual intrusive investigations. The test site, a municipal car park built on a former gasworks, had been polluted by a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dissolved phase contaminants. It was designated statutory contaminated land under Part IIA of the UK Environmental Protection Act due to the risk of polluting an underlying minor aquifer. Resistivity monitoring zones were established on the boundaries of the site by installing vertical electrode arrays in purpose-drilled boreholes. After a year of monitoring data had been collected, a tracer test was performed to investigate groundwater flow velocity and to demonstrate rapid volumetric monitoring of natural attenuation processes. A saline tracer was injected into the confined aquifer, and its motion and evolution were visualised directly in high-resolution tomographic images in near real-time. Breakthrough curves were calculated from independent resistivity measurements, and the estimated seepage velocities from the monitoring images and the breakthrough curves were found to be in good agreement with each other and with estimates based on the piezometric gradient and assumed material parameters.

  15. Development of a high sensitivity monitor for radionuclides characterization. Final report, August 1995--April 1996

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the development of a high sensitivity monitor for radiation, and the feasibility of applying a new radiation imaging concept developed for medical research to soil contamination. The concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor technology as radiation detectors. They are applicable to all types of radiation including tritium.

  16. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Koolen, S.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Egger, J.I.M.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to

  17. The high-voltage monitor system for the calorimeter of the OBELIX experiment

    Bertin, A.; Bruschi, M.; Capponi, M.; Cereda, B.; D'Antone, I.; De Castro, S.; Galli, D.; Giacobbe, B.; Marconi, U.; Massa, I.; Piccinini, M.; Poli, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Spighi, R.; Vecchi, S.; Vezzani, A.; Villa, M.; Vitale, A.; Zoccoli, A.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the monitor system developed to manage the high voltage power supply for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OBELIX experiment, installed on the LEAR facility at CERN. The hardware and software characteristics of the system are discussed, as well as the performance of the same. (orig.)

  18. Development of a high sensitivity monitor for radionuclides characterization. Final report, August 1995--April 1996

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the development of a high sensitivity monitor for radiation, and the feasibility of applying a new radiation imaging concept developed for medical research to soil contamination. The concept utilizes sensors with storage photostimulable phosphor technology as radiation detectors. They are applicable to all types of radiation including tritium

  19. Loss of a highly conserved sterile alpha motif domain gene (WEEP) results in pendulous branch growth in peach trees.

    Hollender, Courtney A; Pascal, Thierry; Tabb, Amy; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris

    2018-05-15

    Plant shoots typically grow upward in opposition to the pull of gravity. However, exceptions exist throughout the plant kingdom. Most conspicuous are trees with weeping or pendulous branches. While such trees have long been cultivated and appreciated for their ornamental value, the molecular basis behind the weeping habit is not known. Here, we characterized a weeping tree phenotype in Prunus persica (peach) and identified the underlying genetic mutation using a genomic sequencing approach. Weeping peach tree shoots exhibited a downward elliptical growth pattern and did not exhibit an upward bending in response to 90° reorientation. The causative allele was found to be an uncharacterized gene, Ppa013325 , having a 1.8-Kb deletion spanning the 5' end. This gene, dubbed WEEP , was predominantly expressed in phloem tissues and encodes a highly conserved 129-amino acid protein containing a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain. Silencing WEEP in the related tree species Prunus domestica (plum) resulted in more outward, downward, and wandering shoot orientations compared to standard trees, supporting a role for WEEP in directing lateral shoot growth in trees. This previously unknown regulator of branch orientation, which may also be a regulator of gravity perception or response, provides insights into our understanding of how tree branches grow in opposition to gravity and could serve as a critical target for manipulating tree architecture for improved tree shape in agricultural and horticulture applications. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. Neuronal patterning of the tubular collar cord is highly conserved among enteropneusts but dissimilar to the chordate neural tube.

    Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Urata, Makoto; Praher, Daniela; Wanninger, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    A tubular nervous system is present in the deuterostome groups Chordata (cephalochordates, tunicates, vertebrates) and in the non-chordate Enteropneusta. However, the worm-shaped enteropneusts possess a less complex nervous system featuring only a short hollow neural tube, whereby homology to its chordate counterpart remains elusive. Since the majority of data on enteropneusts stem from the harrimaniid Saccoglossus kowalevskii, putative interspecific variations remain undetected resulting in an unreliable ground pattern that impedes homology assessments. In order to complement the missing data from another enteropneust family, we investigated expression of key neuronal patterning genes in the ptychoderid Balanoglossus misakiensis. The collar cord of B. misakiensis shows anterior Six3/6 and posterior Otx + Engrailed expression, in a region corresponding to the chordate brain. Neuronal Nk2.1/Nk2.2 expression is absent. Interestingly, we found median Dlx and lateral Pax6 expression domains, i.e., a condition that is reversed compared to chordates. Comparative analyses reveal that adult nervous system patterning is highly conserved among the enteropneust families Harrimaniidae, Spengelidae and Ptychoderidae. BmiDlx and BmiPax6 have no corresponding expression domains in the chordate brain, which may be indicative of independent acquisition of a tubular nervous system in Enteropneusta and Chordata.

  1. Assessment of some high-order finite difference schemes on the scalar conservation law with periodical conditions

    Alina BOGOI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic/hypersonic flows with strong shocks need special treatment in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD in order to accurately capture the discontinuity location and his magnitude. To avoid numerical instabilities in the presence of discontinuities, the numerical schemes must generate low dissipation and low dispersion error. Consequently, the algorithms used to calculate the time and space-derivatives, should exhibit a low amplitude and phase error. This paper focuses on the comparison of the numerical results obtained by simulations with some high resolution numerical schemes applied on linear and non-linear one-dimensional conservation low. The analytical solutions are provided for all benchmark tests considering smooth periodical conditions. All the schemes converge to the proper weak solution for linear flux and smooth initial conditions. However, when the flux is non-linear, the discontinuities may develop from smooth initial conditions and the shock must be correctly captured. All the schemes accurately identify the shock position, with the price of the numerical oscillation in the vicinity of the sudden variation. We believe that the identification of this pure numerical behavior, without physical relevance, in 1D case is extremely useful to avoid problems related to the stability and convergence of the solution in the general 3D case.

  2. A highly Conserved Aspartic Acid Residue of the Chitosanase from Bacillus Sp. TS Is Involved in the Substrate Binding.

    Zhou, Zhanping; Zhao, Shuangzhi; Liu, Yang; Chang, Zhengying; Ma, Yanhe; Li, Jian; Song, Jiangning

    2016-11-01

    The chitosanase from Bacillus sp. TS (CsnTS) is an enzyme belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 8. The sequence of CsnTS shares 98 % identity with the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17. Crystallography analysis and site-direct mutagenesis of the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17 identified the important residues involved in the catalytic interaction and substrate binding. However, despite progress in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the chitosanase from the family GH8, the functional roles of some residues that are highly conserved throughout this family have not been fully elucidated. This study focused on one of these residues, i.e., the aspartic acid residue at position 318. We found that apart from asparagine, mutation of Asp318 resulted in significant loss of enzyme activity. In-depth investigations showed that mutation of this residue not only impaired enzymatic activity but also affected substrate binding. Taken together, our results showed that Asp318 plays an important role in CsnTS activity.

  3. The highly conserved codon following the slippery sequence supports -1 frameshift efficiency at the HIV-1 frameshift site.

    Suneeth F Mathew

    Full Text Available HIV-1 utilises -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting to translate structural and enzymatic domains in a defined proportion required for replication. A slippery sequence, U UUU UUA, and a stem-loop are well-defined RNA features modulating -1 frameshifting in HIV-1. The GGG glycine codon immediately following the slippery sequence (the 'intercodon' contributes structurally to the start of the stem-loop but has no defined role in current models of the frameshift mechanism, as slippage is inferred to occur before the intercodon has reached the ribosomal decoding site. This GGG codon is highly conserved in natural isolates of HIV. When the natural intercodon was replaced with a stop codon two different decoding molecules-eRF1 protein or a cognate suppressor tRNA-were able to access and decode the intercodon prior to -1 frameshifting. This implies significant slippage occurs when the intercodon is in the (perhaps distorted ribosomal A site. We accommodate the influence of the intercodon in a model of frame maintenance versus frameshifting in HIV-1.

  4. The implications of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] regulation for the disposal of transuranic and high-level waste

    Sigmon, C.F.; Sharples, F.E.; Smith, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1987 the Department of Energy (DOE) published a rule interpreting the definition of ''byproduct'' under the Atomic Energy Act. This byproduct rule clarified the role of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in the regulation of DOE's radioactive waste management activities. According to the rule, only the radioactive portion of DOE's mixed radioactive and hazardous waste (mixed waste), including mixed transuranic (TRU) and high-level waste (HLW), is exempt from RCRA under the byproduct exemption. The portion of a waste that is hazardous as defined by RCRA is subject to full regulation under RCRA. Because the radioactive and hazardous portions of m any, if not most, DOE wastes are likely to be inseparable, the rule in effect makes most mixed wastes subject to dual regulation. The potential application of RCRA to facilities such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the HLW repository creates unique challenges for both the DOE and regulatory authorities. Strategies must be developed to assure compliance with RCRA without either causing excessive administrative burdens or abandoning the goal of minimizing radiation exposure. This paper will explore some of the potential regulatory options for and recent trends in the regulation of TRU and HLW under RCRA

  5. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  6. Identifying temporal bottlenecks for the conservation of large-bodied fishes: Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens show highly restricted movement and habitat use over-winter

    Donnette Thayer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between species’ size and home range size has been well studied. In practice, home range may provide a good surrogate of broad spatial coverage needed for species conservation, however, many species can show restricted movement during critical life stages, such as breeding and over-wintering. This suggests the existence of either a behavioral or habitat mediated ‘temporal bottleneck,’ where restricted or sedentary movement can make populations more susceptible to harm during specific life stages. Here, we study over-winter movement and habitat use of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the largest freshwater fish in North America. We monitored over-winter movement of 86 fish using a hydro-acoustic receiver array in the South Saskatchewan River, Canada. Overall, 20 fish remained within our study system throughout the winter. Lake Sturgeon showed strong aggregation and sedentary movement over-winter, demonstrating a temporal bottleneck. Movement was highly restricted during ice-on periods (ranging from 0.9 km/day in November and April to 0.2 km/day in mid-November to mid-March, with Lake Sturgeon seeking deeper, slower pools. We also show that Lake Sturgeon have strong aggregation behavior, where distance to conspecifics decreased (from 575 to 313 m in preparation for and during ice-on periods. Although the Lake Sturgeon we studied had access to 1100 kilometers of unfragmented riverine habitat, we show that during the over-winter period Lake Sturgeon utilized a single, deep pool (<0.1% of available habitat. The temporal discrepancy between mobile and sedentary behaviors in Lake Sturgeon suggest adaptive management is needed with more localized focus during periods of temporal bottlenecks, even for large-bodied species.

  7. A Shear Horizontal Waveguide Technique for Monitoring of High Temperature Pipe Thinning

    Cheong, Yongmoo; Kim, Hongpyo; Lee, Duckhyun

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasonic thickness measurement method is a well-known and most commonly used non-destructive testing technique for wall thickness monitoring of a piping or plate. However, current commonly available ultrasonic transducers cannot withstand high temperatures of, above 200 .deg. C. Currently, the variation of wall thickness of the pipes is determined by a portable ultrasonic gauge during plant shutdowns. This manual ultrasonic method reveals several disadvantages: inspections have to be performed during shutdowns with the possible consequences of prolonging down time and increasing production losses, insulation has to be removed and replaced for each manual measurement, and scaffolding has to be installed to inaccessible areas, resulting in considerable cost for intervention. In addition, differences of the measurement conditions such as examiner, temperature, and couplant could result in measurement errors. It has been suggested that a structural health monitoring approach with permanently installed ultrasonic thickness gauges could have substantial benefits over current practices. In order to solve those fundamental problems occurring during the propagation of ultrasound at high temperature, a shear horizontal waveguide technique for wall thickness monitoring at high temperatures is developed. A dry clamping device without a couplant for the acoustic contact between waveguide and pipe surface was designed and fabricated. The shear horizontal waveguides and clamping device result in an excellent S/N ratio and high accuracy of measurement with long exposure in an elevated temperature condition. A computer program for on-line monitoring of the pipe thickness at high temperature for a long period of time was developed. The system can be applied to monitor the FAC in carbon steel piping in a nuclear power plant after a verification test for a long period of time

  8. Evaluating new SMAP soil moisture for drought monitoring in the rangelands of the US High Plains

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel B.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Level 3 soil moisture datasets from the recently launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite are evaluated for drought monitoring in rangelands.Validation of SMAP soil moisture (SSM) with in situ and modeled estimates showed high level of agreement.SSM showed the highest correlation with surface soil moisture (0-5 cm) and a strong correlation to depths up to 20 cm.SSM showed a reliable and expected response of capturing seasonal dynamics in relation to precipitation, land surface temperature, and evapotranspiration.Further evaluation using multi-year SMAP datasets is necessary to quantify the full benefits and limitations for drought monitoring in rangelands.

  9. EXPERT-ANALITICAL MONITORING OF LEARNING PROCESS QUALITY IN HIGH SCHOOL

    T. M. Korotun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The technological model is proposed for monitoring process of learning process quality in high school compliant with current European and home standards. The mathematical methods are elaborated for diverse activities as to learning process objects quality determination unified support. They self-consistently combine: automatic expert evaluation with Bayesian net and Value tree models; Delphi technique enhancement; best practices for education quality assessment. Quality estimates’ consistency index is introduced for their choice and acceptability analysis. Its permanent increasing over monitoring stages is guaranteed. The tools for these stages’ automatic support are described.

  10. High conservation level of CD8(+) T cell immunogenic regions within an unusual H1N2 human influenza variant.

    Komadina, Naomi; Quiñones-Parra, Sergio M; Kedzierska, Katherine; McCaw, James M; Kelso, Anne; Leder, Karin; McVernon, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines require regular updates due to antigenic drift causing loss of effectiveness and therefore providing little or no protection against novel influenza A subtypes. Next generation vaccines capable of eliciting CD8(+) T cell (CTL) mediated cross-protective immunity may offer a long-term alternative strategy. However, measuring pre- and existing levels of CTL cross-protection in humans is confounded by differences in infection histories across individuals. During 2000-2003, H1N2 viruses circulated persistently in the human population for the first time and we hypothesized that the viral nucleoprotein (NP) contained novel CTL epitopes that may have contributed to the survival of the viruses. This study describes the immunogenic NP peptides of H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza viruses isolated from humans over the past century, 1918-2003, by comparing this historical dataset to reference NP peptides from H1N2 that circulated in humans during 2000-2003. Observed peptides sequences ranged from highly conserved (15%) to highly variable (12%), with variation unrelated to reported immunodominance. No unique NP peptides which were exclusive to the H1N2 viruses were noted. However, the virus had inherited the NP from a recently emerged H3N2 variant containing novel peptides, which may have assisted its persistence. Any advantage due to this novelty was subsequently lost with emergence of a newer H3N2 variant in 2003. Our approach has potential to provide insight into the population context in which influenza viruses emerge, and may help to inform immunogenic peptide selection for CTL-inducing influenza vaccines. J. Med. Virol. 88:1725-1732, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  12. Research of Smart Grid Cyber Architecture and Standards Deployment with High Adaptability for Security Monitoring

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Security Monitoring is a critical function for smart grid. As a consequence of strongly relying on communication, cyber security must be guaranteed by the specific system. Otherwise, the DR signals and bidding information can be easily forged or intercepted. Customers’ privacy and safety may suffer...... huge losses. Although OpenADR specificationsprovide continuous, secure and reliable two-way communications in application level defined in ISO model, which is also an open architecture for security is adopted by it and no specific or proprietary technologies is restricted to OpenADR itself....... It is significant to develop a security monitoring system. This paper discussed the cyber architecture of smart grid with high adaptability for security monitoring. An adaptable structure with Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) is proposed. Focusing on this network structure, the rational utilization of standards...

  13. Full integrated system of real-time monitoring based on distributed architecture for the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR)

    Subekti, Muhammad; Ohno, Tomio; Kudo, Kazuhiko; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Nabeshima, Kunihiko

    2005-01-01

    A new monitoring system scheme based on distributed architecture for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is proposed to assure consistency of the real-time process of expanded system. A distributed monitoring task on client PCs as an alternative architecture maximizes the throughput and capabilities of the system even if the monitoring tasks suffer a shortage of bandwidth. The prototype of the on-line monitoring system has been developed successfully and will be tested at the actual HTTR site. (author)

  14. Surgical versus conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the lower leg (anterior tibial cortex, navicular and fifth metatarsal base): a systematic review

    Mallee, W.H.; Weel, H.; van Dijk, C.N.; van Tulder, M.W.; Kerkhoffs, G.M.; Lin, C.W.C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare surgical and conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the anterior tibial cortex, navicular and proximal fifth metatarsal. Methods Systematic searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and PEDro were performed to identify relevant prospective and

  15. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of water conservation policies in a depleting aquifer:A dynamic analysis of the Kansas High Plains

    This research analyzes two groundwater conservation policies in the Kansas High Plains located within the Ogallala aquifer: 1) cost-share assistance to increase irrigation efficiency; and 2) incentive payments to convert irrigated crop production to dryland crop production. To compare the cost-effec...

  16. Spatially conserved regulatory elements identified within human and mouse Cd247 gene using high-throughput sequencing data from the ENCODE project

    Pundhir, Sachin; Hannibal, Tine Dahlbæk; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we have utilized the wealth of high-throughput sequencing data produced during the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project to identify spatially conserved regulatory elements within the Cd247 gene from human and mouse. We show the presence of two transcription factor binding sites...

  17. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S.

    1998-07-01

    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m 3 /h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10 -6 Bq/m 3 . The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too

  18. Continuous Distributed Top-k Monitoring over High-Speed Rail Data Stream in Cloud Computing Environment

    Hanning Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the environment of cloud computing, real-time mass data about high-speed rail which is based on the intense monitoring of large scale perceived equipment provides strong support for the safety and maintenance of high-speed rail. In this paper, we focus on the Top-k algorithm of continuous distribution based on Multisource distributed data stream for high-speed rail monitoring. Specifically, we formalized Top-k monitoring model of high-speed rail and proposed DTMR that is the Top-k monitoring algorithm with random, continuous, or strictly monotone aggregation functions. The DTMR was proved to be valid by lots of experiments.

