WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring deposition rate

  1. State of the art in thin film thickness and deposition rate monitoring sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzea, Cristina; Robbie, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    In situ monitoring parameters are indispensable for thin film fabrication. Among them, thickness and deposition rate control are often the most important in achieving the reproducibility necessary for technological exploitation of physical phenomena dependent on film microstructure. This review describes the types of thickness and deposition rate sensors and their theoretical and phenomenological background, underlining their performances, as well as advantages and disadvantages

  2. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  3. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank Farsø; Sonne, Christian; Letcher, Robert J; Grimm, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153) in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR) and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears.

  4. Field metabolic rate and PCB adipose tissue deposition efficiency in East Greenland polar bears derived from contaminant monitoring data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Pavlova

    Full Text Available Climate change will increasingly affect the natural habitat and diet of polar bears (Ursus maritimus. Understanding the energetic needs of polar bears is therefore important. We developed a theoretical method for estimating polar bear food consumption based on using the highly recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener, 2,2',4,4',55-hexaCB (CB153 in bear adipose tissue as an indicator of food intake. By comparing the CB153 tissue concentrations in wild polar bears with estimates from a purposely designed individual-based model, we identified the possible combinations of field metabolic rates (FMR and CB153 deposition efficiencies in East Greenland polar bears. Our simulations indicate that if 30% of the CB153 consumed by polar bear individuals were deposited into their adipose tissue, the corresponding FMR would be only two times the basal metabolic rate. In contrast, if the modelled CB153 deposition efficiency were 10%, adult polar bears would require six times more energy than that needed to cover basal metabolism. This is considerably higher than what has been assumed for polar bears in previous studies though it is similar to FMRs found in other marine mammals. An implication of this result is that even relatively small reductions in future feeding opportunities could impact the survival of East Greenland polar bears.

  5. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1988-02-12

    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  6. Electrophoretic Deposition of Gallium with High Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanfei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, electrophoretic deposition (EPD is reported to form gallium thin film with high deposition rate and low cost while avoiding the highly toxic chemicals typically used in electroplating. A maximum deposition rate of ~0.6 μm/min, almost one order of magnitude higher than the typical value reported for electroplating, is obtained when employing a set of proper deposition parameters. The thickness of the film is shown to increase with deposition time when sequential deposition is employed. The concentration of Mg(NO32, the charging salt, is also found to be a critical factor to control the deposition rate. Various gallium micropatterns are obtained by masking the substrate during the process, demonstrating process compatibility with microfabrication. The reported novel approach can potentially be employed in a broad range of applications with Ga as a raw material, including microelectronics, photovoltaic cells, and flexible liquid metal microelectrodes.

  7. Occupational monitoring at radioactive waste deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner S.; Cunha, Franklin S. [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (COMAP.N/FCN/INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Fábrica de Combustível Nuclear. Coordenação de Meio Ambiente e Proteção Radiológica Ambiental; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Silva, Ademir X., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br, E-mail: franklincunha@inb.gov.br, E-mail: lararapls@hotmail.com, E-mail: Ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The Initial Deposit of Low Activity Radioactive Waste - DIRBA is an ancillary facility to the Nuclear Fuel Factory - FCN for the initial storage of low activity radioactive waste generated in the nuclear fuel cycle under the responsibility of the FCN. Currently approximately 460 200-liter drums containing Class 2.3 waste are stored: Waste containing Natural Radionuclides (RBMN-RN). As part of the nuclear licensing of the facility, an area radiological monitoring program was developed with monthly monitoring of 17 exposure points, 3 direct long-distance air sampling points with CAM alpha-7 monitors, monitored in January and 9 points where smears of alpha long half-life emitters were monitored in January. The mean exposure rate between points was 0.5 μSv∙h{sup -1}, with a maximum of 1.27 μSv∙h{sup -1} varying, on average, between 0.98 μSv∙h{sup -1} at point P1 to 0.23 μSv∙h{sup -1} at P11. The monthly average was the same, 0.50 μSv∙h-1, ranging from 0.46 μSv∙h{sup -1} (November) to 0.57 μSv∙h{sup -1} (August). The half-life long-lived alpha sampling were all below the MDA as well as the 9 smears. Regarding the requirements of monitored areas, the deposit must be considered as supervised area, from the point of view of radioprotection. The possibility of tipping the drums or other accidents with spillage of material contained into them caused, in a proactive way, the area to be considered a controlled area. (author)

  8. Atmospheric Deposition of Phosphorus to the Everglades: Concepts, Constraints, and Published Deposition Rates for Ecosystem Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth W. Redfield

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes concepts underlying the atmospheric input of phosphorus (P to ecosystems, published rates of P deposition, measurement methods, and approaches to future monitoring and research. P conveyed through the atmosphere can be a significant nutrient source for some freshwater and marine ecosystems. Particle sources and sinks at the land-air interface produce variation in P deposition from the atmosphere across temporal and spatial scales. Natural plant canopies can affect deposition rates by changing the physical environment and surface area for particle deposition. Land-use patterns can alter P deposition rates by changing particle concentrations in the atmosphere. The vast majority of P in dry atmospheric deposition is conveyed by coarse (2.5 to 10 μm and giant (10 to 100 μm particles, and yet these size fractions represent a challenge for long-term atmospheric monitoring in the absence of accepted methods for routine sampling. Most information on P deposition is from bulk precipitation collectors and wet/dry bucket sampling, both with questionable precision and accuracy. Most published annual rates of P deposition are gross estimates derived from bulk precipitation sampling in locations around the globe and range from about 5 to well over 100 mg P m–2 year–1, although most inland ecosystems receive between 20 and 80 mg P m–2 year–1. Rates below 30 mg P m–2 year–1 are found in remote areas and near coastlines. Intermediate rates of 30 to 50 mg P m–2 year–1 are associated with forests or mixed land use, and rates of 50 to 100 mg P m–2 year–1 or more are often recorded from urban or agricultural settings. Comparison with other methods suggests that these bulk precipitation estimates provide crude boundaries around actual P deposition rates for various land uses. However, data screening cannot remove all positive bias caused by contamination of bucket or bulk collectors. As a consequence, continued sampling

  9. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Beenish M.

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone?s camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, ?Unique Heart Rate Monitor?, you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal ...

  10. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Beenish M

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone's camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, 'Unique Heart Rate Monitor', you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal reflection and sharing with a provider.

  11. Evaluation of eleven years of area monitoring for external dose rate in a deposit of radioactive waste at the ore treatment unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Oliveira, S.Q. de; Py Junior, D.A.; Silva, A.C.A.; Garcia Filho, O., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ, (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At Ore Treatment Unit (UTM, in Portuguese) situated in Pocos de Caldas, MG, there is a deposit of about 40 tons radioactive waste produced decades ago from Santo Amaro deactivated plant (SAP) and then from NUCLEMON that processed monazite sands to extract rare earth elements. This waste contains uranium and thorium and it is stored in six hangars. This study aims to analyze the dose rates in the hangars from 2002 to 2012. Annually, two samples were obtained, for a total of 24 samples. The results showed the highest doses rates at UTM, ranging from 0.5 to 409.8 μSv h{sup -}'1 for the total set of samples. The averages extended from 0.96 μSv h{sup -1} in hangar C-02 up to 282.64 μSv h{sup -1} in hangar C-05. Considering each hangar separately, the results were as follows: hangar C-01 average 30.34 μSv h{sup -1}, ranging from 6.2 to 71.7 μSv h{sup -1}; hangar C-02 average 0.96 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 0.5 to 2.51 μSv h{sup -1}); hangar C-05 average 282.64 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 3.7 to 409.8 μSv h{sup -1}); hangar C-06 average 188.92 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 1.85 to 338.0 μSv h{sup -1}); hangar C-07, average 172.05 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 1.95 to 283.0 μSv h{sup -1}) and hangar C-09, average 122.59 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 1.11 to 277.0 μSv h{sup -1}). ANOVA test indicated that the dose rates averages in the six hangars are different (F{sub calc} of 70.90 higher F{sub crit} of 2.28), and the Tukey test allowed to group the hangars in the following sequence: C-05> C-06 = C-07> C-09> C-01 = C-02. (author)

  12. Evaluation of eleven years of area monitoring for external dose rate in a deposit of radioactive waste at the ore treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Oliveira, S.Q. de; Py Junior, D.A.; Silva, A.C.A.; Garcia Filho, O.

    2013-01-01

    At Ore Treatment Unit (UTM, in Portuguese) situated in Pocos de Caldas, MG, there is a deposit of about 40 tons radioactive waste produced decades ago from Santo Amaro deactivated plant (SAP) and then from NUCLEMON that processed monazite sands to extract rare earth elements. This waste contains uranium and thorium and it is stored in six hangars. This study aims to analyze the dose rates in the hangars from 2002 to 2012. Annually, two samples were obtained, for a total of 24 samples. The results showed the highest doses rates at UTM, ranging from 0.5 to 409.8 μSv h - '1 for the total set of samples. The averages extended from 0.96 μSv h -1 in hangar C-02 up to 282.64 μSv h -1 in hangar C-05. Considering each hangar separately, the results were as follows: hangar C-01 average 30.34 μSv h -1 , ranging from 6.2 to 71.7 μSv h -1 ; hangar C-02 average 0.96 μSv h -1 (min-max 0.5 to 2.51 μSv h -1 ); hangar C-05 average 282.64 μSv h -1 (min-max 3.7 to 409.8 μSv h -1 ); hangar C-06 average 188.92 μSv h -1 (min-max 1.85 to 338.0 μSv h -1 ); hangar C-07, average 172.05 μSv h -1 (min-max 1.95 to 283.0 μSv h -1 ) and hangar C-09, average 122.59 μSv h -1 (min-max 1.11 to 277.0 μSv h -1 ). ANOVA test indicated that the dose rates averages in the six hangars are different (F calc of 70.90 higher F crit of 2.28), and the Tukey test allowed to group the hangars in the following sequence: C-05> C-06 = C-07> C-09> C-01 = C-02. (author)

  13. Exploring and Monitoring of Methane Hydrate Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudac, D.; Obhođaš, J.; Nađ, K.; Valković, V.

    2018-01-01

    Relatively recently, in the last 20 years, it was discovered that methane hydrate (MH) deposits are globally distributed in the permafrost and oceans. Before 1965 when first deposits were discovered in nature, it was believed that MH can occur only in laboratory conditions or in vast parts of the Universe. Presently it is presumed that this solid crystalline compounds in which CH4 molecules occupies the water ice lattices (nominal chemical formula of MH is C4H62O23) can serve as an energy source favorably to the all of the world remaining conventional hydrocarbon sources. The worldwide estimates of MH deposits range from 2x1014 m3 to 3.053x1018 cubic meters. This uncertainty partly results from our limitations in geological understanding of the MH deposits, which is due to the relatively bad quality of data obtained by presently available seismic and electromagnetic techniques. Moreover, MH deposits can become vulnerable to climate changes, which were already occurring in geological past whit tremendous consequences for the global life on Earth. Thus, further development of advanced techniques is needed to enhance our abilities to better characterize, quantify and monitor the MH deposits. In the work presented 14 MeV neutrons and associated alpha particle imaging (API) where used to quantify the amount of MH in the sample. Samples were prepared from sea sediment, quartz sand and MH simulant. MH simulant with chemical formula C4H46O23 was made from sucrose (25 % by mass) and water. MH quantity was measured by measuring the carbon content in the sample [1-8].

  14. Exploring and Monitoring of Methane Hydrate Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudac D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatively recently, in the last 20 years, it was discovered that methane hydrate (MH deposits are globally distributed in the permafrost and oceans. Before 1965 when first deposits were discovered in nature, it was believed that MH can occur only in laboratory conditions or in vast parts of the Universe. Presently it is presumed that this solid crystalline compounds in which CH4 molecules occupies the water ice lattices (nominal chemical formula of MH is C4H62O23 can serve as an energy source favorably to the all of the world remaining conventional hydrocarbon sources. The worldwide estimates of MH deposits range from 2x1014 m3 to 3.053x1018 cubic meters. This uncertainty partly results from our limitations in geological understanding of the MH deposits, which is due to the relatively bad quality of data obtained by presently available seismic and electromagnetic techniques. Moreover, MH deposits can become vulnerable to climate changes, which were already occurring in geological past whit tremendous consequences for the global life on Earth. Thus, further development of advanced techniques is needed to enhance our abilities to better characterize, quantify and monitor the MH deposits. In the work presented 14 MeV neutrons and associated alpha particle imaging (API where used to quantify the amount of MH in the sample. Samples were prepared from sea sediment, quartz sand and MH simulant. MH simulant with chemical formula C4H46O23 was made from sucrose (25 % by mass and water. MH quantity was measured by measuring the carbon content in the sample [1-8].

  15. Charge balancing fill rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A fill rate monitor has been developed for the NSLS storage rings to allow machine tuning over a very large dynamic range of beam current. Synchrotron light, focused on a photodiode, produces a signal proportional to the beam current. A charge balancing circuit processes the diode current, creating an output signal proportional to the current injected into the ring. The unit operates linearly over a dynamic range of 120 dB and can resolve pulses of injected beam as small as 1 μA

  16. Development and evaluation of a long-term deposit probe for on-line monitoring of deposit growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, Anders; Lauren, Tor; Yrjas, Patrik; Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20540 Turku (Finland); Friesenbichler, Joachim [Institute for Resource Efficient and Sustainable Systems, Technical University Graz Inffeldg. 21b, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    A newly designed air-cooled probe for on-line monitoring of deposition growth has been tested in a boiler firing three woody fuels. Thermocouples are mounted on both sides of the tube wall enabling measurements of the heat flux through the probe wall. Knowing the heat flux through the probe wall, it is possible to measure the additional heat transfer resistance caused by the deposit and to estimate the properties of the deposit. Calculating the deposit thickness using the collected temperature data indicated the thinnest deposit when wood was fired, followed by bark and waste wood. The calculated deposit thickness was larger than those found when analysing the deposit thickness after the probe had been removed. Nevertheless, the ranking of fuels by deposit build-up rate was the same. (author)

  17. Dose and dose rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, O.; Ryba, J.; Slezak, V.; Svobodova, B.; Viererbl, L.

    1984-10-01

    The methods are discussea of measuring dose rate or dose using a scintillation counte. A plastic scintillator based on polystyrene with PBD and POPOP activators and coated with ZnS(Ag) was chosen for the projected monitor. The scintillators were cylindrical and spherical in shape and of different sizes; black polypropylene tubes were chosen as the best case for the probs. For the counter with different plastic scintillators, the statistical error 2σ for natural background was determined. For determining the suitable thickness of the ZnS(Ag) layer the energy dependence of the counter was measured. Radioisotopes 137 Cs, 241 Am and 109 Cd were chosen as radiation sources. The best suited ZnS(Ag) thickness was found to be 0.5 μm. Experiments were carried out to determine the directional dependence of the detector response and the signal to noise ratio. The temperature dependence of the detector response and its compensation were studied, as were the time stability and fatigue manifestations of the photomultiplier. The design of a laboratory prototype of a dose rate and dose monitor is described. Block diagrams are given of the various functional parts of the instrument. The designed instrument is easiiy portable, battery powered, measures dose rates from natural background in the range of five orders, i.e., 10 -2 to 10 3 nGy/s, and allows to determine a dose of up to 10 mGy. Accouracy of measurement in the energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV is better than +-20%. (E.S.)

  18. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the types of monitoring? • How is auscultation performed? • How is electronic fetal monitoring performed? • How ... methods of fetal heart rate monitoring in labor. Auscultation is a method of periodically listening to the ...

