WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring electro-magnetic field

  1. Monitoring electro-magnetic field in urban areas: new set-ups and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Petraglia, A.; Paribello, G.; Formosi, R.; Rosa, M. de; Vetromile, C.; Palmieri, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Di Bella, G.; Giannini, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper two different set-ups for continuous monitoring of electromagnetic levels are presented: the first one (Continuous Time E.M.F. Monitoring System) is based upon a network of fixed stations, allowing a detailed field monitoring as function of the time; the second one (Mobile Measurements Units) resorts to portable stations mounted on standard bicycles, allowing a positional screening in limited time intervals. For both set-ups a particular attention has been paid to the data management, by means of tools like web geographic information systems (Web-Gis). Moreover the V.I.C.R.E.M./E.L.F. software has been used for a predictive analysis of the electromagnetic field levels along with the geo referenced data coming from the field measurements. Starting from these results it has been realized that there is a need for an efficient and correct action of monitoring and information/formation in this domain, where dis-information or bad information is very often spread in the population, in particular in a field where the process of the appreciation and assessment of risk does not necessarily make use of a rationale, technically-informed procedure, but the judgement is rather based on a personal feeling, which may derive from a limited, unstructured set of information, using a set of qualitative attributes rather than a quantity. (N.C.)

  2. Monitoring electro-magnetic field in urban areas: new set-ups and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubritto, C.; Petraglia, A.; Paribello, G.; Formosi, R.; Rosa, M. de; Vetromile, C.; Palmieri, A.; D' Onofrio, A. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Di Bella, G.; Giannini, V. [Vector Group, Roma (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper two different set-ups for continuous monitoring of electromagnetic levels are presented: the first one (Continuous Time E.M.F. Monitoring System) is based upon a network of fixed stations, allowing a detailed field monitoring as function of the time; the second one (Mobile Measurements Units) resorts to portable stations mounted on standard bicycles, allowing a positional screening in limited time intervals. For both set-ups a particular attention has been paid to the data management, by means of tools like web geographic information systems (Web-Gis). Moreover the V.I.C.R.E.M./E.L.F. software has been used for a predictive analysis of the electromagnetic field levels along with the geo referenced data coming from the field measurements. Starting from these results it has been realized that there is a need for an efficient and correct action of monitoring and information/formation in this domain, where dis-information or bad information is very often spread in the population, in particular in a field where the process of the appreciation and assessment of risk does not necessarily make use of a rationale, technically-informed procedure, but the judgement is rather based on a personal feeling, which may derive from a limited, unstructured set of information, using a set of qualitative attributes rather than a quantity. (N.C.)

  3. Electro-Magnetic Fields and Plasma in the Cosmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    It is becoming widely recognized that a majority of baryons in the cosmos are in the plasma state. But, fundamental disagreements about the properties and behavior of electro-magnetic fields in these plasmas exist between the science of modern astronomy and the experimentally verified laws of electrical engineering and physics. Some astronomers claim that magnetic fields can be open-ended - that they begin on or beneath the Sun's surface and extend outward to infinity. Astrophysicists have claimed that galactic magnetic fields begin and end on molecular clouds. Electrical engineers, most physicists, and the pioneers in electromagnetic field theory disagree - magnetic fields have no beginning or end. Since these two viewpoints are mutually exclusive, both cannot be correct; one must be completely false. Many astrophysicists claim that magnetic fields are 'frozen into' electric plasma. We also examine the basis for this claim. It has been shown to be incorrect in the laboratory. The hypothetical 'magnetic merging' mechanism is also reviewed in light of both theoretical and experimental investigations. The cause of large-scale filamentation in the cosmos is also simply revealed by experimental results obtained in plasma laboratories

  4. Fast-forward of quantum adiabatic dynamics in electro-magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Shumpei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    We show a method to accelerate quantum adiabatic dynamics of wavefunctions under electro-magnetic field by developing the previous theory (Masuda & Nakamura 2008 and 2010). Firstly we investigate the orbital dynamics of a charged particle. We derive the driving field which accelerates quantum adiabatic dynamics in order to obtain the final adiabatic states except for the spatially uniform phase such as the adiabatic phase in any desired short time. Fast-forward of adiabatic squeezing and tran...

  5. 3D vector distribution of the electro-magnetic fields on a random gold film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canneson, Damien; Berini, Bruno; Buil, Stéphanie; Hermier, Jean-Pierre; Quélin, Xavier

    2018-05-01

    The 3D vector distribution of the electro-magnetic fields at the very close vicinity of the surface of a random gold film is studied. Such films are well known for their properties of light confinement and large fluctuations of local density of optical states. Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulations, we show that it is possible to determine the local orientation of the electro-magnetic fields. This allows us to obtain a complete characterization of the fields. Large fluctuations of their amplitude are observed as previously shown. Here, we demonstrate large variations of their direction depending both on the position on the random gold film, and on the distance to it. Such characterization could be useful for a better understanding of applications like the coupling of point-like dipoles to such films.

  6. THE EFFECT OF ELECTRO MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY TO BIODIESEL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Nufus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Various studies of diesel fuel optimization have been done, one of them by using a permanent magnet on the fuel line, the lack of magnetic field intensity decreases along with time increasing by using an electromagnetic field. The purpose of this study is to analyse the biodiesel fuel characteristics due to exposure of electromagnetic fields in terms of the viscosity and vibration of these fuel molecules. Electromagnetic field is generated from wire coil of 5000-9000 on galvanum pipe with diameter of 1.5 cm and length of 10 cm and connected to 12 V batteries. Here, biodiesel fuel is inserted in a galvanum tube, magnetized for 1200 s, and tested its viscosity of the falling ball system by viscometer. Fuel functional groups as well as vibrations between fuel molecules are tested with FTIR. The results show that the magnetized fuel changes. The viscosity of fuels from 2933 to 2478 and an increasing in the absorption of fuel molecules ranges from 13-58%. Therefore, the increasing of vibrating fuel molecules decreases its molecular attraction tug. These indicate that the magnetized fuel molecule causes a changing in the fuel molecule, cluster becomes de-clustered. It is a potential method to clarify the phenomenon of fuel magnetization due to its efficient combustion process.

  7. Health-related biological effects of electric, magnetic, and electro-magnetic fields with special reference to nonthermal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.F.G.

    1993-02-01

    This expert report is a supplement to the report by L. von Klitzing (The actions and effects of electric, magnetic, and electro-magnetic fields in man with special reference to athermal effects) and concerns in particular the biological effects on cationic homeostasis and cell regulation with special reference to calcium and the effects on the pineal gland. The report concludes with statements on teratogenicity, concerogenicity, mutagenicity and a bibliography of literature. (VHE) [de

  8. On parasupersymmetries and relativistic descriptions for spin one particles. Pt. 2. The interacting context with (electro)magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckers, J.; Debergh, N.; Nikitin, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    This second part belongs to a series of two papers devoted to a constructive review of the relativistic wave equations for vector mesons due to the recent impact of spin one developments in connection with parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics. Here, the mesons are interacting with external (electro)magnetic fields but the simplest context of homogeneous constant magnetic fields directed along the z-axis is particularly studied. Discussions on reality of energy eigenvalues, on causal propagation and on gyromagnetic ratios are especially presented. Supersymmetries and parasupersymmetries are analysed with respect to new pseudosupersymmetries suggested by these developments in one particular context. (orig.)

  9. Transient ElectroMagnetic and Electric Self-Potential survey in the TAG hydrothermal field in MAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, C.; Deng, X.; Wu, G.; Xi, Z.; Zhou, D.; Zuo, L.

    2012-12-01

    The TAG hydrothermal field is one of the most studied hydrothermal fields. This field covers an area of 5km×5km, which includes low-temperature Mn- and Fe-oxides and nontronites zone, relict massive sulfide mounds as well as active hydrothermal mound(TAG mound) [Thompson, 1985, Rona, 1993]. Drilling program was performed in the ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Leg 158 in the TAG mound [Humphris, 1996]. In 1996, electrical resistivity survey in the TAG mound was conducted using innovative transient electric dipole-dipole instruments which was carried by DSV 'Alvin' [Cairns et al., 1996, Von Herzen et al., 1996]. In June 2012, the 2nd Leg of the Chinese 26th cruise was carried out in the TAG hydrothermal field at Mid Atlantic Ridge by R/V DAYANGYIHAO. Six TEM (Transient ElectroMagnetic) survey lines were deployed, with four of which across the ODP Leg 158 drilling area. Besides, two SP (Electric Self-Potential) survey lines were across the ODP drilling area. The survey results of TEM preliminary revealed the vertical structure of the TAG hydrothermal field. The survey results of both TEM and SP are consistent with the ODP drilling result, and also agree well with the temperature and water-column anomalies obtained in this leg. Preliminary results show that the TEM and SP methods are capable of revealing the horizontal and vertical distribution of the hydrothermal sulfide fields.

  10. Condition monitoring of an electro-magnetic brake using an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofran, T.; Neugebauer, P.; Schramm, D.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a data-driven approach to Condition Monitoring of Electromagnetic brakes without use of additional sensors. For safe and efficient operation of electric motor a regular evaluation and replacement of the friction surface of the brake is required. One such evaluation method consists of direct or indirect sensing of the air-gap between pressure plate and magnet. A larger gap is generally indicative of worn surface(s). Traditionally this has been accomplished by the use of additional sensors - making existing systems complex, cost- sensitive and difficult to maintain. In this work a feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is learned with the electrical data of the brake by supervised learning method to estimate the air-gap. The ANN model is optimized on the training set and validated using the test set. The experimental results of estimated air-gap with accuracy of over 95% demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.

  11. Nuclear reorientation in static and radio-frequency electro-magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubbers, D.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear reorientation by external electromagnetic fields is treated using Fano's irreducible tensor formulation of the problem. Although the main purpose of this paper is the description of the effects of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on an ensemble of oriented nuclei in the presence of a crystal electric field gradient (efg), the results are applicable to all types of nuclear or atomic orientation or angular correlation work. The theory is applied to a number of exemplary cases: magnetic field dependence of nuclear orientation in the presence of quadrupole interactions; sign determination in electric quadrupole coupling; line shapes of nuclear acoustic resonance (NAR) signals; quadrupole splitting and multiquantum transitions in NMR with oriented nuclei. (orig./WBU) [de

  12. Restoration of symmetry by temperature effect under influence of external electro magnetic field in gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, V.M. de.

    1987-01-01

    We have analysed, within a semi classical approach, the influence of external electromagnetic field on phase transitions in gauge theories. The critical temperature was calculated for an Abelian case, scalar electrodynamics, and for an non Abelian case, the Weinberg Salam model. (author)

  13. Comparative and Mixture Effect of Cynodon Dactylon, ElectroMagnetic Field and Insulin on Diabetic Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafisi, Saeid; Nezhady, Mohammad Ali Mohammad; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-12-01

    New investigations are in progress to find some alternative treatments for diabetes mellitus. Herbs are some of the interesting medications in this regard. Cynodon dactylon (C.d) is a potential plant to be considered as a new medication. On the other hand, the effect of the Electromagnetic Field (EMF) on bio organisms is becoming clearer. In this study, the effect of C.d, EMF and insulin have been investigated on the diabetic mouse. Diabetes was induced by a combination of ketamine (60 mg/Kg) and xylazine (10 mg/Kg) which induces a sustained hyperglycemia. Mice were divided into 12 groups: 1) control, 2) normal saline, 3 and 4) 50mg/Kg C.d, 5 and 6) 100 mg/Kg C.d, 7) insulin, 8) insulin and C.d, 9) EMF (110 KHz, 700±20 mG), 10) insulin and EMF, 11) EMF plus C.d and 12) insulin plus C.d and EMF. Blood glucose level was measured after 5 and 60 minutes in C.d administrated groups, and 5 minutes in the other groups by a glucometer set. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and different means were compared by Tukey and Bonferroni tests (p<0.05). According to results, both dosages of C.d had significant lowering effect on blood glucose level. The first dose was more effective than the second, and its impact was just like insulin. The 6(th), 9(th) and 10(th) groups were significant, also. However, they did not show a higher effect than insulin or C.d. The application of EMF had a significant effect compared to the second group, but it did not reduce the glucose level to the normal range. The effect of the 8th group was very impressive and the mean glucose levels in this group were lower than the control group. Considering the data, C.d is a good alternative medication for diabetes mellitus.

  14. Progress on The GEMS (Gravity Electro-Magnetism-Strong) Theory of Field Unification and Its Application to Space Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Progress on the GEMS (Gravity Electro-Magnetism-Strong), theory is presented as well as its application to space problems. The GEMS theory is now validated through the Standard Model of physics. Derivation of the value of the Gravitation constant based on the observed variation of α with energy: results in the formula G congruent with (ℎ/2π)c/M ηc 2 exp(-1/(1.61α)), where α is the fine structure constant,(ℎ/2π), is Planck's constant, c, is the speed of light, and M ηc is the mass of the η cc Charmonium meson that is shown to be identical to that derived from the GEM postulates. Covariant formulation of the GEM theory is now possible through definition of the spacetime metric tensor as a portion of the EM stress tensor normalized by its own trace: g ab = 4(F c a F cb )/(F ab F ab ), it is found that this results in a massless ground state vacuum and a Newtonian gravitation potential φ = 1/2 E 2 /B 2 . It is also found that a Lorentz or flat-space metric is recovered in the limit of a full spectrum ZPF

  15. Numerical simulation of electro-magnetic and flow fields of TiAl melt under electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yong

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at building an electromagnetic and fluid model, based on the Maxwell equations and Navier-Stokes equations, in TiAl melt under two electric fields. FEM (Finite Element Method and APDL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language were employed to perform the simulation, model setup, loading and problem solving. The melt in molds of same cross section area with different flakiness ratio (i.e. width/depth under the load of sinusoidal current or pulse current was analyzed to obtain the distribution of electromagnetic field and flow field. The results show that the induced magnetic field occupies sufficiently the domain of the melt in the mold with a flakiness ratio of 5:1. The melt is driven bipolarly from the center in each electric field. It is also found that the pulse electric field actuates the TiAl melt to flow stronger than what the sinusoidal electric field does.

  16. Deep Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic Sensing: A Cost Effective, Long-Term Tool for Sequestration Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBrecque, Douglas [Multi-Phase Technologies, LLC, Sparks, NV (United States); Brigham, Russell D. [Multi-Phase Technologies, LLC, Sparks, NV (United States); Schmidt-Hattenburger, Conny [GFZ German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam (Germany); Um, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Petrov, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daley, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The proposed system was designed to operate as a permanent, autonomous monitoring and data collection system that can provide much higher temporal data density than can be achieved economically with 3-Dimensional (3D) seismic surveys. It can operate over broad areas for long periods of time providing full 3D data sets on a monthly basis at a very low cost. By borrowing techniques commonly used in marine CSEM, structural information from background seismic surveys can be incorporated into the CSEM modeling to provide high resolution models of CO2 progression within reservoirs. The system uses borehole-based vertical-electric-dipole sources placed at reservoir depths in the formation. The electric and magnetic fields induced by this source are received on the surface using an array of stations. The project was conducted in three phases. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility of the system to collect static/reference data at the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site in Germany. In Phase I, numerical modeling was used to determine the optimal configurations and requirements for sensor sensitivity and data accuracy. Based on the model results, existing hardware and software were modified. The CSEM system was then field tested at the Ketzin site. The data were imaged and the results were compared with independent studies of the reservoir and overburden geo-electrical characteristics. Phase II demonstrated the ability to provide sensitive, cost-effective measurement of changes in reservoir properties and changes in the overlying formations using a second round of measurements at the Ketzin site. A prototype autonomous recording system was developed and tested as a subset of the measurement points. Phase III of the project quantified the advantages (and disadvantages) of the fully autonomous data collection subsystems by comparing them with repeated measurements made with mobile stations. The Phase III also provided an additional time point in measuring post

  17. Electro-magnetic flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    Full details of the invention are given. A sensing unit assembly for an electromagnetic flux distortion flowmeter for use in liquid metal coolant of a nuclear reactor is described. The assembly comprises coils of electrically insulated conductors each wound on an individual former. The formers and coils are mounted coaxially on a spine to form at least three spaced groups arranged end to end. Each group comprises two secondary coils and an intermediate primary coil. Leads extend along a duct formed in the spine, each lead terminating at a common end. Alternative versions of the assembly are also described. The primary coil leads are connected to an alternating power supply; those for the secondary coils connected to suitable display instrumentation. When liquid metal flows along the conductor the electromagnetic field is disturbed and the induced voltage in the secondary coils is disturbed-(set at zero for no flow); the distortion depends on the rate of flow. When the induced voltage differential of at least two of the groups falls or rises outside a pre-set level a trip signal is initiated to shut down the reactor. (UK)

  18. Absorption of Electro-magnetic Waves in a Magnetized Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly, Avijit K.; Konar, Sushan

    2000-01-01

    In continuation to our earlier work, in which the structure of the vacuum polarisation tensor in a medium was analysed in presence of a background electro-magnetic field, we discuss the absorptive part of the vacuum polarization tensor. Using the real time formalism of finite temperature field theory we calculate the absorptive part of 1-loop vacuum polarisation tensor in the weak field limit ($eB < m^2$). Estimates of the absorption probability are also made for different physical conditions...

  19. Electro-magnetic properties of heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Takaharu

    1989-01-01

    Two topics of electro-magnetic properties of heavy nuclei are discussed. The first topic is the M1 excitation from well-deformed heavy nuclei, and the other is the sudden increase of the isotope shift as a function of N in going away from the closed shell. These problems are considered in terms of the particle-number projected (Nilsson-) BCS calculation. (author)

  20. Micro-gravity Isolation using only Electro-magnetic Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, D.; Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten

    in the Sixth Student Parabolic Flight Campaign issued by the European Space Agency (ESA). The system consists of six custom made electro magnetic actuators which acts on the isolated platform based on the designed controller and their input from six accelerometers and six infrared position sensors. From......In this paper the design, construction and test of a free floating micro-gravity isolation platform to reduce the acceleration dose on zero gravity experiments on e.g. the International Space Station (ISS) is discussed. During the project a system is specified and constructed whereupon it is tested...

  1. Micro-gravity Isolation using only Electro-magnetic Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, D.; Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten

    2004-01-01

    in the Sixth Student Parabolic Flight Campaign issued by the European Space Agency (ESA). The system consists of six custom made electro magnetic actuators which acts on the isolated platform based on the designed controller and their input from six accelerometers and six infrared position sensors. >From......In this paper the design, construction and test of a free floating micro-gravity isolation platform to reduce the acceleration dose on zero gravity experiments on e.g. the International Space Station (ISS) is discussed. During the project a system is specified and constructed whereupon it is tested...

  2. A Far-Field Electro-Magnetic Tractor Beam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project was to demonstrate and model a cooperative, attractive, longrange force between a pair of satellites. NASA needs such a capability in order...

  3. Development of the methodology for the MHD analysis in a linear induction electro-magnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Seung Hwan; Hur, Seop; Kim, Seong O; Choi, Seok Ki; Wi, Myung Hwan; Jeon, Won Dae

    2004-01-01

    Generally, fast breeder reactors have adopted a liquid metal as a coolant for the heat transfer from the reactor to the heat exchangers. Since a liquid metal has an electrical conductivity, the pumping of the liquid metal may use an induction electro-magnetic (EM) pump which induces electrical current and body force on the metal flow. These linear induction pumps use a traveling magnetic field wave created by poly-phase currents and the induced currents and their associated magnetic field generate the Lorentz force whose effect can be actually the pumping of the liquid metal. The flow behaviors in the pump are very complex such as the existence of a rotational force, pulsation and so on, because the induction EM pump has time-varying magnetic fields and the induced convective currents which originate form the flow of the liquid metal. These phenomena generate a stability problem in the pump and depend on the changes of the magnetic field and fluid flow field due to the induced currents and the fluid flow of the liquid metal with time and complex pump geometry. Therefore, an exact flow analysis is required for designing and evaluating the stability of a pump

  4. Analysis of plasma behavior and electro-magnetic interaction between plasma and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tomofumi

    1980-01-01

    A simulation program for the analysis of plasma behavior and the electromagnetic interaction between plasma and device has been developed. The program consists of a part for the analysis of plasma behavior (plasma system) and a part for the analysis of the electro-magnetic interaction between plasma and devices (circuit system). The parameters which connect the plasma system and the circuit system are the electric resistance of plasma, the internal inductance, and the plasma current. For the plasma system, the simultaneous equations which describe the density distribution of plasma particles, the temperature distribution of electrons and ions, and the space-time variation of current density distribution were derived. The one-dimensional plasma column in γ-direction was considered. The electric resistance and the internal inductance can be deduced. The circuit components are a current transformer, a vertical field coil, a quadrupole field coil, a vacuum chamber and others. An equation which describes plasma position and the shape of cross section is introduced. The plasma position can be known by solving the Mukhavatov's formula of equilibrium. By using this program, the build-up process of plasma current in JT-60 was analysed. It was found that the expansion of plasma sub radius and the control of current distribution by gas injection are the effective methods to obtain high temperature and high density plasma. The eddy current induced in a vacuum vessel shields 40 percent of magnetic field made in the plasma region by a vertical field coil. (Kato, T.)

  5. Characterization of deep geothermal energy resources using Electro-Magnetic methods, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sian; Harcout-Menou, Virginie; De Ridder, Fjo; Claessens, Bert; Laenen, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary basins in Northwest Europe have significant potential for low to medium enthalpy, deep geothermal energy resources. These resources are currently assessed using standard exploration techniques (seismic investigations followed by drilling of a borehole). This has enabled identification of geothermal resources but such techniques are extremely costly. The high cost of exploration remains one of the main barriers to geothermal project development due to the lack of capital in the geothermal industry. We will test the possibility of using the Electro-Magnetic (EM) methods to aid identification of geothermal resources in conjunction with more traditional exploration methods. An EM campaign could cost a third of a seismic campaign and is also often a passive technology, resulting in smaller environmental impacts than seismic surveys or drilling. EM methods image changes in the resistivity of the earth's sub-surface using natural or induced frequency dependant variations of electric and magnetic fields. Changes in resistivity can be interpreted as representing different subsurface properties including changes in rock type, chemistry, temperature and/or hydraulic transmissivity. While EM techniques have proven to be useful in geothermal exploration in high enthalpy areas in the last 2-3 years only a handful of studies assess their applicability in low enthalpy sedimentary basins. Challenges include identifying which sub-surface features cause changes in electrical resistivity as low enthalpy reservoirs are unlikely to exhibit the hydrothermally altered clay layer above the geothermal aquifer that is typical for high enthalpy reservoirs. Yet a principal challenge is likely to be the high levels of industrialisation in the areas of interest. Infrastructure such as train tracks and power cables can create a high level of background noise that can obfuscate the relevant signal. We present our plans for an EM campaign in the Flemish region of Belgium. Field

  6. Electro magnetic compatibility of cabling and wiring in buildings and installations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the behaviour, with respect to EMC (Electro Magnetic Compatibility), of cabling and wiring in buildings and installations. Measurement and calculation methods are developed and applied to cabling in a large scale installation as well as to individual cables. Besides, the

  7. Mass density of the Earth from a Gravito-Electro-Magnetic 5D vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Musmarra, Juan Ignacio; Anabitarte, Mariano; Bellini, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the mass density of the Earth using a Gravito-Electro-Magnetic theory on an extended 5D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric, in which we define the vacuum. Our results are in very good agreement with that of the Dziewonski-Anderson model.

  8. The electro-magnetic transition properties in the microscopic SDG interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Guangze; Liu Yong; Sang Jianping

    1996-01-01

    A bosonic method and the corresponding fermionic one for studying the electro-magnetic transition properties of nucleus are presented in the microscopic sdg interacting boson model. The methods are applied to the nucleus 60 Ni. Detailed discussions are made with the calculated results

  9. A real electro-magnetic placebo (REMP) device for sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Simone; Ferro, Marisa; Cincotta, Massimo; Ulivelli, Monica; Bartalini, Sabina; Miniussi, Carlo; Giovannelli, Fabio; Passero, Stefano

    2007-03-01

    There is growing interest in neuropsychiatry for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a neuromodulatory treatment. However, there are limitations in interpreting rTMS effects as a real consequence of physiological brain changes or as placebo-mediated unspecific effects, which may be particularly strong in psychiatric patients. This is due to the fact that existing sham rTMS procedures are less than optimal. A new placebo tool is introduced here, called real electro-magnetic placebo (REMP) device, which can simulate the scalp sensation induced by the real TMS, while leaving both the visual impact and acoustic sensation of real TMS unaltered. Physical, neurophysiological and behavioural variables of monophasic and biphasic single-pulse TMS and biphasic 1Hz and 20Hz rTMS procedures (at different intensities) were tested in subjects who were expert or naïve of TMS. Results of the real TMS were compared with those induced by the REMP device and with two other currently used sham procedures, namely the commercially available Magstim sham coil and tilting the real coil by 90 degrees . The REMP device, besides producing scalp sensations similar to the real TMS, attenuated the TMS-induced electric field (as measured by a dipole probe) to a biologically inactive level. Behaviourally, neither expert nor naïve TMS subjects identified the "coil at 90 degrees " or the "Magstim sham coil" as a real TMS intervention, whilst naïve subjects were significantly more likely to identify the REMP-attenuated TMS as real. The "goodness of sham" of the REMP device is demonstrated by physical, neurophysiological, and behavioural results. Such placebo TMS is superior to the available sham procedures when applied on subjects naïve to TMS, as in case of patients undergoing a clinical rTMS trial.

  10. Electro magnetic compatibility of cabling and wiring in buildings and installations

    OpenAIRE

    Steenstra, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the behaviour, with respect to EMC (Electro Magnetic Compatibility), of cabling and wiring in buildings and installations. Measurement and calculation methods are developed and applied to cabling in a large scale installation as well as to individual cables. Besides, the location and interconnection of conductors, especially concrete reinforcement, in a building is investigated. Finally a procedure is developed that is used to deal with EMC issues in a large installation...

  11. Production of dissociated hydrogen gas by electro-magnetically driven shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kotaro; Moriyama, Takao; Hasegawa, Jun; Horioka, Kazuhiko; Oguri, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of ion stopping power which has a dependence on target temperature and density is an essential issue for heavy-ion-driven high energy density experiment. We focus on experimentally unknown dissociated hydrogen atoms as target for stopping power measurement. The precise measurement of shock wave velocity is required because the dissociated gas is produced by electro-magnetically driven shock. For beam-dissociated hydrogen gas interaction experiment, shock velocity measurement using laser refraction is proposed. (author)

  12. On the electro-magnetic nature of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J I

    1989-01-01

    Man has wondered since the dawning of thought about the origin and the meaning of the spark of life. How does life work and what is the difference between life and non-life? This paper wonders about the part that electromagnetism plays in the life process. It proposes a new insight into the relation of in vivo electromagnetic fields and gravitational fields and discusses such manifestations as solitons, the quantum hall effect, gravity waves, biological strings, biologically closed electric circuits, phonos and the piezoelectric nature of living tissue. It proposes a new and fundamental form of resonance, called Jacobson resonance. The system unifies quantum genetic characters and associated structures with electromagnetic field interaction energies. The result is the reorientation of atomic crystal lattice structures of organic molecules critical to the sustenance of life. A new treatment methodology is proposed for genomic, viral and trophic factor disorders essentially in terms of the potential efficacy of the magnetic force to reorient the spin angular momenta of electrons and protons; to therein rearrange atomic and molecular magnetic domains regulating homeostasis on microscopic, mesosopic and macroscopic levels through biological amplification of quantum interactions. Finally it proposes that the equation, mc2 = Bvl coulomb, may indeed represent the achievement of fourfold physical unification, the unification of physics and medicine, and resultant production of a thorough understanding of what may be the most fundamental natural law of the universe representing the ultimate goal of Einsteinian equivalence and relativistic field theory.

  13. Superconductors with low critical temperature for electro-magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    2002-07-01

    Among the superconductors with low critical temperature that are used to build magnets, NbTi has reached a development state that allows a massive production for big equipment of physics and an industrial production in the domain of medicine imaging. The material that might challenge the supremacy of NbTi is Nb 3 Sn but some technical difficulties have yet to be overcome. This report begins with a review of the different industrial processes used to produce superconducting wires based on the NbTi and Nb 3 Sn materials. The transition from the superconducting state to the resistive normal state is described for both materials, the magnetizing of multi-wire superconducting cables is also presented. The author details the different patterns of wires in cables and proposes a formulary that allows the determination, in some simple cases,of energy losses that are generated in a superconducting cable by a variable magnetic field. (A.C.)

  14. Electro-magnetic heating in viscous oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper discussed electromagnetic (EM) heating techniques for primary and secondary enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Ohmic, induction, and formation resistive heating techniques were discussed. Issues related to energy equivalence and hardware requirements were reviewed. Challenges related to heat losses in vertical wellbores, well integrity, and galvanic corrosion were also outlined. A pair of 1500 foot horizontal wells in a heavy oil reservoir were then modelled in order to optimize EM recovery processes. DC current was used in a base case water flood run. Electrical conductivities were measured. The model was converted to a homogenous model in order to study injector and producer electrodes. The study showed that reservoir resistance was low, and most of the heating took place near the electrode area where electric lines diverged or converged. Results of the study suggested that EM heating in formations is not as efficient as steam-based processes. Accurate simulations of EM heating processes within reservoirs are difficult to obtain, as the amounts of estimated heat input are sensitive to grid refinement. It was concluded that hot spots in the EM electrodes have also caused failures in other field applications and studies. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Novel electro-magnetic test facility for the calibration of a propulsor fluctuating force module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, N.; Lonsdale, A.; Hodges, A.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The testing of scale model propulsors is an essential part of any marine propulsion design process. The fluctuating force module (FFM) is a self-contained, instrumented propulsor drive system designed to be an integral part of a scaled propulsor test facility. This paper describes a novel electro-magnetic test facility which provides a static axial thrust of 0-1 kN and triaxial dynamic forces of 0.3-3 Nrms, at frequencies of 80-800 Hz, to an equivalent propulsor mass rotating at speeds of 0-900 rpm, in order to calibrate the FFM force measurement systems

  16. Observational tests of the Electro-Magnetic Black Hole Theory in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffini, Remo

    2002-01-01

    The Relative Space-Time Transformation (RSTT) Paradigm and the Interpretation of the Burst Structure (IBS) Paradigm are applied to the analysis of the structure of the burst and afterglow of Gamma-Ray Bursts within the theory based on the vacuum polarization process occurring in an Electro-Magnetic Black Hole, the EMBH theory. This framework is applied to the study of the GRB991216 which is used as a prototype. The GRB-Supernova Time Sequence (GSTS) Paradigm, which introduces the concept of i...

  17. The GEM Theory of the Unification of Gravitation and Electro-Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    The GEM (Gravity Electro-Magnetism), theory is presented as an alloy of Sakharov and Kaluza-Klein approaches to field unification. GEM uses the concept of gravity fields as Poynting fields to postulate that the non-metric portion of the EM stress tensor becomes the metric tensor in strong fields leading to "self-censorship". Covariant formulation of the GEM theory is accomplished through definition of the spacetime metric tensor as a portion of the EM stress tensor normalized by its own trace: gab = 4(FcaFcb )/(FabFab), it is found that this results in a massless ground state vacuum and a Newtonian gravitation potential f=1/2 E2/B2 =GM/r , where E, B and F are part of the vacuum Zero Point Fluctuation (ZPF) and M and r are the mass and distance from the center of a gravitating body and G is the Newton gravitation constant. It is found that a Lorentz flat-space metric is recovered in the limit of a vacuum full spectrum ZPF. The vacuum ZPF energy and vacuum quantities G, h, c, gives birth to particles quantities mp, me, e,-e in a process triggered by the appearance of the Kaluza-Klein fifth dimension, where also the EM and gravity forces split from each other in a process correlated to the splitting apart of protons and electrons. The separate appearance of the proton and electron occurs as the splitting of a light-like spacetime interval of zero-length into a finite space-like portion containing three subdimensions identified with the quarks and a time-like portion identified with the electron. The separation of mass with charge for the electron and proton pair comes about from a U(1) symmetry with a rotation in imaginary angle. A logarithmic variation of charge with mass for the proton-electron pair results and leads to the formula ln(ro/rp) = s, where s = (mp/me)1/2 , where mp and me are the electron and proton masses respectively and where ro =e2/moc2 , and where mo = (mpme)1/2 and where rp is the Planck length . This leads to the formula G=e2/mo2aexp(-2s)=6

  18. Field Monitoring of Landfill Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvola, M.; Priha, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Finnish waste legislation requires monitoring of landfill gases. The main goal of this study is to develop instructions for field monitoring of landfill gases to be utilized by consultants and authorities. In the project it was got acquainted with the field analytical methods of landfill gases and instruments of field measurement. It was done various practical field measurements in several landfills. In the studied landfills were observed methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations and gas forming inside waste embankment in different seasons. It was measured methane emissions that discharged through a landfill surface by a chamber technique. In addition to this it was studied volatile organic compounds (VOC:s), which were liberated in a landfill. It was also studied methane oxidization in cover layers of a landfill. (orig.)

  19. The LOFT wide field monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Alvarez, L.

    2012-01-01

    class large area detector (LAD) with a monitor (WFM) instrument based on the coded mask principle, providing coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The LAD will provide an effective area ~20 times larger than any previous mission and will by timing studies...... resolution of monitoring instrument to study long term variability of many classes of X-ray sources. The sensitivity of the WFM will be 2.1 mCrab in a one day observation, and 270 mCrab in 3s in observations of in the crowded field of the Galactic Center. The high duty...

  20. A Study of Active Rotor-Blade Vibration Control using Electro-Magnetic Actuation - Part I: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene Hardam; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    actuators fixed directly in the blades. However, due to the impracticability and problems by fixing actuators in the rotating blades, it is for practical application of great interest to study whether the vibrations can be controlled using shaft-based actuators, i.e. electro-magnetic bearings...

  1. IAEA monitoring field trials workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, H.H.; Cooley, J.N.; Belew, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recent safeguards inspections in Iraq and elsewhere by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have led to the supposition that environmental monitoring can aid in verifying declared and in detecting undeclared nuclear activities or operations. This assumption was most recently examined by the IAEA's Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI), in their reports to the IAEA Board of Governors. In their reports, SAGSI suggested that further assessment and development of environmental monitoring would be needed to fully evaluate its potential application to enhanced IAEA safeguards. Such an inquiry became part of the IAEA ''Programme 93+2'' assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards. In March, 1994, the International Safeguards Group at Oak Ridge hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for IAEA inspectors to train them in the techniques needed for effective environmental sampling. The workshop included both classroom lectures and actual field sampling exercises. The workshop was designed to emphasize the analytical infrastructure needed for an environmental program, practical sampling methods, and suggested procedures for properly planning a sampling campaign. Detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water associated sampling were covered. The overall approach to the workshop, and observed results, are described

  2. Sensor system for multi-point monitoring using bending loss of single mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Applications of smart sensors have been extended to safety systems in the aerospace, transportation and civil engineering fields. In particular, structural health monitoring techniques using smart sensors have gradually become necessary and have been developed to prevent dangers to human life and damage to assets. Generally, smart sensors are based on electro-magnets and have several weaknesses, including electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Therefore, fiber optic sensors are an outstanding alternative to overcome the weaknesses of electro-magnetic sensors. However, they require expensive devices and complex systems. This paper proposes a new, affordable and simple sensor system that uses a single fiber to monitor pressures at multiple-points. Moreover, a prototype of the sensor system was manufactured and tested for a feasibility study. Based on the results of this experimental test, a relationship was carefully observed between the bend loss conditions and light-intensity. As a result, it was shown that impacts at multiple-points could be monitored.

  3. Measurement of time-like baryon electro-magnetic form factors in BESIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Morales, Cristina; Dbeyssi, Alaa [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Ahmed, Samer Ali Nasher; Lin, Dexu; Rosner, Christoph; Wang, Yadi [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Maas, Frank [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: BESIII-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    BEPCII is a symmetric electron-positron collider located in Beijing running at center-of-mass energies between 2.0 and 4.6 GeV. This energy range allows BESIII experiment to measure baryon form factors both from direct electron-positron annihilation and from initial state radiation processes. We present results on direct electron-positron annihilation into proton anti-proton and preliminary results on direct electron-positron annihilation into lambda anti-lambda based on data collected by BESIII in 2011 and 2012. Finally, expectations on the measurement of nucleon and hyperon electro-magnetic form factors from the BESIII high luminosity energy scan in 2015 and from initial state radiation processes at different center-of-mass energies are also shown.

  4. A Hybrid Extended Kalman Filter as an Observer for a Pot-Electro-Magnetic Actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Simon; Mercorelli, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with an application in which a hybrid extended Kalman Filter (HEKF) is used to estimate state variables in a U-shaped electro-magnetic actuator to be used in mechanical systems. In this context a hybrid Kalman Filter is the one which switches between different models. The paper proposes a hybrid model for an extended Kalman Filter to be used as an observer to estimate the state and to control the force of the actuator. Applications include position, velocity and force control in automotive, engine and manufacturing systems. This work is focused on the estimation of state variables of the actuator. Simulated results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (paper)

  5. Gamma-jet physics with the electro-magnetic calorimeter in the ALICE experiment at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdaud, G.

    2008-05-01

    The Electro-Magnetic Calorimeter (EMCal) will be fully installed for the first LHC heavy ion beam in order to improve the ALICE experiment performances in detection of high transverse momentum particles and in particular in reconstruction of γ-jet events. These events appear to be very interesting to probe the strongly interacting matter created in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and the eventual Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) state. Indeed, they may give information on the degree of medium opacity which induces the jet-quenching phenomenon: measuring the energy of the γ and comparing it to that of the associated jet may provide a unique way to quantify the jet energy loss in the dense matter. The interest of γ-jet studies in the framework of the quark gluon plasma physics will be discussed. A particular highlight will be stressed on the EMCal calorimeter. The detection of the γ-jet events will be then presented using this new ALICE detector.

  6. Structural analysis by electro-magnetic loads for conceptual design of HCCR TBM-set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won, E-mail: dwlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyu In [Gentec Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Using the results of EM analysis on the magnetization and the major disruption such as MD-1, MD-2, and MD-IV events, structural analyses are performed with the conventional FEM code (ANSYS). • The obtained stresses and deformations are confirmed to meet the design criteria. • We found that the magnetization effect is dominant compared to the major disruptions. - Abstract: Using a conceptual design of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) including the TBM-shield for testing in ITER, a structural analysis with electro-magnetic (EM) loads is performed. From a previous analysis of the material magnetization due to the use of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel as the TBM structure material and EM analysis considering the major disruption of MD-I, MD-II, and MD-IV, the forces are obtained and used for the current structural analysis. The results indicate that the maximum stress occurs at the He purge line at the upper and lower region of the breeding zone (BZ) box including the graphite reflector region, which meets the design requirement. In addition, displacements are lower than the designed gaps from the TBM port plug (PP) frame. The results are provided to the load combination analysis.

  7. Structural analysis by electro-magnetic loads for conceptual design of HCCR TBM-set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Park, Seong Dae; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung; Shin, Kyu In; Park, Jai Hak; Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Cho, Seungyon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Using the results of EM analysis on the magnetization and the major disruption such as MD-1, MD-2, and MD-IV events, structural analyses are performed with the conventional FEM code (ANSYS). • The obtained stresses and deformations are confirmed to meet the design criteria. • We found that the magnetization effect is dominant compared to the major disruptions. - Abstract: Using a conceptual design of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) including the TBM-shield for testing in ITER, a structural analysis with electro-magnetic (EM) loads is performed. From a previous analysis of the material magnetization due to the use of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel as the TBM structure material and EM analysis considering the major disruption of MD-I, MD-II, and MD-IV, the forces are obtained and used for the current structural analysis. The results indicate that the maximum stress occurs at the He purge line at the upper and lower region of the breeding zone (BZ) box including the graphite reflector region, which meets the design requirement. In addition, displacements are lower than the designed gaps from the TBM port plug (PP) frame. The results are provided to the load combination analysis.

  8. Development of electro-magnetic pump for the ASTRID Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tetsu; Aizawa, Rie; Wakasaki, Shingo; Dechelette, Frank; Benoit, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) prototype called ASTRID (Advance Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), the large capacity Electro-Magnetic Pumps (EMP) as main circulating pumps on the intermediate sodium circuits has been considered instead of mechanical pumps by CEA. The use of EMP has several decisive technological merits compared with mechanical pump in the reactor design, operation and maintenance. Nevertheless, some theoretical and technological developments have to be carried out in order to validate the design tools which take Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) phenomena into account and the applicability of the EMP to the steady state and transient operating conditions of ASTRID. To move forward to developments, a collaboration agreement between the CEA and TOSHIBA Corporation was made and entered into to carry out a joint work program on the EMP for ASTRID design and development. CEA performed the theoretical analysis, and the EMP experimental model is constructed by CEA to support these theoretical developments. This model consists of a middle-size annular EMP for the liquid metal sodium. The various testing program using this model has been started in 2016. TOSHIBA performed the examination of design specification for ASTRID, an electromagnetic design, a structural design and various analyses. The structure design has been examined the placement of the sodium boundary and the withstand pressure, etc. And, if the thicknesses of the structure increase for withstanding pressure, the pump efficiency falls because the loss of the electromagnetic force increases. Therefore the balance between withstanding pressure and the efficiency has been considered by an electromagnetism design. This paper presents the design studies and experimental activities for the EMP development in the framework of the CEA-TOSHIBA collaborations. (author)

  9. Engineering design of IFMIF/EVEDA lithium test loop. Electro-magnetic pump and pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hiroo; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Iuchi, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Takuji; Ida, Mizuho; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Wakai, Eiichi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Horiike, H.; Yamaoka, N.; Matsushita, I.

    2011-01-01

    The Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is proceeding as one of the ITER Broader Approach (ITER-BA). A Li circulation loop for testing hydraulic stability of the Li target (high speed free-surface flow of liquid Li as a beam target) and Li purification traps are under construction in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency as a major Japanese activities in the EVEDA. This paper presents specification of an electro-magnetic pump (EMP) for the EVEDA Li Test Loop (ELTL) and evaluation of the pressure drop in the main loop of the ELTL. The EMP circulates the liquid Li at a large flow rate up to 0.05 m 3 /s (3000 l/min) under a vacuum cover gas (Ar) pressure of 10 -3 Pa, thus the evaluation of cavitation generation is a crucial issue. The EMP used in the ELTL consists of two EMPs aligned in series through a U-tube whose size of one EMP is 0.8 m square and 2.6 m in length. The calculation of the pressure drop in the main Li loop to the EMP is approx. 25 kPa at the design maximum flow rate of 0.05 m 3 /s. On the other hand the height from the EMP to a Li tank to supply Li to the EMP is designed to be 9.72 m, and secures a static pressure and the cavitation number of 18 kPa and 3.4 respectively at the maximum flow rate in a vacuum condition. As a result, it is confirmed to prevent cavitation at the inlet of the EMP in this design. (author)

  10. Sono-electro-magnetic therapy for treating chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Thomas M; Mordasini, Livio; Weisstanner, Christian; Jüni, Peter; da Costa, Bruno R; Wiest, Roland; Thalmann, George N

    2014-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of sono-electro-magnetic therapy compared to placebo in men with refractory CPPS. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind single center trial, we assessed the effect of sono-electro-magnetic therapy in men with treatment refractory CPPS. Sixty male patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either sono-electro-magnetic (n = 30) or placebo therapy (n = 30) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was a change in the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) from baseline to 12 weeks. The 12-week difference between sono-electro-magnetic and placebo therapy in changes of the NIH-CPSI total score was -3.1 points (95% CI -6.8 to 0.6, p = 0.11). In secondary comparisons of NIH-CPSI sub-scores, we found differences between groups most pronounced for the quality-of-life sub-score (difference at 12 weeks -1.6, 95% CI -2.8 to -0.4, p = 0.015). In stratified analyses, the benefit of sono-electro-magnetic therapy appeared more pronounced among patients who had a symptom duration of 12 months or less (difference in NIH-CPSI total score -8.3, 95% CI -14.5 to 2.6) than in patients with a longer symptom duration (-0.8, 95% CI -4.6 to 3.1; p for interaction = 0.023). Sono-electro-magnetic therapy did not result in a significant improvement of symptoms in the overall cohort of treatment refractory CPPS patients compared to placebo treatment. Subgroup analysis indicates, however, that patients with a symptom-duration of 12 months or less may benefit from sono-electro-magnetic therapy, warranting larger randomized controlled trials in this subpopulation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00688506.

  11. Avoidance of Tearing Mode Locking and Disruption with Electro-Magnetic Torque Introduced by Feedback-based Mode Rotation Control in DIII-D and RFX-mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, M. [PPPL; Zanca, P. [Euratom-ENEA; Strait, E. J. [General Atomics

    2014-09-01

    Disruptions caused by tearing modes (TMs) are considered to be one of the most critical roadblocks to achieving reliable, steady-state operation of tokamak fusion reactors. Here we have demonstrated a very promising scheme to avoid such disruptions by utilizing the electro-magnetic (EM) torque produced with 3D coils that are available in many tokamaks. In this scheme, the EM torque to the modes is created by a toroidal phase shift between the externally-applied field and the excited TM fields, compensating for the mode momentum loss due to the interaction with the resistive wall and uncorrected error fields. Fine control of torque balance is provided by a feedback scheme. We have explored this approach in two vastly different devices and plasma conditions: DIII-D and RFX-mod operated in tokamak mode. In DIII-D, the plasma target was high βN plasmas in a non-circular divertor tokamak. In RFX-mod, the plasma was ohmically-heated plasma with ultralow safety factor in a circular limiter discharge of active feedback coils outside the thick resistive shell. The DIII-D and RFX-mod experiments showed remarkable consistency with theoretical predictions of torque balance. The application to ignition-oriented devices such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) would expand the horizon of its operational regime. The internal 3D coil set currently under consideration for edge localized mode suppression in ITER would be well suited to this purpose.

  12. Personnel monitoring in geologic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, I.N.; Seredin, Yu.V.

    1981-01-01

    State of radiation safety for the personnel of geologic crews carrying out neutron logging of wells using Po-Be sources has been evaluated. Given are results of development of methods for the evaluation of individual radiation loads for personnel when working with Po-Be neutron sources useful for the application in practice by a geologic logging crew as well as a quantitative evaluation of profissional radiation loads during this kind of work. The following methods are recommended for personnel monitoring: 1) calculation of whole-body irradiation doses and hands from averaged values of radiation dose rate; 2) calculational tabulated determination of irradiation doses during recharging of shanks of well instruments. Personnel monitoring by means of instrumental methods is not necessary in the considered case [ru

  13. Experimental Set-Up for Evaluation of Electro-Magnetic Characteristics of High-Tc Superconductors Cooled by Liquid Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Shirai, Yasuyuki; Hikawa, Kyosuke; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Hata, Koichi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nonaka, Satoshi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) has excellent properties as a coolant, such as large latent heat, low viscosity coefficient, etc. Not only MgB2 but also other high-Tc superconductors are expected to have excellent properties when cooled by LH2. It is necessary for a stability design of a high-Tc superconductor cooled by LH2 to make an electro-magnetic characteristic clear. However, due to the handling difficulties of LH2, there are only few papers on the properties of LH2-cooled superconductors, especi...

  14. Field experience with remote monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, A.E. [Bartlett Services, Inc., Plymouth, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Remote Monitoring System (RMS) is a combination of Merlin Gerin detection hardware, digital data communications hardware, and computer software from Bartlett Services, Inc. (BSI) that can improve the conduct of reactor plant operations in several areas. Using the RMS can reduce radiation exposures to radiation protection technicians (RPTs), reduce radiation exposures to plant maintenance and operations personnel, and reduce the time required to complete maintenance and inspections during outages. The number of temporary RPTs required during refueling outages can also be reduced. Data from use of the RMS at a two power plants are presented to illustrate these points.

  15. Changes in Ultrastructure and Sensory Characteristics on Electro-magnetic and Air Blast Freezing of Beef during Frozen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The ultrastructure in the beef muscle of the electro-magnetic resonance and air blast freezing during the frozen storage, and the changes in the quality characteristics after thawing were evaluated. The size of ice crystal was small and evenly formed in the initial freezing period, and it showed that the size was increased as the storage period was elapsed (pfreezing showed the size of ice crystal with a lower rate of increase than the air blast freezing during the frozen storage. The thawing loss of beef stored by the electro-magnetic resonance freezing was significantly lower than the air blast freezing during frozen storage (pfreezing was higher than the air blast on 8 month (pfreezing did not show the difference until 4 months, and it showed higher acceptability in comparison with the beef stored by the air blast freezing. Thus, it is considered that the freezing method has an effect on the change in the ultrastructure and quality characteristics of the beef. PMID:26761797

  16. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  17. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  18. The LOFT wide field monitor simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Campana, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present the simulator we developed for the Wide Field Monitor (WFM) aboard the Large Observatory For Xray Timing (LOFT) mission, one of the four ESA M3 candidate missions considered for launch in the 2022–2024 timeframe. The WFM is designed to cover a large FoV in the same bandpass as the Large...

  19. Sono-electro-magnetic therapy for treating chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Kessler

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of sono-electro-magnetic therapy compared to placebo in men with refractory CPPS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind single center trial, we assessed the effect of sono-electro-magnetic therapy in men with treatment refractory CPPS. Sixty male patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either sono-electro-magnetic (n = 30 or placebo therapy (n = 30 for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was a change in the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI from baseline to 12 weeks. RESULTS: The 12-week difference between sono-electro-magnetic and placebo therapy in changes of the NIH-CPSI total score was -3.1 points (95% CI -6.8 to 0.6, p = 0.11. In secondary comparisons of NIH-CPSI sub-scores, we found differences between groups most pronounced for the quality-of-life sub-score (difference at 12 weeks -1.6, 95% CI -2.8 to -0.4, p = 0.015. In stratified analyses, the benefit of sono-electro-magnetic therapy appeared more pronounced among patients who had a symptom duration of 12 months or less (difference in NIH-CPSI total score -8.3, 95% CI -14.5 to 2.6 than in patients with a longer symptom duration (-0.8, 95% CI -4.6 to 3.1; p for interaction = 0.023. CONCLUSIONS: Sono-electro-magnetic therapy did not result in a significant improvement of symptoms in the overall cohort of treatment refractory CPPS patients compared to placebo treatment. Subgroup analysis indicates, however, that patients with a symptom-duration of 12 months or less may benefit from sono-electro-magnetic therapy, warranting larger randomized controlled trials in this subpopulation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00688506.

  20. Size-dependent free vibration and dynamic analyses of piezo-electro-magnetic sandwich nanoplates resting on viscoelastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, size-dependent free vibration analysis of a sandwich nanoplate is presented. The sandwich nanoplate is including an elastic nano core and two piezo-electro-magnetic face-sheets as sensor and actuator actuated by electric and magnetic potentials. The sandwich nanoplate is resting on visco-Pasternak's foundation. Hamilton's principle is employed to derive the governing equations of motion based on Kirchhoff plate and nonlocal elasticity theory. The numerical results are presented to study the influence of important parameters of the problem such as applied electric and magnetic potentials, nonlocal parameter and visco-Pasternak's parameters. Furthermore, the influence of various boundary conditions is discussed on the vibration characteristics of the sandwich nanoplate.

  1. Field testing plan for unsaturated zone monitoring and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.H.; Wierenga, P.J.; Warrick, A.W.

    1996-10-01

    The University of Arizona, in cooperation with the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, and Stephens and Associates in Albuquerque, New Mexico has developed a field testing plan for evaluating subsurface monitoring systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has requested development of these testing plans for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (LLW) and for monitoring at decommissioned facilities designated under the open-quotes Site Decommissioning Management Planclose quotes (SDMP). The tests are conducted on a 50 m by 50 m plot on the University of Arizona's Maricopa Agricultural Center. Within the 50 m by 50 m plot one finds: (1) an instrumented buried trench, (2) monitoring islands similar to those proposed for the Ward Valley, California LLW Facility, (3) deep borehole monitoring sites, (4) gaseous transport monitoring, and (5) locations for testing non-invasive geophysical measurement techniques. The various subplot areas are instrumented with commercially available instruments such as neutron probes, time domain reflectometry probes, tensiometers, psychrometers, heat dissipation sensors, thermocouples, solution samplers, and cross-hole geophysics electrodes. Measurement depths vary from ground surface to 15 m. The data from the controlled flow and transport experiments, conducted over the plot, will be used to develop an integrated approach to long-term monitoring of the vadose zone at waste disposal sites. The data will also be used to test field-scale flow and transport models. This report describes in detail the design of the experiment and the methodology proposed for evaluating the data

  2. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  3. Finnish remote environmental monitoring field demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.; Leppaenen, A.; Ylaetalo, S.; Lehtinen, J.; Hokkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M.; Crawford, T.; Glidewell, D.; Smartt, H.; Torres, J.

    1997-10-01

    Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki, Finland and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), working under the Finnish Support Program to IAEA Safeguards and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded International Remote Monitoring Program (Task FIN E 935), have undertaken a joint effort to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring for environmental air sampling and safeguards applications. The results of the task will be used by the IAEA to identify the feasibility, cost-effectiveness, reliability, advantages, and problems associated with remote environmental monitoring. An essential prerequisite for a reliable remote air sampling system is the protection of samples against tampering. Means must be developed to guarantee that the sampling itself has been performed as designed and the original samples are not substituted with samples produced with other equipment at another site. One such method is to label the samples with an unequivocal tag. In addition, the inspection personnel must have the capability to remotely monitor and access the automated environmental air sampling system through the use of various sensors and video imagery equipment. A unique aspect to this project is the network integration of remote monitoring equipment with a STUK radiation monitoring system. This integration will allow inspectors to remotely view air sampler radiation data and sensor/image data through separate software applications on the same review station. A sensor network and video system will be integrated with the SNL developed Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) to provide a comprehensive remote monitoring approach for safeguards purposes. This field trial system is being implemented through a multiphase approach for use by STUK, SNL, and for possible future use by the IAEA

  4. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Yunjae; Kang, Shinjae; Lim, Seungok; Kahng, Hyunkook

    2012-01-01

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  5. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Yunjae; Kang, Shinjae; Lim, Seungok [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kahng, Hyunkook [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  6. On convergence generation in computing the electro-magnetic Casimir force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, F.

    2008-01-01

    We tackle the very fundamental problem of zero-point energy divergence in the context of the Casimir effect. We calculate the Casimir force due to field fluctuations by using standard cavity radiation modes. The validity of convergence generation by means of an exponential energy cut-off factor is discussed in detail. (orig.)

  7. Monitoring the Earth's Dynamic Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Applegate, David; Townshend, John B.

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey's Geomagnetism Program is to monitor the Earth's magnetic field. Using ground-based observatories, the Program provides continuous records of magnetic field variations covering long timescales; disseminates magnetic data to various governmental, academic, and private institutions; and conducts research into the nature of geomagnetic variations for purposes of scientific understanding and hazard mitigation. The program is an integral part of the U.S. Government's National Space Weather Program (NSWP), which also includes programs in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSWP works to provide timely, accurate, and reliable space weather warnings, observations, specifications, and forecasts, and its work is important for the U.S. economy and national security. Please visit the National Geomagnetism Program?s website, http://geomag.usgs.gov, where you can learn more about the Program and the science of geomagnetism. You can find additional related information at the Intermagnet website, http://www.intermagnet.org.

  8. Impact of electro-magnetic stabilization, small- scale turbulence and multi-scale interactions on heat transport in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantica, Paola

    2016-10-01

    Heat transport experiments in JET, based on ICRH heat flux scans and temperature modulation, have confirmed the importance of two transport mechanisms that are often neglected in modeling experimental results, but are crucial to reach agreement between theory and experiment and may be significant in ITER. The first mechanism is the stabilizing effect of the total pressure gradient (including fast ions) on ITG driven ion heat transport. Such stabilization is found in non-linear gyro-kinetic electro-magnetic simulations using GENE and GYRO, and is the explanation for the observed loss of ion stiffness in the core of high NBI-power JET plasmas. The effect was recently observed also in JET plasmas with dominant ICRH heating and small rotation, due to ICRH fast ions, which is promising for ITER. Such mechanism dominates over ExB flow shear in the core and needs to be included in quasi-linear models to increase their ability to capture the relevant physics. The second mechanism is the capability of small- scale ETG instabilities to carry a significant fraction of electron heat. A decrease in Te peaking is observed when decreasing Zeff Te/Ti, which cannot be ascribed to TEMs but is in line with ETGs. Non-linear GENE single-scale simulations of ETGs and ITG/TEMs show that the ITG/TEM electron heat flux is not enough to match experiment. TEM stiffness is also much lower than measured. In the ETG single scale simulations the external flow shear is used to saturate the ETG streamers. Multi-scale simulations are ongoing, in which the ion zonal flows are the main saturating mechanism for ETGs. These costly simulations should provide the final answer on the importance of ETG-driven electron heat flux in JET. with JET contributors [F.Romanelli, Proc.25thIAEA FEC]. Supported by EUROfusion Grant 633053.

  9. Electro-magnetic properties of composites with aligned Fe-Co hollow fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungchan Cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel Fe-Co binary hollow fiber was synthesized by electroless plating using hydrolyzed polyester fiber and its anisotropy characteristic was investigated for electromagnetic wave absorbing materials. The hollow fibers in parallel with magnetic field show higher saturated magnetization of 202 emu/g at the applied magnetic field of 10 kOe and lower coercivity (27.658 Oe, compared with the random and vertical oriented hollow fibers. From complex permittivity measurement, the Fe-Co hollow fiber composites clearly display a single dielectric resonance, located at ∼14 GHz. The Fe-Co hollow fibers not only provide excellent EM properties in GHz frequency ranges, resulting mainly from the strong resonance, but also adjust the soft magnetic properties through fiber alignments. The cavitary structure of the Fe-Co hollow fibers, not only giving rise to a dielectric loss resonance and also adjusting its peak frequency, may be a pathway to useful EM wave absorptive devices in GHz frequency ranges.