  19. Wavelet analysis deformation monitoring data of high-speed railway bridge

    Tang, ShiHua; Huang, Qing; Zhou, Conglin; Xu, HongWei; Liu, YinTao; Li, FeiDa

    2015-12-01

    Deformation monitoring data of high-speed railway bridges will inevitably be affected because of noise pollution, A deformation monitoring point of high-speed railway bridge was measurd by using sokkia SDL30 electronic level for a long time,which got a large number of deformation monitoring data. Based on the characteristics of the deformation monitoring data of high-speed railway bridge, which contain lots of noise. Based on the MATLAB software platform, 120 groups of deformation monitoring data were applied to analysis of wavelet denoising.sym6,db6 wavelet basis function were selected to analyze and remove the noise.The original signal was broken into three layers wavelet,which contain high frequency coefficients and low frequency coefficients.However, high frequency coefficient have plenty of noise.Adaptive method of soft and hard threshold were used to handle in the high frequency coefficient.Then,high frequency coefficient that was removed much of noise combined with low frequency coefficient to reconstitute and obtain reconstruction wavelet signal.Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Signal-To-Noise Ratio (SNR) were regarded as evaluation index of denoising,The smaller the root mean square error and the greater signal-to-noise ratio indicate that them have a good effect in denoising. We can surely draw some conclusions in the experimental analysis:the db6 wavelet basis function has a good effect in wavelet denoising by using a adaptive soft threshold method,which root mean square error is minimum and signal-to-noise ratio is maximum.Moreover,the reconstructed image are more smooth than original signal denoising after wavelet denoising, which removed noise and useful signal are obtained in the original signal.Compared to the other three methods, this method has a good effect in denoising, which not only retain useful signal in the original signal, but aiso reach the goal of removing noise. So, it has a strong practical value in a actual deformation monitoring

  20. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  1. Experiment study on four button electrode used to monitor position of high current electron-beam

    Xu Tiezheng; Wang Huacen; Xie Yutong; Zhang Wenwei

    2004-01-01

    The button electrode is one that widely used in high energy accelerators, such as storage ring, and the button electrode has many merit like high accuracy, high resolution, resisting magnetic field, simple machinery, without magnetic core and low cost, etc. It's helpful that the button electrode is used as the beam position monitor in the linear induction accelerator. The experimental facilities have been designed and set up and it can simulate the beam of linear induction accelerator. The button electrode beam position monitor experiment have been done on the experimental facilities. The result of the experiment prove that the button electrode has an accuracy of 0.5 mm, and can reflect the wave of electron-beam accurately

  2. A Self-Reporting Photocatalyst for Online Fluorescence Monitoring of High Throughput RAFT Polymerization.

    Yeow, Jonathan; Joshi, Sanket; Chapman, Robert; Boyer, Cyrille Andre Jean Marie

    2018-04-25

    Translating controlled/living radical polymerization (CLRP) from batch to the high throughput production of polymer libraries presents several challenges in terms of both polymer synthesis and characterization. Although recently there have been significant advances in the field of low volume, high throughput CLRP, techniques able to simultaneously monitor multiple polymerizations in an "online" manner have not yet been developed. Here, we report our discovery that 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine zinc (ZnTPP) is a self-reporting photocatalyst that can mediate PET-RAFT polymerization as well as report on monomer conversion via changes in its fluorescence properties. This enables the use of a microplate reader to conduct high throughput "online" monitoring of PET-RAFT polymerizations performed directly in 384-well, low volume microtiter plates. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Final Program Report for 2010-2012: Monitoring and evaluation for conserving biological resources of the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area

    Stephen J. Solem; Burton K. Pendleton; Casey Giffen; Marc Coles-Ritchie; Jeri Ledbetter; Kevin S. McKelvey; Joy Berg; Jim Menlove; Carly K. Woodlief; Luke A. Boehnke

    2013-01-01

    The Spring Mountains National Recreation Area (SMNRA) includes approximately 316,000 acres of National Forest System (NFS) lands managed by the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada (see fig. 1-1). The Spring Mountains have long been recognized as an island of endemism, harboring flora and fauna found nowhere else in the world. Conservation...

  4. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  5. An Intelligent Sensor for the Ultra-High-Frequency Partial Discharge Online Monitoring of Power Transformers

    Jian Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-frequency (UHF partial discharge (PD online monitoring is an effective way to inspect potential faults and insulation defects in power transformers. The construction of UHF PD online monitoring system is a challenge because of the high-frequency and wide-frequency band of the UHF PD signal. This paper presents a novel, intelligent sensor for UHF PD online monitoring based on a new method, namely a level scanning method. The intelligent sensor can directly acquire the statistical characteristic quantities and is characterized by low cost, few data to output and transmit, Ethernet functionality, and small size for easy installation. The prototype of an intelligent sensor was made. Actual UHF PD experiments with three typical artificial defect models of power transformers were carried out in a laboratory, and the waveform recording method and intelligent sensor proposed were simultaneously used for UHF PD measurement for comparison. The results show that the proposed intelligent sensor is qualified for the UHF PD online monitoring of power transformers. Additionally, three methods to improve the performance of intelligent sensors were proposed according to the principle of the level scanning method.

  6. High frequency bulk resonators for bio/chemical diagnostics and monitoring applications

    Cagliani, Alberto

    In the environmental monitoring eld there is a vast variety of possible applications for microfabricated MEMS sensors. As an example, a network of miniaturized sensors could detect toxic gases, harmful airbornes, explosives in air or, in liquid, monitor the quality of drinking water. The integrat......In the environmental monitoring eld there is a vast variety of possible applications for microfabricated MEMS sensors. As an example, a network of miniaturized sensors could detect toxic gases, harmful airbornes, explosives in air or, in liquid, monitor the quality of drinking water...... be operated in gaseous environments thanks to the high Qfactors and show very high mass sensitivities and very small mass resolutions. The resonators have been microfabricated at the DTU-Danchip facility exploiting the microfabrication knowledge already present in the DyNEMS group. The devices have been...... and as temperature sensors in humid environment. Moreover, they have been used as tool to investigate the interaction between water molecules and DNA. Finally, nanograss have been etched into the body of the microresonators in order to improve the mass sensitivy of the devices. On the whole, the experimental results...

  7. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, ID1, is a key regulator of the transition to flowering and the founding member of a transcription factor gene family that encodes a protein with a distinct arrangement of zinc finger motifs. The zinc fingers and surrounding sequence make up the signature ID domain (IDD, which appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. The presence of zinc finger domains and previous biochemical studies showing that ID1 binds to DNA suggests that members of this gene family are involved in transcriptional regulation. Results Comparison of IDD genes identified in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, and all IDD genes discovered in maize EST and genomic databases, suggest that ID1 is a unique member of this gene family. High levels of sequence similarity amongst all IDD genes from maize, rice and Arabidopsis suggest that they are derived from a common ancestor. Several unique features of ID1 suggest that it is a divergent member of the maize IDD family. Although no clear ID1 ortholog was identified in the Arabidopsis genome, highly similar genes that encode proteins with identity extending beyond the ID domain were isolated from rice and sorghum. Phylogenetic comparisons show that these putative orthologs, along with maize ID1, form a group separate from other IDD genes. In contrast to ID1 mRNA, which is detected exclusively in immature leaves, several maize IDD genes showed a broad range of expression in various tissues. Further, Western analysis with an antibody that cross-reacts with ID1 protein and potential orthologs from rice and sorghum shows that all three proteins are detected in immature leaves only. Conclusion Comparative genomic analysis shows that the IDD zinc finger family is highly conserved among both monocots and dicots. The leaf-specific ID1 expression pattern distinguishes it from other maize IDD genes examined. A similar leaf-specific localization pattern was observed for the putative ID1 protein

  8. Chernobyl radioactivity and high altitude air-particulate monitoring at Islamabad

    Bhatti, M.S.; Ihsanullah; Shafiq, M.; Perveen, N.; Orfi, S.D.

    1987-11-01

    High altitude sampling of air particulates for radioactivity monitoring was conducted at Islamabad after the CHERNOBYL accident. Smears from aeroplanes flying at varying altitudes were collected and analysed for fresh fission products mainly gamma emitters e.g. Ru-103 and Cs-137 etc. The maximum radioactivity observed was of the order of 15Bq/sample for Ru-103 and 9Bq/sample for Cs-137 respectively. The study was purely qualitative in nature indicated the presence of fresh fission radioactivity at high altitudes over Islamabad. For quantitative measurements at high altitudes sophisticated instrumentation/procedure needs to be adopted. (author)

  9. Present state and problems of radiological protection monitoring for high energy electron accelerator facilities in SPring-8

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Ueda, Hisao

    1998-09-01

    The present state and problems of the radiological protection monitoring for the high-energy electron accelerator are summarized. In the radiological protection monitoring for SPring-8, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility, there are many problems specific to the high-energy electron accelerator. This report describes the monitoring technique of pulsed radiation, high-energy radiation and low-energy radiation, and their problems. The management of induced radioactivity and the effects of electro-magnetic noise to monitoring instruments are also discussed. (author)

  10. High-Availability Monitoring and Big Data: Using Java Clustering and Caching Technologies to Meet Complex Monitoring Scenarios

    Brager, M; Koufakis, E; Martini, R; Suwalska, A

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring and control applications face ever more demanding requirements: as both data sets and data rates continue to increase, non-functional requirements such as performance, availability and maintainability become more important.

  11. [Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatograph--application to serum aluminium monitoring].

    Hoshino, H; Kaneko, E

    1996-01-01

    High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with the reversed-phase partition mode separation (including ion-pair one) towards metal chelate compounds prepared in an off-line fashion (precolumn chelation) is most versatile in terms of high sensitivity with base-line flatness, unique selectivity and cost effectiveness. The extraordinary toughness to the complicated matrices encountered in clinical testing is exemplified by the successful application to the aluminium monitoring of human serum samples. The A1 chelate with 2,2'-dihydroxyazobenzene is efficiently chromatographed on a LiChroCART RP-18 column using an aqueous methanol eluent (63.6 wt%) containing tetrabutylammonium bromide as an ion-pair agent. The serum concentration level of A1 down to 6 micrograms dm-3 is readily monitored without influences from iron, chyle and haemolysis.

  12. Monitoring and Tracking the LHC Beam Spot within the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Winklmeier, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The parameters of the beam spot produced by the LHC in the ATLAS interaction region are computed online using the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system. The high rate of triggered events is exploited to make precise measurements of the position, size and orientation of the luminous region in near real-time, as these parameters change significantly even during a single data-taking run. We present the challenges, solutions and results for the online determination, monitoring and beam spot feedback system in ATLAS. A specially designed algorithm, which uses tracks registered in the silicon detectors to reconstruct event vertices, is executed on the HLT processor farm of several thousand CPU cores. Monitoring histograms from all the cores are sampled and aggregated across the farm every 60 seconds. The reconstructed beam values are corrected for detector resolution effects, measured in situ from the separation of vertices whose tracks have been split into two collections. Furthermore, measurements for individual ...

  13. A System for Monitoring and Tracking the LHC Beam Spot within the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    Bartoldus, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Cogan, J; Salnikov, A; Strauss, E; Winklmeier, F

    2012-01-01

    The parameters of the beam spot produced by the LHC in the ATLAS interaction region are computed online using the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT) system. The high rate of triggered events is exploited to make precise measurements of the position, size and orientation of the luminous region in near real-time, as these parameters change significantly even during a single data-taking run. We present the challenges, solutions and results for the online determination, monitoring and beam spot feedback system in ATLAS. A specially designed algorithm, which uses tracks registered in the silicon detectors to reconstruct event vertices, is executed on the HLT processor farm of several thousand CPU cores. Monitoring histograms from all the cores are sampled and aggregated across the farm every 60 seconds. The reconstructed beam values are corrected for detector resolution effects, measured in situ from the separation of vertices whose tracks have been split into two collections. Furthermore, measurements for individual ...

  14. Optical performance monitoring in high-speed optical fiber communication systems

    Yu, Changyuan; Yang, Jing; Hu, Junhao; Zhang, Banghong

    2011-11-01

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) becomes an attractive topic as the rapid growth of data rate in optical communication networks. It provides improved operation of the high capacity optical transmission systems. Among the various impairments, chromatic dispersion (CD) is one of major factors limiting the transmission distance in high-speed communication systems. Polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) also becomes a degrading effect in the system with data rate larger than 40 Gbit/s. In this paper, we summarize several CD and PMD monitoring methods based on RF spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling. By using a narrow band fiber Bragg grating (FBG) notch filter, centered at 10 GHz away from the optical carrier, 10-GHz RF power can be used as a CD-insensitive PMD monitoring signal. By taking the 10-GHz RF power ratio of non-filtered and filtered signal, PMD-insensitive CD monitoring can be achieved. If the FBG notch filter is placed at optical carrier, the RF clock power ratio between non-filtered and filtered signal is also a PMDinsensitive CD monitoring parameter, which has larger RF power dynamic range and better measurement resolution. Both simulation and experiment results show that the proposed methods are efficient on measuring CD and PMD values in 57-Gbit/s D8PSK systems. Delay-tap sampling is another efficient method of measuring residual CD. Amplitude ratio of asynchronous delay-tap sampling plot decreases with CD monotonously, and the amplitude ratio can be obtained by using low bandwidth balanced receiver. The simulated results show that our method is efficient on residual CD measurement in 50-Gbit/s 50% RZ DQPSK systems with a 12-GHz balanced receiver. Since no modification on the transmitter or receiver is required, the proposed scheme is simple and cost effective.

  15. Monitoring of corrosion damage using high-frequency guided ultrasonic waves

    Chew, D.; Fromme, P.

    2014-01-01

    Due to adverse environmental conditions corrosion can develop during the life cycle of industrial structures, e.g., offshore oil platforms, ships, and desalination plants. Both pitting corrosion and generalized corrosion leading to wall thickness loss can cause the degradation of the integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Structural health monitoring of corrosion damage in difficult to access areas can in principle be achieved using high frequency guided waves propagating along...

  16. Monitoring microstructural evolution in-situ during cyclic deformation by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    Diederichs, Annika Martina; Thiel, Felix; Fischer, Torben

    2017-01-01

    The recently developed synchrotron technique High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping (HRRSM) is used to characterize the deformation structures evolving during cyclic deformation of commercially pure, polycrystalline aluminium AA1050. Insight into the structural reorganization within single grains...... is gained by in-situ monitoring of the microstructural evolution during cyclic deformation. By HRRSM, a large number of individual subgrains can be resolved within individual grains in the bulk of polycrystalline specimens and their fate, their individual orientation and elastic stresses, tracked during...

  17. Structural health monitoring of high voltage electrical switch ceramic insulators in seismic areas

    REBILLAT, Marc; BARTHES, Clément; MECHBAL, Nazih; MOSALAM, Khalid M.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; High voltage electrical switches are crucial components to restart rapidly the electrical network right after an earthquake. But there currently exists no automatic procedure to check if these ceramic insulators have suffered after an earthquake, and there exists no method to recertify a given switch. To deploy a vibration-based structural health monitoring method on ceramic insulators a large shake table able to generate accelerations up to 3 g was used. The idea unde...

  18. Monitoring of energetic characteristics of electron beams during formation of high-power pulsed bremsstrahlung

    Ivaschenko, D.M.; Mordasov, N.G.; Chlenov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A method and a device for monitoring the dynamic and integrated characteristics of high-power electron and bremsstrahlung beams of the pulse accelerators are proposed. The transfer functions for various types of a target in operating conditions of the pulse accelerator UIN-10 are presented. Possibilities if the integrated diagnostics of acceleration rate of the electron beams with simultaneous testing of the bremsstrahlung parameters as a local field point beyond the converting target are shown [ru

  19. Calendar Year 2007 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Annual Monitoring Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - RCRA Post-Closure Permit Nos. TNHW-113, TNHW-116, and TNHW-128

    Elvado Environmental

    2008-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 2007 at the following hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units located at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; this S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm, Bear Creek Burial Grounds/Walk-In Pits (BCBG/WIP), Eastern S-3 Site Plume, Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP), Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Baste (CRSDB), few Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and East Chestnut Ridge Waste Pile (ECRWP). Hit monitoring data were obtained in accordance with the applicable Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) hazardous waste post-closure permit (PCP). The Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) - Division of Solid Waste Management issued the PCPs to define the requirements for RCRA post-closure inspection, maintenance, and groundwater monitoring at the specified TSD units located within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-116), Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-113), and Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (PCP no. TNHW-128). Each PCP requires the Submittal of an annual RCRA groundwater monitoring report containing the groundwater sampling information and analytical results obtained at each applicable TSD unit during the preceding CY, along with an evaluation of groundwater low rates and directions and the analytical results for specified RCRA groundwater target compounds; this report is the RCRA annual groundwater monitoring report for CY 2007. The RCRA post-closure groundwater monitoring requirements specified in the above-referenced PCP for the Chestnut Ridge Regime replace those defined in the previous PCP (permit no. TNHW-088), which expired on September 18, 2005, but remained effective until the TDEC issued the new PCP in September 2006. The new PCP defines site-specific groundwater sampling and analysis requirements for the

  20. Development of a high resolution plantar pressure monitoring pad based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors.

    Suresh, R; Bhalla, S; Hao, J; Singh, C

    2015-01-01

    High importance is given to plantar pressure monitoring in the field of biomedical engineering for the diagnosis of posture related ailments associated with diseases such as diabetes and gonarthrosis. This paper presents the proof-of-concept development of a new high resolution plantar pressure monitoring pad based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In the proposed configuration, the FBG sensors are embedded within layers of carbon composite material (CCM) in turn conforming to an arc shape. A total of four such arc shaped sensors are instrumented in the pad at the locations of the forefoot and the hind foot. As a test of the pad, static plantar pressure is monitored on normal subjects under various posture conditions. The pad is evaluated both as a standalone platform as well as a pad inserted inside a standard shoe. An average pressure sensitivity of 1.2 pm/kPa and a resolution of approximately 0.8 kPa is obtained in this special configuration. The pad is found to be suitable in both configurations- stand-alone pad as well as an insert inside a standard shoe. The proposed set up offers a cost-effective high resolution and accurate plantar pressure measurement system suitable for clinical deployment. The novelty of the developed pressure pad lies in its ability to be used both as platform type as well as inserted in-sole type sensor system.