  19. Monitoring the dry deposition of SO2 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman JW; Versluis AH; Verplanke TAJW; Haan D de; Anink D; Elzakker BG van; Aalst RM van

    1989-01-01

    A micrometeorological gradient method has been applied to monitor SO2 dry deposition fluxes on a routine basis. Results of a feasibility study during 1987 to 1989 at a rural site in the Netherlands demonstrated that this method can be used to measure dry deposition flux and deposition velocity

  20. Influence of Gas Flow Rate on the Deposition Rate on Stainless Steel 202 Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Chowdhury; D.M. Nuruzzaman

    2012-01-01

    Solid thin films have been deposited on stainless steel 202 (SS 202) substrates at different flow rates of natural gas using a hot filament thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. In the experiments, the variations of thin film deposition rate with the variation of gas flow rate have been investigated. The effects of gap between activation heater and substrate on the deposition rate have also been observed. Results show that deposition rate on SS 202 increases with the increase in g...

  1. Influence of Gas Flow Rate on the Deposition Rate on Stainless Steel 202 Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid thin films have been deposited on stainless steel 202 (SS 202 substrates at different flow rates of natural gas using a hot filament thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD reactor. In the experiments, the variations of thin film deposition rate with the variation of gas flow rate have been investigated. The effects of gap between activation heater and substrate on the deposition rate have also been observed. Results show that deposition rate on SS 202 increases with the increase in gas flow rate within the observed range. It is also found that deposition rate increases with the decrease in gap between activation heater and substrate. In addition, friction coefficient and wear rate of SS 202 sliding against SS 304 under different sliding velocities are also investigated before and after deposition. The experimental results reveal that improved friction coefficient and wear rate is obtained after deposition than that of before deposition.

  2. Environmental monitoring program to NUCLEMON deposits in Botuxim - Itu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An Environmental monitoring program to be executed in routine as caution against a possible contamination in adjacents regions of Radioactive Materials deposits sites of Santo Amaro (USAM)/NUCLEMON is presented. (author) [pt

  3. High-deposition-rate ceramics synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Outka, D.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Parallel experimental and computational investigations are conducted in this project to develop validated numerical models of ceramic synthesis processes. Experiments are conducted in the High-Temperature Materials Synthesis Laboratory in Sandia`s Combustion Research Facility. A high-temperature flow reactor that can accommodate small preforms (1-3 cm diameter) generates conditions under which deposition can be observed, with flexibility to vary both deposition temperature (up to 1500 K) and pressure (as low as 10 torr). Both mass spectrometric and laser diagnostic probes are available to provide measurements of gas-phase compositions. Experiments using surface analytical techniques are also applied to characterize important processes occuring on the deposit surface. Computational tools developed through extensive research in the combustion field are employed to simulate the chemically reacting flows present in typical industrial reactors. These include the CHEMKIN and Surface-CHEMKIN suites of codes, which permit facile development of complex reaction mechanisms and vastly simplify the implementation of multi-component transport and thermodynamics. Quantum chemistry codes are also used to estimate thermodynamic and kinetic data for species and reactions for which this information is unavailable.

  4. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion......Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  5. Credit Ratings and Bank Monitoring Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, L.I.; Roszbach, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use credit rating data from two Swedish banks to elicit evidence on these banks’ loan monitoring ability. We do so by comparing the ability of bank ratings to predict loan defaults relative to that of public ratings from the Swedish credit bureau. We test the banks’ abilility to

  6. Optimal bank portfolio choice under fixed-rate deposit insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Anlong Li

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the investment decisions of a bank whose deposits are fully insured under fixed-rate insurance, showing how banks dynamically adjust their investment portfolios in response to market information and how this flexibility affects both investment decisions and the fair cost of deposit insurance.

  7. Monitoring apparatus for monitoring a user's heart rate and/or heart rate variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A monitoring apparatus (4) monitors a user's heart rate and/or heart rate variation. The apparatus includes a capacitor (22) which is positionable on or near a body part of a person, for example a person's limb, for example an arm (3), such that an electrical capacitance of the capacitor (22) is

  8. Tools for Trigger Rate Monitoring at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Geoffrey; Wightman, Andrew Steven

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, we expect the LHC to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of roughly $2.0 \\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, with about 60 simultaneous proton-proton collisions (pileup) per event. In these challenging conditions, it is important to be able to intelligently monitor the rate at which data are being collected (the trigger rate). It is not enough to simply look at the trigger rate; it is equally important to compare the trigger rate with expectations. We present a set of software tools that have been developed to accomplish this. The tools include a real-time component - a script that monitors the rates of individual triggers during data-taking, and activates an alarm if rates deviate significantly from expectation. Fits are made to previously collected data and extrapolated to higher pileup. The behavior of triggers as a function of pileup is then monitored as data are collected - plots are automatically produced on an hourly basis and uploaded to a web area...

  9. Subordinate debt, deposit insurance and market oriented monitoring of banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav S. Chauhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a model of a bank with endogenous risk choices, where delegated monitoring by an active market in subordinate debt helps in containing the bank's risk shifting in the presence of deposit insurance. In comparison to static ex ante contracting, an active market enables continuous monitoring by subordinate debt to penalise the bank's risk shifting. The model is instrumental in deriving optimal level of subordinate debt required to achieve equilibrium where banks choose risk levels consistent with the first best as envisaged by a social planner. The optimal quantity of subordinate debt further eliminates any risk shifting associated even with risk insensitive premiums.

  10. Delta count-rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Etten, D.; Olsen, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A need for a more effective way to rapidly search for gamma-ray contamination over large areas led to the design and construction of a very sensitive gamma detection system. The delta count-rate monitoring system was installed in a four-wheel-drive van instrumented for environmental surveillance and accident response. The system consists of four main sections: (1) two scintillation detectors, (2) high-voltage power supply amplifier and single-channel analyzer, (3) delta count-rate monitor, and (4) count-rate meter and recorder. The van's 6.5-kW generator powers the standard nuclear instrument modular design system. The two detectors are mounted in the rear corners of the van and can be run singly or jointly. A solid-state bar-graph count-rate meter mounted on the dashboard can be read easily by both the driver and passenger. A solid-state strip chart recorder shows trends and provides a permanent record of the data. An audible alarm is sounded at the delta monitor and at the dashboard count-rate meter if a detected radiation level exceeds the set background level by a predetermined amount

  11. Thoron exhalation rate monitor with absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Detao; Zhao Guizhi

    2003-01-01

    A measurement method of thoron exhalation rate is developed based on the characteristic of thorium C' which emits a α particle with higher energy than those of α particles released from radon and radon progenies. The principles of discriminating radon and realizing thoron exhalation rate measurement on the material surface with absorber, the passive and integrated thoron exhalation rate monitor studied, and its calibration coefficient determination method are introduced. The effectiveness of mitigating thoron exhalation rate of wall surface by depressurization inside wall and thoron exhalation rates on some materials surfaces were measured by using the studied monitors. The calibration coefficient of the studied monitor is R=0.246 cm -2 ·(kBq·m -3 ·h) -1 . The lower limit of detection is LLD=18.4 mBq·m -2 ·s -1 when the sampling period is 7 days and the standard deviation of background track densities of the adopted CR-39 SSNTD is s T =1.6 cm -2

  12. Measurements of dry-deposition parameters for the California acid-deposition monitoring program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C.; Egami, R.T.; Bowen, J.L.; Frazier, C.A.

    1991-06-01

    The State of California monitors the concentrations of acidic gases and particles at 10 sites throughout the state. Seven sites represent urban areas (South Coast Air Basin - three sites, San Francisco Bay Area, Bakersfield, Santa Barbara, and Sacramento) and three represent forested areas (Sequoia National Park, Yosemite National Park, and Gasquet). Several sites are collocated with monitoring instruments for other air quality and forest response networks. Continuous monitors for the dry deposition network collect hourly average values for ozone, wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability, temperature, dew point, time of wetness, and solar radiation. A newly-designed gas/particle sampler collects daytime (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) and nighttime (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.) samples every sixth day for sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid. Particles are collected on the same day/night schedule in PM(10) and PM(2.5) size ranges, and are analyzed for mass, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium ions. The sampling schedule follows the regulatory schedule adopted by the EPA and ARB for suspended particulate matter. Wet deposition data are collected at or nearby the dry deposition stations. The first year of the monitoring program included installation of the network, training of technicians, acquisition and validation of data, and transfer of the sampling and analysis technology to Air Resources Board operating divisions. Data have been validated and stored for the period May, 1988 through September, 1989

  13. Particle deposition from aqueous suspensions in turbulent pipe flow - a comparison of observed deposition rates and predicted arrival rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodliffe, R.S.

    1979-11-01

    At the present time, there appear to be only four adequately controlled and characterised experimental studies of particle deposition from single phase water in turbulent pipe flow. These are used to illustrate the ranges of applicability of methods for predicting particle arrival rates at tube walls. Arrival rates are predicted from mass transfer correlations and the theory of Reeks and Skyrme (1976) when transport is limited by Brownian diffusion and inertial behaviour, respectively. The regimes in which finite particle size limits the application of these methods are defined and preliminary consideration is given to the conditions under which gravitational settling may make a contribution to deposition in vertically mounted tubes. (author)

  14. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-01-01

    To make up for the lack of data on 210 Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23±0.02 mBq m -3 during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall ( -2 y -1 . This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana

  15. Monitoring of deposits in pipelines using pressure pulse technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundsson, Jon S.; Celius, Harald K.

    2005-07-01

    The basis of pressure pulse technology is presented in terms of the water hammer equation, the pipeline pressure drop equation and the equation for speed of sound in multiphase mixtures. The technology can be used for a range of applications, from on-line monitoring of flowing conditions to on-demand measurements and analysis to locate and quantify deposits in wells and pipelines. While pressure pulse measurements are low-cost and easy to implement, the commercial use of pressure pulse technology has resulted from extensive field experience and substantial in-house software development. Simulation tools were used to illustrate the effect of a 2 mm thick deposit, 500 m long and located 375 m from a quick-acting valve. The simulation conditions used are typical for multiphase gas-oil flow along a horizontal 2 km long pipeline from wellhead to manifold. (Author)

  16. Enhancement of deposition rate at cryogenic temperature in synchrotron radiation excited deposition of silicon film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Yasuo; Sugita, Yoshihiro; Ito, Takashi; Kato, Hiroo; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro

    1989-01-01

    The authors have investigated the synchrotron radiation excited deposition of silicon films on the SiO 2 substrate by using SiH 4 /He mixture gas at BL-12C at Photon Factory. They used VUV light from the multilayer mirror with the center photon energy from 97 to 123eV, which effectively excites L-core electrons of silicon. Substrate temperature was widely varied from -178 degree C to 500 degree C. At -178 degree C, the deposition rate was as high as 400nm/200mAHr (normalized at the storage ring current at 200mA). As increasing the substrate temperature, the deposition rate was drastically decreased. The number of deposited silicon atoms is estimated to be 4 to 50% of incident photons, while the number of photo generated species in the gas phase within the mean free path from the surface is calculated as few as about 10 -3 of incident photons. These experimental results show that the deposition reaction is governed by the dissociation of surface adsorbates by the synchrotron radiation

  17. FPGA Implementation of Heart Rate Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, D; Rakshit, M; Sahu, P K

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a system that calculates the heart rate from Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. After heart rate calculation, tachycardia, bradycardia or normal heart rate can easily be detected. ECG is a diagnosis tool routinely used to access the electrical activities and muscular function of the heart. Heart rate is calculated by detecting the R peaks from the ECG signal. To provide a portable and the continuous heart rate monitoring system for patients using ECG, needs a dedicated hardware. FPGA provides easy testability, allows faster implementation and verification option for implementing a new design. We have proposed a five-stage based methodology by using basic VHDL blocks like addition, multiplication and data conversion (real to the fixed point and vice-versa). Our proposed heart rate calculation (R-peak detection) method has been validated, using 48 first channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. It shows an accuracy of 99.84%, the sensitivity of 99.94% and the positive predictive value of 99.89%. Our proposed method outperforms other well-known methods in case of pathological ECG signals and successfully implemented in FPGA.

  18. Heart rate effects of intraosseous injections using slow and fast rates of anesthetic solution deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Louis; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel; Drum, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a single-blind manner, 3 primary intraosseous injections to 61 subjects using: the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 45 seconds (fast injection); the Wand local anesthetic system at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection); a conventional syringe injection at a deposition rate of 4 minutes and 45 seconds (slow injection), in 3 separate appointments spaced at least 3 weeks apart. A pulse oximeter measured heart rate (pulse). The results demonstrated the mean maximum heart rate was statistically higher with the fast intraosseous injection (average 21 to 28 beats/min increase) than either of the 2 slow intraosseous injections (average 10 to 12 beats/min increase). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 slow injections. We concluded that an intraosseous injection of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine with the Wand at a 45-second rate of anesthetic deposition resulted in a significantly higher heart rate when compared with a 4-minute and 45-second anesthetic solution deposition using either the Wand or traditional syringe.

  19. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume

    OpenAIRE

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lef?vre, Ir?ne; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottl?, Catherine; Bont?, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons t...

  20. Monitoring current rates of salt dome movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, R.L.; Manning, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The tectonic stability of salt domes is a major concern for long-term domal storage of noxious wastes. A necessary phase of the many faceted dome storage study includes obtaining a measure of current vertical movement of any potential storage dome. This information then can be combined with data obtained from studies involving geologic time scales so as to provide a history of dome movement that includes present time. A system of instrumentation for monitoring current rates of dome movement is described. Complimentary finite element modelling of plausible dome movement also is presented. The proposed instrumentation system includes tiltmeters, precise levelling, laser ranging, and monitoring of microseisms. Thus, components of rotation and vertical and horizontal movements at the ground surface over a dome can be monitored. In addition, a measure of dome movement also may be obtained acoustically. The finite element modelling furnishes an aid for: (1) locating instrument sites over a dome so as to maximize instrument sensitivity, and (2) interpreting data obtained from the instrumentation system. An example of tiltmeter installation and operation over a dome in northwest Louisiana is included. Typical tiltmeter output is presented and discussed

  1. Accumulation rates and sediment deposition in the northwestern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Z.; Eisma, D.; Gieles, R.; Beks, J.

    As part of the EROS 2000 programme, sediment mixing and accumulation rates in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were determined, applying the 210Pb dating method to a total of 49 cores, and the results from 29 sediment cores are presented here. On the basis of the results from the 49 sediment cores, an attempt was made to present a general picture of sediment accumulation for the area of the northwestern Mediterranean. The total deposition of sediment in the area is estimated to be of the order of 34±15 × 106 ton year-1, which is half the value reported earlier by Got and Aloisi (1990) (Continental Shelf Research, 10, 841-855) for the same region. The activity-depth profiles of 210Pb show the presence of intensive mixing in the upper layer of near-shore sediments, but little or no mixing is observed in the deep-water sediments. Based on a diffusion model, sediment mixing rates calculated from excess 210Pb gradients vary from 0·002 to 7· cm2 year-1, and the deposition rates from 0·01 to 0·60 cm year-1. A linear dependence of sedimentation rate on water depth derived from the sediment cores indicates an inverse correlation between these two. The relatively high sedimentation rates and mixing rates found near the Rhône River suggest that the contribution from the river dominates the deposition system in the northwestern Mediterranean. In the deep-water basin, however, atmospheric input and biological production are clearly more important.