  10. A High-Performance Portable Transient Electro-Magnetic Sensor for Unexploded Ordnance Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofeng Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Portable transient electromagnetic (TEM systems can be well adapted to various terrains, including mountainous, woodland, and other complex terrains. They are widely used for the detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO. As the core component of the portable TEM system, the sensor is constructed with a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. Based on the primary field of the transmitting coil and internal noise of the receiving coil, the design and testing of such a sensor is described in detail. Results indicate that the primary field of the transmitting coil depends on the diameter, mass, and power of the coil. A higher mass–power product and a larger diameter causes a stronger primary field. Reducing the number of turns and increasing the clamp voltage reduces the switch-off time of the transmitting current effectively. Increasing the cross-section of the wire reduces the power consumption, but greatly increases the coil’s weight. The study of the receiving coil shows that the internal noise of the sensor is dominated by the thermal noise of the damping resistor. Reducing the bandwidth of the system and increasing the size of the coil reduces the internal noise effectively. The cross-sectional area and the distance between the sections of the coil have little effect on the internal noise. A less damped state can effectively reduce signal distortion. Finally, a portable TEM sensor with both a transmitting coil (constructed with a diameter, number of turns, and transmitting current of 0.5 m, 30, and 5 A, respectively and a receiving coil (constructed with a length and resonant frequency of 5.6 cm and 50 kHz, respectively was built. The agreement between experimental and calculated results confirms the theory used in the sensor design. The responses of an 82 mm mortar shell at different distances were measured and inverted by the differential evolution (DE algorithm to verify system performance. Results show that the sensor designed in this

  11. A High-Performance Portable Transient Electro-Magnetic Sensor for Unexploded Ordnance Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haofeng; Chen, Shudong; Zhang, Shuang; Yuan, Zhiwen; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Dong; Zhu, Jun

    2017-11-17

    Portable transient electromagnetic (TEM) systems can be well adapted to various terrains, including mountainous, woodland, and other complex terrains. They are widely used for the detection of unexploded ordnance (UXO). As the core component of the portable TEM system, the sensor is constructed with a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. Based on the primary field of the transmitting coil and internal noise of the receiving coil, the design and testing of such a sensor is described in detail. Results indicate that the primary field of the transmitting coil depends on the diameter, mass, and power of the coil. A higher mass-power product and a larger diameter causes a stronger primary field. Reducing the number of turns and increasing the clamp voltage reduces the switch-off time of the transmitting current effectively. Increasing the cross-section of the wire reduces the power consumption, but greatly increases the coil's weight. The study of the receiving coil shows that the internal noise of the sensor is dominated by the thermal noise of the damping resistor. Reducing the bandwidth of the system and increasing the size of the coil reduces the internal noise effectively. The cross-sectional area and the distance between the sections of the coil have little effect on the internal noise. A less damped state can effectively reduce signal distortion. Finally, a portable TEM sensor with both a transmitting coil (constructed with a diameter, number of turns, and transmitting current of 0.5 m, 30, and 5 A, respectively) and a receiving coil (constructed with a length and resonant frequency of 5.6 cm and 50 kHz, respectively) was built. The agreement between experimental and calculated results confirms the theory used in the sensor design. The responses of an 82 mm mortar shell at different distances were measured and inverted by the differential evolution (DE) algorithm to verify system performance. Results show that the sensor designed in this study can not only

  12. Superconductors with low critical temperature for electro-magnets; Supraconducteurs a basse temperature critique pour electroaimants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A

    2002-07-01

    Among the superconductors with low critical temperature that are used to build magnets, NbTi has reached a development state that allows a massive production for big equipment of physics and an industrial production in the domain of medicine imaging. The material that might challenge the supremacy of NbTi is Nb{sub 3}Sn but some technical difficulties have yet to be overcome. This report begins with a review of the different industrial processes used to produce superconducting wires based on the NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn materials. The transition from the superconducting state to the resistive normal state is described for both materials, the magnetizing of multi-wire superconducting cables is also presented. The author details the different patterns of wires in cables and proposes a formulary that allows the determination, in some simple cases,of energy losses that are generated in a superconducting cable by a variable magnetic field. (A.C.)

  13. A field protocol to monitor cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dudley; V. Saab

    2003-01-01

    We developed a field protocol to monitor populations of cavity-nesting birds in burned and unburned coniferous forests of western North America. Standardized field methods are described for implementing long-term monitoring strategies and for conducting field research to evaluate the effects of habitat change on cavity-nesting birds. Key references (but not...

  14. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  15. Changing of Bacteria Catalase Activity Under the Influence of Electro-Magnetic Radiation on a Frequency of Nitric Oxide Absorption and Radiation Molecular Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Shub

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of catalase activity degree changing in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is described under the influence of electro-magnetic radiation on a frequency of nitric oxide absorption and radiation molecular spectrum. The panoramic spectrometric measuring complex, developed in Central Scientific Research Institute of measuring equipment Public corporation, Saratov, was used while carrying out the research. Electromagnetic vibrations of extremely high frequencies were stimulated in this complex imitating the structure of nitric oxide absorption and radiation molecular spectrum. The growth of activity of the mentioned enzyme of the strains under research was detected. The most significant changes were observed under 60-minutes exposure.

  16. Analytical and numerical analyses for a penny-shaped crack embedded in an infinite transversely isotropic multi-ferroic composite medium: semi-permeable electro-magnetic boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, R.-F.; Wu, T.-H.; Li, X.-Y.; Chen, W.-Q.

    2018-06-01

    The problem of a penny-shaped crack embedded in an infinite space of transversely isotropic multi-ferroic composite medium is investigated. The crack is assumed to be subjected to uniformly distributed mechanical, electric and magnetic loads applied symmetrically on the upper and lower crack surfaces. The semi-permeable (limited-permeable) electro-magnetic boundary condition is adopted. By virtue of the generalized method of potential theory and the general solutions, the boundary integro-differential equations governing the mode I crack problem, which are of nonlinear nature, are established and solved analytically. Exact and complete coupling magneto-electro-elastic field is obtained in terms of elementary functions. Important parameters in fracture mechanics on the crack plane, e.g., the generalized crack surface displacements, the distributions of generalized stresses at the crack tip, the generalized stress intensity factors and the energy release rate, are explicitly presented. To validate the present solutions, a numerical code by virtue of finite element method is established for 3D crack problems in the framework of magneto-electro-elasticity. To evaluate conveniently the effect of the medium inside the crack, several empirical formulae are developed, based on the numerical results.

  17. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Field Monitoring,Treatment Facility Monitoring and Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is a compilation of harmful algal bloom (HAB) related field monitoring data from the 2015 bloom season, treatment plant monitoring data from the 2013 and 2014 bloom seasons, and bench-scale treatment study data from 2015.

  18. Electric field encephalography for brain activity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versek, Craig William; Frasca, Tyler; Zhou, Jianlin; Chowdhury, Kaushik; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2018-05-11

    Objective - We describe an early-stage prototype of a new wireless electrophysiological sensor system, called NeuroDot, which can measure neuroelectric potentials and fields at the scalp in a new modality called Electric Field Encephalography (EFEG). We aim to establish the physical validity of the EFEG modality, and examine some of its properties and relative merits compared to EEG. Approach - We designed a wireless neuroelectric measurement device based on the Texas Instrument ADS1299 Analog Front End platform and a sensor montage, using custom electrodes, to simultaneously measure EFEG and spatially averaged EEG over a localized patch of the scalp (2cm x 2cm). The signal properties of each modality were compared across tests of noise floor, Berger effect, steady-state Visually Evoked Potential (ssVEP), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and others. In order to compare EFEG to EEG modalities in the frequency domain, we use a novel technique to compute spectral power densities and derive narrow-band SNR estimates for ssVEP signals. A simple binary choice brain-computer-interface (BCI) concept based on ssVEP is evaluated. Also, we present examples of high quality recording of transient Visually Evoked Potentials and Fields (tVEPF) that could be used for neurological studies. Main results - We demonstrate the capability of the NeuroDot system to record high quality EEG signals comparable to some recent clinical and research grade systems on the market. We show that the locally-referenced EFEG metric is resistant to certain types of movement artifacts. In some ssVEP based measurements, the EFEG modality shows promising results, demonstrating superior signal to noise ratios than the same recording processed as an analogous EEG signal. We show that by using EFEG based ssVEP SNR estimates to perform a binary classification in a model BCI, the optimal information transfer rate (ITR) can be raised from 15 to 30 bits per minute - though these preliminary results are likely

  19. Studies for the electro-magnetic calorimeter {\\em SplitCal} for the SHiP experiment at CERN with shower direction reconstruction capability

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the basic ideas and the first simulation results of a new electro-magnetic calorimeter concept, named {\\it SplitCal}, aimed at optimising the measurement of photon direction in fixed-target experiment configuration, with high photon detection efficiency. This calorimeter was designed for the invariant mass reconstruction of axion-like particles decaying into two photons in the mass range 200~MeV to 1~GeV for the proposed proton beam dump experiment SHiP at CERN. Preliminary results indicate that angular resolutions better than obtained by past experiments can be achieved with this design. An implementation of this concept with real technologies is under study.

  20. Studies for the electro-magnetic calorimeter SplitCal for the SHiP experiment at CERN with shower direction reconstruction capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonivento, Walter M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the basic ideas and the first simulation results of a new electro-magnetic calorimeter concept, named SplitCal, aimed at optimising the measurement of photon direction in fixed-target experiment configuration, with high photon detection efficiency. This calorimeter was designed for the invariant mass reconstruction of axion-like particles decaying into two photons in the mass range 200 MeV to 1 GeV for the proposed proton beam dump experiment SHiP at CERN. Preliminary results indicate that angular resolutions better than obtained by past experiments can be achieved with this design. An implementation of this concept with real technologies is under study.

  1. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  2. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  3. Community Monitoring for REDD+: International Promises and Field Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Danielsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Will community monitoring assist in delivering just and equitable REDD+? We assessed whether local communities can effectively estimate carbon stocks in some of the world's most carbon rich forests, using simple field protocols, and we reviewed whether community monitoring exists in current REDD+ pilots. We obtained similar results for forest carbon when measured by communities and professional foresters in 289 vegetation plots in Southeast Asia. Most REDD+ monitoring schemes, however, contain no community involvement. To close the gulf between United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change texts on involving communities and field implementation realities, we propose greater embedding of community monitoring within national REDD+ pilot schemes, which we argue will lead to a more just REDD+.

  4. Individual monitoring in high-energy stray radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the lack of passive or active devices that could be considered as personal dosemeters in high-energy stray fields one can at present only perform individual monitoring around high energy accelerators. Of all detectors currently available it is shown that the NTA film is the most suitable method for individually monitoring the neutron exposure of more than 3000 persons regularly, reliably, and cost effectively like at CERN. (author)

  5. Moisture and salt monitoring in concrete by evanescent field dielectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riminesi, C.; Marie-Victoire, E.; Bouichou, M.; Olmi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring the water content and detecting the presence of soluble salts in concrete is a key issue for its maintenance. Evanescent field dielectrometry, originally developed for the diagnostics of frescoes and mural paintings, is proposed as a tool for monitoring the decay of cement-based materials. A measuring system, based on a scalar network analyzer and a resonant probe, has been realized and tested on concrete samples taken from historical buildings in France or purposely developed in the laboratory. Measurements on water-saturated and oven-dry samples provide the basis for calibrating the instrument for on site monitoring of concrete historical buildings, sculptures and cement-based artifacts.

  6. Field test of a new Australian method of rangeland monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Mayne; Neil West

    2001-01-01

    Managers need more efficient means of monitoring changes on the lands they manage. Accordingly, a new Australian approach was field tested and compared to the Daubenmire method of assessing plant cover, litter, and bare soil. The study area was a 2 mile wide by 30.15 mile long strip, mostly covered by salt desert shrub ecosystem types, centered along the SE boundary of...

  7. Hazard Monitoring of Growing Lava Flow Fields Using Seismic Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, E. P. S.; Bean, C. J.; Jónsdottir, I.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Thordarson, T.; Coppola, D.; Witt, T.; Walter, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    An effusive eruption in 2014/15 created a 85 km2 large lava flow field in a remote location in the Icelandic highlands. The lava flows did not threaten any settlements or paved roads but they were nevertheless interdisciplinarily monitored in detail. Images from satellites and aircraft, ground based video monitoring, GPS and seismic recordings allowed the monitoring and reconstruction of a detailed time series of the growing lava flow field. While the use of satellite images and probabilistic modelling of lava flows are quite common tools to monitor the current and forecast the future growth direction, here we show that seismic recordings can be of use too. We installed a cluster of seismometers at 15 km from the vents and recorded the ground vibrations associated with the eruption. This seismic tremor was not only generated below the vents, but also at the edges of the growing lava flow field and indicated the parts of the lava flow field that were most actively growing. Whilst the time resolution is in the range of days for satellites, seismic stations easily sample continuously at 100 Hz and could therefore provide a much better resolution and estimate of the lava flow hazard in real-time.

  8. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.; Christy, C.E.; Heath, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B ampersand W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE's Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used to measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ at depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes, measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics. This paper presents a description and the results of the field tests. The results were used to characterize the lower detection limits, precision and bias of the system, which allowed the DOE to judge the monitoring system's ability to meet its long-term post-closure radiation monitoring needs. Based on the test results, the monitoring system has been redesigned for fabrication and testing in a potential Phase III of this program. If the DOE feels that this system can meet its needs and chooses to continue into Phase III of this program, this redesigned full scale prototype system will be built and tested for a period of approximately a year. Such a system can be used at a variety of radioactively contaminated sites

  9. Development of advanced radiation monitors for pulsed neutron fields

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081895

    The need of radiation detectors capable of efficiently measuring in pulsed neutron fields is attracting widespread interest since the 60s. The efforts of the scientific community substantially increased in the last decade due to the increasing number of applications in which this radiation field is encountered. This is a major issue especially at particle accelerator facilities, where pulsed neutron fields are present because of beam losses at targets, collimators and beam dumps, and where the correct assessment of the intensity of the neutron fields is fundamental for radiation protection monitoring. LUPIN is a neutron detector that combines an innovative acquisition electronics based on logarithmic amplification of the collected current signal and a special technique used to derive the total number of detected neutron interactions, which has been specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields. Due to its special working principle, it is capable of overcoming the typical saturation issues encountere...

  10. Tungsten ion implantation into copper by use of metal arc-plasma electro-magnetically accelerated to several km s{sup -1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, A.; Aso, Y.; Hosoya, H.; Kiritani, M

    2003-06-15

    A coaxial plasma gun was designed for the injection of W into Cu, by employment of the high speed of W ions attained by electro-magnetic acceleration. Under acceleration at 5 kV, W atoms could be injected into a Cu substrate at depths up to about 30 {mu}m, whereas under acceleration at 4 kV no injection was observed. The injected W was observed to have nonuniform spatial distribution provably forming clusters or small groups of particles. Under acceleration at 5 kV, the first plasma to arrive at the substrate has a velocity of 10 km s{sup -1}, which is much higher than that of initial plasma under acceleration at 4 kV. Immediately after the initial plasma, the relationship between the velocities of the respective plasmas reverses, so that average velocity at 5 kV is lower than that at 4 kV. Maximum plasma velocity plays a major role in the injection of W; i.e. the depth of W injection may depend on the velocity of initially generated plasma. The subsequent plasma forms a W layer on the surface of the substrate.

  11. Compaction monitoring in the Ekofisk area Chalk Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menghini, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    In late Nov. 1984, the subsidence phenomenon was recognized in the Ekofisk field. To determine the magnitude and areal extent of the formation compaction, a program for measuring compaction with electric logging tools was initiated. Initial time-lapse surveys performed with cased-hole neutron tools indicated that reservoir compaction was occurring, but the accuracy of the determination of compaction rate was low. In addition to the cased-hole neutron survey, radioactive markers and a gamma ray (GR) detection tool were used to determine compaction rate in the reservoir more accurately and to determine whether compaction was occurring in the overburden. A program for implanting radioactive-marker bullets and subsequent monitoring with a four-detector GR tool was implemented. There are currently 13 wells equipped with radioactive markers in the compaction monitoring program. Compaction monitoring accuracy using the four-detector GR tool was found to depend on wellbore geometry, completion design, and radioactive-marker placement. This paper gives the results of the program to date and describes the operational procedures and analysis techniques used for compaction monitoring in the greater Ekofisk area chalk fields

  12. Students attendance monitoring using near field communication technology

    OpenAIRE

    Stakėnas, Tautvydas

    2017-01-01

    Today, near field communication technology (NFC) is one of the most popular automatic identification technologies. There is a lot of research and development in this area trying to make as much use of this technology as possible, and in coming years many new applications and research areas will continue to appear. In this paper the author examines NFC technology application for student’s attendance monitoring. In the first part of the thesis NFC uses, application methods and security levels a...

  13. The design of the wide field monitor for LOFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Alvarez, L.

    2014-01-01

    is designed to carry on-board two instruments with sensitivity in the 2-50 keV range: a 10 m 2 class Large Area Detector (LAD) with a monitor (WFM) making use of coded masks and providing an instantaneous coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of the WFM...... will be to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. However, thanks to its unique combination of a wide field of view (FoV) and energy resolution (better than 500 eV), the WFM will be also an excellent monitoring instrument to study the long term variability of many classes of X-ray sources. The WFM...

  14. Development and applications of energy-specific fluence monitor for field monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, D.N., E-mail: nkkumar@igcar.gov.i [Radiological Safety Division, Radiological Safety and Environmental Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Somayaji, K.M.; Venkatesan, R.; Meenakshisundaram, V. [Radiological Safety Division, Radiological Safety and Environmental Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2011-07-15

    A portable energy-specific fluence monitor is developed for field monitoring as well as to serve as stand-alone data acquisition system to measure dose rate due to routine releases at various locations in and around Nuclear Power Reactors. The data from an array of such monitors deployed over a region of interest would help in evolving a methodology to arrive at the source term evaluation in the event of a postulated nuclear incident. The other method that exists for this purpose is by conducting tracer experiments using known release of a gas like SF{sub 6} into the atmosphere and monitoring their concentrations downwind. The above instrument enables one to use the routine release of {sup 41}Ar as a tracer gas. The Argon fluence monitor houses a CsI(Tl) detector and associated miniature electronics modules for conditioning the signal from the detector. Data logging and in-situ archival of the data are controlled by a powerful web enabled communication controller preloaded with Microsoft Windows Compact Edition (WIN CE). The application software is developed in Visual Basic.NET under Compact Framework and deployed in the module. The paper gives an outline of the design aspects of the instrument, associated electronics and calibration of the instrument, including the preliminary results obtained using the instrument. The utility of the system is established by carrying out field survey around Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), consisting of two Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR), by mapping the {sup 41}Ar plume. Additional features such as enhancing the monitor capability with embedded GPS along with real-time linking using wireless networking techniques are also being incorporated.

  15. A field portable mass spectrometer for monitoring organic vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R W

    1978-03-01

    A portable mass spectrometer has been designed and built under the sponsorship of the US Army for the purpose of monitoring low concentrations of specified organics in the ambient atmosphere. The goals of the development were discrimination, sensitivity, portability, simplicity of operation, economy and convenience. These objectives were met in a system consisting of a computer operated mass spectrometer with a Llewellyn membrane separator inlet system housed in two 26 x 18 x 9 inch aluminum cases with a total weight less than 150 pounds. This system has shown the capability for field detection of hundreds of specific organic vapors at the parts per billion level in the ambient and workplace environments.

  16. Use of the isolated problem approach for multi-compartment BEM models of electro-magnetic source imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gencer, Nevzat G; Akalin-Acar, Zeynep

    2005-01-01

    The isolated problem approach (IPA) is a method used in the boundary element method (BEM) to overcome numerical inaccuracies caused by the high-conductivity difference in the skull and the brain tissues in the head. Haemaelaeinen and Sarvas (1989 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36 165-71) described how the source terms can be updated to overcome these inaccuracies for a three-layer head model. Meijs et al (1989 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36 1038-49) derived the integral equations for the general case where there are an arbitrary number of layers inside the skull. However, the IPA is used in the literature only for three-layer head models. Studies that use complex boundary element head models that investigate the inhomogeneities in the brain or model the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) do not make use of the IPA. In this study, the generalized formulation of the IPA for multi-layer models is presented in terms of integral equations. The discretized version of these equations are presented in two different forms. In a previous study (Akalin-Acar and Gencer 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 5011-28), we derived formulations to calculate the electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography transfer matrices assuming a single layer in the skull. In this study, the transfer matrix formulations are updated to incorporate the generalized IPA. The effects of the IPA are investigated on the accuracy of spherical and realistic models when the CSF layer and a tumour tissue are included in the model. It is observed that, in the spherical model, for a radial dipole 1 mm close to the brain surface, the relative difference measure (RDM*) drops from 1.88 to 0.03 when IPA is used. For the realistic model, the inclusion of the CSF layer does not change the field pattern significantly. However, the inclusion of an inhomogeneity changes the field pattern by 25% for a dipole oriented towards the inhomogeneity. The effect of the IPA is also investigated when there is an inhomogeneity in the brain. In addition

  17. ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND NOISE IN THE AREA OF AGRICUL-TURAL BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł A. Mazurek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electro-magnetic and acoustic fields were analysed at the bioenergy and biogas production plant of 0.999 MW operational power, localized in Piaski. Measured values were compared with valid national norms and did not exceed limiting values in zones of people’s permanent residence.

  18. Dose-remission of pulsating electromagnetic fields as augmentation in therapy-resistant depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straasø, Birgit; Lauritzen, Lise; Lunde, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate to what extent a twice daily dose of Transcranial Pulsating ElectroMagnetic Fields (T-PEMF) was superior to once daily in patients with treatment-resistant depression as to obtaining symptom remission after 8 weeks of augmentation therapy. METHODS: A self-treatment set...

  19. Electromagnetic fields - introduction to relevant issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueggemeyer, H.; Csicsaky, M.

    1993-01-01

    This introductory paper surveys potential sources of electric magnetic, and electro-magnetic fields. Various cases are discussed to exemplify the total frequency range: nuclear magnetic resonance tomography, high-voltage transmission lines, transformer stations, effect lighting balls, military transmitters, transmitter towers of the Postal Services and other operators, mobile radiotelephone equipment, large broadcasting transmitters, radar radiation, high-frequency heat therapy. There is evidence suggesting that electric, magnetic and electro-magnetic fields may possibly represent a certain nuisance or health hazard even at field strength occuring in equipment used for every-day-life purposes, with an emphasis on their possible actions and effects in children and adolescents. The author discusses, in conclusion, the aerial equipment ordinance issued by Lower Saxony. (Uhe) [de

  20. Condition monitoring with Mean field independent components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    We discuss condition monitoring based on mean field independent components analysis of acoustic emission energy signals. Within this framework it is possible to formulate a generative model that explains the sources, their mixing and also the noise statistics of the observed signals. By using...... a novelty approach we may detect unseen faulty signals as indeed faulty with high precision, even though the model learns only from normal signals. This is done by evaluating the likelihood that the model generated the signals and adapting a simple threshold for decision. Acoustic emission energy signals...... from a large diesel engine is used to demonstrate this approach. The results show that mean field independent components analysis gives a better detection of fault compared to principal components analysis, while at the same time selecting a more compact model...

  1. Large scale photovoltaic field trials. Second technical report: monitoring phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This report provides an update on the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trials (LS-BIPV FT) programme commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry; BERR). It provides detailed profiles of the 12 projects making up this programme, which is part of the UK programme on photovoltaics and has run in parallel with the Domestic Field Trial. These field trials aim to record the experience and use the lessons learnt to raise awareness of, and confidence in, the technology and increase UK capabilities. The projects involved: the visitor centre at the Gaia Energy Centre in Cornwall; a community church hall in London; council offices in West Oxfordshire; a sports science centre at Gloucester University; the visitor centre at Cotswold Water Park; the headquarters of the Insolvency Service; a Welsh Development Agency building; an athletics centre in Birmingham; a research facility at the University of East Anglia; a primary school in Belfast; and Barnstable civic centre in Devon. The report describes the aims of the field trials, monitoring issues, performance, observations and trends, lessons learnt and the results of occupancy surveys.

  2. Condition monitoring of pumps with co-relating field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.K.; Prasad, V.; Sharma, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The maintenance of 40 MWth research reactor, Cirus has been carried out for over 30 years following the time based maintenance schedule. With the commissioning of indigenously built 100 MWth nuclear research reactor Dhruva in the year 1985, a systematic work on condition monitoring has been commissioned. Apart from process parameters, which are recorded on hourly basis, vibration, noise, temperature, kurtosis etc. are measured for assessment of condition of pumps. The bearings of flywheel assembly of main pumps, Dhruva broke down almost abruptly during the initial years after first commissioning. The regular measurements of vibration level and kurtosis have greatly helped in avoiding breakdown. In a recent case one newly procured herringbone gear box (300 hp, 1475/1760 rpm) for the primary coolant pump was showing high vibration. In further checking using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analyser in a time domain plot the gear teeth damage was indicated. The pump was shut down for inspection and when the gear box was dismantled teeth were found broken. An attempt has been made in this paper to discuss a few interesting field experiences with condition monitoring and correlating field observations on pumps. (author). 3 figs

  3. Electromagnetic fields and health impact: measurements, monitoring and environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Vetromile, C.; Petraglia, A.; Racioppoli, M.; D'Onofrio, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the last 10 years there has been a remarkable growth of the attention for problems related to the electromagnetic pollution, motivated by the alert connected to potential risk for the health of persons and due to the increasing diffusion of Bats for mobile telecommunication as EMF sources. Many projects are being realized about the environmental and health impact of electromagnetic field and an important social role is played by specific actions to minimize the risk perception of the population. This study aims to find an innovative approach to these problems through the use of a system of continuous time monitoring of the electromagnetic fields and the individuation of appropriate environmental indicators. The proposed system monitors the electromagnetic fields continuously over time, and is already operating in many southern Italian cities. It works in a very efficient way as a mean for: a) Info to the citizens, thanks to diffusion of daily collected data on Internet Web; b) Control for local administrations and Authorities, due to capability of the system itself to alert when measured values exceed the limits reported by the Italian laws; c) Planning, for the implementation of : 1) New procedures agreed among local environmental control agency, local administrations and mobile Companies for network planning and management of alarm situations; 2) New local guidelines documents concerning the installation and operation of telecommunications apparatus. Moreover, starting from the general principles of the Strategic Environmental Evaluation (VAS), the environmental impacts of EMS field is studied. Based on the model DPSIR (Drivers, Pressure, State, Impacts, Responses), 12 environmental indicators have been chosen providing an immediate and understandable tool to obtain very important information on electromagnetic pollution generated by radio-telecommunication systems. The selected environmental indicators have been applied to 11 cities of the

  4. Structural response in FeCl2 (iron chloride) to pressure-induced electro-magnetic transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rozenberg, G Kh [TEL AVIV UNIV; Pasternak, M P [TEL AVIV UNIV; Gorodetsky, P [TEL AVIV UNIV; Xu, W M [TEL AVIV UNIV; Dubrovinsky, L S [UNIV OF BAYREUTH; Le Bihan, T L [FRANCE

    2009-01-01

    High pressure (HP) synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were carried out in FeCl{sub 2} together with resistivity (R) studies, at various temperatures and pressures to 65 GPa using diamond anvil cells. This work follows a previous HP {sup 57}Fe Mossbauer study in which two pressure-induced (PI) electronic transitions were found interpreted as: (i) quenching of the orbital-term contribution to the hyperfine field concurring with a tilting of the magnetic moment by 55 degrees and (ii) collapse of the magnetism concurring with a sharp decrease of the isomer shift (IS). The R(P,T) studies affirm that the cause the collapse of the magnetism is a PI p-d correlation breakdown, leading to an insulator-metal transition at {approx}45 GPa and is not due to a spi-Ir,crossover (S=2 {yields} S=0). The structure response to the pressure evolution of the two electronic phase transitions starting at low pressures (LP), through an intermediate phase (IP) 30-57 GPa, and culminating in a high-pressure phase (HP), P >32 GPa, can clearly be quantified. The IP-HP phases coexist through the 32-57 GPa range in which the HP abundance increases monotonically at the expense of the IP phase. At the LP-IP interface no volume change is detected, yet the c-axis increases and the a-axis shrinks by 0.21 Angstroms and 0.13 Angstroms, respectively. The fit of the equation of state of the combined LP-IP phases yields a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 35.3(1.8) GPa. The intralayer CI-CI distances increases, but no change is observed in Fe-CI bond-length nor are there substantial changes in the interlayer spacing. The pressure-induced electronic IP-HP transition leads to a first-order structural phase transition characterized by a decrease in Fe-CI bond length and an abrupt drop in V(P) by {approx}3.5% accompanying the correlation breakdown. In this transition no symmetry change is detected,and the XRD data could be satisfactorily fitted with the CdI{sub 2} structure. The bulk modulus of the HP phase is

  5. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques

  6. Reactivation of a dormant earthflow documented by field monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Matteo; Simoni, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Large, deep-seated earthflows are common in mountainous areas where clay soils or fine-grained weak rocks are dominant. Distinctive features of these landslides are the relatively slow movements and the complex style of activity, in which mass flow is accompanied by basal sliding along localized shear zones. Earthflows are subjected to periodic reactivations separated by long intervals of dormancy. Although the dynamics of earthflows is widely documented in the literature, field data on the reactivation process are almost absent because of the difficulty of catching the critical acceleration phase. We document the reactivation of a large, dormant earthflow that occurred in February 2014 in the Northern Apennines of Italy. The Montecchi earthflow is located about 50 km to the south of Bologna, on the left side of the Silla Valley. Slopes are mainly constituted by chaotic sedimentary melanges belonging to the Palombini Shale (lower Cretaceous-Cenomanian). The earthflow first reactivated in November 1994, after an apparently unexceptional precipitation of 95 mm over a week. Surface velocities reached the value of few meters per day during the failure, then the landslide slowed down. One month after the reactivation, the velocity reduced to 1.2 mm/day and five months later it was further decreased to 0.1-0.2 mm/day. In the following years, the landslide became dormant with residual movements in the order of few mm/month. A monitoring system was installed in July 2004 to investigate the slope response to rainfalls and the displacement rates of the landslide during the dormant phase. The monitoring system has been operational for more than 10 years by adapting the number, type, and location of monitoring sensors to the evolving landslide. The monitoring system was operational when, on the 10th of February 2014, the landslide reactivated again. At the time of the failure two monitored sections were operational in the source area (upper section) and in the central part

  7. Faster Than Light (FTL) Travel and Causality in the Context of the Gravity-Electro-Magnetism (GEM) Theory of Field Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    In The GEM (Brandenburg, 2006) theory, direct manipulation of space-time geometry is possible leading to the possibility of transformation of a starship into a tachyon moving Faster Than Light (FTL). The GEM theory is reviewed and Causality in terms of the time ordering of experienced events is considered as well as examining the space-time curvature signature of such FTL particles. Time ordering and time flow is found to be determined by the 2nd law of thermodynamics and is used to derive a Cosmic time flow in terms of the expansion of the universe. The rate of increase of cosmic entropy is approximately dS/dt = c3/(Gmp), the rate that light transits from a proton-mass Black Hole, reminiscent of the Dirac Larger Number Hypothesis relating Cosmic and subatomic quantities. It is found that the tachyon FTL method, rather than allowing reversal of time ordering of experienced events, actually makes the cosmos age faster by contributing to an increase in ``Dark Energy'' and thus FTL travel via tachyons irreversibly changes the cosmos. Therefore, it appears that FTL travel can be accomplished without violation of Causality.

  8. Classical electromagnetic field theory in the presence of magnetic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wen-Jun; Li, Kang; Naón, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Using two new well defined 4-dimensional potential vectors, we formulate the classical Maxwell's field theory in a form which has manifest Lorentz covariance and SO(2) duality symmetry in the presence of magnetic sources. We set up a consistent Lagrangian for the theory. Then from the action principle we get both Maxwell's equation and the equation of motion of a dyon moving in the electro-magnetic field.

  9. Influence factor analysis of atmospheric electric field monitoring near ground under different weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Haojiang; Wei, Guanghui; Cui, Yaozhong; Chen, Yazhou

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric electric field near ground plays a critical role in atmospheric environment detecting and lightning warning. Different environmental conditions (e.g. buildings, plants, weather, etc.) have different influences on the data's coherence in an atmospheric electric field detection network. In order to study the main influence factors of atmospheric electric field monitoring under different weather conditions, with the combination of theoretical analysis and experiments, the electric field monitoring data on the ground and on the top of a building are compared in fair weather and thunderstorm weather respectively in this paper. The results show that: In fair weather, the field distortion due to the buildings is the main influence factor on the electric field monitoring. In thunderstorm weather, the corona ions produced from the ground, besides the field distortion due to the buildings, can also influence the electric field monitoring results.

  10. A wireless sensor network design and evaluation for large structural strain field monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zixue; Wu, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang

    2011-01-01

    Structural strain changes under external environmental or mechanical loads are the main monitoring parameters in structural health monitoring or mechanical property tests. This paper presents a wireless sensor network designed for monitoring large structural strain field variation. First of all, a precision strain sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and wireless monitoring. In order to establish a synchronous strain data acquisition network, the cluster-star network synchronization method is designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless network for strain field monitoring capability, a multi-point network evaluation system is developed for an experimental aluminum plate structure for load variation monitoring. Based on the precision wireless strain nodes, the wireless data acquisition network is deployed to synchronously gather, process and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under concentrated loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network for large structural strain field monitoring

  11. Electromagnetic fields on a quantum scale. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Dale M; Grimes, Craig A

    2002-10-01

    This is the first in a series of two articles, the second of which provides an exact electro-magnetic field description of photon emission, absorption, and radiation pattern. Photon energy exchanges are analyzed and shown to be the triggered, regenerative response of a non-local eigenstate electron. This first article presents a model-based, hidden variable analysis of quantum theory that provides the statistical nature of wave functions. The analysis uses the equations of classical electro-magnetism and conservation of energy while modeling an eigenstate electron as a nonlocal entity. Essential to the analysis are physical properties that were discovered and analyzed only after the historical interpretation of quantum mechanics was established: electron non-locality and the standing electro-magnetic energy that accompanies and encompasses an active, electrically small volume. The standing energy produces a driving radiation reaction force that, under certain circumstances, is many orders of magnitude larger than currently accepted values. These properties provide a sufficient basis for the Schrödinger equation as a descriptor of non-relativistic eigenstate electrons in or near equilibrium. The uncertainty principle follows, as does the exclusion principle. The analysis leads to atomic stability and causality in the sense that the status of physical phenomena at any instant specifies the status an instant later.

  12. Experimental Development of Low-emittance Field-emission Electron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueangaranwong, A. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Buzzard, C. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Divan, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Korampally, V. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Piot, P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator & Detector Development; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-10-10

    Field emission electron sources are capable of extreme brightness when excited by static or time-dependent electro- magnetic fields. We are currently developing a cathode test stand operating in DC mode with possibility to trigger the emission using ultra-short (~ 100-fs) laser pulses. This contribution describes the status of an experiment to investigate field-emission using cathodes under development at NIU in collaboration with the Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials.

  13. A Review of Field Corrosion Control and Monitoring Techniques of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... to make informed decision and timely respond to corrosion threat before failures. Keywords: cathodic protection, corrosion mechanism, control and monitoring, ...

  14. Water Quality & Pollutant Source Monitoring: Field and Laboratory Procedures. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on techniques and instrumentation used to develop data in field monitoring programs and related laboratory operations concerned with water quality and pollution monitoring. Topics include: collection and handling of samples; bacteriological, biological, and chemical field and laboratory methods; field…

  15. Observing GRBs with the LOFT Wide Field Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Hernanz, M.; Feroci, M.

    2013-01-01

    (LAD) with a monitor (WFM) instrument. The WFM is based on the coded mask principle, and 5 camera units will provide coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of the WFM is to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. With its wide...

  16. Profile distortion by beam space-charge in Ionization Profile Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Vilsmeier, D; Wettig, T

    Measuring the transverse beam size in the Large Hadron Collider by using Ionization Profile Monitors is a difficult task for energies above injection during the energy ramp from 450 GeV to 6.5TeV. The beam size decreases from around 1mm to 200um and the brightness of the beam is high enough to destroy the structure of any form of interacting matter. While the electron trajectories are confined by an external electro-magnetic field which forces the electrons accordingly on helix paths with certain gyroradii, this gyration is heavily increased under the influence of the electric field of the beam. Smaller beam sizes, which go hand in hand with increased bunch electric fields, lead to larger gyroradii of the ionized electrons, which results in strongly distorted profiles. In addition, this distortion becomes more visible for smaller beam sizes as the extent of gyration grows compared to the actual beam size. Depending on the initial momentum distribution of the electrons, emerging from the ionization process wit...

  17. Attention discrimination: theory and field experiments with monitoring information acquisition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Vojtěch; Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, Julie; Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 6 (2016), s. 1437-1475 ISSN 0002-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : inattention * discrimination * field experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.026, year: 2016

  18. Image Analysis in the Field of Oil Contamination Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ceco, Ema

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring wear particles in lubricating oils allows specialists to evaluate thehealth and functionality of a mechanical system. The main analysis techniquesavailable today are manual particle analysis and automatic optical analysis. Man-ual particle analysis is effective and reliable since the analyst continuously seeswhat is being counted . The drawback is that the technique is quite time demand-ing and dependent of the skills of the analyst. Automatic optical particle countingconstitutes o...

  19. Attention Discrimination: Theory and Field Experiments with Monitoring Information Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoš, Vojtěch; Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, Julie; Matějka, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We link two important ideas: attention is scarce and lack of information about an individual drives discrimination in selection decisions. Our model of allocation of costly attention implies that applicants from negatively stereotyped groups face "attention discrimination": less attention in highly selective cherry-picking markets, where more attention helps applicants, and more attention in lemon-dropping markets, where it harms them. To test the prediction, we integrate tools to monitor inf...

  20. Mobile Phone-Based Field Monitoring for Satsuma Mandarin and Its Application to Watering Advice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Toshiyuki; Numano, Nagisa; Yagyu, Hiroyuki; Shimazu, Hideo

    This paper describes a mobile phone-based data logging system for monitoring the growing status of Satsuma mandarin, a type of citrus fruit, in the field. The system can provide various feedback to the farm producers with collected data, such as visualization of related data as a timeline chart or advice on the necessity of watering crops. It is important to collect information on environment conditions, plant status and product quality, to analyze it and to provide it as feedback to the farm producers to aid their operations. This paper proposes a novel framework of field monitoring and feedback for open-field farming. For field monitoring, it combines a low-cost plant status monitoring method using a simple apparatus and a Field Server for environment condition monitoring. Each field worker has a simple apparatus to measure fruit firmness and records data with a mobile phone. The logged data are stored in the database of the system on the server. The system analyzes stored data for each field and is able to show the necessity of watering to the user in five levels. The system is also able to show various stored data in timeline chart form. The user and coach can compare or analyze these data via a web interface. A test site was built at a Satsuma mandarin field at Kumano in Mie Prefecture, Japan using the framework, and farm workers monitor in the area used and evaluated the system.

  1. Non-Invasive Fiber-Optic Biomedical Sensor for Basic Vital Sign Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nedoma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the functionality verification of a novel non-invasive fibre-optic sensor monitoring basic vital signs such as Respiratory Rate (RR, Heart Rate (HR and Body Temperature (BT. The integration of three sensors in one unit is a unique solution patented by our research team. The integrated sensor is based on two Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs encapsulated inside an inert polymer (non-reactive to human skin called PolyDiMethylSiloxane (PDMS. The PDMS is beginning to find widespread applications in the biomedical field due to its desirable properties, especially its immunity to ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI. The integrated sensor's functionality was verified by carrying out a series of laboratory experiments in 10 volunteer subjects after giving them a written informed consent. The Bland-Altman statistical analysis produced satisfactory accuracy for the respiratory and heart rate measurements and their respective reference signals in all test subjects. A total relative error of 0.31% was determined for body temperature measurements. The main contribution of this article is a proof-of-concept of a novel noninvasive fiber-optic sensor which could be used for basic vital sign monitoring. This sensor offers a potential to enhance and improve the comfort level of patients in hospitals and clinics and can even be considered for use in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI environments.

  2. The German remote monitoring field test -- First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Neumann, G.; Rudolf, K.; Schink, F.J.; Johnson, C.S.; Martinez, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency strives to increase the efficiency of its safeguards by reducing the inspection effort without losing safeguards effectiveness. Remote data transmission may have a potential to automate routine safeguards. The German government sponsors a field trial to study technical and non-technical issues related to the remote transmission of safeguards and status data as well as mailing-in of data carriers. Major technical issues of the field trial are the authenticity and confidentiality of the remotely received data as well as the reliability of the transmission techniques and data storage on removable data carriers. Non-technical issues are related to the release of data including the timing of data transmissions. The field trial takes place in the commercial Ahaus Dry Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel with participation of Sandia National Laboratories. The paper describes the first results

  3. Whole-Home Dehumidifiers: Field-Monitoring Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Tom; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Johnson, Russell

    2014-09-23

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) initiated a WHD field-metering study to expand current knowledge of and obtain data on WHD operation and energy consumption in real-world applications. The field study collected real-time data on WHD energy consumption, along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and various outdoor conditions expected to affect WHD performance and efficiency. Although the metering study collected similar data regarding air conditioner operation, this report discusses only WHDs. The primary objectives of the LBNL field-metering study are to (1) expand knowledge of the configurations, energy consumption profiles, consumer patterns of use (e.g., relative humidity [RH] settings), and environmental parameters of whole-home dehumidification systems; and (2) develop distributions of hours of dehumidifier operation in four operating modes: off, standby, fan-only, and compressor (also called dehumidification mode). Profiling energy consumption entails documenting the power consumption, duration of power consumption in different modes, condensate generation, and properties of output air of an installed system under field conditions of varying inlet air temperature and RH, as well as system configuration. This profiling provides a more detailed and deeper understanding of WHD operation and its complexities. This report describes LBNL’s whole-home dehumidification field-metering study conducted at four homes in Wisconsin and Florida. The initial phase of the WHD field-metering study was conducted on one home in Madison, Wisconsin, from June to December of 2013. During a second phase, three Florida homes were metered from June to October of 2014. This report presents and examines data from the Wisconsin site and from the three Florida sites.

  4. Field application of smart SHM using field programmable gate array technology to monitor an RC bridge in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarbayejani, M; Jalalpour, M; Reda Taha, M M; El-Osery, A I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative field application of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology and wireless communication is presented. The new SHM system was installed to monitor a reinforced concrete (RC) bridge on Interstate 40 (I-40) in Tucumcari, New Mexico. This newly installed system allows continuous remote monitoring of this bridge using solar power. Details of the SHM component design and installation are discussed. The integration of FPGA and solar power technologies make it possible to remotely monitor infrastructure with limited access to power. Furthermore, the use of FPGA technology enables smart monitoring where data communication takes place on-need (when damage warning signs are met) and on-demand for periodic monitoring of the bridge. Such a system enables a significant cut in communication cost and power demands which are two challenges during SHM operation. Finally, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the bridge was developed and calibrated using a static loading field test. This model is then used for simulating damage occurrence on the bridge. Using the proposed automation process for SHM will reduce human intervention significantly and can save millions of dollars currently spent on prescheduled inspection of critical infrastructure worldwide

  5. Field application of smart SHM using field programmable gate array technology to monitor an RC bridge in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbayejani, M.; Jalalpour, M.; El-Osery, A. I.; Reda Taha, M. M.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an innovative field application of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology and wireless communication is presented. The new SHM system was installed to monitor a reinforced concrete (RC) bridge on Interstate 40 (I-40) in Tucumcari, New Mexico. This newly installed system allows continuous remote monitoring of this bridge using solar power. Details of the SHM component design and installation are discussed. The integration of FPGA and solar power technologies make it possible to remotely monitor infrastructure with limited access to power. Furthermore, the use of FPGA technology enables smart monitoring where data communication takes place on-need (when damage warning signs are met) and on-demand for periodic monitoring of the bridge. Such a system enables a significant cut in communication cost and power demands which are two challenges during SHM operation. Finally, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the bridge was developed and calibrated using a static loading field test. This model is then used for simulating damage occurrence on the bridge. Using the proposed automation process for SHM will reduce human intervention significantly and can save millions of dollars currently spent on prescheduled inspection of critical infrastructure worldwide.

  6. Attention discrimination: theory and field experiments with monitoring information acquisition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Vojtěch; Bauer, M.; Chytilová, J.; Matějka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 6 (2016), s. 1437-1475 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-30724S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : inattention * discrimination * field experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.026, year: 2016

  7. An electromagnetic field measurement protocol for monitoring power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubritto, C.; Iavazzo, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Palmieri, A.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the actions aiming to prevent risks related to the exposure to Low Frequencies Non Ionising electromagnetic Radiations (ELF-NIR), always arises the need to perform measurements in order to assess the field level existing in the considered sites. As a matter of fact very often it turns out difficult to predict, on the base of calculations, with sufficient approximation the field levels, due to extended variability of environmental conditions (e.g. coexistence of several sources, ground and building conformation, etc..). The measurement procedures must follow a methodology that could allow to minimise the interferences with the measurement set-up and the systematic and accidental errors. Risks for the operator and damages to the instrument should also be taken into account. One of the goal set for this research program was then the definition of the measurement protocol for electromagnetic field generated by low frequency non ionising radiation sources. In particular sources like power lines will be considered in order to validate the protocol by means of in-field measurements

  8. Real-Time Earthquake Monitoring with Spatio-Temporal Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, J. C.; Nittel, S.; Subasinghe, I.

    2017-10-01

    With live streaming sensors and sensor networks, increasingly large numbers of individual sensors are deployed in physical space. Sensor data streams are a fundamentally novel mechanism to deliver observations to information systems. They enable us to represent spatio-temporal continuous phenomena such as radiation accidents, toxic plumes, or earthquakes almost as instantaneously as they happen in the real world. Sensor data streams discretely sample an earthquake, while the earthquake is continuous over space and time. Programmers attempting to integrate many streams to analyze earthquake activity and scope need to write code to integrate potentially very large sets of asynchronously sampled, concurrent streams in tedious application code. In previous work, we proposed the field stream data model (Liang et al., 2016) for data stream engines. Abstracting the stream of an individual sensor as a temporal field, the field represents the Earth's movement at the sensor position as continuous. This simplifies analysis across many sensors significantly. In this paper, we undertake a feasibility study of using the field stream model and the open source Data Stream Engine (DSE) Apache Spark(Apache Spark, 2017) to implement a real-time earthquake event detection with a subset of the 250 GPS sensor data streams of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN). The field-based real-time stream queries compute maximum displacement values over the latest query window of each stream, and related spatially neighboring streams to identify earthquake events and their extent. Further, we correlated the detected events with an USGS earthquake event feed. The query results are visualized in real-time.

  9. Preliminary Finding from a New Device for Monitoring Performance and Environmental Factors in the Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lieberman, Harris

    2000-01-01

    .... This paper will introduce a new device, the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine vigilance monitor, which was developed for assessment of human performance in an automated, continuous manner in the field...

  10. Coaxial monitoring of temperature field in selective pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Che; Chen, Zhongyun; Cao, Hongzhong; Zhou, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Selective Laser Melting is a rapid manufacturing technology which produces complex parts layer by layer. The presence of thermal stress and thermal strain in the forming process often leads to defects in the formed parts. In order to detect fabricate errors and avoid failure which caused by thermal gradient in time. An infrared thermal imager and a high speed CCD camera were applied to build a coaxial optical system for real-time monitoring the temperature distribution and changing trend of laser affected zone in SLM forming process. Molten tracks were fabricated by SLM under different laser parameters such as frequency, pulse width. And the relationship between the laser parameters and the temperature distribution were all obtained and analyzed.

  11. Rapid monitoring particulate radiocesium with nonwoven fabric cartridge filter and application to field monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hideki; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Kondo, Yoshihiko; Kawashima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    A method for rapid monitoring particulate radiocesium using a nonwoven fabric cartridge filter was developed, which needs no further preprocessing before served to a detector. By a performance test, more than 98% of suspended solid (SS) was collected. This method showed the same radioactivity measurement accuracy as filtration by membrane filter and more rapid extraction capability of SS. (author)

  12. A field method for monitoring thoron-daughter working level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Dhandayatham, R.; Raghavayya, M.; Nambiar, P.P.V.J.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of working level, generally used for radon daughters, has been extended to the daughter products of thoron. Accordingly, thorondaughter working level (TWL) has been defined as the alpha energy released from the ultimate decay of 100 pCi/1 each of the short-lived decay products of thoron. In order to facilitate the evaluation of inhalation hazard in thorium handling areas, a simple field method has been suggested to measure the thoron-daughter working level. A comparison of the potential alpha energies from radon-daughters and that from thoron-daughter is included. (K.B.)

  13. Study of an integrated electronic monitor for neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barelaud, B.; Nexon-Mokhtari, F.; Barrau, C.; Decossas, J.L.; Vareille, J.C. [Limoges Univ., 87 (France); Sarrabayrouse, G.J. [CNRS, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    The majority of the individual neutron monitors measure incorrectly in a certain energy range (10 keV-500 keV). For electronic devices, this problem is due to their high {gamma} sensitivity. To solve this problem a microelectronic detector design for neutron spectrometry is now being studied at LEPOFI. It is based on the measurement of the total energy which is deposited by {sup 6}Li (n, {alpha}) {sup 3}H or {sup 10}B (n {alpha}) {sup 7}Li reactions in silicon detectors. A new electronic sensor - for example a boron or lithium sandwich device -has been developed in collaboration with LAAS. Specific techniques for silicon sensor coating with boron have been developed and are briefly presented. The response of the detector has been computed using a model and a code developed at LEPOFI. Several parameters have been taken into account in the calculations: the type of layer, its thickness, the characteristics of the detector. The results of these simulations are discussed and calculated pulse height distributions for various designs are presented. The present status of the investigation only concerns thermal neutrons. (author).

  14. Workplace monitoring of mixed neutron-photon radiation fields and its contribution to external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhmacher, H.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace monitoring is a common procedure for determining measures for routine radiation protection in a particular working environment. For mixed radiation fields consisting of neutrons and photons, it is of increased importance because it contributes to the improved accuracy of individual monitoring. An example is the determination of field-specific correction factors, which can be applied to the readings of personal dosemeters. This paper explains the general problems associated with individual dosimetry of neutron radiation, and describes the various options for workplace monitoring. These options cover a range from the elaborate field characterisation using transport calculations or spectrometers to the simpler approach using area monitors. Examples are given for workplaces in nuclear industry, at particle accelerators and at flight altitudes. (authors)

  15. Experiment of Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Sik Kim

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently the mobile wireless network has been drastically enhanced and one of the most efficient ways to realize the ubiquitous network will be to develop the converged network by integrating the mobile wireless network with other IP fixed network like NGN (Next Generation Network. So in this paper the term of the wireless ubiquitous network is used to describe this approach. In this paper, first, the wireless ubiquitous network architecture is described based on IMS which has been standardized by 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Program. Next, the field data collection system to match the satellite data using location information is proposed based on the concept of the wireless ubiquitous network architecture. The purpose of the proposed system is to provide more accurate analyzing method with the researchers in the remote sensing area.

  16. The Utilization of Edge-of-Field Monitoring of Agricultural Runoff in Addressing Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    While basin-scale studies and modeling are important tools in relating land uses to water quality concerns, edge-of-field monitoring (EOFM) provides the necessary resolution to spatially target, design, and evaluate in-field conservation practices for reducing nutrient and sediment loading from agri...

  17. Application of γ field theory based calculation method to the monitoring of mine nuclear radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yanjun; Liu Qingcheng; Liu Hongzhang; Qin Guoxiu

    2009-01-01

    In order to find the feasibility of calculating mine radiation dose based on γ field theory, this paper calculates the γ radiation dose of a mine by means of γ field theory based calculation method. The results show that the calculated radiation dose is of small error and can be used to monitor mine environment of nuclear radiation. (authors)

  18. Quantum Field Theoretic Derivation of the Einstein Weak Equivalence Principle Using Emqg Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike

    1999-01-01

    We provide a quantum field theoretic derivation of Einstein's Weak Equivalence Principle of general relativity using a new quantum gravity theory proposed by the authors called Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG (ref. 1). EMQG is based on a new theory of inertia (ref. 5) proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff (which we modified and called Quantum Inertia). Quantum Inertia states that classical Newtonian Inertia is a property of matter due to the strictly local electrical force ...

  19. X-ray astronomy 2000: Wide field X-ray monitoring with lobster-eye telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inneman, A.; Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Gorenstein, P.

    2001-01-01

    The recently available first prototypes of innovative very wide field X-ray telescopes of Lobster-Eye type confirm the feasibility to develop such flight instruments in a near future. These devices are expected to allow very wide field (more than 1000 square degrees) monitoring of the sky in X-rays (up to 10 keV and perhaps even more) with faint limits. We will discuss the recent status of the development of very wide field X-ray telescopes as well as related scientific questions including expected major contributions such as monitoring and study of X-ray afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

  20. Magnetic Field Monitoring in the SNS and LANL Neutron EDM Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Alina; SNS nEDM Collaboration; LANL nEDM Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SNS neutron EDM experiment requires the ability to precisely control and monitor the magnetic field inside of the fiducial volume. However, it is not always practical (or even possible) to measure the field within the region of interest directly. To remedy this issue, we have designed a field monitoring system that will allow us to reconstruct the field inside of the fiducial volume using noninvasive measurements of the field components at discrete locations external to this volume. A prototype probe array (consisting of 12 single-axis fluxgate magnetometer sensors) was used to monitor the magnetic field within the fiducial volume of an in-house magnetic testing apparatus. In this talk, the design and results of this test will be presented, and the possible implementation of this field monitoring method may have in the room temperature LANL neutron EDM experiment will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-SC-0014622.

  1. A remote monitoring system of environmental electromagnetic field in magnetic confinement fusion test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Takami, Shigeyuki; Wang, Jianqing; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    A remote, continuous environmental electromagnetic field monitoring system for use in magnetic confinement fusion test facilities is developed. Using this system, both the static magnetic field and the high frequency electromagnetic field could be measured. The required frequency range of the measurement system is from 25 to 100 MHz for the ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) heating system. The outputs from the measurement instruments are measured simultaneously by custom-built software using a laptop-type personal computer connected to a local area network. In this way, the electromagnetic field strength could be monitored from a control room located about 200 m from the fusion device building. Examples of measurement data from the vicinity of a high-frequency generator and amplifier and the leakage static magnetic field from a fusion test device are presented. (author)

  2. Electromagnetic-based force sensor for Structural Health Monitoring(SHM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Man Yong; Park, Hae Won; Park, Jeong Hak; Sam, R.

    2002-01-01

    The demand for maintenance of structural health and safety to acceptable standards poses challenges for research and development of effective technologies for monitoring and measurement of parameters governing safety and health of structures. In this work, an electromagnetic based sensor has been investigated and developed for measuring force in pre-stressed steel cables and tendons. The change in magnetic permeability of a material caused by mechanical stress is exploited to measure force in the material. The sensor consists of a pair of sensing coils and a pair of reference coils. The sensing coils are wound around a stressed material while the reference pair are wound on a dummy specimen of same material as that under stress. When sensing and reference primary coils are excited by same current simultaneously, both the stressed and dummy materials are equally magnetized by the magnetic field generated by the current, and voltage is induced in the sensing and reference secondary coils. The induced voltage in each secondary coil is dependent on a number of factors including the magnetic permeability of its core which is a function of the core magnetizing current, temperature and stress/load. By suitably arranging the sensing and reference coils electro-magnetically, the effects of temperature and magnetizing current on the permeability of a stressed material can be eliminated in the output voltage of the sensor. The output voltage is a function of only the mechanical load in the stressed material, and can be calibrated for determination of force in pre-stressed materials

  3. Present state and problems of radiological protection monitoring for high energy electron accelerator facilities in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Ueda, Hisao

    1998-09-01

    The present state and problems of the radiological protection monitoring for the high-energy electron accelerator are summarized. In the radiological protection monitoring for SPring-8, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility, there are many problems specific to the high-energy electron accelerator. This report describes the monitoring technique of pulsed radiation, high-energy radiation and low-energy radiation, and their problems. The management of induced radioactivity and the effects of electro-magnetic noise to monitoring instruments are also discussed. (author)

  4. Muscular condition monitoring system using fiber bragg grating sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Lee, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors (FOS) have advantages such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity, corrosion resistance and multiplexing capability. For these reasons, they are widely used in various condition monitoring systems (CMS). This study investigated a muscular condition monitoring system using fiber optic sensors (FOS). Generally, sensors for monitoring the condition of the human body are based on electro-magnetic devices. However, such an electrical system has several weaknesses, including the potential for electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors overcome these weaknesses, along with simplifying the devices and increasing user convenience. To measure the level of muscle contraction and relaxation, which indicates the muscle condition, a belt-shaped FBG sensor module that makes it possible to monitor the movement of muscles in the radial and circumferential directions was fabricated in this study. In addition, a uniaxial tensile test was carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of this FBG sensor module. Based on the experimental results, a relationship was observed between the tensile stress and Bragg wavelength of the FBG sensors, which revealed the possibility of fabricating a muscular condition monitoring system based on FBG sensors.

  5. Muscular condition monitoring system using fiber bragg grating sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Young; Lee, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Fiber optic sensors (FOS) have advantages such as electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity, corrosion resistance and multiplexing capability. For these reasons, they are widely used in various condition monitoring systems (CMS). This study investigated a muscular condition monitoring system using fiber optic sensors (FOS). Generally, sensors for monitoring the condition of the human body are based on electro-magnetic devices. However, such an electrical system has several weaknesses, including the potential for electro-magnetic interference and distortion. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors overcome these weaknesses, along with simplifying the devices and increasing user convenience. To measure the level of muscle contraction and relaxation, which indicates the muscle condition, a belt-shaped FBG sensor module that makes it possible to monitor the movement of muscles in the radial and circumferential directions was fabricated in this study. In addition, a uniaxial tensile test was carried out in order to evaluate the applicability of this FBG sensor module. Based on the experimental results, a relationship was observed between the tensile stress and Bragg wavelength of the FBG sensors, which revealed the possibility of fabricating a muscular condition monitoring system based on FBG sensors.

  6. Behavioral and Locomotor Measurements Using an Open Field Activity Monitoring System for Skeletal Muscle Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tatem, Kathleen S.; Quinn, James L.; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body sy...