  1. Monitoring of corrosion damage using high-frequency guided ultrasonic waves

    Chew, D.; Fromme, P.

    2015-03-01

    Due to adverse environmental conditions corrosion can develop during the life cycle of industrial structures, e.g., offshore oil platforms, ships, and desalination plants. Both pitting corrosion and generalized corrosion leading to wall thickness loss can cause the degradation of the integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Structural health monitoring of corrosion damage in difficult to access areas can in principle be achieved using high frequency guided waves propagating along the structure from accessible areas. Using standard ultrasonic transducers with single sided access to the structure, high frequency guided wave modes were generated that penetrate through the complete thickness of the structure. Wall thickness reduction was induced using accelerated corrosion in a salt water bath. The corrosion damage was monitored based on the effect on the wave propagation and interference of the different modes. The change in the wave interference was quantified based on an analysis in the frequency domain (Fourier transform) and was found to match well with theoretical predictions for the wall thickness loss. High frequency guided waves have the potential for corrosion damage monitoring at critical and difficult to access locations from a stand-off distance.

  2. Test of a non-invasive bunch shape monitor at the GSI high current LINAC

    Zwicker, Benjamin; Forck, Peter; Kester, Oliver [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Dorn, Christoph; Kowina, Piotr [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    At the heavy ion LINAC at GSI, a novel scheme of non-invasive Bunch Shape Monitor has been tested with several ion beams at 11.4 MeV/u. Caused by the beam impact on the residual gas, secondary electrons are liberated. These electrons are accelerated by an electrostatic field, transported through a sophisticated electrostatic energy analyzer and an rf-deflector, acting as a time-to-space converter. Finally a MCP detects the electron distribution. For the applied beam settings this Bunch Shape Monitor is able to obtain longitudinal profiles down to 400 ps with a resolution of 50 ps, corresponding to 2 degree of the 36 MHz acceleration frequency. During a long shutdown period for the GSI accelerators in 2013, the monitor underwent a general technical retrofit: Influence of the beam has been significantly reduced, due enhanced electrodes, new apertures have been installed to decrease electron scattering, sophisticated stepping motors will allow better image properties, a MCP shielding plate will prevent high background. Together with these improvements the achievements of the monitor are discussed.

  3. New temperature monitoring devices for high-temperature irradiation experiments in the high flux reactor Petten

    Laurie, M.; Futterer, M. A.; Lapetite, J. M. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fourrez, S. [THERMOCOAX SAS, BP 26, Planquivon, 61438 Flers Cedex (France); Morice, R. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75724 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Within the European High Temperature Reactor Technology Network (HTR-TN) and related projects a number of HTR fuel irradiations are planned in the High Flux Reactor Petten (HFR), The Netherlands, with the objective to explore the potential of recently produced fuel for even higher temperature and burn-up. Irradiating fuel under defined conditions to extremely high burn-ups will provide a better understanding of fission product release and failure mechanisms if particle failure occurs. After an overview of the irradiation rigs used in the HFR, this paper sums up data collected from previous irradiation tests in terms of thermocouple data. Some research and development work for further improvement of thermocouples and other on-line instrumentation will be outlined. (authors)

  4. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008 ...

  5. Ex Situ gene conservation in high elevation white pine species in the United States-a beginning

    Richard A. Sniezko; Anna Schoettle; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler; David Conklin; Andrew Bower; Chris Jensen; Rob Mangold; Doug Daoust; Gary Man

    2011-01-01

    The eight white pine species native to the western United States face an array of biotic and abiotic challenges that impact the viability of populations or the species themselves. Well-established programs are already in place to conserve and restore Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don and P. lambertiana Dougl. throughout significant portions of their geographic ranges....

  6. A Highly Conserved GEQYQQLR Epitope Has Been Identified in the Nucleoprotein of Ebola Virus by Using an In Silico Approach

    Mohammad Tuhin Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV is a deadly virus that has caused several fatal outbreaks. Recently it caused another outbreak and resulted in thousands afflicted cases. Effective and approved vaccine or therapeutic treatment against this virus is still absent. In this study, we aimed to predict B-cell epitopes from several EBOV encoded proteins which may aid in developing new antibody-based therapeutics or viral antigen detection method against this virus. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA was performed for the identification of conserved region among glycoprotein (GP, nucleoprotein (NP, and viral structural proteins (VP40, VP35, and VP24 of EBOV. Next, different consensus immunogenic and conserved sites were predicted from the conserved region(s using various computational tools which are available in Immune Epitope Database (IEDB. Among GP, NP, VP40, VP35, and VP30 protein, only NP gave a 100% conserved GEQYQQLR B-cell epitope that fulfills the ideal features of an effective B-cell epitope and could lead a way in the milieu of Ebola treatment. However, successful in vivo and in vitro studies are prerequisite to determine the actual potency of our predicted epitope and establishing it as a preventing medication against all the fatal strains of EBOV.

  7. "Toward High School Biology": Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better…

  8. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  9. a New Approach for Subway Tunnel Deformation Monitoring: High-Resolution Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Li, J.; Wan, Y.; Gao, X.

    2012-07-01

    With the improvement of the accuracy and efficiency of laser scanning technology, high-resolution terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology can obtain high precise points-cloud and density distribution and can be applied to high-precision deformation monitoring of subway tunnels and high-speed railway bridges and other fields. In this paper, a new approach using a points-cloud segmentation method based on vectors of neighbor points and surface fitting method based on moving least squares was proposed and applied to subway tunnel deformation monitoring in Tianjin combined with a new high-resolution terrestrial laser scanner (Riegl VZ-400). There were three main procedures. Firstly, a points-cloud consisted of several scanning was registered by linearized iterative least squares approach to improve the accuracy of registration, and several control points were acquired by total stations (TS) and then adjusted. Secondly, the registered points-cloud was resampled and segmented based on vectors of neighbor points to select suitable points. Thirdly, the selected points were used to fit the subway tunnel surface with moving least squares algorithm. Then a series of parallel sections obtained from temporal series of fitting tunnel surfaces were compared to analysis the deformation. Finally, the results of the approach in z direction were compared with the fiber optical displacement sensor approach and the results in x, y directions were compared with TS respectively, and comparison results showed the accuracy errors of x, y, z directions were respectively about 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm. Therefore the new approach using high-resolution TLS can meet the demand of subway tunnel deformation monitoring.

  10. A NEW APPROACH FOR SUBWAY TUNNEL DEFORMATION MONITORING: HIGH-RESOLUTION TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING

    J. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of the accuracy and efficiency of laser scanning technology, high-resolution terrestrial laser scanning (TLS technology can obtain high precise points-cloud and density distribution and can be applied to high-precision deformation monitoring of subway tunnels and high-speed railway bridges and other fields. In this paper, a new approach using a points-cloud segmentation method based on vectors of neighbor points and surface fitting method based on moving least squares was proposed and applied to subway tunnel deformation monitoring in Tianjin combined with a new high-resolution terrestrial laser scanner (Riegl VZ-400. There were three main procedures. Firstly, a points-cloud consisted of several scanning was registered by linearized iterative least squares approach to improve the accuracy of registration, and several control points were acquired by total stations (TS and then adjusted. Secondly, the registered points-cloud was resampled and segmented based on vectors of neighbor points to select suitable points. Thirdly, the selected points were used to fit the subway tunnel surface with moving least squares algorithm. Then a series of parallel sections obtained from temporal series of fitting tunnel surfaces were compared to analysis the deformation. Finally, the results of the approach in z direction were compared with the fiber optical displacement sensor approach and the results in x, y directions were compared with TS respectively, and comparison results showed the accuracy errors of x, y, z directions were respectively about 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 1 mm. Therefore the new approach using high-resolution TLS can meet the demand of subway tunnel deformation monitoring.

  11. Intelligent Monitoring System with High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Power Plant Combustion Processes

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boehman

    2006-09-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we have set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors have been completed. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we have investigated a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis.

  12. High-throughput SHAPE analysis reveals structures in HIV-1 genomic RNA strongly conserved across distinct biological states.

    Kevin A Wilkinson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication and pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is tightly linked to the structure of its RNA genome, but genome structure in infectious virions is poorly understood. We invent high-throughput SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension technology, which uses many of the same tools as DNA sequencing, to quantify RNA backbone flexibility at single-nucleotide resolution and from which robust structural information can be immediately derived. We analyze the structure of HIV-1 genomic RNA in four biologically instructive states, including the authentic viral genome inside native particles. Remarkably, given the large number of plausible local structures, the first 10% of the HIV-1 genome exists in a single, predominant conformation in all four states. We also discover that noncoding regions functioning in a regulatory role have significantly lower (p-value < 0.0001 SHAPE reactivities, and hence more structure, than do viral coding regions that function as the template for protein synthesis. By directly monitoring protein binding inside virions, we identify the RNA recognition motif for the viral nucleocapsid protein. Seven structurally homologous binding sites occur in a well-defined domain in the genome, consistent with a role in directing specific packaging of genomic RNA into nascent virions. In addition, we identify two distinct motifs that are targets for the duplex destabilizing activity of this same protein. The nucleocapsid protein destabilizes local HIV-1 RNA structure in ways likely to facilitate initial movement both of the retroviral reverse transcriptase from its tRNA primer and of the ribosome in coding regions. Each of the three nucleocapsid interaction motifs falls in a specific genome domain, indicating that local protein interactions can be organized by the long-range architecture of an RNA. High-throughput SHAPE reveals a comprehensive view of HIV-1 RNA genome structure, and further

  13. Ecological Concern Among High School Seniors: 1976-1979. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper Series, Paper 7.

    Miller, John D.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    Examined are the environmental attitudes of United States high school senior classes of 1976-1979. Multi-item indices of concern about pollution, overpopulation, energy conservation, other people, and the importance of material things were administered to about 17,000 students in approximately 130 high schools each year. The four classes of…

  14. Inhibitory control and visuo-spatial reversibility in Piaget’s seminal number conservation task: A high-density ERP study.

    Gregoire eBorst

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present high-density ERP study on 13 adults aimed to determine whether number conservation relies on the ability to inhibit the overlearned length-equals-number strategy and then imagine the shortening of the row that was lengthened. Participants performed the number-conservation task and, after the EEG session, the mental imagery task. In the number-conservation task, first two rows with the same number of tokens and the same length were presented on a computer screen (COV condition and then, the tokens in one of the two rows were spread apart (INT condition. Participants were instructed to determine whether the two rows had an identical number of tokens. In the mental imagery task, two rows with different lengths but the same number of tokens were presented and participants were instructed to imagine the tokens in the longer row aligning with the tokens in the shorter row. In the number-conservation task, we found that the amplitudes of the centro-parietal N2 and fronto-central P3 were higher in the INT than in the COV conditions. In addition, the differences in response times between the two conditions were correlated with the differences in the amplitudes of the fronto-central P3. In light of previous results reported on the number-conservation task in adults, the present results suggest that inhibition might be necessary to succeed the number-conservation task in adults even when the transformation of the length of one of the row is displayed. Finally, we also reported correlations between the speed at which participants could imagine the shortening of one of the row in the mental imagery task, the speed at which participants could determine that the two rows had the same number of tokens after the tokens in one of the row were spread apart and the latency of the late positive parietal component in the number-conservation task. Therefore, performing the number-conservation task might involve mental transformation processes in adults.

  15. A novel method for monitoring high-risk breast cancer with tumor markers

    Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D; Schiøler, V

    1993-01-01

    cancer. METHODS: Ninety females with high-risk breast cancer were included in the study. Response evaluation was based upon clinical examination, x-rays or histology and elaborated marker criteria. RESULTS: During the marker monitoring period, metastases in four patients were confined to skin or lymph......BACKGROUND: An early and reliable diagnosis of metastatic spread has increased interest in serum tumor markers. This study investigated the ability of CA 15.3, CEA, and TPA to identify, predict, and exclude metastases in bone/viscera during adjuvant treatment and follow-up of high-risk breast...

  16. High altitude environmental monitoring: the SHARE project and CEOP-HE

    Tartari, G.

    2009-04-01

    Mountain areas above 2,500 m a.s.l. constitute about 25% of the Earth's surface and play a fundamental role in the global water balance, while influencing global climate and atmospheric circulation systems. Several millions, including lowlanders, are directly affected by the impacts of climate change on glaciers and water resource distribution. Mountains and high altitude plateaus are subject to the highest rate of temperature increase (e.g., Tibetan Plateau) and are recognized as particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In spite of this, the number of permanent monitoring sites in the major environmental networks decreases with altitude. On a sample of two hundred high altitude automatic weather stations located above 2,500 m a.s.l., less than 20% are over 4,000 m, while there are only 24 stations in the world that could be considered "complete" high altitude observatories. Furthermore, entire mountain areas are left uncovered, creating significant data gaps which make reliable modelling and forecasting nearly impossible. In response to these problems, Ev-K2-CNR has developed the project SHARE (Stations at High Altitude for Research on the Environment) with the support of the Italian government and in collaboration with UNEP. This integrated environmental monitoring and research project aims to improve knowledge on the local, regional and global consequences of climate change in mountain regions and on the influence of high elevations on climate, atmospheric circulation and hydrology. SHARE today boasts a network of 13 permanent monitoring stations between 2,165 m and 8,000 m. Affiliated researchers have produced over 150 scientific publications in atmospheric sciences, meteorology and climate, glaciology, limnology and paleolimnology and geophysics. SHARE network data is also contributed to international programs (UNEP-ABC, WMO-GAW, WCRP-GEWEX-CEOP, NASA-AERONET, ILTER, EU-EUSAAR, EU-ACCENT). Within this context, the CEOP-High Elevations (CEOP

  17. High-resolution near real-time drought monitoring in South Asia

    Aadhar, Saran; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    Drought in South Asia affect food and water security and pose challenges for millions of people. For policy-making, planning, and management of water resources at sub-basin or administrative levels, high-resolution datasets of precipitation and air temperature are required in near-real time. We develop a high-resolution (0.05°) bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data that can be used to monitor near real-time drought conditions over South Asia. Moreover, the dataset can be used to m...

  18. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression

    Amsterdam Adam

    2006-06-01

    identification of approximately 25% of the essential genes required for craniofacial development. The identification of zebrafish models for two human disease syndromes indicates that homologs to the other genes are likely to also be relevant for human craniofacial development. The initial characterization of wdr68 suggests an important role in craniofacial development for the highly conserved Wdr68-Dyrk1 protein complexes.

  19. Functional and genetic evidence that nucleoside transport is highly conserved in Leishmania species: Implications for pyrimidine-based chemotherapy.

    Alzahrani, Khalid J H; Ali, Juma A M; Eze, Anthonius A; Looi, Wan Limm; Tagoe, Daniel N A; Creek, Darren J; Barrett, Michael P; de Koning, Harry P

    2017-08-01

    Leishmania pyrimidine salvage is replete with opportunities for therapeutic intervention with enzyme inhibitors or antimetabolites. Their uptake into cells depends upon specific transporters; therefore it is essential to establish whether various Leishmania species possess similar pyrimidine transporters capable of drug uptake. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of pyrimidine transport in L. major and L. mexicana. In both species, two transporters for uridine/adenosine were detected, one of which also transported uracil and the antimetabolites 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) and 5F,2'deoxyuridine (5F,2'dUrd), and was designated uridine-uracil transporter 1 (UUT1); the other transporter mediated uptake of adenosine, uridine, 5F,2'dUrd and thymidine and was designated Nucleoside Transporter 1 (NT1). To verify the reported L. donovani model of two NT1-like genes encoding uridine/adenosine transporters, and an NT2 gene encoding an inosine transporter, we cloned the corresponding L. major and L. mexicana genes, expressing each in T. brucei. Consistent with the L. donovani reports, the NT1-like genes of either species mediated the adenosine-sensitive uptake of [ 3 H]-uridine but not of [ 3 H]-inosine. Conversely, the NT2-like genes mediated uptake of [ 3 H]-inosine but not [ 3 H]-uridine. Among pyrimidine antimetabolites tested, 5-FU and 5F,2'dUrd were the most effective antileishmanials; resistance to both analogs was induced in L. major and L. mexicana. In each case it was found that the resistant cells had lost the transport capacity for the inducing drug. Metabolomics analysis found that the mechanism of action of 5-FU and 5F-2'dUrd was similar in both Leishmania species, with major changes in deoxynucleotide metabolism. We conclude that the pyrimidine salvage system is highly conserved in Leishmania species - essential information for the development of pyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  20. Functional and genetic evidence that nucleoside transport is highly conserved in Leishmania species: Implications for pyrimidine-based chemotherapy

    Khalid J.H. Alzahrani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania pyrimidine salvage is replete with opportunities for therapeutic intervention with enzyme inhibitors or antimetabolites. Their uptake into cells depends upon specific transporters; therefore it is essential to establish whether various Leishmania species possess similar pyrimidine transporters capable of drug uptake. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of pyrimidine transport in L. major and L. mexicana. In both species, two transporters for uridine/adenosine were detected, one of which also transported uracil and the antimetabolites 5-fluoruracil (5-FU and 5F,2′deoxyuridine (5F,2′dUrd, and was designated uridine-uracil transporter 1 (UUT1; the other transporter mediated uptake of adenosine, uridine, 5F,2′dUrd and thymidine and was designated Nucleoside Transporter 1 (NT1. To verify the reported L. donovani model of two NT1-like genes encoding uridine/adenosine transporters, and an NT2 gene encoding an inosine transporter, we cloned the corresponding L. major and L. mexicana genes, expressing each in T. brucei. Consistent with the L. donovani reports, the NT1-like genes of either species mediated the adenosine-sensitive uptake of [3H]-uridine but not of [3H]-inosine. Conversely, the NT2-like genes mediated uptake of [3H]-inosine but not [3H]-uridine. Among pyrimidine antimetabolites tested, 5-FU and 5F,2′dUrd were the most effective antileishmanials; resistance to both analogs was induced in L. major and L. mexicana. In each case it was found that the resistant cells had lost the transport capacity for the inducing drug. Metabolomics analysis found that the mechanism of action of 5-FU and 5F-2′dUrd was similar in both Leishmania species, with major changes in deoxynucleotide metabolism. We conclude that the pyrimidine salvage system is highly conserved in Leishmania species - essential information for the development of pyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Keywords: Leishmania, Pyrimidine metabolism, Uracil

  1. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  2. Online monitoring of dynamic tip clearance of turbine blades in high temperature environments

    Han, Yu; Zhong, Chong; Zhu, Xiaoliang; Zhe, Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Minimized tip clearance reduces the gas leakage over turbine blade tips and improves the thrust and efficiency of turbomachinery. An accurate tip clearance sensor, measuring the dynamic clearances between blade tips and the turbine case, is a critical component for tip clearance control. This paper presents a robust inductive tip clearance sensor capable of monitoring dynamic tip clearances of turbine machines in high-temperature environments and at high rotational speeds. The sensor can also self-sense the temperature at a blade tip in situ such that temperature effect on tip clearance measurement can be estimated and compensated. To evaluate the sensor’s performance, the sensor was tested for measuring the tip clearances of turbine blades under various working temperatures ranging from 700 K to 1300 K and at turbine rotational speeds ranging from 3000 to 10 000 rpm. The blade tip clearance was varied from 50 to 2000 µm. The experiment results proved that the sensor can accurately measure the blade tip clearances with a temporal resolution of 10 µm. The capability of accurately measuring the tip clearances at high temperatures (~1300 K) and high turbine rotation speeds (~30 000 rpm), along with its compact size, makes it promising for online monitoring and active control of blade tip clearances of high-temperature turbomachinery.