  2. Bluetooth Heart Rate Monitors For Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, R. E.; West, M. R.; Kalogera, K. L.; Hanson, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required for crewmembers during exercise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data are required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health aboard the ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) were worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_HRM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the 2 data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. RESULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6% error), followed by CS4 (3.3% error), CS3 (6.4% error), and CS2 (9.2% error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, but unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to obtain the best quality data. CS2 will be

  3. Simulation of 7Be monthly depositions using normally available data on environmental monitoring and local meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Yuji; Doi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Monthly depositions of Beryllium-7 were simulated using normally available data on environmental monitoring and local meteorology over a 5-year period, from 1986 to 1990. The washout scheme of ApSimon et al., the constant dry deposition velocity (0.002 ms -1 ), and the rainout scheme of Kasibhatla et al. (K scheme) were used for simulation. Seasonal variations in the observed depositions were relatively well simulated by the present parameterization, however, there was a tendency for simulations to exceed the observed values, when heavy rain was measured. The revised parameterization of rainout scheme was introduced and improved the overestimation. The result may suggest that aerosols containing 7 Be are removed at a relatively high rate from the formation area of raindrops. (author)

  4. Chronostratigraphy and deposition rates in the Okinawa Trough region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培英; 王永吉; 刘振夏

    1999-01-01

    Six representative cores from Okinawa Trough have been dated using AMS 14C, Standard 14C and ESR methods, and comparatively analysed. Systematic measurements of the oriented samples taken from the cores were conducted for obtaining their remnant magnetic polarity. With the aid of the dates obtained, particularly the AMS 14C ages of planktonic foraminiferal tests, two polarity events and two polar wanderings of the earth magnetic field have been defined. Calculations of the deposition rates for all the six core sites indicate rather high values in the trough plain, at least equivalent to those rates reported for the region of the East China Sea. They commonly range from 10 to 30 cm/ka, and even greater than 40 cm/ka in some localities. The deposition rate varied widely with topography and periods of time. In general, it is greater during the postglacial period than during the last glaciation. The chronostratigraphy in the Okinawa Trough region established through this study argues against the pr

  5. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE VARIATION OF SPRAY DEPOSITS IN VINEYARDS WITH AIRFLOW RATE AND VOLUME RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cerruto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research, continuing that reported in [2], deals with the spray application subject, so to investigate as volume rate and airflow rate, forward speed being equal, affect the foliar deposition in an espalier vineyard. Experimental trials were carried out by means of an air assisted towed sprayer, equipped with “Albuz ATR” nozzles. To take into account the influence of the development of the trees, the field trials were replicated in two phenological stages with an interval of about one month: “Inflorescences fully developed” (stage 1 and “Beginning of berry touch” (stage 2. A full factorial experiment was carried out for each growth stage, with two airflow rates (3.9 and 7.5 m3/s, three volume rates (103, 216, and 276 L/ha in the first growth stage and 154, 330 and 432 L/ha in the second growth stage, and four replicates, arranged according to a randomised complete block design. Working pressure (1.2 MPa and forward speed (1.4 m/s were kept unchanged for all the trials. The foliar deposition was measured by means of a spectrophotometric technique. The leaves were sampled on two depth layers and two or three heights, according to the trees’ development. The results showed that volume rate did not significantly influence the mean foliar deposition in both the two growth stages, while the highest deposits were obtained with the lowest airflow rate. The airflow rate × volume rate interaction, though not statistically significant, showed that low volume rates together with high airflow rates, result in a noticeable reduction in foliar deposition (29% with respect the grand mean, due to an increase of the spry drift, especially at the first growth stage, when the foliar development is little. These second tests, unlike those described in [2], did not show any positive influence of the airflow rate on the foliar deposition in the inner part of the canopy, so further investigations could be necessary to better understand the

  6. Study on the Deposition Rate Depending on Substrate Position by Using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ion beams have been used for over thirty years to modify materials in manufacturing of integrated circuits, and improving the corrosion properties of surfaces. Recently, the requirements for ion beam processes are becoming especially challenging in the following areas : ultra shallow junction formation for LSI fabrication, low damage high rate ion beam sputtering and smoothing, high quality functional surface treatment for electrical and optical properties. Ion beam sputtering is an attractive technology for the deposition of thin film coatings onto a broad variety of polymer, Si-wafer, lightweight substrates. Demand for the decoration metal is increasing. In addition, lightweight of parts is important, because of energy issues in the industries. Although a lot of researches have been done with conventional PVD methods for the deposition of metal or ceramic films on the surface of the polymer, there are still adhesion problems.

  7. Preservation of Urban Archaeological Deposits: monitoring and characterisation of archaeological deposits at Marks & Spencer, 44-45 Parliament Street, York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The City of York Council has been pursuing a strict policy of in situ preservation of archaeological deposits since April 1990. Planning consent is normally granted in the historic core of York for a new development so long as less than 5% of the archaeological deposits that are preserved on a site are destroyed. During archaeological evaluation work carried out as part of the redevelopment and expansion proposals for Marks & Spencer plc on Parliament Street, deposit monitoring devices were installed to investigate and monitor both the character of the archaeological deposits present and also the burial environment surrounding them (of particular importance because the burial environment, in terms both of its characteristics and stability, is thought to play a vital role in the preservation in situ of a site's archaeological deposits. The monitoring programme was undertaken between June 1995 and April 1998. As a result the data from a total of 30 site visits have been collected and are presented in this report. This article discusses results of the deposit monitoring project and presents evidence of changes that appear to be taking place in the archaeological deposits. Although the lower deposits at Parliament Street are stable, the upper deposits show considerable seasonal variations. The concept of preservation of archaeological deposits in situ is now deeply embedded both in Codes of Professional Conduct (IFA Code of Conduct and in national policy guidance (PPG 16. However, this emphasis on preservation in situ has been criticised. Does conservation archaeology in general and the City of York policy in particular achieve the preservation of the remaining 95% of the archaeology? Or are these deposits condemned to unseen, unrecorded destruction, sealed below new buildings; indeed if this is the case, shouldn't these deposits be excavated now while they are still viable?

  8. Deposit Rate Ceilings as a Tool of Prudential Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Krajewski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present one of prudential regulation instruments in an environment that favors to engage in moral hazard behavior. The last decades proved that there is a link between financial liberalization and banking crises. In order to avoid crises and prevent banks engaging in gambling behavior, the system of prudential regulations has been implemented. The emphasis has been placed on the use of capital requirements, typically using the BIS standard developed in the Basel Accord.As the excessive reliance on capital requirements can become costly for the banks and lead to loose their franchise value and undermine incentives for prudent investing. The instrument that can create the franchise value, i.e. earning profits in the current period and in the future, is a policy of deposit rate controls. In the paper was also revealed why the policy of setting interest rate ceiling on deposits had not achieved its intended objectives, especially in the view of the fail of the Regulation Q policy.

  9. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette E-mail: melieres@glaciog.ujf-grenoble.fr; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-07-01

    To make up for the lack of data on {sup 210}Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23{+-}0.02 mBq m{sup -3} during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall (<15 cm per 15-day), while this correlation is masked by strong fluctuations at high rainfall. The estimated mean annual deposition over the last ten years is 163{+-}75 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana.

  10. TLA-marker for wear rate monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Plostinaru, D.; Ivan, A.; Catana, M.; Roman, M.

    1992-01-01

    A very effective and promising method of wear monitoring in industry is the Thin Layer Activation (TLA) method. The main feature of this technique is the creation of thin radioactive layers on the investigated surface by irradiation of the sample with an accelerated ion beam (protons, deuterons, 3-He). In the present paper we describe an extension of the TLA-Method to produce radioactive markers to be implanted into heavy object which can hardly be transported to an accelerator for direct surface activation. The sensitivity of wear measuring is usually 1% of the actual layer thickness. It is obvious that the TLA technique has a sensitivity about two orders of magnitude higher than the activation in the bulk volume, produced in a nuclear reactor. Controlling the activation depth (80 - 250 microns) we produced different marker sets with sensitivities of 1 - 3 microns. The TLA markers were used to measure the wear rate of railway-car brake disks and of the railroad. The measured data were corroborated with other physical parameters of interest. (Author)

  11. TLA-marker for wear rate monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan-Sion, C; Plostinaru, D; Ivan, A [Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-76900 Bucharest, P.O.Box MG-6, (Romania); Catana, M; Roman, M [Institute for Research and Design in Transportation, Bucharest, (Romania)

    1992-01-01

    A very effective and promising method of wear monitoring in industry is the Thin Layer Activation (TLA) method. The main feature of this technique is the creation of thin radioactive layers on the investigated surface by irradiation of the sample with an accelerated ion beam (protons, deuterons, 3-He). In the present paper we describe an extension of the TLA-Method to produce radioactive markers to be implanted into heavy object which can hardly be transported to an accelerator for direct surface activation. The sensitivity of wear measuring is usually 1% of the actual layer thickness. It is obvious that the TLA technique has a sensitivity about two orders of magnitude higher than the activation in the bulk volume, produced in a nuclear reactor. Controlling the activation depth (80 - 250 microns) we produced different marker sets with sensitivities of 1 - 3 microns. The TLA markers were used to measure the wear rate of railway-car brake disks and of the railroad. The measured data were corroborated with other physical parameters of interest. (Author).

  12. Towards development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman JW; Mennen MG; Fowler D; Flechard CR; Spindler G; Gruner A; Duyzer JH; Ruigrok W; Wyers GP; LLO; TNO; ECN; ITE (Engeland); IFT (Duitsland)

    1996-01-01

    In January 1993 within the framework of the LIFE programme a project was financed which aim was to develop a deposition monitoring method for air pollution of Europe. This method should be used to extend existing European monitoring networks of air concentrations to provide deposition inputs on an

  13. Design of movable fixed area γ dose rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongyu; Cheng Wen; Li Jikai; Huang Hong; Shen Qiming; Zhang Qiang; Liu Zhengshan

    2005-10-01

    Movable fixed area γ dose rate monitor has not only the characteristics of fixed area γ dose rate monitor, but that of portable meter as well. Its main function is to monitor the areas where dose rate would change without orderliness to prevent unplanned radiation exposure accidents from happening. The design way of the monitor, the main indicators description, the working principle and the comprising of software and hardware are briefly introduced. The monitor has the characteristics of simple installation, easy maintenance, little power consumption, wide range, notability of visual and audible alarm and so on. Its design and technique have novelty and advancement. (authors)

  14. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  15. AIR TICKETS RATES MONITORING: INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Smirnov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article conduct analysis of preconditions of air tickets fares dynamics. Monitoring informational system formation in aim of public regulation of air transport on base of an assessment of the current state and development prospects of Russian civil aviation, and formed the conceptual basis for information system architecture at the levels of the presentation layer, business-logic and data access layer.

  16. Relative Impacts of Low Permeability Subsurface Deposits on Recharge Basin Infiltration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, P.; Becker, M.; Pham, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Hutchinson, A.; Plumlee, M.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial recharge of aquifers through spreading basins has become an important component of water management in semi-arid climates. The rate at which water can be recharged in these basins is limited by the natural vertical permeability of the underlying deposits which may be highly variable both laterally and vertically. To help understand hydrostratigraphic controls on recharge, a newly constructed basin was surveyed and instrumented. Prior to flooding the basin, lithology was characterized by shallow hand coring, direct push coring, ground penetrating radar, and electrical resistivity. After flooding, recharge was monitored through piezometers, electrical resistivity, and a network of fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The DTS network used temperature as a tracer to measure infiltration rate on 25 cm intervals both laterally and vertically. Several hundred paired DTS time series datasets (from fiber optic cables located at 0 and 0.5 meters below ground surface) were processed with the cross-wavelet transform (XWT) to calculate spatially and temporally continuous infiltration rates, which can be interpolated and animated to visualize heterogeneity. Time series data from 8-meter deep, vertically oriented DTS cables reveal depth intervals where infiltration rates vary. Inverted resistivity sections from repeated dipole-dipole surveys along the sidewall of a spreading basin exhibit a positive correlation with the distribution of relatively high and low infiltration rates, indicating zones of preferential downward (efficient) and lateral (inefficient) flow, respectively. In contrast to other monitored basins, no perching was observed in the vertically oriented DTS cables. The variation in recharge across the basin and the appearance of subsurface lateral flow can be explained in context of the alluvial depositional environment.

  17. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  18. Gas flow rate and powder flow rate effect on properties of laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available . The powder flow rate and the gas flow rate were varied to study their effect on the physical, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the deposits. The physical properties studied are: the track width, the track height and the deposit weight...

  19. Monitoring nocturnal heart rate with bed sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, M; Kortelainen, J M; Pärkkä, J; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S L; Bianchi, A M

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems". The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of the estimated Nocturnal Heart Rate (HR), recorded through a bed sensor, compared with the one obtained from standard electrocardiography (ECG). Twenty-eight sleep deprived patients were recorded for one night each through matrix of piezoelectric sensors, integrated into the mattress, through polysomnography (PSG) simultaneously. The two recording methods have been compared in terms of signal quality and differences in heart beat detection. On average, coverage of 92.7% of the total sleep time was obtained for the bed sensor, testifying the good quality of the recordings. The average beat-to-beat error of the inter-beat intervals was 1.06%. These results suggest a good overall signal quality, however, considering fast heart rates (HR > 100 bpm), performances were worse: in fact, the sensitivity in the heart beat detection was 28.4% while the false positive rate was 3.8% which means that a large amount of fast beats were not detected. The accuracy of the measurements made using the bed sensor has less than 10% of failure rate especially in periods with HR lower than 70 bpm. For fast heart beats the uncertainty increases. This can be explained by the change in morphology of the bed sensor signal in correspondence of a higher HR.

  20. Effect of deposition rate on the microstructure of electron beam evaporated nanocrystalline palladium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin-Ahmadi, B., E-mail: behnam.amin-ahmadi@ua.ac.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Idrissi, H. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Galceran, M. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Matters and Materials Department, 50 Av. FD Roosevelt CP194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Colla, M.S. [Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Raskin, J.P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Université catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pardoen, T. [Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Godet, S. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Matters and Materials Department, 50 Av. FD Roosevelt CP194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Schryvers, D. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-07-31

    The influence of the deposition rate on the formation of growth twins in nanocrystalline Pd films deposited by electron beam evaporation is investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Statistical measurements prove that twin boundary (TB) density and volume fraction of grains containing twins increase with increasing deposition rate. A clear increase of the dislocation density was observed for the highest deposition rate of 5 Å/s, caused by the increase of the internal stress building up during deposition. Based on crystallographic orientation indexation using transmission electron microscopy, it can be concluded that a {111} crystallographic texture increases with increasing deposition rate even though the {101} crystallographic texture remains dominant. Most of the TBs are fully coherent without any residual dislocations. However, for the highest deposition rate (5 Å/s), the coherency of the TBs decreases significantly as a result of the interaction of lattice dislocations emitted during deposition with the growth TBs. The analysis of the grain boundary character of different Pd films shows that an increasing fraction of high angle grain boundaries with misorientation angles around 55–65° leads to a higher potential for twin formation. - Highlights: • Fraction of twinned grains and twin boundary density increase with deposition rate. • Clear increase of dislocation density was observed for the highest deposition rate. • A moderate increase of the mean grain size with increase of deposition rate is found. • For the highest deposition rate, the twin boundaries lose their coherency. • Fraction of high angle grain boundary (55–65) increases with deposition rate.

  1. Interest Rate Fluctuation Effect on Commercial Bank's Fixed Fund Deposit in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okolo Chimaobi Valentine

    2015-01-01

    Commercial banks in Nigeria adopted many strategies to attract fresh deposits including the use of high deposit rate. However, pricing of banking services moved in favor of the banks at the expense of customers, resulting in their seeking other investment alternatives rather than saving their money in the bank. Both deposit and lending rates were greatly influenced by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) decision on interest rate. Therefore, commercial bank effort to attract...

  2. Monitoring Approach to Evaluate the Performances of a New Deposition Nozzle Solution for DED Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mazzucato

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to improve the process efficiency of a direct energy deposition (DED system, closed loop control systems can be considered for monitoring the deposition and melting processes and adjusting the process parameters in real-time. In this paper, the monitoring of a new deposition nozzle solution for DED systems is approached through a simulation-experimental comparison. The shape of the powder flow at the exit of the nozzle outlet and the spread of the powder particles on the deposition plane are analyzed through 2D images of the powder flow obtained by monitoring the powder depositions with a high-speed camera. These experimental results are then compared with data obtained through a Computational Fluid Dynamics model. Preliminary tests are carried out by varying powder, carrier, and shielding mass flow, demonstrating that the last parameter has a significant influence on the powder distribution and powder flow geometry.

  3. Probe Measurements of Ash Deposit Formation Rate and Shedding in a Biomass Suspension-Fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    The aim of this study was to investigate ash deposit formation rate, heat uptake reduction and deposit removal by using advanced online ash deposition and sootblowing probes in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, utilizing wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type (straw share...