  7. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm 2 beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm 2 field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  8. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm{sup 2} beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm{sup 2} field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  9. Pair production by a constant external field in noncommutative QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chair, N.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we study QED on the noncommutative space in the constant electro-magnetic field background. Using the explicit solutions of the noncommutative version of Dirac equation in such background, we show that there are well-defined in and out-going asymptotic states and also there is a causal Green's function. We calculate the pair production rate in this case. We show that at tree level noncommutativity will not change the pair production and the threshold electric field. We also calculate the pair production rate considering the first loop corrections. In this case we show that the threshold electric field is decreased by the noncommutativity effects. (author)

  10. A method for online verification of adapted fields using an independent dose monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Jina; Norrlinger, Bernhard D.; Heaton, Robert K.; Jaffray, David A.; Cho, Young-Bin; Islam, Mohammad K.; Mahon, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical implementation of online adaptive radiotherapy requires generation of modified fields and a method of dosimetric verification in a short time. We present a method of treatment field modification to account for patient setup error, and an online method of verification using an independent monitoring system.Methods: The fields are modified by translating each multileaf collimator (MLC) defined aperture in the direction of the patient setup error, and magnifying to account for distance variation to the marked isocentre. A modified version of a previously reported online beam monitoring system, the integral quality monitoring (IQM) system, was investigated for validation of adapted fields. The system consists of a large area ion-chamber with a spatial gradient in electrode separation to provide a spatially sensitive signal for each beam segment, mounted below the MLC, and a calculation algorithm to predict the signal. IMRT plans of ten prostate patients have been modified in response to six randomly chosen setup errors in three orthogonal directions.Results: A total of approximately 49 beams for the modified fields were verified by the IQM system, of which 97% of measured IQM signal agree with the predicted value to within 2%.Conclusions: The modified IQM system was found to be suitable for online verification of adapted treatment fields

  11. Technical results of Y-12/IAEA field trial of remote monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbell, B.H.; Whitaker, J.M.; Welch, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Remote Monitoring System (RMS) field trial has been conducted with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on highly enriched uranium materials in a vault at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The RMS included a variety of Sandia, Oak Ridge, and Aquila sensor technologies which provide containment seals, video monitoring, radiation asset measurements, and container identification data to the on-site DAS (Data Acquisition System) by way of radio-frequency and Echelon LonWorks networks. The accumulated safeguards information was transmitted to the IAEA via satellite (COMSAT/RSI) and international telephone lines. The technologies tested in the remote monitoring environment are the RadCouple, RadSiP, and SmartShelf sensors from the ORSENS (Oak Ridge Sensors for Enhancing Nuclear Safeguards) technologies; the AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System) motion sensor (AMS), AIMS fiber-optic seal (AFOS), ICAM (Image Compression and Authentication Module) video surveillance system, DAS (Data Acquisition System), and DIRS (Data and Image Review Station) from Sandia; and the AssetLAN identification tag, VACOSS-S seal, and Gemini digital surveillance system from Aquila. The field trial was conducted from October 1996 through May 1997. Tests were conducted during the monthly IAEA Interim Inventory Verification (IIV) inspections for evaluation of the equipment. Experience gained through the field trials will allow the technologies to be applied to various monitoring scenarios

  12. SU-F-J-147: Magnetic Field Dose Response Considerations for a Linac Monitor Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M; Fallone, B [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The impact of magnetic fields on the readings of a linac monitor chamber have not yet been investigated. Herein we examine the total dose response as well as any deviations in the beam parameters of flatness and symmetry when a Varian monitor chamber is irradiated within an applied magnetic field. This work has direct application to the development of Linac-MR systems worldwide. Methods: A Varian monitor chamber was modeled in the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE and irradiated in the presence of a magnetic field with a phase space generated from a model of a Linac-MR prototype system. The magnetic field strength was stepped from 0 to 3.0T in both parallel and perpendicular directions with respect to the normal surface of the phase space. Dose to each of the four regions in the monitor chamber were scored separately for every magnetic field adaptation to evaluate the effect of the magnetic field on flatness and symmetry. Results: When the magnetic field is perpendicular to the phase space normal we see a change in dose response with a maximal deviation (10–25% depending on the chamber region) near 0.75T. In the direction of electron deflection we expectedly see opposite responses in chamber regions leading to a measured asymmetry. With a magnetic field parallel to the phase space normal we see no measured asymmetries, however there is a monotonic rise in dose response leveling off at about +12% near 2.5T. Conclusion: Attention must be given to correct for the strength and direction of the magnetic field at the location of the linac monitor chamber in hybrid Linac-MR devices. Elsewise the dose sampled by these chambers may not represent the actual dose expected at isocentre; additionally there may be a need to correct for the symmetry of the beam recorded by the monitor chamber. Fallone is a co-founder and CEO of MagnetTx Oncology Solutions (under discussions to license Alberta bi-planar linac MR for commercialization).

  13. Wide field monitoring of the X-ray sky using Rotation Modulation Collimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels; Brandt, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Wide field monitoring is of particular interest in X-ray astronomy due to the strong time-variability of most X-ray sources. Not only does the time-profiles of the persistent sources contain characteristic signatures of the underlying physical systems, but, additionally, some of the most intrigui...

  14. Development of Field Information Monitoring System Based on the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ken; Liang, Xiaoying; Wang, Keqiang

    With the rapid development and wide application of electronics, communication and embedded system technologies, the global agriculture is changing from traditional agriculture that is to improve the production relying on the increase of labor, agricultural inputs to the new stage of modern agriculture with low yields, high efficiency, real-time and accuracy. On the other hand the research and development of the Internet of Things, which is an information network to connect objects, with the full capacity to perceive objects, and having the capabilities of reliable transmission and intelligence processing for information, allows us to obtain real-time information of anything. The application of the Internet of Things in field information online monitoring is an effective solution for present wired sensor monitoring system, which has much more disadvantages, such as high cost, the problems of laying lines and so on. In this paper, a novel field information monitoring system based on the Internet of Things is proposed. It can satisfy the requirements of multi-point measurement, mobility, convenience in the field information monitoring process. The whole structure of system is given and the key designs of system design are described in the hardware and software aspect. The studies have expanded current field information measurement methods and strengthen the application of the Internet of Things.

  15. Fluorescence-based biosensor for monitoring of environmental pollutants: From concept to field application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bidmanová, Š.; Kotlanova, M.; Rataj, Tomáš; Damborský, J.; Trtílek, M.; Prokop, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, oct (2016), s. 97-105 ISSN 0956-5663 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1214 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : dehydrochlorinase * environmental monitoring * field-testing * haloalkane dehalogenase * Halogenated pollutant * optical biosensor Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 7.780, year: 2016

  16. Systematic Analysis and Synthesis of Integral Estimations of Bachelors’ Training in the Field of Financial Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Gaibatova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The following article describes methods and algorithms of improving the quality of students’ training in NRNU MEPHI on the profile activities in the sphere of financial monitoring. In this work, we have investigated a new subject field: application of the principal component analysis method to examine students’ performance in different profiles of their training.

  17. Penetrometer compatible, fiber-optic sensor for continuous monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbons -- field test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovich, F.P.; Brown, S.B.; Colston, B.W. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    We have developed and field tested a fiber optic chemical sensor for use in environmental monitoring and remediation. The principle of detection is colorimetric and is based on an irreversible chemical reaction between a specific reagent and the target compound. The formation of reaction products are monitored remotely with optical fibers. Successive or on-demand measurements are made possible with a reagent reservoir and a miniature pumping system. The sensor has been evaluated against gas chromatography standards and has demonstrated accuracy and sensitivity (>5ppb w/w) sufficient for the environmental monitoring of the contaminants triceoroethlyene (TCE) and chloroform. The sensor system can be used for bench-top analyses or for in-situ measurements such as groundwater and vadose monitoring wells or in Penetrometry mediated placements

  18. Application of near field communication for health monitoring in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömmer, Esko; Kaartinen, Jouni; Pärkkä, Juha; Ylisaukko-Oja, Arto; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2006-01-01

    We study the possibility of applying an emerging RFID-based communication technology, NFC (Near Field Communication), to health monitoring. We suggest that NFC is, compared to other competing technologies, a high-potential technology for short-range connectivity between health monitoring devices and mobile terminals. We propose practices to apply NFC to some health monitoring applications and study the benefits that are attainable with NFC. We compare NFC to other short-range communication technologies such as Bluetooth and IrDA, and study the possibility of improving the usability of health monitoring devices with NFC. We also introduce a research platform for technical evaluation, applicability study and application demonstrations of NFC.

  19. Field monitoring of column shortenings in a high-rise building during construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-10-24

    The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1) a wireless sensing system and (2) the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes), which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  20. Practical Field Calibration of Portable Monitors for Mobile Measurements of Multiple Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To reduce inaccuracies in the measurement of air pollutants by portable monitors it is necessary to establish quantitative calibration relationships against their respective reference analyser. This is usually done under controlled laboratory conditions or one-off static co-location alongside a reference analyser in the field, neither of which may adequately represent the extended use of portable monitors in exposure assessment research. To address this, we investigated ways of establishing and evaluating portable monitor calibration relationships from repeated intermittent deployment cycles over an extended period involving stationary deployment at a reference site, mobile monitoring, and completely switched off. We evaluated four types of portable monitors: Aeroqual Ltd. (Auckland, New Zealand S500 O3 metal oxide and S500 NO2 electrochemical; RTI (Berkeley, CA, USA MicroPEM PM2.5; and, AethLabs (San Francisco, CA, USA AE51 black carbon (BC. Innovations in our study included: (i comparison of calibrations derived from the individual co-locations of a portable monitor against its reference analyser or from all the co-location periods combined into a single dataset; and, (ii evaluation of calibrated monitor estimates during transient measurements with the portable monitor close to its reference analyser at separate times from the stationary co-location calibration periods. Within the ~7 month duration of the study, ‘combined’ calibration relationships for O3, PM2.5, and BC monitors from all co-locations agreed more closely on average with reference measurements than ‘individual’ calibration relationships from co-location deployment nearest in time to transient deployment periods. ‘Individual’ calibrations relationships were sometimes substantially unrepresentative of the ‘combined’ relationships. Reduced quantitative consistency in field calibration relationships for the PM2.5 monitors may have resulted from generally low PM2

  1. Novel X-ray telescopes for wide-field X-ray monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Inneman, A.; Pina, L.; Sveda, L.

    2005-01-01

    We report on fully innovative very wide-field of view X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity as well as large field of view. The prototypes are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study and to understand various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. The Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science

  2. Behavioral and locomotor measurements using an open field activity monitoring system for skeletal muscle diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Kathleen S; Quinn, James L; Phadke, Aditi; Yu, Qing; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-09-29

    The open field activity monitoring system comprehensively assesses locomotor and behavioral activity levels of mice. It is a useful tool for assessing locomotive impairment in animal models of neuromuscular disease and efficacy of therapeutic drugs that may improve locomotion and/or muscle function. The open field activity measurement provides a different measure than muscle strength, which is commonly assessed by grip strength measurements. It can also show how drugs may affect other body systems as well when used with additional outcome measures. In addition, measures such as total distance traveled mirror the 6 min walk test, a clinical trial outcome measure. However, open field activity monitoring is also associated with significant challenges: Open field activity measurements vary according to animal strain, age, sex, and circadian rhythm. In addition, room temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, and even odor can affect assessment outcomes. Overall, this manuscript provides a well-tested and standardized open field activity SOP for preclinical trials in animal models of neuromuscular diseases. We provide a discussion of important considerations, typical results, data analysis, and detail the strengths and weaknesses of open field testing. In addition, we provide recommendations for optimal study design when using open field activity in a preclinical trial.

  3. Electronic Field Data Collection in Support of Satellite-Based Food Security Monitoring in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, C. L.; Dempewolf, J.; Justice, C. J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ibrahim, K.; Materu, S.

    2016-12-01

    In Tanzania agricultural extension agents traditionally collect field data on agriculture and food security on paper, covering most villages throughout the country. The process is expensive, slow and cumbersome and prone to data transcription errors when the data get entered at the district offices into electronic spreadsheets. Field data on the status and condition of agricultural crops, the population's nutritional status, food storage levels and other parameters are needed in near realtime for early warning to make critical but most importantly timely and appropriate decisions that are informed with verified data from the ground. With the ubiquitous distribution of cell phones, which are now used by the vast majority of the population in Tanzania including most farmers, new, efficient and cost-effective methods for field data collection have become available. Using smartphones and tablets data on crop conditions, pest and diseases, natural disasters and livelihoods can be collected and made available and easily accessible in near realtime. In this project we implemented a process for obtaining high quality electronic field data using the GeoODK application with a large network of field extension agents in Tanzania and Uganda. These efforts contribute to work being done on developing an advanced agriculture monitoring system for Tanzania, incorporating traditional data collection with satellite information and field data. The outcomes feed directly into the National Food Security Bulletin for Tanzania produced by the Ministry of Agriculture as well as a form a firm evidence base and field scale monitoring of the disaster risk financing in Uganda.

  4. Radon barrier field-test monitoring at Grand Junction tailings pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1983-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) technology development program, has conducted three large-scale field tests of radon covers at the uranium mill tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. The barrier systems, monitored for radon flux for over two years, include earthen, multilayer, and asphalt emulsion covers. Results of the monitoring have shown that a variety of cover systems can meet the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The most effective covers tested were asphalt emulsion and earthen (mancos shale). 10 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  5. The odd Voigt effect under a strong electric field in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hong Shon.

    1991-08-01

    The high frequency conductivity tensor σ ik (ω) in the linear approximation of magnetic field H and in the quadratic approximation of external dc electric field is derived by solving Boltzmann equation. The magneto-optical phenomena in the Voigt configuration (when a probe electro-magnetic wave propagates across a magnetic field) are investigated. It is shown that the birefringence and dichroism have a component that is odd (linear) in the magnetic fields and predominate over the even effect in the weak magnetic field. (author). 8 refs

  6. A field strategy to monitor radioactivity associated with investigation derived wastes returned from deep drilling sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, J.H.; Smith, D.K.; Friensehner, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA) is drilling deep (>1500m) monitoring wells that penetrate both unsaturated (vadose) and saturated zones potentially contaminated by sub-surface nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Drill site radiological monitoring returns data on drilling effluents to make informed management decisions concerning fluid management. Because of rapid turn-around required for on-site monitoring, a representative sample will be analyzed simultaneously for α, β and γ emitters by instrumentation deployed on-site. For the purposes of field survey, accurate and precise data is returned, in many cases, with minimal sample treatment. A 30% efficient high purity germanium detector and a discriminating liquid scintillation detector are being evaluated for γ and α/β monitoring respectively. Implementation of these detector systems complements a successful on-site tritium monitoring program. Residual radioactivity associated with underground nuclear tests include tritium, activation products, fission products and actinides. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) is used in α/β liquid scintillation counting and is a function of the time distribution of photon emission. In particular, we hope to measure 241 Am produced from 241 Pu by β decay. Because 241 Pu is depleted in fissile bomb fuels, maximum PSD resolution will be required. The high purity germanium detector employs a multichannel analyzer to count gamma emitting radionuclides; we will designate specific window configurations to selectively monitor diagnostic fission product radionuclides (i.e., 137 Cs)

  7. Manitoba Hydro long-term high-voltage transmission line magnetic field monitoring project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.S.; Ng, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the licensing process to construct a new 230 kV transmission line on an existing right-of-way in Manitoba, an electrical effects study was conducted in 1998. The study was part of the environmental assessment program crucial in obtaining government approval to construct the line. Some residents living adjacent to the new transmission circuit expressed concerns about alleged adverse health effects associated with long-term exposure to magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines. In order to verify the accuracy of the predicted magnetic field levels submitted to the regulatory body in the the electrical effects study and to instill confidence in the residents of the affected communities, a three-year magnetic monitoring project was conducted between 2003 and 2005 along the right-of-way after the new 230kV transmission line was energized by Manitoba Hydro. This paper described the monitoring program, with reference to location; equipment; data analysis; and discussion of results. It was concluded that the long-term monitoring project demonstrated that the magnetic field prediction methodology was well understood and accurate, and provided valuable long-term magnetic field characteristics at the edge of the right-of-way. In addition, when there is opposition to a transmission line, public consultation and education were found to be the best options to arrive at a solution. 3 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  8. Additional external electromagnetic fields for laser microprocessing of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, V; Bischoff, K; Brief, S; Koch, J; Suttmann, O; Overmeyer, L

    2016-11-14

    Ultra-short pulsed laser processing is a potent tool for microstructuring of a lot of materials. At certain laser parameters, particular periodical and/or quasi-periodical µm-size surface structures evolve apparently during processing. With extended plasmonics theory, it is possible to predict the structure formation, and a systematic technology can be derived to alter the surface for laser processing. In this work, we have demonstrated the modification of the laser processing with applying tailored dynamic surface electro-magnetic fields. Possible improvement in applications is seen in the fields of process efficiency of laser ablation and a superior control of the surface topography.

  9. Effects of magnetic fields on the quark–gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, G.S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bruckmann, F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Endrődi, G., E-mail: gergely.endrodi@physik.uni-r.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Fodor, Z. [Eötvös University, Theoretical Physics, Pázmány P. s 1/A, H-1117, Budapest (Hungary); Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Theoretical Physics, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Katz, S.D. [Eötvös University, Theoretical Physics, Pázmány P. s 1/A, H-1117, Budapest (Hungary); MTA-ELTE Lendület Lattice Gauge Theory Research Group (Hungary); Schäfer, A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    In this talk, the response of the thermal QCD medium to external (electro)magnetic fields is studied using continuum extrapolated lattice results at physical quark masses. The magnetic susceptibility of QCD is calculated, revealing a strong paramagnetic response at high temperatures. This paramagnetism is shown to result in an anisotropic squeezing of the quark–gluon plasma in non-central heavy-ion collisions, implying a sizeable contribution to the elliptic flow. Another aspect is the magnetic response of topologically non-trivial domains to the magnetic field. We quantify this effect on the lattice and compare the results to a simple model estimate.

  10. Neutron optics using transverse field neutron spin echo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achiwa, Norio; Hino, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Yoshihiro; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Tasaki, Seiji; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Ebisawa, Toru.

    1993-01-01

    A neutron spin echo (NSE) spectrometer with perpendicular magnetic field to the neutron scattering plane, using an iron yoke type electro-magnet has been developed. A combination of cold neutron guider, supermirror neutron polarizer of double reflection type and supermirror neutron analyser was adopted for the spectrometer. The first application of the NSE spectrometer to neutron optics by passing Larmor precessing neutrons through gas, solid and liquid materials of several different lengths which are inserted in one of the precession field have been examined. Preliminary NSE spectra of this sample geometry are discussed. (author)

  11. Generalized monitor unit calculation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chihray; Kim, Siyong; Kahler, Darren L.; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2003-01-01

    The generalized monitor unit (MU) calculation equation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) is derived. The assumption of this MU calculation method is that the wedge factor of the EDW at the center of the field is a function of field size, the position of the center of the field in the wedge direction, and the final position of the moving jaw. The wedge factors at the center of the field in both symmetric and asymmetric fields are examined. The difference between calculated and measured wedge factors is within 1.0%. The method developed here is easy to implement. The only datum required in addition to the standard set of conventional physical wedge implementation data is the off-axis output factor for the open field in the reference condition. The off-center point calculation is also examined. For the off-center point calculation, the dose profile in the wedge direction for the largest EDW field is used to obtain the relative off-center ratio in any smaller wedge field. The accuracy of the off-center point calculation decreases when the point of calculation is too close to the field edge

  12. In-Flight spacecraft magnetic field monitoring using scalar/vector gradiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz; Risbo, Torben; Merayo, José M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Earth magnetic field mapping from planetary orbiting satellites requires a spacecraft magnetic field environment control program combined with the deployment of the magnetic sensors on a boom in order to reduce the measurement error caused by the local spacecraft field. Magnetic mapping missions...... (Magsat, Oersted, CHAMP, SAC-C MMP and the planned ESA Swarm project) carry a vector magnetometer and an absolute scalar magnetometer for in-flight calibration of the vector magnetometer scale values and for monitoring of the inter-axes angles and offsets over time intervals from months to years...... sensors onboard the Oersted satellite. For Oersted, a large difference between the pre-flight determined spacecraft magnetic field and the in-flight estimate exists causing some concern about the general applicability of the dual sensors technique....

  13. Delay-tolerant mobile network protocol for rice field monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Alexandre; Andres, Frédéric; Cardoso, Jarbas Lopes; Kawtrakul, Asanee; Barbin, Silvio E.

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring of rice fields can improve productivity by helping farmers throughout the rice cultivation cycle, on various issues: when to harvest, when to treat the crops against disease, when to increase the water level, how to share observations and decisions made in a collaborative way, etc. In this paper, we propose an architecture to monitor a rice field by a wireless sensor network. Our architecture is based on static sensor nodes forming a disconnected network, and mobile nodes communicating with the sensor nodes in a delay-tolerant manner. The data collected by the static sensor nodes are transmitted to mobile nodes, which in turn transmit them to a gateway, connected to a database, for further analysis. We focus on the related architecture, as well as on the energy-efficient protocols intended to perform the data collection.

  14. The Sandia/Arzamas-16 Magazine-to-Magazine Remote Monitoring Field Trial Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkanov, Boris; Blagin, Sergei; Croessmann, Dennis; Damico, Joe; Ehle, Steve; Nilsen, Curt

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All Russian Research Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (also known as Arzamas-16) are collaborating on ways to assure the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability of fissile material. For these collaborations, sensors and information technologies have been identified as important in reaching these standards in a cost-effective manner. Specifically, Sandia and VNIIEF have established a series of remote monitoring field trials to provide a mechanism for joint research and development on storage monitoring systems. These efforts consist of the ''Container-to-Container'', ''Magazine-to-Magazine'', and ''Facility-to-Facility'' field trials. This paper will describe the evaluation exercise Sandia and VNIIEF conducted on the Magazine-to-Magazine systems. Topics covered will include a description of the evaluation philosophy, how the various sensors and system features were tested, evaluation results, and lessons learned

  15. Microseismic monitoring during production and reinjection tests in the Chipilapa geothermal field (El Salvador)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabriol, H.; Beauce, A.; Jacobo, R.; Quijano, J.

    1992-01-01

    The microseismic monitoring of the Chipilapa geothermal field has investigated the microseismic activity prior to and during the production and injection tests of three wells drilled between 1989 and 1991. Two surveys were carried out, in 1988 and 1991-1992 respectively, in order to study the reservoir and its recharge and to monitor microseismicity induced by reinjection. Natural microseismicity is distributed around the known geothermal area, and related either to tectonic activity under the volcanic range sited at the south (and which is the upflow zone of the geothermal field) or to the Central Graben at the north. No evidences of induced microseismicity appeared at this stage of interpretation, probably due to the unfavourable conditions prevailing during the tests: Namely reinjection by gravity and low productivity

  16. James Bay air quality study : report on the results of field monitoring in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-08

    An air quality study in James Bay was conducted, in order to establish general levels of pollutants in outdoor air in the James Bay area of Victoria, British Columbia. The primary sources of air pollution in the area include light duty and heavy duty vehicle traffic, helicopters, floatplanes, and marine vessels such as cruise ships, passenger ferries, commercial fishing and whale watching boats, and recreation motorboats. Air quality monitoring represented the first phase of the project. The second phase involved a detailed pollutant dispersion model including all emission sources. This report described the use of sampling equipment and the measurement of nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, fine particulate matter and contributing sources, and volatile organic compounds, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene/xylene and naphthalene. Supporting data, including traffic counts, wind speed and direction, precipitation, and cruise ship schedules were collected to assist in the interpretation of the field monitoring results. For each of these pollutants, the report provided responses to several questions, such as defining each pollutant; describing the sources of each pollutant in the James Bay neighbourhood; presenting the results of the field monitoring; discussing the limitations of the monitoring equipment and sampling design; interpreting the results; comparing monitored levels to those measured at other times or locations; and comparing monitored levels to air quality standards or guidelines. Conclusions about each pollutant were presented. It was concluded that phase 2 pollutant dispersion modelling should include estimates of 1-hour, 24-hour, and seasonal average pollutant levels at varying elevations above ground level, with a focus on residential apartment buildings in the study area. 5 tabs., 52 figs., 7 appendices.

  17. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Geothermal Exploitation Monitoring: Khankala Field Example

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Cherkasov; Anvar M. Farkhutdinov; Dmitriy P. Rykovanov; Arbi A. Shaipov

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for geothermal waters exploitation monitoring. Development of a geothermal reservoir usually requires a system of wells, pipelines and pumping equipment and control of such a system is quite complicated. In this regard, use of unmanned aerial vehicle is relevant. Two test unmanned aerial vehicle based infrared surveys have been conducted at the Khankala field (Chechen Republic) with the Khankala geothermal plant operating at differe...

  18. Exhibition of electric and magnetic fields of extra-low frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, Leonardo; Socadagui, Jorge; Roman, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    The existent norms were studied in the international environment regarding human beings' exhibition to electro-magnetic fields, under the points of view of the industrial frequency (60 Hz) and the time of exhibition. The norm CENELEC was selected (Committee Europeen of Normalisation Electro technique) ENV 50166-1. The electro-magnetic fields existent were measured in four substations of the Colombian interconnected system, locating the critical fields and relation them with the work places from the personnel exposed to this fields. In different areas of the substations studied they were values of electric field that violate the norm CENELEC, being the most critical case the areas of the module of line and of the patios of transformation. In magnetic field not it founded any violation of the mentioned norm. A serious case of exposed population was identified that corresponds to the gang in charge of carrying out the basic maintenance. This gang carries out its maintenance works in areas with critical electric fields and during superior times of exhibition to those permitted for the norm. The fields electrician and magnetic too were measured under the vain of transmission line of 115 kw and double vertical circuit. The measured values were compared with the values theoretical ob had by means of programs of calculation of fields electric and magnetic developed in the national university of Colombia, being obtained a very good approach for the case of the magnetic field. Using electro-magnetic field well known and trusts procedures, the measure probes were gauged in the laboratory of high voltage of the national university of Colombia

  19. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration's remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for 90 Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs

  20. Study of the thermo-electronic stability of LTS conductors and contribution to the study of the thermo-electric stability of HTS conductors. Novel techniques to simulate quench precursors in superconducting electro-magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trillaud, F.

    2005-09-01

    Most of this work deals with the development of new heater technology to simulate quench precursors in super-conducting electro-magnets. The carbon paste point heater and 2 alternative technologies have been used: induction coils and the diode laser. 2 main experimental setups with 2 different heaters have been used to study the stability of Cu/NbTi composite wires. The order of magnitude of the results obtained with the charged point heater and the diode laser is consistent. Our work covered both low critical temperature (LTS) conductors and high critical temperature (HTS) conductors. A large body of data has been gathered on quench energies and normal zone propagation velocities (NZPV). Concerning quench energy: LTS conductors appear largely more sensitive to heat disturbances than HTS conductors. NZPV enables one to define the criteria for which a magnet can be considered as self-protected. It is commonly assumed that, below 1 m/s, active protection is necessary to ensure safe quenches. This is the case for HTS conductors whose NZPV is of the order of a few centimeters per seconds, at most. However, the NZPVs of LTS conductors are above a few meters per seconds. While HTS conductors can suffer from local hot spots which diffuse slowly resulting in damaging overheating, LTS conductors spread the normal zone quickly enough owing to their good thermal conductivity to minimize local overheating. In addition, this gives enough time to dump the energy of the magnet. This work clears a new path to carry out accurate and reproducible experiment on superconductors. It demonstrates the powerfulness of diode laser technology for stability studies. Numerical simulations of the thermal behaviour of a Cu/NbTi multi-filament composite wire have been performed, they are based on a simplified transient liquid helium heat exchange model. This model appears to be not accurate enough to simulate the early time evolution of the voltage between the current sharing temperature and the

  1. Rangeland monitoring using remote sensing: comparison of cover estimates from field measurements and image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon Boswell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rangeland monitoring is important for evaluating and assessing semi-arid plant communities. Remote sensing provides an effective tool for rapidly and accurately assessing rangeland vegetation and other surface attributes such as bare soil and rock. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of remote sensing as a surrogate for field-based sampling techniques in detecting ground cover features (i.e., trees, shrubs, herbaceous cover, litter, surface, and comparing results with field-based measurements collected by the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Range Trent Program. In the field, five 152 m long transects were used to sample plant, litter, rock, and bare-ground cover using the Daubenmire ocular estimate method. At the same location of each field plot, a 4-band (R,G,B,NIR, 25 cm pixel resolution, remotely sensed image was taken from a fixed-wing aircraft. Each image was spectrally classified producing 4 cover classes (tree, shrub, herbaceous, surface. No significant differences were detected between canopy cover collected remotely and in the field for tree (P = 0.652, shrub (P = 0.800, and herbaceous vegetation (P = 0.258. Surface cover was higher in field plots (P < 0.001, likely in response to the methods used to sample surface features by field crews. Accurately classifying vegetation and other features from remote sensed information can improve the efficiency of collecting vegetation and surface data. This information can also be used to improve data collection frequency for rangeland monitoring and to efficiently quantify ecological succession patterns.

  2. Use of remote sensing and ground control in monitoring oil fields in Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Moreaux, P E; Muzikar, R [ed.

    1978-01-01

    Present and future water pollution problems resulting from oil field operations in Alabama are analyzed. An outline of a program of data collection and interpretation necessary to determine and evaluate solutions to these problems is presented. A method of adequate monitoring of the oil and gas fields in Alabama to protect against pollution of its valuable surface and groundwater supplies is described. Samples of brine are continuously collected and analyzed from sources representing all water producing horizons in the oil fields. A network of observation wells has been established in oil fields to periodically determine changes in the chemical quality of groundwaters. Water samples from wells adjacent to all major saltwater evaporation pits have been collected and analyzed for possible changes in chemical quality. Discharge measurements are made on streams adjacent to all oil fields. Periodic aerial photographs are being made of each field. Preliminary administrative reports are regularly prepared on each problem in the oil fields and remedial or disciplinary actions are taken by the Oil and Gas Board.

  3. Development of Geomagnetic Monitoring System Using a Magnetometer for the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Wook; Choi, Eun-Kyeong; Kim, In-Soo

    2014-05-01

    Three institutes including KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration), KSWC (Korean Space Weather Center) of NRRA (National Radio Research Agency) and KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) are now operating magnetic observatories. Those observatories observe the total intensity and three components of geomagnetic element. This paper comes up with a magnetic monitoring system now under development that uses a magnetometer for field survey. In monitoring magnetic variations in areas (active faults or volcanic regions), more reliable results can be obtained when an array of several magnetometers are used rather than a single magnetometer. In order to establish and operate a magnetometer array, such factors as expenses, convenience of the establishment and operation of the array should be taken into account. This study has come up with a magnetic monitoring system complete with a magnetometer for the field survey of our own designing. A magnetic monitoring system, which is composed of two parts. The one is a field part and the other a data part. The field part is composed of a magnetometer, an external memory module, a power supply and a set of data transmission equipment. The data part is a data server which can store the data transmitted from the field part, analyze the data and provide service to the web. This study has developed an external memory module for ENVI-MAG (Scintrex Ltd.) using an embedded Cortex-M3 board, which can be programmed, attach other functional devices (SD memory cards, GPS antennas for time synchronization, ethernet cards and so forth). The board thus developed can store magnetic measurements up to 8 Gbytes, synchronize with the GPS time and transmit the magnetic measurements to the data server which is now under development. A monitoring system of our own developing was installed in Jeju island, taking measurements throughout Korea. Other parts including a data transfer module, a server and a power supply using solar

  4. Micro Penning Trap for Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring in High Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Javiera; Bollen, Georg; Gulyuz, Kerim; Ringle, Ryan; Bado, Philippe; Dugan, Mark; Lebit Team; Translume Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities for rare isotope beams, like FRIB at MSU, are constructed, there is a need for new instrumentation to monitor magnetic fields in beam magnets that can withstand the higher radiation level. Currently NMR probes, the instruments used extensively to monitor magnetic fields, do not have a long lifespans in radiation-high environments. Therefore, a radiation-hard replacement is needed. We propose to use Penning trap mass spectrometry techniques to make high precision magnetic field measurements. Our Penning microtrap will be radiation resistant as all of the vital electronics will be at a safe distance from the radiation. The trap itself is made from materials not subject to radiation damage. Penning trap mass spectrometers can determine the magnetic field by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with a known mass and charge. This principle is used on the Low Energy Beam Ion Trap (LEBIT) minitrap at NSCL which is the foundation for the microtrap. We have partnered with Translume, who specialize in glass micro-fabrication, to develop a microtrap in fused-silica glass. A microtrap is finished and ready for testing at NSCL with all of the electronic and hardware components setup. DOE Phase II SBIR Award No. DE-SC0011313, NSF Award Number 1062410 REU in Physics, NSF under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  5. Remote monitoring and fault recovery for FPGA-based field controllers of telescope and instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuhua; Zhu, Dan; Wang, Jianing

    2012-09-01

    As the increasing size and more and more functions, modern telescopes have widely used the control architecture, i.e. central control unit plus field controller. FPGA-based field controller has the advantages of field programmable, which provide a great convenience for modifying software and hardware of control system. It also gives a good platform for implementation of the new control scheme. Because of multi-controlled nodes and poor working environment in scattered locations, reliability and stability of the field controller should be fully concerned. This paper mainly describes how we use the FPGA-based field controller and Ethernet remote to construct monitoring system with multi-nodes. When failure appearing, the new FPGA chip does self-recovery first in accordance with prerecovery strategies. In case of accident, remote reconstruction for the field controller can be done through network intervention if the chip is not being restored. This paper also introduces the network remote reconstruction solutions of controller, the system structure and transport protocol as well as the implementation methods. The idea of hardware and software design is given based on the FPGA. After actual operation on the large telescopes, desired results have been achieved. The improvement increases system reliability and reduces workload of maintenance, showing good application and popularization.

  6. Breath acetone to monitor life style interventions in field conditions: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Devasena; Lammers, Gerwen; Mandon, Julien; Blanchet, Lionel; Schreuder, Tim H A; Hopman, Maria T; Harren, Frans J M; Tappy, Luc; Cristescu, Simona M

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether breath acetone concentration can be used to monitor the effects of a prolonged physical activity on whole body lipolysis and hepatic ketogenesis in field conditions. Twenty-three non-diabetic, 11 type 1 diabetic, and 17 type 2 diabetic subjects provided breath and blood samples for this study. Samples were collected during the International Four Days Marches, in the Netherlands. For each participant, breath acetone concentration was measured using proton transfer reaction ion trap mass spectrometry, before and after a 30-50 km walk on four consecutive days. Blood non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB), and glucose concentrations were measured after walking. Breath acetone concentration was significantly higher after than before walking, and was positively correlated with blood NEFA and BOHB concentrations. The effect of walking on breath acetone concentration was repeatedly observed on all four consecutive days. Breath acetone concentrations were higher in type 1 diabetic subjects and lower in type 2 diabetic subjects than in control subjects. Breath acetone can be used to monitor hepatic ketogenesis during walking under field conditions. It may, therefore, provide real-time information on fat burning, which may be of use for monitoring the lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. Young's moduli of cables for high field superconductive dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shunji; Shintomi, Takakazu.

    1983-01-01

    Superconductive dipole magnets for big accelerators are subjected to enormous electro-magnetic force, when they are operated with high field such as 10 Tesla. They should be constructed by means of superconductive cables, which have high Young's modulus, to obtain good performance. To develop such cables we measured the Young's moduli of cables for practical use of accelerator magnets. They are monolithic and compacted strand cables. We measured also Young's moduli of monolithic copper and brass cables for comparison. The obtained data showed the Young's moduli of 35 and 15 GPa for the monolithic and compacted strand cables, respectively. (author)

  8. Third party interference monitoring based on distributed fiber sensor and field trail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yongjun; Tan, Dongjie; Juan, Zheng; Wang, Likun; Chen, Pengchao [PetroChina Pipeline R and D Center (China)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes a novel pipeline third party interference (TPI) monitoring system, which detects micro vibration along pipeline, through fiber cable laying in one ditch. A special optical path was designed by redundant optical fiber cores among fiber cable. This new sensor technology detects illegal excavation through detect phase changes. This innovative signal analysis technology avoids the disturbance of light intensity fluctuation and phase fading. Excavator, digging and impact of freely falling body were used to test this pipeline monitoring system. Different type of cable, such as straight buried cable, steel wire armored cable and silicone tube, were all test in order to test sensitivity. Field trail shows that this system can detect, alarm and. locate different third party interference along pipeline. (author)

  9. Monitoring of pistachio (Pistacia Vera) ripening by high field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, Fabio; Avanzato, Damiano; Vaccaro, Angela; Capuani, Giorgio; Spagnoli, Mariangela; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Tzareva, Irina Nikolova; Delfini, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic profiling of pistachio (Pistacia vera) aqueous extracts from two different cultivars, namely 'Bianca' and 'Gloria', was monitored over the months from May to September employing high field NMR spectroscopy. A large number of water-soluble metabolites were assigned by means of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The change in the metabolic profiles monitored over time allowed the pistachio development to be investigated. Specific temporal trends of amino acids, sugars, organic acids and other metabolites were observed and analysed by multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis. Statistical analysis showed that while in the period from May to September there were few differences between the two cultivars, the ripening rate was different.

  10. High-sensitivity broadband infrared monitor of spatial structure of relativistic bunches and thermal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, A.A.; Mal'tsev, M.A.; Maslova, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    The monitor is intended for registration of spatial distribution of density of energy of pulsing radiation of thermal fields and bunches of relativistic electrons and protons in a wide spectral range 0,4 - 4 μm. In a measuring system of a monitor effective means of active and passive increase of the relation of a useful signal to noise, in view of particular conditions and requirements are used. The measuring channel can confidently allocate a useful signal on a background of handicaps, the size of which can make about 20 kE in a pulse [1]. The accuracy of measurement of amplitude of a signal of radiation makes 0,2% of maximum significances of a registrar scale. (author)

  11. Fiber optic field analytical instrumentation in place of quarterly compliance monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    ChemSensor reg-sign is a new field analytical tool capable of in situ, real time measurements of organics in water. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of this new instrument to the ongoing monitoring of petroleum contaminated ground water. The sensing element in ChemSensor incorporates a short optical fiber core with a hydrophobic/organophilic chemical coating. Light is launched into the fiber from a light emitting diode and detected at the opposite end by a photodiode. When the sensor is immersed in water containing organics, the organics partition into the organophilic coating and change the effective refractive index of he coating allowing light to escape. The resultant loss of light reaching the detector correlates to the concentration of organics present. It has been demonstrated through extensive field tests that response factors developed for ChemSensor allow it to be used as an accurate indication of BTEX contamination present. A large scale field test with an environmental consultant and a petroleum company was conducted to gain confidence in the correlation of ChemSensor to laboratory methods. As a result of this study, a case was made to the state regulators for substitution of a portion of the quarterly compliance monitoring with ChemSensor. This program has the potential to save the petroleum company thousands in laboratory analytical costs per year. This paper discusses the application of ChemSensor to sites contaminated by gasoline as well as the collection and interpretation of the data

  12. Optical investigation of effective permeability of dilute magnetic dielectrics with magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Ananya, E-mail: banerjee.ananya2008@gmail.com; Sarkar, A. [Dept. of Physics, Bijoy Krishna Girls’ College, 5/3 M.G. Road, Howrah 711101, W.B. (India)

    2016-05-06

    The prime objective of this paper is to investigate the magnetic nature of dilute magnetic dielectrics (DMD) under variation of external magnetic field. The said variation is studied over developed nano-sized Gadolinium Oxide as a DMD system. The observed experimental field variation of the effective magnetic permeability is analyzed results of optical experiment. The experiment records the variation of Brewster angle of incident polarized LASER beam from the surface of developed DMD specimen with applied out of plane external magnetic field. The effective refractive index and hence relative magnetic permeability were estimated following electro-magnetic theory. The overall results obtained and agreement between theory and experiment are good.

  13. Optical investigation of effective permeability of dilute magnetic dielectrics with magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananya; Sarkar, A.

    2016-05-01

    The prime objective of this paper is to investigate the magnetic nature of dilute magnetic dielectrics (DMD) under variation of external magnetic field. The said variation is studied over developed nano-sized Gadolinium Oxide as a DMD system. The observed experimental field variation of the effective magnetic permeability is analyzed results of optical experiment. The experiment records the variation of Brewster angle of incident polarized LASER beam from the surface of developed DMD specimen with applied out of plane external magnetic field. The effective refractive index and hence relative magnetic permeability were estimated following electro-magnetic theory. The overall results obtained and agreement between theory and experiment are good.

  14. Fluorescence-based biosensor for monitoring of environmental pollutants: From concept to field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidmanova, Sarka; Kotlanova, Marketa; Rataj, Tomas; Damborsky, Jiri; Trtilek, Martin; Prokop, Zbynek

    2016-10-15

    An advanced optical biosensor was developed based on the enzymatic reaction with halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons that is accompanied by the fluorescence change of pH indicator. The device is applicable for the detection of halogenated contaminants in water samples with pH ranging from 4 to 10 and temperature ranging from 5 to 60°C. Main advantages of the developed biosensor are small size (60×30×190mm(3)) and portability, which together with short measurement time of 1min belong to crucial attributes of analytical technique useful for routine environmental monitoring. The biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of several important halogenated pollutants under laboratory conditions, e.g., 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, with the limits of detection of 2.7, 1.4 and 12.1mgL(-1), respectively. The continuous monitoring was demonstrated by repetitive injection of halogenated compound into measurement solution. Consequently, field trials under environmental settings were performed. The presence of 1,2-dichloroethane (10mgL(-1)) was proved unambiguously on one of three potentially contaminated sites in Czech Republic, and the same contaminant was monitored on contaminated locality in Serbia. Equipped by Global Positioning System, the biosensor was used for creation of a precise map of contamination. Concentrations determined by biosensor and by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer exhibited the correlation coefficient of 0.92, providing a good confidence for the routine use of the biosensor system in both field screening and monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of hyperspectral field radiometric data for monitoring nitrogen concentration in rice crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroppiana, D.; Boschetti, M.; Confalonieri, R.; Bocchi, S.; Brivio, P. A.

    2005-10-01

    Monitoring crop conditions and assessing nutrition requirements is fundamental for implementing sustainable agriculture. Rational nitrogen fertilization is of particular importance in rice crops in order to guarantee high production levels while minimising the impact on the environment. In fact, the typical flooded condition of rice fields can be a significant source of greenhouse gasses. Information on plant nitrogen concentration can be used, coupled with information about the phenological stage, to plan strategies for a rational and spatially differentiated fertilization schedule. A field experiment was carried out in a rice field Northern Italy, in order to evaluate the potential of field radiometric measurements for the prediction of rice nitrogen concentration. The results indicate that rice reflectance is influenced by nitrogen supply at certain wavelengths although N concentration cannot be accurately predicted based on the reflectance measured at a given wavelength. Regression analysis highlighted that the visible region of the spectrum is most sensitive to plant nitrogen concentration when reflectance measures are combined into a spectral index. An automated procedure allowed the analysis of all the possible combinations into a Normalized Difference Index (NDI) of the narrow spectral bands derived by spectral resampling of field measurements. The derived index appeared to be least influenced by plant biomass and Leaf Area Index (LAI) providing a useful approach to detect rice nutritional status. The validation of the regressive model showed that the model is able to predict rice N concentration (R2=0.55 [p<0.01] RRMSE=29.4; modelling efficiency close to the optimum value).

  16. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  17. Monitoring and enforcement of environmental regulations. Lessons from a natural field experiment in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telle, Kjetil

    2012-07-01

    Relying on a small natural field experiment with random assignment of treatments, I estimate effects of three core elements of most monitoring and enforcement practices: self-reporting, audit frequency and specific deterrence. I find evidence of evasive reporting of violations in self-audits, as more violations are detected in on-site audits than in self-audits. Announcing the increased audit frequency has no effect on compliance, but an audit raises the firm's subsequent compliance substantially.(Author)

  18. Development of gamma probe technique for monitoring rooting pattern of pearl millet under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittal, K.P.R.; Subbiah, B.V.

    1982-01-01

    For the root distribution studies, methods are not available to measure the growth in situ and in toto under field conditions without destroying the plants. A non-destructive method was developed for measuring the gamma activity in root using a probe that was administered through the stem. Five isotopes viz. 86 Rb, 134 Cs, 59 Fe, 65 Zn and 54 Mn tested, were found to represent almost similar rooting pattern for pearl millet from flowering to harvesting stages. Among these isotopes 59 Fe was found to be suitable for field use. This method also enabled to successfully monitor the root activity over time and avoided the sampling errors. Since laboratory processing of samples was eliminated, the process of measurement was hastened. (author)

  19. Multisensor Capacitance Probes for Simultaneously Monitoring Rice Field Soil-Water- Crop-Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhoff, James; Hornbuckle, John; Dowling, Thomas

    2017-12-26

    Multisensor capacitance probes (MCPs) have traditionally been used for soil moisture monitoring and irrigation scheduling. This paper presents a new application of these probes, namely the simultaneous monitoring of ponded water level, soil moisture, and temperature profile, conditions which are particularly important for rice crops in temperate growing regions and for rice grown with prolonged periods of drying. WiFi-based loggers are used to concurrently collect the data from the MCPs and ultrasonic distance sensors (giving an independent reading of water depth). Models are fit to MCP water depth vs volumetric water content (VWC) characteristics from laboratory measurements, variability from probe-to-probe is assessed, and the methodology is verified using measurements from a rice field throughout a growing season. The root-mean-squared error of the water depth calculated from MCP VWC over the rice growing season was 6.6 mm. MCPs are used to simultaneously monitor ponded water depth, soil moisture content when ponded water is drained, and temperatures in root, water, crop and ambient zones. The insulation effect of ponded water against cold-temperature effects is demonstrated with low and high water levels. The developed approach offers advantages in gaining the full soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in a single robust sensor.

  20. Seismic monitoring of in situ combustion process in a heavy oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadeh, Hossein Mehdi; Srivastava, Ravi P; Vedanti, Nimisha; Landrø, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Three time-lapse 3D seismic surveys are analysed to monitor the effect of in situ combustion, a thermal-enhanced oil recovery process in the Balol heavy oil reservoir in India. The baseline data were acquired prior to the start of the in situ combustion process in four injection wells, while the two monitor surveys were acquired 1 and 2 years after injection start, respectively. We present the results of baseline and second monitor surveys. Fluid substitution studies based on acoustic well logs predict a seismic amplitude decrease at the top reservoir and an increase at the base reservoir. Both the amplitude dimming at the top reservoir and the brightening at the base reservoir are observed in the field data. The extent of the most pronounced 4D anomaly is estimated from the seismic amplitude and time shift analysis. The interesting result of seismic analysis is that the anomalies are laterally shifted towards the northwest, rather than the expected east, from the injector location suggesting a northwest movement of the in situ combustion front. No clear evidence of air leakage into other sand layers, neither above nor below the reservoir sand, is observed. This does not necessarily mean that all the injected air is following the reservoir sand, especially if the thief sand layers are thin. These layers might be difficult to observe on seismic data

  1. Controlled field release of a bioluminescent genetically engineered microorganism for bioremediation process monitoring and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Ahn, Y.; Werner, C.; Jarrell, J. IV; Easter, J.P.; Cox, C.D.; Burlage, R.S.; Sayler, G.S.

    2000-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 represents the first genetically engineered microorganism approved for field testing in the United States for bioremediation purposes. Strain HK44 harbors an introduced lux gene fused within a naphthalene degradative pathway, thereby allowing this recombinant microbe to bioluminescent as it degrades specific polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene. The bioremediation process can therefore be monitored by the detection of light. P. fluorescens HK44 was inoculated into the vadose zone of intermediate-scale, semicontained soil lysimeters contaminated with naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene, and the population dynamics were followed over an approximate 2-year period in order to assess the long-term efficacy of using strain HK44 for monitoring and controlling bioremediation processes. Results showed that P. fluorescens HK44 was capable of surviving initial inoculation into both hydrocarbon contaminated and uncontaminated soils and was recoverable from these soils 660 days post inoculation. It was also demonstrated that strain HK44 was capable of generating bioluminescence in response to soil hydrocarbon bioavailability. Bioluminescence approaching 166,000 counts/s was detected in fiber optic-based biosensor devices responding to volatile polyaromatic hydrocarbons, while a portable photomultiplier module detected bioluminescence at an average of 4300 counts/s directly from soil-borne HK44 cells within localized treatment areas. The utilization of lux-based bioreporter microorganisms therefore promises to be a viable option for in situ determination of environmental contaminant bioavailability and biodegradation process monitoring and control.

  2. Field test facility for monitoring water/radionuclide transport through partially saturated geologic media: design, construction, and preliminary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Campbell, A.C.; Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Hoober, H.H.; Schwarzmiller, K.O.

    1979-11-01

    Shallow land burial has been a common practice for disposing radioactive waste materials since the beginning of plutonium production operations. Accurate monitoring of radionuclide transport and factors causing transport within the burial sites is essential to minimizing risks associated with disposal. However, monitoring has not always been adequate. Consequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) has begun a program aimed at better assuring and evaluating containment of radioactive wastes at shallow land burial sites. This program includes a technological base for monitoring transport. As part of the DOE program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing geohydrologic monitoring systems to evaluate burial sites located in arid regions. For this project, a field test facility was designed and constructed to assess monitoring systems for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and to provide information for evaluating site containment performance. The facility is an integrated network of monitoring devices and data collection instruments. This facility is used to measure water and radionuclide migration under field conditions typical of arid regions. Monitoring systems were developed to allow for measurement of both mass and energy balance. Work on the facility is ongoing. Continuing work includes emplacement of prototype monitoring instruments, data collection, and data synthesis. At least 2 years of field data are needed to fully evaluate monitoring information

  3. VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Aneth Oil Field in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Rutledge, J.; Zhou, R.; Denli, H.; Cheng, A.; Zhao, M.; Peron, J.

    2008-12-01

    Remotely tracking the movement of injected CO2 within a geological formation is critically important for ensuring safe and long-term geologic carbon sequestration. To study the capability of vertical seismic profiling (VSP) for remote monitoring of CO2 injection, a geophone string with 60 levels and 96 channels was cemented into a monitoring well at the Aneth oil field in Utah operated by Resolute Natural Resources and Navajo National Oil and Gas Company. The oil field is located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, and was selected by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration. The geophones are placed at depths from 805 m to 1704 m, and the oil reservoir is located approximately from 1731 m to 1786 m in depth. A baseline VSP dataset with one zero-offset and seven offset source locations was acquired in October, 2007 before CO2 injection. The offsets/source locations are approximately 1 km away from the monitoring well with buried geophone string. A time-lapse VSP dataset with the same source locations was collected in July, 2008 after five months of CO2/water injection into a horizontal well adjacent to the monitoring well. The total amount of CO2 injected during the time interval between the two VSP surveys was 181,000 MCF (million cubic feet), or 10,500 tons. The time-lapse VSP data are pre-processed to balance the phase and amplitude of seismic events above the oil reservoir. We conduct wave-equation migration imaging and interferometry analysis using the pre-processed time-lapse VSP data. The results demonstrate that time-lapse VSP surveys with high-resolution migration imaging and scattering analysis can provide reliable information about CO2 migration. Both the repeatability of VSP surveys and sophisticated time-lapse data pre-processing are essential to make VSP as an effective tool for monitoring CO2 injection.

  4. Advancing internal erosion monitoring using seismic methods in field and laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Minal L.

    This dissertation presents research involving laboratory and field investigation of passive and active methods for monitoring and assessing earthen embankment infrastructure such as dams and levees. Internal erosion occurs as soil particles in an earthen structure migrate to an exit point under seepage forces. This process is a primary failure mode for dams and levees. Current dam and levee monitoring practices are not able to identify early stages of internal erosion, and often the result is loss of structure utility and costly repairs. This research contributes to innovations for detection and monitoring by studying internal erosion and monitoring through field experiments, laboratory experiments, and social and political framing. The field research in this dissertation included two studies (2009 and 2012) of a full-scale earthen embankment at the IJkdijk in the Netherlands. In both of these tests, internal erosion occurred as evidenced by seepage followed by sand traces and boils, and in 2009, eventual failure. With the benefit of arrays of closely spaced piezometers, pore pressure trends indicated internal erosion near the initiation time. Temporally and spatially dense pore water pressure measurements detected two pore water pressure transitions characteristic to the development of internal erosion, even in piezometers located away from the backward erosion activity. At the first transition, the backward erosion caused anomalous pressure decrease in piezometers, even under constant or increasing upstream water level. At the second transition, measurements stabilized as backward erosion extended further upstream of the piezometers, as shown in the 2009 test. The transitions provide an indication of the temporal development and the spatial extent of backward erosion. The 2012 IJkdijk test also included passive acoustic emissions (AE) monitoring. This study analyzed AE activity over the course of the 7-day test using a grid of geophones installed on the

  5. A new method for temperature-field reconstruction during ultrasound-monitored cryosurgery using potential-field analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaokar, Chandrajit; Rossi, Michael R; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-02-01

    The current study aims at developing computational tools in order to gain information about the thermal history in areas invisible to ultrasound imaging during cryosurgery. This invisibility results from the high absorption rate of the ultrasound energy by the frozen region, which leads to an apparent opacity in the cryotreated area and a shadow behind it. A proof-of-concept for freezing-front estimation is demonstrated in the current study, using the new potential-field analogy method (PFAM). This method is further integrated with a recently developed temperature-field reconstruction method (TFRM) to estimate the temperature distribution within the frozen region. This study uses prostate cryosurgery as a developmental model and trans-rectal ultrasound imaging as a choice of practice. Results of this study indicate that the proposed PFAM is a viable and computationally inexpensive solution to estimate the extent of freezing in the acoustic shadow region. Comparison of PFAM estimations and experimental data shows an average mismatch of less than 2 mm in freezing-front location, which is comparable to the uncertainty in ultrasound imaging. Comparison of the integrated PFAM + TFRM scheme with a full-scale finite-elements analysis (FEA) indicates an average mismatch of 0.9 mm for the freezing front location and 0.1 mm for the lethal temperature isotherm of -45 °C. Comparison of the integrated PFAM + TFRM scheme with experimental temperature measurements show a difference in the range of 2 °C and 6 °C for selected points of measurement. Results of this study demonstrate the integrated PFAM + TFRM scheme as a viable and computationally inexpensive means to gain information about the thermal history in the frozen region during ultrasound-monitored cryosurgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of the Regular monitoring of workers using ionizing radiations in medical field in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biau, A.; Valero, M.; Dubuquoy, E.; Crescini, D.

    2002-01-01

    Among the 260000 workers surveyed by individual monitoring dosimetry in France, about 140000 work in medical field, in Radiodiagnostic. Radiotherapy or Nuclear Medicine. For the twenty last years the global exposure of these workers has decreased continuously like the number of doses over the regular limits of 50 millisieverts per year or even 20 millisieverts which will be included in the new regulations according to the European Directive 96/29 of 13 may 1996. To reinforce this evolution to lower exposures (ALARA) the french regulations have been completed in 1998 and 1999. These new regular prescriptions consist essentially in. - possibility of using another system of passive dosimetry than firm dosimeter (TLD, OSL, RPL...) - obligation of active dosimeter (real time reading) associated with the passive dosimeter for the workers affected in controlled area. - gathering of all the dosimetric results on a data base called SISERI accessible by computer only to the health physicians and the competent person specially authorized. This work is showing from statistical data on the levels of exposure in medical field: - which are the working conditions for which the two system of dosimetry are really necessary - how to delimit the controlled area on realistic basic rather than theoretical assumptions - how the data base SISERI is actually functioning and how it will evaluate from now to 2003. Finally, we propose a schedule to define the different forms of survey for internal and external risks of exposure and to select the best type of monitoring according to the working conditions. (Author)

  7. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Geothermal Exploitation Monitoring: Khankala Field Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Cherkasov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for geothermal waters exploitation monitoring. Development of a geothermal reservoir usually requires a system of wells, pipelines and pumping equipment and control of such a system is quite complicated. In this regard, use of unmanned aerial vehicle is relevant. Two test unmanned aerial vehicle based infrared surveys have been conducted at the Khankala field (Chechen Republic with the Khankala geothermal plant operating at different regimes: during the first survey – with, and the second – without reinjection of used geothermal fluid. Unmanned aerial vehicle Geoscan 201 equipped with digital (Sony DSX-RX1 and thermal imaging (Thermoframe-MX-TTX cameras was used. Besides different images of the geothermal plant obtained by the surveys, 13 thermal anomalies have been identified. Analysis of the shape and temperature facilitated determination of their different sources: fire, heating systems, etc., which was confirmed by a ground reconnaissance. Results of the study demonstrate a high potential of unmanned aerial vehicle based thermal imagery use for environmental and technological monitoring of geothermal fields under operation.

  8. Design of a Tritium-in-air-monitor using field programmable gate arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNelles, Phillip; Lu, Lixuan

    2015-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have recently garnered significant interest for certain applications within the nuclear field. Some applications of these devices include Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems, pulse measurement systems, particle detectors and health physics purposes. In CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear power plants, the use of heavy water (D2O) as the moderator leads to the increased production of Tritium, which poses a health risk and must be monitored by Tritium-In-Air Monitors (TAMs). Traditional TAMs are mostly designed using microprocessors. More recent studies show that FPGAs could be a potential alternative to implement the electronic logic used in radiation detectors, such as the TAM, more effectively. In this paper, an FPGA-based TAM is designed and constructed in a laboratory setting using an FPGA-based cRIO system. New functionalities, such as the detection of Carbon-14 and the addition of noble gas compensation are incorporated into a new FPGA-based TAM. Additionally, all of the standard functions included in the original microprocessor-based TAM, such as tritium detection, gamma compensation, pump and air flow control, and background and thermal drift corrections were also implemented. The effectiveness of the new design is demonstrated through simulations as well as laboratory testing on the prototype system. (author)

  9. Development of a Field-Deployable Psychomotor Vigilance Test to Monitor Helicopter Pilot Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G

    2016-04-01

    Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill. Fatigue is a serious threat to operational safety, particularly for sustained helicopter operations involving high levels of cognitive information processing and sustained time on task. As part of ongoing research into this issue, the object of this study was to develop a field-deployable helicopter-specific psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) for the purpose of daily performance monitoring of pilots. The PVT consists of a laptop computer, a hand-operated joystick, and a set of rudder pedals. Screen-based compensatory tracking task software includes a tracking ball (operated by the joystick) which moves randomly in all directions, and a second tracking ball which moves horizontally (operated by the rudder pedals). The 5-min test requires the pilot to keep both tracking balls centered. This helicopter-specific PVT's portability and integrated data acquisition and storage system enables daily field monitoring of the performance of individual helicopter pilots. The inclusion of a simultaneous foot-operated tracking task ensures divided attention for helicopter pilots as the movement of both tracking balls requires simultaneous inputs. This PVT is quick, economical, easy to use, and specific to the operational flying task. It can be used for performance monitoring purposes, and as a general research tool for investigating the psychomotor demands of helicopter operations. While reliability and validity testing is warranted, data acquired from this test could help further our understanding of the effect of various factors (such as fatigue) on helicopter pilot performance, with the potential of contributing to helicopter operational safety.