  3. Monte carlo calculation of energy-dependent response of high-sensitive neutron monitor, HISENS

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Keiji; Koide, Hiroaki; Seo, Takeshi; Kawano, Shinji

    1988-01-01

    A highly sensitive neutron monitor system, HISENS, has been developed to measure leakage neutrons from nuclear facilities. The counter system of HISENS contains a detector bank which consists of ten cylindrical proportional counters filled with 10 atm 3 He gas and a paraffin moderator mounted in an aluminum case. The size of the detector bank is 56 cm high, 66 cm wide and 10 cm thick. It is revealed by a calibration experiment using an 241 Am-Be neutron source that the sensitivity of HISENS is about 2000 times as large as that of a typical commercial rem-counter. Since HISENS is designed to have a high sensitivity in a wide range of neutron energy, the shape of its energy dependent response curve cannot be matched to that of the dose equivalent conversion factor. To estimate dose equivalent values from neutron counts by HISENS, it is necessary to know the energy and angular characteristics of both HISENS and the neutron field. The area of one side of the detector bank is 3700 cm 2 and the detection efficiency in the constant region of the response curve is about 30 %. Thus, the sensitivity of HISENS for this energy range is 740 cps/(n/cm 2 /sec). This value indicates the extremely high sensitivity of HISENS as compared with exsisting highly sensitive neutron monitors. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Wavelet-space correlation imaging for high-speed MRI without motion monitoring or data segmentation.

    Li, Yu; Wang, Hui; Tkach, Jean; Roach, David; Woods, Jason; Dumoulin, Charles

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to (i) develop a new high-speed MRI approach by implementing correlation imaging in wavelet-space, and (ii) demonstrate the ability of wavelet-space correlation imaging to image human anatomy with involuntary or physiological motion. Correlation imaging is a high-speed MRI framework in which image reconstruction relies on quantification of data correlation. The presented work integrates correlation imaging with a wavelet transform technique developed originally in the field of signal and image processing. This provides a new high-speed MRI approach to motion-free data collection without motion monitoring or data segmentation. The new approach, called "wavelet-space correlation imaging", is investigated in brain imaging with involuntary motion and chest imaging with free-breathing. Wavelet-space correlation imaging can exceed the speed limit of conventional parallel imaging methods. Using this approach with high acceleration factors (6 for brain MRI, 16 for cardiac MRI, and 8 for lung MRI), motion-free images can be generated in static brain MRI with involuntary motion and nonsegmented dynamic cardiac/lung MRI with free-breathing. Wavelet-space correlation imaging enables high-speed MRI in the presence of involuntary motion or physiological dynamics without motion monitoring or data segmentation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A high-resolution mini-microscope system for wireless real-time monitoring.

    Wang, Zongjie; Boddeda, Akash; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Menard, Frederic; Kim, Keekyoung

    2017-09-04

    Compact, cost-effective and high-performance microscope that enables the real-time imaging of cells and lab-on-a-chip devices is highly demanded for cell biology and biomedical engineering. This paper aims to present the design and application of an inexpensive wireless mini-microscope with resolution up to 2592 × 1944 pixels and speed up to 90 fps. The mini-microscope system was built on a commercial embedded system (Raspberry Pi). We modified a camera module and adopted an inverse dual lens system to obtain the clear field of view and appropriate magnification for tens of micrometer objects. The system was capable of capturing time-lapse images and transferring image data wirelessly. The entire system can be operated wirelessly and cordlessly in a conventional cell culturing incubator. The developed mini-microscope was used to monitor the attachment and proliferation of NIH-3T3 and HEK 293 cells inside an incubator for 50 hours. In addition, the mini-microscope was used to monitor a droplet generation process in a microfluidic device. The high-quality images captured by the mini-microscope enabled us an automated analysis of experimental parameters. The successful applications prove the great potential of the developed mini-microscope for monitoring various biological samples and microfluidic devices. This paper presents the design of a high resolution mini-microscope system that enables the wireless real-time imaging of cells inside the incubator. This system has been verified to be a useful tool to obtain high-quality images and videos for the automated quantitative analysis of biological samples and lab-on-a-chip devices in the long term.

  6. 4D Near Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Using Highly Temporal LiDAR

    Höfle, Bernhard; Canli, Ekrem; Schmitz, Evelyn; Crommelinck, Sophie; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has witnessed extensive applications of 3D environmental monitoring with the LiDAR technology, also referred to as laser scanning. Although several automatic methods were developed to extract environmental parameters from LiDAR point clouds, only little research has focused on highly multitemporal near real-time LiDAR (4D-LiDAR) for environmental monitoring. Large potential of applying 4D-LiDAR is given for landscape objects with high and varying rates of change (e.g. plant growth) and also for phenomena with sudden unpredictable changes (e.g. geomorphological processes). In this presentation we will report on the most recent findings of the research projects 4DEMON (http://uni-heidelberg.de/4demon) and NoeSLIDE (https://geomorph.univie.ac.at/forschung/projekte/aktuell/noeslide/). The method development in both projects is based on two real-world use cases: i) Surface parameter derivation of agricultural crops (e.g. crop height) and ii) change detection of landslides. Both projects exploit the "full history" contained in the LiDAR point cloud time series. One crucial initial step of 4D-LiDAR analysis is the co-registration over time, 3D-georeferencing and time-dependent quality assessment of the LiDAR point cloud time series. Due to the high amount of datasets (e.g. one full LiDAR scan per day), the procedure needs to be performed fully automatically. Furthermore, the online near real-time 4D monitoring system requires to set triggers that can detect removal or moving of tie reflectors (used for co-registration) or the scanner itself. This guarantees long-term data acquisition with high quality. We will present results from a georeferencing experiment for 4D-LiDAR monitoring, which performs benchmarking of co-registration, 3D-georeferencing and also fully automatic detection of events (e.g. removal/moving of reflectors or scanner). Secondly, we will show our empirical findings of an ongoing permanent LiDAR observation of a landslide (Gresten

  7. Extremely high resolution corrosion monitoring of pipelines: retrofittable, non-invasive and real-time

    Baltzersen, Oeystein; Tveit, Edd [Sensorlink AS, Trondheim (Norway); Verley, Richard [StatoilHydro ASA, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    The Ultramonit unit is a clamp-on tool (removable) that uses an array of sensors to provide online, real-time, reliable and repeatable high accuracy ultrasonic wall thickness measurements and corrosion monitoring at selected locations along the pipeline. The unit can be installed on new or existing pipelines by diver or ROV. The system is based on the well-established ultrasonic pulse-echo method (A-scan). Special processing methods, and the fact that the unit is fixed to the pipeline, enable detection of changes in wall thickness in the micro-meter range. By utilizing this kind of resolution, it is possible to project corrosion rates in hours or days. The tool is used for calibration of corrosion inhibitor programs, verification and calibration of inspection pig data and general corrosion monitoring of new and existing pipelines. (author)

  8. A Customizable Platform for High-availability Monitoring, Control and Data Distribution at CERN

    Braeger, M; Lang, A; Suwalska, A

    2011-01-01

    In complex operational environments, monitoring and control systems are asked to satisfy ever more stringent requirements. In addition to reliability, the availability of the system has become crucial to accommodate for tight planning schedules and increased dependencies to other systems. In this context, adapting a monitoring system to changes in its environment and meeting requests for new functionalities are increasingly challenging. Combining maintainability and high-availability within a portable architecture is the focus of this work. To meet these increased requirements, we present a new modular system developed at CERN. Using the experience gained from previous implementations, the new platform uses a multiserver architecture to allow running patches and updates to the application without affecting its availability. The data acquisition can also be reconfigured without any downtime or potential data loss. The modular architecture builds on a core system that aims to be reusable for mu...

  9. Monitoring of pistachio (Pistacia Vera) ripening by high field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Sciubba, Fabio; Avanzato, Damiano; Vaccaro, Angela; Capuani, Giorgio; Spagnoli, Mariangela; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Tzareva, Irina Nikolova; Delfini, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic profiling of pistachio (Pistacia vera) aqueous extracts from two different cultivars, namely 'Bianca' and 'Gloria', was monitored over the months from May to September employing high field NMR spectroscopy. A large number of water-soluble metabolites were assigned by means of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The change in the metabolic profiles monitored over time allowed the pistachio development to be investigated. Specific temporal trends of amino acids, sugars, organic acids and other metabolites were observed and analysed by multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis. Statistical analysis showed that while in the period from May to September there were few differences between the two cultivars, the ripening rate was different.

  10. Evaluation of High-Speed Railway Bridges Based on a Nondestructive Monitoring System

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, trains’ velocities in Korea increased more than the speed used in the design of some bridges. Accordingly, this paper demonstrates the evaluation of a railway bridge due to high-speed trains’ movement. A nondestructive monitoring system is used to assess the bridge performance under train speeds of 290, 360, 400 and 406 km/h. This system is comprised of a wireless short-term acceleration system and strain monitoring sensors attached to the bridge girder. The results of the analytical methods in time and frequency domains are presented. The following conclusions are obtained: the cross-correlation models for accelerations and strain measurements are effective to predict the performance of the bridge; the static behavior is increased with train speed developments; and the vibration, torsion, fatigue and frequency contents analyses of the bridge show that the bridge is safe under applied trains’ speeds.

  11. Real-time monitoring for alpha emitters in high-airflow environments

    Koster, J.E.; MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.; Whitley, C.R.; Conaway, J.G.; Steadman, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Key problems in detecting alpha contamination for site characterization and decontamination and decommissioning that remain to be solved include measurement of airborne contamination, material holdup within pipes, and leakage of material containers. These problems are very difficult using traditional alpha detectors and systems. The ionization detection method (long-range alpha detection of LRAD) offers a number of specific advantages for these environmental measurements. An LRAD system detects the air molecules ionized by alpha-emitting contamination rather than the alpha particles. Thus, LRAD-based detectors are not limited by the short range of alpha particles and can be used to detect contamination anywhere that air can penetrate. Extending this technology to large enclosures of long pipes requires a system optimized for large airflows. In this paper we will present designs and preliminary results for high-volume flow-through air monitors based on the LRAD technique. In addition, we will discuss the behavior of the monitors and their potential applications

  12. Method and apparatus for conducting structural health monitoring in a cryogenic, high vibration environment

    Qing, Xinlin (Inventor); Beard, Shawn J. (Inventor); Li, Irene (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Sensors affixed to various such structures, where the sensors can withstand, remain affixed, and operate while undergoing both cryogenic temperatures and high vibrations. In particular, piezoelectric single crystal transducers are utilized, and these sensors are coupled to the structure via a low temperature, heat cured epoxy. This allows the transducers to monitor the structure while the engine is operating, even despite the harsh operating conditions. Aspects of the invention thus allow for real time monitoring and analysis of structures that operate in conditions that previously did not permit such analysis. A further aspect of the invention relates to use of piezoelectric single crystal transducers. In particular, use of such transducers allows the same elements to be used as both sensors and actuators.

  13. Potential drop crack growth monitoring in high temperature biaxial fatigue tests

    Fitzgerald, B.P.; Krempl, E.

    1993-01-01

    The present work describes a procedure for monitoring crack growth in high temperature, biaxial, low cycle fatigue tests. The reversing DC potential drop equipment monitors smooth, tubular type 304 stainless steel specimens during fatigue testing. Electrical interference from an induction heater is filtered out by an analog filter and by using a long integration time. A Fourier smoothing algorithm and two spline interpolations process the large data set. The experimentally determined electrical potential drop is compared with the theoretical electrostatic potential that is found by solving Laplace's equation for an elliptical crack in a semi-infinite conducting medium. Since agreement between theory and experiment is good, the method can be used to measure crack growth to failure from the threshold of detectability

  14. Preventing overtraining in athletes in high-intensity sports and stress/recovery monitoring.

    Kellmann, M

    2010-10-01

    In sports, the importance of optimizing the recovery-stress state is critical. Effective recovery from intense training loads often faced by elite athletes can often determine sporting success or failure. In recent decades, athletes, coaches, and sport scientists have been keen to find creative, new methods for improving the quality and quantity of training for athletes. These efforts have consistently faced barriers, including overtraining, fatigue, injury, illness, and burnout. Physiological and psychological limits dictate a need for research that addresses the avoidance of overtraining, maximizes recovery, and successfully negotiates the fine line between high and excessive training loads. Monitoring instruments like the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes can assist with this research by providing a tool to assess their perceived state of recovery. This article will highlight the importance of recovery for elite athletes and provide an overview of monitoring instruments. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Development on high precision monitoring technique of radon and thoron in environment

    Imaizumi, Masayuki; Hamada, Hiromasa; Goto, Masahiro; Nakazato, Hiroomi; Mori, Mitsuhiro

    1999-01-01

    In a field of the environmental management, many technical research and developments such as monitoring on drainage section and flowing speed change of groundwater, analysis on alternating flow phenomenon between surface water and groundwater, analysis on water leakage at a dam, forecasting of landslide, safety evaluation on ground due to detection of faults, have conducted. And, an application to analysis on gas flowing phenomenon from underground to atmosphere as a part of study on evaluation of effect of gas emitted from earth surface on the earth environment was investigated. This study aimed to elucidate behaviors of radon and thoron at environment and to develop a high precision monitoring technique on radon and thoron required to conduct an advanced application to a tracer in hydrology, applied geology, and environment engineering. (G.K.)

  16. Conservation endocrinology

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  17. Internet end-to-end performance monitoring for the High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics community

    Matthews, W.

    2000-02-22

    Modern High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics (HENP) experiments at Laboratories around the world present a significant challenge to wide area networks. Petabytes (1015) or exabytes (1018) of data will be generated during the lifetime of the experiment. Much of this data will be distributed via the Internet to the experiment's collaborators at Universities and Institutes throughout the world for analysis. In order to assess the feasibility of the computing goals of these and future experiments, the HENP networking community is actively monitoring performance across a large part of the Internet used by its collaborators. Since 1995, the pingER project has been collecting data on ping packet loss and round trip times. In January 2000, there are 28 monitoring sites in 15 countries gathering data on over 2,000 end-to-end pairs. HENP labs such as SLAC, Fermi Lab and CERN are using Advanced Network's Surveyor project and monitoring performance from one-way delay of UDP packets. More recently several HENP sites have become involved with NLANR's active measurement program (AMP). In addition SLAC and CERN are part of the RIPE test-traffic project and SLAC is home for a NIMI machine. The large End-to-end performance monitoring infrastructure allows the HENP networking community to chart long term trends and closely examine short term glitches across a wide range of networks and connections. The different methodologies provide opportunities to compare results based on different protocols and statistical samples. Understanding agreement and discrepancies between results provides particular insight into the nature of the network. This paper will highlight the practical side of monitoring by reviewing the special needs of High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics experiments and provide an overview of the experience of measuring performance across a large number of interconnected networks throughout the world with various methodologies. In particular, results

  18. Internet end-to-end performance monitoring for the High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics community

    Matthews, W.

    2000-01-01

    Modern High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics (HENP) experiments at Laboratories around the world present a significant challenge to wide area networks. Petabytes (1015) or exabytes (1018) of data will be generated during the lifetime of the experiment. Much of this data will be distributed via the Internet to the experiment's collaborators at Universities and Institutes throughout the world for analysis. In order to assess the feasibility of the computing goals of these and future experiments, the HENP networking community is actively monitoring performance across a large part of the Internet used by its collaborators. Since 1995, the pingER project has been collecting data on ping packet loss and round trip times. In January 2000, there are 28 monitoring sites in 15 countries gathering data on over 2,000 end-to-end pairs. HENP labs such as SLAC, Fermi Lab and CERN are using Advanced Network's Surveyor project and monitoring performance from one-way delay of UDP packets. More recently several HENP sites have become involved with NLANR's active measurement program (AMP). In addition SLAC and CERN are part of the RIPE test-traffic project and SLAC is home for a NIMI machine. The large End-to-end performance monitoring infrastructure allows the HENP networking community to chart long term trends and closely examine short term glitches across a wide range of networks and connections. The different methodologies provide opportunities to compare results based on different protocols and statistical samples. Understanding agreement and discrepancies between results provides particular insight into the nature of the network. This paper will highlight the practical side of monitoring by reviewing the special needs of High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics experiments and provide an overview of the experience of measuring performance across a large number of interconnected networks throughout the world with various methodologies. In particular, results from each project

  19. The effectiveness of anticellulite treatment using tripolar radiofrequency monitored by classic and high-frequency ultrasound.