  4. Influence of deposition rate on PL spectrum and surface morphology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    terized by large bond strength and extreme stability of exci- tons indicated by stronger exciton binding energy which is larger than that of ... ties of the ZnO thin films deposited on glass and LiNbO3 substrates were .... Skewness is a measure of.

  5. Spectroscopic monitoring of metallic bonding in laser metal deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ya, Wei; Konuk, A.R.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Pathiraj, B.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is presented in this paper to link optical emission spectrum analysis to the quality of clad layers produced with laser metal deposition (LMD). A Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1.064 μm) was used to produce clad tracks with Metco 42C powder on AISI 4140 steel substrate. The laser power was ramped

  6. Measurements of dry-deposition rates on various earth surfaces by 212Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Dry deposition rates of 212 Pb on a coniferous forest (Japanese cedar) and a broad-leaf forest (Pasania edulis) have been measured. Those on various kinds of grass fields, various states on artificial surface such as water, paper, and standing paper have been also measured. The dry deposition rates depend on the characteristics of depositing particles and the conditions of deposited surfaces. Dry deposition rates on the forest of Japanese cedar are highest because of the complex and adhesive surface of the leaves. Those on various grass fields are roughly depend on the logarithm of the height of their grasses. The total deposition rates of 7 Be do not depend on the densities or heights of the grasses. 7 Be may be not kept on their leaves or surface soil for a long time. The dry deposition rates of on artificial surface, e.g. paper and water surfaces make clear the mechanism on dry deposition, and suggest that more chances of collision and more adhesive of the surface are important for the dry deposition. About 90% of all deposition on the artificial paper grass was attached on the standing paper. On water surface, 60% of the rate of paper grass was attached, but only about 20% were attached on a dry paper plate. The aerosol particles are deposited by collision with the surface, therefore the deposition velocity depends on the chance of collision and the characteristics of the surface. Therefore the dry deposition rates on forests are larger and those of coniferous forest are largest. (author)

  7. 3D modeling of surface quarries and deposits of mined materials and the monitoring of slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maňas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of computer technology by simulating opencast mining and deposits of raw materials. The mathematic principles of three-dimensional probabilistic models of raw materials deposits and a familiarization with the user interface software GEOLOGICKY MODEL. The principles of the simulation of opencast mines, generation intersections with models of raw materials deposits, computation of mining materials with the quality scaling,and the design of advanced mining with the software BANSKY MODEL.The monitoring the potential of dynamic movements’ of unstable slopes with the automatic total station and a following interpretation in general time intervals by means of the software MONITORING.

  8. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-10-29

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue.

  9. Automatic Monitoring of the Amount of Deposited Precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišák, Jaroslav; Chum, Jaroslav; Vojta, Jaroslav; Bartůňková, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2013), s. 670-676 ISSN 1525-755X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1918 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : deposited precipitation * water * instrumentation * sensors Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2013 http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/JHM-D-12-073.1

  10. Practical considerations for addressing uncertainties in monitoring bulk deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemmgen, Ulrich; Erisman, Jan Willem; Cape, J. Neil; Gruenhage, Ludger; Fowler, David

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of the deposition of both wet (rain and cloud) and dry sedimenting particles is a prerequisite for estimating element fluxes in ecosystem research. Many nations and institutions operate deposition networks using different types of sampler. However, these samplers have rarely been characterized with respect to their sink properties. Major errors in assessing bulk deposition can result from poor sampling properties and defective sampling strategies. Relevant properties are: sampler geometry and material, in particular the shape of the rim; sink properties for gases and aerosols; and microbial transformations of the collected samples. An adequate number of replicates allows the identification of samples which are contaminated, in particular by bird droppings. The paper discusses physical and chemical properties of the samplers themselves. The dependence of measurement accuracy on the number of replicates and the sampling area exposed is discussed. Recommendations are given for sampling strategies, and for making corrections and substitution of missing data. - Recommendations are given for sampling strategies and for making corrections and substitution of missing data

  11. Practical considerations for addressing uncertainties in monitoring bulk deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erisman, J.W. [ECN Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands); Daemmgen, U. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (Germany); Cape, J.N.; Fowler, D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Scotland (United Kingdom); Gruenhage, L. [Institute for Plant Ecology, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    The assessment of the deposition of both wet (rain and cloud) and dry sedimentation particles is a prerequisite for estimating element fluxes in ecosystem research. Many nations and institutions operate deposition networks using different types of sampler. However, these samplers have rarely been characterized with respect to their sink properties. Major errors in assessing bulk deposition can result from poor sampling properties and defective sampling strategies. Relevant properties are: sampler geometry and material, in particular the shape of the rim; sink properties for gases and aerosols; and microbial transformations of the collected samples. An adequate number of replicates allows the identification of samples which are contaminated, in particular by bird droppings. The paper discusses physical and chemical properties of the samplers themselves. The dependence of measurement accuracy on the number of replicates and the sampling area exposed is discussed. Recommendations are given for sampling strategies, and for making corrections and substitution of missing data. Recommendations are given for sampling strategies and for making corrections and substitution of missing data.

  12. Practical considerations for addressing uncertainties in monitoring bulk deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemmgen, Ulrich [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: ulrich.daemmgen@fal.de; Erisman, Jan Willem [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Cape, J. Neil [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Scotland (United Kingdom); Gruenhage, Ludger [Institute for Plant Ecology, Justus-Liebig-University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Fowler, David [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    The assessment of the deposition of both wet (rain and cloud) and dry sedimenting particles is a prerequisite for estimating element fluxes in ecosystem research. Many nations and institutions operate deposition networks using different types of sampler. However, these samplers have rarely been characterized with respect to their sink properties. Major errors in assessing bulk deposition can result from poor sampling properties and defective sampling strategies. Relevant properties are: sampler geometry and material, in particular the shape of the rim; sink properties for gases and aerosols; and microbial transformations of the collected samples. An adequate number of replicates allows the identification of samples which are contaminated, in particular by bird droppings. The paper discusses physical and chemical properties of the samplers themselves. The dependence of measurement accuracy on the number of replicates and the sampling area exposed is discussed. Recommendations are given for sampling strategies, and for making corrections and substitution of missing data. - Recommendations are given for sampling strategies and for making corrections and substitution of missing data.

  13. Estimating dual deposit insurance premium rates and forecasting non-performing loans: Two new models

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad; Nili, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Risky banks that endanger the stability of the financial system should pay higher deposit insurance premiums than healthy banks and other financial institutions that have shown good financial performance. It is necessary, therefore, to have at least a dual fair premium rate system. In this paper, we develop a model for calculating dual fair premium rates. Our definition of a fair premium rate in this paper is a rate that could cover the operational expenditures of the deposit insuring organiz...

  14. Improvement in Device Performance and Reliability of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes through Deposition Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Wei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a fabrication technique to reduce the driving voltage, increase the current efficiency, and extend the operating lifetime of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED by simply controlling the deposition rate of bis(10-hydroxybenzo[h]qinolinato beryllium (Bebq2 used as the emitting layer and the electron-transport layer. In our optimized device, 55 nm of Bebq2 was first deposited at a faster deposition rate of 1.3 nm/s, followed by the deposition of a thin Bebq2 (5 nm layer at a slower rate of 0.03 nm/s. The Bebq2 layer with the faster deposition rate exhibited higher photoluminescence efficiency and was suitable for use in light emission. The thin Bebq2 layer with the slower deposition rate was used to modify the interface between the Bebq2 and cathode and hence improve the injection efficiency and lower the driving voltage. The operating lifetime of such a two-step deposition OLED was 1.92 and 4.6 times longer than that of devices with a single deposition rate, that is, 1.3 and 0.03 nm/s cases, respectively.

  15. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering: A method to increase deposition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Priya; McLain, Jake; Ruzic, David N; Shchelkanov, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is a state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition technique with several industrial applications. One of the main disadvantages of this process is its low deposition rate. In this work, the authors report a new magnetic field configuration, which produces deposition rates twice that of conventional magnetron's dipole magnetic field configuration. Three different magnet pack configurations are discussed in this paper, and an optimized magnet pack configuration for HPPMS that leads to a higher deposition rate and nearly full-face target erosion is presented. The discussed magnetic field produced by a specially designed magnet assembly is of the same size as the conventional magnet assembly and requires no external fields. Comparison of deposition rates with different power supplies and the electron trapping efficiency in complex magnetic field arrangements are discussed

  16. Cuff inflation during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Skov-Madsen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Skov-Madsen, My Svensson, Jeppe Hagstrup ChristensenDepartment of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkIntroduction: Twenty four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a clinically validated procedure in evaluation of blood pressure (BP. We hypothesised that the discomfort during cuff inflation would increase the heart rate (HR measured with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring compared to a following HR measurement with a 24-h Holter monitor.Methods: The study population (n = 56 were recruited from the outpatient’s clinic at the Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital at Aalborg, Denmark. All the patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD. We compared HR measured with a 24-h Holter monitor with a following HR measured by a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring.Results: We found a highly significant correlation between the HR measured with the Holter monitor and HR measured with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (r = 0.77, p < 0.001. Using the Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference in HR was only 0.5 beat/min during 24 hours with acceptable limits of agreement for both high and low HR levels. Dividing the patients into groups according to betablocker treatment, body mass index, age, sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment, statins treatment, diuretic treatment, or calcium channel blocker treatment revealed similar results as described above.Conclusion: The results indicate that the discomfort induced by cuff inflation during 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring does not increase HR. Thus, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring may be a reliable measurement of the BP among people with CKD.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Holter monitoring, heart rate, chronic kidney disease, hypertension

  17. Development of miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huilu; Tuo Xianguo; Xi Dashun; Tang Rong; Mu Keliang; Yang Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity which design based on single chip microcomputer, it can continue monitoring γ dose rate and then choose wire or wireless communications to sent the monitoring data to host according to the actual conditions. It has two kinds of power supply system, AC power supply system and battery which can be chose by concrete circumstances. The design idea and implementation technology of hardware and software and the system structure of the monitor are detailed illustrated in this paper. The experimental results show that measurable range is 0.1 mR/h-200 mR/h, the sensitivity of γ is 90 cps/mR/h, dead time below 200 us, error of stability below ±10%. (authors)

  18. Monitoring corrosion rates and localised corrosion in low conductivity water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of low corrosion rates and localised corrosion in a media with low conductivity is a challenge. In municipal district heating, quality control may be improved by implementing on-line corrosion monitoring if a suitable technique can be identified to measure both uniform and localised...... corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (LPR, EIS, crevice corrosion current) as well as direct measurement techniques (high-sensitive electrical resistance, weight loss) have been applied in operating plants. Changes in the corrosion processes are best monitored in non-aggressive, low conductivity media...

  19. Measurements of dry deposition rates of 212Pb from aerosols on various natural and artificial surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.; Osaki, T.

    2007-01-01

    The dry deposition rates on various grass fields and two forests have been measured by the use of 212 Pb (T 1/2 = 10.6 hours). The deposition rate on grass fields (average: 7 mm x s -1 ) roughly depends on the logarithms of the heights or densities of the grasses. The dry deposition rates on a broadleaved forest (Lithocarpus edulis) and a coniferous forest (Cryptomeria Japonica) were also measured. The highest (ave. 26 mm x s -1 ) was on the forest of C. Japonica because of the dense and adhesive surfaces of the leaves. (author)

  20. Measurement of Sediment Deposition Rates using an Optical Backscatter Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridd, P.; Day, G.; Thomas, S.; Harradence, J.; Fox, D.; Bunt, J.; Renagi, O.; Jago, C.

    2001-02-01

    An optical method for measuring siltation of sediment has been developed using an optical fibre backscatter (OBS) nephelometer. Sediment settling upon the optical fibre sensor causes an increase in the backscatter reading which can be related to the settled sediment surface density (SSSD) as measured in units of mg cm -2. Calibration and laboratory tests indicate that the resolution of measurements of SSSD is 0·01 mg cm -2and an accuracy of 5% in still water. In moving water it is more difficult to determine the accuracy of the method because other methods with suitable resolution are unavailable. However, indirect methods using measurements of changing suspended sediment concentration in a ring flume, indicate that the OBS method under-predicts deposition. The series of siltation from three field sites are presented. This sensor offers considerable advances over other methods of measuring settling because time series of settling may be taken and thus settling events may be related to other hydrodynamic parameters such as wave climate and currents.

  1. The role of plasma induced substrate heating during high rate deposition of microcrystalline solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Donker, M.N.; Schmitz, R.; Appenzeller, W.; Rech, B.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    A 13.56 MHz parallel plate hydrogen-dild. silane plasma, operated at high pressure and high power, was used to deposit microcryst. silicon solar cells with efficiencies of 6-9% at high deposition rates of 0.4-1.2 nm/s. In this regime new challenges arise regarding temp. control, since the high

  2. Dispersal distances for airborne spores based on deposition rates and stochastic modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Andreasen, Viggo; Østergård, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    in terms of time to deposition, and show how this concept is equivalent to the deposition rate for fungal spores. Special cases where parameter values for wind and gravitation lead to exponentially or polynomially decreasing densities are discussed, and formulas for one- and two-dimensional densities...

  3. Towards 24/7 continuous heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarniceriu, Adrian; Parak, Jakub; Renevey, Philippe; Nurmi, Marko; Bertschi, Mattia; Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2016-08-01

    Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) carry rich information about physical activity, mental and physical load, physiological status, and health of an individual. When combined with activity monitoring and personalized physiological modelling, HR/HRV monitoring may be used for monitoring of complex behaviors and impact of behaviors and external factors on the current physiological status of an individual. Optical HR monitoring (OHR) from wrist provides a comfortable and unobtrusive method for HR/HRV monitoring and is better adhered by users than traditional ECG electrodes or chest straps. However, OHR power consumption is significantly higher than that for ECG based methods due to the measurement principle based on optical illumination of the tissue. We developed an algorithmic approach to reduce power consumption of the OHR in 24/7 HR trending. We use continuous activity monitoring and a fast converging frequency domain algorithm to derive a reliable HR estimate in 7.1s (during outdoor sports, in average) to 10.0s (during daily life). The method allows >80% reduction in power consumption in 24/7 OHR monitoring when average HR monitoring is targeted, without significant reduction in tracking accuracy.

  4. Influence of solution deposition rate on properties of V_2O_5 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd–Alghafour, N. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Zai; Mohammad, Sabah M.

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium oxide (V_2O_5) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using a cost-efficient spray pyrolysis technique. The films were grown at 350° through thermal decomposition of VCl_3 in deionized water with different solution spray rates. The high resolution X-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of nanocrystalline films having orthorhombic structures with preferential orientation along (101) direction. The spray rate influenced the surface morphology and crystallite size of the films. The crystallite size was found to increase whereas the micro-strain was decreased by increasing the spray deposition rates. The increase in crystallite size and decrease in the macrostrain resulted in an improvement in the films’ crystallinity. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis indicated that the average transmittance of all films lies in the range 75-80 %. The band gap of V_2O_5 film was decreased from 2.65 to 2.46 eV with increase of the spray deposition rate from 5 ml/min to 10 ml/min. first, second, and third level headings (first level heading).

  5. In situ growth rate measurements during plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, M; Nerushev, O A; Campbell, E E B

    2007-01-01

    In situ laser reflectivity measurements are used to monitor the growth of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films grown by DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) from an iron catalyst film deposited on a silicon wafer. In contrast to thermal CVD growth, there is no initial increase in the growth rate; instead, the initial growth rate is high (as much as 10 μm min -1 ) and then drops off rapidly to reach a steady level (2 μm min -1 ) for times beyond 1 min. We show that a limiting factor for growing thick films of multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs) using PECVD can be the formation of an amorphous carbon layer at the top of the growing nanotubes. In situ reflectivity measurements provide a convenient technique for detecting the onset of the growth of this layer

  6. Fair premium rate of the deposit insurance system based on banks' creditworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad; Nili, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Deposit insurance is a key element in modern banking, as it guarantees the financial safety of deposits at depository financial institutions. It is necessary to have at least a dual fair premium rate system based on the creditworthiness of financial institutions, as considering a singular premium system for all banks will have a moral hazard. In this paper, we develop a theoretical as well as an empirical model for calculating dual fair premium rates. Design/methodology/approach: Our...