  10. Monitoring microbial growth and activity using spectral induced polarization and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Keating, Kristina; Revil, Andre

    2015-04-01

    Microbes and microbial activities in the Earth's subsurface play a significant role in shaping subsurface environments and are involved in environmental applications such as remediation of contaminants in groundwater and oil fields biodegradation. Stimulated microbial growth in such applications could cause wide variety of changes of physical/chemical properties in the subsurface. It is critical to monitor and determine the fate and transportation of microorganisms in the subsurface during such applications. Recent geophysical studies demonstrate the potential of two innovative techniques, spectral induced polarization (SIP) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for monitoring microbial growth and activities in porous media. The SIP measures complex dielectric properties of porous media at low frequencies of exciting electric field, and NMR studies the porous structure of geologic media and characterizes fluids subsurface. In this laboratory study, we examined both SIP and NMR responses from bacterial growth suspension as well as suspension mixed with silica sands. We focus on the direct contribution of microbes to the SIP and NMR signals in the absence of biofilm formation or biomineralization. We used Zymomonas mobilis and Shewanella oneidensis (MR-1) for SIP and NMR measurements, respectively. The SIP measurements were collected over the frequency range of 0.1 - 1 kHz on Z. mobilis growth suspension and suspension saturated sands at different cell densities. SIP data show two distinct peaks in imaginary conductivity spectra, and both imaginary and real conductivities increased as microbial density increased. NMR data were collected using both CPMG pulse sequence and D-T2 mapping to determine the T2-distribution and diffusion properties on S. oneidensis suspension, pellets (live and dead), and suspension mixed with silica sands. NMR data show a decrease in the T2-distribution in S. oneidensis suspension saturated sands as microbial density increase. A

  11. Real-Time Blob-Wise Sugar Beets VS Weeds Classification for Monitoring Fields Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioto, A.; Lottes, P.; Stachniss, C.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are becoming an important tool for field monitoring and precision farming. A prerequisite for observing and analyzing fields is the ability to identify crops and weeds from image data. In this paper, we address the problem of detecting the sugar beet plants and weeds in the field based solely on image data. We propose a system that combines vegetation detection and deep learning to obtain a high-quality classification of the vegetation in the field into value crops and weeds. We implemented and thoroughly evaluated our system on image data collected from different sugar beet fields and illustrate that our approach allows for accurately identifying the weeds on the field.

  12. Calculation of longitudinal and transverse wake-field effects in dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.

    1989-01-01

    The electro-magnetic radiation of a charged particle passing through a dielectric structure has many applications to accelerator physics. Recently a new acceleration scheme, called the dielectric wake field accelerator, has been proposed. It also can be used as a pick up system for a storage ring because of its slow wave characteristics. In order to study these effects in detail, in this paper we will calculate the wake field effects produced in a dielectric structure by a charged particle. 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchter, B. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahl, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to understanding how homes use energy. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, NREL researchers investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. This report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to 10 end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. NREL concludes that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  14. Test and evaluation of semiconductor components in mixed field radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio N.; Madi Filho, Tufic; Rodrigues, Leticia L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon components have found extensive use in nuclear spectroscopy and counting, as described in many articles in the last three decades. These devices have found utility in radiation dosimetry because a diode, for instance, produces a current approximately 18000 times higher than any ionization chamber of equal sensitive volume. This reduces stringent requirements from the electronics used to amplify or integrate the current and / or allows approaching the ideal detector point for the mapping of radiation fields. For better performance, in the case of diodes, they are normally used with high inverse polarity to obtain a deeper barrier, less noise and shorter transit time. The aim of this work was the evaluation of these semiconductor components for application in ionizing radiation fields monitoring, in nuclear research reactors and radiotherapy facilities, for radiation protection and health physics purposes. Experimental configurations to analyze the performance of commercial semiconductors, such as silicon PIN Photodiodes and Silicon Surface Barrier Detectors, were developed and the performance of three different configurations of charge preamplifier with silicon components was also studied. Components were evaluated for application as neutron detectors, using some types of radiators (converters). The radiation response of these silicon components to neutron fields from nuclear research reactors IEA-R1 and IPEN-MB1 (thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons), from beam holes, experimental halls and AmBe neutron sources in laboratory was investigated. (author)

  15. Self-Potential Monitoring of Landslides on Field and Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, T.; Limbrock, J. K.; Weigand, M.; Wagner, F. M.; Kemna, A.

    2017-12-01

    Among several other geophysical methods used to observe water movement in the ground, the electrical self-potential method has been applied to a broad range of monitoring studies, especially focusing on volcanism and dam leakage but also during hydraulic fracturing. Electrical self-potential signals may be caused by various mechanisms. Though, the most relevant source of the self-potential field in the given context of landslides is the streaming potential, caused by a flowing electrolyte through porous media with electrically charged internal surfaces. So far, existing models focus on monitoring water flow in non-deformable porous media. However, as the self-potential is sensitive to hydraulic parameters of the soil, any change in these parameters will cause an alteration of the electric signal. Mass movement will significantly influence the hydraulic parameters of the solid as well as the pressure field, assuming that fluid movement is faster than pressure diffusion. We present self-potential measurements from over a year of continuous monitoring at an old landslide site. Using a three-dimensional electric-resistivity underground model, the self-potential signal is analyzed with respect to precipitation and the resulting flow in the ground. Additional data from electrical measurements and conventional sensors are included to assess saturation. The field observations are supplemented by laboratory experiments in which we study the behavior of the self-potential during failure of a piled land slope. For the undrained scenarios, we observe a clear correlation between the mass movements and signals in the electric potential, which clearly differ from the underlying potential variations due to increased saturation and fluid flow. In the drained experiments, we do not observe any measurable change in the electric potential. We therefore assume that change in fluid properties and release of the load causes disturbances in flow and streaming potential. Our results

  16. Pin Diode Detector For Radiation Field Monitoring In A Current Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Wengrowicz, U.; Kadmon, Y.; Tirosh, D.; Osovizky, A.; Vulasky, E.; Tal, N.

    1999-01-01

    Thus paper presents calculations and tests made for a detector based on a bare Pin diode and a Pin diode coupled to a plastic scintillator. These configurations have a variety of applications in radiation field monitoring. For example, the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology which becomes an established diagnostic imaging modality. Flour-18 is one of the major isotopes being used by PET imaging. The PET method utilizes short half life β + radioisotopes which, by annihilation, produce a pair of high energy photons (511 keV). Fluoro-deoxyglucose producers are required to meet federal regulations and licensing requirements. Some of the regulations are related to the production in chemistry modules regarding measuring the Start Of Synthesis (SOS) activity and verifying the process repeatability. Locating a radiation detector based on Pin diode inside the chemistry modules is suitable for this purpose. The dimensions of a Pin diode based detector can be small, with expected linearity over several scale decades

  17. Field Assessment and Specification Review for Roller-Integrated Compaction Monitoring Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. White

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roller-integrated compaction monitoring (RICM technologies provide virtually 100-percent coverage of compacted areas with real-time display of the compaction measurement values. Although a few countries have developed quality control (QC and quality assurance (QA specifications, broader implementation of these technologies into earthwork construction operations still requires a thorough understanding of relationships between RICM values and traditional in situ point test measurements. The purpose of this paper is to provide: (a an overview of two technologies, namely, compaction meter value (CMV and machine drive power (MDP; (b a comprehensive review of field assessment studies, (c an overview of factors influencing statistical correlations, (d modeling for visualization and characterization of spatial nonuniformity; and (e a brief review of the current specifications.

  18. RESUME95 Nordic field test of mobile equipment for nuclear fall-out monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, C.; Bresson, J.; Chiffot, T.; Guillot, L. [Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, Direction des Applications Militaires, Commissaiat a L`Energie Atomique, Tille (France)

    1997-12-31

    Nordic Safety Research (NKS) organised in August 1995 a field test of various techniques and instrumentation for monitoring radioactive fall-out. In an emergency situation, after a major release of radioactive material, many different measuring systems are going to be used, ranging from small hand hold intensitometer to complex spectrometer systems. In this test the following type of equipment were tested: Airborne spectrometers; Carborne spectrometers and dose rate meters; In situ spectrometers and intensitometers. Helinuc team was equipped of an airborne system and of a germanium device for in situ measurements. Different tasks were specified for each team: Mapping caesium fall-out and natural activity over two areas of 18 and 5 km{sup 2}; Research of hidden sources. For measurements and data processing the respect of time allowed was strictly controlled for testing the ability of each team. (au).

  19. RESUME95 Nordic field test of mobile equipment for nuclear fall-out monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, C; Bresson, J; Chiffot, T; Guillot, L [Centre d` Etudes de Valduc, Direction des Applications Militaires, Commissaiat a L` Energie Atomique, Tille (France)

    1998-12-31

    Nordic Safety Research (NKS) organised in August 1995 a field test of various techniques and instrumentation for monitoring radioactive fall-out. In an emergency situation, after a major release of radioactive material, many different measuring systems are going to be used, ranging from small hand hold intensitometer to complex spectrometer systems. In this test the following type of equipment were tested: Airborne spectrometers; Carborne spectrometers and dose rate meters; In situ spectrometers and intensitometers. Helinuc team was equipped of an airborne system and of a germanium device for in situ measurements. Different tasks were specified for each team: Mapping caesium fall-out and natural activity over two areas of 18 and 5 km{sup 2}; Research of hidden sources. For measurements and data processing the respect of time allowed was strictly controlled for testing the ability of each team. (au).

  20. Spectral Indices to Monitor Nitrogen-Driven Carbon Uptake in Field Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corp, Lawrence A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Peya E.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Russ, Andrew; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is heavily impacted by changing vegetation cover and productivity with large scale monitoring of vegetation only possible with remote sensing techniques. The goal of this effort was to evaluate existing reflectance (R) spectroscopic methods for determining vegetation parameters related to photosynthetic function and carbon (C) dynamics in plants. Since nitrogen (N) is a key constituent of photosynthetic pigments and C fixing enzymes, biological C sequestration is regulated in part by N availability. Spectral R information was obtained from field corn grown at four N application rates (0, 70, 140, 280 kg N/ha). A hierarchy of spectral observations were obtained: leaf and canopy with a spectral radiometer; aircraft with the AISA sensor; and satellite with EO-1 Hyperion. A number of spectral R indices were calculated from these hyperspectral observations and compared to geo-located biophysical measures of plant growth and physiological condition. Top performing indices included the R derivative index D730/D705 and the normalized difference of R750 vs. R705 (ND705), both of which differentiated three of the four N fertilization rates at multiple observation levels and yielded high correlations to these carbon parameters: light use efficiency (LUE); C:N ratio; and crop grain yield. These results advocate the use of hyperspectral sensors for remotely monitoring carbon cycle dynamics in managed terrestrial ecosystems.

  1. Multi-field coupled sensing network for health monitoring of composite bolted joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishou; Qing, Xinlin; Dong, Liang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2016-04-01

    Advanced fiber reinforced composite materials are becoming the main structural materials of next generation of aircraft because of their high strength and stiffness to weight ratios, and excellent designability. As key components of large composite structures, joints play important roles to ensure the integrity of the composite structures. However, it is very difficult to analyze the strength and failure modes of composite joints due to their complex nonlinear coupling factors. Therefore, there is a need to monitor, diagnose, evaluate and predict the structure state of composite joints. This paper proposes a multi-field coupled sensing network for health monitoring of composite bolted joints. Major work of this paper includes: 1) The concept of multifunctional sensor layer integrated with eddy current sensors, Rogowski coil and arrayed piezoelectric sensors; 2) Development of the process for integrating the eddy current sensor foil, Rogowski coil and piezoelectric sensor array in multifunctional sensor layer; 3) A new concept of smart composite joint with multifunctional sensing capability. The challenges for building such a structural state sensing system and some solutions to address the challenges are also discussed in the study.

  2. Monitoring Quality Across Home Visiting Models: A Field Test of Michigan's Home Visiting Quality Assurance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heany, Julia; Torres, Jennifer; Zagar, Cynthia; Kostelec, Tiffany

    2018-06-05

    Introduction In order to achieve the positive outcomes with parents and children demonstrated by many home visiting models, home visiting services must be well implemented. The Michigan Home Visiting Initiative developed a tool and procedure for monitoring implementation quality across models referred to as Michigan's Home Visiting Quality Assurance System (MHVQAS). This study field tested the MHVQAS. This article focuses on one of the study's evaluation questions: Can the MHVQAS be applied across models? Methods Eight local implementing agencies (LIAs) from four home visiting models (Healthy Families America, Early Head Start-Home Based, Parents as Teachers, Maternal Infant Health Program) and five reviewers participated in the study by completing site visits, tracking their time and costs, and completing surveys about the process. LIAs also submitted their most recent review by their model developer. The researchers conducted participant observation of the review process. Results Ratings on the MHVQAS were not significantly different between models. There were some differences in interrater reliability and perceived reliability between models. There were no significant differences between models in perceived validity, satisfaction with the review process, or cost to participate. Observational data suggested that cross-model applicability could be improved by assisting sites in relating the requirements of the tool to the specifics of their model. Discussion The MHVQAS shows promise as a tool and process to monitor implementation quality of home visiting services across models. The results of the study will be used to make improvements before the MHVQAS is used in practice.

  3. Reframing measurement for structural health monitoring: a full-field strategy for structural identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizaji, Mehrdad S.; Harris, Devin K.; Alipour, Mohamad; Ozbulut, Osman E.

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) describes a decision-making framework that is fundamentally guided by state change detection of structural systems. This framework typically relies on the use of continuous or semi-continuous monitoring of measured response to quantify this state change in structural system behavior, which is often related to the initiation of some form of damage. Measurement approaches used for traditional SHM are numerous, but most are limited to either describing localized or global phenomena, making it challenging to characterize operational structural systems which exhibit both. In addition to these limitations in sensing, SHM has also suffered from the inherent robustness inherent to most full-scale structural systems, making it challenging to identify local damage. These challenges highlight the opportunity for alternative strategies for SHM, strategies that are able to provide data suitable to translate into rich information. This paper describes preliminary results from a refined structural identification (St-ID) approach using fullfield measurements derived from high-speed 3D Digital Image Correlation (HSDIC) to characterize uncertain parameters (i.e. boundary and constitutive properties) of a laboratory scale structural component. The St-ID approach builds from prior work by supplementing full-field deflection and strain response with vibration response derived from HSDIC. Inclusion of the modal characteristics within a hybrid-genetic algorithm optimization scheme allowed for simultaneous integration of mechanical and modal response, thus enabling a more robust St-ID strategy than could be achieved with traditional sensing techniques. The use of full-field data is shown to provide a more comprehensive representation of the global and local behavior, which in turn increases the robustness of the St-Id framework. This work serves as the foundation for a new paradigm in SHM that emphasizes characterizing structural performance using a

  4. Monitoring Induced Fractures with Electrical Measurements using Depth to Surface Resistivity: A Field Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, M.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Sun, S.; MacLennan, K.

    2016-12-01

    Electrical methods offer an attractive option to map induced fractures because the recovered anomaly is related to the electrical conductivity of the injected fluid in the open (propped) section of the fracture operation. This is complementary to existing micro-seismic technology, which maps the mechanical effects of the fracturing. In this paper we describe a 2014 field case where a combination of a borehole casing electrode and a surface receiver array was used to monitor hydrofracture fracture creation and growth in an unconventional oil field project. The fracture treatment well was 1 km long and drilled to a depth of 2.2 km. Twelve fracture events were induced in 30 m intervals (stages) in the 1 km well. Within each stage 5 events (clusters) were initiated at 30 m intervals. Several of the fracture stages used a high salinity brine, instead of fresh water, to enhance the electrical signal. The electrical experiment deployed a downhole source in a well parallel to the treatment well and 100 m away. The source consisted of an electrode attached to a wireline cable into which a 0.25 Hz square wave was injected. A 60-station electrical field receiver array was placed above the fracture and extending for several km. Receivers were oriented to measure electrical field parallel with the presumed fracture direction and those perpendicular to it. Active source electrical data were collected continuously during 7 frac stages, 3 of which used brine as the frac fluid over a period of several days. Although the site was quite noisy and the electrical anomaly small we managed to extract a clear frac anomaly using field separation, extensive signal averaging and background noise rejection techniques. Preliminary 3D modeling, where we account for current distribution of the casing electrode and explicitly model multiple thin conductive sheets to represent fracture stages, produces a model consistent with the field measurements and also highlights the sensitivity of the

  5. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments using low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Rupert, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    The effective monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. Recent geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity, complex conductivity, and ground penetrating radar have been successfully applied to characterize organic contaminants in the subsurface and to monitor remediation process both in laboratory and in field. Low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical tool sensitive to the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of hydrogen-bearing fluids in geological materials and shows promise as a novel method for monitoring contaminant remediation. This laboratory research focuses on measurements on synthetic samples to determine the sensitivity of NMR to the presence of organic contaminants and improve understanding of relationships between NMR observables, hydrological properties of the sediments, and amount and state of contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) has been selected as a representative organic contaminant. Three types of porous media (pure silica sands, montmorillonite clay, and various sand-clay mixtures with different sand/clay ratios) were prepared as synthetic sediments. NMR relaxation time (T2) and diffusion-relaxation (D - T2) correlation measurements were performed in each sediment saturated with water and toluene mixed fluid at assorted concentrations (0% toluene and 100% water, 1% toluene and 99% water, 5% toluene and 95% water, 25% toluene and 75% water, and 100% toluene and 0% water) to 1) understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR responses in each fluid mixture, 2) investigate the role of clay content on T2 relaxation of each fluid, 3) quantify the amount hydrocarbons in the presence of water in each sediment, and 4) resolve hydrocarbons from water in D - T2 map. Relationships between the compositions of porous media, hydrocarbon concentration, and hydraulic

  6. Characterisation of ionisation chambers for a mixed radiation field and investigation of their suitability as radiation monitors for the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, C; Forkel-Wirth, D; Perrin, D; Roesler, S; Vincke, H

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring of the radiation environment is one of the key tasks in operating a high-energy accelerator such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The radiation fields consist of neutrons, charged hadrons as well as photons and electrons with energy spectra extending from those of thermal neutrons up to several hundreds of GeV. The requirements for measuring the dose equivalent in such a field are different from standard uses and it is thus necessary to investigate the response of monitoring devices thoroughly before the implementation of a monitoring system can be conducted. For the LHC, it is currently foreseen to install argon- and hydrogen-filled high-pressure ionisation chambers as radiation monitors of mixed fields. So far their response to these fields was poorly understood and, therefore, further investigation was necessary to prove that they can serve their function well enough. In this study, ionisation chambers of type IG5 (Centronic Ltd) were characterised by simulating their response functions by means of detailed FLUKA calculations as well as by calibration measurements for photons and neutrons at fixed energies. The latter results were used to obtain a better understanding and validation of the FLUKA simulations. Tests were also conducted at the CERF facility at CERN in order to compare the results with simulations of the response in a mixed radiation field. It is demonstrated that these detectors can be characterised sufficiently enough to serve their function as radiation monitors for the LHC.

  7. Monitoring TASCC Injections Using A Field-Ready Wet Chemistry Nutrient Autoanalyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, L. E.; Herstand, M. R.; Bowden, W. B.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of nutrient cycling and transport (spiraling) in stream systems is a fundamental component of stream ecology. Additions of isotopic tracer and bulk inorganic nutrient to streams have been frequently used to evaluate nutrient transfer between ecosystem compartments and nutrient uptake estimation, respectively. The Tracer Addition for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) methodology of Covino et al. (2010) instantaneously and simultaneously adds conservative and biologically active tracers to a stream system to quantify nutrient uptake metrics. In this method, comparing the ratio of mass of nutrient and conservative solute recovered in each sample throughout a breakthrough curve to that of the injectate, a distribution of spiraling metrics is calculated across a range of nutrient concentrations. This distribution across concentrations allows for both a robust estimation of ambient spiraling parameters by regression techniques, and comparison with uptake kinetic models. We tested a unique sampling strategy for TASCC injections in which samples were taken manually throughout the nutrient breakthrough curves while, simultaneously, continuously monitoring with a field-ready wet chemistry autoanalyzer. The autoanalyzer was programmed to measure concentrations of nitrate, phosphate and ammonium at the rate of one measurement per second throughout each experiment. Utilization of an autoanalyzer in the field during the experiment results in the return of several thousand additional nutrient data points when compared with manual sampling. This technique, then, allows for a deeper understanding and more statistically robust estimation of stream nutrient spiraling parameters.

  8. Flume and field-based calibration of surrogate sensors for monitoring bedload transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, L.; Carrillo, R.; Escauriaza, C.; Iroume, A.

    2016-01-01

    Bedload transport assessment is important for geomorphological, engineering, and ecological studies of gravel-bed rivers. Bedload can be monitored at experimental stations that require expensive maintenance or by using portable traps, which allows measuring instantaneous transport rates but at a single point and at high costs and operational risks. The need for continuously measuring bedload intensity and dynamics has therefore increased the use and enhancement of surrogate methods. This paper reports on a set of flume experiments in which a Japanese acoustic pipe and an impact plate have been tested using four well-sorted and three poorly sorted sediment mixtures. Additional data were collected in a glacierized high-gradient Andean stream (Estero Morales) using a portable Bunte-type bedload sampler. Results show that the data provided by the acoustic pipe (which is amplified on 6 channels having different gains) can be calibrated for the grain size and for the intensity of transported sediments coarser than 9 mm (R2 = 0.93 and 0.88, respectively). Even if the flume-based calibration is very robust, upscaling the calibration to field applications is more challenging, and the bedload intensity could be predicted better than the grain size of transported sediments (R2 = 0.61 and 0.43, respectively). The inexpensive impact plate equipped with accelerometer could be calibrated for bedload intensity quite well in the flume but only poorly in the field (R2 = 0.16) and could not provide information on the size of transported sediments.

  9. Electric conductivity for laboratory and field monitoring of induced partial saturation (IPS) in sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemiroodsari, Hadi

    implemented in the prepared specimen to validate the numerical simulation model and explore the use of conductivity probes to detect the transport of chemical solution, estimate degree of saturation achieved due to injection of chemical solution, and evaluate final zone of partial saturation. The conductivity probe and the simulation results agreed well. To study the effect of IPS on liquefaction response of the sand specimen, IPS was implemented in a large (2-story high) sand specimen prepared in the laminar box of NEES Buffalo and then the specimen was subjected to harmonic shaking. Electric conductivity probes were used in the specimen treatment by controlling the duration and spacing of injection of the chemical solution, in monitoring the transport of chemical solution, in the estimation of zone of partial saturation achieved, and in the estimation of degree of saturation achieved due to implementation of IPS. The conductivity probes indicated partial saturation of the specimen. The shaking tests results confirmed the partial saturation state of the sand specimen. In addition, to the laboratory works, electric conductivity probes were used in field implementation of IPS in a pilot test at the Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) of NEES UCSB site. The conductivity probes in the field test helped decide the optimum injection pressure, the injection tube spacing, and the degree of saturation that could be achieved in the field. The various laboratory and field tests confirmed that electric conductivity and the probes devised and used can be invaluable in the implementation of IPS, by providing information regarding transport of the chemical solution, the spacing of injection tubes, duration of injection, and the zone and degree of partial saturation caused by IPS.

  10. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchter, B. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahl, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to our understanding of how homes use energy, and we cannot control what we do not understand. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, we have investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. The scope of this report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to ten end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. We conclude that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  11. Single-shot imaging with higher-dimensional encoding using magnetic field monitoring and concomitant field correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, Frederik; Gallichan, Daniel; Layton, Kelvin J; Barmet, Christoph; Welz, Anna M; Dewdney, Andrew; Cocosco, Chris A; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2015-03-01

    PatLoc (Parallel Imaging Technique using Localized Gradients) accelerates imaging and introduces a resolution variation across the field-of-view. Higher-dimensional encoding employs more spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) than the corresponding image dimensionality requires, e.g. by applying two quadratic and two linear spatial encoding magnetic fields to reconstruct a 2D image. Images acquired with higher-dimensional single-shot trajectories can exhibit strong artifacts and geometric distortions. In this work, the source of these artifacts is analyzed and a reliable correction strategy is derived. A dynamic field camera was built for encoding field calibration. Concomitant fields of linear and nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields were analyzed. A combined basis consisting of spherical harmonics and concomitant terms was proposed and used for encoding field calibration and image reconstruction. A good agreement between the analytical solution for the concomitant fields and the magnetic field simulations of the custom-built PatLoc SEM coil was observed. Substantial image quality improvements were obtained using a dynamic field camera for encoding field calibration combined with the proposed combined basis. The importance of trajectory calibration for single-shot higher-dimensional encoding is demonstrated using the combined basis including spherical harmonics and concomitant terms, which treats the concomitant fields as an integral part of the encoding. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Does insecticide drift adversely affect grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Saltatoria) in field margins? A case study combining laboratory acute toxicity testing with field monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Schmitz, Juliane; Bundschuh, Mirco; Brühl, Carsten Albrecht

    2012-08-01

    The current terrestrial risk assessment of insecticides regarding nontarget arthropods considers exclusively beneficial organisms, whereas herbivorous insects, such as grasshoppers, are ignored. However, grasshoppers living in field margins or meadows adjacent to crops may potentially be exposed to insecticides due to contact with or ingestion of contaminated food. Therefore, the present study assessed effects of five active ingredients of insecticides (dimethoate, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and deltamethrin) on the survival of Chorthippus sp. grasshopper nymphs by considering two routes of exposure (contact and oral). The experiments were accompanied by monitoring field margins that neighbored cereals, vineyards, and orchards. Grasslands were used as reference sites. The laboratory toxicity tests revealed a sensitivity of grasshoppers with regard to the insecticides tested in the present study similar to that of the standard test species used in arthropod risk assessments. In the field monitoring program, increasing grasshopper densities were detected with increasing field margin width next to cereals and vineyards, but densities remained low over the whole range of field margins from 0.5 to 20 m next to orchards. Grasshopper densities equivalent to those of grassland sites were only observed in field margins exceeding 9 m in width, except for field margins next to orchards. These results may indicate that current insecticide risk assessments are insufficiently protective for grasshoppers in field margins. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  13. Online monitoring of the two-dimensional temperature field in a boiler furnace based on acoustic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shiping; Shen, Guoqing; An, Liansuo; Niu, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    Online monitoring of the temperature field is crucial to optimally adjust combustion within a boiler. In this paper, acoustic computed tomography (CT) technology was used to obtain the temperature profile of a furnace cross-section. The physical principles behind acoustic CT, acoustic signals and time delay estimation were studied. Then, the technique was applied to a domestic 600-MW coal-fired boiler. Acoustic CT technology was used to monitor the temperature field of the cross-section in the boiler furnace, and the temperature profile was reconstructed through ART iteration. The linear sweeping frequency signal was adopted as the sound source signal, whose sweeping frequency ranged from 500 to 3000 Hz with a sweeping cycle of 0.1 s. The generalized cross-correlation techniques with PHAT and ML were used as the time delay estimation method when the boiler was in different states. Its actual operation indicated that the monitored images accurately represented the combustion state of the boiler, and the acoustic CT system was determined to be accurate and reliable. - Highlights: • An online monitoring approach to monitor temperature field in a boiler furnace. • The paper provides acoustic CT technology to obtain the temperature profile of a furnace cross-section. • The temperature profile was reconstructed through ART iteration. • The technique is applied to a domestic 600-MW coal-fired boiler. • The monitored images accurately represent the combustion state of the boiler

  14. Monitor, a Vibrotactile Aid for Environmental Perception: A Field Evaluation by Four People with Severe Hearing and Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitor is a portable vibrotactile aid to improve the ability of people with severe hearing impairment or deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of sound-producing events. It transforms and adapts sounds to the frequency sensitivity range of the skin. The aid was evaluated in the field. Four females (44–54 years with Usher Syndrome I (three with tunnel vision and one with only light perception tested the aid at home and in traffic in three different field studies: without Monitor, with Monitor with an omnidirectional microphone, and with Monitor with a directional microphone. The tests were video-documented, and the two field studies with Monitor were initiated after five weeks of training. The detection scores with omnidirectional and directional microphones were 100% for three participants and above 57% for one, both in their home and traffic environments. In the home environment the identification scores with the omnidirectional microphone were 70%–97% and 58%–95% with the directional microphone. The corresponding values in traffic were 29%–100% and 65%–100%, respectively. Their direction perception was improved to some extent by both microphones. Monitor improved the ability of people with deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of events producing sounds.

  15. Monitor, a vibrotactile aid for environmental perception: a field evaluation by four people with severe hearing and vision impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Parivash; Stenström, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Monitor is a portable vibrotactile aid to improve the ability of people with severe hearing impairment or deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of sound-producing events. It transforms and adapts sounds to the frequency sensitivity range of the skin. The aid was evaluated in the field. Four females (44-54 years) with Usher Syndrome I (three with tunnel vision and one with only light perception) tested the aid at home and in traffic in three different field studies: without Monitor, with Monitor with an omnidirectional microphone, and with Monitor with a directional microphone. The tests were video-documented, and the two field studies with Monitor were initiated after five weeks of training. The detection scores with omnidirectional and directional microphones were 100% for three participants and above 57% for one, both in their home and traffic environments. In the home environment the identification scores with the omnidirectional microphone were 70%-97% and 58%-95% with the directional microphone. The corresponding values in traffic were 29%-100% and 65%-100%, respectively. Their direction perception was improved to some extent by both microphones. Monitor improved the ability of people with deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of events producing sounds.

  16. Remote sensing techniques to monitor nitrogen-driven carbon dynamics in field corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corp, Lawrence A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    2009-08-01

    Patterns of change in vegetation growth and condition are one of the primary indicators of the present and future ecological status of the globe. Nitrogen (N) is involved in photochemical processes and is one of the primary resources regulating plant growth. As a result, biological carbon (C) sequestration is driven by N availability. Large scale monitoring of photosynthetic processes are currently possible only with remote sensing systems that rely heavily on passive reflectance (R) information. Unlike R, fluorescence (F) emitted from chlorophyll is directly related to photochemical reactions and has been extensively used for the elucidation of the photosynthetic pathways. Recent advances in passive fluorescence instrumentation have made the remote acquisition of solar-induced fluorescence possible. The goal of this effort is to evaluate existing reflectance and emerging fluorescence methodologies for determining vegetation parameters related to photosynthetic function and carbon sequestration dynamics in plants. Field corn N treatment levels of 280, 140, 70, and 0 kg N / ha were sampled from an intensive test site for a multi-disciplinary project, Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement (OPE). Aircraft, near-ground, and leaf-level measurements were used to compare and contrast treatment effects within this experiment site assessed with both reflectance and fluorescence approaches. A number of spectral indices including the R derivative index D730/D705, the normalized difference of R750 vs. R705, and simple ratio R800/R750 differentiated three of the four N fertilization rates and yielded high correlations to three important carbon parameters: C:N, light use efficiency, and grain yield. These results advocate the application of hyperspectral sensors for remotely monitoring carbon cycle dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. A new portable sulfide monitor with a zinc-oxide semiconductor sensor for daily use and field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, Naoko; Washio, Jumpei; Ikawa, Kyoko; Suzuki, Kengo; Koseki, Takeyoshi; Iwakura, Masaki

    2007-07-01

    For measuring oral malodor in daily clinical practice and in field study, we developed and evaluated a highly sensitive portable monitor system. We examined sensitivity and specificity of the sensor for volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) and obstructive gases, such as ethanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde. Each mouth air provided by 46 people was measured by this monitor, gas chromatography (GC), and olfactory panel and compared with each other. Based on the result, we used the monitor for mass health examination of a rural town with standardized measuring. The sensor detected hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide with 10-1000 times higher sensitivity than the other gases. The monitor's specificity was significantly improved by a VSC-selective filter. There were significant correlations between VSC concentration by the sulfide monitor and by GC, and by organoleptic score. Thirty-six percent of 969 examinees had oral malodor in a rural town. Seventy-eight percent of 969 examinees were motivated to take care of their oral condition by oral malodor measuring with the monitor. The portable sulfide monitor was useful to promote oral health care not only in clinics, but also in field study. The simple and quick operation system and the standardized measuring make it one of parameters of oral condition.

  18. International Collaboration in the field of GNSS-Meteorology and Climate Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.; Guerova, G.; Dousa, J.; Bock, O.; Elgered, G.; Vedel, H.; Pottiaux, E.; de Haan, S.; Pacione, R.; Dick, G.; Wang, J.; Gutman, S. I.; Wickert, J.; Rannat, K.; Liu, G.; Braun, J. J.; Shoji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    International collaboration in the field of GNSS-meteorology and climate monitoring is essential, as severe weather and climate change have no respect for national boundaries. The use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for meteorological purposes is an established atmospheric observing technique, which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60-70% of atmospheric warming. Severe weather forecasting is challenging, in part due to the high temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric water vapour. Water vapour is currently under-sampled and obtaining and exploiting more high-quality humidity observations is essential to severe weather forecasting and climate monitoring. A proposed EU COST Action (http://www.cost.eu) will address new and improved capabilities from concurrent developments in both GNSS and atmospheric communities to improve (short-range) weather forecasts and climate projections. For the first time, the synergy of the three GNSS systems, GPS, GLONASS and Galileo, will be used to develop new, advanced tropospheric products, stimulating the full potential exploitation of multi-GNSS water vapour estimates on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from real-time severe weather monitoring and forecasting to climate research. The Action will work in close collaboration with the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN), GNSS Precipitable Water Task Team (TT). GRUAN is a global reference observing network, designed to meet climate requirements and to fill a major void in the current global observing system. GRUAN observations will provide long-term, high-quality data to determine climatic trends and to constrain and validate data from space-based remote sensors. Ground-based GNSS PW was identified as a Priority 1 measurement for GRUAN, and the GNSS-PW TT's goal is to develop explicit guidance on hardware, software and data management practices to obtain GNSS PW

  19. Networked web-cameras monitor congruent seasonal development of birches with phenological field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems' potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support various analyses of ecosystem functioning. We established a network of cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation in boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted on 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. In this study, we used cameras at 11 of these sites to investigate how well networked cameras detect phenological development of birches (Betula spp.) along the latitudinal gradient. Birches are interesting focal species for the analyses as they are common throughout Finland. In our cameras they often appear in smaller quantities within dominant species in the images. Here, we tested whether small scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of color indices and changes therein. We compared automatically derived phenological dates from these birch image elements to visually determined dates from the same image time series, and to independent observations recorded in the phenological monitoring network from the same region. Automatically extracted season start dates based on the change of green color fraction in the spring corresponded well with the visually interpreted start of season, and field observed budburst dates. During the declining season, red color fraction turned out to be superior over green color based indices in predicting leaf yellowing and fall. The latitudinal gradients derived using automated phenological date extraction corresponded well with gradients based on phenological field observations from the same region. We conclude that already small and scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of key phenological dates for birch species. Devising cameras for species specific analyses of phenological timing will be useful for

  20. Monitoring chemical reactions by low-field benchtop NMR at 45 MHz: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Milburn, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring chemical reactions is the key to controlling chemical processes where NMR can provide support. High-field NMR gives detailed structural information on chemical compounds and reactions; however, it is expensive and complex to operate. Conversely, low-field NMR instruments are simple and relatively inexpensive alternatives. While low-field NMR does not provide the detailed information as the high-field instruments as a result of their smaller chemical shift dispersion and the complex secondary coupling, it remains of practical value as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool and is complimentary to other established methods, such as ReactIR and Raman spectroscopy. We have tested a picoSpin-45 (currently under ThermoFisher Scientific) benchtop NMR instrument to monitor three types of reactions by 1D (1) H NMR: a Fischer esterification, a Suzuki cross-coupling, and the formation of an oxime. The Fischer esterification is a relatively simple reaction run at high concentration and served as proof of concept. The Suzuki coupling is an example of a more complex, commonly used reaction involving overlapping signals. Finally, the oxime formation involved a reaction in two phases that cannot be monitored by other PAT tools. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of monitoring these reactions at a low-field of 45 MHz by 1D (1) H NMR. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Novel System for Bite-Force Sensing and Monitoring Based on Magnetic Near Field Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sanz Maudes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intraoral devices for bite-force sensing have several applications in odontology and maxillofacial surgery, as bite-force measurements provide additional information to help understand the characteristics of bruxism disorders and can also be of help for the evaluation of post-surgical evolution and for comparison of alternative treatments. A new system for measuring human bite forces is proposed in this work. This system has future applications for the monitoring of bruxism events and as a complement for its conventional diagnosis. Bruxism is a pathology consisting of grinding or tight clenching of the upper and lower teeth, which leads to several problems such as lesions to the teeth, headaches, orofacial pain and important disorders of the temporomandibular joint. The prototype uses a magnetic field communication scheme similar to low-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID technology (NFC. The reader generates a low-frequency magnetic field that is used as the information carrier and powers the sensor. The system is notable because it uses an intra-mouth passive sensor and an external interrogator, which remotely records and processes information regarding a patient’s dental activity. This permits a quantitative assessment of bite-force, without requiring intra-mouth batteries, and can provide supplementary information to polysomnographic recordings, current most adequate early diagnostic method, so as to initiate corrective actions before irreversible dental wear appears. In addition to describing the system’s operational principles and the manufacture of personalized prototypes, this report will also demonstrate the feasibility of the system and results from the first in vitro and in vivo trials.

  2. Fielding a structural health monitoring system on legacy military aircraft: A business perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Marcel J. [Dept. of Gas Turbines and Structural Integrity, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    An important trend in the sustainment of military aircraft is the transition from preventative maintenance to condition based maintenance (CBM). For CBM, it is essential that the actual system condition can be measured and the measured condition can be reliably extrapolated to a convenient moment in the future in order to facilitate the planning process while maintaining flight safety. Much research effort is currently being made for the development of technologies that enable CBM, including structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Great progress has already been made in sensors, sensor networks, data acquisition, models and algorithms, data fusion/mining techniques, etc. However, the transition of these technologies into service is very slow. This is because business cases are difficult to define and the certification of the SHM systems is very challenging. This paper describes a possibility for fielding a SHM system on legacy military aircraft with a minimum amount of certification issues and with a good prospect of a positive return on investment. For appropriate areas in the airframe the application of SHM will reconcile the fail-safety and slow crack growth damage tolerance approaches that can be used for safeguarding the continuing airworthiness of these areas, combining the benefits of both approaches and eliminating the drawbacks.

  3. Monitoring of water movement in paddy field's soil using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad; Kouichi Yuita

    1994-01-01

    Water movement in soils at the lower course and the middle course of Sakawa River's paddy field was monitored over an 8 week period using a bromide tracer. The water of soil samples taken one day after bromide application contained high concentrations of bromide at 50 to 60 cm soil depth at lower course. The bromide was concentrated promarily within 20 to 80 cm depth. No downward movement below 80 cm depth was detected six weeks afetr the application. This might indicate the high water table of this area. On the other hand, bromide concentrations were high at 50 cm depth in water of the soils sample taken one day after application from the middle course of Sakawa River plot. However, the concentrations were nearly at background level in all samples taken from the middle course of sakawa River 3 weeks after application. The evidence from bromide's movement shows that water readily penetrate the soils at the middle course of Sakawa River. The downward movement was faster compared to that at lower course

  4. Monitoring ecosystem reclamation recovery using optical remote sensing: Comparison with field measurements and eddy covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L; Baker, T; Carey, S K; Straker, J; Strilesky, S; Petrone, R

    2018-06-12

    Time series remote sensing vegetation indices derived from SPOT 5 data are compared with vegetation structure and eddy covariance flux data at 15 dry to wet reclamation and reference sites within the Oil Sands region of Alberta, Canada. This comprehensive analysis examines the linkages between indicators of ecosystem function and change trajectories observed both at the plot level and within pixels. Using SPOT imagery, we find that higher spatial resolution datasets (e.g. 10 m) improves the relationship between vegetation indices and structural measurements compared with interpolated (lower resolution) pixels. The simple ratio (SR) vegetation index performs best when compared with stem density-based indicators (R 2  = 0.65; p  0.02). Fluxes (net ecosystem production (NEP) and gross ecosystem production (GEP)) are most related to NDVI and SAVI when these are interpolated to larger 20 m × 20 m pixels (R 2  = 0.44-0.50; p  3 m 2  m -2 , making this index more appropriate for newly regenerating reclamation areas. For sites with LAI remote sensing in combination with field and eddy covariance data for monitoring and scaling of reclaimed and reference site productivity within and beyond the Oil Sands Region of western Canada. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of microcalcification: can digital monitor zooming replace magnification mammography in full-field digital mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Oh, Ki Keun; Han, Mooyoung

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy and image quality of microcalcifications in zoomed digital contact mammography with digital magnification mammography. Three radiologists with different levels of experience in mammography reviewed 120 microcalcification clusters in 111 patients with a full-field digital mammography system relying on digital magnification mammogram (MAG) images and zoomed images from contact mammography (ZOOM) using commercially available zooming systems on monitors. Each radiologist estimated the probability of malignancy and rated the image quality and confidence rate. Performance was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. All three radiologists rated MAG images higher than ZOOM images for sensitivity with statistical significance (average value, 92% vs. 87%, P<0.05) and performance by ROC analysis improved with MAG imaging. The confidence rate for diagnosis decision and the assessment of lesion characteristics were also better in MAG images than in ZOOM images with statistical significance (P<0.0001). Digital magnification mammography can enhance diagnostic performance when characterizing microcalcifications. Images zoomed from digital contact mammography cannot serve as an alternative to direct magnification digital mammography. (orig.)

  6. V. Monitoring the stability of coumaphos acaricide in field cattle dipping vats by using HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa Gonzalez, J.; Rodriguez, F.; Barrera, R.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of coumaphos in four field cattle dipping vats and its distribution at different depths in the suspension and in the sediment was monitored over 12 to 48 weeks. The residual concentration of coumaphos and degradation products was determined by HPLC. Coumaphos was extracted from the suspension by shaking with equal volume of methanol and 90% of coumaphos was extracted by this method. A reverse phase C-18 column (25 cm x 0.4 cm) was used in the HPLC and the eluent was a mixture of methanol+ water (80+20,v/v). The initial concentration of coumaphos was 200 mg/L. However, it steadily decreased in all four vats with time. The final concentration was reduced to 39% of the concentration at zero time in vat number 1 after 12 week 17% after 18 weeks in vat number 2, 29% after 19 weeks in vat number 3 and 23% after 48 weeks in vat number 4. The concentration in the sediment increased from 165 mg/kg at zero time to 1960 mg/kg after 18 weeks in vat number 1 and 152 mg/kg to 2020 mg/kg after 48 weeks in vat number 4. The concentration of coumaphos in the suspension ranged between 28 to 81 mg/L at the surface, 46 to 115 mg/L at 20 cm and 86 to 147 mg/L at 100 cm depth. (author)

  7. Fielding a structural health monitoring system on legacy military aircraft: A business perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Marcel J.

    2015-01-01

    An important trend in the sustainment of military aircraft is the transition from preventative maintenance to condition based maintenance (CBM). For CBM, it is essential that the actual system condition can be measured and the measured condition can be reliably extrapolated to a convenient moment in the future in order to facilitate the planning process while maintaining flight safety. Much research effort is currently being made for the development of technologies that enable CBM, including structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Great progress has already been made in sensors, sensor networks, data acquisition, models and algorithms, data fusion/mining techniques, etc. However, the transition of these technologies into service is very slow. This is because business cases are difficult to define and the certification of the SHM systems is very challenging. This paper describes a possibility for fielding a SHM system on legacy military aircraft with a minimum amount of certification issues and with a good prospect of a positive return on investment. For appropriate areas in the airframe the application of SHM will reconcile the fail-safety and slow crack growth damage tolerance approaches that can be used for safeguarding the continuing airworthiness of these areas, combining the benefits of both approaches and eliminating the drawbacks

  8. Evaluating a radiation monitor for mixed-field environments based on SRAM technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiligiannis, G; Bosio, A; Girard, P; Pravossoudovitch, S; Todri, A; Virazel, A; Mekki, J; Brugger, M; Wrobel, F; Saigne, F

    2014-01-01

    Instruments operating in particle accelerators and colliders are exposed to radiations that are composed of particles of different types and energies. Several of these instruments often embed devices that are not hardened against radiation effects. Thus, there is a strong need for mon- itoring the levels of radiation inside the mixed-field radiation areas, throughout different positions. Different metrics exist for measuring the radiation damage induced to electronic devices, such as the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), the Displacement Damage (DD) and of course the fluence of parti- cles for estimating the error rates of the electronic devices among other applications. In this paper, we propose an SRAM based monitor, that is used to define the fluence of High Energy Hadrons (HEH) by detecting Single Event Upsets in the memory array. We evaluated the device by testing it inside the H4IRRAD area of CERN, a test area that reproduces the radiation conditions inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel and its shield...

  9. Field monitoring versus individual miner dosimetry of radon daughter products in mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domański, T; Kluszczyński, D; Olszewski, J; Chruscielewski, W

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the results realised simultaneously by two different and independent systems of measurement of an assessment of miners' exposure to radon daughter products which naturally occur in the air of mines. The first one, called the Air Sampling System (ASS), was based on the field monitoring of radon progeny in air, the second one, called the Individual Dosimetry System (IDS), was based on the individual dosimeters worn by miners. Experimental comparison of these two systems has been conducted for six years in eleven Polish underground metal-ore mines. This study reveals that no correlation exists between the concentration and annual miners' exposures evaluated by the ASS and IDS. The ratio ASS/IDS for mine population varies from 11.0 to 0.14 in respect of annual concentration means, and in respect to annual exposures, this ratio varies from 4.5 to 0.14. The conclusion to be drawn from six years' observation and comparison of both systems is that correct and true evaluation of miners' exposure to radon progeny can be made only by the use of the Individual Dosimetry System, since the Air Sampling System is too sensitive and too dependent on the Strategy of sampling and its radiation.

  10. [Wireless Passive Body Sensor for Temperature Monitoring Using Near Field Communication Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bo; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Genxuan; Tsau, Young; Zhang, Sai; Li, Lei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we designed a wireless body temperature sensor (WBTS) based on near field communication (NFC) technology. Just attaching the WBTS to a mobile phone with NFC function, the real-time body temperature of human subjects can be acquired by an application program without seperate power supply. The WBTS is mainly composed of a digital body temperature probe (d-BTP), a NFC unit and an antenna. The d-BTP acquires and processes body temperature data through a micro control er, and the NFC unit and antenna are used for wireless energy transmission and data communication between the mobile phone and WBTS. UART communication protocol is used in the communication between the d-BTP and NFC unit, and data compression technique is adopted for improving transmission efficiency and decreasing power loss. In tests, the error of WBTS is ±0.1 oC, in range of 32 oC to 42 oC. The WBTS has advantages of high accuracy, low power loss, strong anti-interference ability, dispensation with independent power supply etc., and it can be integrated into wearable apparatuses for temperature monitoring and health management.

  11. A novel noncontact electromagnetic field-based sensor for the monitoring of resonant fatigue tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Si-Byung; Yun, Gun Jin; Binienda, Wieslaw; Carletta, Joan; Kim, Dong-Han

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a prototype of an electromagnetic field-based (EFB) vibration sensor that uses a novel sensing technique to monitor the resonant fatigue testing of a conductive and/or ferromagnetic target specimen is presented. The distance from the target to a coil within the sensor affects the impedance of the coil. The electronic circuitry for the sensor consists of a relaxation oscillator, an embedded microprocessor module and a high-speed digital-to-analog converter. The impedance of the coil determines the frequency of oscillation of the relaxation oscillator's output, so that vibration of the target causes changes in the oscillation frequency. A timer in the embedded microprocessor module is used to count the oscillations, producing a digital signal that indicates the coil-to-target distance. The digital signal is instantaneously converted to an analog signal to produce the sensor's output. The key technologies proposed include: (1) a novel timer counting method using the input capture functionality and timer of the embedded microprocessor module and (2) significant simplification of the analog electronic circuitry. The performance of the proposed sensor has been verified using AISI 1095 carbon steel and Al6061–T6 aluminum alloy specimens during resonant fatigue tests. The sensor shows a good linearity between displacement amplitudes and output voltages

  12. Monitoring of geothermal fields by seismic networks. Guidelines and chances; Monitoring geothermaler Felder durch seismische Netzwerke. Vorgaben und Chancen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Andreas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Geophysikalisches Inst.; Gaucher, Emmanuel [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Abt. Geothermie

    2012-07-01

    The monitoring of geothermal power plants requires seismic networks in order to quantify ground motions at the earth's surface in the case of a possible micro seismicity or to describe spatio-temporal seismicity distribution in the reservoir. The first case requires official needs. The second case may help to develop the reservoirs. An optimal configuration of the seismic network may adequate for both tasks. It also can be a chance for a long-term investment for the overall benefit.

  13. Seismic aftershock monitoring for on-site inspection purposes. Experience from Integrated Field Exercise 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labak, P.; Arndt, R.; Villagran, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the sub-goals of the Integrated Field Experiment in 2008 (IFE08) in Kazakhstan was testing the prototype elements of the Seismic aftershock monitoring system (SAMS) for on-site inspection purposes. The task of the SAMS is to collect the facts, which should help to clarify nature of the triggering event. Therefore the SAMS has to be capable to detect and identify events as small as magnitude -2 in the inspection area size up to 1000 km2. Equipment for 30 mini-arrays and 10 3-component stations represented the field equipment of the SAMS. Each mini-array consisted of a central 3-component seismometer and 3 vertical seismometers at the distance about 100 m from the central seismometer. The mini-arrays covered approximately 80% of surrogate inspection area (IA) on the territory of former Semipalatinsk test site. Most of the stations were installed during the first four days of field operations by the seismic sub-team, which consisted of 10 seismologists. SAMS data center comprised 2 IBM Blade centers and 8 working places for data archiving, detection list production and event analysis. A prototype of SAMS software was tested. Average daily amount of collected raw data was 15-30 GB and increased according to the amount of stations entering operation. Routine manual data screening and data analyses were performed by 2-6 subteam members. Automatic screening was used for selected time intervals. Screening was performed using the Sonoview program in frequency domain and using the Geotool and Hypolines programs for screening in time domain. The screening results were merged into the master event list. The master event list served as a basis of detailed analysis of unclear events and events identified to be potentially in the IA. Detailed analysis of events to be potentially in the IA was performed by the Hypoline and Geotool programs. In addition, the Hyposimplex and Hypocenter programs were also used for localization of events. The results of analysis were integrated

  14. Technical implementation in support of the IAEA's remote monitoring field trial at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbell, B.H.; Moran, B.W.; Pickett, C.A.; Whitaker, J.M.; Resnik, W.; Landreth, D.

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitoring system (RMS) field trial will be conducted for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on highly enriched uranium materials in a vault at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Remote monitoring technologies are being evaluated to verify their capability to enhance the effectiveness and timeliness of IAEA safeguards in storage facilities while reducing the costs of inspections and burdens on the operator. Phase one of the field trial, which involved proving the satellite transmission of sensor data and safeguards images from a video camera activated by seals and motion sensors installed in the vault, was completed in September 1995. Phase two involves formal testing of the RMS as a tool for use by the IAEA during their tasks of monitoring the storage of nuclear material. The field trial to be completed during early 1997 includes access and item monitoring of nuclear materials in two storage trays. The RMS includes a variety of Sandia, Oak Ridge, and Aquila sensor technologies that provide video monitoring, radiation attribute measurements, and container identification to the on-site data acquisition system (DAS) by way of radio-frequency and Echelon LONWorks networks. The accumulated safeguards information will be transmitted to the IAEA via satellite (COMSAT/RSI) and international telephone lines

  15. A scale-up field experiment for the monitoring of a burning process using chemical, audio, and video sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakakis, P; Agapiou, A; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Statheropoulos, M; Pallis, G C; Pappa, A

    2014-01-01

    Fires are becoming more violent and frequent resulting in major economic losses and long-lasting effects on communities and ecosystems; thus, efficient fire monitoring is becoming a necessity. A novel triple multi-sensor approach was developed for monitoring and studying the burning of dry forest fuel in an open field scheduled experiment; chemical, optical, and acoustical sensors were combined to record the fire spread. The results of this integrated field campaign for real-time monitoring of the fire event are presented and discussed. Chemical analysis, despite its limitations, corresponded to the burning process with a minor time delay. Nevertheless, the evolution profile of CO2, CO, NO, and O2 were detected and monitored. The chemical monitoring of smoke components enabled the observing of the different fire phases (flaming, smoldering) based on the emissions identified in each phase. The analysis of fire acoustical signals presented accurate and timely response to the fire event. In the same content, the use of a thermographic camera, for monitoring the biomass burning, was also considerable (both profiles of the intensities of average gray and red component greater than 230) and presented similar promising potentials to audio results. Further work is needed towards integrating sensors signals for automation purposes leading to potential applications in real situations.

  16. REAL-TIME BLOB-WISE SUGAR BEETS VS WEEDS CLASSIFICATION FOR MONITORING FIELDS USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Milioto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs are becoming an important tool for field monitoring and precision farming. A prerequisite for observing and analyzing fields is the ability to identify crops and weeds from image data. In this paper, we address the problem of detecting the sugar beet plants and weeds in the field based solely on image data. We propose a system that combines vegetation detection and deep learning to obtain a high-quality classification of the vegetation in the field into value crops and weeds. We implemented and thoroughly evaluated our system on image data collected from different sugar beet fields and illustrate that our approach allows for accurately identifying the weeds on the field.

  17. Field Tests of Real-time In-situ Dissolved CO2 Monitoring for CO2 Leakage Detection in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Zou, Y.; Delgado, J.; Guzman, N.; Pinedo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater monitoring for detecting CO2 leakage relies on groundwater sampling from water wells drilled into aquifers. Usually groundwater samples are required be collected periodically in field and analyzed in the laboratory. Obviously groundwater sampling is labor and cost-intensive for long-term monitoring of large areas. Potential damage and contamination of water samples during the sampling process can degrade accuracy, and intermittent monitoring may miss changes in the geochemical parameters of groundwater, and therefore signs of CO2 leakage. Real-time in-situ monitoring of geochemical parameters with chemical sensors may play an important role for CO2 leakage detection in groundwater at a geological carbon sequestration site. This study presents field demonstration of a real-time in situ monitoring system capable of covering large areas for detection of low levels of dissolved CO2 in groundwater and reliably differentiating natural variations of dissolved CO2 concentration from small changes resulting from leakage. The sand-alone system includes fully distributed fiber optic sensors for carbon dioxide detection with a unique sensor technology developed by Intelligent Optical Systems. The systems were deployed to the two research sites: the Brackenridge Field Laboratory where the aquifer is shallow at depths of 10-20 ft below surface and the Devine site where the aquifer is much deeper at depths of 140 to 150 ft. Groundwater samples were periodically collected from the water wells which were installed with the chemical sensors and further compared to the measurements of the chemical sensors. Our study shows that geochemical monitoring of dissolved CO2 with fiber optic sensors could provide reliable CO2 leakage signal detection in groundwater as long as CO2 leakage signals are stronger than background noises at the monitoring locations.

  18. Field monitoring of rail squats using 3D ultrasonic mapping technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewunruen, S.; Ishida, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rail squats and studs are typically classified as the propagation of any cracks .that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface. Some of the cracks could propagate to the bottom of rails transversely, which have branched from the initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The rail defects are commonly referred to as 'squats' when they were initiated from a damage layer caused by rolling contact fatigue, and as 'studs' when they were associated with a white etching layer caused by the transformation from pearlitic steel due to friction heat generated by wheel sliding or excessive traction. Such above-mentioned rail defects have been often observed in railway tracks catered for either light passenger or heavy freight traffics and for low, medium or high speed trains all over the world for over 60 years except some places such as sharp curves where large wear takes place under severe friction between the wheel flange and rail gauge face. It becomes a much-more significant issue when the crack grows and sometimes flakes off the rail (by itself or by insufficient rail grinding), resulting in a rail surface irregularity. Such rail surface defects induce wheel/rail impact and large amplitude vibration of track structure and poor ride quality. In Australia, Europe, and Japan, rail squats/studs have occasionally turned into broken rails. The root cause and preventive solution to this defect are still under investigation from the fracture mechanics and material sciences point of view. Some patterns of squat/stud development related to both curve and tangent track geometries have been observed and squat growth has been monitored for individual squats using ultrasonic mapping techniques. This paper highlights the field monitoring of squat/stud distribution and its growth. Squat/stud growth has been detected and scanned using the ultrasonic measurement device on a grid applied to the rail surface. The depths of crack paths at each grid node form a

  19. Optimized Field Sampling and Monitoring of Airborne Hazardous Transport Plumes; A Geostatistical Simulation Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, DI-WEN

    2001-01-01

    Airborne hazardous plumes inadvertently released during nuclear/chemical/biological incidents are mostly of unknown composition and concentration until measurements are taken of post-accident ground concentrations from plume-ground deposition of constituents. Unfortunately, measurements often are days post-incident and rely on hazardous manned air-vehicle measurements. Before this happens, computational plume migration models are the only source of information on the plume characteristics, constituents, concentrations, directions of travel, ground deposition, etc. A mobile ''lighter than air'' (LTA) system is being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will be part of the first response in emergency conditions. These interactive and remote unmanned air vehicles will carry light-weight detectors and weather instrumentation to measure the conditions during and after plume release. This requires a cooperative computationally organized, GPS-controlled set of LTA's that self-coordinate around the objectives in an emergency situation in restricted time frames. A critical step before an optimum and cost-effective field sampling and monitoring program proceeds is the collection of data that provides statistically significant information, collected in a reliable and expeditious manner. Efficient aerial arrangements of the detectors taking the data (for active airborne release conditions) are necessary for plume identification, computational 3-dimensional reconstruction, and source distribution functions. This report describes the application of stochastic or geostatistical simulations to delineate the plume for guiding subsequent sampling and monitoring designs. A case study is presented of building digital plume images, based on existing ''hard'' experimental data and ''soft'' preliminary transport modeling results of Prairie Grass Trials Site. Markov Bayes Simulation, a coupled Bayesian/geostatistical methodology, quantitatively combines soft information

  20. Field monitoring of rail squats using 3D ultrasonic mapping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewunruen, S., E-mail: sakdirat.kaewunruen@transport.nsw.gov.au [NSW, Transport, Sydney (Australia); Ishida, M., E-mail: ishida-mk@n-koei.jp [Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Railway Div., Railway Engineering Dept., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Rail squats and studs are typically classified as the propagation of any cracks .that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface. Some of the cracks could propagate to the bottom of rails transversely, which have branched from the initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The rail defects are commonly referred to as 'squats' when they were initiated from a damage layer caused by rolling contact fatigue, and as 'studs' when they were associated with a white etching layer caused by the transformation from pearlitic steel due to friction heat generated by wheel sliding or excessive traction. Such above-mentioned rail defects have been often observed in railway tracks catered for either light passenger or heavy freight traffics and for low, medium or high speed trains all over the world for over 60 years except some places such as sharp curves where large wear takes place under severe friction between the wheel flange and rail gauge face. It becomes a much-more significant issue when the crack grows and sometimes flakes off the rail (by itself or by insufficient rail grinding), resulting in a rail surface irregularity. Such rail surface defects induce wheel/rail impact and large amplitude vibration of track structure and poor ride quality. In Australia, Europe, and Japan, rail squats/studs have occasionally turned into broken rails. The root cause and preventive solution to this defect are still under investigation from the fracture mechanics and material sciences point of view. Some patterns of squat/stud development related to both curve and tangent track geometries have been observed and squat growth has been monitored for individual squats using ultrasonic mapping techniques. This paper highlights the field monitoring of squat/stud distribution and its growth. Squat/stud growth has been detected and scanned using the ultrasonic measurement device on a grid applied to the rail surface. The depths of crack paths at each

  1. Making energy visible: A qualitative field study of how householders interact with feedback from smart energy monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Tom; Nye, Michael; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how UK householders interacted with feedback on their domestic energy consumption in a field trial of real-time displays or smart energy monitors. After examining relevant bodies of literature on the effects of energy feedback on consumption behaviour, and on the complex role of energy and appliances within household moral economies, the paper draws on qualitative evidence from interviews with 15 UK householders trialling smart energy monitors of differing levels of sophistication. It focuses specifically on householder motivations for acquiring the monitors, how the monitors have been used, how feedback has changed consumption behaviour, and the limitations to further behavioural change the householders experienced. The paper concludes by identifying significant implications for future research and policy in this area.