    Mlosek, R K; Woźniak, W; Malinowska, S; Lewandowski, M; Nowicki, A

    2012-06-01

      Cellulite affects nearly 85% of the female population. Given the size of the phenomenon, we are continuously looking for effective ways to reduce cellulite. Reliable monitoring of anticellulite treatment remains a problem.   The main aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of anticellulite treatment carried out using radiofrequency (RF), which was monitored by classical and high-frequency ultrasound.   Twenty-eight women underwent anticellulite treatment using RF, 17 women were in the placebo group. The therapy was monitored by classical and high-frequency ultrasound. The examinations evaluated the thickness of the epidermal echo, dermis thickness, dermis echogenicity, the length of the subcutaneous tissue bands growing into the dermis, the presence or absence of oedema, the thickness of subcutaneous tissue as well as thigh circumference and the stage of cellulite (according to the Nürnberger-Müller scale).   Cellulite was reduced in 89.286% of the women who underwent RF treatment. After the therapy, the following observations were made: a decrease in the thickness of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, an increase in echogenicity reflecting on the increase in the number of collagen fibres, decreased subcutaneous tissue growing into bands in the dermis, and the reduction of oedema. In the placebo group, no statistically significant changes of the above parameters were observed.   Radiofrequency enables cellulite reduction. A crucial aspect is proper monitoring of the progress of such therapy, which ultrasound allows. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. Performance Monitoring and Response Inhibition in a Saccadic Countermanding Task in High and Low proficient bilinguals.

    Niharika eSingh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 fluency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR task (Experiment1 and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR task (Experiment 2. In this task typically a target is presented to which subject must make saccade (No step trials, unless a new target appears on the other location after some delay from the first target onset (Step trials. On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first instead program a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT, which is the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target, as a measure of response inhibition, and post-stop slowing as a measure of performance monitoring, we observed two important results. It was found that high proficiency bilinguals showed more post-stop slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficiency bilinguals for both VGR and MGR. Secondly, high and low proficiency bilingual exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR, showing no altering effect of language proficiency on the response inhibition in bilinguals. These results suggest that bilingualism impacts performance monitoring which is modulated by language proficiency if not the inhibitory control system. Higher fluency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility, and ability to adjust behaviour that facilitates attainment of cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.

  1. Study of ultrasonic propagation through vortices for acoustic monitoring of high-temperature and turbulent fluid

    Massacret, Nicolas; Moysan, Joseph; Ploix, Marie-Aude; Chaouch, Naim; Jeannot, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic monitoring in high temperature fluids with turbulences requires the knowledge of wave propagation in such media and the development of simulation tools. Applications could be the monitoring of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The objectives are mainly acoustic telemetry and thermometry, which involve the propagation of ultrasounds in turbulent and heated sodium flows. We developed a ray-tracing model to simulate the wave propagation and to determine wave deviations and delays due to an inhomogeneous medium. In previous work we demonstrated the sensitivity of ultrasounds to temperature gradients in liquid sodium. To complete that study, we need to investigate the sensitivity of ultrasounds to vortices created in a moving fluid. We designed a specific experimental setup called IKHAR (Instabilities of Kelvin-Helmholtz for Acoustic Research) in order to assess the validity of the ray-tracing model and the potential of ultrasounds for monitoring such fluid. In this experiment, Von Karman instabilities were created in a flow of water. Fluid temperature was homogeneous in our experimental setup. Through a careful choice of the parameters, periodic vortices were generated. The experiment was also simulated using Comsol registered to allow discussion about repeatability. The throughtransmission method was used to measure wave delays due to the vortices. Arrays of transducers were used to measure time of flight variations of several nanoseconds with a high spatial resolution. Results were similar to simulation results. They demonstrate that beam delays due to vortices can be measured and confirm the potential of ultrasounds in monitoring very inhomogeneous fluid media such as liquid sodium used as coolant fluid in nuclear fast reactors.

  2. Multidisciplinary approach for the esophageal carcinoma with intent to conserve the esophagus centering on high-dose radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy

    Murakami, Masao; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    1997-01-01

    Forty-seven patients with operable squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus were treated by initial concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CDDP-5 FU-44 Gy) followed by definitive high-dose of radiotherapy (CRT group: 35 patients) or surgery (CRT-S group: 12 patients). Clinical CR rate showed 86% in CRT group; and pathological CR rate 18% in CRT-S group. The overall median survival was 45 months, survival at 1, 3, 5 years being 96%, 52%, 48%, respectively. No treatment-related mortality was observed. The rate of the 'esophagus conservation' was 66%. Our results demonstrated that the multidisciplinary approach with intent to conserve the esophagus centering on high-dose radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy provides a significant improvement of both survival and quality of life in patients with operable esophageal carcinoma. (author)

  3. Highly transparent poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings for the conservation of matte painted artworks

    Colombo, A.; Gherardi, Francesca; Goidanich, S.; Delaney, J. K.; de la Rie, E. R.; Ubaldi, M. C.; Toniolo, L.; Simonutti, R.

    2015-01-01

    A nanocomposite coating based on TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) is used as consolidant of matte painted surfaces (temperas, watercolors, modern paintings). The aim of this work is to provide advances in the conservation of these works of art, while preserving their optical appearance, in terms of colour and gloss. Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) measurements of a painting-model (an acrylic black monochrome) treated with the nanocomposite coatings revealed that it...

  4. High temperature monitoring of silicon carbide ceramics by confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • X-ray scattering was used for monitoring oxidation situation of SiC ceramics. • A calibration curve was obtained. • The confocal X-ray scattering technology was based on polycapillary X-ray optics. • The variations of contents of components of SiC ceramics were obtained. - Abstract: In the present work, we presented an alternative method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics at various high temperatures in air by measuring the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratios (I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra}) and effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}) of SiC ceramics with the confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. A calibration curve of the relationship between I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra} and Z{sub eff} was established by using a set of 8 SiC calibration samples. The sensitivity of this approach is so high that it can be easily distinguished samples of Z{sub eff} differing from each other by only 0.01. The linear relationship between the variation of Z{sub eff} and the variations of contents of C, Si and O of SiC ceramics were found, and the corresponding calculation model of the relationship between the ΔZ and the ΔC{sub C}, ΔC{sub Si}, and ΔC{sub O} were established. The variation of contents of components of the tested SiC ceramics after oxidation at high temperature was quantitatively calculated based on the model. It was shown that the results of contents of carbon, silicon and oxygen obtained by this method were in good agreement with the results obtained by XPS, giving values of relative deviation less than 1%. It was concluded that the practicality of this proposed method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of SiC ceramics at high temperatures was acceptable.

  5. DNA analysis indicates that Asian elephants are native to Borneo and are therefore a high priority for conservation.

    Prithiviraj Fernando

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Borneo's elephants is controversial. Two competing hypotheses argue that they are either indigenous, tracing back to the Pleistocene, or were introduced, descending from elephants imported in the 16th-18th centuries. Taxonomically, they have either been classified as a unique subspecies or placed under the Indian or Sumatran subspecies. If shown to be a unique indigenous population, this would extend the natural species range of the Asian elephant by 1300 km, and therefore Borneo elephants would have much greater conservation importance than if they were a feral population. We compared DNA of Borneo elephants to that of elephants from across the range of the Asian elephant, using a fragment of mitochondrial DNA, including part of the hypervariable d-loop, and five autosomal microsatellite loci. We find that Borneo's elephants are genetically distinct, with molecular divergence indicative of a Pleistocene colonisation of Borneo and subsequent isolation. We reject the hypothesis that Borneo's elephants were introduced. The genetic divergence of Borneo elephants warrants their recognition as a separate evolutionary significant unit. Thus, interbreeding Borneo elephants with those from other populations would be contraindicated in ex situ conservation, and their genetic distinctiveness makes them one of the highest priority populations for Asian elephant conservation.

  6. High-Resolution Near Real-Time Drought Monitoring in South Asia

    Aadhar, S.; Mishra, V.

    2017-12-01

    Drought in South Asia affect food and water security and pose challenges for millions of people. For policy-making, planning and management of water resources at the sub-basin or administrative levels, high-resolution datasets of precipitation and air temperature are required in near-real time. Here we develop a high resolution (0.05 degree) bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data that can be used to monitor near real-time drought conditions over South Asia. Moreover, the dataset can be used to monitor climatic extremes (heat waves, cold waves, dry and wet anomalies) in South Asia. A distribution mapping method was applied to correct bias in precipitation and air temperature (maximum and minimum), which performed well compared to the other bias correction method based on linear scaling. Bias-corrected precipitation and temperature data were used to estimate Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to assess the historical and current drought conditions in South Asia. We evaluated drought severity and extent against the satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomalies and satellite-driven Drought Severity Index (DSI) at 0.05˚. We find that the bias-corrected high-resolution data can effectively capture observed drought conditions as shown by the satellite-based drought estimates. High resolution near real-time dataset can provide valuable information for decision-making at district and sub- basin levels.

  7. Microalgal process-monitoring based on high-selectivity spectroscopy tools: status and future perspectives.

    Podevin, Michael; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-08-01

    Microalgae are well known for their ability to accumulate lipids intracellularly, which can be used for biofuels and mitigate CO 2 emissions. However, due to economic challenges, microalgae bioprocesses have maneuvered towards the simultaneous production of food, feed, fuel, and various high-value chemicals in a biorefinery concept. On-line and in-line monitoring of macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and high-value pigments will be more critical to maintain product quality and consistency for downstream processing in a biorefinery to maintain and valorize these markets. The main contribution of this review is to present current and prospective advances of on-line and in-line process analytical technology (PAT), with high-selectivity - the capability of monitoring several analytes simultaneously - in the interest of improving product quality, productivity, and process automation of a microalgal biorefinery. The high-selectivity PAT under consideration are mid-infrared (MIR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman vibrational spectroscopies. The current review contains a critical assessment of these technologies in the context of recent advances in software and hardware in order to move microalgae production towards process automation through multivariate process control (MVPC) and software sensors trained on "big data". The paper will also include a comprehensive overview of off-line implementations of vibrational spectroscopy in microalgal research as it pertains to spectral interpretation and process automation to aid and motivate development.

  8. The selective conservative management of small traumatic pneumothoraces following stab injuries is safe: experience from a high-volume trauma service in South Africa.

    Kong, V Y; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2015-02-01

    The selective conservative management of small pneumothoraces (PTXs) following stab injuries is controversial. We reviewed a cohort of patients managed conservatively in a high volume trauma service in South Africa. A retrospective review over a 2-year period identified 125 asymptomatic patients with small PTXs measuring chest radiograph who were managed conservatively. Of the 125 patients included in the study, 92% were male (115/125), and the median age for all patients was 21 years (19-24). Ninety-seven per cent (121/125) of the weapons involved were knives, and 3% (4/125) were screwdrivers. Sixty-one per cent of all injuries were on the left side. Eighty-two per cent (102/125) sustained a single stab, and 18% (23/125) had multiple stabs. Thirty-nine per cent (49/125) had a PTX <0.5 cm (Group A), 26% (32/125) were ≥ 0.5 to <1 cm (Group B), 19% (24/125) were ≥ 1 to <1.5 cm (Group C) and 15% (20/125) were ≥ 1.5 to <2 cm (Group D). Three per cent of all patients (4/125) eventually required ICDs (one in Group C, three in Group D). All four patients had ICDs in situ for 24 h. The remaining 97% (121/125) were all managed successfully by active clinical observation alone. There were no subsequent readmissions, morbidity or mortality as a direct result of our conservative approach. The selective conservative management of asymptomatic small PTXs from stab injuries is safe if undertaken in the appropriate setting.

  9. [Conservation Units.

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  10. Creative conservation

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  11. Manitoba Hydro long-term high-voltage transmission line magnetic field monitoring project

    Wong, P.S.; Ng, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the licensing process to construct a new 230 kV transmission line on an existing right-of-way in Manitoba, an electrical effects study was conducted in 1998. The study was part of the environmental assessment program crucial in obtaining government approval to construct the line. Some residents living adjacent to the new transmission circuit expressed concerns about alleged adverse health effects associated with long-term exposure to magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines. In order to verify the accuracy of the predicted magnetic field levels submitted to the regulatory body in the the electrical effects study and to instill confidence in the residents of the affected communities, a three-year magnetic monitoring project was conducted between 2003 and 2005 along the right-of-way after the new 230kV transmission line was energized by Manitoba Hydro. This paper described the monitoring program, with reference to location; equipment; data analysis; and discussion of results. It was concluded that the long-term monitoring project demonstrated that the magnetic field prediction methodology was well understood and accurate, and provided valuable long-term magnetic field characteristics at the edge of the right-of-way. In addition, when there is opposition to a transmission line, public consultation and education were found to be the best options to arrive at a solution. 3 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  12. Monitor units are not predictive of neutron dose for high-energy IMRT

    Hälg Roger A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the substantial increase in beam-on time of high energy intensity-modulated radiotherapy (>10 MV techniques to deliver the same target dose compared to conventional treatment techniques, an increased dose of scatter radiation, including neutrons, is delivered to the patient. As a consequence, an increase in second malignancies may be expected in the future with the application of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. It is commonly assumed that the neutron dose equivalent scales with the number of monitor units. Methods Measurements of neutron dose equivalent were performed for an open and an intensity-modulated field at four positions: inside and outside of the treatment field at 0.2 cm and 15 cm depth, respectively. Results It was shown that the neutron dose equivalent, which a patient receives during an intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment, does not scale with the ratio of applied monitor units relative to an open field irradiation. Outside the treatment volume at larger depth 35% less neutron dose equivalent is delivered than expected. Conclusions The predicted increase of second cancer induction rates from intensity-modulated treatment techniques can be overestimated when the neutron dose is simply scaled with monitor units.

  13. Capability of C-Band SAR for Operational Wetland Monitoring at High Latitudes

    Julia Reschke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands store large amounts of carbon, and depending on their status and type, they release specific amounts of methane gas to the atmosphere. The connection between wetland type and methane emission has been investigated in various studies and utilized in climate change monitoring and modelling. For improved estimation of methane emissions, land surface models require information such as the wetland fraction and its dynamics over large areas. Existing datasets of wetland dynamics present the total amount of wetland (fraction for each model grid cell, but do not discriminate the different wetland types like permanent lakes, periodically inundated areas or peatlands. Wetland types differently influence methane fluxes and thus their contribution to the total wetland fraction should be quantified. Especially wetlands of permafrost regions are expected to have a strong impact on future climate due to soil thawing. In this study ENIVSAT ASAR Wide Swath data was tested for operational monitoring of the distribution of areas with a long-term SW near 1 (hSW in northern Russia (SW = degree of saturation with water, 1 = saturated, which is a specific characteristic of peatlands. For the whole northern Russia, areas with hSW were delineated and discriminated from dynamic and open water bodies for the years 2007 and 2008. The area identified with this method amounts to approximately 300,000 km2 in northern Siberia in 2007. It overlaps with zones of high carbon storage. Comparison with a range of related datasets (static and dynamic showed that hSW represents not only peatlands but also temporary wetlands associated with post-forest fire conditions in permafrost regions. Annual long-term monitoring of change in boreal and tundra environments is possible with the presented approach. Sentinel-1, the successor of ENVISAT ASAR, will provide data that may allow continuous monitoring of these wetland dynamics in the future complementing global observations of

  14. Hydrochemical processes in lowland rivers: insights from in situ, high-resolution monitoring

    A. J. Wade

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new insights into the hydrochemical functioning of lowland river systems using field-based spectrophotometric and electrode technologies. The streamwater concentrations of nitrogen species and phosphorus fractions were measured at hourly intervals on a continuous basis at two contrasting sites on tributaries of the River Thames – one draining a rural catchment, the River Enborne, and one draining a more urban system, The Cut. The measurements complement those from an existing network of multi-parameter water quality sondes maintained across the Thames catchment and weekly monitoring based on grab samples. The results of the sub-daily monitoring show that streamwater phosphorus concentrations display highly complex dynamics under storm conditions dependent on the antecedent catchment wetness, and that diurnal phosphorus and nitrogen cycles occur under low flow conditions. The diurnal patterns highlight the dominance of sewage inputs in controlling the streamwater phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations at low flows, even at a distance of 7 km from the nearest sewage treatment works in the rural River Enborne. The time of sample collection is important when judging water quality against ecological thresholds or standards. An exhaustion of the supply of phosphorus from diffuse and multiple septic tank sources during storm events was evident and load estimation was not improved by sub-daily monitoring beyond that achieved by daily sampling because of the eventual reduction in the phosphorus mass entering the stream during events. The results highlight the utility of sub-daily water quality measurements and the discussion considers the practicalities and challenges of in situ, sub-daily monitoring.

  15. Study of the navigation methods applicable to monitoring in sites with high level of radiation

    Segovia de los Rios, J.A.; Rivero G, T.; Garduno G, M.; Zapata, R.

    2004-01-01

    In places in which high radiation levels exist is desirable to have a system that allows the realization of mensurations without the necessity of the exhibition of human resources. It is in fact in these types of situations where a robot system, or automated, in a sense but wide, it is directly applicable. So that a monitoring system, based on a mobile robot, for example, be autonomous, it is necessary to develop and to implement functional and efficient sailing algorithms that allow its use with the minimum of human intervention. Several methods exist to achieve this objective, some of them already proven and others in roads of experimentation. The present work presents some in the sailing ways but used, and specifically, the one that intends for a system of detection of flights in a place with high temperatures and high radiation levels. (Author)

  16. Separating and stabilizing phosphate from high-level radioactive waste: process development and spectroscopic monitoring.

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Braley, Jenifer C; Peterson, James M; Bryan, Samuel A; Levitskaia, Tatiana G

    2012-06-05

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams.