  7. First Results of the LHC Collision Rate Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, S; Bart Pedersen, S; Boccardi, A; Dutriat, C; Miyamoto, R; Doolittle, L; Matis, H S; Placidi, M; Ratti, A; Stezelberger, T; Yaver, H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of CERN large hadron collider (LHC) is to collide protons and heavy ions with centre of mass energies up to 14 zTeV. In order to monitor and optimize the collision rates special detectors have been developed and installed around the four luminous interaction regions. Due to the different conditions at the high luminosity experiments (ATLAS and CMS) and the low luminosity experiments (ALICE and LHC-b) two very different types of monitors are used: a fast ionisation chamber (BRAN-A) and a Cd-Te solid state detector (BRAN-B respectively. Moreover, in order to cope with the low collision rates foreseen for the initial run, a third type of monitor, based on a simple scintillating pad, was installed in parallel with the BRAN-A (BRAN-P). This contribution illustrates the results obtained during the 2010 run with an outlook for 2011 and beyond.

  8. Heart Rate Monitors Promote Physical Education for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Jan; Sander, Allan N.

    2004-01-01

    National health and fitness data suggests that a significant percentage of children are not on a pathway to leading healthy, physically active lifestyles. Many children are leading sedentary lifestyles due to a lack of opportunity, success, or self-motivation in physical activity. Programs that highlight the use of heart rate monitors offer a…

  9. Measurements of the deposition rates of radon daughters on indoor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Essling, M.A.; Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.

    1982-01-01

    The deposition rates of radon daughters on indoor surfaces have been measured by exposing the window of a proportional counter to the air of a house with high concentrations of radon and its daughters. Deposition velocities for unattached 218 Po (RaA) and 214 Pb (RaB) of approximately 4 mm sec - 1 were obtained by dividing the deposition rates by the concentrations of unattached daughters in the air. These results agree with those obtained by other workers but are dependent on the assumptions made about the fractions of the daughters which are attached to the atmospheric aerosol

  10. Deposition rates of viruses and bacteria above the atmospheric boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Isabel; D'Orta, Gaetano; Mladenov, Natalie; Winget, Danielle M; Suttle, Curtis A

    2018-04-01

    Aerosolization of soil-dust and organic aggregates in sea spray facilitates the long-range transport of bacteria, and likely viruses across the free atmosphere. Although long-distance transport occurs, there are many uncertainties associated with their deposition rates. Here, we demonstrate that even in pristine environments, above the atmospheric boundary layer, the downward flux of viruses ranged from 0.26 × 10 9 to >7 × 10 9  m -2 per day. These deposition rates were 9-461 times greater than the rates for bacteria, which ranged from 0.3 × 10 7 to >8 × 10 7  m -2 per day. The highest relative deposition rates for viruses were associated with atmospheric transport from marine rather than terrestrial sources. Deposition rates of bacteria were significantly higher during rain events and Saharan dust intrusions, whereas, rainfall did not significantly influence virus deposition. Virus deposition rates were positively correlated with organic aerosols 0.7 μm, implying that viruses could have longer residence times in the atmosphere and, consequently, will be dispersed further. These results provide an explanation for enigmatic observations that viruses with very high genetic identity can be found in very distant and different environments.

  11. The use of cadmium telluride γ spectrometers in monitoring activity deposited in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.T.

    1977-01-01

    The ability to inspect and test key components and when necessary repair or replace them is a significant factor in the safety case submitted before consent is given for construction of a nuclear reactor. A knowledge of the probable rate of deposition and isotopic composition of radioactive contamination in these areas is necessary and since it is not always practicable to take samples away to the laboratory for analysis, direct gamma ray spectroscopy in the contaminated environment is sometimes used. The experience of direct monitoring with a cadmium telluride spectrometer in two such reactor situations is reported. In the first situation, a remotely cooled intrinsic Germanium spectrometer was used in equivalent positions and spectra from both systems are presented. The relative merits of the two systems are discussed. In the second situation, measurements were made in an environment at 70 deg C in radiation levels of 10Rh -1 . An improvised cooling system was used to maintain the Cadmium Telluride at about 20 deg C and Pile-up Rejection was used to enable count rates of about 10 5 s -1 to be handled. It is noted that the usually quoted detector parameters, resolution and crystal volume, are not necessarily the most important in practical spectrometry of mixed isotopes. As with germanium detectors, the most useful parameter is probably the Peak-to-Compton ratio

  12. Investigation of deposition characteristics and properties of high-rate deposited silicon nitride films prepared by atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchi, H.; Nakahama, Y.; Ohmi, H.; Yasutake, K.; Yoshii, K.; Mori, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) films have been prepared at extremely high deposition rates by the atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition (AP-PCVD) technique on Si(001) wafers from gas mixtures containing He, H 2 , SiH 4 and N 2 or NH 3 . A 150 MHz very high frequency (VHF) power supply was used to generate high-density radicals in the atmospheric pressure plasma. Deposition rate, composition and morphology of the SiN x films prepared with various deposition parameters were studied by scanning electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy was also used to characterize the structure and the chemical bonding configurations of the films. Furthermore, etching rate with buffered hydrofluoric acid (BHF) solution, refractive index and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were measured to evaluate the dielectric properties of the films. It was found that effective passivation of dangling bonds and elimination of excessive hydrogen atoms at the film-growing surface seemed to be the most important factor to form SiN x film with a dense Si-N network. The C-V curve of the optimized film showed good interface properties, although further improvement was necessary for use in the industrial metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) applications

  13. Dependence of wet etch rate on deposition, annealing conditions and etchants for PECVD silicon nitride film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Longjuan; Zhu Yinfang; Yang Jinling; Li Yan; Zhou Wei; Xie Jing; Liu Yunfei; Yang Fuhua

    2009-01-01

    The influence of deposition, annealing conditions, and etchants on the wet etch rate of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride thin film is studied. The deposition source gas flow rate and annealing temperature were varied to decrease the etch rate of SiN x :H by HF solution. A low etch rate was achieved by increasing the SiH 4 gas flow rate or annealing temperature, or decreasing the NH 3 and N2 gas flow rate. Concentrated, buffered, and dilute hydrofluoric acid were utilized as etchants for SiO 2 and SiN x :H. A high etching selectivity of SiO 2 over SiN x :H was obtained using highly concentrated buffered HF.

  14. PECVD deposition of device-quality intrinsic amorphous silicon at high growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carabe, J [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Gandia, J J [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, M T [Inst. de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-11-01

    The combined influence of RF-power density (RFP) and silane flow-rate ([Phi]) on the deposition rate of plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) intrinsic amorphous silicon has been investigated. The correlation of the results obtained from the characterisation of the material with the silane deposition efficiency, as deduced from mass spectrometry, has led to an interpretation allowing to deposit intrinsic amorphous-silicon films having an optical gap of 1.87 eV and a photoconductive ratio (ratio of ambient-temperature conductivities under 1 sun AM1 and in dark) of 6 orders of magnitude at growth rates up to 10 A/s, without any structural modification of the PECVD system used. Such results are considered of high relevance regarding industrial competitiveness. (orig.)

  15. Estimating the erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed by the 137Cs tracing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Yao Wenyi; Liu Puling

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed is important for designing soil and water conservation measures. The objective of this study is to estimate the net soil loss and gain at points with various land use types and landform positions in a small watershed in the Sichuan Hilly Basin of China by the 137 Cs tracing technique. Among various land use types, the order of erosion rate was bare rock > sloping cultivated land > forest land. The paddy field and Caotu (a kind of cultivated land located at the foot of hills) were depositional areas. The erosion rate under different landform was in this order: hillside > saddle > hilltop. The footslope and the valley were depositional areas. The 137 Cs technique was shown to provide an effective means of documenting the spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition within the small watershed

  16. Towards development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman JW; Mennen MG; Fowler D; Flechard CR; Spindler G; Gruner A; Duyzer JH; Ruigrok W; Wyers GP; LLO; TNO; ECN; ITE (Engeland); IFT (Duitsland)

    1996-01-01

    In 1993 werd vanuit het LIFE project van de Europese Commissie DG XI het project 'Towards the development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution of Europe' gefinancierd. Het doel van dit project was het ontwikkelen en implementeren van een depositiemonitoring-methode voor

  17. Solar Flux Deposition And Heating Rates In Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2009-09-01

    We discuss here the solar downward net flux in the 0.25 - 2.5 µm range in the atmosphere of Jupiter and the associated heating rates under a number of vertical cloud structure scenarios focusing in the effect of clouds and hazes. Our numerical model is based in the doubling-adding technique to solve the radiative transfer equation and it includes gas absorption by CH4, NH3 and H2, in addition to Rayleigh scattering by a mixture of H2 plus He. Four paradigmatic Jovian regions have been considered (hot-spots, belts, zones and Polar Regions). The hot-spots are the most transparent regions with downward net fluxes of 2.5±0.5 Wm-2 at the 6 bar level. The maximum solar heating is 0.04±0.01 K/day and occurs above 1 bar. Belts and zones characterization result in a maximum net downward flux of 0.5 Wm-2 at 2 bar and 0.015 Wm-2 at 6 bar. Heating is concentrated in the stratospheric and tropospheric hazes. Finally, Polar Regions are also explored and the results point to a considerable stratospheric heating of 0.04±0.02 K/day. In all, these calculations suggest that the role of the direct solar forcing in the Jovian atmospheric dynamics is limited to the upper 1 - 2 bar of the atmosphere except in the hot-spot areas. Acknowledgments: This work has been funded by Spanish MEC AYA2006-07735 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  18. The Influence of the Powder Stream on High-Deposition-Rate Laser Metal Deposition with Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongliang Zhong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of improving the productivity of laser metal deposition (LMD, the focus of current research is set on increasing the deposition rate, in order to develop high-deposition-rate LMD (HDR-LMD. The presented work studies the effects of the powder stream on HDR-LMD with Inconel 718. Experiments have been designed and conducted by using different powder feeding nozzles—a three-jet and a coaxial powder feeding nozzle—since the powder stream is mainly determined by the geometry of the powder feeding nozzle. After the deposition trials, metallographic analysis of the samples has been performed. The laser intensity distribution (LID and the powder stream intensity distribution (PID have been characterized, based on which the processes have been simulated. Finally, for verifying and correcting the used models for the simulation, the simulated results have been compared with the experimental results. Through the conducted work, suitable boundary conditions for simulating the process with different powder streams has been determined, and the effects of the powder stream on the process have also been determined. For a LMD process with a three-jet nozzle a substantial part of the powder particles that hit the melt pool surface are rebounded; for a LMD process with a coaxial nozzle almost all the particles are caught in the melt pool. This is due to the different particle velocities achieved with the two different nozzles. Moreover, the powder stream affects the heat exchange between the heated particles and the melt pool: a surface boundary condition applies for a powder stream with lower particle velocities, in the experiment provided by a three-jet nozzle, and a volumetric boundary condition applies for a powder stream with higher particle velocities, provided by a coaxial nozzle.

  19. Wearable Sweat Rate Sensors for Human Thermal Comfort Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2018-01-19

    We propose watch-type sweat rate sensors capable of automatic natural ventilation by integrating miniaturized thermo-pneumatic actuators, and experimentally verify their performances and applicability. Previous sensors using natural ventilation require manual ventilation process or high-power bulky thermo-pneumatic actuators to lift sweat rate detection chambers above skin for continuous measurement. The proposed watch-type sweat rate sensors reduce operation power by minimizing expansion fluid volume to 0.4 ml through heat circuit modeling. The proposed sensors reduce operation power to 12.8% and weight to 47.6% compared to previous portable sensors, operating for 4 hours at 6 V batteries. Human experiment for thermal comfort monitoring is performed by using the proposed sensors having sensitivity of 0.039 (pF/s)/(g/m 2 h) and linearity of 97.9% in human sweat rate range. Average sweat rate difference for each thermal status measured in three subjects shows (32.06 ± 27.19) g/m 2 h in thermal statuses including 'comfortable', 'slightly warm', 'warm', and 'hot'. The proposed sensors thereby can discriminate and compare four stages of thermal status. Sweat rate measurement error of the proposed sensors is less than 10% under air velocity of 1.5 m/s corresponding to human walking speed. The proposed sensors are applicable for wearable and portable use, having potentials for daily thermal comfort monitoring applications.

  20. On-line tritium production and heat deposition rate measurements at the Lotus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joneja, O.P.; Scherrer, P.; Anand, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Integral tritium production and heat deposition measurement in a prototype fusion blanket would enable verification of the computational codes and the data based employed for the calculations. A large number of tritium production rate measurements have been reported for different type of blankets, whereas the direct heat deposition due to the mixed radiation field in the fusion environment, is still in its infancy. In order to ascertain the kerma factors and the photon production libraries, suitable techniques must be developed to directly measure the nuclear heat deposition rates in the materials required for the fusion systems. In this context, at the Lotus facility, we have developed an extremely efficient double ionizing chamber, for the on-line tritium production measurements and employed a pure graphite calorimeter to measure the nuclear heat deposition due to the mixed radiation field of the 14 MeV, Haefely neutron generator. This paper presents both systems and some of the recent measurements. (authors). 8 refs., 13 figs

  1. Investigations into the effect of spinel oxide composition on rate of carbon deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Jutson, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    The deposition of carbon on fuel cladding and other steels results in a reduction in heat transfer efficiency. Methane and carbon monoxide are added to the gaseous coolant in the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) to reduce the radiolytic oxidation of the graphite moderator and this is known to increase the rate of carbon deposition. However, the composition of oxides formed on steel surfaces within the reactor may also influence deposition. In this investigation carefully characterised spinel type oxides of varying composition have been subjected to γ radiation under conditions of temperature, pressure and atmosphere similar to those experienced in the reactor. The rate of carbon deposition has been studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX). (U.K.)

  2. Measurement of the rate of droplet deposition in vertical upward and downward annular flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Toshihiro; Okawa, Tomio; Takei, Rei

    2008-01-01

    The deposition rate of droplets was measured for vertical annular two-phase flows in a small diameter tube by means of the double film extraction technique. The test section was a round tube of 5 mm in inside diameter, air and water were used as test fluids, and the flow direction was set to upward and downward; the system pressure and the flow rates of gas and liquid phases were changed parametrically. If the droplet velocity relative to the continuous gas phase is in the equilibrium state, the shear induced lift force acting on droplets is directed toward the tube centerline in upflow while toward the tube wall in downflow. Particular attention was therefore paid to the effect of flow direction. It was shown experimentally that the deposition rate of droplets in downward flow is greater than that in upward flow. The difference in the measured deposition rate may be attributed to the direction of lift force acting on droplets. (author)

  3. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films.

  4. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films

  5. The effect of changing the magnetic field strength on HiPIMS deposition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J W; Mishra, A; Kelly, P J

    2015-01-01

    The marked difference in behaviour between HiPIMS and conventional dc or pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering discharges with changing magnetic field strengths is demonstrated through measurements of deposition rate. To provide a comparison between techniques the same circular magnetron was operated in the three excitation modes at a fixed average power of 680 W and a pressure of 0.54 Pa in the non-reactive sputtering of titanium. The total magnetic field strength B at the cathode surface in the middle of the racetrack was varied from 195 to 380 G. DC and pulsed-dc discharges show the expected behaviour that deposition rates fall with decreasing B (here by ∼25–40%), however the opposite trend is observed in HiPIMS with deposition rates rising by a factor of 2 over the same decrease in B.These observations are understood from the stand point of the different composition and transport processes of the depositing metal flux between the techniques. In HiPIMS, this flux is largely ionic and slow post-ionized sputtered particles are subject to strong back attraction to the target by a retarding plasma potential structure ahead of them. The height of this potential barrier is known to increase with increasing B.From a simple phenomenological model of the sputtered particles fluxes, and using the measured deposition rates from the different techniques as inputs, the combined probabilities of ionization, α, and back attraction, β, of the metal species in HiPIMS has been calculated. There is a clear fall in αβ (from ∼0.9 to ∼0.7) with decreasing B-field strengths, we argue primarily due to a weakening of electrostatic ion back attraction, so leading to higher deposition rates. The results indicate that careful design of magnetron field strengths should be considered to optimise HiPIMS deposition rates. (paper)

  6. Deposition rates of atmospheric particulates determined from 210Pb measurements in soils and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likuku, A. S.; Branford, D.