  2. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly

  3. Use of portable exposimeters to monitor radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in the everyday environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sanjay; Struchen, Benjamin; Finta, Viktoria; Eeftens, Marloes; Röösli, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) levels in the environment is highly heterogeneous. It is thus not entirely clear how to monitor spatial variability and temporal trends of RF-EMF exposure levels in the environment in a representative and efficient manner. The aim of this study was to test a monitoring protocol for RF-EMF measurements in public areas using portable devices. Using the ExpoM-RF devices mounted on a backpack, we have conducted RF-EMF measurements by walking through 51 different outdoor microenvironments from 20 different municipalities in Switzerland: 5 different city centers, 5 central residential areas, 5 non-central residential areas, 15 rural residential areas, 15 rural centers and 6 industrial areas. Measurements in public transport (buses, trains, trams) were collected when traveling between the areas. Measurements were conducted between 25th March and 11th July 2014. In order to evaluate spatial representativity within one microenvironment, we measured two crossing paths of about 1km in length in each microenvironment. To evaluate repeatability, measurements in each microenvironment were repeated after two to four months on the same paths. Mean RF-EMF exposure (sum of 15 main frequency bands between 87.5 and 5,875MHz) was 0.53V/m in industrial zones, 0.47V/m in city centers, 0.32V/m in central residential areas, 0.25V/m non-central residential areas, 0.23V/m in rural centers and rural residential areas, 0.69V/m in trams, 0.46V/m in trains and 0.39V/m in buses. Major exposure contribution at outdoor locations was from mobile phone base stations (>80% for all outdoor areas with respect to the power density scale). Temporal correlation between first and second measurement of each area was high: 0.89 for total RF-EMF, 0.90 for all five mobile phone downlink bands combined, 0.51 for all five uplink bands combined and 0.79 for broadcasting. Spearman correlation between arithmetic mean values of the

  4. Application of surface–downhole combined microseismic monitoring technology in the Fuling shale gas field and its enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fuling shale gas field in the Sichuan Basin, as a national shale gas demonstration area, is the largest commercially developed shale gas field in the world except those in North America. The fracturing technology in the mode of “well factory” has been applied widely in the gas field, but it is necessary to perform further investigation on the way to evaluate effectively the fracturing effect of multi-well platform “well factory” and the distribution laws of its induced fracture networks. In this paper, the fractures induced by the “well factory” at the JY 48 platform were real-time monitored by a surface–downhole combined microseismic monitoring technology. The geometric size and extension direction of artificial fractures induced in the model of “well factory” fracturing in the Jiaoshiba block of Fuling Shale Gas Field were preliminarily understood. Moreover, the fracturing parameters under the mode of “well factory” were recognized by using the comprehensive interpretation results of surface–downhole combined microseismic monitoring technology, together with the SRV fracturing prediction chart. Eventually, the distribution laws of artificial fractures during the “well-factory-zipper” fracturing in the Fuling Shale Gas Field were clarified definitely. This paper provides guidance for the optimization of fracturing parameters at the later stage.

  5. Monitoring reservoir response to earthquakes and fluid extraction, Salton Sea geothermal field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Taka’aki; Nayak, Avinash; Brenguier, Florent; Manga, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of in situ reservoir responses to stress transients provides insights into the evolution of geothermal reservoirs. By exploiting the stress dependence of seismic velocity changes, we investigate the temporal evolution of the reservoir stress state of the Salton Sea geothermal field (SSGF), California. We find that the SSGF experienced a number of sudden velocity reductions (~0.035 to 0.25%) that are most likely caused by openings of fractures due to dynamic stress transients (as small as 0.08 MPa and up to 0.45 MPa) from local and regional earthquakes. Depths of velocity changes are estimated to be about 0.5 to 1.5 km, similar to the depths of the injection and production wells. We derive an empirical in situ stress sensitivity of seismic velocity changes by relating velocity changes to dynamic stresses. We also observe systematic velocity reductions (0.04 to 0.05%) during earthquake swarms in mid-November 2009 and late-December 2010. On the basis of volumetric static and dynamic stress changes, the expected velocity reductions from the largest earthquakes with magnitude ranging from 3 to 4 in these swarms are less than 0.02%, which suggests that these earthquakes are likely not responsible for the velocity changes observed during the swarms. Instead, we argue that velocity reductions may have been induced by poroelastic opening of fractures due to aseismic deformation. We also observe a long-term velocity increase (~0.04%/year) that is most likely due to poroelastic contraction caused by the geothermal production. Our observations demonstrate that seismic interferometry provides insights into in situ reservoir response to stress changes. PMID:29326977

  6. Geochemical and geophysical monitoring activities in Campo de Calatrava Volcanic Field (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Oroz, Natividad; Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; López-Díaz, Rubén; Calvo, Marta; Albert, Helena; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-04-01

    The Campo de Calatrava Volcanic Field (CCVF) or Spanish Central Volcanic Zone is located in central continental Spain (Ciudad Real province) and covers about 5000 km2. It includes around 240 eruptive centers, mainly monogenetic basaltic cones but also explosive maar structures. According to K-Ar geochronology, its main activity phase occurred during Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs (between 5 and 1.7 Ma) and involved alkaline to ultraalkaline magmas, although an older ultrapotassic phase is dated around 8.7-6.4 Ma. However, some recent works have proposed Holocene ages for some of the volcanic products, opening the possibility of considering the CCVF "active" according to international standards. Responding to this situation, the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) has initiated geochemical and geophysical monitoring activities in the CCVF. Here, we describe these ongoing efforts and we report results about groundwater geochemistry at several natural highly-gaseous springs in the area (hervideros), as well as soil temperature, CO2 diffuse flux from the soil and electrical self-potential data mapped on a small degassing structure called La Sima. In order to analyze microseismicity or any seismic anomaly in the CCVF, a seismic station has also been installed close to this degassing structure. Physicochemical parameters (temperature, pH, Eh and electric conductivity) were measured in situ in four springs and samples were taken in order to analyze major ions and trace elements. Total composition of dissolved gases and helium isotopic ratios were also determined. To complete soil temperature, self-potential and gas prospections performed in La Sima, soil gases were sampled at the bottom of the structure at a depth of 20 cm. Analysis of the total gas composition found 957400 ppm of CO2. Low values of O2 and N2 were also detected (5600 and 24800 ppm respectively).

  7. Monitoring reservoir response to earthquakes and fluid extraction, Salton Sea geothermal field, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Taka'aki; Nayak, Avinash; Brenguier, Florent; Manga, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of in situ reservoir responses to stress transients provides insights into the evolution of geothermal reservoirs. By exploiting the stress dependence of seismic velocity changes, we investigate the temporal evolution of the reservoir stress state of the Salton Sea geothermal field (SSGF), California. We find that the SSGF experienced a number of sudden velocity reductions (~0.035 to 0.25%) that are most likely caused by openings of fractures due to dynamic stress transients (as small as 0.08 MPa and up to 0.45 MPa) from local and regional earthquakes. Depths of velocity changes are estimated to be about 0.5 to 1.5 km, similar to the depths of the injection and production wells. We derive an empirical in situ stress sensitivity of seismic velocity changes by relating velocity changes to dynamic stresses. We also observe systematic velocity reductions (0.04 to 0.05%) during earthquake swarms in mid-November 2009 and late-December 2010. On the basis of volumetric static and dynamic stress changes, the expected velocity reductions from the largest earthquakes with magnitude ranging from 3 to 4 in these swarms are less than 0.02%, which suggests that these earthquakes are likely not responsible for the velocity changes observed during the swarms. Instead, we argue that velocity reductions may have been induced by poroelastic opening of fractures due to aseismic deformation. We also observe a long-term velocity increase (~0.04%/year) that is most likely due to poroelastic contraction caused by the geothermal production. Our observations demonstrate that seismic interferometry provides insights into in situ reservoir response to stress changes.

  8. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink R technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO TM automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated

  9. A design proposal for high field dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Shintomi, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Wake, M.

    1981-06-01

    A design of the high field dipole magnet which is going to be constructed in the KEK-Fermilab collaboration program is proposed. The central field of the magnet is meant to achieve 10 T by the use of ternary alloy conductor in the 1.8 K superfluid environment under atmospheric pressure. Since the electro-magnetic force in such a high field region is strong enough to give a fatal problem, a careful calculation is necessary for the magnet design. The program POISSON and LINDA were used for the magnetic field calculation. The computer code ISAS which is originated from NASTRAN developed at NASA was applied to calculate the stress and the deformation. A horizontal cryostat desigh for the operation of the 10 T dipole magnet is also proposed. (author)

  10. The design of a miniature personal exposure monitor for continuous real-time data acquisition in electromagnetic field exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.H.; Conroy, T.J.; Wilson, B.W.

    1994-06-01

    The design of a small, light-weight personal exposure monitor suitable for use in EMF exposure assessment studies is nearing completion at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The monitor is designed to be non-obtrusive, battery operated, and able to continuously record extremely low-frequency (ELF) (1Ohz--500hz) magnetic-field data. It also captures high-frequency (500hz--1OMhz) transients that exceed a preset threshold, retaining the largest transients in memory. The monitor can record one or more days of data on a single easily replaceable, credit-card-size memory (PCMCIA). A battery charge will last a minimum of one day. Batteries are rechargeable and easily replaced. A data-compression algorithm is under development that will be tailored to the efficient compression of low-frequency EMF signals and will permit data to be logged for at least one day before swapping memory cards. The memory cards are readable by a base- station computer that can perform analysis of the data. The monitor is designed to accommodate four inputs supporting full-field sensors as well as a proposed ocular exposure measurement system. Our design effort has shown that a practical personal exposure monitor for EMF can be built based on current technology, continuous logging of real-time ELF waveforms is both feasible and practical, and such a device is appropriate for proposed EMF exposure studies

  11. Evidos: optimisation of individual monitoring in mixed neutron/photon fields at workplaces of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Reginatto, M.; Schuhmacher, H.; Lacoste, V.; Muller, M.; Boschung, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Coeck, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Curzio, G.; D'errico, F.; Kyllonen, J.E.; Lindborg, L.; Molinos, C.; Tanner, R.; Derdau, D.; Lahaye, Th.

    2005-01-01

    Within its 5. Framework Programme, the EC is funding the project EVIDOS ('Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields'). The aim of this project is the optimisation of individual monitoring at workplaces of the nuclear fuel cycle with special regard to neutrons. Various dosemeters for mixed field application - passive and new electronic devices - are tested in selected workplace fields in nuclear installations in Europe. The fields are characterised using a series of spectrometers that provide the energy distribution of neutron fluence (Bonner spheres) and newly developed devices that provide the energy and directional distribution of the neutron fluence. Results from the first measurement campaign, carried out in simulated workplace fields (IRSN, Cadarache. France), and those of a second measurement campaign, carried out at workplaces at a boiling water reactor and at a storage cask with used fuel elements (Kernkraftwerk Kriimmel, Germany), are described. (authors)

  12. Intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring-guided surgery for treating supratentorial cavernomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang-Ye; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Xu, Bai-Nan

    2016-09-01

    To determine the beneficial effects of intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring-guided surgery for treating supratentorial cavernomas. Twelve patients with 13 supratentorial cavernomas were prospectively enrolled and operated while using a 1.5 T intraoperative MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring. All cavernomas were deeply located in subcortical areas or involved critical areas. Intraoperative high-field MRIs were obtained for the intraoperative "visualization" of surrounding eloquent structures, "brain shift" corrections, and navigational plan updates. All cavernomas were successfully resected with guidance from intraoperative MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring. In 5 cases with supratentorial cavernomas, intraoperative "brain shift" severely deterred locating of the lesions; however, intraoperative MRI facilitated precise locating of these lesions. During long-term (>3 months) follow-up, some or all presenting signs and symptoms improved or resolved in 4 cases, but were unchanged in 7 patients. Intraoperative high-field MRI, multimodal neuronavigation, and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring are helpful in surgeries for the treatment of small deeply seated subcortical cavernomas.

  13. An integrated, multisensor system for the continuous monitoring of water dynamics in rice fields under different irrigation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Facchi, Arianna; Masseroni, Daniele; Ferrari, Daniele; Bischetti, Gian Battista; Gharsallah, Olfa; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Rienzner, Michele; Naldi, Ezio; Romani, Marco; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    The cultivation of rice, one of the most important staple crops worldwide, has very high water requirements. A variety of irrigation practices are applied, whose pros and cons, both in terms of water productivity and of their effects on the environment, are not completely understood yet. The continuous monitoring of irrigation and rainfall inputs, as well as of soil water dynamics, is a very important factor in the analysis of these practices. At the same time, however, it represents a challenging and costly task because of the complexity of the processes involved, of the difference in nature and magnitude of the driving variables and of the high variety of field conditions. In this paper, we present the prototype of an integrated, multisensor system for the continuous monitoring of water dynamics in rice fields under different irrigation regimes. The system consists of the following: (1) flow measurement devices for the monitoring of irrigation supply and tailwater drainage; (2) piezometers for groundwater level monitoring; (3) level gauges for monitoring the flooding depth; (4) multilevel tensiometers and moisture sensor clusters to monitor soil water status; (5) eddy covariance station for the estimation of evapotranspiration fluxes and (6) wireless transmission devices and software interface for data transfer, storage and control from remote computer. The system is modular and it is replicable in different field conditions. It was successfully applied over a 2-year period in three experimental plots in Northern Italy, each one with a different water management strategy. In the paper, we present information concerning the different instruments selected, their interconnections and their integration in a common remote control scheme. We also provide considerations and figures on the material and labour costs of the installation and management of the system.

  14. Toward daily monitoring of vegetation conditions at field scale through fusing data from multiple sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation monitoring requires remote sensing data at fine spatial and temporal resolution. While imagery from coarse resolution sensors such as MODIS/VIIRS can provide daily observations, they lack spatial detail to capture surface features for crop and rangeland monitoring. The Landsat satellite s...

  15. Development and validation of a protocol for field validation of passive dosimeters for ethylene oxide excursion limit monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puskar, M.A.; Szopinski, F.G.; Hecker, L.H. (Corporate Industrial Hygiene Laboratory, Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-04-01

    An exposure and analysis protocol is described for the field validation of passive dosimeters for ethylene oxide (EtO) excursion limit monitoring. The protocol calls for the use of a field exposure chamber with concurrent sampling using Tedlar air-sampling bags. The bags are analyzed immediately after sampling by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The chamber design allows all monitors to be exposed for the exact same time in the field. The sampling and analysis procedure not only determines the actual concentration of EtO present during the monitor's exposure but estimates if concentrations of EtO vary from point to point in the monitor array during the exposure. In chamber operation, the accuracy of the standard generator used to calibrate the GC-FID was independently verified in the field by the standard additions method. The sampling bias of the sampling train was determined to be -3.5% in the 2.4 ppm to 14.3 ppm concentration range. To estimate the stability of collected EtO samples in Tedlar bags, the rate of EtO loss in the bags was determined to be 0.011 ppm/hr at 2.57 ppm and 0.066 ppm/hr at 8.07 ppm. Sampling bias of the passive methods by additional EtO exposure of the monitors in the closed chamber after sampling and during purging was determined to be +1.5%. The Tedlar bag sampling method with subsequent GC-FID determination demonstrated a coefficient of variation of 1.8% at 2.43 ppm.

  16. Landscape-scale water balance monitoring with an iGrav superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntner, Andreas; Reich, Marvin; Mikolaj, Michal; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin; Schroeder, Stephan; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2017-06-01

    In spite of the fundamental role of the landscape water balance for the Earth's water and energy cycles, monitoring the water balance and its components beyond the point scale is notoriously difficult due to the multitude of flow and storage processes and their spatial heterogeneity. Here, we present the first field deployment of an iGrav superconducting gravimeter (SG) in a minimized enclosure for long-term integrative monitoring of water storage changes. Results of the field SG on a grassland site under wet-temperate climate conditions were compared to data provided by a nearby SG located in the controlled environment of an observatory building. The field system proves to provide gravity time series that are similarly precise as those of the observatory SG. At the same time, the field SG is more sensitive to hydrological variations than the observatory SG. We demonstrate that the gravity variations observed by the field setup are almost independent of the depth below the terrain surface where water storage changes occur (contrary to SGs in buildings), and thus the field SG system directly observes the total water storage change, i.e., the water balance, in its surroundings in an integrative way. We provide a framework to single out the water balance components actual evapotranspiration and lateral subsurface discharge from the gravity time series on annual to daily timescales. With about 99 and 85 % of the gravity signal due to local water storage changes originating within a radius of 4000 and 200 m around the instrument, respectively, this setup paves the road towards gravimetry as a continuous hydrological field-monitoring technique at the landscape scale.

  17. Landscape-scale water balance monitoring with an iGrav superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Güntner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fundamental role of the landscape water balance for the Earth's water and energy cycles, monitoring the water balance and its components beyond the point scale is notoriously difficult due to the multitude of flow and storage processes and their spatial heterogeneity. Here, we present the first field deployment of an iGrav superconducting gravimeter (SG in a minimized enclosure for long-term integrative monitoring of water storage changes. Results of the field SG on a grassland site under wet–temperate climate conditions were compared to data provided by a nearby SG located in the controlled environment of an observatory building. The field system proves to provide gravity time series that are similarly precise as those of the observatory SG. At the same time, the field SG is more sensitive to hydrological variations than the observatory SG. We demonstrate that the gravity variations observed by the field setup are almost independent of the depth below the terrain surface where water storage changes occur (contrary to SGs in buildings, and thus the field SG system directly observes the total water storage change, i.e., the water balance, in its surroundings in an integrative way. We provide a framework to single out the water balance components actual evapotranspiration and lateral subsurface discharge from the gravity time series on annual to daily timescales. With about 99 and 85 % of the gravity signal due to local water storage changes originating within a radius of 4000 and 200 m around the instrument, respectively, this setup paves the road towards gravimetry as a continuous hydrological field-monitoring technique at the landscape scale.

  18. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER and induced polarization (IP, were combined with gas analyses, CO2 concentration, and its carbon isotopic ratio, to develop a less invasive methodology for monitoring enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons. The field implementation of this monitoring methodology, which lasted from February 2014 until June 2015, was carried out at a BTEX-polluted site under aerobic biotreatment. Geophysical monitoring shows a more conductive and chargeable area which corresponds to the contaminated zone. In this area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature demonstrating that the main source of CO2 on this site is the biodegradation of hydrocarbon fuels. Besides, the evolution of geochemical and geophysical data over a year seems to show the seasonal variation of bacterial activity. Combining geophysics with gas analyses is thus promising to provide a new methodology for in situ monitoring.

  19. Continuous Monitoring of GAMMA Radiation Field in the Reactor RA Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalevski, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the system for continuos monitoring of gamma doze rate in the reactor RA building. Industrial (PC compatible) computer acquires analog signals from eight ionization chambers and eight analog signals from three BPH devices. Digital output interface is used for testing ionization chambers and BPH devices. Computer program for data analyzes and presentation is written in graphical programming language LabVIEW and enables monitoring of measured data in real time. Measured data can be monitored over local computer network, Internet and mobile devices using standard web browsers. (author)

  20. Wide-Field Gamma-Spectrometer BDRG: GRB Monitor On-Board the Lomonosov Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svertilov, S. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Amelushkin, A. M.; Barinova, V. O.; Galkin, V. I.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Petrov, V. L.; Rozhkov, G. V.; Yashin, I. V.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Lipunov, V. M.; Park, I. H.; Jeong, S.; Kim, M. B.

    2018-02-01

    The study of GRB prompt emissions (PE) is one of the main goals of the Lomonosov space mission. The payloads of the GRB monitor (BDRG) with the wide-field optical cameras (SHOK) and the ultra-fast flash observatory (UFFO) onboard the Lomonosov satellite are intended for the observation of GRBs, and in particular, their prompt emissions. The BDRG gamma-ray spectrometer is designed to obtain the temporal and spectral information of GRBs in the energy range of 10-3000 keV as well as to provide GRB triggers on several time scales (10 ms, 1 s and 20 s) for ground and space telescopes, including the UFFO and SHOK. The BDRG instrument consists of three identical detector boxes with axes shifted by 90° from each other. This configuration allows us to localize a GRB source in the sky with an accuracy of ˜ 2°. Each BDRG box contains a phoswich NaI(Tl)/CsI(Tl) scintillator detector. A thick CsI(Tl) crystal in size of \\varnothing 130 × 17 mm is placed underneath the NaI(Tl) as an active shield in the soft energy range and as the main detector in the hard energy range. The ratio of the CsI(Tl) to NaI(Tl) event rates at varying energies can be employed as an independent metric to distinguish legitimate GRB signals from false positives originating from electrons in near-Earth vicinities. The data from three detectors are collected in a BA BDRG information unit, which generates a GRB trigger and a set of data frames in output format. The scientific data output is ˜ 500 Mb per day, including ˜ 180 Mb of continuous data for events with durations in excess of 100 ms for 16 channels in each detector, detailed energy spectra, and sets of frames with ˜ 5 Mb of detailed information for each burst-like event. A number of pre-flight tests including those for the trigger algorithm and calibration were carried out to confirm the reliability of the BDRG for operation in space.

  1. Monitoring of wheat lactic acid bacteria from the field until the first step of dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Antonio; Miceli, Claudia; Nasca, Anna; Franciosi, Elena; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tuohy, Kieran; Francesca, Nicola; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The present work was carried out to retrieve the origin of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in sourdough. To this purpose, wheat LAB were monitored from ear harvest until the first step of fermentation for sourdough development. The influence of the geographical area and variety on LAB species/strain composition was also determined. The ears of four Triticum durum varieties (Duilio, Iride, Saragolla and Simeto) were collected from several fields located within the Palermo province (Sicily, Italy) and microbiologically investigated. In order to trace the transfer of LAB during the consecutive steps of manipulation, ears were transformed aseptically and, after threshing, milling and fermentation, samples of kernels, semolinas and doughs, respectively, were analysed. LAB were not found to dominate the microbial communities of the raw materials. In general, kernels harboured lower levels of microorganisms than ears and ears than semolinas. Several samples showing no development of LAB colonies acidified the enrichment broth suggesting the presence of LAB below the detection limit. After fermentation, LAB loads increased consistently for all doughs, reaching levels of 7.0-7.5 Log CFU/g on M17. The values of pH (5.0) and TTA (5.6 mL NaOH/10 g of dough) indicated the occurrence of the acidification process for several doughs. LAB were phenotypically and genotypically differentiated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR into eight groups including 51 strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc citreum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Lactobacilli constituted a minority the LAB community, while lactococci represented more than 50% of strains. Lower LAB complexity was found on kernels, while a richer biodiversity was observed in semolinas and fermented doughs. For broader microbiota characterisation in

  2. CO2 Fluxes Monitoring at the Level of Field Agroecosystem in Moscow Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya; Samardzic, Miljan; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Valentini, Riccardo; Vasenev, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The Central Russia is still one of the less GHG-investigated European areas especially in case of agroecosystem-level carbon dioxide fluxes monitoring by eddy covariance method. The eddy covariance technique is a statistical method to measure and calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers. The major assumption of the metod is that measurements at a point can represent an entire upwind area. Eddy covariance researches, which could be considered as repeated for the same area, are very rare. The research has been carried out on the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (Moscow, Russia) in 2013 under the support of RF Government grant No. 11.G34.31.0079. Arable derno-podzoluvisls have around 1 The results have shown high daily and seasonal dynamic of agroecosystem CO2 emission. Sowing activates soil microbiological activity and the average soil CO2 emission and adsorption are rising at the same time. CO2 streams are intensified after crop emerging from values of 3 to 7 μmol/s-m2 for emission, and from values of 5 to 20 μmol/s-m2 for adsorption. Stabilization of the flow has come at achieving plants height of 10-12 cm. The vegetation period is characterized by high average soil CO2 emission and adsorption at the same time, but the adsorption is significantly higher. The resulted CO2 absorption during the day is approximately 2-5 times higher than emissions at night. For example, in mid-June, the absorption value was about 0.45 mol/m2 during the day-time, and the emission value was about 0.1 mol/m2 at night. After harvesting CO2 emission is becoming essentially higher than adsorption. Autumn and winter data are fluctuate around zero, but for some periods a small predominance of CO2 emissions over the absorption may be observed. The daily dynamics of CO2 emissions depends on the air temperature with the correlation coefficient changes between 0.4 and 0.8. Crop stage, agrotechnological

  3. Feasibility and usability of a home monitoring concept based on mobile phones and near field communication (NFC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morak, Jürgen; Kollmann, Alexander; Schreier, Günter

    2007-01-01

    Utilization of mobile information and communication technologies in home monitoring applications is becoming more and more common. The mobile phone, acting as a patient terminal for patients suffering from chronic diseases, provides an active link to the caregiver to transmit health status information and receive feedback. In such a concept the usability is still limited by the necessity of entering the values via the mobile phone's small keypad. The near field communication technology (NFC), a touch-based wireless interface that became available recently, may improve the usability level of such applications significantly. The focus of this paper is to describe the development of a prototype application based on this technology embedded in a home monitoring system. The feasibility and usability of this approach are evaluated and compared with concepts used in previous approaches. The high quantifier with respect to overall usability indicates that NFC may be the technology of choice for some tasks in home monitoring applications.

  4. Performance assessment of an onboard monitoring system for CMV drivers : a field operational test : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The primary goal of an onboard monitoring system (OBMS) is to enhance driver performance and safety. OBMSs are employed with the expectation that feedback provided concurrently (via flashing feedback lights in the vehicle) and cumulatively (via coach...

  5. Calculated and measured fields in superferric wiggler magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, E.B.; Solomon, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Although Klaus Halbach is widely known and appreciated as the originator of the computer program POISSON for electromagnetic field calculation, Klaus has always believed that analytical methods can give much more insight into the performance of a magnet than numerical simulation. Analytical approximations readily show how the different aspects of a magnet`s design such as pole dimensions, current, and coil configuration contribute to the performance. These methods yield accuracies of better than 10%. Analytical methods should therefore be used when conceptualizing a magnet design. Computer analysis can then be used for refinement. A simple model is presented for the peak on-axis field of an electro-magnetic wiggler with iron poles and superconducting coils. The model is applied to the radiator section of the superconducting wiggler for the BNL Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser. The predictions of the model are compared to the measured field and the results from POISSON.

  6. Investigations on Temperature Fields during Laser Beam Melting by Means of Process Monitoring and Multiscale Process Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schilp

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Process monitoring and modelling can contribute to fostering the industrial relevance of additive manufacturing. Process related temperature gradients and thermal inhomogeneities cause residual stresses, and distortions and influence the microstructure. Variations in wall thickness can cause heat accumulations. These occur predominantly in filigree part areas and can be detected by utilizing off-axis thermographic monitoring during the manufacturing process. In addition, numerical simulation models on the scale of whole parts can enable an analysis of temperature fields upstream to the build process. In a microscale domain, modelling of several exposed single hatches allows temperature investigations at a high spatial and temporal resolution. Within this paper, FEM-based micro- and macroscale modelling approaches as well as an experimental setup for thermographic monitoring are introduced. By discussing and comparing experimental data with simulation results in terms of temperature distributions both the potential of numerical approaches and the complexity of determining suitable computation time efficient process models are demonstrated. This paper contributes to the vision of adjusting the transient temperature field during manufacturing in order to improve the resulting part's quality by simulation based process design upstream to the build process and the inline process monitoring.

  7. Non-Destructive Monitoring of Charge-Discharge Cycles on Lithium Ion Batteries using 7Li Stray-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Joel A.; Dugar, Sneha; Zhong, Guiming; Dalal, Naresh S.; Zheng, Jim P.; Yang, Yong; Fu, Riqiang

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive method for in situ monitoring of electrochemical processes involved in charge/discharge cycling of batteries. Determining how the electrochemical processes become irreversible, ultimately resulting in degraded battery performance, will aid in developing new battery materials and designing better batteries. Here we introduce the use of an alternative in situ diagnostic tool to monitor the electrochemical processes. Utilizing a very large field-gradient in the fringe field of a magnet, stray-field-imaging (STRAFI) technique significantly improves the image resolution. These STRAFI images enable the real time monitoring of the electrodes at a micron level. It is demonstrated by two prototype half-cells, graphite∥Li and LiFePO4∥Li, that the high-resolution 7Li STRAFI profiles allow one to visualize in situ Li-ions transfer between the electrodes during charge/discharge cyclings as well as the formation and changes of irreversible microstructures of the Li components, and particularly reveal a non-uniform Li-ion distribution in the graphite. PMID:24005580

  8. Magnetic field effects on spectrally resolved lifetime of on-line oxygen monitoring using magneto-optic probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermut, O.; Gallant, P.; Le Bouch, N.; Leclair, S.; Noiseux, I.; Vernon, M.; Morin, J.-F.; Diamond, K.; Patterson, M. S.; Samkoe, K.; Pogue, B.

    2009-02-01

    Multimodal agents that serve as both probes for contrast and light-activated effectors of cellular processes in diseased tissue were developed. These agents were introduced into multicellular tumor spheroids (3D tissue models) and in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of a chicken embryo. The luminescence decay was examined using a novel technique involving a spectrally-resolved fluorescence lifetime apparatus integrated with a weak electromagnet. A spectrallyresolved lifetime setup was used to identify magneto-optic species sensitive to magnetic field effects and distinguish from background emissions. We demonstrate that the applied magnetic fields can alter reaction rates and product distribution of some dyes detected by time- and spectrally-resolved luminescence changes. We will discuss the use of exogenous magneto-optical probes taken up in tumors to both induce phototoxicity, a process that is governed by complex and dynamically evolving mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, and monitor treatment progress. The magnetic field enhancement, measured over a range of weak fields (0-300 mT) is correlated to oxygenation and may be used to monitor dynamic changes occurring due to oxygen consumption over the course of photodynamic therapy. Such online measurements provide the possibility to derive real-time information about response to treatment via monitoring magnetic field enhancement/suppression of the time-resolved, spectrally-resolved luminescence of the probe at the site of the treatment directly. Magnetic perturbation of lifetime can serve as a status reporter, providing optical feedback of oxygen-mediated treatments in situ and allowing for real-time adjustment of a phototherapy treatment plan.

  9. Description and field test of an in situ coliform monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype in situ system for monitoring the levels of fecal coliforms in shallow water bodies was developed and evaluated. This system was based on the known relationship between the concentration of the coliform bacteria and the amount of hydrogen they produce during growth in a complex organic media. The prototype system consists of a sampler platform, which sits on the bottom; a surface buoy, which transmits sampler-generated data; and a shore station, which receives, displays the data, and controls the sampler. The concept of remote monitoring of fecal coliform concentrations by utilizing a system based on the electrochemical method was verified during the evaluation of the prototype.

  10. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-08-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is required to sustain most modern crop production, but it poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is essential for introducing water management actions on-field or off-field and producing an optimal differentiated N-regulation in future. This study strives to provide such knowledge by evaluating on 11 years of nitrate-N concentration measurements in drainage from three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha) representing approximately 71 % of the surface sediments in Denmark dominated by clay. The fields differ in their inherent hydrogeological field settings (e.g. soil-type, geology, climate, drainage and groundwater table) and the agricultural management of the fields (e.g. crop type, type of N fertilisers and agricultural practices). The evaluation revealed three types of clayey till fields characterised by: (i) low net precipitation, high concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term low intensity drainage at air temperatures often below 5 °C; (ii) medium net precipitation, medium concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term medium-intensity drainage at air temperatures often above 5 °C; and (iii) high net precipitation, low concentration of nitrate-N and long-term high intensity drainage at air temperatures above 5 °C. For each type, on-field water management actions, such as the selection of crop types and introduction of catch crops, appeared relevant, whereas off-field actions only seemed relevant for the latter two field types given the temperature-dependent reduction potential of nitrate off-field. This initial well-documented field-scale knowledge from fields

  11. Sensitivity of the near-surface vertical electric field land Controlled-Source Electromagnetic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaller, A.M.; Hunziker, J.W.; Streich, R.; Drijkoningen, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate potential benefits of measuring the vertical electric field component in addition to the routinely measured horizontal electric field components in onshore time-lapse controlled-source electromagnetics. Synthetic electromagnetic data based on a model of the Schoonebeek onshore oil

  12. Acoustic emission for on-line reactor monitoring: results from field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    The objective of the acoustic emission (AE)/flaw characterization program is to develop use of the AE method on a continuous basis (during operation and during hydrotest) to detect and analyze flaw growth in reactor pressure vessels and primary piping. AE has the unique capability for continuous monitoring, high sensitivity, and remote flaw location

  13. The International Remote Monitoring Project: Results of the Swedish Nuclear Power Facility field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.; af Ekenstam, G.; Sallstrom, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored work on a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) that was installed in August 1994 at the Barseback Works north of Malmo, Sweden. The RMS was designed to test the front end detection concept that would be used for unattended remote monitoring activities. Front end detection reduces the number of video images recorded and provides additional sensor verification of facility operations. The function of any safeguards Containment and Surveillance (C/S) system is to collect information which primarily is images that verify the operations at a nuclear facility. Barseback is ideal to test the concept of front end detection since most activities of safeguards interest is movement of spent fuel which occurs once a year. The RMS at Barseback uses a network of nodes to collect data from microwave motion detectors placed to detect the entrance and exit of spent fuel casks through a hatch. A video system using digital compression collects digital images and stores them on a hard drive and a digital optical disk. Data and images from the storage area are remotely monitored via telephone from Stockholm, Sweden and Albuquerque, NM, USA. These remote monitoring stations operated by SKI and SNL respectively, can retrieve data and images from the RMS computer at the Barseback Facility. The data and images are encrypted before transmission. This paper presents details of the RMS and test results of this approach to front end detection of safeguard activities

  14. Best Management Practices (BMP) Monitoring Manual Field Guide: Implementation and Effectiveness for Protection of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Welsch; Roger Ryder; Tim Post

    2006-01-01

    The specific purpose of the BMP protocol is to create an economical, standardized, and repeatable BMP monitoring process that is completely automated, from data gathering through report generation, in order to provide measured data, ease of use, and compatibility with State BMP programs.The protocol was developed to meet the following needs:? Document the use and...

  15. Monitoring Strategies for REDD+: Integrating Field, Airborne, and Satellite Observations of Amazon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Keller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale tropical forest monitoring efforts in support of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus enhancing forest carbon stocks) confront a range of challenges. REDD+ activities typically have short reporting time scales, diverse data needs, and low tolerance for uncertainties. Meeting these challenges will require innovative use of remote sensing data, including integrating data at different spatial and temporal resolutions. The global scientific community is engaged in developing, evaluating, and applying new methods for regional to global scale forest monitoring. Pilot REDD+ activities are underway across the tropics with support from a range of national and international groups, including SilvaCarbon, an interagency effort to coordinate US expertise on forest monitoring and resource management. Early actions on REDD+ have exposed some of the inherent tradeoffs that arise from the use of incomplete or inaccurate data to quantify forest area changes and related carbon emissions. Here, we summarize recent advances in forest monitoring to identify and target the main sources of uncertainty in estimates of forest area changes, aboveground carbon stocks, and Amazon forest carbon emissions.

  16. Field Demonstration of Real-Time Wind Turbine Foundation Strain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert, Tim; Perry, Marcus; Fusiek, Grzegorz; McAlorum, Jack; Niewczas, Pawel; Brotherston, Amanda; McCallum, David

    2017-12-31

    Onshore wind turbine foundations are generally over-engineered as their internal stress states are challenging to directly monitor during operation. While there are industry drivers to shift towards more economical foundation designs, making this transition safely will require new monitoring techniques, so that the uncertainties around structural health can be reduced. This paper presents the initial results of a real-time strain monitoring campaign for an operating wind turbine foundation. Selected reinforcement bars were instrumented with metal packaged optical fibre strain sensors prior to concrete casting. In this paper, we outline the sensors' design, characterisation and installation, and present 67 days of operational data. During this time, measured foundation strains did not exceed 95 μ ϵ , and showed a strong correlation with both measured tower displacements and the results of a foundation finite element model. The work demonstrates that real-time foundation monitoring is not only achievable, but that it has the potential to help operators and policymakers quantify the conservatism of their existing design codes.

  17. Remote monitoring field trial. Application to automated air sampling. Report on Task FIN-E935 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, R.; Ilander, T.; Lehtinen, J.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Toivonen, H.; Ylaetalo, S.; Smartt, H.; Garcia, R.; Martinez, R.; Glidewell, D.; Krantz, K.

    1999-01-01

    An automated air sampling station has recently been developed by Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The station is furnished with equipment that allows comprehensive remote monitoring of the station and the data. Under the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards, STUK and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) established a field trial to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies. STUK provided means for real-lime radiation monitoring and sample authentication whereas SNL delivered means for authenticated surveillance of the equipment and its location. The field trial showed that remote monitoring can be carried out using simple means although advanced facilities are needed for comprehensive surveillance. Authenticated measurement data could be reliably transferred from the monitoring site to the headquarters without the presence of authorized personnel in the monitoring site. The operation of the station and the remote monitoring system were reliable. (orig.)

  18. Spatial variability of metal pollution in groyne fields of the Middle Elbe – Implications for sediment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baborowski, M.; Büttner, O.; Morgenstern, P.; Jancke, T.; Westrich, B.

    2012-01-01

    High spatial heterogeneity of physical and chemical sediment properties was observed in both horizontal and vertical directions of deposits in a groyne field of the Middle Elbe. The respective sediment cores were less polluted on the top compared to consolidated deeper layers, indicating a decreasing trend of contamination in the river basin. In contrast to water quality monitoring, the impact of the large Elbe flood in 2002 was still visible in the deeper layers (5–30 cm) of the groyne field sediments six years after the event. Due to the fact that the environmental risk increases with erosion potential of discharge and contamination level of sediments, monitoring for environmental risk must capture not only surface sediments but also deeper layers up to an anticipated erosion depth. - Highlights: ► High spatial variability of physical and chemical sediment properties was observed. ► Depth depending patterns in sediment pollution were found. ► The patterns reveal the main pollution sources. ► Three main structures (top, barrier, consolidated layer) were indicated in the cores. ► Impact of the large Elbe flood (2002) is still visible in deeper sediment layers. - Monitoring of contaminated river sediments must capture layers up to an anticipated erosion depth.

  19. Joint inversion of time-lapse VSP data for monitoring CO2 injection at the Farnsworth EOR field in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Gao, K.; Balch, R. S.; Huang, L.

    2016-12-01

    During the Development Phase (Phase III) of the U.S. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), time-lapse 3D vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data were acquired to monitor CO2 injection/migration at the Farnsworth Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) field, in partnership with the industrial partner Chaparral Energy. The project is to inject a million tons of carbon dioxide into the target formation, the deep oil-bearing Morrow Formation in the Farnsworth Unit EOR field. Quantitative time-lapse seismic monitoring has the potential to track CO2 movement in geologic carbon storage sites. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has recently developed new full-waveform inversion methods to jointly invert time-lapse seismic data for changes in elastic and anisotropic parameters in target monitoring regions such as a CO2 reservoir. We apply our new joint inversion methods to time-lapse VSP data acquired at the Farnsworth EOR filed, and present some preliminary results showing geophysical properties changes in the reservoir.

  20. Field Monitoring of Experimental Hot Mix Asphalt Projects Placed in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Since 2000, Massachusetts has been involved with numerous field trials of experimental hot mix asphalt mixtures. These experimental mixtures included several pilot projects using the Superpave mixture design methodology, utilization of warm mix aspha...

  1. Feasibility of mHealth and Near Field Communication technology based medication adherence monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morak, Juergen; Schwarz, Mark; Hayn, Dieter; Schreier, Guenter

    2012-01-01

    Poor patients' adherence to intake of prescribed medication has been identified as a serious problem in the treatment of chronically ill patients. Technical solutions are needed to measure and - if necessary - to increase the patients' adherence. A telemonitoring solution was developed to record a patient's medication intake based on smart blisters and mobile phones with NFC functionality. The components allowed recording of drug type, timestamp, and dosage of pills taken. The system's usability and technical feasibility was evaluated in the course of an application study. Over a period of 13 months 59 patients suffering from diabetes were monitored. 1,760 blisters were handed out to these patients and 14,843 takeout events were recorded and transmitted via mobile phone. Results indicate the feasibility of this concept to monitor adherence. Although the system still needs to be optimized for routine use it shows the potential for targeting the problem of poor patient adherence by NFC enabled devices.

  2. Design, development, and field demonstration of a remotely deployable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. W.; Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype water quality monitoring system is described which offers almost continuous in situ monitoring. The two-man portable system features: (1) a microprocessor controlled central processing unit which allows preprogrammed sampling schedules and reprogramming in situ; (2) a subsurface unit for multiple depth capability and security from vandalism; (3) an acoustic data link for communications between the subsurface unit and the surface control unit; (4) eight water quality parameter sensors; (5) a nonvolatile magnetic bubble memory which prevents data loss in the event of power interruption; (6) a rechargeable power supply sufficient for 2 weeks of unattended operation; (7) a water sampler which can collect samples for laboratory analysis; (8) data output in direct engineering units on printed tape or through a computer compatible link; (9) internal electronic calibration eliminating external sensor adjustment; and (10) acoustic location and recovery systems. Data obtained in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron are tabulated.

  3. Spatially explicit analysis of field inventories for national forest carbon monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Marvin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tropical forests provide a crucial carbon sink for a sizable portion of annual global CO2 emissions. Policies that incentivize tropical forest conservation by monetizing forest carbon ultimately depend on accurate estimates of national carbon stocks, which are often based on field inventory sampling. As an exercise to understand the limitations of field inventory sampling, we tested whether two common field-plot sampling approaches could accurately estimate carbon stocks across approximately 76 million ha of Perúvian forests. A 1-ha resolution LiDAR-based map of carbon stocks was used as a model of the country’s carbon geography. Results Both field inventory sampling approaches worked well in estimating total national carbon stocks, almost always falling within 10 % of the model national total. However, the sampling approaches were unable to produce accurate spatially-explicit estimates of the carbon geography of Perú, with estimates falling within 10 % of the model carbon geography across no more than 44 % of the country. We did not find any associations between carbon stock errors from the field plot estimates and six different environmental variables. Conclusions Field inventory plot sampling does not provide accurate carbon geography for a tropical country with wide ranging environmental gradients such as Perú. The lack of association between estimated carbon errors and environmental variables suggests field inventory sampling results from other nations would not differ from those reported here. Tropical forest nations should understand the risks associated with primarily field-based sampling approaches, and consider alternatives leading to more effective forest conservation and climate change mitigation.

  4. A promising trend for field information collection: An air-ground multi-sensor monitoring system

    OpenAIRE

    Yawei Zhang; Du Chen; Shumao Wang; Lei Tian

    2018-01-01

    Timely identifying and quantifying significant spatial and temporal variability in agricultural field has been a crucial factor for improving agricultural production and management. This paper focuses on the mainstream techniques and applications can be adopted to improve the field information collection method. In this paper, the development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and remote sensing (RS) technology were reviewed, especially the micro unmanned aerial vehicle (mUAV)-based WSNs and ...

  5. Monitoring of fiscal revenue authorities in the field of customs legislation clarification and customs risk minimization

    OpenAIRE

    Fedir Tkachyk; Kateryna Krysovata

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the role of customs consulting in the activities of fiscal authorities and highlights the modern specifics of customs risks management. The monitoring of explanatory work on realization of customs and tax policy for the implementation of preventive initiatives to minimize the customs risks and documentary inspection was conducted. The strategic development priorities of consultancy activities of customs bodies in terms of minimizing customs offenses were proposed.

  6. Long-term monitoring and field testing of an innovative multistory timber building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Morris, Hugh; Worth, Margaret; Kohli, Varun; Uma, S. R.

    2011-04-01

    An innovative three-story timber building, using self-centering, post-tensioned timber shear walls as the main horizontal load resisting system and lightweight composite timber-concrete floors, has recently been completed in Nelson, New Zealand. It is expected to be the trailblazer for similar but taller structures to be more widely adopted. Performance based standards require an advanced understanding of building responses and in order to meet the need for in-situ performance data the building has been subjected to forced vibration testing and instrumented for continuous monitoring using a total of about 90 data channels to capture its dynamic and long-term responses. The first part of the paper presents a brief discussion of the existing research on the seismic performance of timber frame buildings and footfall induced floor vibrations. An outline of the building structural system, focusing on the novel design solutions, is then discussed. This is followed by the description of the monitoring system. The paper emphasizes the need for optimal placement of a limited number of sensors and demonstrates how this was achieved for monitoring floor vibrations with the help of the effective independence-driving point residue (EfI-DPR) technique. A novel approach to the EfI-DPR method proposed here uses a combinatorial search algorithm that increases the chances of obtaining the globally optimal solution. Finally, the results from the forced vibration tests conducted on the whole building at different construction stages are reviewed.

  7. FIELD MONITORING OF TOMATO LEAF MINER TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a economically important pest of processed and fresh tomatoes, both in greenhouses and open field crops. Currently, the pest threatens other cultivated solanaceous plants such as eggplant and potato. In this article we review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. In this article we describestrategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection and population monitoring. Monitoring of Tuta absoluta was carried out in Imbabura Province in Ecuador. The parameters of using the pheromone traps Delta VI are described.

  8. Study of reaction and heat release from solid combustion in strong magnetic field; Kyojiba wo riyoshita hikinshitsu kotai nensho shori no hanno to netsu no seigy ni kansuru kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K; Fujita, O; Iiya, M; Kudo, K [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    To establish the inhomogeneous solid combustion control technology, effects of the strong magnetic field on the solid combustion were examined. When applying the sufficiently strong magnetic field, it is possible to control the air flow in combustion field by utilizing the force applying to constituent oxygen with large susceptibility. Based on this possibility, combustion experiments of expanded polystyrene plates were conducted between the magnetic poles of electro-magnet having the maximum flux density of 1 T and the maximum magnetic field gradient of 0.5 T/cm. To observe the effects of magnetic field without the effects of natural convection, combustion experiments of acrylic sheets were conducted between the magnetic poles of electro-magnet having the maximum flux density of 0.6 T and the magnetic field gradient of about 0.1 T/cm under the microgravity conditions between 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -5}g using a microgravity test facility. Consequently, prospective combustion results could be obtained, in which the force of flame received from the magnetic field is almost equivalent to the buoyancy of flame. It was demonstrated that combustion can be controlled by the magnetic field. 1 ref., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Application of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priha, Outi; Nyyssönen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

    2013-09-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 10(1) to 6 × 10(5) dsrB gene copies ml(-1). DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples.

  10. Transport infrastructure monitoring: A ground based optical displacement monitoring system, field tests on a bridge, the Musmeci's bridge in Potenza, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagene, J. K.

    2012-04-01

    A gound based optical displacement monitoring system, "NIODIM", is being developed by Norsk Elektro Optikk in the framework of the activities of the European project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), funded in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). The optical displacement monitoring system has now participated in two real life field campaigns one in Switzerland and one in Italy. The latter, the tests in Potenza, Italy, will be presented in the following. The NIODIM system has undergone some development during the last year to adopt it for use in a somewhat higher frequency domain by changing the camera sensor part. This to make it more useful for monitoring of structures with oscillation frequencies tens of Hz. The original system was intended to a large extent to monitor land slides, quick clay and rock slides and similar phenomena typically having a relatively slow time response. The system has been significantly speeded up from the original 12 Hz. Current tests have been performed at a frame rate of 64 Hz i.e., the camera part and data processing unit have been running on 64Hz. In connection with the tests in Italy the data processing has been upgraded to include sub-pixel resolution i.e., the measurement results are no longer limited by pixel borders or single pixels. The main part of the NIODIM system is a camera capable of operating at a sufficiently high frame rate. This camera will typically be mounted on firm ground and will depict and monitor a reference point, typically a light emitting diode, LED, which will be mounted on the object susceptible to move. A processing unit will acquire the images from the camera part and find the position of the LED in the image and compare that to threshold values and if required raise a warning or an alarm. The NIODIM system can either be a standalone system or be an integrated part of the overall ISTIMES system, the ISTIMES system

  11. Field sampling for monitoring, migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    As part of two studies funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the USEPA, the authors have investigated field sampling strategies and compositing as a means of detecting spills or migration at commercial low-level radioactive and chemical waste disposal sites and bioassays for detecting contamination at chemical waste sites. Compositing (pooling samples) for detection is discussed first, followed by the development of a statistical test to determine whether any component of a composite exceeds a prescribed maximum acceptable level. Subsequently, the authors explore the question of optimal field sampling designs and present the features of a microcomputer program designed to show the difficulties in constructing efficient field designs and using compositing schemes. Finally, they propose the use of bioassays as an adjunct or replacement for chemical analysis as a means of detecting and defining the areal extent of chemical migration

  12. Self-potential monitoring around wells in Mutnovsky geothermal field, Kamchatka; Kamchatka hanto mutnovsky deno chinetsui shuhen no shizen den`i monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, N.; Tosha, T.; Ishito, K. [Geological Survey of Japan Ibaragi (Japan); Delemen, I.; Kiryukhin, A. [Institute of Volcanology Far East Branch Russia Academy of Sciences (Russia)

    1997-07-01

    Mutnovsky is a geothermal field which lies to the south of and about 80km away from Petropavlovsk, Kamchatsky, the state capital of Kamchatka. The geothermal survey has been conducted since 1978 in this field. In this study, the self-potential variation was observed by monitoring the potential difference between places near and far from a well in the same region. Then, the self-potential associated with spurting vapor from a well was analyzed using a model of the self-potential generated from the steaming current coupled with the flow of hot water in the porous medium. As results of an experiment on the spurt of stream, vapor containing 80% stream in weight was exhausted at a mass flow rate of 30kg/sec at 100degC from wells. Since the specific enthalpy of this vapor is 2225kJ/kg, the underground geothermal storage layer was estimated to be a state of liquid and vapor two-phase. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  13. 4D ERT Monitoring of Subsurface Water Pipe Leakage During a Controlled Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, C.; Chambers, J. E.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Meldrum, P.; Swift, R. T.; Uhlemann, S.; Gunn, D.; Dashwood, B.; Taxil, J.; Curioni, G.

    2016-12-01

    Locating and delineating leakage from subsurface pipelines is an important task for civil engineers. 4D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) allows changes in subsurface resistivity to be imaged at a high spatial and temporal resolution in a minimally invasive manner. It is therefore a promising tool to supplement conventional point-sensing techniques to monitor subsurface flow processes. To assess the efficacy of ERT for pipe leakage monitoring several controlled leak experiments were carried out at a test site in Blagdon, Bristol, UK. To simulate the leak, a plastic pipe with a hole was buried below a flat, grassed area at a depth of 0.7 m, representing a standard UK mains water pipe installation. The water table at the site lies well below the surface meaning that the experiment took entirely place in the vadose zone, where changes in resistivity are primarily sensitive to water content variations. The ERT array covered an area of 6.5m x 6.5m around the leak location. Data acquisition was carried out with the BGS PRIME (Proactive Infrastructure Monitoring and Evaluation) system, which facilitates remote scheduling and autonomous ERT data collection and transmission. To obtain the resistivity changes of the subsurface a 4D inversion was carried out using a Gauss-Newton approach with spatial and temporal smoothness constraints. We were able to reliably observe the onset, spread and cessation of the leakage. Measurements from in-situ soil sensors at several depths above and below the leak complemented the ERT data and allowed us to assess their reliability and directly relate them to hydrogeological processes. Moreover, through experimental tests with soil samples from the test area, a Waxman-Smits relation was obtained to directly convert the changes in electrical resistivity to gravimetric soil moisture content. With future experiments on the test site more work is planned towards survey optimization, automated processing and tracking of leakage plumes.

  14. Field monitoring of static, dynamic, and statnamic pile loading tests using fibre Bragg grating strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Correia, Ricardo P.; Chehura, Edmon; Staines, Stephen; James, Stephen W.; Tatam, Ralph; Butcher, Antony P.; Fuentes, Raul

    2009-10-01

    Pile loading test plays an important role in the field of piling engineering. In order to gain further insight into the load transfer mechanism, strain gauges are often used to measure local strains along the piles. This paper reports a case whereby FBG strain sensors was employed in a field trial conducted on three different types of pile loading tests in a glacial till. The instrumentation systems were configured to suit the specific characteristic of each type of test. Typical test results are presented. The great potential of using FBG sensors for pile testing is shown.

  15. Light-pollution measurement with the Wide-field all-sky image analyzing monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, S.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to measure light pollution in the capital of Czech Republic, Prague. As a measuring instrument is used calibrated consumer level digital single reflex camera with IR cut filter, therefore, the paper reports results of measuring and monitoring of the light pollution in the wavelength range of 390 - 700 nm, which most affects visual range astronomy. Combining frames of different exposure times made with a digital camera coupled with fish-eye lens allow to create high dynamic range images, contain meaningful values, so such a system can provide absolute values of the sky brightness.

  16. Frost damage of bricks composing a railway tunnel monument in Central Japan: field monitoring and laboratory simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomachot, C.; Matsuoka, N.; Kuchitsu, N.; Morii, M.

    2005-07-01

    Bricks of tunnels and bridges of Usui Pass railway (Japan) exposed to north are subject to frost damage. Average depth of erosion due to detachment of angular blocks is around 1-1.5 cm. In order to assess this weathering and to understand its mechanism, an experimental study was carried out in the field and laboratory. Field monitoring showed the combination of seasonal and diurnal freezing with a maximum of heave when the freezing front reached 5 cm depth. Bricks taken from the site were submitted to unidirectional freezing at capillary and vacuum saturation in the laboratory. Results showed that frost damage of bricks was favoured by high saturation level and repetition of freeze-thaw cycles.

  17. Frost damage of bricks composing a railway tunnel monument in Central Japan: field monitoring and laboratory simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thomachot

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bricks of tunnels and bridges of Usui Pass railway (Japan exposed to north are subject to frost damage. Average depth of erosion due to detachment of angular blocks is around 1-1.5 cm. In order to assess this weathering and to understand its mechanism, an experimental study was carried out in the field and laboratory. Field monitoring showed the combination of seasonal and diurnal freezing with a maximum of heave when the freezing front reached 5 cm depth. Bricks taken from the site were submitted to unidirectional freezing at capillary and vacuum saturation in the laboratory. Results showed that frost damage of bricks was favoured by high saturation level and repetition of freeze-thaw cycles.

  18. Compressive sensing of full wave field data for structural health monitoring applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso; De Marchi, Luca; Perelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    ; however, the acquisition process is generally time-consuming, posing a limit in the applicability of such approaches. To reduce the acquisition time, we use a random sampling scheme based on compressive sensing (CS) to minimize the number of points at which the field is measured. The CS reconstruction...

  19. Organizational Legitimacy in the Global Education Policy Field: Learning from UNESCO and the Global Monitoring Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Okitsu, Taeko; da Costa, Romina; Kitamura, Yuto

    2018-01-01

    In the field of global education policy, it is common for scholars to reflect on the progress made toward internationally agreed-upon agendas, such as Education for All (EFA). However, scant research has turned the gaze back on the major multilateral institutions that commit to taking the lead in meeting these agendas in order to ask, what…

  20. Field Trial of LANL On-Line Advanced Enrichment Monitor for UF6 GCEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lombardi, Marcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacArthur, Duncan W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, Robert F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keller, Clifford [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friend, Peter [URENCO; Dunford, Andrew [URENCO

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation is: (1) Technology basis of on-line enrichment monitoring; (2) Timescale of trial; (3) Description of installed equipment; (4) Photographs; (5) Results; (6) Possible further development; and (7) Conclusions. Summary of the good things about the Advanced Enrichment Monitor (AEM) performance is: (1) High accuracy - normally better than 1% relative, (2) Active system as accurate as passive system, (3) Fast and accurate detection of enrichment changes, (4) Physics is well understood, (5) Elegant method for capturing pressure signal, and (6) Data capture is automatic, low cost and fast. A couple of negative things are: (1) Some jumps in measured passive enrichment - of around +2% relative (due to clock errors?); and (2) Data handling and evaluation is off-line, expensive and very slow. Conclusions are: (1) LANL AEM is being tested on E23 plant at Capenhurst; (2) The trial is going very well; (3) AEM could detect production of HEU at potentially much lower cost than existing CEMO; (4) AEM can measure {sup 235}U assay accurately; (5) Active system using X-Ray source would avoid need for pressure measurement; (6) Substantial work lies ahead to go from current prototype to a production instrument.