  17. Characterization of stratification for an opaque highly stable magnetorheological fluid using vertical axis inductance monitoring system

    Xie, Lei; Choi, Young-Tai; Liao, Chang-Rong; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    A key requirement for the commercialization of various magnetorheological fluid (MRF)-based applications is sedimentation stability. In this study, a high viscosity linear polysiloxane (HVLP), which has been used for shock absorbers in heavy equipment, is proposed as a new carrier fluid in highly stable MRFs. The HVLP is known to be a thixotropic (i.e., shear thinning) fluid that shows very high viscosity at very low shear rate and low viscosity at higher shear rate. In this study, using the shear rheometer, the significant thixotropic behavior of the HVLP was experimentally confirmed. In addition, a HVLP carrier fluid-based MRF (HVLP MRF) with 26 vol. % was synthesized and its sedimentation characteristics were experimentally investigated. But, because of the opacity of the HVLP MRF, no mudline can be visually observed. Hence, a vertical axis inductance monitoring system (VAIMS) applied to a circular column of fluid was used to evaluate sedimentation behavior by correlating measured inductance with the volume fraction of dispersed particles (i.e., Fe). Using the VAIMS, Fe concentration (i.e., volume fraction) was monitored for 28 days with a measurement taken every four days, as well as one measurement after 96 days to characterize long-term sedimentation stability. Finally, the concentration of the HVLP MRF as a function of the depth in the column and time, as well as the concentration change versus the depth in the column, are presented and compared with those of a commercially available MRF (i.e., Lord MRF-126CD).

  18. Integration of High-Resolution Laser Displacement Sensors and 3D Printing for Structural Health Monitoring

    Shu-Wei Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel experimental design for complex structural health monitoring (SHM studies achieved by integrating 3D printing technologies, high-resolution laser displacement sensors, and multiscale entropy SHM theory. A seven-story structure with a variety of composite bracing systems was constructed using a dual-material 3D printer. A wireless Bluetooth vibration speaker was used to excite the ground floor of the structure, and high-resolution laser displacement sensors (1-μm resolution were used to monitor the displacement history on different floors. Our results showed that the multiscale entropy SHM method could detect damage on the 3D-printed structures. The results of this study demonstrate that integrating 3D printing technologies and high-resolution laser displacement sensors enables the design of cheap, fast processing, complex, small-scale civil structures for future SHM studies. The novel experimental design proposed in this study provides a suitable platform for investigating the validity and sensitivity of SHM in different composite structures and damage conditions for real life applications in the future.

  19. Integration of High-Resolution Laser Displacement Sensors and 3D Printing for Structural Health Monitoring.

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Kuo, Shih-Yu; Huang, Ting-Hsuan

    2017-12-22

    This paper presents a novel experimental design for complex structural health monitoring (SHM) studies achieved by integrating 3D printing technologies, high-resolution laser displacement sensors, and multiscale entropy SHM theory. A seven-story structure with a variety of composite bracing systems was constructed using a dual-material 3D printer. A wireless Bluetooth vibration speaker was used to excite the ground floor of the structure, and high-resolution laser displacement sensors (1-μm resolution) were used to monitor the displacement history on different floors. Our results showed that the multiscale entropy SHM method could detect damage on the 3D-printed structures. The results of this study demonstrate that integrating 3D printing technologies and high-resolution laser displacement sensors enables the design of cheap, fast processing, complex, small-scale civil structures for future SHM studies. The novel experimental design proposed in this study provides a suitable platform for investigating the validity and sensitivity of SHM in different composite structures and damage conditions for real life applications in the future.

  20. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    Wu, Lai-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature. PMID:26451387

  1. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    You-Liang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge’s abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature.

  2. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  3. On-line monitoring of monoclonal antibody formation in high density perfusion culture using FIA.

    Fenge, C; Fraune, E; Freitag, R; Scheper, T; Schügerl, K

    1991-05-01

    An automated flow injection system for on-line analysis of proteins in real fermentation fluids was developed by combining the principles of stopped-flow, merging zones flow injection analysis (FIA) with antigen-antibody reactions. IgG in the sample reacted with its corresponding antibody (a-IgG) in the reagent solution. Formation of insoluble immunocomplexes resulted in an increase of the turbidity which was determined photometrically. This system was used to monitor monoclonal antibody production in high cell density perfusion culture of hybridoma cells. Perfusion was performed with a newly developed static filtration unit equipped with hydrophilic microporous tubular membranes. Different sampling devices were tested to obtain a cell-free sample stream for on-line product analysis of high molecular weight (e.g., monoclonal antibodies) and low molecular weight (e.g., glucose, lactate) medium components. In fermentation fluids a good correlation (coefficient: 0.996) between the FIA method and an ELISA test was demonstrated. In a high density perfusion cultivation process mAb formation was successfully monitored on-line over a period of 400 h using a reliable sampling system. Glucose and lactate were measured over the same period of time using a commercially available automatic analyser based on immobilized enzyme technology.

  4. Large Size High Performance Transparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors for Laser Beam Position Detection and Monitoring

    Calderon, A.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Kohler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M. B.

    2006-09-04

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparente amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30 x 30 mm2) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20 mA/W), an intinsic position resolution better than 3 m, a spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 m, deflection angles smaller than 10 rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition, multipoint alignment monitoring, using up to five sensors lined along a light path of about 5 meters, can be achieved with a resolution better than 20m. (Author)

  5. Large Size High Performance Transparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors for Laser Beam Position Detection and Monitoring

    Calderon, A.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Kohler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparente amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30 x 30 mm2) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20 mA/W), an intinsic position resolution better than 3 m, a spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 m, deflection angles smaller than 10 rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition, multipoint alignment monitoring, using up to five sensors lined along a light path of about 5 meters, can be achieved with a resolution better than 20m. (Author)

  6. Potential of high resolution protein mapping as a method of monitoring the human immune system

    Anderson, N.L.; Anderson, N.G

    1980-01-01

    Immunology traditionally deals with complex cellular systems and heterogeneous mixtures of effector molecules (primarily antibodies). Some sense has emerged from this chaos through the use of functional assays. Such an approach however naturally leaves a great deal undiscovered since the assays are simple and the assayed objects are complex. In this chapter some experimental approaches to immunological problems are described using high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis, a method that can resolve thousands of proteins and can thus begin to treat immunological entities at their appropriate level of complexity. In addition, the possible application of this work to the problem of monitoring events in the individual human immune system are discussed

  7. Microalgal process-monitoring based on high-selectivity spectroscopy tools: status and future perspectives

    Podevin, Michael Paul Ambrose; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-01-01

    microalgae production towards process automation through multivariate process control (MVPC) and software sensors trained on “big data”. The paper will also include a comprehensive overview of off-line implementations of vibrational spectroscopy in microalgal research as it pertains to spectral...... contribution of this review is to present current and prospective advances of on-line and in-line process analytical technology (PAT), with high-selectivity – the capability of monitoring several analytes simultaneously – in the interest of improving product quality, productivity, and process automation...... interpretation and process automation to aid and motivate development....

  8. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  9. Collaboratively Adaptive Vibration Sensing System for High-fidelity Monitoring of Structural Responses Induced by Pedestrians

    Shijia Pan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaboratively adaptive vibration monitoring system that captures high-fidelity structural vibration signals induced by pedestrians. These signals can be used for various human activities’ monitoring by inferring information about the impact sources, such as pedestrian footsteps, door opening and closing, and dragging objects. Such applications often require high-fidelity (high resolution and low distortion signals. Traditionally, expensive high resolution and high dynamic range sensors are adopted to ensure sufficient resolution. However, for sensing systems that use low-cost sensing devices, the resolution and dynamic range are often limited; hence this type of sensing methods is not well explored ubiquitously. We propose a low-cost sensing system that utilizes (1 a heuristic model of the investigating excitations and (2 shared information through networked devices to adapt hardware configurations and obtain high-fidelity structural vibration signals. To further explain the system, we use indoor pedestrian footstep sensing through ambient structural vibration as an example to demonstrate the system performance. We evaluate the application with three metrics that measure the signal quality from different aspects: the sufficient resolution rate to present signal resolution improvement without clipping, the clipping rate to measure the distortion of the footstep signal, and the signal magnitude to quantify the detailed resolution of the detected footstep signal. In experiments conducted in a school building, our system demonstrated up to 2× increase on the sufficient resolution rate and 2× less error rate when used to locate the pedestrians as they walk along the hallway, compared to a fixed sensing setting.

  10. The Effects of Self-Monitoring of Story Elements on the Reading Comprehension of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities

    Crabtree, Tim; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Konrad, Moira

    2010-01-01

    This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of self-monitoring and active responding on the reading comprehension of three high school seniors with learning disabilities and significant attention problems. The self-monitoring intervention required the participants to read a story and stop reading at three…

  11. Self-Monitoring for High School Students with Disabilities: A Cross-Categorical Investigation of I-Connect

    Clemons, Lachelle L.; Mason, Benjamin A.; Garrison-Kane, Linda; Wills, Howard P.

    2016-01-01

    Self-monitoring interventions are well supported within the empirical literature as improving classroom engagement for students with disabilities. However, studies implementing self-monitoring interventions in high school settings are rarely conducted despite their potential to improve student academic and behavioral outcomes. In an investigation…

  12. Cytoplasmic protein binding to highly conserved sequences in the 3' untranslated region of mouse protamine 2 mRNA, a translationally regulated transcript of male germ cells

    Kwon, Y.K.; Hecht, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the protamines, the predominant nuclear proteins of mammalian spermatozoa, is regulated translationally during male germ-cell development. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of protamine 1 mRNA has been reported to control its time of translation. To understand the mechanisms controlling translation of the protamine mRNAs, we have sought to identify cis elements of the 3' UTR of protamine 2 mRNA that are recognized by cytoplasmic factors. From gel retardation assays, two sequence elements are shown to form specific RNA-protein complexes. Protein binding sites of the two complexes were determined by RNase T1 mapping, by blocking the putative binding sites with antisense oligonucleotides, and by competition assays. The sequences of these elements, located between nucleotides + 537 and + 572 in protamine 2 mRNA, are highly conserved among postmeiotic translationally regulated nuclear proteins of the mammalian testis. Two closely linked protein binding sites were detected. UV-crosslinking studies revealed that a protein of about 18 kDa binds to one of the conserved sequences. These data demonstrate specific protein binding to a highly conserved 3' UTR of translationally regulated testicular mRNA

  13. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  14. The Highly Conserved COPII Coat Complex Sorts Cargo from the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Targets It to the Golgi

    Lord, Christopher; Ferro-Novick, Susan; Miller, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Protein egress from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is driven by a conserved cytoplasmic coat complex called the COPII coat. The COPII coat complex contains an inner shell (Sec23/Sec24) that sorts cargo into ER-derived vesicles and an outer cage (Sec13/Sec31) that leads to coat polymerization. Once released from the ER, vesicles must tether to and fuse with the target membrane to deliver their protein and lipid contents. This delivery step also depends on the COPII coat, with coat proteins bin...

  15. Energy conservation. Ambitions and results

    2011-01-01

    From results of monitoring it is shown that energy conservation in the Netherlands is behind the ambitions of the Dutch government. The Dutch Court of Audit examined the reasons why energy conservation targets are not met and what the consequences are for the national and European energy and climate goals for 2020. Also the Dutch Court of Audit looked at the possibilities to make energy saving policies more effective. [nl

  16. Water quality assessment of a small peri-urban river using low and high frequency monitoring.

    Ivanovsky, A; Criquet, J; Dumoulin, D; Alary, C; Prygiel, J; Duponchel, L; Billon, G

    2016-05-18

    The biogeochemical behaviors of small rivers that pass through suburban areas are difficult to understand because of the multi-origin inputs that can modify their behavior. In this context, a monitoring strategy has been designed for the Marque River, located in Lille Metropolitan area of northern France, that includes both low-frequency monitoring over a one-year period (monthly sampling) and high frequency monitoring (measurements every 10 minutes) in spring and summer. Several environmental and chemical parameters are evaluated including rainfall events, river flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, conductivity, nutritive salts and dissolved organic matter. Our results from the Marque River show that (i) it is impacted by both urban and agricultural inputs, and as a consequence, the concentrations of phosphate and inorganic nitrogen have degraded the water quality; (ii) the classic photosynthesis/respiration processes are disrupted by the inputs of organic matter and nutritive salts; (iii) during dry periods, the urban sewage inputs (treated or not) are more important during the day, as indicated by higher river flows and maximal concentrations of ammonium; (iv) phosphate concentrations depend on oxygen contents in the river; (v) high nutrient concentrations result in eutrophication of the Marque River with lower pH and oxygen concentrations in summer. During rainfalls, additional inputs of ammonium, biodegradable organic matter as well as sediment resuspension result in anoxic events; and finally (vi) concentrations of nitrate are approximately constant over the year, except in winter when higher inputs can be recorded. Having better identified the processes responsible for the observed water quality, a more informed remediation effort can be put forward to move this suburban river to a good status of water quality.

  17. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. Objective This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. Data Synthesis This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: “Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?” The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS, and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. Conclusion The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33, as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA, this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72. Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace.

  18. High-frequency Audiometry Hearing on Monitoring of Individuals Exposed to Occupational Noise: A Systematic Review.

    Antonioli, Cleonice Aparecida Silva; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Benaglia, Tatiana Aparecida Silva

    2016-07-01

    The literature reports on high-frequency audiometry as one of the exams used on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to high sound pressure in their work environment, due to the method́s greater sensitivity in early identification of hearing loss caused by noise. The frequencies that compose the exam are generally between 9 KHz and 20KHz, depending on the equipment. This study aims to perform a retrospective and secondary systematic revision of publications on high-frequency audiometry on hearing monitoring of individuals exposed to occupational noise. This systematic revision followed the methodology proposed in the Cochrane Handbook, focusing on the question: "Is High-frequency Audiometry more sensitive than Conventional Audiometry in the screening of early hearing loss individuals exposed to occupational noise?" The search was based on PubMed data, Base, Web of Science (Capes), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), and in the references cited in identified and selected articles. The search resulted in 6059 articles in total. Of these, only six studies were compatible with the criteria proposed in this study. The performed meta-analysis does not definitively answer the study's proposed question. It indicates that the 16 KHz high frequency audiometry (HFA) frequency is sensitive in early identification of hearing loss in the control group (medium difference (MD = 8.33)), as well as the 4 KHz frequency (CA), this one being a little less expressive (MD = 5.72). Thus, others studies are necessary to confirm the HFA importance for the early screening of hearing loss on individuals exposed to noise at the workplace.

  19. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  20. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Paolillo, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università Federico II di Napoli, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kaspi, Shai [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Vignali, Cristian [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università degli studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Gibson, Robert R., E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  1. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Diverse Sets of Conserved, Nonconserved, and Species-Specific miRNAs in Jute

    Md. Tariqul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play a pivotal role in regulating a broad range of biological processes, acting by cleaving mRNAs or by translational repression. A group of plant microRNAs are evolutionarily conserved; however, others are expressed in a species-specific manner. Jute is an agroeconomically important fibre crop; nonetheless, no practical information is available for microRNAs in jute to date. In this study, Illumina sequencing revealed a total of 227 known microRNAs and 17 potential novel microRNA candidates in jute, of which 164 belong to 23 conserved families and the remaining 63 belong to 58 nonconserved families. Among a total of 81 identified microRNA families, 116 potential target genes were predicted for 39 families and 11 targets were predicted for 4 among the 17 identified novel microRNAs. For understanding better the functions of microRNAs, target genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology and their pathways illustrated by KEGG pathway analyses. The presence of microRNAs identified in jute was validated by stem-loop RT-PCR followed by end point PCR and qPCR for randomly selected 20 known and novel microRNAs. This study exhaustively identifies microRNAs and their target genes in jute which will ultimately pave the way for understanding their role in this crop and other crops.

  2. Relatively High Complication and Revision Rates of the Mayo® Metaphysical Conservative Femoral Stem in Young Patients.

    Rutenberg, Tal Frenkel; Warshevski, Yaniv; Gold, Aviram; Shasha, Nadav; Snir, Nimrod; Chechik, Ofir; Dolkart, Oleg; Eilig, Dynai; Herman, Amir; Rath, Ehud; Kramer, Moti; Drexler, Michael

    2018-05-08

    The Mayo metaphysical conservative femoral stem (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana) is a wedge-shaped implant designed to transfer loads proximally, reduce femoral destruction, and enable the preservation of bone stock in the proximal femur. Thus, it is a potentially preferred prosthesis for active, non-elderly patients who may require additional future surgeries. This retrospective case study analyzed the outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent total hip replacements with this stem between May 2001 and February 2013. All patients underwent clinical assessment, radiological evaluation for the presence and development of radiolucent lines, and functional assessment (numerical analog scale, Harris hip score, and Short Form-12 questionnaire). Ninety-five hips (79 patients) were available for analysis. The patients' mean age was 43 years (range, 18-64 years), and the mean follow-up was 97 months (range, 26.9-166 months). The postoperative clinical assessments and functional assessments revealed significant improvements. Sixteen patients (20.3%) had 18 orthopedic complications, the most common of which were an intraoperative femoral fracture and implant dislocation requiring revision surgeries in 10 hips (10.5%). Radiological analysis revealed evidence of femoral remodeling in 64 (67.4%) implants, spot welds (neocortex) in 35 (36.8%), and osteolysis in 3 (3.2%). These results suggest that the conservative hip femoral implant has an unacceptable complication rate for non-elderly patients. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Advanced Signal Processing for High Temperatures Health Monitoring of Condensed Water Height in Steam Pipes

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    An advanced signal processing methodology is being developed to monitor the height of condensed water thru the wall of a steel pipe while operating at temperatures as high as 250deg. Using existing techniques, previous study indicated that, when the water height is low or there is disturbance in the environment, the predicted water height may not be accurate. In recent years, the use of the autocorrelation and envelope techniques in the signal processing has been demonstrated to be a very useful tool for practical applications. In this paper, various signal processing techniques including the auto correlation, Hilbert transform, and the Shannon Energy Envelope methods were studied and implemented to determine the water height in the steam pipe. The results have shown that the developed method provides a good capability for monitoring the height in the regular conditions. An alternative solution for shallow water or no water conditions based on a developed hybrid method based on Hilbert transform (HT) with a high pass filter and using the optimized windowing technique is suggested. Further development of the reported methods would provide a powerful tool for the identification of the disturbances of water height inside the pipe.