    2011-01-01

    Deposition rates of atmospheric particles were determined using previously published 210P b data in soils and air. The dry deposition velocities for moorland and woodland soils were 2.2 ± 1.8 and 9 ± 2 mm · s - 1 , respectively. The 210P b concentration in rain was calculated to be 94 ± 10 mBq · L - 1. The large (∼ 4 times) deposition velocities in woodland relative to moorland soils is an indication of the degree of accumulation of particles, and most possibly contaminants within woodland soils, which is of practical importance in the mitigation of pollutant concentrations in urban areas by planting trees. (authors)

  7. Monitoring Streambed Scour/Deposition Under Nonideal Temperature Signal and Flood Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Timothy; Tonina, Daniele; Luce, Charles

    2017-12-01

    Streambed erosion and deposition are fundamental geomorphic processes in riverbeds, and monitoring their evolution is important for ecological system management and in-stream infrastructure stability. Previous research showed proof of concept that analysis of paired temperature signals of stream and pore waters can simultaneously provide monitoring scour and deposition, stream sediment thermal regime, and seepage velocity information. However, it did not address challenges often associated with natural systems, including nonideal temperature variations (low-amplitude, nonsinusoidal signal, and vertical thermal gradients) and natural flooding conditions on monitoring scour and deposition processes over time. Here we addressed this knowledge gap by testing the proposed thermal scour-deposition chain (TSDC) methodology, with laboratory experiments to test the impact of nonideal temperature signals under a range of seepage velocities and with a field application during a pulse flood. Both analyses showed excellent match between surveyed and temperature-derived bed elevation changes even under very low temperature signal amplitudes (less than 1°C), nonideal signal shape (sawtooth shape), and strong and changing vertical thermal gradients (4°C/m). Root-mean-square errors on predicting the change in streambed elevations were comparable with the median grain size of the streambed sediment. Future research should focus on improved techniques for temperature signal phase and amplitude extractions, as well as TSDC applications over long periods spanning entire hydrographs.

  8. Installation and commissioning of instantaneous dose rate monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Iaydjiev, Plamen

    2018-01-01

    INRNE-Sofia was working on the installation and commissioning of new instantaneous dose rate monitoring system for the GIF++ facility at CERN. The final device, containing an 8-channels readout board was designed and tested at the CERN facility during November 2017, in an irradiation campaign supported by the AIDA-2020 TA program. The system is designed to be fully integrated in the GIF++ control system and the data measured are available to the users.

  9. Analysis of heating effect on the process of high deposition rate microcrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Dan, Zhang; He, Zhang; Chang-Chun, Wei; Jian, Sun; Guo-Fu, Hou; Shao-Zhen, Xiong; Xin-Hua, Geng; Ying, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    A possible heating effect on the process of high deposition rate microcrystalline silicon has been studied. It includes the discharge time-accumulating heating effect, discharge power, inter-electrode distance, and total gas flow rate induced heating effect. It is found that the heating effects mentioned above are in some ways quite similar to and in other ways very different from each other. However, all of them will directly or indirectly cause the increase of the substrate surface temperature during the process of depositing microcrystalline silicon thin films, which will affect the properties of the materials with increasing time. This phenomenon is very serious for the high deposition rate of microcrystalline silicon thin films because of the high input power and the relatively small inter-electrode distance needed. Through analysis of the heating effects occurring in the process of depositing microcrystalline silicon, it is proposed that the discharge power and the heating temperature should be as low as possible, and the total gas flow rate and the inter-electrode distance should be suitable so that device-grade high quality deposition rate microcrystalline silicon thin films can be fabricated

  10. Treatment of fluctuations of startup rates for core subcriticality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos de Abreu; Martinez, Aquilino Senra

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is presented a method to eliminate the variations in the source and intermediate range count rate, which are used for the on-line and real time monitoring of the critical safety function Subcriticality. The method may be applied to a safety parameters display system, because it is very simple and precise, which it will not affect the real time requirements of such systems. Variations in the count range could cause a temporary positive startup rate, that could lead to incorrect addressing of function restoration guideline. (author)

  11. Heart Rate Monitor for Portable MP3 Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaywoo; Lee, Mi-Hee; Lee, Hyoung-Ki; Choi, Kiwan; Bang, Seokwon; Kim, Sangryong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a photoplethysmography sensor based on a heart rate monitor for a portable MP3 player. Two major design issues are addressed: one is to acquire the sensor signal with a proper amplitude despite a wide range of variation and the other is to handle the noise contaminated signal which is caused by a motion artifact. A benchmarking test with a professional medical photoplethysmography sensor shows that our device performs very well in calculating heart rate even though our photoplethysmography sensor module was designed to be cost effective.

  12. Asymptotic failure rate of a continuously monitored system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grall, A.; Dieulle, L.; Berenguer, C.; Roussignol, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with a perfectly continuously monitored system which gradually and stochastically deteriorates. The system is renewed by a delayed maintenance operation, which is triggered when the measured deterioration level exceeds an alarm threshold. A mathematical model is developed to study the asymptotic behavior of the reliability function. A procedure is proposed which allows us to identify the asymptotic failure rate of the maintained system. Numerical experiments illustrate the efficiency of the proposed procedure and emphasize the relevance of the asymptotic failure rate as an interesting indicator for the evaluation of the control-limit preventive replacement policy

  13. Asymptotic failure rate of a continuously monitored system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grall, A. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: antoine.grall@utt.fr; Dieulle, L. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: laurence.dieulle@utt.fr; Berenguer, C. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.fr; Roussignol, M. [Laboratoire d' Analyse et de Mathematiques Appliquees, Universite de Marne la Vallee, 5 bd Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77454 Marne la Vallee, Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: michel.roussignol@univ-mlv.fr

    2006-02-01

    This paper deals with a perfectly continuously monitored system which gradually and stochastically deteriorates. The system is renewed by a delayed maintenance operation, which is triggered when the measured deterioration level exceeds an alarm threshold. A mathematical model is developed to study the asymptotic behavior of the reliability function. A procedure is proposed which allows us to identify the asymptotic failure rate of the maintained system. Numerical experiments illustrate the efficiency of the proposed procedure and emphasize the relevance of the asymptotic failure rate as an interesting indicator for the evaluation of the control-limit preventive replacement policy.

  14. Monitoring of scale deposition in petroleum pipelines by means of photon scattering: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meric, Ilker; Johansen, Geir A.

    2013-01-01

    In the petroleum industry precipitation of scale onto the inner walls of hydrocarbon pipelines poses a significant challenge as, unless treated appropriately, deposits such as sulfate and carbonate scales reduce the overall flow area and even lead to blockage of entire sections of the pipework. This may in turn result in costly production suspension and maintenance work. Therefore, monitoring and characterization of scale deposits can be said to be of great importance. In this work, a preliminary feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate the possibility of utilizing photon scattering for scale detection in multiphase oil/water/gas pipelines. (author)

  15. TPR system: a powerful technique to monitor carbon nanotube formation during chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tristao, Juliana Cristina; Moura, Flavia Cristina Camilo; Lago, Rochel Montero; Sapag, Karim

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a TPR (Temperature Programmed Reduction) system is used as a powerful tool to monitor carbon nanotubes production during CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition), The experiments were carried out using catalyst precursors based on Fe-Mo supported on Al 2 O 3 and methane as carbon source. As methane reacts on the Fe metal surface, carbon is deposited and H2 is produced. TPR is very sensitive to the presence of H2 and affords information on the temperature where catalyst is active to form different forms of carbon, the reaction kinetics, the catalyst deactivation and carbon yields. (author)

  16. Monitoring of the Deposition of PAHs and Metals Produced by a Steel Plant in Taranto (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amodio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high time-resolved monitoring campaign of bulk deposition of PAHs and metals was conducted near the industrial area and at an urban background site in province of Taranto (Italy in order to evaluate the impact of the biggest European steel plant. The deposition fluxes of the sum of detected PAHs at the industrial area ranged from 92 to 2432 ng m−2d−1. In particular the deposition fluxes of BaP, BaA, and BkF were, on average, 10, 14, and 8 times higher than those detected at the urban background site, respectively. The same finding was for metals. The deposition fluxes of Ni (19.8 µg m−2 d−1 and As (2.2 µg m−2 d−1 at the industrial site were about 5 times higher than those at the urban background site, while the deposition fluxes of Fe (57 mg m−2d−1 and Mn (1.02 mg m−2d−1 about 31 times higher. Precipitation and wind speed played an important role in PAH deposition fluxes. Fe and Mn fluxes at the industrial site resulted high when wind direction favored the transport of air masses from the steel plant to the receptor site. The impact of the industrial area was also confirmed by IP/(IP + BgP, IP/BgP, and BaP/BgP diagnostic ratios.

  17. Research of Heating Rates Influence on Layer Coal Gasification of Krasnogorsky And Borodinsky Coal Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankovskiy Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of heating rate influence on coal samples gasification process of Krasnogorsky and Borodinsky coal deposit ranks A and 2B was done to define optimal heating mode in high intensification of dispersal of inflammable gases conditions. Abundance ratio of carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide, water vapor, carbon dioxide at four values of heating rate within the range of 5 to 30 K/min. with further definition of optimal heating rate of coals was stated.

  18. M rate at TE. Monitoring at TeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gonzalez, Magdalena; Alfaro, Ruben [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Tovmassian, Gagik [Instituto de Astronomia Sede Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    A dedicated long-term monitoring programm at TeV energies has been started by the FACT project about four years ago. Being limited to one site, gaps due to the rotation of the Earth remain in the measured light curves. This makes it difficult to study typical variability time scales of few hours to one day. To allow for systematic studies of continuous observations over up to 12 hours, a second telescope is being installed at a site in about six hours distance in longitude. For the M rate at TE (Monitoring at TeV energies) telescope, a mount from a previous experiment is being refurbished and will be equipped with a new camera. Using silicon based photo sensors like in FACT, an excellent and stable performance will be achieved. M rate at TE is a joint project of German and Mexican universities which aims at extending the blazar monitoring to so far unexplored time ranges. In the presentation, the status of this emerging project is reported.

  19. High rate deposition of transparent conducting oxide thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ida, Satoshi; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2002-09-02

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films have been deposited at a high rate above 370 nm/min by vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) using sintered oxide fragments as the source material. It was found that the deposition rate of TCO films was strongly dependent on the deposition pressure, whereas the obtained electrical properties were relatively independent of the pressure. Resistivities of 5.6x10{sup -4} and 2.3x10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm and an average transmittance above 80% (with substrate included) in the visible range were obtained in Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films deposited at 100 and 350 deg. C, respectively. In addition, a resistivity as low as 1.4x10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm and an average transmittance above 80% were also obtained in indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films deposited at 300 deg. C. The deposited TCO films exhibited uniform distributions of resistivity and thickness on large area substrates.

  20. High rate deposition of transparent conducting oxide thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ida, Satoshi; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films have been deposited at a high rate above 370 nm/min by vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) using sintered oxide fragments as the source material. It was found that the deposition rate of TCO films was strongly dependent on the deposition pressure, whereas the obtained electrical properties were relatively independent of the pressure. Resistivities of 5.6x10 -4 and 2.3x10 -4 Ω·cm and an average transmittance above 80% (with substrate included) in the visible range were obtained in Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films deposited at 100 and 350 deg. C, respectively. In addition, a resistivity as low as 1.4x10 -4 Ω·cm and an average transmittance above 80% were also obtained in indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films deposited at 300 deg. C. The deposited TCO films exhibited uniform distributions of resistivity and thickness on large area substrates

  1. The Effect of Deposition Rate on Electrical, Optical and Structural Properties of ITO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Raghupathi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films have been prepared using the reactive evaporation technique on glass substrates in an oxygen atmosphere. It is found that the deposition rate plays prominent role in controlling the electrical and optical properties of the ITO thin films. Resistivity, electrical conductivity, activation energy, optical transmission and band gap energy were investigated. A transmittance value of more than 90% in the visible region of the spectrum and an electrical conductivity of 3x10–6 Ωm has been obtained with a deposition rate of 2 nm/min. XRD studies showed that the films are polycrystalline.

  2. Inkwells for on-demand deposition rate measurement in aerosol-jet based 3D printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yuan; Das, Siddhartha; Gutierrez, David; Hines, D R

    2017-01-01

    Aerosol-jet printing (AJP) is an important direct-write printing technology based on additive manufacturing methods. Numerous research groups have utilized AJP for the fabrication of electronic circuits and devices. However, there has not been any real-time or even any on-demand method for quantitatively measuring and/or setting the deposition rate of an AJ ink stream. In this paper, we present a method for measuring the deposition rate of an AJ ink stream by printing into an array of inkwells that were fabricated using photolithography and were characterized using x-ray tomography and optical profilometry. These inkwell arrays were then used to establish a set of deposition rates namely 0.0011, 0.0024, 0.0035, 0.0046 and 0.0059 mm 3 s −1 that were subsequently compared with independently-measured deposition rates obtained by printing the ink stream into a weighing pan for a specified time and calculating the resulting deposition rate from the weight of the printed sample. From this comparison, it is observed that, for a human operator, the error in setting a specific deposition rate is less for inkwell fill times greater than 3 s and greater for fill times less than 3 s. This observation indicates that the average volume of an inkwell array should be at least three times the desired deposition rate ( V inkwell   >  3 R ). It was also observed that when the diameter of the inkwell was only slightly larger than the ink stream diameter, the ink uniformly wets the sidewall of the inkwell and results in a well filled inkwell for which the point at which it is just fully filled is easily observable. Finally, the interactions of the ink with both ‘philic’ and ‘phobic’ inkwells were studied illustrating the ability to use inkwells of various materials for setting the desired deposition rates for a variety of AJ printable inks. (technical note)

  3. Process control of high rate microcrystalline silicon based solar cell deposition by optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilper, T.; Donker, M.N. van den; Carius, R.; Rech, B.; Braeuer, G.; Repmann, T.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon thin-film solar cells based on microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) were prepared in a 30 x 30 cm 2 plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor using 13.56 or 40.68 MHz plasma excitation frequency. Plasma emission was recorded by optical emission spectroscopy during μc-Si:H absorber layer deposition at deposition rates between 0.5 and 2.5 nm/s. The time course of SiH * and H β emission indicated strong drifts in the process conditions particularly at low total gas flows. By actively controlling the SiH 4 gas flow, the observed process drifts were successfully suppressed resulting in a more homogeneous i-layer crystallinity along the growth direction. In a deposition regime with efficient usage of the process gas, the μc-Si:H solar cell efficiency was enhanced from 7.9 % up to 8.8 % by applying process control

  4. Onboard monitoring of fatigue damage rates in the hull girder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2011-01-01

    Most new advanced ships have extensive data collection systems to be used for continuous monitoring of engine and hull performance, for voyage performance evaluation etc. Such systems could be expanded to include also procedures for stress monitoring and for decision support, where the most...... critical wave-induced ship extreme responses and fatigue damage accumulation can be estimated for hypothetical changes in ship course and speed in the automatically estimated wave environment.The aim of this paper is to outline a calculation procedure for fatigue damage rate prediction in hull girders...... taking into account whipping stresses. It is conceptually shown how such a method, which integrates onboard estimation of sea states, can be used to deduce decision support with respect to the accumulated fatigue damage in the hull girder.The paper firstly presents a set of measured full-scale wave...