  1. Field evaluation of diesel particulate matter using portable elemental carbon monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janisko, S.; Noll, J.D. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The permissible exposure limits of underground mine workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM) was lowered in 2008 by the United States Mine Safety and Health Administration. In order to comply with the new regulation, most mines must use one or several combined control strategies to lower DPM concentrations. Since DPMs are complex and unpredictable, there is a need for new tools to help mines develop an effective strategy to reduce their concentrations. This paper reported on newly developed portable elemental carbon (EC) monitoring device for use in underground mines. This compact instrument was developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to monitor EC concentrations in real time. The device has proven to be useful in planning new DPM curtailment strategies and in measuring the effectiveness of existing DPM controls. The information is provided in charts of concentration changes over time. The data offers a new way of understanding the factors that influence DPM exposure and drive concentration transients in an underground environment. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor Land Management Practices and the Development of Marshlands to Rice Fields in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusabimana, M. R.; Blach, D.; Mwiza, F.; Muzungu, E.; Swaminathan, R.; Tate, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Rwanda, a small country with the highest population density in Sub-Saharan Africa, is one of the world's poorest countries. Although agriculture is the backbone of Rwandan economy, agricultural productivity is extremely low. Over 90 % of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and only 52 % of the total land surface area is arable. Of this land, approximately 165,000 hectares are marshlands, of which only 57 % has been cultivated. Rwandan government has invested in the advancement of agriculture with activities such as irrigation, marshland reclamation, and crop regionalization. In 2001, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRI) released the Rural Sector Support Program (RSSP), which aimed at converting marshlands into rice fields at various development sites across the country. The focus of this project was to monitor rice fields in Rwanda utilizing NASA Earth observations such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager. Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) was used to depict the progress of marshland to rice field conversion as it highlights the presence of irrigated rice fields from the surrounding area. Additionally, Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) was used to estimate rice yield at RSSP sites. Various simulations were run to find perfect conditions for cultivating the highest yield for a given farm. Furthermore, soil erosion susceptibility masks were created by combining factors derived from ASTER, MERRA, and ground truth data using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The end results, maps, and tutorials were delivered to the partners and policy makers in Rwanda to help make informed decisions. It can be clearly seen that Earth observations can be successfully used to monitor agricultural and land management practices as a cost effective method that will enable farmers to improve crop yield production and food security.

  3. Development of a wireless MEMS multifunction sensor system and field demonstration of embedded sensors for monitoring concrete pavements : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Micro-electromechanical sensors and systems- (MEMS)-based and : wireless-based smart-sensing technologies have, until now, rarely : been used for monitoring pavement response in the field, and the : requirements for using such smart sensing technolog...

  4. Long-term monitoring of nitrate-N transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is necessary to sustain most modern crop production, but poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is imperative if there is to be differentiated N-regulation in future. This study describes nitrate-N leaching to drainage based on coherent monitoring of nitrate-N concentrations, the climate, the groundwater table and crop-specific parameters obtained over eleven years (2001-2011) at three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha). The monitoring results showed significant field differences in nitrate-N transport to drainage. Not only were these caused by periods of bare soil after short-season crops and N-fixing crops (pea), which have been shown to generate high nitrate-N concentrations in drainage, but by the hydrogeological field conditions that were shown to be the controlling factor of nitrate-N transport to drainage. The fields had the following characteristics: (A) the lowest mass transport (13 kg N ha-1) and fertiliser input had short-term and low-intensity drainage with the highest nitrate-N concentrations detected, representing 40% of net precipitation (226 mm) combined with low air temperatures, (B) the medium mass transport (14 kg N ha-1) had medium-term and medium-intensity drainage, representing 42% of net precipitation (471 mm) combined with periods of both low and higher air temperatures, (C) the highest mass transport (19 kg N ha-1) had long-term drainage, representing 68% of net precipitation (617 mm), but had the highest potential for in-situ soil denitrification and post-treatment (e.g. constructed wetlands) due to long periods with both high water

  5. A Comparative Field Monitoring of Column Shortenings in Tall Buildings Using Wireless and Wired Sensor Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative field measurement for column shortening of tall buildings is presented in this study, with a focus on the reliability and stability of a wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network was used for monitoring the column shortenings of a 58-story building under construction. The wireless sensor network, which was composed of sensor and master nodes, employed the ultra-high-frequency band and CDMA communication methods. To evaluate the reliability and stability of the wireless sensor network system, the column shortenings were also measured using a conventional wired monitoring system. Two vibration wire gauges were installed in each of the selected 7 columns and 3 walls. Measurements for selected columns and walls were collected for 270 days after casting of the concrete. The results measured by the wireless sensor network were compared with the results of the conventional method. The strains and column shortenings measured using both methods showed good agreement for all members. It was verified that the column shortenings of tall buildings could be monitored using the wireless sensor network system with its reliability and stability.

  6. Calibration and field evaluation of polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) for monitoring pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, Emilie; Levi, Yves; Karolak, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a new tool for the sampling of organic pollutants in water. We tested this device for the monitoring of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater. After calibration, a field application was carried out in a French hospital for six pharmaceutical compounds (Atenolol, Prednisolone, Methylprednisolone, Sulfamethoxazole, Ofloxacin, Ketoprofen). POCIS were calibrated in tap water and wastewater in laboratory conditions close to relevant environmental conditions (temperature, flow velocity). Sampling rates (R s ) were determined and we observed a significant increase with flow velocity and temperature. Whatever the compound, the R s value was lower in wastewater and the linear phase of uptake was shorter. POCIS were deployed in a hospital sewage pipe during four days and the estimated water concentrations were close to those obtained with twenty-four hour composite samples. -- Highlights: ► Calibration of POCIS for the monitoring of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater. ► Uptake profile presents a shorter linear phase in wastewater than in tap water. ► Influence of R s values by temperature, flow velocity and bio-fouling. ► Correlation between concentrations estimated from POCIS or measured in TWA samples. ► Deployment period should be no longer than five days. -- After calibration in tap water and hospital wastewater, POCIS were used to monitor pharmaceuticals in hospital sewage and were compared to TWA sampling

  7. Easy monitoring of velocity fields in microfluidic devices using spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travagliati, Marco; Girardo, Salvatore; Pisignano, Dario; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2013-09-03

    Spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS) is a simple and powerful technique, well established as a tool to probe protein dynamics in cells. Recently, its potential as a tool to map velocity fields in lab-on-a-chip systems was discussed. However, the lack of studies on its performance has prevented its use for microfluidics applications. Here, we systematically and quantitatively explore STICS microvelocimetry in microfluidic devices. We exploit a simple experimental setup, based on a standard bright-field inverted microscope (no fluorescence required) and a high-fps camera, and apply STICS to map liquid flow in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels. Our data demonstrates optimal 2D velocimetry up to 10 mm/s flow and spatial resolution down to 5 μm.

  8. Field sampling for monitoring migration and defining the areal extent of chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-11-01

    Initial research on compositing, field designs, and site mapping oriented toward detecting spills and migration at commercial low-level radioactive or chemical waste sites is summarized. Results indicate that the significance test developed to detect samples containing high levels of contamination when they are mixed with several other samples below detectable limits (composites), will be highly effective with large sample sizes when contaminant levels frequently or greatly exceed a maximum acceptable level. These conditions of frequent and high contaminant levels are most likely to occur in regions of a commercial waste site where the priors (previous knowledge) about a spill or migration are highest. Conversely, initial investigations of Bayes sampling strategies suggest that field sampling efforts should be inversely proportional to the priors (expressed as probabilities) for the occurrence of contamination

  9. Measurement of Neutron Field Characteristics at Nuclear-Physics Instalations for Personal Radiation Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, A G; Britvich, G I; Kosyanenko, E V; Pikalov, V A; Gomonov, I P

    2003-01-01

    n this work the observed data of neutron spectra on Rostov NEP, Kursk NEP and Smolensk NEP and on the reactor IRT MIPHI are submitted. For measurement of neutron spectra two types of spectrometer were used: SHANS (IHEP design ) and SDN-MS01 (FEI design). The comparison of the data measurements per-formed by those spectrometers above one-type cells on the reactor RBMK is submitted. On the basis of the 1-st horizontal experimental channel HEC-1 of the IRT reactor 4 reference fields of neutrons are investigated. It is shown, that spectra of neutrons of reference fields can be used for imitation of neutron spectra for conditions of NEP with VVER and RBMK type reactors.

  10. Monitoring resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the field by performing bioassays with each Cry toxin separately

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Tetreau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti is increasingly used worldwide for mosquito control and is the only larvicide used in the French Rhône-Alpes region since decades. The artificial selection of mosquitoes with field-persistent Bti collected in breeding sites from this region led to a moderate level of resistance to Bti, but to relatively high levels of resistance to individual Bti Cry toxins. Based on this observation, we developed a bioassay procedure using each Bti Cry toxin separately to detect cryptic Bti-resistance evolving in field mosquito populations. Although no resistance to Bti was detected in none of the three mosquito species tested (Aedes rusticus, Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans, an increased tolerance to Cry4Aa (3.5-fold and Cry11Aa toxins (8-fold was found in one Ae. sticticus population compared to other populations of the same species, suggesting that resistance to Bti may be arising in this population. This study confirms previous works showing a lack of Bti resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with this bioinsecticide. It also provides a first panorama of their susceptibility status to individual Bti Cry toxins. In combination with bioassays with Bti, bioassays with separate Cry toxins allow a more sensitive monitoring of Bti-resistance in the field.

  11. Field tests of Fibre Bragg Grating sensors incorporated into CFRP for Railway Bridge strengthening condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Kerrouche, Abdelfathe; Leighton, J

    2008-01-01

    made with the FBG- based system were found to be in agreement with the changes expected in the structure (together with the embedded reinforcement), produced by the loading applied. The study has demonstrated the successful use of FBG-based technology pre-mounted in ‘smart’ carbon fiber composite...... project ‘Sustainable Bridges’. The FBG sensors were embedded in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) rods incorporated into grooves specially created in the concrete cover of the bridge structure and interrogated using a compact system based on Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). Throughout...... the study, the FBG sensors were continuously monitored, allowing the incremental increases in the strain to be seen and through the yield point of the carbon composite reinforcement. The sensors were able to follow the resulting induced changes in strain of over a range in excess of 4000µε. The measurements...

  12. Inhibitor selection for internal corrosion control of pipelines: experience with field monitoring and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoz, A.; Michaelian, K.H.; Donini, J. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Western Research Centre, Devon, AB (Canada); Papavinasam, S.; Revie, R.W. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A loop of pipe consisting of pipe segments of 3 inches, 6 inches and 10 inches that could take the full flow of a production well was designed, constructed and put in-line close to a wellhead. The loop was able to simulate multiphase pipelines and had ports for coupons, some of which were used for electrochemical monitoring. Various techniques including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrochemical noise (ECN), and linear polarization resistance (LPR) were employed, all of which gave corrosion rates that depended on the position of the coupons inside the loop (increasing from top to bottom, reflecting the media and flow to which coupons were exposed in a multiphase producing well). Results indicated that the general corrosion rates obtained were dependent on the method used for measurement, but following the relative trend of LPR>weight loss>EIS>ECN. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Dosimetry in mixed (n,gamma) fields in relation to personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Hrabovcova, A.; Kubu, M.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron spectra were determined using neutron detection with a set of moderating spheres and the SAND computer method. A 6 LiI crystal or a pair of 6 LiF- 7 LiF thermoluminescence detectors was placed in the centre of 7 moderating spheres of 5 to 30 cm in diameter. 252 Cf and 241 Am-Be source were used in the calibration of the multisphere spectrometer. Neutron scattering from the walls, floor and ceiling was taken into consideration. The contribution of scattered neutrons was also determined for the case of measuring the 241 Am-Be spectrum with the source placed behind a water wall 10 cm thick. It is shown how the neutron energy distribution and the values of dose quantities altered as a result of the presence of scattered neutrons. The result of the presence of scattered neutrons. The results are discussed with respect to personnel monitoring. (author)

  14. Development of plastic scintillators for use in the field of radioprotection and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Hamada, M.M.; Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    A plastic scintillator detector based on available know how, for applications in radiological protection - whole body counting, continuous monitoring of air and measurement of low level alpha and beta radioactivity environmental samples is described. Results of method of preparation of the plastic scintillator using styrene monomer and PPO (scintillator), POPOP (wave lenght shifter) are described. For measurement of gamma radiation point sources of 60 Co, 137 Cs and 125 I were used and detected with plastic scintillator detectors prepared with various concentrations (% by weight) of PPO. The data of relative pulse heights are presented. For measurement of alpha and beta radioactivity in environmental samples, thin discs of plastic detector were machined and polished. (Author) [pt

  15. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA Respiratory Monitoring System Using a Flow Microsensor and an Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellal Idir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non-invasive system for respiratory monitoring using a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS flow sensor and an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit accelerometer. The designed system is intended to be wearable and used in a hospital or at home to assist people with respiratory disorders. To ensure the accuracy of our system, we proposed a calibration method based on ANN (Artificial Neural Network to compensate the temperature drift of the silicon flow sensor. The sigmoid activation functions used in the ANN model were computed with the CORDIC (COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer algorithm. This algorithm was also used to estimate the tilt angle in body position. The design was implemented on reconfigurable platform FPGA.

  16. Development and On-Field Testing of Low-Cost Portable System for Monitoring PM2.5 Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N Genikomsakis, Konstantinos; Galatoulas, Nikolaos-Fivos; I Dallas, Panagiotis; Candanedo Ibarra, Luis Miguel; Margaritis, Dimitris; S Ioakimidis, Christos

    2018-04-01

    Recent developments in the field of low-cost sensors enable the design and implementation of compact, inexpensive and portable sensing units for air pollution monitoring with fine-detailed spatial and temporal resolution, in order to support applications of wider interest in the area of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In this context, the present work advances the concept of developing a low-cost portable air pollution monitoring system (APMS) for measuring the concentrations of particulate matter (PM), in particular fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5). Specifically, this paper presents the on-field testing of the proposed low-cost APMS implementation using roadside measurements from a mobile laboratory equipped with a calibrated instrument as the basis of comparison and showcases its accuracy on characterizing the PM2.5 concentrations on 1 min resolution in an on-road trial. Moreover, it demonstrates the intended application of collecting fine-grained spatio-temporal PM2.5 profiles by mounting the developed APMS on an electric bike as a case study in the city of Mons, Belgium.

  17. Hydrological modelling of a slope covered with shallow pyroclastic deposits from field monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Greco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional hydrological model of a slope covered with pyroclastic materials is proposed. The soil cover is constituted by layers of loose volcanic ashes and pumices, with a total thickness between 1.8 m and 2.5 m, lying upon a fractured limestone bedrock. The mean inclination of the slope is around 40°, slightly larger than the friction angle of the ashes. Thus, the equilibrium of the slope, significantly affected by the cohesive contribution exerted by soil suction in unsaturated conditions, may be altered by rainfall infiltration. The model assumes a single homogeneous soil layer occupying the entire depth of the cover, and takes into account seasonally variable canopy interception of precipitation and root water uptake by vegetation, mainly constituted by deciduous chestnut woods with a dense underbrush growing during late spring and summer. The bottom boundary condition links water potential at the soil–bedrock interface with the fluctuations of the water table of the aquifer located in the fractured limestone, which is conceptually modelled as a linear reservoir. Most of the model parameters have been assigned according to literature indications or from experimental data. Soil suction and water content data measured between 1 January 2011 and 20 July 2011 at a monitoring station installed along the slope allowed the remaining parameters to be identified. The calibrated model, which reproduced very closely the data of the calibration set, has been applied to the simulation of the hydrological response of the slope to the hourly precipitation record of 1999, when a large flow-like landslide was triggered close to the monitored location. The simulation results show that the lowest soil suction ever attained occurred just at the time the landslide was triggered, indicating that the model is capable of predicting slope failure conditions.

  18. Microseismicity of an Unstable Rock Mass: From Field Monitoring to Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, C.; Comina, C.; Vinciguerra, S.; Benson, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    The field-scale microseismic (MS) activity of an unstable rock mass is known to be an important tool to assess damage and cracking processes eventually leading to macroscopic failures. However, MS-event rates alone may not be enough for a complete understanding of the trigger mechanisms of mechanical instabilities. Acoustic Emission (AE) techniques at the laboratory scale can be used to provide complementary information. In this study, we report a MS/AE comparison to assess the stability of a granitic rock mass in the northwestern Italian Alps (Madonna del Sasso). An attempt to bridge the gap between the two different scales of observation, and the different site and laboratory conditions, is undertaken to gain insights on the rock mass behavior as a function of external governing factors. Time- and frequency-domain parameters of the MS/AE waveforms are compared and discussed with this aim. At the field scale, special attention is devoted to the correlation of the MS-event rate with meteorological parameters (air temperature and rainfalls). At the laboratory scale, AE rates, waveforms, and spectral content, recorded under controlled temperature and fluid conditions, are analyzed in order to better constrain the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed field patterns. The factors potentially governing the mechanical instability at the site were retrieved from the integration of the results. Abrupt thermal variations were identified as the main cause of the site microsesimicity, without highlighting irreversible acceleration in the MS-event rate potentially anticipating the rock mass collapse.

  19. Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Gordon T.; Jackson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations in the particle beam.

  20. Mapping of electromagnetic fields of industrial frequencies in the city of Petrozavodsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturman Vladimir Itshakovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a modern city there are numerous sources of electro-magnetic radiation. However, their interaction and overlap are studied extremely insufficiently. We investigated the spatial distribution of strength indicators of electric fields and flux density of magnetic fields in Petrozavodsk. It was established that the intensity of electric fields reaches significant values only near overhead high-voltage lines, but there is no revealed excess of exposure standard outside their security zones. The flux density does not exceed the permissible level, but within the city area it varies wildly. It was represented on the compiled map. The largest levels of the flux density were observed in modern building zones, mainly in the centre of the city. In separate points the abnormal values were noted. They were explained by the influence of underground power cables. The results are useful for working out the method of mapping electrio-magnetic fields.

  1. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood

    2017-10-17

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS), on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  2. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS) , on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  3. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS), on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  4. Comparison of 5-megapixel cathode ray tube monitors and 5-megapixel liquid crystal monitors for soft-copy reading in full-field digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, Gerd; Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Pinker, Katja; Memarsadeghi, Mazda; Weber, Michael; Helbich, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the image quality, lesion detection, and the diagnostic efficacy of 5-megapixel (MP) cathode ray tube monitors (CRTs) and 5-MP liquid crystal display monitors (LCDs) for soft-copy reading in full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Materials and methods: Informed consent was waived by the Institutional Review Board for the data analysis. A total of 220 cases were compared with two 5-MP (2048 x 2560 pixels) CRTs and two 5-MP (2048 x 2560 pixels) LCDs. Nine aspects of image quality (brightness, contrast, sharpness, noise, skin, fat, retromamillary space, glandular tissue, and detection of calcifications) were evaluated. In addition, the detection of breast lesions (mass, calcifications) and diagnostic efficacy, based on the BI-RADS classification, were correlated with histologic results (n = 70) and follow-up (n = 150). Results: Each aspect of the image quality was rated significantly better for 5-MP LCDs (p < 0.05) compared to the 5-MP CRTs. With 5-MP CRTs, 31 masses and 119 calcifications were detected, compared to 30 and 121 with 5-MP LCDs. The differences in diagnostic efficacy between 5-MP CRTs and 5-MP LCDs were not significant (p = 0.157) although 5-MP CRTs yielded two false-negative results. Both lesions were rated BI-RADS 3 with 5-MP CRTs. Both were invasive carcinomas at histology. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 0.966, 0.975, 0.933, 0.988, and 0.973 for 5-MP CRTs, compared to 1.0, 0.963, 0.903, 1.0, 0.973 for 5-MP LCDs. Conclusion: The image quality of 5-MP LCDs is significantly better than that of 5-MP CRTs for soft-copy reading in FFDM, based on histologic and follow-up correlation. However, lesion detection and diagnostic efficacy are comparable to 5-MP CRTs. The interpretation of the false-negative results suggests that the characterization of breast lesions with FFDM is not defined solely by the monitors, but is strongly influenced by the radiologist.

  5. Ultrasonic Guided Waves-Based Monitoring of Rail Head: Laboratory and Field Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piervincenzo Rizzo

    2010-01-01

    The first part of the paper shows the prototype in action on a railroad track mock-up built at the University of California, San Diego. The mock-up contained surface and internal defects. The results from three experiments are presented. The importance of feature selection to maximize the sensitivity of the inspection system is demonstrated here. The second part of the paper shows the results of field testing conducted in south east Pennsylvania under the auspices of the U.S. Federal Railroad Administration.

  6. Monitoring remediation of trichloroethylene using a chemical fiber optic sensor: Field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colston, B.W.; Brown, S.B.; Langry, K.; Daley, P.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1994-06-01

    Current US Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires characterization and subsequent remediation of areas where trichloroethylene (TCE) has been discharged into the soil and groundwater. Technology that allows trace quantities of this contaminant to be measured in situ on a continuous basis is needed. Fiber optic chemical sensors offer a promising low cost solution. Field tests of such a fiber optic chemical sensor for TCE have recently been completed. Sensors have been used to measure TCE contamination at Savannah River Site (SRS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 (S300) in the groundwater and vadose zones. Both sites are currently undergoing remediation processes

  7. Field tests of a chemiresistor sensor for in-situ monitoring of vapor-phase contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C.; McGrath, L.; Wright, J.

    2003-04-01

    An in-situ chemiresistor sensor has been developed that can detect volatile organic compounds in subsurface environmental applications. Several field tests were conducted in 2001 and 2002 to test the reliability, operation, and performance of the in-situ chemiresistor sensor system. The chemiresistor consists of a carbon-loaded polymer deposited onto a microfabricated circuit. The polymer swells reversibly in the presence of volatile organic compounds as vapor-phase molecules absorb into the polymer, causing a change in the electrical resistance of the circuit. The change in resistance can be calibrated to known concentrations of analytes, and arrays of chemiresistors can be used on a single chip to aid in discrimination. A waterproof housing was constructed to allow the chemiresistor to be used in a variety of media including air, soil, and water. The integrated unit, which can be buried in soils or emplaced in wells, is connected via cable to a surface-based solar-powered data logger. A cell-phone modem is used to automatically download the data from the data logger on a periodic basis. The field tests were performed at three locations: (1) Edwards Air Force Base, CA; (2) Nevada Test Site; and (3) Sandia's Chemical Waste Landfill near Albuquerque, NM. The objectives of the tests were to evaluate the ruggedness, longevity, operation, performance, and engineering requirements of these sensors in actual field settings. Results showed that the sensors could be operated continuously for long periods of time (greater than a year) using remote solar-powered data-logging stations with wireless telemetry. The sensor housing, which was constructed of 304 stainless steel, showed some signs of corrosion when placed in contaminated water for several months, but the overall integrity was maintained. The detection limits of the chemiresistors were generally found to be near 0.1% of the saturated vapor pressure of the target analyte in controlled laboratory conditions (e

  8. Monitoring and Modeling the Impact of Grazers Using Visual, Remote and Traditional Field Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roadknight, C. M.; Marshall, I. W.; Rose, R. J.

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between wild and domestic animals and the landscape they graze upon is important to soil erosion studies because they are a strong influence on vegetation cover (a key control on the rate of overland flow runoff), and also because the grazers contribute directly to sediment transport via carriage and indirectly by exposing fresh soil by trampling and burrowing/excavating. Quantifying the impacts of these effects on soil erosion and their dependence on grazing intensity, in complex semi-natural habitats has proved difficult. This is due to lack of manpower to collect sufficient data and weak standardization of data collection between observers. The advent of cheaper and more sophisticated digital camera technology and GPS tracking devices has lead to an increase in the amount of habitat monitoring information that is being collected. We report on the use of automated trail cameras to continuously capture images of grazer (sheep, rabbits, deer) activity in a variety of habitats at the Moor House nature reserve in northern England. As well as grazer activity these cameras also give valuable information on key climatic soil erosion factors such as snow, rain and wind and plant growth and thus allow the importance of a range of grazer activities and the grazing intensity to be estimated. GPS collars and more well established survey methods (erosion monitoring, dung counting and vegetation surveys) are being used to generate a detailed representation of land usage and plan camera siting. This paper describes the data collection techniques, outlines the quantitative and qualitative data collected and proposes online and offline systems that can reduce the data processing time and increase focus on important subsets in the collected data. We also present a land usage model that estimates grazing intensity, grazer behaviours and their impact on soil coverage at sites where cameras have not been deployed, based on generalising from camera sites to other

  9. Simulations of the x-ray imaging capabilities of the silicon drift detectors (SDD) for the LOFT wide-field monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Y.; Campana, R.; Del Monte, E.

    2012-01-01

    Detector (LAD), carrying an unprecedented effective area of 10 m^2, is complemented by a coded-mask Wide Field Monitor, in charge of monitoring a large fraction of the sky potentially accessible to the LAD, to provide the history and context for the sources observed by LAD and to trigger its observations...... on their most interesting and extreme states. In this paper we present detailed simulations of the imaging capabilities of the Silicon Drift Detectors developed for the LOFT Wide Field Monitor detection plane. The simulations explore a large parameter space for both the detector design and the environmental...

  10. Imaging design of the wide field x-ray monitor onboard the HETE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zand, J.J.M. In'T; Fenimore, E.E.; Kawai, N.; Yoshida, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamauchi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), to be launched in 1995, will study Gamma-Ray Bursts in an unprecendented wide wavelength range from Gamma- and X-ray to UV wavelengths. The X-ray range (2 to 25 keV) will be covered by 2 perpendicularly oriented 1-dimensional coded aperture cameras. These instruments cover a wide field of view of 2 sr and thus have a relatively large potential to locate GRBs to a fraction of a degree, which is an order of magnitude better than BATSE. The imaging design of these coded aperture cameras relates to the design of the coded apertures and the decoding algorithm. The aperture pattern is to a large extent determined by the high background in this wide field application and the low number of pattern elements (∼100) in each direction. The result is a random pattern with an open fraction of 33%. The onboard decoding algorithm is dedicated to the localization of a single point source

  11. Recent developments for field monitoring of alpha-emitting contaminants in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlquist, A.J.; Umbarger, C.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has adapted two field methods to assess rapidly locations and concentrations of alpha-emitting contaminants in soil. (1) A ZnS scintillator is used for gross-alpha measurements on soil samples. Sample preparation and the calibration and detection limits of the system are discussed, and results of gross-alpha analysis are compared with results of a 239 Pu radiochemistry analysis. (2) A Phoswich detector is used as a field survey instrument because it can detect lower levels of radioactivity than the FIDLER probe. The electronics are carried in a truck and the probe is connected by an umbilical cord. The system electronics are calibrated with an energy window of 12-40 keV which allows detection of Pu, Am, Th (using daughter L X-rays of the alpha-emitters) and 137 Cs (using its daughter 32 keV X-rays). The bremsstrahlung from 90 Sr can also be detected. (author)

  12. Monitoring production using surface deformation: the Hijiori test site and the Okuaizu geothermal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.; Karasaki, Kenzi

    2002-01-01

    Production in geothermal reservoirs often leads to observable surface displacement. As shown in this paper, there is a direct relationship between such displacement and reservoir dynamics. This relationship is exploited in order to image fluid flow at two geothermal field sites. At the first locality, the Hijiori Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test site, 17 tilt meters record deformation associated with a 2.2 km deep injection experiment. Images of fluid migration along a ring fracture system of the collapsed Hijiori caldera are obtained. At the Okuaizu geothermal field, leveling and tilt meter data provide constraints on long- and short-term fluid movement within the reservoir. A set of 119 leveling data suggest that the north-to-northeast trending Takiyagawa fault acts as a barrier to flow. The northwesterly oriented Chinoikezawa and Sarukurazawa faults appear to channel fluid from the southeast. The tilt data from Okuaizu indicate that a fault paralleling the Takiyagawa fault zone acts as a conduit to transient flow, on a time scale of several weeks. The volume strain in a region adjacent to the injection wells reaches a maximum and then decreases with time. The transient propagation of fluid along the fault may be due to pressure build-up, resulting from the re-initiation of injection. (author)

  13. Effects of mental workload on physiological and subjective responses during traffic density monitoring: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated operators' mental workload while monitoring traffic density in a city traffic control center. To determine the mental workload, physiological signals (ECG, EMG) were recorded and the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was administered for 16 operators. The results showed that the operators experienced a larger mental workload during high traffic density than during low traffic density. The traffic control center stressors caused changes in heart rate variability features and EMG amplitude, although the average workload score was significantly higher in HTD conditions than in LTD conditions. The findings indicated that increasing traffic congestion had a significant effect on HR, RMSSD, SDNN, LF/HF ratio, and EMG amplitude. The results suggested that when operators' workload increases, their mental fatigue and stress level increase and their mental health deteriorate. Therefore, it maybe necessary to implement an ergonomic program to manage mental health. Furthermore, by evaluating mental workload, the traffic control center director can organize the center's traffic congestion operators to sustain the appropriate mental workload and improve traffic control management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling of Temperature Effect on Modal Frequency of Concrete Beam Based on Field Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchen Shan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature variation has been widely demonstrated to produce significant effect on modal frequencies that even exceed the effect of actual damage. In order to eliminate the temperature effect on modal frequency, an effective method is to construct quantitative models which accurately predict the modal frequency corresponding to temperature variation. In this paper, principal component analysis (PCA is conducted on the temperatures taken from all embedded thermocouples for extracting input parameters of regression models. Three regression-based numerical models using multiple linear regression (MLR, back-propagation neural network (BPNN, and support vector regression (SVR techniques are constructed to capture the relationships between modal frequencies and temperature distributions from measurements of a concrete beam during a period of forty days of monitoring. A comparison with respect to the performance of various optimally configured regression models has been performed on measurement data. Results indicate that the SVR exhibits a better reproduction and prediction capability than BPNN and MLR models for predicting the modal frequencies with respect to nonuniformly distributed temperatures. It is succeeded that temperature effects on modal frequencies can be effectively eliminated based on the optimally formulated SVR model.

  15. Monitoring of In-Field Variability for Site Specific Crop Management Through Open Geospatial Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezník, T.; Lukas, V.; Charvát, K.; Charvát, K., Jr.; Horáková, Š.; Křivánek, Z.; Herman, L.

    2016-06-01

    The agricultural sector is in a unique position due to its strategic importance around the world. It is crucial for both citizens (consumers) and the economy (both regional and global), which, ideally, should ensure that the whole sector is a network of interacting organisations. It is important to develop new tools, management methods, and applications to improve the management and logistic operations of agricultural producers (farms) and agricultural service providers. From a geospatial perspective, this involves identifying cost optimization pathways, reducing transport, reducing environmental loads, and improving the energy balance, while maintaining production levels, etc. This paper describes the benefits of, and open issues arising from, the development of the Open Farm Management Information System. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of available remote sensing and other geospatial data, and their harmonization, processing, and presentation to users. At the same time, the FOODIE platform also offers a novel approach of yield potential estimations. Validation for one farm demonstrated 70% successful rate when comparing yield results at a farm counting 1'284 hectares on one hand and results of a theoretical model of yield potential on the other hand. The presented Open Farm Management Information System has already been successfully registered under Phase 8 of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture Implementation Pilot in order to support the wide variety of demands that are primarily aimed at agriculture and water pollution monitoring by means of remote sensing.

  16. In-field implementation of impedance-based structural health monitoring for insulated rail joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakri, Mohammad I.; Malladi, V. V. N. Sriram; Woolard, Americo G.; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2017-04-01

    Track defects are a major safety concern for the railroad industry. Among different track components, insulated rail joints, which are widely used for signaling purposes, are considered a weak link in the railroad track. Several joint-related defects have been identified by the railroad community, including rail wear, torque loss, and joint bar breakage. Current track inspection techniques rely on manual and visual inspection or on specially equipped testing carts, which are costly, timeconsuming, traffic disturbing, and prone to human error. To overcome the aforementioned limitations, the feasibility of utilizing impedance-based structural health monitoring for insulated rail joints is investigated in this work. For this purpose, an insulated joint, provided by Koppers Inc., is instrumented with piezoelectric transducers and assembled with 136 AREA rail plugs. The instrumented joint is then installed and tested at the Facility for Accelerated Service Testing, Transportation Technology Center Inc. The effects of environmental and operating conditions on the measured impedance signatures are investigated through a set of experiments conducted at different temperatures and loading conditions. The capabilities of impedance-based SHM to detect several joint-related damage types are also studied by introducing reversible mechanical defects to different joint components.

  17. Study and evaluation of the Siemens virtual wedge factor: dosimetric monitor system and variable field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendon Rio, J R Sendon; Martinez, C Otero; GarcIa, M Sanchez; Busto, R Lobato; Vega, V Luna; Sueiro, J Mosquera; Camean, M Pombar [Servizo de Radiofisica e Proteccion Radioloxica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain)], E-mail: jose.ramon.sendon.del.rio@sergas.es

    2008-03-07

    In the year 1997 Siemens introduced the virtual wedge in its accelerators. The idea was that a dose profile similar to that of a physical wedge can be obtained by moving one of the accelerator jaws at a constant speed while the dose rate is changing. This work explores the observed behaviour of virtual wedge factors. A model is suggested which takes into account that at any point in time, when the jaw moves, the dose at a point of interest in the phantom is not only due to the direct beam. It also depends on the scattered radiation in the phantom, the head scatter and the behaviour of the monitoring system of the accelerator. Measurements are performed in a Siemens Primus accelerator and compared to the model predictions. It is shown that the model agrees reasonably well with measurements spanning a wide range of conditions. A strong dependence of virtual wedge factors on the dosimetric board has been confirmed and an explanation has been given on how the balance between different contributions is responsible for virtual wedge factors values.

  18. Assessing Methods for Mapping 2D Field Concentrations of CO2 Over Large Spatial Areas for Monitoring Time Varying Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccheo, T. S.; Pernini, T.; Botos, C.; Dobler, J. T.; Blume, N.; Braun, M.; Levine, Z. H.; Pintar, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a methodology for constructing 2D estimates of CO2 field concentrations from integrated open path measurements of CO2 concentrations. It provides a description of the methodology, an assessment based on simulated data and results from preliminary field trials. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE) system, currently under development by Exelis and AER, consists of a set of laser-based transceivers and a number of retro-reflectors coupled with a cloud-based compute environment to enable real-time monitoring of integrated CO2 path concentrations, and provides 2D maps of estimated concentrations over an extended area of interest. The GreenLITE transceiver-reflector pairs provide laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) measurements of differential absorption due to CO2 along intersecting chords within the field of interest. These differential absorption values for the intersecting chords of horizontal path are not only used to construct estimated values of integrated concentration, but also employed in an optimal estimation technique to derive 2D maps of underlying concentration fields. This optimal estimation technique combines these sparse data with in situ measurements of wind speed/direction and an analytic plume model to provide tomographic-like reconstruction of the field of interest. This work provides an assessment of this reconstruction method and preliminary results from the Fall 2014 testing at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, Montana. This work is funded in part under the GreenLITE program developed under a cooperative agreement between Exelis and the National Energy and Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the Department of Energy (DOE), contract # DE-FE0012574. Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. is a major partner in this development.

  19. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  20. Field experience with a novel pipe protection and monitoring system for large offshore pipeline construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerstaedt, Michael; Blitz, Gunther [ROSEN Swiss AG, Stans (Switzerland); Sabido, Carlos E. [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For pipe joints stored during large-scale offshore pipeline construction projects, corrosion protection as well as protection from physical damage of pipelines is very important. Integrity Management does not just start with the operation of a pipeline. In the past, with the much lower risks and cost at stake in on shore constriction, this factor was often overlooked. Sometimes, newly laid pipelines failed upon hydrostatic testing or even during operation. Causes were corrosion or damage the pipe joints took before pipeline laying. For offshore projects, the cost and consequences associated with such failures are orders of magnitude higher and must be avoided by all means. Within six months from the conception of the idea, a system was developed and deployed that protected (and in part still protects) a large number of pipe joints used in a European offshore gas pipeline project more than 2000 km. The pipe joints were physically protected from corrosion, interior contamination, and condensation. At the same time, the system provided real-time monitoring of more than 100'000 pipe joints stored at 5 storage yards distributed over 3 countries with distances of more than 1200 km apart from each other. Every single joint was identified with its location and status at every time during the storage period. Any third-party interference was transmitted to a central control room in real time as well. Protection of the pipe joints was provided vs.: corrosion of pipe joint end cutbacks exposed to the maritime climate for up to 2 years; contamination of the pipe interior by: foreign material, dirt, water, ice, animals. Third party damage to the pipe joints; damage to the protection system or to the transmission network; fire; theft of pipe joints or other equipment. System features were: modular pipe caps that, protect the pipe interior, cover both inner and outer cutback, allow ventilation of the pipe interior, continuously monitor each pipe joint for third party damage

  1. Monitoring hydrogeochemical interactions in coastal mangroves in Everglades National Park using field spectroscopy and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Price, R. M.; Campbell, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal tropical and subtropical environments, where there are distinct seasonal shifts in precipitation, can be highly susceptible to environmental changes caused by increasing anthropogenic pressure (e.g., urbanization, deforestation) in addition to natural "press and pulse" events, such as sea-level rise, tropical storms, and a changing climate. These man-made and natural perturbations directly affect the quality and quantity of water flowing through the ecosystem, both on the surface and subsurface. Changes in groundwater and surface water interactions will impact ecological communities, including highly vulnerable coastal mangrove communities. Nearly 1,445 km2 of mangroves cover Everglades National Park along the southern and southwestern coast of Florida. Rising sea levels, a predicted drier climate, and increased water demand may accelerate the landward migration of salt water intrusion which poses threats to the ecological communities along this coastal ecotone. This is a growing concern for the region and it is necessary that we understand the present hydrogeologic conditions to better monitor and model the future and inevitable changes to the coastal environment. The purpose of this preliminary study was to test the feasibility of measuring water quality indirectly from the spectral responses of mangrove vegetation on a regional scale. Spectra-derived biophysical indices were used to assess various relationships between the spectral signatures of the 3 main mangrove species (i.e., Avicennia germinans, Rhizophora mangle, and Laguncularia racemosa) and the ionic and nutrient concentrations in the porewater (i.e., 20cm and 100cm depths), surface water, and groundwater of the mangrove ecotone. Water samples from these sources were collected during the dry season, a transitional period, and the wet season at three sites in large, high-biomass mangroves along Shark River and two sites in dwarf, low-biomass, mangroves along Taylor River. Water samples were

  2. Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, I.H.; Farooq, M.; Tasneem, M.A.; Rafiq, M.; Din, U.G.; Gul, S.

    2002-03-01

    Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

  3. Peptide self-association in aqueous trifluoroethanol monitored by pulsed field gradient NMR diffusion measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Shenggen [Biomolecular Research Institute (Australia); Howlett, Geoffrey J. [University of Melbourne, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Australia); Norton, Raymond S. [Biomolecular Research Institute (Australia)

    2000-02-15

    Defining the self-association state of a molecule in solution can be an important step in NMR-based structure determination. This is particularly true of peptides, where there can be a relatively small number of long-range interactions and misinterpretation of an intermolecular NOE as an intramolecular contact can have a dramatic influence on the final calculated structure. In this paper, we have investigated the use of translational self-diffusion coefficient measurements to detect self-association in aqueous trifluoroethanol of three peptides which are analogues of the C-terminal region of human neuropeptide Y. Experimentally measured diffusion coefficients were extrapolated to D{sup 0}, the limiting value as the peptide concentration approaches zero, and then converted to D{sub 20,w}, the diffusion coefficient after correction for temperature and the viscosity of the solvent. A decrease in D{sub 20,w} of about 16% was found for all three peptides in aqueous TFE (30% by volume) compared with water, which is in reasonable agreement with the expected decrease upon dimerisation, the presence of which was indicated by sedimentation equilibrium measurements. Apparent molecular masses of these peptides in both solutions were also calculated from their diffusion coefficients and similar results were obtained. Several potential internal standards, including acetone, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide and dioxane, were assessed as monitors of solution viscosity over a range of trifluoroethanol concentrations. Compared with independent measurements of viscosity, acetonitrile was the most accurate standard among these four. The practical limitations of a quantitative assessment of peptide self-association from translational diffusion coefficients measured by PFGNMR, including the calculation of apparent molecular mass, are also discussed.

  4. Assessing Static Performance of the Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge by Monitoring the Correlation between Temperature Field and Its Static Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the structural health monitoring system installed on the steel truss arch girder of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the temperature field data and static strain data are collected and analyzed for the static performance assessment of the bridge. Through analysis, it is found that the static strain changes are mainly caused by temperature field (temperature and temperature difference and train. After the train-induced static strains are removed, the correlation between the remaining static strains and the temperature field shows apparent linear characteristics, which can be mathematically modeled for the description of static performance. Therefore, multivariate linear regression function combined with principal component analysis is introduced to mathematically model the correlation. Furthermore, the residual static strains of mathematical model are adopted as assessment indicator and three kinds of degradation regulations of static performance are obtained after simulation of the residual static strains. Finally, it is concluded that the static performance of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge was in a good condition during that period.

  5. Monitoring and modelling of white dwarfs with extremely weak magnetic fields. WD 2047+372 and WD 2359-434

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.; Valyavin, G.; Valeev, A. F.

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic fields are detected in a few percent of white dwarfs. The number of such magnetic white dwarfs known is now some hundreds. Fields range in strength from a few kG to several hundred MG. Almost all the known magnetic white dwarfs have a mean field modulus ≥1 MG. We are trying to fill a major gap in observational knowledge at the low field limit (≤200 kG) using circular spectro-polarimetry. In this paper we report the discovery and monitoring of strong, periodic magnetic variability in two previously discovered "super-weak field" magnetic white dwarfs, WD 2047+372 and WD 2359-434. WD 2047+372 has a mean longitudinal field that reverses between about -12 and + 15 kG, with a period of 0.243 d, while its mean field modulus appears nearly constant at 60 kG. The observations can be interpreted in terms of a dipolar field tilted with respect to the stellar rotation axis. WD 2359-434 always shows a weak positive longitudinal field with values between about 0 and + 12 kG, varying only weakly with stellar rotation, while the mean field modulus varies between about 50 and 100 kG. The rotation period is found to be 0.112 d using the variable shape of the Hα line core, consistent with available photometry. The field of this star appears to be much more complex than a dipole, and is probably not axisymmetric. Available photometry shows that WD 2359-434 is a light variable with an amplitude of only 0.005 mag; our own photometry shows that if WD 2047+372 is photometrically variable, the amplitude is below about 0.01 mag. These are the first models for magnetic white dwarfs with fields below about 100 kG based on magnetic measurements through the full stellar rotation. They reveal two very different magnetic surface configurations, and that, contrary to simple ohmic decay theory, WD 2359-434 has a much more complex surface field than the much younger WD 2047+372. Based, in part, on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the

  6. Improved UTE-based attenuation correction for cranial PET-MR using dynamic magnetic field monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, A. P.; Giese, D.; Tsoumpas, C.; Schleyer, P.; Kozerke, S.; Prieto, C.; Schaeffter, T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI has been proposed as a way to produce segmented attenuation maps for PET, as it provides contrast between bone, air, and soft tissue. However, UTE sequences require samples to be acquired during rapidly changing gradient fields, which makes the resulting images prone to eddy current artifacts. In this work it is demonstrated that this can lead to misclassification of tissues in segmented attenuation maps (AC maps) and that these effects can be corrected for by measuring the true k-space trajectories using a magnetic field camera. Methods: The k-space trajectories during a dual echo UTE sequence were measured using a dynamic magnetic field camera. UTE images were reconstructed using nominal trajectories and again using the measured trajectories. A numerical phantom was used to demonstrate the effect of reconstructing with incorrect trajectories. Images of an ovine leg phantom were reconstructed and segmented and the resulting attenuation maps were compared to a segmented map derived from a CT scan of the same phantom, using the Dice similarity measure. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated inin vivo cranial imaging in five healthy volunteers. Simulated PET data were generated for one volunteer to show the impact of misclassifications on the PET reconstruction. Results: Images of the numerical phantom exhibited blurring and edge artifacts on the bone–tissue and air–tissue interfaces when nominal k-space trajectories were used, leading to misclassification of soft tissue as bone and misclassification of bone as air. Images of the tissue phantom and thein vivo cranial images exhibited the same artifacts. The artifacts were greatly reduced when the measured trajectories were used. For the tissue phantom, the Dice coefficient for bone in MR relative to CT was 0.616 using the nominal trajectories and 0.814 using the measured trajectories. The Dice coefficients for soft tissue were 0.933 and 0.934 for the

  7. Dependence of Magnetic Field Quality on Collar Supplier and Dimensions in the Main LHC Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Santoni, C; Todesco, E

    2006-01-01

    In order to keep the electro-magnetic forces and to minimize conductor movements, the superconducting coils of the main Large Hadron Collider dipoles are held in place by means of austenitic steel collars. Two suppliers provide the collars necessary for the whole LHC production, which has now reached more than 800 collared coils. In this paper we first assess if the different collar suppliers origin a noticeable difference in the magnetic field quality measured at room temperature. We then analyze the measurements of the collar dimensions carried out at the manufacturers, comparing them to the geometrical tolerances. Finally we use a magneto-static model to evaluate the expected spread in the field components induced by the actual collar dimensions. These spreads are compared to the magnetic measurements at room temperature over the magnet production in order to identify if the collars, rather than other components or assembly process, can account for the measured magnetic field effects. It has been found tha...

  8. Osmotic dehydration of organic kiwifruit pre-treated by pulsed electric fields and monitored by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traffano-Schiffo, Maria Victoria; Laghi, Luca; Castro-Giraldez, Marta; Tylewicz, Urszula; Rocculi, Pietro; Ragni, Luigi; Dalla Rosa, Marco; Fito, Pedro J

    2017-12-01

    Osmotic dehydration (OD) is a widely used preservation technique that consists in the reduction in food water activity by the immersion of the biological tissue in hypertonic solutions. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) in mass transfer as a pre-treatment of the OD using NMR. In this sense, PEF pre-treatments were done using three different voltages (100, 250 and 400V/cm) and 60 number of pulse. The OD of kiwifruit was carried out in 61.5% of sucrose solution at 25°C, for a contact period from 0 to 120min. The water distribution into the cellular tissue was studied by NMR relaxometry. In conclusion, NMR is an excellent technique for quantifying water molecules according to their interactions in the fruit tissue, obtaining the adsorbed water and opening the possibility to apply the BET model to fit the adsorbed isotherm over the whole range of water activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wireless Fidelity Electromagnetic Field Exposure Monitoring With Wearable Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutere, Jeroen; Thielens, Arno; Agneessens, Sam; Rogier, Hendrik; Joseph, Wout; Puers, Robert

    2016-06-01

    With the breakthrough of the Internet of Things and the steady increase of wireless applications in the daily environment, the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure is key in determining possible health effects of exposure to certain levels of RF-EMF. This paper presents the first experimental validation of a novel personal exposimeter system based on a distributed measurement approach to achieve higher measurement quality and lower measurement variability than the commonly used single point measurement approach of existing exposimeters. An important feature of the system is the integration of inertial sensors in order to determine activity and posture during exposure measurements. The system is designed to assess exposure to frequencies within the 389 to 464, 779 to 928 and 2400 to 2483.5 MHz bands using only two transceivers per node. In this study, the 2400 to 2483.5 MHz band is validated. Every node provides antenna diversity for the different bands in order to achieve higher sensitivity at these frequencies. Two AAA batteries power each standalone node and as such determine the node hardware size of this proof of concept (53 mm×25 mm×15 mm) , making it smaller than any other commercially available exposimeter.

  10. Field desorption mass spectroscopy monitoring of changes in hydrocarbon type composition during petroleum biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesemann, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive petroleum hydrocarbon characterization procedure involving group type separation, boiling point distribution, and hydrocarbon typing by field desorption mass spectroscopy (FDMS) has been developed to quantify changes in hydrocarbon type composition during bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils. FDMS is able to quantify the concentration of hundreds of specific hydrocarbon types based on their respective hydrogen deficiency (z-number) and molecular weight (carbon number). Analytical results from two bioremediation experiments involving soil contaminated with crude oil and motor oil indicate that alkanes and two-ring saturates (naphthenes) were readily biodegradable. In addition, low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons generally were biodegraded to a larger extent than those of high molecular weight. More importantly, it was found that the extent of biodegradation of specific hydrocarbon types was comparable between treatments and appeared to be unaffected by the petroleum contaminant source, soil type, or experimental conditions. It was therefore concluded that in these studies the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) biodegradation is primarily affected by the molecular composition of the petroleum hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil

  11. Monitoring soil moisture dynamics via ground-penetrating radar survey of agriculture fields after irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is possible to examine the quality of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a measure of soil moisture content in the shallow vadose zone, where roots are most abundant and water conservation best management practices are critical in active agricultural fields. By analyzing temporal samplings of 100 Mhz reflection profiles and common-midpoint (CMP) soundings over a full growing season, the variability of vertical soil moisture distribution directly after irrigation events are characterized throughout the lifecycle of a production crop. Reflection profiles produce high-resolution travel time data and summed results of CMP sounding data provide sampling depth estimates for the weak, but coherent reflections amid strong point scatterers. The high ratio of clay in the soil limits the resolution of downward propagation of infiltrating moisture after irrigation; synthetic data analysis compared against soil moisture lysimeter logs throughout the profile allow identification of the discrete soil moisture content variation in the measured GPR data. The nature of short duration irrigation events, evapotranspiration, and drainage behavior in relation to root depths observed in the GPR temporal data allow further examination and comparison with the variable saturation model HYDRUS-1D. After retrieving soil hydraulic properties derived from laboratory measured soil samples and simplified assumptions about boundary conditions, the project aims to achieve good agreement between simulated and measured soil moisture profiles without the need for excessive model calibration for GPR-derived soil moisture estimates in an agricultural setting.

  12. Characterization of thermal neutron fields for calibration of neutron monitors in accordance with great equivalent dose environment H⁎(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Larissa P. S. da; Silva, Felipe S.; Fonseca, Evaldo S.; Patrao, Karla C.S.; Pereira, Walsan W.

    2017-01-01

    The Laboratório Brasileiro de Nêutrons do Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN) has developed and built a thermal neutron flux facility to provide neutron fluence for dosimeters (Astuto, 2014). This fluency is obtained by four 16 Ci sources 241 AmBe (α, n) positioned around the channel positioned in the center of the Thermal Flow Unit (UFT). The UFT was built with blocks of paraffin with graphite addition and graphite blocks of high purity to obtain a central field with a homogeneous thermal neutron fluence for calibration purposes with the following measurements: 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.2 m 3 . The objective of this work is to characterize several points, in the thermal energy range, in terms of the equivalent ambient dose quantity H⁎(10) for calibration and irradiation of monitors neutrons

  13. Field experience with advanced methods of on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion degradation in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellwag, B.; Aaltonen, P.; Hickling, J.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced methods for on-line, in-situ water chemistry and corrosion monitoring in nuclear power stations have been developed during the past decade. The terms ''on-line'' and ''in-situ'' characterize approaches involving continuous measurement of relevant parameters in high temperature water, preferably directly in the systems and components and not in removed samples at room temperature. This paper describes the field experience to-date with such methods in terms of three examples: (1) On-line chemistry monitoring of the primary coolant during shutdown of a Type WWER-440 PWR. (2) Redox and corrosion potential measurements in final feedwater preheaters and steam generators of two large KWU PWRs over several cycles of plant operation. (3) Real-time, in-situ corrosion surveillance inside the calundia vault of a CANDU reactor. The way in which water chemistry sensors and corrosion monitoring sensors complement each other is outlined: on-line, in-situ measurement of pH, conductivity and redox potential gives information about the possible corrosivity of the environment. Electrochemical noise techniques display signals of corrosion activity under the actual environmental conditions. A common experience gained from separate use of these different types of sensors has been that new and additional information about plants and their actual process conditions is obtained. Moreover, they reveal the intimate relationship between the operational situation and its consequences for the quality of the working fluid and the corrosion behaviour of the plant materials. On this basis, the efficiency of the existing chemistry sampling and control system can be checked and corrosion degradation can be minimized. Furthermore, activity buildup in the primary circuit can be studied. Further significant advantages can be expected from an integration of these various types of sensors into a common water chemistry and corrosion surveillance system. For confirmation, a complete set of sensors

  14. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  15. Field experience with advanced methods of on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion degradation in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellwag, B [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Aaltonen, P [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hickling, J [CML GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Advanced methods for on-line, in-situ water chemistry and corrosion monitoring in nuclear power stations have been developed during the past decade. The terms ``on-line`` and ``in-situ`` characterize approaches involving continuous measurement of relevant parameters in high temperature water, preferably directly in the systems and components and not in removed samples at room temperature. This paper describes the field experience to-date with such methods in terms of three examples: (1) On-line chemistry monitoring of the primary coolant during shutdown of a Type WWER-440 PWR. (2) Redox and corrosion potential measurements in final feedwater preheaters and steam generators of two large KWU PWRs over several cycles of plant operation. (3) Real-time, in-situ corrosion surveillance inside the calundia vault of a CANDU reactor. The way in which water chemistry sensors and corrosion monitoring sensors complement each other is outlined: on-line, in-situ measurement of pH, conductivity and redox potential gives information about the possible corrosivity of the environment. Electrochemical noise techniques display signals of corrosion activity under the actual environmental conditions. A common experience gained from separate use of these different types of sensors has been that new and additional information about plants and their actual process conditions is obtained. Moreover, they reveal the intimate relationship between the operational situation and its consequences for the quality of the working fluid and the corrosion behaviour of the plant materials. On this basis, the efficiency of the existing chemistry sampling and control system can be checked and corrosion degradation can be minimized. Furthermore, activity buildup in the primary circuit can be studied. Further significant advantages can be expected from an integration of these various types of sensors into a common water chemistry and corrosion surveillance system. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Monitoring the Erosion of Hydrolytically-Degradable Nanogels via Multiangle Light Scattering Coupled to Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael H.; South, Antoinette B.; Gaulding, Jeffrey C.; Lyon, L. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of degradable nanogels that display bulk erosion under physiologic conditions (pH = 7.4, 37 °C). Erodible poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide) nanogels were synthesized by copolymerization with N,O-(dimethacryloyl)hydroxylamine, a cross-linker previously used in the preparation of non-toxic and biodegradable bulk hydrogels. To monitor particle degradation, we employed multiangle light scattering and differential refractometry detection following asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. This approach allowed the detection of changes in nanogel molar mass and topology as a function of both temperature and pH. Particle erosion was evident from both an increase in nanogel swelling and a decrease in scattering intensity as a function of time. Following these analyses, the samples were recovered for subsequent characterization by direct particle tracking, which yields hydrodynamic size measurements and enables number density determination. Additionally, we confirmed the conservation of nanogel stimuli-responsivity through turbidity measurements. Thus, we have demonstrated the synthesis of degradable nanogels that erode under conditions and on timescales that are relevant for many drug delivery applications. The combined separation and light scattering detection method is demonstrated to be a versatile means to monitor erosion and should also find applicability in the characterization of other degradable particle constructs. PMID:20000662

  17. Chemical and biological monitoring of MIOR on the pilot area of Vyngapour oil field, West Sibera, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arinbasarov, M.U.; Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The pilot area of the Vyngapour oil field allotted for MIOR tests contains three injection and three producing wells. These wells were treated in summer 1993 and 1994. Before, during, and after MIOR treatments on the pilot area the chemical compounds of injected and formation waters were studied, as well as the amount and species of microorganisms entering the stratum with the injected water and indigenous bacteria presented in bottomhole zones of the wells. The results of monitoring showed that the bottomhole zone of the injection well already had biocenosis of heterotrophic, hydrocarbon-oxidizing, methanogenic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were besides permanently introduced into the reservoir during the usual waterflooding. The nutritious composition activated vital functions of all bacterial species presented in the bottomhole zone of the injection well. The formation waters from producing wells showed the increase of the content of nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions by the end of MIOR. The amount of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria in formation waters of producing wells increased by one order. The chemical and biological monitoring revealed the activation of the formation microorganisms, but no transport of food industry waste bacteria through the formation from injection to producing wells was found.

  18. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  19. Monitoring and Analysis of Nonpoint Source Pollution - Case study on terraced paddy fields in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Yeh, Chun-Lin

    2013-04-01

    The intensive use of chemical fertilizer has negatively impacted environments in recent decades, mainly through water pollution by nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) originating from agricultural activities. As a main crop with the largest cultivation area about 0.25 million ha per year in Taiwan, rice paddies account for a significant share of fertilizer consumption among agriculture crops. This study evaluated the fertilization of paddy fields impacting return flow water quality in an agricultural watershed located at Hsinchu County, northern Taiwan. Water quality monitoring continued for two crop-periods in 2012, around subject to different water bodies, including the irrigation water, drainage water, and shallow groundwater. The results indicated that obviously increasing of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP concentrations in the surface drainage water were observed immediately following three times of fertilizer applications (including basal, tillering, and panicle fertilizer application), but reduced to relatively low concentrations after 7-10 days after each fertilizer application. Groundwater quality monitoring showed that the observation wells with the more shallow water depth, the more significant variation of concentrations of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP could be observed, which means that the contamination potential of nutrient of groundwater is related not only to the impermeable plow sole layer but also to the length of percolation route in this area. The study also showed that the potential pollution load of nutrient could be further reduced by well drainage water control and rational fertilizer management, such as deep-water irrigation, reuse of return flow, the rational application of fertilizers, and the SRI (The System of Rice Intensification) method. The results of this study can provide as an evaluation basis to formulate effective measures for agricultural non-point source pollution control and the reuse of agricultural return flow. Keywords

  20. Monitoring and Modeling Water and Energy Fluxes in North China Plain: From Field to Regional Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    North China Plain is one of the mostly water deficit region in the world. Even though the total water withdrawal from surface and groundwater exceeded its renewable ability for long years, due to its importance to balance the food budget in China, large amount of groundwater is still extracted every year for intensive irrigation. With winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping system, the grain yield of NCP can reach a very high level of around 15 t/ha annually, which is largely depended on timely irrigation. As a result, the ceaseless over exploitation of groundwater caused serious environmental and ecological problems, e.g. nearly all the rivers run drying-up at plain areas, groundwater declined, land subsidence, and wetland shrank. The decrease in precipitation over past half century reinforced the water shortage in NCP. The sustainability of both the water resources and agriculture became the most important issue in this region. A key issue to the sustainable use of water resources is to improve the water use efficiency and reduce agricultural water consumptions. This study will introduce the efforts we put to clarify the water and heat balances in irrigated agricultural lands and its implications to crop yield, hydrology, and water resources evolution in NCP. We established a multi-scale observation system in NCP to study the surface water and heat processes and agricultural aspect of hydrological cycle in past years. Multi-disciplinary methods are adopted into this research such as micro-meteorologic, isotopic, soil hydrologic methods at the field scale, and remote sensing and modeling for study the water fluxes over regional scale. Detailed research activities and interesting as well as some initial results will be introduced at the workshop.