  4. Micro Penning Trap for Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring in High Radiation Environments

    Latorre, Javiera; Bollen, Georg; Gulyuz, Kerim; Ringle, Ryan; Bado, Philippe; Dugan, Mark; Lebit Team; Translume Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities for rare isotope beams, like FRIB at MSU, are constructed, there is a need for new instrumentation to monitor magnetic fields in beam magnets that can withstand the higher radiation level. Currently NMR probes, the instruments used extensively to monitor magnetic fields, do not have a long lifespans in radiation-high environments. Therefore, a radiation-hard replacement is needed. We propose to use Penning trap mass spectrometry techniques to make high precision magnetic field measurements. Our Penning microtrap will be radiation resistant as all of the vital electronics will be at a safe distance from the radiation. The trap itself is made from materials not subject to radiation damage. Penning trap mass spectrometers can determine the magnetic field by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with a known mass and charge. This principle is used on the Low Energy Beam Ion Trap (LEBIT) minitrap at NSCL which is the foundation for the microtrap. We have partnered with Translume, who specialize in glass micro-fabrication, to develop a microtrap in fused-silica glass. A microtrap is finished and ready for testing at NSCL with all of the electronic and hardware components setup. DOE Phase II SBIR Award No. DE-SC0011313, NSF Award Number 1062410 REU in Physics, NSF under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  5. High frequency monitoring of the coastal marine environment using the MAREL buoy.

    Blain, S; Guillou, J; Tréguer, P; Woerther, P; Delauney, L; Follenfant, E; Gontier, O; Hamon, M; Leilde, B; Masson, A; Tartu, C; Vuillemin, R

    2004-06-01

    The MAREL Iroise data buoy provides physico-chemical measurements acquired in surface marine water in continuous and autonomous mode. The water is pumped 1.5 m from below the surface through a sampling pipe and flows through the measuring cell located in the floating structure. Technological innovations implemented inside the measuring cell atop the buoy allow a continuous cleaning of the sensor, while injection of chloride ions into the circuit prevents biological fouling. Specific sensors for temperature, salinity, oxygen and fluorescence investigated in this paper have been evaluated to guarantee measurement precision over a 3 month period. A bi-directional link under Internet TCP-IP protocols is used for data, alarms and remote-control transmissions with the land-based data centre. Herein, we present a 29 month record for 4 parameters measured using a MAREL buoy moored in a coastal environment (Iroise Sea, Brest, France). The accuracy of the data provided by the buoy is assessed by comparison with measurements of sea water weekly sampled at the same site as part of SOMLIT (Service d'Observation du Milieu LIToral), the French network for monitoring of the coastal environment. Some particular events (impact of intensive fresh water discharges, dynamics of a fast phytoplankton bloom) are also presented, demonstrating the worth of monitoring a highly variable environment with a high frequency continuous reliable system.

  6. Effective radiological contamination control and monitoring techniques in high alpha environments.

    Funke, Kevin C

    2003-02-01

    In the decommissioning of a highly contaminated alpha environment, such as the one at Hanford's 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, one of the key elements of a successful radiological control program is an integrated safety approach. This approach begins with the job-planning phase where the scope of the work is described. This is followed by a brainstorming session involving engineering and craft to identify how to perform the work in a logical sequence of events. Once the brainstorming session is over, a Job Hazard Analysis is performed to identify any potential problems. Mockups are utilized to enable the craft to get hands on experience and provide feedback and ideas to make the job run smoother. Ideas and experience gained during mockups are incorporated into the task instruction. To assure appropriate data are used in planning and executing the job, our principal evaluation tools included lapel and workplace air sampling, plus continuous air monitors and frequent surveys to effectively monitor job progress. In this highly contaminated alpha environment, with contamination levels ranging from 0.3 Bq cm-2 to approximately 100,000 Bq cm-2 (2,000 dpm per 100 cm2 to approximately 600 million dpm per 100 cm2), with average working levels of 1,600-3,200 Bq cm-2 (10-20 million dpm per 100 cm2) without concomitant ambient radiation levels, control of the spread of contamination is key to keeping airborne levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable.

  7. High-Resolution Gas Metering and Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System

    Tewolde, Mahder

    This thesis deals with design and implementation of a high-resolution metering system for residential natural gas meters. Detailed experimental measurements are performed on the meter to characterize and understand its measurement properties. Results from these experiments are used to develop a simple, fast and accurate technique to non-intrusively monitor the gas consumption of individual appliances in homes by resolving small amounts of gas usage. The technique is applied on an existing meter retrofitted with a module that includes a high-resolution encoder to collect gas flow data and a microprocessor to analyze and identify appliance load profiles. This approach provides a number of appealing features including low cost, easy installation and integration with automated meter reading (AMR) systems. The application of this method to residential gas meters currently deployed is also given. This is done by performing a load simulation on realistic gas loads with the aim of identifying the necessary parameters that minimize the cost and complexity of the mechanical encoder module. The primary benefits of the system are efficiency analysis, appliance health monitoring and real-time customer feedback of gas usage. Additional benefits of include the ability to detect very small leaks and theft. This system has the potential for wide scale market adoption.

  8. Monitoring of Optical Emission from High Temperature Plasma Based on Chromatic Modulation

    Dimitrios, Tomtsis

    2009-01-01

    An integrated experimental approach is presented for processing the optical emission produced from electric arc plasma. The method is based on chromatic modulation techniques to provide a holistic measurement of the persistence of particle decays within the environment of high power circuit breakers. Chromaticity changes in a number of chromatic parameters are related to changes in physical electric arc plasma environment (e.g. particle concentration). The results are in the form of chromatic maps which show how the overall electric arc plasma and its environment behave and respond. Such maps show the totality of information which can be accessed about the arcing event and the level of monitoring discrimination which is achievable with the chromatic methodology in a simple and easy to understand manner. The suggested method provides easier data analysis and high levels of data compression.

  9. High Temperature Monitoring the Height of Condensed Water in Steam Pipes

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick; Blosiu, Julian

    2011-01-01

    An in-service health monitoring system is needed for steam pipes to track through their wall the condensation of water. The system is required to measure the height of the condensed water inside the pipe while operating at temperatures that are as high as 250 deg. C. The system needs to be able to make real time measurements while accounting for the effects of cavitation and wavy water surface. For this purpose, ultrasonic wave in pulse-echo configuration was used and reflected signals were acquired and auto-correlated to remove noise from the data and determine the water height. Transmitting and receiving the waves is done by piezoelectric transducers having Curie temperature that is significantly higher than 250 deg. C. Measurements were made at temperatures as high as 250 deg. C and have shown the feasibility of the test method. This manuscript reports the results of this feasibility study.

  10. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring.

    Asner, Gregory P; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-11-12

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests.

  11. Pickup design for high bandwidth bunch arrival-time monitors in free-electron lasers

    Angelovski, Aleksandar; Penirschke, Andreas; Jakoby, Rolf [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Mikrowellentechnik und Photonik; Kuhl, Alexander; Schnepp, Sascha [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Graduate School of Computational Engineering; Bock, Marie Kristin; Bousonville, Michael; Schlarb, Holger [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2012-07-01

    The increased demands for low bunch charge operation mode in the free-electron lasers (FELs) require an upgrade of the existing synchronization equipment. As a part of the laser-based synchronization system, the bunch arrival-time monitors (BAMs) should have a sub-10 femtosecond precision for high and low bunch charge operation. In order to fulfill the resolution demands for both modes of operation, the bandwidth of such a BAM should be increased up to a cutoff frequency of 40 GHz. In this talk, we present the design and the realization of high bandwidth cone-shaped pickup electrodes as a part of the BAM for the FEL in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). The proposed pickup was simulated with CST STUDIO SUITE, and a non-hermetic model was built up for radio frequency (rf) measurements.

  12. Design and performance of a high resolution, low latency stripline beam position monitor system

    Apsimon, R. J.; Bett, D. R.; Blaskovic Kraljevic, N.; Burrows, P. N.; Christian, G. B.; Clarke, C. I.; Constance, B. D.; Dabiri Khah, H.; Davis, M. R.; Perry, C.; Resta López, J.; Swinson, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    A high-resolution, low-latency beam position monitor (BPM) system has been developed for use in particle accelerators and beam lines that operate with trains of particle bunches with bunch separations as low as several tens of nanoseconds, such as future linear electron-positron colliders and free-electron lasers. The system was tested with electron beams in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan. It consists of three stripline BPMs instrumented with analogue signal-processing electronics and a custom digitizer for logging the data. The design of the analogue processor units is presented in detail, along with measurements of the system performance. The processor latency is 15.6 ±0.1 ns . A single-pass beam position resolution of 291 ±10 nm has been achieved, using a beam with a bunch charge of approximately 1 nC.

  13. Development of a high-resolution cavity-beam position monitor

    Inoue, Yoichi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Takatomi, Toshikazu; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Urakawa, Junji; Komamiya, Sachio; Nakamura, Tomoya; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Kim, Eun-San; Shin, Seung-Hwan; Vogel, Vladimir

    2008-06-01

    We have developed a high-resolution cavity-beam position monitor (BPM) to be used at the focal point of the ATF2, which is a test beam line that is now being built to demonstrate stable orbit control at ˜nanometer resolution. The design of the cavity structure was optimized for the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) beam in various ways. For example, the cavity has a rectangular shape in order to isolate two dipole modes in orthogonal directions, and a relatively thin gap that is less sensitive to trajectory inclination. A two stage homodyne mixer with highly sensitive electronics and phase-sensitive detection was also developed. Two BPM blocks, each containing two cavity BPMs, were installed in the existing ATF beam line using a rigid support frame. After testing the basic characteristics, we measured the resolution using three BPMs. The system demonstrated 8.7 nm position resolution over a dynamic range of 5μm.

  14. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  15. Comparative interactomics: analysis of arabidopsis 14-3-3 complexes reveals highly conserved 14-3-3 interactions between humans and plants.

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Liu, Li; McClung, Scott; Laughner, Beth; Chen, Sixue; Ferl, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    As a first step in the broad characterization of plant 14-3-3 multiprotein complexes in vivo, stringent and specific antibody affinity purification was used to capture 14-3-3s together with their interacting proteins from extracts of Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures. Approximately 120 proteins were identified as potential in vivo 14-3-3 interacting proteins by mass spectrometry of the recovered complexes. Comparison of the proteins in this data set with the 14-3-3 interacting proteins from a similar study in human embryonic kidney cell cultures revealed eight interacting proteins that likely represent reasonably abundant, fundamental 14-3-3 interaction complexes that are highly conserved across all eukaryotes. The Arabidopsis 14-3-3 interaction data set was also compared to a yeast in vivo 14-3-3 interaction data set. Four 14-3-3 interacting proteins are conserved in yeast, humans, and Arabidopsis. Comparisons of the data sets based on biochemical function revealed many additional similarities in the human and Arabidopsis data sets that represent conserved functional interactions, while also leaving many proteins uniquely identified in either Arabidopsis or human cells. In particular, the Arabidopsis interaction data set is enriched for proteins involved in metabolism.

  16. Monitoring and data acquisition of the high speed hydrogen pellet in SPINS

    Mukherjee, Samiran Shanti, E-mail: samiran@ipr.res.in; Mishra, Jyotishankar; Gangradey, Ranjana; Dutta, Pramit; Rastogi, Naveen; Panchal, Paresh; Nayak, Pratik; Agarwal, Jyoti; Bairagi, Pawan; Patel, Haresh; Sharma, Hardik

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Pellet INjector System with monitoring and data acquisition is described. • A high speed camera was used to view pellet size, and its flight trajectory. • PXI based high speed control system is used data acquisition. • Pellets of length 2–4.8 mm and speed 250–750 m/s were obtained. - Abstract: Injection of solid hydrogen pellets is an efficient way of replenishing the spent fuel in high temperature plasmas. Aiming that, a Single Pellet INjector System (SPINS) is developed at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India, to initiate pellet injection related research in SST-1. The pellet injector is controlled by a PXI system based data acquisition and control (DAC) system for pellet formation, precise firing control, data collection and diagnostics. The velocity of high speed moving pellets is estimated by using two sets of light gate diagnostic. Apart from light gate, a fast framing camera is used to measure the pellet size and its speed. The pellet images are captured at a frame rate of ∼200,000 frames per second at (128 × 64) pixel resolution with an exposure time of 1 μs. Using these diagnostic, various cylindrical pellets of length ranging from 2 to 4.8 mm and speed 250–750 m/s were successfully obtained. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system of SPINS, the techniques for measurement of pellet velocity and capturing images of high speed moving pellet.

  17. Real-time monitoring of high-gravity corn mash fermentation using in situ raman spectroscopy.

    Gray, Steven R; Peretti, Steven W; Lamb, H Henry

    2013-06-01

    In situ Raman spectroscopy was employed for real-time monitoring of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn mash by an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An accurate univariate calibration model for ethanol was developed based on the very strong 883 cm(-1) C-C stretching band. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) calibration models for total starch, dextrins, maltotriose, maltose, glucose, and ethanol were developed using data from eight batch fermentations and validated using predictions for a separate batch. The starch, ethanol, and dextrins models showed significant prediction improvement when the calibration data were divided into separate high- and low-concentration sets. Collinearity between the ethanol and starch models was avoided by excluding regions containing strong ethanol peaks from the starch model and, conversely, excluding regions containing strong saccharide peaks from the ethanol model. The two-set calibration models for starch (R(2)  = 0.998, percent error = 2.5%) and ethanol (R(2)  = 0.999, percent error = 2.1%) provide more accurate predictions than any previously published spectroscopic models. Glucose, maltose, and maltotriose are modeled to accuracy comparable to previous work on less complex fermentation processes. Our results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy is capable of real time in situ monitoring of a complex industrial biomass fermentation. To our knowledge, this is the first PLS-based chemometric modeling of corn mash fermentation under typical industrial conditions, and the first Raman-based monitoring of a fermentation process with glucose, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides present. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Monitoring of high refractive index edible oils using coated long period fiber grating sensors

    Coelho, Luís.; Viegas, Diana; Santos, José Luís.; de Almeida, Jose Manuel M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the quality of high refractive index edible oils is of great importance for the human health. Uncooked edible oils in general are healthy foodstuff, olive oil in particular, however, they are frequently used for baking and cooking. High quality edible oils are made from seeds, nuts or fruits by mechanical processes. Nevertheless, once the mechanical extraction is complete, up to 15% of the oil remains in oil pomace and in the mill wastewater, which can be extracted using organic solvents, often hexane. Optical fiber sensors based on long period fiber gratings (LPFG) have very low wavelength sensitivity when the surround refractive index is higher than the refractive index of the cladding. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coated LPFG could lead to the realization of high sensitivity chemical sensor for the food industry. In this work LPFG coated with a TiO2 thin film were successfully used for to detect small levels of hexane diluted in edible oils and for real time monitoring the thermal deterioration of edible oils. For a TiO2 coating of 30 nm a wavelength sensitivity of 1361.7 nm/RIU (or 0.97 nm / % V/V) in the 1.4610-1.4670 refractive index range was achieved, corresponding to 0 to 12 % V/V of hexane in olive oil. A sensitivity higher than 638 nm/RIU at 225 ºC was calculated, in the 1.4670-1.4735 refractive index range with a detection limit of thermal deterioration of about 1 minute.

  19. What is a conservation actor?

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  2. Monitoring of high-radiation areas for the assessment of operational and body doses

    Chen, T.J.; Tung, C.J.; Yeh, W.W.; Liao, R.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended a system of dose limits for the protection of ionizing radiation. This system was established based on the effective dose, E, and the equivalent dose to an organ or tissue, H T , to assess stochastic and deterministic effects. In radiation protection monitoring for external radiation, operational doses such as the deep dose equivalent index, H I,d , shallow dose equivalent index, H I,s , ambient dose equivalent [1,4-6], H*, directional dose equivalent, H', individual dose equivalent-penetrating, H p , and individual dose equivalent-superficial, H s , are implemented. These quantities are defined in an International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) sphere and in an anthropomorphic phantom under simplified irradiation conditions. They are useful when equivalent doses are below the corresponding limits. In the case of equivalent doses far below the limits, the exposure or air kerma is commonly applied. For workers exposed to high levels of radiation, accurate assessments of effective doses and equivalent doses may be needed in order to acquire legal and health information. In the general principles of monitoring for radiation protection of workers, ICRP recommended that: 'A graduated response is advocated for the monitoring of the workplace and for individual monitoring - graduated in the sense that a greater degree of monitoring is deemed to be necessary as doses increase of as unpredictability increases. Gradually more complex or realistic procedures should be adopted as doses become higher. Thus, at low dose equivalents (corresponding say to those within Working Condition B) dosimetric quantities might be used directly to assess exposure, since accuracy is not crucial. At intermediate dose equivalents (corresponding say to Working Condition A and slight overexposures) somewhat greater accuracy is warranted, and the conversion coefficients from dosimetric to radiation

  3. Extinction debt: a challenge for biodiversity conservation.

    Kuussaari, Mikko; Bommarco, Riccardo; Heikkinen, Risto K; Helm, Aveliina; Krauss, Jochen; Lindborg, Regina; Ockinger, Erik; Pärtel, Meelis; Pino, Joan; Rodà, Ferran; Stefanescu, Constantí; Teder, Tiit; Zobel, Martin; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2009-10-01

    Local extinction of species can occur with a substantial delay following habitat loss or degradation. Accumulating evidence suggests that such extinction debts pose a significant but often unrecognized challenge for biodiversity conservation across a wide range of taxa and ecosystems. Species with long generation times and populations near their extinction threshold are most likely to have an extinction debt. However, as long as a species that is predicted to become extinct still persists, there is time for conservation measures such as habitat restoration and landscape management. Standardized long-term monitoring, more high-quality empirical studies on different taxa and ecosystems and further development of analytical methods will help to better quantify extinction debt and protect biodiversity.

  4. Big data and high-performance analytics in structural health monitoring for bridge management

    Alampalli, Sharada; Alampalli, Sandeep; Ettouney, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) can be a vital tool for effective bridge management. Combining large data sets from multiple sources to create a data-driven decision-making framework is crucial for the success of SHM. This paper presents a big data analytics framework that combines multiple data sets correlated with functional relatedness to convert data into actionable information that empowers risk-based decision-making. The integrated data environment incorporates near real-time streams of semi-structured data from remote sensors, historical visual inspection data, and observations from structural analysis models to monitor, assess, and manage risks associated with the aging bridge inventories. Accelerated processing of dataset is made possible by four technologies: cloud computing, relational database processing, support from NOSQL database, and in-memory analytics. The framework is being validated on a railroad corridor that can be subjected to multiple hazards. The framework enables to compute reliability indices for critical bridge components and individual bridge spans. In addition, framework includes a risk-based decision-making process that enumerate costs and consequences of poor bridge performance at span- and network-levels when rail networks are exposed to natural hazard events such as floods and earthquakes. Big data and high-performance analytics enable insights to assist bridge owners to address problems faster.