  5. Rate-based structural health monitoring using permanently installed sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Permanently installed sensors are becoming increasingly ubiquitous, facilitating very frequent in situ measurements and consequently improved monitoring of `trends' in the observed system behaviour. It is proposed that this newly available data may be used to provide prior warning and forecasting of critical events, particularly system failure. Numerous damage mechanisms are examples of positive feedback; they are `self-accelerating' with an increasing rate of damage towards failure. The positive feedback leads to a common time-response behaviour which may be described by an empirical relation allowing prediction of the time to criticality. This study focuses on Structural Health Monitoring of engineering components; failure times are projected well in advance of failure for fatigue, creep crack growth and volumetric creep damage experiments. The proposed methodology provides a widely applicable framework for using newly available near-continuous data from permanently installed sensors to predict time until failure in a range of application areas including engineering, geophysics and medicine.

  6. Disilane as a growth rate catalyst of plasma deposited microcrystalline silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakellis, P.; Kalampounias, A. G.; Spiliopoulos, N.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.; Lahootun, V.; Coeuret, F.; Madec, A.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of small disilane addition on the gas phase properties of silane-hydrogen plasmas and the microcrystalline silicon thin films growth is presented. The investigation was conducted in the high pressure regime and for constant power dissipation in the discharge with the support of plasma diagnostics, thin film studies and calculations of discharge microscopic parameters and gas dissociation rates. The experimental data and the calculations show a strong effect of disilane on the electrical properties of the discharge in the pressure window from 2 to 3 Torr that is followed by significant raise of the electron number density and the drop of the sheaths electric field intensity. Deposition rate measurements show an important four to six times increase even for disilane mole fractions as low as 0.3 %. The deposition rate enhancement was followed by a drop of the material crystalline volume fraction but films with crystallinity above 40 % were deposited with different combinations of total gas pressure, disilane and silane molar ratios. The enhancement was partly explained by the increase of the electron impact dissociation rate of silane which rises by 40% even for 0.1% disilane mole fraction. The calculations of the gas usage, the dissociation and the deposition efficiencies show that the beneficial effect on the growth rate is not just the result of the increase of Si-containing molecules density but significant changes on the species participating to the deposition and the mechanism of the film growth are caused by the disilane addition. The enhanced participation of the highly sticking to the surface radical such as disilylene, which is the main product of disilane dissociation, was considered as the most probable reason for the significant raise of the deposition efficiency. The catalytic effect of such type of radical on the surface reactivity of species with lower sticking probability is further discussed, while it is also used to explain the restricted

  7. Disilane as a growth rate catalyst of plasma deposited microcrystalline silicon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrakellis, P.; Amanatides, E.; Mataras, D.; Kalampounias, A. G.; Spiliopoulos, N.; Lahootun, V.; Coeuret, F.; Madec, A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of small disilane addition on the gas phase properties of silane-hydrogen plasmas and the microcrystalline silicon thin films growth is presented. The investigation was conducted in the high pressure regime and for constant power dissipation in the discharge with the support of plasma diagnostics, thin film studies and calculations of discharge microscopic parameters and gas dissociation rates. The experimental data and the calculations show a strong effect of disilane on the electrical properties of the discharge in the pressure window from 2 to 3 Torr that is followed by significant raise of the electron number density and the drop of the sheaths electric field intensity. Deposition rate measurements show an important four to six times increase even for disilane mole fractions as low as 0.3 %. The deposition rate enhancement was followed by a drop of the material crystalline volume fraction but films with crystallinity above 40 % were deposited with different combinations of total gas pressure, disilane and silane molar ratios. The enhancement was partly explained by the increase of the electron impact dissociation rate of silane which rises by 40% even for 0.1% disilane mole fraction. The calculations of the gas usage, the dissociation and the deposition efficiencies show that the beneficial effect on the growth rate is not just the result of the increase of Si-containing molecules density but significant changes on the species participating to the deposition and the mechanism of the film growth are caused by the disilane addition. The enhanced participation of the highly sticking to the surface radical such as disilylene, which is the main product of disilane dissociation, was considered as the most probable reason for the significant raise of the deposition efficiency. The catalytic effect of such type of radical on the surface reactivity of species with lower sticking probability is further discussed, while it is also used to explain the restricted

  8. Magnetic field effects on coating deposition rate and surface morphology coatings using magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yu-Sen; Huang, Wesley

    2010-01-01

    Chromium nitride coatings exhibit superior hardness, excellent wear and oxidation resistance, and are widely applied in the die and mold industries. The aim of this study was to investigate magnetic field effects on the deposition rate and surface morphology of chromium nitride coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering. Four types of magnetic field configurations, including the magnetron sputtering system, SNSN, SNNN, and intermediate magnetron modification, are discussed in this paper. SKD11 cold work die steel and a silicon (100) chip were used as substrates in the chromium nitride depositions. The process parameters, such as target current, substrate bias, and the distance between the substrate and target, are at fixed conditions, except for the magnetic arrangement type. The experimental results showed that the deposition rates of the four types of magnetic field configurations were 1.06, 1.38, 1.67 and 1.26 µm h −1 , respectively. In these cases, the SNNN type performs more than 58% faster than the unbalanced magnetron configuration does for the deposition rate. The surface morphology of chromium nitride films was also examined by SEM and is discussed in this paper

  9. Effect of substrate temperature and deposition rate on the morphology and optical properties of Ti films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einollahzadeh-Samadi, M.; Dariani, R.S., E-mail: dariani@alzahra.ac.ir

    2013-09-01

    Titanium films are deposited on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering process. Influences imposed by sputtering rate and substrate temperature on surface morphology and optical properties of the deposited Ti films are investigated. We observed that all the sputtered films exhibit uniform and compact surface morphology without peeling and cracking. Morphology of the films is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties of the films are investigated using UV–vis spectroscopy. The morphological studies indicate that by increasing the substrate temperature from room temperature to 250 °C and/or decreasing sputtering rate from 660 Å/min to 540 Å/min the surface roughness decreased from 73.4 to 31.0 nm and the grain size increases from 50.76 nm to 163.93 nm. An important effect of the root mean square (RMS) surface roughness and grain size is modification of the films optical properties. In fact, an enhancement of refractive index n for the Ti films deposited at high substrate temperature and/or high deposition rate is observed, that is attributed to reduction of RMS roughness. This effect is attributed to increment of fractional volume which leads to an increase in density of deposited film. Thus, by controlling the sputtering conditions one can reach to the desired morphological and optical properties.

  10. CAMELS-based Determinants for the Credit Rating of Turkish Deposit Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yuksel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the relationship between CAMELS ratios and credit ratings of deposit banks in Turkey. Annual data was used for the period between 2004 and 2014 in this study. Moreover, 20 deposit banks of Turkey were analyzed and 21 different ratios of CAMELS components were used. In addition to that, credit ratings of these banks were provided from Moody’s corporation or annual activity reports of the banks. After that, we created multi nominal logistic regression analysis in order to illustrate the relationship. The major finding in this study is that three components (Asset Quality, Management Quality, and Sensitivity to Market Risk of CAMELS have effects on credit ratings whereas the ratios related to Capital Adequacy and Earnings are not effective. As a result, it was recommended that Turkish deposit banks should concentrate on the percentage of fixed assets and interest income to have a better rating. Moreover, having high market share with respect to total assets and lower interest expense are also other important points for this purpose. On the other hand, Turkish deposit banks should control the proportion of financial assets and increase the amount of FX liquid assets to prevent credit ratings to decrease. Additionally, market share of banks for loans should not reach at high level for this objective.

  11. Optical monitoring of surface processes relevant to thin film growth by chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcock, Michael Neil

    2002-01-01

    This thesis reports on the investigation of the use of reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) as an in-situ monitor for the preparation and oxidation of GaAs(100) c(4x4) surfaces using a CVD 2000 MOCVD reactor. These surfaces were oxidised using air. It was found that it was possible to follow surface degradation using RA transients at 2.6eV and 4eV. From this data it was possible to speculate on the nature of the surface oxidation process. A study was performed into the rate of surface degradation under different concentrations of air, it was found that the relation between the air concentration and the surface degradation was complicated but that the behaviour of the first third of the degradation approximated a first order behaviour. An estimation of the activation energy of the process was then made, and an assessment of the potential use of the glove-box for STM studies which is an integral part of the MOCVD equipment was also made. Following this, a description is given of the construction of an interferometer for monitoring thin film growth. An investigation is also described into two techniques designed to evaluate the changes in reflected intensity as measured by an interferometer. The first technique uses an iteration procedure to determine the film thickness from the reflection data. This is done using a Taylor series expansion of the thin film reflection function to iterate for the thickness. Problems were found with the iteration when applied to noisy data, these were solved by using a least squares fit to smooth the data. Problems were also found with the iteration at the turning points these were solved using the derivative of the function and by anticipating the position of the turning points. The second procedure uses the virtual interface method to determine the optical constants of the topmost deposited material, the virtual substrate, and the growth rate. This method is applied by using a Taylor series expansion of the thin film reflection

  12. Development and evaluation of an instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, F.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M. W.; Roe, D. K.

    1985-06-01

    A research program was carried out in which a new instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor (ACRM) was developed and evaluated, and equipment was constructed which will allow the use of many sensors in an economical way in outdoor exposures. In the first task, the ACRM was developed and tested in flow chambers in which relative humidity and gaseous and particulate pollutant levels can be controlled. Diurnal cycles and periods of rain were simulated. The effects of aerosols were studied. A computerized system was used for collection, storage, and analysis of the electrochemical data. In the second task, a relatively inexpensive electronics system for control of the ACRM and measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates was designed and built. In the third task, calibration of deterioration rates of various metallic and nonmetallic materials with the response of the ACRMs attached to these materials was carried out under controlled environmental conditions using the system developed in the second task. A Quality Assurance project plan was prepared with inputs from the Rockwell International Environmental Monitoring and Service Center and Quality Assurance System audits were performed.

  13. Critical review of gamma spectrometry detection approaches for in-plant surface deposition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorich, Carola [Nuclear Fuels and Chemistry at the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304, (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Surface deposition of activated corrosion product on oxide layers of light-water reactor primary system components is the primary source for ex-core radiation fields and personnel radiation exposure. Understanding the deposition mechanism and what factors influence the deposition and release behaviors are crucial for developing effective radiation field reduction measures. One of the available tools to assess the surface deposition is in-plant gamma spectrometry, which has been performed for several decades using either sodium iodide (NaI) or high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Lately, the much more mobile cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detectors are increasingly employed by stations because of their ease in use and handling. However, all of these gamma detectors face the same challenges; namely large-geometry samples of inconsistent sample compositions and sometimes gaps in the information necessary to establish proper efficiency calibrations. This paper reviews current measurements and efficiency calibration approaches taken in the industry. The validity of the measurement results and the feasibility of the data's use in understanding source term behavior is examined. Suggestions are made for the development of a more robust deposit characterization and radiation field monitoring program. (authors)

  14. Digital Heart-Rate Variability Parameter Monitoring and Assessment ASIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massagram, W; Hafner, N; Mingqi Chen; Macchiarulo, L; Lubecke, V M; Boric-Lubecke, O

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes experimental results for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), designed for digital heart rate variability (HRV) parameter monitoring and assessment. This ASIC chip measures beat-to-beat (RR) intervals and stores HRV parameters into its internal memory in real time. A wide range of short-term and long-term ECG signals obtained from Physionet was used for testing. The system detects R peaks with millisecond accuracy, and stores up to 2 min of continuous RR interval data and up to 4 min of RR interval histogram. The prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.5 ¿m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology on a 3×3 mm(2) die area, with a measured dynamic power consumption of 10 ¿W and measured leakage current of 2.62 nA. The HRV monitoring system including this HRV ASIC, an analog-to-digital converter, and a low complexity microcontroller was estimated to consume 32.5 ¿V, which is seven times lower power than a stand-alone microcontroller performing the same functions. Compact size, low cost, and low power consumption make this chip suitable for a miniaturized portable HRV monitoring system.

  15. High-rate silicon nitride deposition for photovoltaics : from fundamentals to industrial application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, W.M.M.; Oever, van den P.J.; Bosch, R.C.M.; Bijker, M.D.; Evers, M.F.J.; Schram, D.C.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of a novel plasma technique for high rate (> 1 nm/s) silicon nitride deposition for multifunctional antireflection coatings on crystalline silicon solar cells is described. The research has involved the analysis of the structural and optical properties of the silicon nitride films as

  16. High-rate silicon nitride deposition for photovoltaics : from fundamentals to industrial application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, W.M.M.; Oever, van den P.J.; Bosch, R.C.M.; Bijker, M.D.; Evers, M.F.J.; Schram, D.C.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a novel plasma technique for high rate (> 1 nm/s) silicon nitride deposition for multifunctional antireflection coatings on crystalline silicon solar cells is described. The research has involved the analysis of the structural and optical properties of the silicon nitride films as

  17. A prediction method for the wax deposition rate based on a radial basis function neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The radial basis function neural network is a popular supervised learning tool based on machinery learning technology. Its high precision having been proven, the radial basis function neural network has been applied in many areas. The accumulation of deposited materials in the pipeline may lead to the need for increased pumping power, a decreased flow rate or even to the total blockage of the line, with losses of production and capital investment, so research on predicting the wax deposition rate is significant for the safe and economical operation of an oil pipeline. This paper adopts the radial basis function neural network to predict the wax deposition rate by considering four main influencing factors, the pipe wall temperature gradient, pipe wall wax crystal solubility coefficient, pipe wall shear stress and crude oil viscosity, by the gray correlational analysis method. MATLAB software is employed to establish the RBF neural network. Compared with the previous literature, favorable consistency exists between the predicted outcomes and the experimental results, with a relative error of 1.5%. It can be concluded that the prediction method of wax deposition rate based on the RBF neural network is feasible.

  18. Quantifying Soil Erosion and Deposition Rates in Tea Plantation Area, Cameron Highlands, Malaysia Using 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Che Yasmin Amirudin; Ahmad Saat; Ahmad Saat; Ab Khalik Wood

    2014-01-01

    The soil erosion and deposition in the hilly area is a great concern for the planters. In this study, the tea plantation was chosen to quantify the rates of soil erosion and deposition for it will provide information on the improvement of soil conditions and cost reduction of fertilizer consumption. The aims of this research are to determine the rate of soil erosion and deposition using environmental radionuclide, 137 Cs. Soil profile samples were collected by using scrapper plate and two cores soil sample were collected in the undisturbed forests area nearby. The 137 Cs activity concentration was measured using low background coaxial hyper pure germanium detector gamma spectrometer based on 137 Cs gamma energy peak at 661.66 keV. The highest erosion rate using Proportional Models and Mass Balance Model 1 was found in point HE top area which is 52.39 t ha -1 yr -1 and 95.53 t ha -1 yr -1 respectively while the lowest at location HF top which is 4.78 t ha -1 yr -1 and 4.97 t ha -1 yr -1 . The deposition rate was higher in HF center which is 216.82 t ha -1 yr -1 and 97.51 t ha -1 yr -1 and the lowest at HE center which is 0.05 t ha -1 yr -1 for both models used. (author)

  19. Double electrolyte sensor for monitoring hydrogen permeation rate in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaihua College, Huaihua 418008 (China); Yu, G., E-mail: yuganghnu@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ou, A.L.; Hu, L.; Xu, W.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Designed an amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes. {yields} Explained the principle of determining hydrogen permeation rate. {yields} Verified good stability, reproducibility and correctness of the developed sensor. {yields} Field on-line monitoring the susceptivity of hydrogen induced cracks. - Abstract: An amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes composed of a gelatiniform electrolyte and KOH solution has been developed to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen atoms in steel equipment owing to hydrogen corrosion. The gelatiniform electrolyte was made of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS), carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2 mol dm{sup -3} KOH solution. The results show that the gelatiniform electrolyte containing 50 wt.% polymers has suitable viscosity and high electrical conductivity. The consistent permeation curves were detected by the sensor of the double electrolyte and single liquid KOH electrolyte, respectively. The developed sensor has good stability and reproducibility at room temperature.