  1. [Research on lateral shearing interferometer for field monitoring of natural gas pipeline leak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Feng; Gao, Yu-Bin

    2012-09-01

    Aimed at the mechanical scanning spectroscopy equipment with poor anti-interference and anti-jamming ability, which affects the accuracy of its natural gas pipeline leak detection in the wild, a new type of lateral shearing interferometer system was designed. The system uses a beam splitter to get optical path difference by a mechanical scanning part, and it cancel the introduction of external vibration interference through the linkage between the two beam splitterw. The interference intensity of interference fringes produced was calculated, and analysis of a rotating beam splitter corresponds to the angle of the optical path difference function, solving for the maximum angle of the forward rotation and reverse rotation, which is the maximum optical path range. Experiments using the gas tank deflated simulated natural gas pipeline leak process, in the interference conditions, and the test data of the type WQF530 spectrometer and the new type of lateral shearing interferometer system were comparedt. The experimental results show that the relative error of both systems is about 1% in indoor conditions without interference. However, in interference environment, the error of WQF530 type spectrometer becomes larger, more than 10%, but the error of the new type of lateral shearing interferometer system is still below 5%. The detection accuracy of the type WQF530 spectrometer decreased significantly due to the environment. Therefore, the seismic design of the system can effectively offset power deviation and half-width increases of center wavelength caused by external interference, and compared to conventional mechanical scanning interferometer devices the new system is more suitable for field detection.

  2. Cropland Field Monitoring: MMV Page 1 Montana Cropland Enrolled Farm Fields Carbon Sequestration Field Sampling, Measurement, Monitoring, and Verification: Application of Visible-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (VNIR) and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Spangler; Ross Bricklemyer; David Brown

    2012-03-15

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laboratory based soil characterization typically requires significant soil processing, which is time and resource intensive. This severely limits application for large-region soil characterization. Thus, development of rapid and accurate methods for characterizing soils are needed to map soil properties for precision agriculture applications, improve regional and global soil carbon (C) stock and flux estimates and efficiently map sub-surface metal contamination, among others. The greatest gains for efficient soil characterization will come from collecting soil data in situ, thus minimizing soil sample transportation, processing, and lab-based measurement costs. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are two complementary, yet fundamentally different spectroscopic techniques that have the potential to meet this need. These sensors have the potential to be mounted on a soil penetrometer and deployed for rapid soil profile characterization at field and landscape scales. Details of sensor interaction, efficient data management, and appropriate statistical analysis techniques for model calibrations are first needed. In situ or on-the-go VisNIR spectroscopy has been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive tool for intensively mapping soil texture and organic carbon (SOC). While lab-based VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for estimating various soil properties, few experiments have compared the predictive accuracy of on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Eight north central Montana wheat fields were intensively interrogated using on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Lab-based spectral data consistently provided more accurate predictions than on-the-go data. However, neither in situ

  3. Monitoring of interaction of low-frequency electric field with biological tissues upon optical clearing with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Adrián F; Doronin, Alexander; Tuchin, Valery V; Meglinski, Igor

    2014-08-01

    The influence of a low-frequency electric field applied to soft biological tissues ex vivo at normal conditions and upon the topical application of optical clearing agents has been studied by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The electro-kinetic response of tissues has been observed and quantitatively evaluated by the double correlation OCT approach, utilizing consistent application of an adaptive Wiener filtering and Fourier domain correlation algorithm. The results show that fluctuations, induced by the electric field within the biological tissues are exponentially increased in time. We demonstrate that in comparison to impedance measurements and the mapping of the temperature profile at the surface of the tissue samples, the double correlation OCT approach is much more sensitive to the changes associated with the tissues' electro-kinetic response. We also found that topical application of the optical clearing agent reduces the tissues' electro-kinetic response and is cooling the tissue, thus reducing the temperature induced by the electric current by a few degrees. We anticipate that dcOCT approach can find a new application in bioelectrical impedance analysis and monitoring of the electric properties of biological tissues, including the resistivity of high water content tissues and its variations.

  4. Noninvasive, three-dimensional full-field body sensor for surface deformation monitoring of human body in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; He, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jialin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jinlin

    2017-09-01

    Noninvasive, three-dimensional (3-D), full-field surface deformation measurements of the human body are important for biomedical investigations. We proposed a 3-D noninvasive, full-field body sensor based on stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) for surface deformation monitoring of the human body in vivo. First, by applying an improved water-transfer printing (WTP) technique to transfer optimized speckle patterns onto the skin, the body sensor was conveniently and harmlessly fabricated directly onto the human body. Then, stereo-DIC was used to achieve 3-D noncontact and noninvasive surface deformation measurements. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed body sensor were verified and discussed by considering different complexions. Moreover, the fabrication of speckle patterns on human skin, which has always been considered a challenging problem, was shown to be feasible, effective, and harmless as a result of the improved WTP technique. An application of the proposed stereo-DIC-based body sensor was demonstrated by measuring the pulse wave velocity of human carotid artery.

  5. Application of Double-Difference Seismic Tomography to Carbon Sequestration Monitoring at the Aneth Oil Field, Utah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Ripepi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA of sequestered CO2. A total of 1211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 23 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the likelihood of detecting a CO2 plume with an unfavorable event and receiver arrangement. In tests involving artificially modeled ray paths through a velocity model, ideal event and receiver arrangements clearly show velocity reductions. When incorporating the unfavorable event and station locations from the Aneth Unit into synthetic models, the ability to detect velocity reductions is greatly diminished. Using the actual, recorded travel times, the Aneth Unit results show differences between a synthetic baseline model and the travel times obtained in the field, but the differences do not clearly indicate a region of injected CO2. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage, and a more detailed baseline velocity model.

  6. Noninvasive, three-dimensional full-field body sensor for surface deformation monitoring of human body in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenning; Shao, Xinxing; He, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jialin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jinlin

    2017-09-01

    Noninvasive, three-dimensional (3-D), full-field surface deformation measurements of the human body are important for biomedical investigations. We proposed a 3-D noninvasive, full-field body sensor based on stereo digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) for surface deformation monitoring of the human body in vivo. First, by applying an improved water-transfer printing (WTP) technique to transfer optimized speckle patterns onto the skin, the body sensor was conveniently and harmlessly fabricated directly onto the human body. Then, stereo-DIC was used to achieve 3-D noncontact and noninvasive surface deformation measurements. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed body sensor were verified and discussed by considering different complexions. Moreover, the fabrication of speckle patterns on human skin, which has always been considered a challenging problem, was shown to be feasible, effective, and harmless as a result of the improved WTP technique. An application of the proposed stereo-DIC-based body sensor was demonstrated by measuring the pulse wave velocity of human carotid artery. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  7. A monitoring of superconducting magnets by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Harehiko; Tateishi, Hiroshi; Onishi, Toshitada

    1990-01-01

    Since superconducting magnets (SCM) are going to be indispensable to magnetic levitated train, nuclear fusion, magnetic resonating imaging, rotational machines, etc., they must be placed great reliance on its repetitional operations. But without appropriate evaluating methods, these promising techniques must remain still in science levels and hard to be transferable to real human technologies. SCM, being used under dynamical operation with linking other electro-magnetic systems as said above, induce high voltage from which monitoring superconducting to normal transitional voltage is difficult to distinguish. To solve this problem, monitoring SCM by Acoustic Emission (AE) from themselves, have been found effective, in particular, during the dynamical energizing of them. As for a demonstration, this paper will report mainly how to monitor 3 MJ-SCM and a few results of the experiments aquired both by counting and locational mode of AE in pulsed and repeated operations of the magnet. Some discussions on the AE monitorings are also made along the main issues to be solved in future. (author)

  8. Resistance monitoring and cross-resistance role of CYP6CW1 between buprofezin and pymetrozine in field populations of Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yueliang; Han, Yangchun; Liu, Baosheng; Yang, Qiong; Guo, Huifang; Liu, Zewen; Wang, Lihua; Fang, Jichao

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring resistance and investigating insecticide resistance mechanisms are necessary for controlling the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus. The susceptibility to four common insecticides of L. striatellus collected from Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang and Jilin provinces of China in 2015 was monitored. The results showed that all field populations remained susceptible to chlorpyrifos and thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RRs) of 2.3- to 9.5 and 1.6- to 3.3, respectively, while th...

  9. A field comparison of volatile organic compound measurements using passive organic vapor monitors and stainless steel canisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C; Bock, Don; Stock, Thomas H; Morandi, Maria; Adgate, John L; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Mongin, Steven J; Sexton, Ken

    2005-05-01

    Concurrent field measurements of 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made using passive diffusion-based organic vapor monitors (OVMs) and the U.S. Federal Reference Method, which comprises active monitoring with stainless steel canisters (CANs). Measurements were obtained throughout a range of weather conditions, repeatedly over the course of three seasons, and at three different locations in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Ambient concentrations of most VOCs as measured by both methods were low compared to those of other large metropolitan areas. For some VOCs a considerable fraction of measurements was below the detection limit of one or both methods. The observed differences between the two methods were similar across measurement sites, seasons, and meteorological variables. A Bayesian analysis with uniform priors on the differences was applied, with accommodation of sometimes heavy censoring (nondetection) in either device. The resulting estimates of bias and standard deviation of the OVM relative to the CAN were computed by tertile of the canister-measured concentration. In general, OVM and CAN measurements were in the best agreement for benzene and other aromatic compounds with hydrocarbon additions (ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes). The two methods were not in such good agreement for styrene and halogenated compounds (carbon tetrachloride, p-dichlorobenzene, methylene chloride, and trichloroethylene). OVMs slightly overestimated benzene concentrations and carbon tetrachloride at low concentrations, but in all other cases where significant differences were found, OVMs underestimated relative to canisters. Our study indicates that the two methods are in agreement for some compounds, but not all. We provide data and interpretation on the relative performance of the two VOC measurement methods, which facilitates intercomparisons among studies.

  10. Study of the thermo-electronic stability of LTS conductors and contribution to the study of the thermo-electric stability of HTS conductors. Novel techniques to simulate quench precursors in superconducting electro-magnets; Etude de la stabilite thermoelectronique des conducteurs supraconducteurs a basse temperature critique et contribution a l'etude de la stabilite thermoelectrique des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trillaud, F

    2005-09-01

    Most of this work deals with the development of new heater technology to simulate quench precursors in super-conducting electro-magnets. The carbon paste point heater and 2 alternative technologies have been used: induction coils and the diode laser. 2 main experimental setups with 2 different heaters have been used to study the stability of Cu/NbTi composite wires. The order of magnitude of the results obtained with the charged point heater and the diode laser is consistent. Our work covered both low critical temperature (LTS) conductors and high critical temperature (HTS) conductors. A large body of data has been gathered on quench energies and normal zone propagation velocities (NZPV). Concerning quench energy: LTS conductors appear largely more sensitive to heat disturbances than HTS conductors. NZPV enables one to define the criteria for which a magnet can be considered as self-protected. It is commonly assumed that, below 1 m/s, active protection is necessary to ensure safe quenches. This is the case for HTS conductors whose NZPV is of the order of a few centimeters per seconds, at most. However, the NZPVs of LTS conductors are above a few meters per seconds. While HTS conductors can suffer from local hot spots which diffuse slowly resulting in damaging overheating, LTS conductors spread the normal zone quickly enough owing to their good thermal conductivity to minimize local overheating. In addition, this gives enough time to dump the energy of the magnet. This work clears a new path to carry out accurate and reproducible experiment on superconductors. It demonstrates the powerfulness of diode laser technology for stability studies. Numerical simulations of the thermal behaviour of a Cu/NbTi multi-filament composite wire have been performed, they are based on a simplified transient liquid helium heat exchange model. This model appears to be not accurate enough to simulate the early time evolution of the voltage between the current sharing temperature and the

  11. Study of the thermo-electronic stability of LTS conductors and contribution to the study of the thermo-electric stability of HTS conductors. Novel techniques to simulate quench precursors in superconducting electro-magnets; Etude de la stabilite thermoelectronique des conducteurs supraconducteurs a basse temperature critique et contribution a l'etude de la stabilite thermoelectrique des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trillaud, F

    2005-09-01

    Most of this work deals with the development of new heater technology to simulate quench precursors in super-conducting electro-magnets. The carbon paste point heater and 2 alternative technologies have been used: induction coils and the diode laser. 2 main experimental setups with 2 different heaters have been used to study the stability of Cu/NbTi composite wires. The order of magnitude of the results obtained with the charged point heater and the diode laser is consistent. Our work covered both low critical temperature (LTS) conductors and high critical temperature (HTS) conductors. A large body of data has been gathered on quench energies and normal zone propagation velocities (NZPV). Concerning quench energy: LTS conductors appear largely more sensitive to heat disturbances than HTS conductors. NZPV enables one to define the criteria for which a magnet can be considered as self-protected. It is commonly assumed that, below 1 m/s, active protection is necessary to ensure safe quenches. This is the case for HTS conductors whose NZPV is of the order of a few centimeters per seconds, at most. However, the NZPVs of LTS conductors are above a few meters per seconds. While HTS conductors can suffer from local hot spots which diffuse slowly resulting in damaging overheating, LTS conductors spread the normal zone quickly enough owing to their good thermal conductivity to minimize local overheating. In addition, this gives enough time to dump the energy of the magnet. This work clears a new path to carry out accurate and reproducible experiment on superconductors. It demonstrates the powerfulness of diode laser technology for stability studies. Numerical simulations of the thermal behaviour of a Cu/NbTi multi-filament composite wire have been performed, they are based on a simplified transient liquid helium heat exchange model. This model appears to be not accurate enough to simulate the early time evolution of the voltage between the current sharing temperature and the

  12. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  13. Isothermal amplification of environmental DNA (eDNA for direct field-based monitoring and laboratory confirmation of Dreissena sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie R Williams

    portable device (Gene-Z showed the method could be used in the field to obtain results within one hr (from sample to result. Overall, the direct amplification has the potential to simplify the eDNA-based monitoring of multiple aquatic invasive species. Additional studies are warranted to establish quantitative correlation between eDNA copy number, veliger, biomass or organismal abundance in the field.

  14. Monitoring Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Western Pacific Using Satellite Remote Sensing Integrated with Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, C. M.; Phinn, S. R.; Lyons, M. B.; Kovacs, E.; Saunders, M. I.; Leon, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) are typically found in highly dynamic environments where the magnitude and types of physical and biological processes controlling their distribution, diversity and function changes dramatically. Recent advances in the types of satellite image data and the length of their archives that are available globally, coupled with new techniques for extracting environmental information from these data sets has enabled significant advances to be made in our ability to map and monitor coral and SAV environments. Object Based Image Analysis techniques are one of the most significant advances in information extraction techniques for processing images to deliver environmental information at multiple spatial scales. This poster demonstrates OBIA applied to high spatial resolution satellite image data to map and monitor coral and SAV communities across a variety of environments in the Western Pacific that vary in their extent, biological composition, forcing physical factors and location. High spatial resolution satellite imagery (Quickbird, Ikonos and Worldview2) were acquired coincident with field surveys on each reef to collect georeferenced benthic photo transects, over various areas in the Western Pacific. Base line maps were created, from Roviana Lagoon Solomon island (600 km2), Bikini Atoll Marshall Island (800 Km2), Lizard Island, Australia (30 km2) and time series maps for geomorphic and benthic communities were collected for Heron Reef, Australia (24 km2) and Eastern Banks area of Moreton Bay, Australia (200 km2). The satellite image data were corrected for radiometric and atmospheric distortions to at-surface reflectance. Georeferenced benthic photos were acquired by divers or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, analysed for benthic cover composition, and used for calibration and validation purposes. Hierarchical mapping from: reef/non-reef (1000's - 10000's m); reef type (100's - 1000's m); 'geomorphic zone' (10's - 100's m); to

  15. Finite Element Modelling of a Field-Sensed Magnetic Suspended System for Accurate Proximity Measurement Based on a Sensor Fusion Algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Amor; Sarjaš, Andrej

    2016-09-15

    The presented paper describes accurate distance measurement for a field-sensed magnetic suspension system. The proximity measurement is based on a Hall effect sensor. The proximity sensor is installed directly on the lower surface of the electro-magnet, which means that it is very sensitive to external magnetic influences and disturbances. External disturbances interfere with the information signal and reduce the usability and reliability of the proximity measurements and, consequently, the whole application operation. A sensor fusion algorithm is deployed for the aforementioned reasons. The sensor fusion algorithm is based on the Unscented Kalman Filter, where a nonlinear dynamic model was derived with the Finite Element Modelling approach. The advantage of such modelling is a more accurate dynamic model parameter estimation, especially in the case when the real structure, materials and dimensions of the real-time application are known. The novelty of the paper is the design of a compact electro-magnetic actuator with a built-in low cost proximity sensor for accurate proximity measurement of the magnetic object. The paper successively presents a modelling procedure with the finite element method, design and parameter settings of a sensor fusion algorithm with Unscented Kalman Filter and, finally, the implementation procedure and results of real-time operation.

  16. In situ monitoring the effects of a magnetic field on the open-circuit corrosion states of iron in acidic and neutral solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhanpeng; Yang Wu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a 0.4 T horizontal magnetic field (HMF) on the open-circuit corrosion states of iron in static aqueous solutions are studied by in situ monitoring the responses of two electrochemical parameters to the applied magnetic field, i.e. the open-circuit potential (OCP) and the current under potentiostatic polarization. The applied magnetic field makes the OCP shift in the noble direction. Withdrawing the magnetic field causes a negative shift of the OCP in acidic solutions, but it does not cause any significant change of OCP in neutral solutions. Imposing a magnetic field induces a cathodic current for iron that was previously potentiostatically polarized at the OCP without magnetic field. Withdrawing the magnetic field induces an anodic current for iron that was previously potentiostatically polarized at the OCP with the magnetic field. The magnetic field effect is more significant in the acid solutions than in the salt solutions. The magnetic field effects on the oxygen reduction and on the activation-controlled iron dissolution reaction are found to be insignificant. The magnetic field effect on the hydrogen reduction reaction on iron in acidic solutions is demonstrated. Results show the possibility that a magnetic field would affect the hydrogen evolution by enhancing the electron-transfer process that has been categorized in the classical electrochemistry kinetics to be the rate-determining process. The memory effect of the magnetic field on the electrochemical reaction is identified and discussed

  17. Electro-Magnetic Bunch Length Measurement in LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, L

    1998-01-01

    Bunch lengths between 3 and 12 mm have been measured routinely in LEP in 1997 with a small (7 mm diameter) button electrode. The measurement method is based on the spectral analysis of the electrode signal and relies on the fact that the transfer function of the complete set-up, including the signal cable, can be computed rather exactly thus eliminating the need for external calibration. The information of beam intensity is recovered as a by-product. It provides an interesting internal validation of the measurement by comparison with the normal intensity measurement. The system has been used to detect subtle but real bunch length changes with bunch intensity which can be attributed to the inductive impedance in LEP. A value for the imaginary (inductive) longitudinal impedance is derived from the observations. An indication for the resistive part of the impedance is given as well.

  18. Pressure control valve using proportional electro-magnetic solenoid actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, So Nam; Ham, Young Bog; Park, Pyoung Won

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental characteristics of electro-hydraulic proportional pressure control valve. In this study, poppet and valve body which are assembled into the proportional solenoid were designed and manufactured. The constant force characteristics of proportional solenoid actuator in the control region should be independent of the plunger position in order to be used to control the valve position in the fluid flow control system. The stroke-force characteristics of the proportional solenoid actuator is determined by the shape (or parameters) of the control cone. In this paper, steady state and transient characteristics of the solenoid actuator for electro-hydraulic proportional valve are analyzed using finite element method and it is confirmed that the proportional solenoid actuator has a constant attraction force in the control region independently on the stroke position. The effects of the parameters such as control cone length, thickness and taper length are also discussed

  19. Use of electro-magnetic damping for vibration control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, George Juraj; Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    to introduce additional electromagnetic damping into vibrating mechanical system. The hysteretic losses and eddy currents are included in the model, to take into account more realistic dynamic behaviour of the system. The mathematical model of the controller is derived using lumped parameter approach......Vibration of machines is an unwanted phenomenon, and it is usually of interest to eliminate it. There are various means to be used in order to reach the goal, where the utilization of the electromagnet augmented by an external shunt circuit is analyzed in the paper. The magnetic force is used...

  20. Electro-magnetic cascade calculation using EGS4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namito, Yoshihito; Hirayama, Hideo

    2001-01-01

    The outline of the general-purpose electron-photon transport code EGS4 (Electron-Gamma-Shower Version 4) is described. In section 1, the history of the electron photon Monte Carlo transport code toward EGS4 is described. In section 2, the features of the EGS4 and the physical processes treated, cross section preparation and language is explained. The upper energy limit of EGS4 is a few thousand GeV. The lower energy limit of EGS4 is 1 keV and 10 keV for photon and electron, respectively. In section 3, particle transport method in EGS4 code is discussed. The points are; condensed history method, continuous slowing down approximation and multiple scattering approximation. Order of the particle transport calculation is also mentioned. The switches to control scoring routine AUSGAB is listed. In section 4, the output from the code is described. In section 5, several benchmark calculations are described. (author)

  1. Field distributions and particle optics in main bending dipoles of Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The SNS accumulator ring employs 32 electro-magnetic dipoles to bend proton beams. The dipoles are typical sector magnets with relatively large aperture and short length. Thus, how to correctly treat magnetic fringe fields in the devices remains as a question. We have performed 3D computer simulations to study magnetic field distributions in the dipoles. Further, we have analyzed particle optics based on the space-dependent curvature and focusing functions in the magnets. The effect of magnetic fringe fields on the particle motion, especially the focusing/defocusing and dispersion, is investigated. The lens parameters, including the second-order aberrations, are derived and compared with the design hard-edge parameters used in the ring lattice calculations

  2. Addressing Common Student Technical Errors in Field Data Collection: An Analysis of a Citizen-Science Monitoring Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippoff, Joanna; Baumgartner, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The scientific value of citizen-science programs is limited when the data gathered are inconsistent, erroneous, or otherwise unusable. Long-term monitoring studies, such as Our Project In Hawai'i's Intertidal (OPIHI), have clear and consistent procedures and are thus a good model for evaluating the quality of participant data. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinds of errors made by student researchers during OPIHI data collection and factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of these errors. Twenty-four different types of errors were grouped into four broad error categories: missing data, sloppiness, methodological errors, and misidentification errors. "Sloppiness" was the most prevalent error type. Error rates decreased with field trip experience and student age. We suggest strategies to reduce data collection errors applicable to many types of citizen-science projects including emphasizing neat data collection, explicitly addressing and discussing the problems of falsifying data, emphasizing the importance of using standard scientific vocabulary, and giving participants multiple opportunities to practice to build their data collection techniques and skills.

  3. Field testing of particulate matter continuous emission monitors at the DOE Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator. Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James E; Davis, Wayne T; Calcagno, James A; Allen, Marshall W

    2002-01-01

    A field study to evaluate the performance of three commercially available particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitors (CEMs) was conducted in 1999-2000 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. This study offers unique features that are believed to enhance the collective US experience with PM CEMs. The TSCA Incinerator is permitted to treat PCB-contaminated RCRA hazardous low-level radioactive wastes. The air pollution control system utilizes MACT control technology and is comprised of a rapid quench, venturi scrubber, packed bed scrubber, and two ionizing wet scrubbers in series, which create a saturated flue gas that must be conditioned by the CEMs prior to measurement. The incinerator routinely treats a wide variety of wastes including high and low BTU organic liquids, aqueous, and solid wastes. The various possible combinations for treating liquid and solid wastes may present a challenge in establishing a single, acceptable correlation relationship for individual CEMs. The effect of low-level radioactive material present in the waste is a unique site-specific factor not evaluated in previous tests. The three systems chosen for evaluation were two beta gauge devices and a light scattering device. The performance of the CEMs was evaluated using the requirements in draft Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 11 (PS11) and Procedure 2. The results of Reference Method 5i stack tests for establishing statistical correlations between the reference method data and the CEMs responses are discussed.

  4. Addressing Common Student Technical Errors in Field Data Collection: An Analysis of a Citizen-Science Monitoring Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Philippoff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific value of citizen-science programs is limited when the data gathered are inconsistent, erroneous, or otherwise unusable. Long-term monitoring studies, such as Our Project In Hawai‘i's Intertidal (OPIHI, have clear and consistent procedures and are thus a good model for evaluating the quality of participant data. The purpose of this study was to examine the kinds of errors made by student researchers during OPIHI data collection and factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of these errors. Twenty-four different types of errors were grouped into four broad error categories: missing data, sloppiness, methodological errors, and misidentification errors. “Sloppiness” was the most prevalent error type. Error rates decreased with field trip experience and student age. We suggest strategies to reduce data collection errors applicable to many types of citizen-science projects including emphasizing neat data collection, explicitly addressing and discussing the problems of falsifying data, emphasizing the importance of using standard scientific vocabulary, and giving participants multiple opportunities to practice to build their data collection techniques and skills.

  5. Direct monitoring of erythrocytes aggregation under the effect of the low-intensity magnetic field by measuring light transmission at wavelength 800 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elblbesy, Mohamed A.

    2017-12-01

    Interacting electromagnetic field with the living organisms and cells became of the great interest in the last decade. Erythrocytes are the most common types of the blood cells and have unique rheological, electrical, and magnetic properties. Aggregation is one of the important characteristics of the erythrocytes which has a great impact in some clinical cases. The present study introduces a simple method to monitor the effect of static magnetic field on erythrocytes aggregation using light transmission. Features were extracted from the time course curve of the light transmission through the whole blood under different intensities of the magnetic field. The findings of this research showed that static magnetic field could influence the size and the rate of erythrocytes aggregation. The strong correlations confirmed these results between the static magnetic field intensity and both the time of aggregation and sedimentation of erythrocytes. From this study, it can be concluded that static magnetic field can be used to modify the mechanisms of erythrocytes aggregation.

  6. Water Quality Monitoring of an Urban Estuary and a Coastal Aquifer Using Field Kits and Meters: A Community-Based Environmental Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Zamora, Felix; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S.

    2017-01-01

    Water quality is an important interdisciplinary environmental topic for project-based learning. An undergraduate summer research internship program at a public minority serving institution engaged environmental science majors in community-based research experiences. The research focused on the field monitoring of water quality for surface water…

  7. Laboratory and field based evaluation of chromatography related performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in ambient Air (MARGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The semi-continuous Monitor for AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA) was evaluated using laboratory and field data with a focus on chromatography. The performance and accuracy assessment revealed various errors and uncertainties resulting from mis-identification and mis-int...

  8. Ant-App-DB: a smart solution for monitoring arthropods activities, experimental data management and solar calculations without GPS in behavioral field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Fleischmann, Pauline; Rössler, Wolfgang; Dandekar, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Field studies on arthropod ecology and behaviour require simple and robust monitoring tools, preferably with direct access to an integrated database. We have developed and here present a database tool allowing smart-phone based monitoring of arthropods. This smart phone application provides an easy solution to collect, manage and process the data in the field which has been a very difficult task for field biologists using traditional methods. To monitor our example species, the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis, we considered behavior, nest search runs, feeding habits and path segmentations including detailed information on solar position and azimuth calculation, ant orientation and time of day. For this we established a user friendly database system integrating the Ant-App-DB with a smart phone and tablet application, combining experimental data manipulation with data management and providing solar position and timing estimations without any GPS or GIS system. Moreover, the new desktop application Dataplus allows efficient data extraction and conversion from smart phone application to personal computers, for further ecological data analysis and sharing. All features, software code and database as well as Dataplus application are made available completely free of charge and sufficiently generic to be easily adapted to other field monitoring studies on arthropods or other migratory organisms. The software applications Ant-App-DB and Dataplus described here are developed using the Android SDK, Java, XML, C# and SQLite Database.

  9. Characterizing dust aerosols in the atmospheric boundary layer over the deserts in Northwest China: monitoring network and field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Matimin, A.; Yang, X.

    2016-12-01

    TheTaklimakan, Gurbantunggut and BadainJaran Deserts with the total area of 43.8×104 km2 in Northwest China are the major dust emission sources in Central Asia. Understanding Central Asian dust emissions and the interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer has an important implication for regional and global climate and environment changes. In order to explore these scientific issues, a monitoring network of 63 sites was established over the vast deserts (Taklimakan Desert, Gurbantunggut Desert and Badain Jaran Desert) in Northwest China for the comprehensive measurements of dust aerosol emission, transport and deposition as well as the atmospheric boundary layer including the meteorological parameters of boundary layer, surface radiation, surface heat fluxes, soil parameters, dust aerosol properties, water vapor profiles, and dust emission. Based on the monitoring network, the field experiments have been conducted to characterize dust aerosols and the atmospheric boundary layer over the deserts. The experiment observation indicated that depth of the convective boundary layer can reach 5000m on summer afternoons. In desert regions, the diurnal mean net radiation was effected significantly by dust weather, and sensible heat was much greater than latent heat accounting about 40-50% in the heat balance of desert. The surface soil and dust size distributions of Northwest China Deserts were obtained through widely collecting samples, results showed that the dominant dust particle size was PM100within 80m height, on average accounting for 60-80% of the samples, with 0.9-2.5% for PM0-2.5, 3.5-7.0% for PM0-10 and 5.0-14.0% for PM0-20. The time dust emission of Taklimakan Desert, Gurbantunggut Desert and Badain Jaran Desert accounted for 0.48%, 7.3%×10-5and 1.9% of the total time within a year, and the threshold friction velocity for dust emission were 0.22-1.06m/s, 0.29-1.5m/s and 0.21-0.59m/s, respectively.

  10. 100 MHz high-speed strain monitor using fiber Bragg grating and optical filter applied for magnetostriction measurements of cobaltite at magnetic fields beyond 100 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Akihiko; Nomura, Toshihiro; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Tani, Shuntaro; Kobayashi, Yohei; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sato, Keisuke

    2018-05-01

    High-speed 100 MHz strain monitor using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and an optical filter has been devised for the magnetostriction measurements under ultrahigh magnetic fields. The longitudinal magnetostriction of LaCoO 3 has been measured at room temperature, 115, 7 and 4.2 K up to the maximum magnetic field of 150 T. The field-induced lattice elongations are observed, which are attributed to the spin-state crossover from the low-spin ground state to excited spin-states.

  11. Alternating magnetic field losses in ATLAS type aluminium stabilized NbTi superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Boxman, E W; ten Kate, H H J

    2002-01-01

    During ramping up- and down of the current in large-scale magnets the ramp losses are an important factor affecting the thermal and electro-magnetic stability of the system. The calculation of the losses is not straightforward due to the large dimensions of the conductor (~600 mm/sup 2/) implying that diffusion effects have to be taken into account. The AC-losses of the Al stabilized NbTi cable conductors used in the ATLAS magnet system were measured in 0.5 m long samples, using an inductive method with pick-up coils as well as the calorimetric method. External varying magnetic fields up to 2 tesla amplitude were applied parallel and perpendicular to the conductor wide surface. The results are compared to theory. It is found that hysteresis loss, eddy current loss in the Aluminum cladding and cable-to-cladding coupling loss contribute most to the AC loss. (5 refs).

  12. Combining Field Monitoring with Remote Sensing to Reconstruct Historical Hydroperiod: a Case Study in a Degrading Tropical Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, A.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Wetland ecosystem structure and function are primarily governed by water regime. Characterizing past and current wetland hydrology is thus crucial for identifying the drivers of long-term wetland degradation. Critically, a lack of spatially distributed and long-term data has impeded such characterization in most wetland systems across the world. The publically accessible Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite products encode spatial and temporal data for landscape monitoring, but it was unclear whether it could be used to reliably predict the hydric status of wetland due to the mixture of spectral signatures existing within and between such systems. We proposed and tested a methodological framework for the identification of site-specific wetness status spectral identification rule (WSSIR) using two recent technical innovations: affordable, easily deployable field water level sensors to train the WSSIR with supervised learning, and the powerful cloud-based Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform to rapidly access and process the MODIS imagery. This methodological framework was used in a study case of the globally important Palo Verde National Park tropical wetland in Costa Rica. Results showed that a site-specific WISSR could reliably detect wetland wet or dry status (hydroperiod) and capture the temporal variability of the wetness status. We applied it on the 500 m 2000-2016 MODIS Land Surface Reflectance daily product to reconstruct hydroperiod history, hence reaching a temporal resolution rarely matched in remote sensing for environmental studies. The analysis of the resulting long-term, spatially distributed MODIS-derived data, coupled with shorter-term, 15-minute resolution field water level time-series provided new insights into the drivers controlling the spatiotemporal dynamics of hydrology within Palo Verde National Park's degrading wetlands. This new knowledge is critical to make informed restoration and management decisions

  13. 6LiF sandwich type detectors for low dose individual monitoring in mixed neutron-photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Bilski, P.; Burgkhardt, B.; Piesch, E.

    1994-01-01

    ICRP Publication 60 recommends the reduction of the annual dose limit for occupational exposure from 50 to 20 mSv and a doubling of the quality factor for medium energy neutrons. If occupational doses are evaluated every month (which is obligatory e.g. in Germany and in Poland), the individual neutron dosemeter will have to measure neutron doses in the range of 100 μSv. No commercially available, automatic individual dosimetry monitoring system exists that fulfils this requirement. Some of the parameters which influence the evaluation of the neutron dose from readings of TL dosemeters have been studied in order to decrease the variance of the measured neutron signal. In mixed neutron-photon fields, clear separation of the neutron component from the total reading depends also on the uncertainty of the gamma dose measurements. While the thermal albedo neutrons are absorbed mostly at the surface of the 6 LiF detector, the reduction of the detector thickness results in a decrease of its photon sensitivity, while its neutron sensitivity is almost principally maintained. As a consequence, the uncertainty of gamma dose contributes with lower weight to the variance of the evaluated neutron signal. First tests of an optimised 200 μm thick sandwich detector and 0.9 mm thick standard LiF chips were made at low neutron and photon dose ranges using different readers, in order to determine the uncertainty versus dose for different neutron-photon combinations. The conditions under which the new sandwich type detectors may improve albedo neutron dosimetry are demonstrated. (Author)

  14. Characteristic and magnetic field analysis of a high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless induction maglev motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qin; Yu, Fan; Jin, Fang; Shuo, Li; Guoguo, Li; Gang, Lv

    2012-04-01

    A new high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless maglev motor (HTS AFIM) is proposed, of which the primary windings are made of HTS tapes and the secondary is a non-magnetic conductor. The main works of this paper are the magnetic-field computation and characteristics analysis of HTS AFIM. For the first one, the reduction of magnetic fields near outer and inner radius of the HTS AFIM is solved by introducing the sub-loop electro-magnetic model along the radial position. For the second one, the AC losses of HTS coils are calculated. The relationships between the device's characteristics and device parameters are presented, and the results indicate that under certain frequency and current levitation device can output enough lift force. The conclusions are verified by finite element calculations.

  15. Design and development of a highly sensitive, field portable plasma source instrument for on-line liquid stream monitoring and real-time sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Yixiang; Su, Yongxuan; Jin, Zhe; Abeln, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a highly sensitive, field portable, low-powered instrument for on-site, real-time liquid waste stream monitoring is described in this article. A series of factors such as system sensitivity and portability, plasma source, sample introduction, desolvation system, power supply, and the instrument configuration, were carefully considered in the design of the portable instrument. A newly designed, miniature, modified microwave plasma source was selected as the emission source for spectroscopy measurement, and an integrated small spectrometer with a charge-coupled device detector was installed for signal processing and detection. An innovative beam collection system with optical fibers was designed and used for emission signal collection. Microwave plasma can be sustained with various gases at relatively low power, and it possesses high detection capabilities for both metal and nonmetal pollutants, making it desirable to use for on-site, real-time, liquid waste stream monitoring. An effective in situ sampling system was coupled with a high efficiency desolvation device for direct-sampling liquid samples into the plasma. A portable computer control system is used for data processing. The new, integrated instrument can be easily used for on-site, real-time monitoring in the field. The system possesses a series of advantages, including high sensitivity for metal and nonmetal elements; in situ sampling; compact structure; low cost; and ease of operation and handling. These advantages will significantly overcome the limitations of previous monitoring techniques and make great contributions to environmental restoration and monitoring. (c)

  16. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H G; Lopes, I

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  17. A Model for Field Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) within the Domain of Microclimate Habitat Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) represent a class of miniaturized information systems designed to monitor physical environments. These smart monitoring systems form collaborative networks utilizing autonomous sensing, data-collection, and processing to provide real-time analytics of observed environments. As a fundamental research area in…

  18. Long-term monitoring FBG-based cable load sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Chuan; Ou, Jinping

    2006-03-01

    Stay cables are the main load-bearing components of stayed-cable bridges. The cables stress status is an important factor to the stayed-cable bridge structure safety evaluation. So it's very important not only to the bridge construction, but also to the long-term safety evaluation for the bridge structure in-service. The accurate measurement for cable load depends on an effective sensor, especially to meet the long time durability and measurement demand. FBG, for its great advantage of corrosion resistance, absolute measurement, high accuracy, electro-magnetic resistance, quasi-distribution sensing, absolute measurement and so on, is the most promising sensor, which can cater for the cable force monitoring. In this paper, a load sensor has been developed, which is made up of a bushing elastic supporting body, 4 FBGs uniformly-spaced attached outside of the bushing supporting body, and a temperature compensation FBG for other four FBGs, moreover a cover for protection of FBGs. Firstly, the sensor measuring principle is analyzed, and relationship equation of FBG wavelength shifts and extrinsic load has also been gotten. And then the sensor calibration experiments of a steel cable stretching test with the FBG load sensor and a reference electric pressure sensor is finished, and the results shows excellent linearity of extrinsic load and FBG wavelength shifts, and good repeatability, which indicates that such kind of FBG-based load sensor is suitable for load measurement, especially for long-term, real time monitoring of stay-cables.

  19. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Assisted in vitro Electroporation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Lastauskienė, Eglė; Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Pamedytytė, Dovilė; Kalėdienė, Lilija; Novickij, Jurij; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-09-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon occurring due to exposure of cells to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) which leads to increase of membrane permeability. Electroporation is used in medicine, biotechnology, and food processing. Recently, as an alternative to electroporation by PEF, Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields (PEMF) application causing similar biological effects was suggested. Since induced electric field in PEMF however is 2-3 magnitudes lower than in PEF electroporation, the membrane permeabilization mechanism remains hypothetical. We have designed pilot experiments where Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida lusitaniae cells were subjected to single 100-250 μs electrical pulse of 800 V with and without concomitant delivery of magnetic pulse (3, 6 and 9 T). As expected, after the PEF pulses only the number of Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent cells has increased, indicative of membrane permeabilization. We further show that single sub-millisecond magnetic field pulse did not cause detectable poration of yeast. Concomitant exposure of cells to pulsed electric (PEF) and magnetic field (PMF) however resulted in the increased number PI fluorescent cells and reduced viability. Our results show increased membrane permeability by PEF when combined with magnetic field pulse, which can explain electroporation at considerably lower electric field strengths induced by PEMF compared to classical electroporation.

  20. Dedicated low-field MRI in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquet, P; Breton, E; Goetz, C; Constantinesco, A; Marin, C

    2009-01-01

    The rationale of this work is to point out the relevance of in vivo MR images of mice obtained using a dedicated low-field system. For this purpose a small 0.1 T water-cooled electro-magnet and solenoidal radio frequency (RF) transmit-receive coils were used. All MR images were acquired in three-dimensional (3D) mode. An isolation cell was designed allowing easy placement of the RF coils and simple delivery of gaseous anesthesia as well as warming of the animal. Images with and without contrast agent were obtained in total acquisition times on the order of half an hour to four hours on normal mice as well as on animals bearing tumors. Typical in plane pixel dimensions range from 200 x 200 to 500 x 500 μm 2 with slice thicknesses ranging between 0.65 and 1.50 mm. This work shows that, besides light installation and low cost, dedicated low-field MR systems are suitable for small rodents imaging, opening this technique even to small research units.

  1. Dedicated low-field MRI in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, P.; Breton, E.; Goetz, C.; Marin, C.; Constantinesco, A.

    2009-09-01

    The rationale of this work is to point out the relevance of in vivo MR images of mice obtained using a dedicated low-field system. For this purpose a small 0.1 T water-cooled electro-magnet and solenoidal radio frequency (RF) transmit-receive coils were used. All MR images were acquired in three-dimensional (3D) mode. An isolation cell was designed allowing easy placement of the RF coils and simple delivery of gaseous anesthesia as well as warming of the animal. Images with and without contrast agent were obtained in total acquisition times on the order of half an hour to four hours on normal mice as well as on animals bearing tumors. Typical in plane pixel dimensions range from 200 × 200 to 500 × 500 µm2 with slice thicknesses ranging between 0.65 and 1.50 mm. This work shows that, besides light installation and low cost, dedicated low-field MR systems are suitable for small rodents imaging, opening this technique even to small research units.

  2. Field Monitoring of Deformations and Internal Forces of Surrounding Rocks and Lining Structures in the Construction of the Gangkou Double-Arched Tunnel—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Yan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Double-arched tunnel is a special and complex underground structure which needs to be monitored carefully during construction. Taking the Gangkou tunnel as the engineering background, this paper presents a case study of field monitoring of a representative double-arched tunnel. Typical cross sections were chosen in each class of surrounding rock masses in the tunnel area and different types of sensors were embedded in designed locations, and the deformations and forces of both surrounding rocks and lining structures were monitored systematically. The dynamic evolution as well as the spatial distribution characteristics of the monitoring data including the internal displacements of surrounding rocks and the contact pressures between surrounding rocks and primary linings, the axial forces in rock bolts and the internal forces in both steel arches and secondary linings were analyzed. The monitoring and analysis results show that the deformations and forces of both surrounding rocks and lining structures are directly related to the construction procedures, geological conditions and locations in the double-arched tunnel. According to the results, some reasonable suggestions were provided for the improvement of the tunnel construction. This study will provide useful reference and guidance for the design, construction and monitoring of similar engineering projects in future.

  3. Integrative monitoring of water storage variations at the landscape-scale with an iGrav superconducting gravimeter in a field enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntner, A.; Reich, M.; Mikolaj, M.; Creutzfeldt, B.; Schroeder, S.; Wziontek, H.

    2017-12-01

    In spite of the fundamental role of the landscape water balance for the Earth's water and energy cycles, monitoring the water balance and related storage dynamics beyond the point scale is notoriously difficult due to the multitude of flow and storage processes and their spatial heterogeneity. We present the first outdoor deployment of an iGrav superconducting gravimeter (SG) in a minimized field enclosure on a wet-temperate grassland site for integrative monitoring of water storage changes. It is shown that the system performs similarly precise as SGs that have hitherto been deployed in observatory buildings, but with higher sensitivity to hydrological variations in the surroundings of the instrument. Gravity variations observed by the field setup are almost independent of the depth below the terrain surface where water storage changes occur, and thus the field SG system directly observes the total water storage change in an integrative way. We provide a framework to single out the water balance components actual evapotranspiration and lateral subsurface discharge from the gravity time series on annual to daily time scales. With about 99% and 85% of the gravity signal originating within a radius of 4000 and 200 meter around the instrument, respectively, the setup paves the road towards gravimetry as a continuous hydrological field monitoring technique for water storage dynamics at the landscape scale.

  4. Cosmic Rays and Clouds, 1. Formation of Lead Mesoatoms In Neutron Monitor By Soft Negative Muons and Expected Atmospheric Electric Field Effect In The Cosmic Ray Neutron Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, L. I.; Dorman, I. V.

    We extend our model (Dorman and Dorman, 1995) of cosmic ray atmospheric electric field effect on the case of neutron monitor. We take into account that about 0.07 of neu- tron monitor counting rate caused by negative soft muons captured by lead nucleons and formed mesoatoms with generation of several MeV energy neutrons from lead. In this case the neutron monitor or neutron supermonitor works as analyzer which de- tects muons of only one, negative sign. It is very important because the atmospheric electric field effect have opposite signs for positive and negative muons that main part of this effect in the muon telescope or in ionization chamber is compensated and we can observe only small part of total effect of one sign muons. On the basis of our gen- eral theory of cosmic ray meteorological effects with taking into account of negative soft muon acceleration and deceleration in the Earth atmosphere (in dependence of di- rection and intensity of electric field) we discuss the possibility of existing this effect in cosmic ray neutron component and made some rough estimations. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I. and Dorman I.V., 1995. "Cosmic-ray atmospheric electric field effects". Canadian J. of Physics, Vol. 73, pp. 440-443.

  5. What have we Learned after a Decade of Experiments and Monitoring at the NEES@UCSB Permanently Instrumented Field Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, J. H.; Civilini, F.; Seale, S. H.; Hegarty, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) and Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA) located in southern California are facilities that for the last decade have been supported under the National Science Foundations George E. Brown, Jr., Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) program. These densely instrumented geotechnical and structural engineering field sites continuously record both acceleration and pore pressure, with accelerometers located on the surface and at various depths below the surface, and pore pressure transducers installed at depth within the liquefiable layers. Permanently instrumented structures for examining soil-foundation-structure interaction and a permanent cross-hole array at the sites have transformed these sites into multi-disciplinary earthquake engineering research facilities. Over the last decade, local and regional seismic activity, including multiple extremely active earthquake swarms, have produced a valuable new data set providing a unique opportunity to observe site response and the evolution of pore pressure generation with time throughout the liquefiable layer at an unprecedented level of detail. In addition to the earthquakes provided by nature, active testing experiments using the mobile shakers from NEES@UTexas and NEES@UCLA have produced an equally valuable data set on both site characterization studies and soil-foundation-structure interaction. The new observations of pore pressure and acceleration with depth are providing in situ empirical evidence documenting the range of ground motion levels at which the onset of nonlinear behavior and excess pore pressure begins, augmenting previous case history data, and laboratory data from cyclic tri-axial and centrifuge testing. The largest static pore pressure increases observed in the 'NEES' decade of monitoring were generated by four events at the WLA site, ranging in magnitude from 4.6 to 5.4 and all at distances less than 10km from the site. The largest peak horizontal

  6. A new multiscale approach for monitoring vegetation using remote sensing-based indicators in laboratory, field, and landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, Angela; Pause, Marion; Merbach, Ines; Zacharias, Steffen; Doktor, Daniel; Volk, Martin; Seppelt, Ralf

    2013-02-01

    Remote sensing is an important tool for studying patterns in surface processes on different spatiotemporal scales. However, differences in the spatiospectral and temporal resolution of remote sensing data as well as sensor-specific surveying characteristics very often hinder comparative analyses and effective up- and downscaling analyses. This paper presents a new methodical framework for combining hyperspectral remote sensing data on different spatial and temporal scales. We demonstrate the potential of using the "One Sensor at Different Scales" (OSADIS) approach for the laboratory (plot), field (local), and landscape (regional) scales. By implementing the OSADIS approach, we are able (1) to develop suitable stress-controlled vegetation indices for selected variables such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI), chlorophyll, photosynthesis, water content, nutrient content, etc. over a whole vegetation period. Focused laboratory monitoring can help to document additive and counteractive factors and processes of the vegetation and to correctly interpret their spectral response; (2) to transfer the models obtained to the landscape level; (3) to record imaging hyperspectral information on different spatial scales, achieving a true comparison of the structure and process results; (4) to minimize existing errors from geometrical, spectral, and temporal effects due to sensor- and time-specific differences; and (5) to carry out a realistic top- and downscaling by determining scale-dependent correction factors and transfer functions. The first results of OSADIS experiments are provided by controlled whole vegetation experiments on barley under water stress on the plot scale to model LAI using the vegetation indices Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and green NDVI (GNDVI). The regression model ascertained from imaging hyperspectral AISA-EAGLE/HAWK (DUAL) data was used to model LAI. This was done by using the vegetation index GNDVI with an R (2) of 0.83, which was

  7. Semi-field assessment of the BG-Malaria trap for monitoring the African malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis P A Batista

    Full Text Available Odour-baited technologies are increasingly considered for effective monitoring of mosquito populations and for the evaluation of vector control interventions. The BG-Malaria trap (BGM, which is an upside-down variant of the widely used BG-Sentinel trap (BGS, has been demonstrated to be effective to sample the Brazilian malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi. We evaluated the BGM as an improved method for sampling the African malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis. Experiments were conducted inside a large semi-field cage to compare trapping efficiencies of BGM and BGS traps, both baited with the synthetic attractant, Ifakara blend, supplemented with CO2. We then compared BGMs baited with either of four synthetic mosquito lures, Ifakara blend, Mbita blend, BG-lure or CO2, and an unbaited BGM. Lastly, we compared BGMs baited with the Ifakara blend dispensed via either nylon strips, BG cartridges (attractant-infused microcapsules encased in cylindrical plastic cartridge or BG sachets (attractant-infused microcapsules encased in plastic sachets. All tests were conducted between 6P.M. and 7A.M., with 200-600 laboratory-reared An. arabiensis released nightly in the test chamber. The median number of An. arabiensis caught by the BGM per night was 83, IQR:(73.5-97.75, demonstrating clear superiority over BGS (median catch = 32.5 (25.25-37.5. Compared to unbaited controls, BGMs baited with Mbita blend caught most mosquitoes (45 (29.5-70.25, followed by BGMs baited with CO2 (42.5 (27.5-64, Ifakara blend (31 (9.25-41.25 and BG lure (16 (4-22. BGM caught 51 (29.5-72.25 mosquitoes/night, when the attractants were dispensed using BG-Cartridges, compared to BG-Sachet (29.5 (24.75-40.5, and nylon strips (27 (19.25-38.25, in all cases being significantly superior to unbaited controls (p < 000.1. The findings demonstrate potential of the BGM as a sampling tool for African malaria vectors over the standard BGS trap. Its efficacy can be optimized by selecting

  8. Remote Monitoring Systems for Chronic Patients on Home Hemodialysis: Field Test of a Copresence-Enhanced Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Kim, Jinman; Jung, Younhyun; Arisy, Adani; Nicdao, Mary Ann; Mikaheal, Mary; Baldacchino, Tanya; Khadra, Mohamed; Sud, Kamal

    2017-08-29

    Patients undertaking long-term and chronic home hemodialysis (HHD) are subject to feelings of isolation and anxiety due to the absence of physical contact with their health care professionals and lack of feedback in regards to their dialysis treatments. Therefore, it is important for these patients to feel the "presence" of the health care professionals remotely while on hemodialysis at home for better compliance with the dialysis regime and to feel connected with health care professionals. This study presents an HHD system design for hemodialysis patients with features to enhance patient's perceived "copresence" with their health care professionals. Various mechanisms to enhance this perception were designed and implemented, including digital logbooks, emotion sharing, and feedback tools. The mechanism in our HHD system aims to address the limitations associated with existing self-monitoring tools for HHD patients. A field trial involving 3 nurses and 74 patients was conducted to test the pilot implementation of the copresence design in our HHD system. Mixed method research was conducted to evaluate the system, including surveys, interviews, and analysis of system data. Patients created 2757 entries of dialysis cases during the period of study. Altogether there were 492 entries submitted with "Very Happy" as the emotional status, 2167 entries with a "Happy" status, 56 entries with a "Neutral" status, 18 entries with an "Unhappy" status, and 24 entries with a "Very unhappy" status. Patients felt assured to share their emotions with health care professionals. Health care professionals were able to prioritize the review of the entries based on the emotional status and also felt assured to see patients' change in mood. There were 989 entries sent with short notes. Entries with negative emotions had a higher percentage of supplementary notes entered compared to the entries with positive and neutral emotions. The qualitative data further showed that the HHD system was

  9. Results of 1998 spectral gamma-ray monitoring of boreholes at the 216-Z-1A tile field, 216-Z-9 trench, and 216-Z-12 crib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, D.G.; Randall, R.R.

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the results of fiscal year 1998 vadose zone monitoring of three inactive liquid waste disposal facilities associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant: the 216-Z-1A tile field, the 216-Z-9 trench, and the 216-Z-12 crib. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray logging of 21 boreholes. This work was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in conjunction with Three Rivers Scientific and Waste management Federal Services, inc. Northwest Operations. These three liquid waste disposal facilities were chosen for monitoring because they were identified as containing some of the most significant sources of radioactive contamination in the Hanford Site vadose zone. The basic question addressed by this logging activity is ''Has the configuration of subsurface contamination changed since it was last measured?'' Previous borehole logging and laboratory analyses provide the baseline data to help answer this question

  10. Using in-field and remote sensing techniques for the monitoring of small-scale permafrost decline in Northern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Inga; Kim, Jun Su; Spannraft, Kati; Ludwig, Ralf; Hajnsek, Irena; Bernier, Monique; Allard, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Permafrost-affected soils represent about 45% of Canadian arctic and subarctic regions. Under the recently recorded changed climate conditions, the areas located in the discontinuous permafrost zones are likely to belong to the most impacted environments. Degradations of Palsas and lithalsas as being the most distinct permafrost landforms as well as an extension of wetlands have been observe during the past decades by several research teams all over the northern Arctic. These alterations, caused by longer an warmer thawing periods, are expected to become more and more frequent in the future. The effects on human beings and on the surrounding sensitive ecosystems are presumed to be momentous and of high relevance. Hence, there is a high demand for new techniques that are able to detect, and possibly even predict, the behavior of the permafrost within a changing environment. The presented study is part of an international research collaboration between LMU, INRS and UL within the framework of ArcticNet. The project intends to develop a monitoring system strongly based on remote sensing imagery and GIS-based data analysis, using a test site located in northern Quebec (Umiujaq, 56°33' N, 76°33' W). It shall be investigated to which extent the interpretation of satellite imagery is feasible to partially substitute costly and difficult geophysical point measurements, and to provide spatial knowledge about the major factors that control permafrost dynamics and ecosystem change. In a first step, these factors, mainly expected to be determined from changes in topography, vegetation cover and snow cover, are identified and validated by means of several consecutive ground truthing initiatives supporting the analysis of multi-sensoral time series of remotely sensed information. Both sources are used to generate and feed different concepts for modeling permafrost dynamics by ways of parameter retrieval and data assimilation. On this poster, the outcomes of the first project

  11. Combining Geoelectrical Measurements and CO 2 Analyses to Monitor the Enhanced Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils: A Field Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Noel , Cécile; Gourry , Jean-Christophe; Deparis , Jacques; Blessing , Michaela; Ignatiadis , Ioannis; Guimbaud , Christophe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can be successfully remediated through enhanced biodegradation. However, in situ monitoring of the treatment by piezometers is expensive and invasive and might be insufficient as the information provided is restricted to vertical profiles at discrete locations. An alternative method was tested in order to improve the robustness of the monitoring. Geophysical methods, electrical resistivity (ER) and induced polarization (IP), were combi...

  12. Performance of overlapped shield tunneling through an integrated physical model tests, numerical simulations and real-time field monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlong Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, deformations and internal forces of an existing tunnel subjected to a closely overlapped shield tunneling are monitored and analyzed using a series of physical model experiments and numerical simulations. Effects of different excavation sequences and speeds are explicitly considered in the analysis. The results of the physical model experiments show that the bottom-up tunneling procedure is better than the top-down tunneling procedure. The incurred deformations and internal forces of the existing tunnel increase with the excavation speed and the range of influence areas also increase accordingly. For construction process control, real-time monitoring of the power tunnel is used. The monitoring processes feature full automation, adjustable frequency, real-time monitor and dynamic feedback, which are used to guide the construction to achieve micro-disturbance control. In accordance with the situation of crossing construction, a numerical study on the performance of power tunnel is carried out. Construction control measures are given for the undercrossing construction, which helps to accomplish the desired result and meet protection requirements of the existing tunnel structure. Finally, monitoring data and numerical results are compared, and the displacement and joint fracture change models in the power tunnel subject to the overlapped shield tunnel construction are analyzed. Keywords: Overlapped tunnel, Automatic monitoring, Micro-disturbance control

  13. Monitoring plan for borehole logging at 216-Z-1A Tile Field, 216-Z-9 Trench, and 216-Z-12 Crib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, D.G.

    1998-04-01

    This plan describes the fiscal year 1998 vadose monitoring of three inactive, liquid waste disposal facilities associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant (Z-Plant): the 216-Z-1A Tile Field, the 216-Z-9 Trench, and the 216-Z-12 Crib. Monitoring will consist of spectral gamma ray logging of 21 boreholes. This plan describes the physical characteristics of the facilities, their operational histories, the subsurface geology and known contamination distribution at each facility. The plan then describes the specific monitoring to be done including the boreholes to be logged, the methods of data acquisition, data reduction, and data evaluation, and finally, the quality control, data management and data reporting for this effort. The three liquid waste disposal facilities at the Z Plant were chosen to be monitored because they were identified as containing some of the most significant sources of radioactive contamination in the Hanford vadose zone. Johnson's analysis was based on the relative hazard obtained by combining curie quantities disposed to the facilities with appropriate health risk standards. The basic question to be addressed by this logging activity addresses the configuration of subsurface contamination since it was last measured. Historical data from the 216-Z-1A Tile Field, the 216-Z-9 Trench, and the 216-Z-12 Crib form the baseline for comparisons to answer this question

  14. Field Evaluation of Cereal Combine Harvesters Processing Losses on JD-955 and JD-1165 Combines Equipped with Grain Loss Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Mostofi Sarkari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Grain loss monitors are installed on combine harvester and make it possible to measure grain loss on different parts of the combine. The instrument permits the operator to adjust a proper ground speed to keep grain loss within an acceptable range. In this study a loss monitoring system was implemented to measure grain losses continuously on straw walker and sieves. Two grain loss monitors (KEE and TeeJet were installed behind the straw walker and the sieves of JD-955 and JD-1165 combine harvesters. Harvesting performance parameters such as combine total and processing losses were then measured. To evaluate the precision and accuracy of the instruments, the measured and monitored losses were compared and investigated. The results of a two-year research showed that the average processing loss of the combine harvesters with 10-12% grain moisture content and 750 rpm drum speed was 0.82% which is whitin the acceptable range recommended by ASAE Standard No. S343.3. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the measured and monitored values of processing loss.