  5. Monitoring performance of a highly distributed and complex computing infrastructure in LHCb

    Mathe, Z.; Haen, C.; Stagni, F.

    2017-10-01

    In order to ensure an optimal performance of the LHCb Distributed Computing, based on LHCbDIRAC, it is necessary to be able to inspect the behavior over time of many components: firstly the agents and services on which the infrastructure is built, but also all the computing tasks and data transfers that are managed by this infrastructure. This consists of recording and then analyzing time series of a large number of observables, for which the usage of SQL relational databases is far from optimal. Therefore within DIRAC we have been studying novel possibilities based on NoSQL databases (ElasticSearch, OpenTSDB and InfluxDB) as a result of this study we developed a new monitoring system based on ElasticSearch. It has been deployed on the LHCb Distributed Computing infrastructure for which it collects data from all the components (agents, services, jobs) and allows creating reports through Kibana and a web user interface, which is based on the DIRAC web framework. In this paper we describe this new implementation of the DIRAC monitoring system. We give details on the ElasticSearch implementation within the DIRAC general framework, as well as an overview of the advantages of the pipeline aggregation used for creating a dynamic bucketing of the time series. We present the advantages of using the ElasticSearch DSL high-level library for creating and running queries. Finally we shall present the performances of that system.

  6. Measurements of atmospheric mercury with high time resolution: recent applications in environmental research and monitoring.

    Ebinghaus, R; Kock, H H; Schmolke, S R

    2001-11-01

    In the past five years automated high time-resolution measurements of mercury species in ambient air have promoted remarkable progress in the understanding of the spatial distribution, short-term variability, and fate of this priority pollutant in the lower troposphere. Examples show the wide range of possible applications of these techniques in environmental research and monitoring. Presented applications of measurement methods for total gaseous mercury (TGM) include long-term monitoring of atmospheric mercury at a coastal station, simultaneous measurements during a south-to-north transect measurement campaign covering a distance of approximately 800 km, the operation on board of a research aircraft, and the quantification of mercury emissions from naturally enriched surface soils. First results obtained with a new method for the determination of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) are presented. Typical background concentrations of TGM are between 1.5 and 2 ng m(-3) in the lower troposphere. Concentrations of RGM have been determined at a rural site in Germany between 2 and 35 pg m(-3). Flux measurements over naturally enriched surface soils in the Western U.S.A. have revealed emission fluxes of up to 200 ng Hg m(-1) h(-1) under dry conditions.

  7. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometric methods for the surveillance monitoring of cyanotoxins in freshwaters.

    Bogialli, Sara; Bortolini, Claudio; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Di Gregorio, Federica Nigro; Lucentini, Luca; Favaro, Gabriella; Pastore, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive risk management on human exposure to cyanotoxins, whose production is actually unpredictable, is limited by reliable analytical tools for monitoring as many toxic algal metabolites as possible. Two analytical approaches based on a LC-QTOF system for target analysis and suspect screening of cyanotoxins in freshwater were presented. A database with 369 compounds belonging to cyanobacterial metabolites was developed and used for a retrospective data analysis based on high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). HRMS fragmentation of the suspect cyanotoxin precursor ions was subsequently performed for correctly identifying the specific variants. Alternatively, an automatic tandem HRMS analysis tailored for cyanotoxins was performed in a single chromatographic run, using the developed database as a preferred precursor ions list. Twenty-five extracts of surface and drinking waters contaminated by cyanobacteria were processed. The identification of seven uncommon microcystins (M(O)R, MC-FR, MSer 7 -YR, D-Asp 3 MSer 7 -LR, MSer 7 -LR, dmAdda-LR and dmAdda-YR) and 6 anabaenopeptins (A, B, F, MM850, MM864, oscyllamide Y) was reported. Several isobaric variants, fully separated by chromatography, were pointed out. The developed methods are proposed to be used by environmental and health agencies for strengthening the surveillance monitoring of cyanotoxins in water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultra High Fluence Radiation Monitoring Technology for the Future Circular Collider at CERN

    Gorine, Georgi; Mandic, Igor; Jazbec, Anže; Snoj, Luka; Capeans, Mar; Moll, Michael; Bouvet, Didier; Ravotti, Federico; Sallese, Jean-Michel

    2018-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) is foreseen as the next generation ~100 km long synchrotron to be built in the Geneva area starting 2050. This machine is expected to reach an energy level of 100 TeV generating unprecedented radiation levels >100 times higher than in today`s Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Current Radiation Monitoring system, like the RADMONs employed in the LHC, will not be capable to function and withstand this harsh environment. The development of a new Ultra High Fluence and Dose Radiation Sensor is a key element to allow irradiation tests of FCC equipment and, at a later stage, to monitor radiation levels in the FCC itself. In this paper, we present an innovative dosimetry solution based on thin layers of metals, which resistivity is shown to increase significantly due to the accumulated displacement damage. After describing the fabrication techniques used to manufacture these Radiation Dependent Resistors (RDR), we show and discuss the results of the irradiation experiments carried out ...

  9. Tunable Diode Laser Sensors to Monitor Temperature and Gas Composition in High-Temperature Coal Gasifiers

    Hanson, Ronald [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) when combined with carbon capture and storage can be one of the cleanest methods of extracting energy from coal. Control of coal and biomass gasification processes to accommodate the changing character of input-fuel streams is required for practical implementation of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technologies. Therefore a fast time-response sensor is needed for real-time monitoring of the composition and ideally the heating value of the synthesis gas (here called syngas) as it exits the gasifier. The goal of this project was the design, construction, and demonstration an in situ laserabsorption sensor to monitor multiple species in the syngas output from practical-scale coal gasifiers. This project investigated the hypothesis of using laser absorption sensing in particulateladen syngas. Absorption transitions were selected with design rules to optimize signal strength while minimizing interference from other species. Successful in situ measurements in the dusty, high-pressure syngas flow were enabled by Stanford’s normalized and scanned wavelength modulation strategy. A prototype sensor for CO, CH4, CO2, and H2O was refined with experiments conducted in the laboratory at Stanford University, a pilot-scale at the University of Utah, and an engineering-scale gasifier at DoE’s National Center for Carbon Capture with the demonstration of a prototype sensor with technical readiness level 6 in the 2014 measurement campaign.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic quantification of rifampicin in human plasma: method for Therapecutic drug monitoring

    Sameh, T.; Hanene, E.; Jebali, N.

    2013-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed that allows quantification of Rifampicin in human plasma. The method is based on the precipitation of proteins in human plasma with methanol. Optimal assay conditions were found with a C18 column and a simple mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M dipotassic hydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (53/47, V/V) with 0.086 % diethylamin, pH = 4.46. The flow-rate was 0.6 ml /mm and the drug was monitored at 340 nm. Results from the HPLC analyses showed that the assay method is linear in the concentration range of 1-40 micro g/ml, (r2 >0.99). The limit of quantification and limit of detection of Rifampicin were 0.632 micro g/ml and 0.208 micro g/ml, respectively. Intraday and interday coefficient of variation and bias were below 10% for all samples, suggesting good precision and accuracy of the method. Recoveries were greater than 90% in a plasma sample volume of 100 micro l. The method is being successfully applied to therapeutic drug monitoring of Rifapicin in plasma samples of tuberculosis and staphylococcal infections patients. (author)

  11. Identification and monitoring of host cell proteins by mass spectrometry combined with high performance immunochemistry testing.

    Katrin Bomans

    Full Text Available Biotherapeutics are often produced in non-human host cells like Escherichia coli, yeast, and various mammalian cell lines. A major focus of any therapeutic protein purification process is to reduce host cell proteins to an acceptable low level. In this study, various E. coli host cell proteins were identified at different purifications steps by HPLC fractionation, SDS-PAGE analysis, and tryptic peptide mapping combined with online liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS. However, no host cell proteins could be verified by direct LC-MS analysis of final drug substance material. In contrast, the application of affinity enrichment chromatography prior to comprehensive LC-MS was adequate to identify several low abundant host cell proteins at the final drug substance level. Bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP was identified as being the most abundant host cell protein at several purification steps. Thus, we firstly established two different assays for enzymatic and immunological BAP monitoring using the cobas® technology. By using this strategy we were able to demonstrate an almost complete removal of BAP enzymatic activity by the established therapeutic protein purification process. In summary, the impact of fermentation, purification, and formulation conditions on host cell protein removal and biological activity can be conducted by monitoring process-specific host cell proteins in a GMP-compatible and high-throughput (> 1000 samples/day manner.

  12. High Accuracy Beam Current Monitor System for CEBAF'S Experimental Hall A

    J. Denard; A. Saha; G. Lavessiere

    2001-01-01

    CEBAF accelerator delivers continuous wave (CW) electron beams to three experimental Halls. In Hall A, all experiments require continuous, non-invasive current measurements and a few experiments require an absolute accuracy of 0.2 % in the current range from 1 to 180 (micro)A. A Parametric Current Transformer (PCT), manufactured by Bergoz, has an accurate and stable sensitivity of 4 (micro)A/V but its offset drifts at the muA level over time preclude its direct use for continuous measurements. Two cavity monitors are calibrated against the PCT with at least 50 (micro)A of beam current. The calibration procedure suppresses the error due to PCT's offset drifts by turning the beam on and off, which is invasive to the experiment. One of the goals of the system is to minimize the calibration time without compromising the measurement's accuracy. The linearity of the cavity monitors is a critical parameter for transferring the accurate calibration done at high currents over the whole dynamic range. The method for measuring accurately the linearity is described

  13. Monitoring and modeling shoreline response due to shoreface nourishment on a high-energy coast

    Barnard, P. L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Shoreface nourishment can be an efficient technique to feed sediment into the littoral zone without the order of magnitude cost increase incurred by directly nourishing the beach. An erosion hot spot at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, USA, threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location, a new beneficial reuse plan was implemented in May 2005 for the sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay. From 2005 to 2007, approximately 230,000 m of sand was placed annually at depths between 9 and 14 m, in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves could potentially feed sediment onto the section of beach experiencing critical erosion. The evolution of the disposal mound and adjacent beach were monitored with 12 multibeam bathymetric surveys, and over 40 high-resolution beach topographic surveys. In addition, sediment transport processes were investigated using sediment grab samples, acoustic Doppler profilers, and two separate models: a cross-shore profile model (UNIBEST-TC) and a coastal area model (Delft3D). The results of the monitoring and modeling demonstrate that the disposal mound may be effective in dissipating wave energy striking this vulnerable stretch of coast with negligible shadowing effects, but a positive shoreline response can only be achieved by placing the sediment in water depths less than 5 m. 

  14. Advanced in-core monitoring system for high-power reactors

    Mitin, V.I.; Alekseev, A.N.; Golovanov, M.N.; Zorin, A.V.; Kalinushkin, A.E.; Kovel, A.I.; Milto, N.V.; Musikhin, A.M.; Tikhonova, N.V.; Filatov, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper encompasses such section as objective, conception and engineering solution for construction of advanced in-core instrumentation system for high power reactor, including WWER-1000. The ICIS main task is known to be an on-line monitoring of power distribution and functionals independently of design programs to avoid a common cause error. This paper shows in what way the recovery of power distribution has been carried out using the signals from in-core neutron detectors or temperature sensors. On the basis of both measured and processed data, the signals of preventive and emergency protection on local parameters (linear power of the maximum intensive fuel rods, departure from nucleate boiling ratio peaking factor) have been automatically generated. The paper presents a detection technology and processing methods for signals from SPNDs and TCs, ICIS composition and structure, computer hardware, system and applied software. Structure, composition and the taken decisions allow combining class IE and class B and C tasks in accordance with international standards of separation and safety category realization. Nowadays, ICIS-M is a system that is capable to ensure: monitoring, safety, information display and diagnostics function, which allow securing actual increase of quality, reliability and safety in operation of nuclear fuel and power units. Meanwhile, it reduce negative influence of human factor on thermal technical reliability in the operational process (Authors)

  15. Electronic Adherence Monitoring in a High-Utilizing Pediatric Asthma Cohort: A Feasibility Study.

    Kenyon, Chén Collin; Chang, Joyce; Wynter, Sheri-Ann; Fowler, Jessica C; Long, Jin; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra C

    2016-06-22

    Inner-city, minority children with asthma have the highest rates of morbidity and death from asthma and the lowest rates of asthma controller medication adherence. Some recent electronic medication monitoring interventions demonstrated dramatic improvements in adherence in lower-risk populations. The feasibility and acceptability of such an intervention in the highest-risk children with asthma has not been studied. Our objective was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a community health worker-delivered electronic adherence monitoring intervention among the highest utilizers of acute asthma care in an inner-city practice. This was a prospective cohort pilot study targeting children with the highest frequency of asthma-related emergency department and hospital care within a local managed care Medicaid plan. The 3-month intervention included motivational interviewing, electronic monitoring of controller and rescue inhaler use, and outreach by a community health worker for predefined medication alerts. We measured acceptability by using a modified technology acceptability model and changes in asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Given prominent feasibility issues, we describe qualitative patterns of medication use at baseline only. We enrolled 14 non-Hispanic black children with a median age of 3.5 years. Participants averaged 7.8 emergency or hospital visits in the year preceding enrollment. We observed three distinct patterns of baseline controller use: 4 patients demonstrated sustained use, 5 patients had periodic use, and 5 patients lapsed within 2 weeks. All participants initiated use of the electronic devices; however, no modem signal was transmitted for 5 or the 14 participants after a mean of 45 days. Of the 9 (64% of total) caregivers who completed the final study visit, all viewed the electronic monitoring device favorably and would recommend it to friends, and 5 (56%) believed that the device helped to improve asthma control. ACT

  16. Development of residual gas ionization profile monitor for high intensity proton beams

    Sato, Y; Hirose, E; Ieiri, M; Igarashi, Y; Inaba, S; Katoh, Y; Minakawa, M; Noumi, H; Saitó, M; Suzuki, Y; Takahashi, H; Takasaki, M; Tanaka, K; Toyoda, A; Yamada, Y; Yamanoi, Y; Watanabe, H

    2006-01-01

    Nondestructive beam profile monitor utilizing ionizations of residual gas has been developed for continuous monitoring of 3?0(J-PARC). Knock-on electrons produced in the ionizations of residual gas vacuumed to 1 Pa are collected with a uniform electric field applied between electrodes. Applying a uniform electric field parallel to the electric field is essential to reduce diffusion of electrons crossing over magnetic flux. A prototype monitor has been constructed and installed in EP2-C beam line at KEK 12 GeV proton synchrotron (12 Ge V-PS). The profiles measured with the present monitor agree with the ones measured with the existing destructive profile monitor. The present monitor shows sufficient performances as a candidate of the profile monitor at J-PARC. In the present article, the working principle of the present monitor, the results of test experiments, and further developments are described in detail.

  17. Very High Resolution Panoramic Photography to Improve Conventional Rangeland Monitoring 1994

    Rangeland monitoring often includes repeat photographs as a basis for documentation and although photographic equipment and electronics have been evolving rapidly, basic rangeland photo monitoring methods have changed little over time. Ground based digital photography is underutilized, especially s...

  18. Monitoring the fast neutrons in a high flux: The case for 242Pu fission chambers

    Filliatre, P.; Jammes, C.; Oriol, L.; Geslot, B.; Vermeeren, L.

    2009-01-01

    Fission chambers are widely used for on-line monitoring of neutron fluxes in irradiation reactors. A selective measurement of a component of interest of the neutron flux is possible in principle thanks to a careful choice of the deposit material. However, measuring the fast component is challenging when the flux is high (up to 10 15 n/cm 2 /s) with a significant thermal component. The main problem is that the isotopic content of a material selected for its good response to fast neutrons evolves with irradiation, so that the material is more and more sensitive to thermal neutrons. Within the framework of the FNDS (Fast Neutron Detector System) project, we design tools that simulate the evolution of the isotopic composition and fission rate for several deposits under any given flux. In the case of a high flux with a significant thermal component, 242 Pu is shown after a comprehensive study of all possibilities to be the best choice for measuring the fast component, as long as its purity is sufficient. If an estimate of the thermal flux is independently available, one can correct the signal for that component. This suggests a system of two detectors, one of which being used for such a correction. It is of very high interest when the detectors must be operated up to a high neutron fluence. (authors)

  19. Monitoring the fast neutrons in a high flux: The case for {sup 242}Pu fission chambers

    Filliatre, P.; Jammes, C.; Oriol, L.; Geslot, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/SPEX/LDCI, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    Fission chambers are widely used for on-line monitoring of neutron fluxes in irradiation reactors. A selective measurement of a component of interest of the neutron flux is possible in principle thanks to a careful choice of the deposit material. However, measuring the fast component is challenging when the flux is high (up to 10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}/s) with a significant thermal component. The main problem is that the isotopic content of a material selected for its good response to fast neutrons evolves with irradiation, so that the material is more and more sensitive to thermal neutrons. Within the framework of the FNDS (Fast Neutron Detector System) project, we design tools that simulate the evolution of the isotopic composition and fission rate for several deposits under any given flux. In the case of a high flux with a significant thermal component, {sup 242}Pu is shown after a comprehensive study of all possibilities to be the best choice for measuring the fast component, as long as its purity is sufficient. If an estimate of the thermal flux is independently available, one can correct the signal for that component. This suggests a system of two detectors, one of which being used for such a correction. It is of very high interest when the detectors must be operated up to a high neutron fluence. (authors)

  20. Determination of 5 '-leader sequences from radically disparate strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals the presence of highly conserved sequence motifs

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    We determined the untranslated 5'-leader sequence for three different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenic European- and American-types, as well as an American-type vaccine strain. 5'-leader from European- and American-type PRRSV differed in length...... (220 and 190 nt, respectively), and exhibited only approximately 50% nucleotide homology. Nevertheless, highly conserved areas were identified in the leader of all 3 PRRSV isolates, which constitute candidate motifs for binding of protein(s) involved in viral replication. These comparative data provide...