  15. ITRAP - International laboratory and field test site exercise for radiation detection instruments and monitoring systems at border crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Schmitzer, C.; Duftschmid, K.E.; Arlt, R.

    2001-01-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials has become more and more a problem, due to the circulation of a high number of radioactive sources and the big amount of nuclear material. The IAEA database counts at present more than 300 verified cases. The endangering cased thereby ranges from possible health defect for the publication to terrorists activities and production of nuclear weapons. In addition to the primary criminal reasons the illegal disposal of radioactive sources as salvage, scrap and others show a further problem, which has lead to severe accidents and lethal effects in the past (e.g. Goiana, Mexico). Some countries have already under taken countermeasures (e.g. Monitoring at the Finnish-Russian and German- Polish border, border monitoring in Italy). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reacted on this actual problem by setting up a new program to fight against nuclear criminality and has suggested a pilot study for the practical test of border monitoring systems. Co-ordinated by the Federal Ministry of Economy and Labour the Austrian Government financed the pilot study ITRAP (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program) carried out by the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf (ARCS). Aim of the study was to work out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at border crossings. The results of the study will be offered by the IAEA to the member states as international recommendations for border monitoring systems

  16. AC Electric Field Communication for Human-Area Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Yuichi; Shinagawa, Mitsuru

    We have proposed a human-area networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a data transmission path and uses an AC electric field signal below the resonant frequency of the human body. This technology aims to achieve a “touch and connect” intuitive form of communication by using the electric field signal that propagates along the surface of the human body, while suppressing both the electric field radiating from the human body and mutual interference. To suppress the radiation field, the frequency of the AC signal that excites the transmitter electrode must be lowered, and the sensitivity of the receiver must be raised while reducing transmission power to its minimally required level. We describe how we are developing AC electric field communication technologies to promote the further evolution of a human-area network in support of ubiquitous services, focusing on three main characteristics, enabling-transceiver technique, application-scenario modeling, and communications quality evaluation. Special attention is paid to the relationship between electro-magnetic compatibility evaluation and regulations for extremely low-power radio stations based on Japan's Radio Law.

  17. Effects of electromagnetic field and lubricate condition on the surface quality of magnesium alloy billet during LFEC processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The microstructures of the magnesium billets could be improved markedly by low-frequency electro-magnetic casting (LFEC) processing. In fact, the low-frequency electromagnetic field (LFEF) also has favorite effect on the surface quality of billet. However, few public reports on the surface quality of LFEC magnesium billets could be found. Therefore, a new crystallizer with a metal internal sleeve to-gether with a kind of lubricant was designed aiming at lowing surface turning quantity, and the effects of casting velocity, electromagnetic condition and lubrication on the surface quality of magnesium billets were investigated. The results indicate that LFEF together with the lubricate condition would be responsible for the surface quality of the billets, and the high surface quality billets could be achieved by optimizing the casting conditions.

  18. Field Operations Procedures Manual for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses meteorological monitoring activities that will be conducted in support of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. WAG 6 is a shallow-burial land disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a research facility owned by the US Department of Energy and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Meteorological monitoring of various climatological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, humidity) will be collected by instruments installed at WAG 6. Data will be recorded electronically at frequencies varying from 5-min intervals to 1-h intervals, dependent upon parameter. The data will be downloaded every 2 weeks, evaluated, compressed, and uploaded into a WAG 6 data base for subsequent use. The meteorological data will be used in water balance calculations in support of the WAG 6 hydrogeological model

  19. Effects of fluctuations and noise on the neutron monitor diurnal anisotropy. II. Non-field-aligned diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of non-field-aligned diffusion (i.e., terms in the diffusion tensor proportional to the antisymmetric coefficient kappa/sub A/) on the observed day-to-day deviation of the diffusive diurnal anisotropy from the daily average magnetic field direction are considered. Using reasonable parameters for the diffusion of cosmic rays in interplanetary space, I show that these terms give a natural explanation for the angular difference between the anisotropy and field directions during normal quiet interplanetary epochs

  20. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  1. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  2. Monitoring of piglets' open field activity and choice behaviour during the replay of maternal vocalization: a comparison between Observer and PID technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppe, B; Schön, P C; Wendland, K

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents a new system for the automatic monitoring of open field activity and choice behaviour of medium-sized animals. Passive infrared motion detectors (PID) were linked on-line via a digital I/O interface to a personal computer provided with self-developed analysis software based on LabVIEW (PID technique). The set up was used for testing 18 one-week-old piglets (Sus scrofa) for their approach to their mother's nursing vocalization replayed through loudspeakers. The results were validated by comparison with a conventional Observer technique, a computer-aided direct observation. In most of the cases, no differences were seen between the Observer and PID technique regarding the percentage of stay in previously defined open field segments, the locomotor open field activity, and the choice behaviour. The results revealed that piglets are clearly attracted by their mother's nursing vocalization. The monitoring system presented in this study is thus suitable for detailed behavioural investigations of individual acoustic recognition. In general, the PID technique is a useful tool for research into the behaviour of individual animals in a restricted open field which does not rely on subjective analysis by a human observer.

  3. Development of the temperature field at the WWER-440 core outlet monitoring system and application of the data analyses methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasova, V.; Georgieva, N.; Haralampieva, Tz.

    2001-01-01

    On-line internal reactor monitoring by 216 thermal couples, located at the reactor core outlet, is carried out during power operation of WWER-440 Units 1 and 2 at Kozloduy NPP. Automatic monitoring of technology process is performed by IB-500MA, which collects and performs initial data processing (discrediting and conversion of analogue signals into digital mode). The paper also presents the results and analyses of power distribution monitoring during the past 21-th and current 22-th fuel cycle at Kozloduy NPP, Unit 1 by using archiving system capacity and related software. The possibility to perform operational assessment and analysis of power distribution in the reactor core in each point of the fuel cycle is checked by comparison of the neutron-physical calculation results with reactor coolant system parameters. Paper shows that the processing and analysis of accumulated significant amount of data in the archive files increases accuracy and reliability of power distribution monitoring in the reactor core in each moment of the fuel cycle of WWER-440 reactors at Kozloduy NPP

  4. Chromatography related performance of the Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in Ambient Air (MARGA): laboratory and field based evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of the semi-continuous Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in Ambient Air (MARGA, Metrohm Applikon B.V.) was conducted with an emphasis on examination of accuracy and precision associated with processing of chromatograms. Using laboratory standards and atmospheric measureme...

  5. Monitoring of Gasoline-ethanol Degradation In Undisturbed Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österreicher-Cunha, P.; Nunes, C. M. F.; Vargas, E. A.; Guimarães, J. R. D.; Costa, A.

    Environmental contamination problems are greatly emphasised nowadays because of the direct threat they represent for human health. Traditional remediation methods fre- quently present low efficiency and high costs; therefore, biological treatment is being considered as an accessible and efficient alternative for soil and water remediation. Bioventing, commonly used to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon spills, stimulates the degradation capacity of indigenous microorganisms by providing better subsur- face oxygenation. In Brazil, gasoline and ethanol are mixed (78:22 v/v); some authors indicate that despite gasoline high degradability, its degradation in subsurface is hin- dered by the presence of much more rapidly degrading ethanol. Contaminant distribu- tion and degradation in the subsurface can be monitored by several physical, chemical and microbiological methodologies. This study aims to evaluate and follow the degra- dation of a gasoline-ethanol mixture in a residual undisturbed tropical soil from Rio de Janeiro. Bioventing was used to enhance microbial degradation. Shifts in bacte- rial culturable populations due to contamination and treatment effects were followed by conventional microbiology methods. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measure- ments, which consist of the emission of electro-magnetic waves into the soil, yield a visualisation of contaminant degradation because of changes in soil conductivity due to microbial action on the pollutants. Chemical analyses will measure contaminant residue in soil. Our results disclosed contamination impact as well as bioventing stim- ulation on soil culturable heterotrophic bacterial populations. This multidisciplinary approach allows for a wider evaluation of processes occurring in soil.

  6. Development of the GC-MS organic aerosol monitor (GC-MS OAM) for in-field detection of particulate organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, Paul M.; Overson, Devon K.; Cary, Robert A.; Eatough, Delbert J.; Chow, Judith C.; Hansen, Jaron C.

    2017-11-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is among the most harmful air pollutants to human health, but due to its complex chemical composition is poorly characterized. A large fraction of PM is composed of organic compounds, but these compounds are not regularly monitored due to limitations in current sampling and analysis techniques. The Organic Aerosol Monitor (GC-MS OAM) combines a collection device with thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to quantitatively measure the carbonaceous components of PM on an hourly averaged basis. The GC-MS OAM is fully automated and has been successfully deployed in the field. It uses a chemically deactivated filter for collection followed by thermal desorption and GC-MS analysis. Laboratory tests show that detection limits range from 0.2 to 3 ng for 16 atmospherically relevant compounds, with the possibility for hundreds more. The GC-MS OAM was deployed in the field for semi-continuous measurement of the organic markers, levoglucosan, dehydroabietic acid, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from January to March 2015. Results illustrate the significance of this monitoring technique to characterize the organic components of PM and identify sources of pollution.

  7. Simultaneous monitoring of singlet and triplet exciton variations in solid organic semiconductors driven by an external static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Baofu, E-mail: b.ding@ecu.edu.au; Alameh, Kamal, E-mail: k.alameh@ecu.edu.au [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)

    2014-07-07

    The research field of organic spintronics has remarkably and rapidly become a promising research area for delivering a range of high-performance devices, such as magnetic-field sensors, spin valves, and magnetically modulated organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Plenty of microscopic physical and chemical models based on exciton or charge interactions have been proposed to explain organic magneto-optoelectronic phenomena. However, the simultaneous observation of singlet- and triplet-exciton variations in an external magnetic field is still unfeasible, preventing a thorough theoretical description of the spin dynamics in organic semiconductors. Here, we show that we can simultaneously observe variations of singlet excitons and triplet excitons in an external magnetic field, by designing an OLED structure employing a singlet-exciton filtering and detection layer in conjunction with a separate triplet-exciton detection layer. This OLED structure enables the observation of a Lorentzian and a non-Lorentzian line-shape magnetoresponse for singlet excitons and triplet excitons, respectively.

  8. Simultaneous monitoring of singlet and triplet exciton variations in solid organic semiconductors driven by an external static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Baofu; Alameh, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The research field of organic spintronics has remarkably and rapidly become a promising research area for delivering a range of high-performance devices, such as magnetic-field sensors, spin valves, and magnetically modulated organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). Plenty of microscopic physical and chemical models based on exciton or charge interactions have been proposed to explain organic magneto-optoelectronic phenomena. However, the simultaneous observation of singlet- and triplet-exciton variations in an external magnetic field is still unfeasible, preventing a thorough theoretical description of the spin dynamics in organic semiconductors. Here, we show that we can simultaneously observe variations of singlet excitons and triplet excitons in an external magnetic field, by designing an OLED structure employing a singlet-exciton filtering and detection layer in conjunction with a separate triplet-exciton detection layer. This OLED structure enables the observation of a Lorentzian and a non-Lorentzian line-shape magnetoresponse for singlet excitons and triplet excitons, respectively.

  9. Field quality analysis to monitor the industrial series production of the dipole magnets for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Pauletta, S; Todesco, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    In superconducting accelerator magnets, the field quality is mainly determined by conductor position inside the coil. For the LHC, the dipolar field homogeneity must be assured up to 10-5 of the main field component, imposing strict manufacturing tolerances. Magnetic measurements at room temperature provide a fast and economical way to find out assembly errors or the use of faulty components. In order to compute control bounds for the industrial series production, the magnetic measurements performed at room temperature on 27 pre-series collared coils have been statistically analyzed in this work. An automatic tool has been implemented to single out anomalous values of the magnetic field in the measurements. Such cases have been analyzed using a magnetostatic code to work out errors in the manufacturing process and the possible cures.

  10. The new DMT SAFEGUARD low-cost GNSS measuring system and its application in the field of geotechnical deformation and movement monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    epoch. Based on these requirements DMT has developed the new DMT SAFEGUARD GNSS. In this article the latest developments in the field of low-cost GNSS are shown by different examples from industry and authorities. By means of a detailed accuracy study the DMT SAFEGUARD GNSS system applicability will be demonstrated. The study shows possibilities to detect coordinate shifts on sub centimeter level by using suitable data processing approaches and permanent network solutions. In addition to the DMT SAFEGUARD GNSS system this article illustrates the combination with further relevant sensors to integrated multisensorial networks. Such networks include geodetic data, geophysical data, geotechnical data, video, audio etc. For the central integration of all sensor types DMT has developed a web-based monitoring system - DMT SAFEGUARD which offers individual customizing, sophisticated analysis tools as well as comprehensive reporting options.

  11. Development of dark-striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius coreae, as a biological dosimeter in a radio-ecological monitoring system: 2. Survival rates and hematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Kim, Chong Soon; Nishmura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the management of nuclear power plants and the installation of facilities for radiation waste storage: social concerns over radiation safety are increasing. To understand how environmental radiation affects on human beings, the development of an reasonable monitoring system is required. The existing radio-environmental surveillance systems can be classified into physical and biological monitoring systems. The wild small animals and livestocks were reported to be effective biological indicators of environmental radiation This study investigated the possibility of using dark-striped field mice as a biological dosimetric model to assess the effect of radiation on the human environments. For this study, the criteria for the biological dosimeters of environmental radiation were established as the following: first, it should be an animal from a clear background of species; second, it should inhabit a broad range of areas and in considerable numbers; third, it should maintain identical ecological characteristics; fourth, it should be cohabitating with humans; fifth, it should have been consuming food found in their habitat; and finally, it should indicate a clear doseresponse relationship with high sensitivity. Based on such criteria, this study investigated the possibility of using dark-striped field mice as an effective biological dosimeter. Primarily, their species were classified based on their morphological external characteristics and isoenzymic patterns. The taxonomically classified darkstriped field mice, A. agrarius coreae, were then irradiated to investigate their radiation sensitivity based on the survival rate and hematology in this study

  12. Development of dark-striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius coreae, as a biological dosimeter in a radio-ecological monitoring system: 2. Survival rates and hematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Kim, Chong Soon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nishmura, Y. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Regarding the management of nuclear power plants and the installation of facilities for radiation waste storage: social concerns over radiation safety are increasing. To understand how environmental radiation affects on human beings, the development of an reasonable monitoring system is required. The existing radio-environmental surveillance systems can be classified into physical and biological monitoring systems. The wild small animals and livestocks were reported to be effective biological indicators of environmental radiation This study investigated the possibility of using dark-striped field mice as a biological dosimetric model to assess the effect of radiation on the human environments. For this study, the criteria for the biological dosimeters of environmental radiation were established as the following: first, it should be an animal from a clear background of species; second, it should inhabit a broad range of areas and in considerable numbers; third, it should maintain identical ecological characteristics; fourth, it should be cohabitating with humans; fifth, it should have been consuming food found in their habitat; and finally, it should indicate a clear doseresponse relationship with high sensitivity. Based on such criteria, this study investigated the possibility of using dark-striped field mice as an effective biological dosimeter. Primarily, their species were classified based on their morphological external characteristics and isoenzymic patterns. The taxonomically classified darkstriped field mice, A. agrarius coreae, were then irradiated to investigate their radiation sensitivity based on the survival rate and hematology in this study.

  13. Resistance monitoring and cross-resistance role of CYP6CW1 between buprofezin and pymetrozine in field populations of Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueliang; Han, Yangchun; Liu, Baosheng; Yang, Qiong; Guo, Huifang; Liu, Zewen; Wang, Lihua; Fang, Jichao

    2017-11-07

    Monitoring resistance and investigating insecticide resistance mechanisms are necessary for controlling the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus. The susceptibility to four common insecticides of L. striatellus collected from Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang and Jilin provinces of China in 2015 was monitored. The results showed that all field populations remained susceptible to chlorpyrifos and thiamethoxam with resistance ratios (RRs) of 2.3- to 9.5 and 1.6- to 3.3, respectively, while the insects had developed moderate pymetrozine resistance with RRs of 18.7 to 34.5. Resistance against buprofezin had developed to an alarmingly high level in three southeastern provinces of China with RRs of 108.8 to 156.1, but in Jilin it had an RR of only 26.6. Moreover, in line with both the buprofezin and pymetrozine resistance levels, we found LsCYP6CW1 to be over-expressed in all field L. striatellus populations, which indicated that it might be important for cross-resistance between buprofezin and pymetrozine. RNA interference (RNAi) ingestion resulted in the effective suppression of LsCYP6CW1 expression, and significantly increased susceptibility to both buprofezin and pymetrozine compared with the control, which further confirmed that overexpression of LsCYP6CW1 was involved in the cross-resistance to buprofezin and pymetrozine in field L. Striatellus populations.

  14. A Field-Scale Sensor Network Data Set for Monitoring and Modeling the Spatial and Temporal Variation of Soil Water Content in a Dryland Agricultural Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, C. K.; Brown, D. J.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.; Brooks, E. S.; Chahal, M.; Poggio, M.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a soil water content monitoring data set and auxiliary data collected at a 37 ha experimental no-till farm in the Northwestern United States. Water content measurements have been compiled hourly since 2007 by ECH2O-TE and 5TE sensors installed at 42 locations and five depths (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 m, 210 sensors total) across the R.J. Cook Agronomy Farm, a Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research Site stationed on complex terrain in a Mediterranean climate. In addition to soil water content readings, the data set includes hourly and daily soil temperature readings, annual crop histories, a digital elevation model, Bt horizon maps, seasonal apparent electrical conductivity, soil texture, and soil bulk density. Meteorological records are also available for this location. We discuss the unique challenges of maintaining the network on an operating farm and demonstrate the nature and complexity of the soil water content data. This data set is accessible online through the National Agriculture Library, has been assigned a DOI, and will be maintained for the long term.

  15. Review of Trace-Element Field-Blank Data Collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program, May 2004-January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element quality-control samples (for example, source-solution blanks, field blanks, and field replicates) were collected as part of a statewide investigation of groundwater quality in California, known as the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Trace-element field blanks were collected to evaluate potential bias in the corresponding environmental data. Bias in the environmental data could result from contamination in the field during sample collection, from the groundwater coming into contact with contaminants on equipment surfaces or from other sources, or from processing, shipping, or analyzing the samples. Bias affects the interpretation of environmental data, particularly if any constituents are present solely as a result of extrinsic contamination that would have otherwise been absent from the groundwater that was sampled. Field blanks were collected, analyzed, and reviewed to identify and quantify extrinsic contamination bias. Data derived from source-solution blanks and laboratory quality-control samples also were considered in evaluating potential contamination bias. Eighty-six field-blank samples collected from May 2004 to January 2008 were analyzed for the concentrations of 25 trace elements. Results from these field blanks were used to interpret the data for the 816 samples of untreated groundwater collected over the same period. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum

  16. Long-term monitoring for conservation management: Lessons from a case study integrating remote sensing and field approaches in floodplain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Patricia María; Albuquerque, António; Martínez-Almarza, Miguel; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    Implementing long-term monitoring programs that effectively inform conservation plans is a top priority in environmental management. In floodplain forests, historical pressures interplay with the complex multiscale dynamics of fluvial systems and require integrative approaches to pinpoint drivers for their deterioration and ecosystem services loss. Combining a conceptual framework such as the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) with the development of valid biological indicators can contribute to the analysis of the driving forces and their effects on the ecosystem in order to formulate coordinated conservation measures. In the present study, we evaluate the initial results of a decade (2004-2014) of floodplain forest monitoring. We adopted the DPSIR framework to summarize the main drivers in land use and environmental change, analyzed the effects on biological indicators of foundation trees and compared the consistency of the main drivers and their effects at two spatial scales. The monitoring program was conducted in one of the largest and best preserved floodplain forests in SW Europe located within Doñana National Park (Spain) which is dominated by Salix atrocinerea and Fraxinus angustifolia. The program combined field (in situ) surveys on a network of permanent plots with several remote sensing sources. The accuracy obtained in spectral classifications allowed shifts in species cover across the whole forest to be detected and assessed. However, remote sensing did not reflect the ecological status of forest populations. The field survey revealed a general decline in Salix populations, especially in the first five years of sampling -a factor probably associated with a lag effect from past human impact on the hydrology of the catchment and recent extreme climatic episodes (drought). In spite of much reduced seed regeneration, a resprouting strategy allows long-lived Salix individuals to persist in complex spatial dynamics. This suggests the beginning

  17. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report; Miljoeovervaaking av olje- og gassfelt i Region II i 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner OEst, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  18. Environmental monitoring survey of oil and gas fields in Region II in 2009. Summary report; Miljoeovervaaking av olje- og gassfelt i Region II i 2009. Sammendragsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The oil companies Statoil ASA, ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Norway AS, Total E&P Norge AS, Talisman Energy Norge AS and Marathon Petroleum Norge AS commissioned Section of Applied Environmental Research at UNI RESEARCH AS to undertake the monitoring survey of Region II in 2009. Similar monitoring surveys in Region II have been carried out in 1996, 2000, 2003 and 2006. The survey in 2009 included in total 18 fields: Rev, Varg, Sigyn, Sleipner Vest, Sleipner Oest, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Vale, Skirne, Byggve, Heimdal, Volve, Vilje og Alvheim. Sampling was conducted from the vessel MV Libas between May 18 and May 27. Samples were collected from in totally 137 sampling sites, of which 15 were regional sampling sites. Samples for chemical analysis were collected at all sites, whereas samples for benthos analysis were collected at 12 fields. As in previous surveys, Region II is divided into natural sub-regions. One sub-region is shallow (77-96 m) sub-region, a central sub-region (107-130 m) and a northern subregion (115-119 m). The sediments of the shallow sub-region had relatively lower content of TOM and pelite and higher content of fine sand than the central and northern sub-regions. Calculated areas of contamination are shown for the sub-regions in Table 1.1. The fields Sigyn, Sleipner Alfa Nord, Glitne, Grane, Balder, Ringhorne, Jotun, Skirne, Byggve, Vilje og Alvheim showed no contamination of THC. At the other fields there were minor changes from 2006. The concentrations of barium increased in the central sub-region from 2006 to 2009, also at fields where no drilling had been undertaken during the last years. The same laboratory and methods are used during the three last regional investigations. The changes in barium concentrations may be due to high variability of barium concentrations in the sediments. This is supported by relatively large variations in average barium concentrations at the regional sampling sites in

  19. Development of in-field monitoring techniques. Report on Task FIN A845 on the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, H; Honkamaa, T; Kansanaho, A; Poellaenen, R [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland). Aerosol Lab.; Aarnio, P; Ala-Heikkilae, J; Nikkinen, M [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Nuclear Engineering Lab.

    1994-12-01

    Several in-field measuring techniques were identified for use in safeguards inspections. The radiation measurements play a major role in seeking environmetal signatures. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer, either in-situ or in sample analysis, gives unequivocal evidence of nuclear activities on the site of interest. Although portable spectrometers are commercially available, hardware development and software tailoring seem to be necessary before efficient mobile measurements can be initiated. To understand trends and pattern of contamination, the results of the measurements have be displayed on digital maps. GPS-integration is an essential requirement for the equipment in environmental monitoring. (orig.) (14 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs.).

  20. Development of in-field monitoring techniques. Report on Task FIN A845 on the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Kansanaho, A.; Poellaenen, R.; Aarnio, P.; Ala-Heikkilae, J.; Nikkinen, M.

    1994-12-01

    Several in-field measuring techniques were identified for use in safeguards inspections. The radiation measurements play a major role in seeking environmetal signatures. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer, either in-situ or in sample analysis, gives unequivocal evidence of nuclear activities on the site of interest. Although portable spectrometers are commercially available, hardware development and software tailoring seem to be necessary before efficient mobile measurements can be initiated. To understand trends and pattern of contamination, the results of the measurements have be displayed on digital maps. GPS-integration is an essential requirement for the equipment in environmental monitoring. (orig.) (14 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs.)

  1. Comparison of AC electronic monitoring and field data for estimating tolerance to Empoasca kraemeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in common bean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M S; Backus, E A; Cardona, C

    2000-12-01

    Two methods for estimating the tolerance of common bean genotypes to Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore were compared, using a yield trial carried out at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia, versus stylet penetration tactics measured by AC electronic feeding monitors. A stylet penetration index was devised based on principal component scores of three penetration tactics identified (pulsing laceration, cell rupturing, and lancing sap ingestion), combined with knowledge of the hopperburn symptoms caused by each tactic. Tolerant genotypes, as classified by the CIAT yield index, showed significantly more unprotected yield and lower hopperburn scores than the susceptible control. They also induced performance of less pulsing laceration (the tactic considered most damaging to the plant), and more of the other two, mitigating tactics, especially cell rupturing. When index values were calculated for each genotype, stylet penetration index values matched those of the yield index for three out of five genotypes: two EMP-coded tolerant lines ('EMP 385' and 'EMP 392') and the susceptible control 'BAT 41'. Thus, for these three genotypes, all subsequent hoppereburn symptoms are predictable by the type of feeding behavior performed on them. 'Porrillo Sintético' and 'EMP 84', considered borderline genotypes by the yield index, were overestimated and underestimated respectively, by the stylet penetration index. We postulate that, for these two genotypes, plant physiological responses to feeding (either compensatory or heightened sensitivity, respectively) synergize with type of feeding performed to generate the overall hopperburn condition. This multivariate analysis of electronic monitoring data was successfully used to devise an index of resistance. The implications of using the stylet penetration index and the advantages of using electronic monitoring in a bean-breeding program are discussed.

  2. Monitoring diffuse degassing in monogentic volcanic field during magmatic reactivation: the case of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ocaña, C.; Feldman, R. C.; Pointer, Z. R.; Rodríguez, F.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Melián, G.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    El Hierro (278 km2), the younger, smallest and westernmost island of the Canarian archipelago, is a 5-km-high edifice constructed by rapid constructive and destructive processes in 1.12 Ma, with a truncated trihedron shape and three convergent ridges of volcanic cones. It experienced a submarine eruption from 12 October, 2011 and 5 March 2012, off its southern coast that was the first one to be monitored from the beginning in the Canary Islands. As no visible emanations occur at the surface environment of El Hierro, diffuse degassing studies have become a useful geochemical tool to monitor the volcanic activity in this volcanic island. Diffuse CO2 emission has been monitored at El Hierro Island since 1998 in a yearly basis, with much higher frequency in the period 2011-2012. At each survey, about 600 sampling sites were selected to obtain a homogeneous distribution. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux were performed in situ following the accumulation chamber method. During pre-eruptive and eruptive periods, the diffuse CO2 emission released by the whole island experienced significant increases before the onset of the submarine eruption and the most energetic seismic events of the volcanic-seismic unrest (Melián et al., 2014. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 119, 6976-6991). The soil CO2 efflux values of the 2017 survey ranged from non-detectable to 53.1 g m-2 d-1. Statistical-graphical analysis of the data show two different geochemical populations; background (B) and peak (P) represented by 77.6% and 22.4% of the total data, respectively, with geometric means of 1.8 and 9.2 g m-2 d-1, respectively. Most of the area showed B values while the P values were mainly observed at the interception center of the three convergent ridges and the north of the island. To estimate the diffuse CO2 emission for the 2017 survey, we ran about 100 sGs simulations. The estimated 2017 diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere by El Hierro was at 1,150 ± 42 t d-1, value higher than the

  3. Monitoring the effects of chelating agents and electrical fields on active forms of Pb and Zn in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbian, Iman; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar

    2013-11-01

    The application of electrical fields and chelating agents is an innovative hybrid technology used for the decontamination of soil polluted by heavy metals. The effects of four center-oriented electrical fields and chelating agents on active fractions of lead and zinc were investigated in this pot experiment. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a synthetic chelator and cow manure extract (CME) and poultry manure extract (PME) as natural chelators were applied to the pots (2 g kg(-1)) 30 days after the first irrigation. Two weeks later, four center-oriented electrical fields were applied in each pot (in three levels of 0, 10, and 30 V) for 1 h each day for 14 days. The soil near the cathode and anodes was collected and analyzed as cathodic and anodic soil, respectively. Results indicated that the soluble-exchangeable fraction of lead and zinc were decreased in the cathodic soil, while the carbonate-bound fractions were increased. In the anodic soil, however, the opposite result was observed. EDTA enhanced the soluble-exchangeable form of the metals in both anodic and cathodic soils. Furthermore, the amounts of carbonate-bound heavy metals were increased by the application of CME in both soils. The organic-bound fraction of the metals was increased by the application of natural chelators, while electrical fields had no significant impacts on this fraction.

  4. Dynamics in groundwater and surface water quality : from field-scale processes to catchment-scale monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Clean water is essential for our existence on earth. In areas with intensive agricultural land use, such as The Netherlands, groundwater and surface water resources are threatened. The leaching of agrochemicals from agricultural fields leads to contamination of drinking water resources and toxic

  5. Monitoring of the Enzymatically Catalyzed Degradation of Biodegradable Polymers by Means of Capacitive Field-Effect Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schusser, Sebastian; Krischer, Maximilian; Bäcker, Matthias; Poghossian, Arshak; Wagner, Patrick; Schöning, Michael J

    2015-07-07

    Designing novel or optimizing existing biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications requires numerous tests on the effect of substances on the degradation process. In the present work, polymer-modified electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (PMEIS) sensors have been applied for monitoring an enzymatically catalyzed degradation of polymers for the first time. The thin films of biodegradable polymer poly(D,L-lactic acid) and enzyme lipase were used as a model system. During degradation, the sensors were read-out by means of impedance spectroscopy. In order to interpret the data obtained from impedance measurements, an electrical equivalent circuit model was developed. In addition, morphological investigations of the polymer surface have been performed by means of in situ atomic force microscopy. The sensor signal change, which reflects the progress of degradation, indicates an accelerated degradation in the presence of the enzyme compared to hydrolysis in neutral pH buffer media. The degradation rate increases with increasing enzyme concentration. The obtained results demonstrate the potential of PMEIS sensors as a very promising tool for in situ and real-time monitoring of degradation of polymers.

  6. Monitoring bank erosion at the Locke Island Archaeological National Register District: Summary of 1996/1997 field activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Nickens, P.R.; Cadoret, N.A.; Wright, M.K.

    1998-08-01

    Locke Island is located in the Columbia River in south-central Washington. The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns Locke Island as part of its Hanford Site. In the 1960s and 1970s, as a result of intensive irrigation developments on the inland shoreline to the east of the island, the White Bluffs, which form the eastern boundary of the Columbia River channel in this area, began to show geological failures as excess irrigation water seeped out along the bluffs. One of the largest such failures, known as the Locke Island Landslide, is located just east of Locke Island. By the early 1980s, this landslide mass had moved westward into the river channel toward the island and was diverting the current at the island`s eastern perimeter. Erosion of the bank in the center of the island accelerated, threatening the cultural resources. By the early 1990s, the erosion had exposed cultural features and artifacts along the bank, leading to the beginning of intermittent monitoring of the cutbank. In 1994, DOE initiated more scheduled, systematic monitoring of island erosion to better understand the physical processes involved as well as mitigate ongoing loss of the archaeological record.

  7. 3D dynamic displacement-field measurement for structural health monitoring using inexpensive RGB-D based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbarr, Mohamed; Chen, Yulu Luke; Jahanshahi, Mohammad R.; Masri, Sami F.; Shen, Wei-Men; Qidwai, Uvais A.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of inexpensive digital cameras with depth sensing capabilities (RGB-D cameras) has opened the door to numerous useful applications that need quantitative measures of dynamic fields whose simultaneous time history quantification (at many points as dictated by the resolution of the camera) provides capabilities that were previously accessible only through expensive sensors (e.g., laser scanners). This paper presents a comprehensive experimental and computational study to evaluate the performance envelope of a representative RGB-D sensor (the first generation of Kinect sensor) with the aim of assessing its suitability for the class of problems encountered in the structural dynamics field, where reasonably accurate information of evolving displacement fields (as opposed to few discrete locations) that have simultaneous dynamic planar translational motion with significant rotational (torsional) components. This study investigated the influence of key system parameters of concern in selecting an appropriate sensor for such structural dynamic applications, such as amplitude range, spectral content of the dynamic displacements, location and orientation of sensors relative to target structure, fusing of measurements from multiple sensors, sensor noise effects, rolling-shutter effects, etc. The calibration results show that if the observed displacement field generates discrete (pixel) sensor measurements with sufficient resolution (observed displacements more than 10 mm) beyond the sensor noise floor, then the subject sensors can typically provide reasonable accuracy for transnational motion (about 5%) when the frequency range of the evolving field is within about 10 Hz. However, the expected error for torsional measurements is around 6% for static motion and 10% for dynamic rotation for measurements greater than 5°.

  8. Copernicus Big Data and Google Earth Engine for Glacier Surface Velocity Field Monitoring: Feasibility Demonstration on San Rafael and San Quintin Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, M.; Nocchi, F.; Camplani, A.; Emanuelli, N.; Nascetti, A.; Crespi, M.

    2018-04-01

    The glaciers are a natural global resource and one of the principal climate change indicator at global and local scale, being influenced by temperature and snow precipitation changes. Among the parameters used for glacier monitoring, the surface velocity is a key element, since it is connected to glaciers changes (mass balance, hydro balance, glaciers stability, landscape erosion). The leading idea of this work is to continuously retrieve glaciers surface velocity using free ESA Sentinel-1 SAR imagery and exploiting the potentialities of the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. GEE has been recently released by Google as a platform for petabyte-scale scientific analysis and visualization of geospatial datasets. The algorithm of SAR off-set tracking developed at the Geodesy and Geomatics Division of the University of Rome La Sapienza has been integrated in a cloud based platform that automatically processes large stacks of Sentinel-1 data to retrieve glacier surface velocity field time series. We processed about 600 Sentinel-1 image pairs to obtain a continuous time series of velocity field measurements over 3 years from January 2015 to January 2018 for two wide glaciers located in the Northern Patagonian Ice Field (NPIF), the San Rafael and the San Quintin glaciers. Several results related to these relevant glaciers also validated with respect already available and renown software (i.e. ESA SNAP, CIAS) and with respect optical sensor measurements (i.e. LANDSAT8), highlight the potential of the Big Data analysis to automatically monitor glacier surface velocity fields at global scale, exploiting the synergy between GEE and Sentinel-1 imagery.

  9. A Wireless Health Outcomes Monitoring System (WHOMS: development and field testing with cancer patients using mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunelli Cinzia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-Related Quality of Life assessment is widely used in clinical research, but rarely in clinical practice. Barriers including practical difficulties administering printed questionnaires have limited their use. Telehealth technology could reduce these barriers and encourage better doctor-patient interaction regarding patient symptoms and quality-of-life monitoring. The aim of this study was to develop a new system for transmitting patients' self-reported outcomes using mobile phones or the internet, and to test whether patients can and will use the system via a mobile phone. Methods We have developed a prototype of a Wireless Health Outcomes Monitoring System, which allows structured questionnaires to be sent to the patient by their medical management team. The patients' answers are directly sent to an authorised website immediately accessible by the medical team, and are displayed in a graphic format that highlights the patient's state of health. In the present study, 97 cancer inpatients were asked to complete a ten-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was delivered by display on a mobile phone, and was answered by the patients using the mobile phone keypad. Results Of the 97 patients, 56 (58% attempted the questionnaire, and all of these 56 completed it. Only 6% of the total number of questions were left unanswered by patients. Forty-one (42% patients refused to participate, mostly due to their lack of familiarity with mobile phone use. Compared with those who completed the questionnaire, patients who refused to participate were older, had fewer years of education and were less familiar with new communications technology (mobile phone calls, mobile phone SMS, internet, email. Conclusion More than half of the patients self-completed the questionnaire using the mobile phone. This proportion may increase with the use of multichannel communications which can be incorporated into the system. The proportion may also

  10. Acceleration of superparamagnetic particles with magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, R., E-mail: Robert.stange@tu-dresden.de; Lenk, F.; Bley, T.; Boschke, E.

    2017-04-01

    High magnetic capture efficiency in the context of Biomagnetic Separation (BMS) using superparamagnetic particles (SMPs) requires efficient mixing and high relative velocities between cellular and other targets and SMPs. For this purpose, batch processes or microfluidic systems are commonly used. Here, we analyze the characteristics of an in-house developed batch process experimental setup, the Electromagnetic Sample Mixer (ESM) described earlier. This device uses three electromagnets to increase the relative velocity between SMPs and targets. We carry out simulations of the magnetic field in the ESM and in a simpler paradigmatic setup, and thus were able to calculate the force field acting on the SMPs and to simulate their relative velocities and fluid dynamics due to SMP movement. In this way we were able to show that alternate charging of the magnets induces a double circular stream of SMPs in the ESM, resulting in high relative velocities of SMPs to the targets. Consequently, due to the conservation of momentum, the fluid experiences an acceleration induced by the SMPs. We validated our simulations by microscopic observation of the SMPs in the magnetic field, using a homemade apparatus designed to accommodate a long working-distance lens. By comparing the results of modeling this paradigmatic setup with the experimental observations, we determined that the velocities of the SMPs corresponded to the results of our simulations. - Highlights: • Investigation of a batch process setup for complex forming at Biomagnetic Separation. • Simulation of fluid flow characteristics in this Electro Magnetic Samplemixer. • Simulation of relative velocities between magnetic particles and fluid in the setup. • Simulation of fluid flow induced by the acceleration of magnet particles. • Validation of magnetic fields and flow characteristics in paradigmatic setups. • Reached relative velocity is higher than the sedimentation velocity of the particles • Alternating

  11. Monitoring the interfacial electric field in pure and doped SrTiO3 surfaces by means of phase-resolved optical second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubano, Andrea; Mou, Sen; Paparo, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    Oxides and new functional materials such as oxide-based hetero-structures are very good candidates to achieve the goal of the next generation electronics. One of the main features that rules the electronic behavior of these compounds is the interfacial electric field which confines the charge carriers to a quasi-two-dimensional space region. The sign of the confined charge clearly depends on the electric field direction, which is however a very elusive quantity, as most techniques can only detect its absolute value. Even more valuable would be to access the sign of the interfacial electric field directly during the sample growth, being thus able to optimize the growth conditions directly looking at the feature of interest. For this aim, solid and reliable sensors are needed for monitoring the thin films while grown. Recently optical second harmonic generation has been proposed by us as a tool for non-invasive, non-destructive, real-time, in-situ imaging of oxide epitaxial film growth. The spatial resolution of this technique has been exploited to obtain real-time images of the sample under investigation. Here we propose to exploit another very important physical property of the second harmonic wave: its phase, which is directly coupled with the electric field direction, as shown by our measurements.

  12. Multi-gradient echo MR thermometry for monitoring of the near-field area during MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mie K; de Greef, Martijn; Bouwman, Job G; Moonen, Chrit T W; Viergever, Max A; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2015-10-07

    The multi-gradient echo MR thermometry (MGE MRT) method is proposed to use at the interface of the muscle and fat layers found in the abdominal wall, to monitor MR-HIFU heating. As MGE MRT uses fat as a reference, it is field-drift corrected. Relative temperature maps were reconstructed by subtracting absolute temperature maps. Because the absolute temperature maps are reconstructed of individual scans, MGE MRT provides the flexibility of interleaved mapping of temperature changes between two arbitrary time points. The method's performance was assessed in an ex vivo water bath experiment. An ex vivo HIFU experiment was performed to show the method's ability to monitor heating of consecutive HIFU sonications and to estimate cooling time constants, in the presence of field drift. The interleaved use between scans of a clinical protocol was demonstrated in vivo in a patient during a clinical uterine fibroid treatment. The relative temperature measurements were accurate (mean absolute error 0.3 °C) and provided excellent visualization of the heating of consecutive HIFU sonications. Maps were reconstructed of estimated cooling time constants and mean ROI values could be well explained by the applied heating pattern. Heating upon HIFU sonication and subsequent cooling could be observed in the in vivo demonstration.

  13. Field experiment in jointed rock mass with electro-magnetic tomography. Challenge for 50m energy penetration and an interpretation with additional geological data; Denjiha tomography ni yoru setsurisei ganban no tansa. Kokan kyori 50m no sokutei to chishitsu kaishaku no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K; Koga, K; Nishiyama, E; Yamamoto, T [Kawasaki Geological Engineering, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    With the purpose of extending an exploring distance in electromagnetic tomography, a prototype was made as a device to receive and transmit continuous waves in a borehole, so that a tomographic observation was carried out on a jointed rock mass that had a conventionally short exploring distance. The device consisted of a transmitter, receiver, antenna, cable and surface controller, with a personal computer used for displaying and storing data. The prototype antenna was provided with a size insertable into a VP50 vinyl chloride tube. In order to determine a relative permittivity of a rock, a boring core was shaped and an impedance was measured. The measurement of tomography was carried out at 1m spaces apart in the bore holes with a distance of 50m in between. The received waveforms were stored in a floppy disk built in the personal computer. As a result of the analysis, a tomographic cross-section of the electromagnetic wave velocity was obtained, showing the distribution of sandstone with a high electromagnetic wave velocity and little joints, shale with a low electromagnetic wave velocity, chart with a high electromagnetic wave velocity, etc. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. SPOT-Based Sub-Field Level Monitoring of Vegetation Cover Dynamics: A Case of Irrigated Croplands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Dubovyk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring multi-temporal spatial information on vegetation condition at scales appropriate for site-specific agricultural management is often complicated by the need for meticulous field measurements. Understanding spatial/temporal crop cover heterogeneity within irrigated croplands may support sustainable land use, specifically in areas affected by land degradation due to secondary soil salinization. This study demonstrates the use of multi-temporal, high spatial resolution (10 m SPOT-4/5 image data in an integrated change vector analysis and spectral mixture analysis (CVA-SMA procedure. This procedure was implemented with the principal objective of mapping sub-field vegetation cover dynamics in irrigated lowland areas within the lowerlands of the Amu Darya River. CVA intensity and direction were calculated separately for the periods of 1998–2006 and 2006–2010. Cumulative change intensity and the overall directional trend were also derived for the entire observation period of 1998–2010. Results show that most of the vector changes were observed between 1998 and 2006; persistent conditions were seen within the study region during the 2006–2010 period. A decreasing vegetation cover trend was identified within 38% of arable land. Areas of decreasing vegetation cover were located principally in the irrigation system periphery where deficient water supply and low soil quality lead to substandard crop development. During the 2006–2010 timeframe, degraded crop cover conditions persisted in 37% of arable land. Vegetation cover increased in 25% of the arable land where irrigation water supply was adequate. This high sub-field crop performance spatial heterogeneity clearly indicates that current land management practices are inefficient. Such information can provide the basis for implementing and adapting irrigation applications and salt leaching techniques to site-specific conditions and thereby make a significant contribution to sustainable

  15. The feasibility of near-field ODR beam-size monitoring at 23 GeV at FACET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Yao, C.-Y.; Hogan, M.; Muggli, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extension of near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) imaging to the 23 GeV beams at the proposed FACET facility at SLAC has been evaluated. The beam-size sensitivity at the 10- to 20-(micro)m sigma level based on a simple model will be reported. Polarization effects are also seen to be important and will be discussed. The comparisons to previous experimental results and the modeling results indicate sufficient feasibility for planning of the experiments in the coming year.

  16. The Feasibility of Near-field ODR Beam-size Monitoring at 23 GeV at FACET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Yao, C.-Y.; Hogan, M.; Muggli, P.

    2012-01-01

    Extension of near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) imaging to the 23 GeV beams at the proposed FACET facility at SLAC has been evaluated. The beam-size sensitivity at the 10- to 20-(micro)m sigma level based on a simple model will be reported. Polarization effects are also seen to be important and will be discussed. The comparisons to previous experimental results and the modeling results indicate sufficient feasibility for planning of the experiments in the coming year.

  17. Algorithm for in-pile field monitoring using conditional dividing of detectors into training and control ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goryunov, V.K.; Tukhvetov, F.T.

    1989-01-01

    Heuristic solution of the problem of reliability parameter evaluation of two information sources-physical calculation and measurements - in reactor control systems is suggested. The approach described presupposes that the existing control systems of power release fields in reactors located at regular intervals over the core. It is suggested that the detectors should be subdivided into the training (by which correction with different values of reliability parameters is made) and control onesd (those, by which appropriate values of parameters are compared and selected). The algorithm considered is realized at the BIlibin heat and power generating nuclear plant and is succesfully used. 7 refs.; 5 refs.; 1 tab

  18. Field scale molecular analysis for the monitoring of bacterial community structures during on-site diesel bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Lena; Griffiths, Robert I; Philp, James C; Whiteley, Andrew S

    2010-07-01

    A diesel contaminated groundwater site was surveyed using 16S rRNA gene based analyses to investigate the effect of bioaugmentation on the bacterial communities present. The analyses included the use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to profile microbial community structure and the construction and sequencing of clone libraries in order to identify the organisms present. Community analyses revealed a high degree of similarity in the inoculated compartments during bioaugmentation, not observed once inoculation had ceased. However, it was also shown that there was very little community similarity between the inoculum and the inoculated samples. Instead, the similarity seen during the application of the bioaugmentation treatment was thought to be due to nutrient addition applied along with the inoculum. Furthermore, once the bioaugmentation treatment had ceased the communities around the site became more diverse, suggesting that the hierarchical structure seen during treatment was due to the stimulation of a group of opportunistic indigenous organisms by the nutrients added. The findings not only highlight the importance of monitoring the fate of inocula used in bioaugmentation but also how crucial the process of the selection of species and the culture conditions used in the construction of these consortia. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring and toxicity evaluation of phytoplankton on lithium manganese oxide adsorbents at lithium recovery pilot plant field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H. O.; Kim, J. A.; Kim, J. C.; Chung, K. S.; Ryu, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    For recovery of rare mineral resources such as lithium or boron from seawater, the lithium adsorbent material have been made by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and pilot plant was conducted in Okgye Harbor, Gangneung, Korea. The application of lithium adsorbent in pilot plant, it is important to consider the impact on the marine environment. Especially phytoplankton communities are important marine microorganism to represent marine primary product. At the same time, phytoplankton is possible to induce the decrease of lithium recovery rate due to cause of biofouling to surfaces of lithium adsorbents. Therefore long-term and periodic monitoring of phytoplankton is necessary to understand the environmental impact and biofouling problems near the lithium pilot plant. The abundance and biomass of phytoplankton have been evaluated through monthly interval sampling from February 2013 to May 2015. Abundance and species diversity of phytoplankton went up to summer from winter. When lithium adsorbents were immersing to seawater, eco-toxicities of released substances were determined using Microtox with bioluminescence bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The adsorbents were soaked in sterilized seawater and aeration for 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days intervals under controlled temperature. Maximum EC50 concentration was 61.4% and this toxicity was showed in more than 10 days exposure.

  20. Successful field application in continuous DTS monitoring under harsh environment of SAGD wells using improved optical fiber technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaura, J.; Sierra, J. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada). WellDynamics

    2008-10-15

    Most protective materials of conventional optical fibers used in well monitoring applications are not designed for the extreme temperatures associated with steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations. Optical fiber performance is highly affected by hydrogen ingression; thermal resistance of materials; and mechanical resistance of the fiber. Optical fibers exposed to hydrogen experience increased absorption or light loss due to various chemical species in the glass fiber. This paper described the performance of a newly developed distributed temperature sensing (DTS) high temperature (HT) system for use in a hydrogen-rich SAGD environment. The OptoLog uses a new single-mode fiber that is hydrogen resilient under severe temperature. Hydrogen molecular reactions with impurities from the manufacturing process are minimized by a pure core glass fiber. The new temperature calculation algorithm used by the system was also described in this paper along with a comparative evaluation of the system performance with that of a conventional multi-mode DTS system. It was concluded that this newly developed system is a feasible solution for lowering Opex and minimizing interventions. It also reduces personnel exposure to hazardous well conditions because of the enhanced longevity of the OptoLog DTS-HT fiber. The data provided by the new system enables users to quickly identify anomalies; implement corrective actions immediately; and allow for better steam utilization. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Radioactive Environment Contamination and Abilities of the Modern Radiochemistry in the Field of Nuclear Waste Disposal and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, B.F.; Novikov, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impacts and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. This is known as Radioecological monitoring. Decisions regarding the remediation of polluted areas require detailed information about the distribution of radioactive nuclides in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, as well as, knowledge about radionuclides occurrence forms and migration patterns. Different sources of radionuclides penetration into the environment appoint their interaction with nature matrices in different ways and should be considered accordingly. An overview is given of the present radioecological situation around the reprocessing plant M ayak , which was constructed more than 40 years ago for the production of plutonium for military purposes. Some new approaches, methods and tools developed at the Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry for the isolation, concentration and determination of radionuclides in various environmental samples are discussed. Data regarding the distribution, occurrence, and migration processes of radionuclides 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and 241 Am, in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of the impact zone of the Mayak plant, are presented

  2. Nucleon Polarisabilities and Effective Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesshammer, Harald W.

    2017-09-01

    Low-energy Compton scattering probes the nucleon's two-photon response to electric and magnetic fields at fixed photon frequency and multipolarity. It tests the symmetries and strengths of the interactions between constituents, and with photons. For convenience, this energy-dependent information is often compressed into the two scalar dipole polarisabilities αE 1 and βM 1 at zero photon energy. These are fundamental quantities, and important for the proton charge radius puzzle and the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen. Combined with emerging lattice QCD computations, they provide stringent tests for our understanding of hadron structure. Extractions of the proton and neutron polarisabilities from all published elastic data below 300 MeV in Chiral Effective Field Theory with explicit Δ (1232) are now available. This talk emphasises χEFT as natural bridge between lattice QCD and ongoing or approved efforts at HI γS, MAMI and MAX-lab. Chiral lattice extrapolations from mπ > 200 MeV to the physical point compare well to lattice computations. Combining χEFT with high-intensity experiments with polarised targets and polarised beams will extract not only scalar polarisabilities, but in particular the four so-far poorly explored spin-polarisabilities. These parametrise the stiffness of the spin in external electro-magnetic fields (nucleonic bi-refringence/Faraday effect). New chiral predictions for proton, deuteron and 3He observables show intriguing sensitivities on spin and neutron polarisabilities. Data consistency and a model-independent quantification of residual theory uncertainties by Bayesian analysis are also discussed. Proton-neutron differences explore the interplay between chiral symmetry breaking and short-distance Physics. Finally, I address their impact on the neutron-proton mass difference, big-bang nucleosynthesis, and their relevance for anthropic arguments. Supported in part by DOE DE-SC0015393 and George Washington University.

  3. Stability Evaluation of Volcanic Slope Subjected to Rainfall and Freeze-Thaw Action Based on Field Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kawamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-induced failures of natural and artificial slopes such as cut slopes, which are subjected to freezing and thawing, have been frequently reported in Hokkaido, Japan. In particular, many failures occur intensively from spring to summer seasons. Despite numerous field studies, explanation of their mechanical behavior based on in situ data has not yet been completely achieved due to the difficulty in grasping failure conditions. This study aims at clarifying the aspects of in-situ volcanic slopes subjected to rainfall and freeze-thaw action. The changes in soil moisture, pore pressure, deformations, and temperatures in the slope were investigated using soil moisture meters, tensiometers, thermocouple sensors, clinometers, settlement gauges, an anemovane, a snow gauge, and a rainfall gauge. The data generated from these measures indicated deformation in the slope examined mainly proceeded during the drainage process according to changes in soil moisture. Based on this data, a prediction method for failures is discussed in detail.

  4. Evaluation of electric and magnetic field monitoring of Miyake-jima volcano (Central Japan). 1995-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasai, Y.; Uyeshima, M.; Watanabe, H.; Takahashi, Y. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute; Zlotniki, J.; Yvetot, P. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Nishida, Y. [Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Science, Sapporo (Japan); Tanaka, Y. [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Science, Volcano Research Center (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    Results of electromagnetic observations on Miyake-jima volcano for the past five years are summarized. Audio-frequency MT soundings revealed some main features of the resistivity structure: 1) a hydrothermal aquifer in the summit Hatcho-Taira caldera is well identified in its size and position; 2) the older Kuwanoki-Taira caldera is characterized by a relatively lo resistive layer ({approx} a few hundreds {omega} {center_dot} m), surrounded by highly resistive boundaries; 3) the low resistive area of sea water penetration spreads within 1 to 2 km from the coast line including the 1940 and 1962 fissures in NE, but the 1983 fissure zone in the SW is very resistive. The distribution of Self Potential (SP) exhibits two negative (-200 and -100 mV) and one positive (+ 700 mV) anomalies). The former correspond to the fissures of 1874 (N) and 1763 (SW) eruptions, while the latter to the fumaroles in Hatcho-Taira caldera. A large-scale hydrothermal system is suggested, in which the meteoric water infiltrated from fissure zones is heated at depth and rises up to the summit fumaroles area. Joint observations of magnetic field, resistivity and SP have been conducted since October 1995. Electric and magnetic fields induced by the dominant ocean current Kuroshio flowing around the island is the most serious EM noises of natural origin. The nature of the motionally-induced fields has been clarified through observations with 8 proton magnetometers, 3 short-span SP measurement arrays, and a long-distance SP array over the island connected with telephone cables. The fluctuations in the total intensity prevail along the southwestern coast. Such magnetic field is produced by electric currents in SE-NW, which are generated by the meander of Kuroshio flowing from SW to NE. This relation was clearly demonstrated by the long-distance and short-span SP measurements. Anomalous magnetic variations were observed simultaneously with positive (+ 10nT) on the north and negative (-5 nT) on the

  5. Glutamate monitoring in vitro and in vivo: recent progress in the field of glutamate biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieben, Nathalie Ines; Rose, Nadia Cherouati; Martinez, Karen Laurence

    2009-01-01

    is currently the most common method for in vivo glutamate sampling. However, the recent development and improvement of enzyme-based amperometric glutamate biosensors makes them a promising alternative to microdialysis for in vivo applications, as well as valuable devices for in vitro applications in basic......, and different techniques have been developed to this end. This review presents and discusses these techniques, especially the recent progress in the field of glutamate biosensors, as well as the great potential of nanotechnology in glutamate sensing. Microdialysis coupled to analytical detection techniques...... neurobiological research. Another interesting group of biosensors for glutamate are fluorescence-based glutamate biosensors, which have unsurpassed spatio-temporal resolution and are therefore important tools for investigating glutamate dynamics during signaling. Adding to this list are biosensors based on nano...

  6. TH-CD-207A-05: Lung Surface Deformation Vector Fields Prediction by Monitoring Respiratory Surrogate Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasehi Tehrani, J; Wang, J; McEwan, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we developed and evaluated a method for predicting lung surface deformation vector fields (SDVFs) based on surrogate signals such as chest and abdomen motion at selected locations and spirometry measurements. Methods: A Patient-specific 3D triangular surface mesh of the lung region at end-expiration (EE) phase was obtained by threshold-based segmentation method. For each patient, a spirometer recorded the flow volume changes of the lungs; and 192 selected points at a regular spacing of 2cm X 2cm matrix points over a total area of 34cm X 24cm on the surface of chest and abdomen was used to detect chest wall motions. Preprocessing techniques such as QR factorization with column pivoting (QRCP) were employed to remove redundant observations of the chest and abdominal area. To create a statistical model between the lung surface and the corresponding surrogate signals, we developed a predictive model based on canonical ridge regression (CRR). Two unique weighting vectors were selected for each vertex on the surface of the lung, and they were optimized during the training process using the all other phases of 4D-CT except the end-inspiration (EI) phase. These parameters were employed to predict the vertices locations of a testing data set, which was the EI phase of 4D-CT. Results: For ten lung cancer patients, the deformation vector field of each vertex of lung surface mesh was estimated from the external motion at selected positions on the chest wall surface plus spirometry measurements. The average estimation of 98th percentile of error was less than 1 mm (AP= 0.85, RL= 0.61, and SI= 0.82). Conclusion: The developed predictive model provides a non-invasive approach to derive lung boundary condition. Together with personalized biomechanical respiration modelling, the proposed model can be used to derive the lung tumor motion during radiation therapy accurately from non-invasive measurements.

  7. TH-CD-207A-05: Lung Surface Deformation Vector Fields Prediction by Monitoring Respiratory Surrogate Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasehi Tehrani, J; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); McEwan, A [The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, we developed and evaluated a method for predicting lung surface deformation vector fields (SDVFs) based on surrogate signals such as chest and abdomen motion at selected locations and spirometry measurements. Methods: A Patient-specific 3D triangular surface mesh of the lung region at end-expiration (EE) phase was obtained by threshold-based segmentation method. For each patient, a spirometer recorded the flow volume changes of the lungs; and 192 selected points at a regular spacing of 2cm X 2cm matrix points over a total area of 34cm X 24cm on the surface of chest and abdomen was used to detect chest wall motions. Preprocessing techniques such as QR factorization with column pivoting (QRCP) were employed to remove redundant observations of the chest and abdominal area. To create a statistical model between the lung surface and the corresponding surrogate signals, we developed a predictive model based on canonical ridge regression (CRR). Two unique weighting vectors were selected for each vertex on the surface of the lung, and they were optimized during the training process using the all other phases of 4D-CT except the end-inspiration (EI) phase. These parameters were employed to predict the vertices locations of a testing data set, which was the EI phase of 4D-CT. Results: For ten lung cancer patients, the deformation vector field of each vertex of lung surface mesh was estimated from the external motion at selected positions on the chest wall surface plus spirometry measurements. The average estimation of 98th percentile of error was less than 1 mm (AP= 0.85, RL= 0.61, and SI= 0.82). Conclusion: The developed predictive model provides a non-invasive approach to derive lung boundary condition. Together with personalized biomechanical respiration modelling, the proposed model can be used to derive the lung tumor motion during radiation therapy accurately from non-invasive measurements.

  8. Monitoring Trends in Insecticide Resistance of Field Populations of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Guizhou Province, China, 2012–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Xue; Li, Wen-Hong; Cheng, Ying; Li, Feng-Liang; Ye, Zhao-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory insect that is one of the most important pest species on rice in many Asian countries. Control of S. furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) primarily depends on the use of chemical insecticides, and with this extensive reliance on pesticides, determining the degree of resistance of S. furcifera populations to the chemicals used for its control is essential. In this study, the resistance level to six conventional insec