  20. Double electrolyte sensor for monitoring hydrogen permeation rate in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Y.J.; Yu, G.; Ou, A.L.; Hu, L.; Xu, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Designed an amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes. → Explained the principle of determining hydrogen permeation rate. → Verified good stability, reproducibility and correctness of the developed sensor. → Field on-line monitoring the susceptivity of hydrogen induced cracks. - Abstract: An amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes composed of a gelatiniform electrolyte and KOH solution has been developed to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen atoms in steel equipment owing to hydrogen corrosion. The gelatiniform electrolyte was made of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS), carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2 mol dm -3 KOH solution. The results show that the gelatiniform electrolyte containing 50 wt.% polymers has suitable viscosity and high electrical conductivity. The consistent permeation curves were detected by the sensor of the double electrolyte and single liquid KOH electrolyte, respectively. The developed sensor has good stability and reproducibility at room temperature.

  1. Rate Predictions and Trigger/DAQ Resource Monitoring in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, D M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Since starting in 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has pro- duced collisions at an ever increasing rate. The ATLAS experiment successfully records the collision data with high eciency and excel- lent data quality. Events are selected using a three-level trigger system, where each level makes a more re ned selection. The level-1 trigger (L1) consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger which seeds two higher software based trigger levels. Over 300 triggers compose a trig- ger menu which selects physics signatures such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. Each trigger consumes computing resources of the ATLAS trigger system and oine storage. The LHC instantaneous luminosity conditions, desired physics goals of the collaboration, and the limits of the trigger infrastructure determine the composition of the ATLAS trigger menu. We describe a trigger monitoring frame- work for computing the costs of individual trigger algorithms such as data request rates and CPU consumption. This framework has been used...

  2. Determinants Factors of Interest Rates on Three-Month Deposits of Bank Persero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedy Kurniawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at analyzing the influence of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR, Operating Expenses of Operating Income (BOPO, inflation, exchange rate, and the amount of money supply (M1 to the interest rate of three month deposits of the State-Owned Bank in Indonesia in 2007-2015. This research uses the error correction model analysis. The result obtained is the CAR that has a significant effect on the long term and has no effect on the short term, BOPO has a significant influence on the long term and short term, inflation has the significant effect on the long term and has no effect on the short term, the exchange rate has an influence on the short and long term, the money supply has no effects on the short and long-term on the interest rate on three month deposits of the State-Owned Bank.

  3. Bluetooth(Registered Trademark) Heart Rate Monitors for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; West, Michael R.; Kalogera, Kent L.; Hanson, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required during exercise for crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data is required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth® heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health on board ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) was worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_RHM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the two data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. REULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6%error), followed by CS4 (3.3%error), CS3 (6.4%error), and CS2 (9.2%error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to get the best quality data. CS2 will be used in an

  4. QRS peak detection for heart rate monitoring on Android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambudi Utomo, Trio; Nuryani, Nuryani; Darmanto

    2017-11-01

    In this study, Android smartphone is used for heart rate monitoring and displaying electrocardiogram (ECG) graph. Heart rate determination is based on QRS peak detection. Two methods are studied to detect the QRS complex peak; they are Peak Threshold and Peak Filter. The acquisition of ECG data is utilized by AD8232 module from Analog Devices, three electrodes, and Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3. To record the ECG data from a patient, three electrodes are attached to particular body’s surface of a patient. Patient’s heart activity which is recorded by AD8232 module is decoded by Arduino UNO R3 into analog data. Then, the analog data is converted into a voltage value (mV) and is processed to get the QRS complex peak. Heart rate value is calculated by Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3 uses the QRS complex peak. Voltage, heart rate, and the QRS complex peak are sent to Android smartphone by Bluetooth HC-05. ECG data is displayed as the graph by Android smartphone. To evaluate the performance of QRS complex peak detection method, three parameters are used; they are positive predictive, accuracy and sensitivity. Positive predictive, accuracy, and sensitivity of Peak Threshold method is 92.39%, 70.30%, 74.62% and for Peak Filter method are 98.38%, 82.47%, 83.61%, respectively.

  5. Are Banks Passive Liquidity Backstops? Deposit Rates and Flows during the 2007-2009 Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Viral V. Acharya; Nada Mora

    2012-01-01

    Can banks maintain their advantage as liquidity providers when they are heavily exposed to a financial crisis? The standard argument - that banks can - hinges on deposit inflows that are seeking a safe haven and provide banks with a natural hedge to fund drawn credit lines and other commitments. We shed new light on this issue by studying the behavior of bank deposit rates and inflows during the 2007-09 crisis. Our results indicate that the role of the banking system as a stabilizing liquidit...

  6. High-rate deposition of Ta-doped SnO2 films by reactive magnetron sputtering using a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Nakatomi, S.; Oka, N.; Iwabuchi, Y.; Kotsubo, H.; Shigesato, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ta-doped SnO 2 films were deposited on glass substrate (either unheated or heated at 200 °C) by reactive magnetron sputtering with a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target using a plasma control unit (PCU) and mid-frequency (mf, 50 kHz) unipolar pulsing. The PCU feedback system precisely controlled the flow of the reactive and sputtering gases (O 2 and Ar, respectively) by monitoring either discharge impedance or the plasma emission of the atomic O* line at 777 nm. The planar target was connected to the switching unit, which was operated in unipolar pulse mode. Power density on the target was maintained at 4.4 W cm −2 during deposition. The lowest obtained resistivity for the films deposited on heated substrate was 6.4 × 10 −3 Ωcm, where the deposition rate was 250 nm min −1 .

  7. Deposition Rates of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering: Physics and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2009-11-22

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase of the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes to due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes of the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction of the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits considered.

  8. Deposition rates of high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Physics and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Deposition by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is considered by some as the new paradigm of advanced sputtering technology, yet this is met with skepticism by others for the reported lower deposition rates, if compared to rates of more conventional sputtering of equal average power. In this contribution, the underlying physical reasons for the rate changes are discussed, including (i) ion return to the target and self-sputtering, (ii) the less-than-linear increase in the sputtering yield with increasing ion energy, (iii) yield changes due to the shift of species responsible for sputtering, (iv) changes due to greater film density, limited sticking, and self-sputtering on the substrate, (v) noticeable power losses in the switch module, (vi) changes in the magnetic balance and particle confinement of the magnetron due to self-fields at high current, and (vii) superposition of sputtering and sublimation/evaporation for selected materials. The situation is even more complicated for reactive systems where the target surface chemistry is a function of the reactive gas partial pressure and discharge conditions. While most of these factors imply a reduction in the normalized deposition rate, increased rates have been reported for certain conditions using hot targets and less poisoned targets. Finally, some points of economics and HIPIMS benefits are considered.

  9. SAR Imagery Applied to the Monitoring of Hyper-Saline Deposits: Death Valley Example (CA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasne, Yannick; Paillou, Philippe; Freeman, Anthony; Chapman, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims at understanding the influence of salinity on the dielectric constant of soils and then on the backscattering coeff cients recorded by airborne/spaceborne SAR systems. Based on dielectric measurements performed over hyper-saline deposits in Death Valley (CA), as well as laboratory electromagnetic characterization of salts and water mixtures, we used the dielectric constants as input parameters of analytical IEM simulations to model both the amplitude and phase behaviors of SAR signal at C, and L-bands. Our analytical simulations allow to reproduce specif c copolar signatures recorded in SAR data, corresponding to the Cottonball Basin saltpan. We also propose the copolar backscattering ratio and phase difference as indicators of moistened and salt-affected soils. More precisely, we show that these copolar indicators should allow to monitor the seasonal variations of the dielectric properties of saline deposits.

  10. A robust upscaling of the effective particle deposition rate in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardo, Gianluca; Crevacore, Eleonora; Sethi, Rajandrea; Icardi, Matteo

    2018-05-01

    In the upscaling from pore to continuum (Darcy) scale, reaction and deposition phenomena at the solid-liquid interface of a porous medium have to be represented by macroscopic reaction source terms. The effective rates can be computed, in the case of periodic media, from three-dimensional microscopic simulations of the periodic cell. Several computational and semi-analytical models have been studied in the field of colloid filtration to describe this problem. They typically rely on effective deposition rates defined by complex fitting procedures, neglecting the advection-diffusion interplay, the pore-scale flow complexity, and assuming slow reactions (or large Péclet numbers). Therefore, when these rates are inserted into general macroscopic transport equations, they can lead to several conceptual inconsistencies and significant errors. To study more accurately the dependence of deposition on the flow parameters, in this work we advocate a clear distinction between the surface processes (that altogether defines the so-called attachment efficiency), and the pore-scale processes. With this approach, valid when colloidal particles are small enough, we study Brownian and gravity-driven deposition on a face-centred cubic (FCC) arrangement of spherical grains, and define a robust upscaling based on a linear effective reaction rate. The case of partial deposition, defined by an attachment probability, is studied and the limit of perfect sink is retrieved as a particular case. We introduce a novel upscaling approach and a particularly convenient computational setup that allows the direct computation of the asymptotic stationary value of effective rates. This allows to drastically reduce the computational domain down to the scale of the single repeating periodic unit. The savings are ever more noticeable in the case of higher Péclet numbers, when larger physical times are needed to reach the asymptotic regime and thus, equivalently, much larger computational domain and

  11. Resuspension. Decadal monitoring time series of the anthropogenic radioactivity deposition in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Miyao, Takashi; Nemoto, Kazuhiro; Tomita, Masatoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Monthly atmospheric depositions of 90 Sr and 137 Cs have been observed at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Tsukuba, Japan. This study reports temporal trends and levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs depositions in the 1990s. Although the current 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations declined dramatically, they have been found continuously in the deposition samples throughout the 1990s. During this period, the annual 90 Sr ( 137 Cs) deposits at MRI ranged from 70-180 (140-350) mBq/m 2 /year. With a sufficiently long time series, the decreasing trend of the deposition evidently differs from the past stratospheric fallout; it is far slower. Thus, reservoirs other than the stratosphere provide small amounts of 90 Sr and 137 Cs to the atmosphere. A simple calculation clearly refutes the significance of the ocean as a potential source of airborne anthropogenic radioactivity. We will demonstrate that these radionuclides in the deposited materials originate from resuspension processes (soil dust suspension processes). The temporal trends of the time series monitoring reveal differences from those in the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) Report 2000, which were predicted by a model that disregarded resuspension. The specific activity of 90 Sr ( 137 Cs) in the annual depositions exhibited a 10-year (20-year) half-life. Those data were comparable with values reported in the literature for the half-residence time (HRT) of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in Japanese surface soils. They were also comparable to those calculated from nationwide data of 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations in the surface soil (0-10 cm) obtained from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Environmental Radiation Database (the MEXT Database). Regarding the activity ratio of 137 Cs/ 90 Sr, the Japanese nationwide surface soil data collected during the 1990s in the MEXT Database (median: 5.3, n=584) did not accord with that in the deposition samples

  12. Determination of Redistribution of Erosion/Deposition Rate in Cultivated Area Using 137Cs Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nita Suhartini; Syamsul Abbas RAS; Barokah A; Ali Arman L

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the research is to determine the rate of redistribution of erosion/deposition in cultivated area. The application of 137 Cs technique was carried out at cultivated area in Bojong - Ciawi, with slope less than 10 o and slope length of about 2 km. A reference site was selected at the top of the slope, and this site is flat, open and covered with grass. Two sites in the cultivated area were selected as study site namely LU-I ( 15 x 25 ) m with the distance of 1000 m from the top, and LU-II (17.5 x 20) m with the distance of 1300 m from the top. Sampling of soil at reference site was done by using scraper (20 x 50) cm, while sampling at study site by using core sampling (di = 7 cm). Soil samples were brought to the laboratorium for preparation and analysis of 137 Cs content. Preparation are including of drying, weighing the total dry, sieving and crushing. Analysis of 137 Cs content was done using multi channel analyzer (MCA) that connected to high purity germanium (HPGe), at 661 keV, and the minimum counting time of 16 hours. To estimate the erosion/deposit rate, two mathematical model were used, namely Proportional Model (PM) and Mass Balance Model 1 (MBM1). The result for application of 137 Cs technique showed that MBM1 gives somewhat higher value for deposit rate and somewhat lower value for erosion than PM. Land use - I (LU-I) of Bojong - Ciawi was suffering from erosion with the erosion rate from 1 t/(ha.y) to 13 t/(ha.y), and LU-II has deposit rate from 1 t/(ha.y) to 50 t/(ha.y). (author)

  13. Sedimentation rates and depositional processes in Lake Superior from 210Pb geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.; Johnson, T.C.; Alexander, E.C. Jr.; Lively, R.S.; Eisenreich, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Sedimentation rates range from 0.01 to 0.32 cm/yr in 17 sediment box cores from Lake Superior, as determined by 210 Pb geochronology. Shoreline erosion and resuspension of nearshore sediments causes moderate to high (0.05-0.11 cm/yr) sedimentation rates in the western arm of Lake Superior. Sedimentation rates are very high (> 0.15 cm/yr) in marginal bays adjoining Lake Superior; and moderate to very high (0.07-0.19 cm/yr) in open lake regions adjacent to marginal bays. Resuspension of nearshore and shoal top sediments in southern and southeastern Lake Superior by storms is responsible for depositional anomalies in 210 Pb profiles corresponding to 1905, 1916-1918, and 1940 storms. Sedimentation rates are very low (0.01-0.03 cm/yr) in the central basins due to isolation from sediment sources. These data indicate that sedimentation rates and processes vary significantly in different regions of Lake Superior. The sedimentation rates provided by this study, in conjunction with previously-reported sedimentation rates, yield a better understanding of the Lake Superior depositional environment

  14. Forest condition and chemical characteristics of atmospheric depositions: research and monitoring network in Lombardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaminio DI GIROLAMO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, the Regional Forestry Board of Lombardy and the Water Research Institute of the National Research Council have been carrying out surveys of forest conditions and the response of the ecosystem to environmental factors. The study approach is based on a large number of permanent plots for extensive monitoring (Level 1. At this level, crown condition is assessed annually, and soil condition and the nutritional status of forests surveyed. Some of the permanent plots were selected for intensive monitoring (Level 2, focussing mainly on the impact of atmospheric pollution on forest ecosystems. Level 2 monitoring also includes increment analyses, ground vegetation assessment, atmospheric deposition, soil solution analyses and climatic observations. This paper summarises the main results of a pluriannual research, which provides a general picture of the state of forest health in the region and focuses on more detailed investigations, described as case studies. Modified wet and dry samplers which use a water surface to collect dry deposition were used in a pluriannual field campaign at five sites in alpine and prealpine areas, to measure the total atmospheric depositions and to evaluate the nitrogen and sulphate exceedances of critical loads. Throughfall and bulk precipitation chemistry were studied for five years (June 1994-May 1999 at two high elevation forest sites (Val Gerola and Val Masino which were known to differ in terms of tree health, as assessed by live crown condition. Results indicated a higher contribution from the dry deposition of N-NO3 -, N-NH4 + and H+ and considerable canopy leaching of Ca2+, K+ and weak organic acids at Val Gerola, where the symptoms of damage were more evident. In the area of Val Masino (SO, included since 1997 in the national CONECOFOR network, investigations focused on the effectiveness of the biological compartment in modifying fluxes of atmospheric elements, and on the role of nitrogen both as an

  15. The effects of H sub 2 addition on the enhanced deposition rate and high quality Cu films by MOCVD

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, J H; Park, S J; Choi, S Y

    1998-01-01

    High-quality Cu thin films were deposited on the TiN/Si substrate from the hexafluoroacetylacetonate Copper thrmethylvinylsilane [Cu (hfac) (tmvs)] source using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The optimum deposition condition is with a substrate temperature of 200 .deg. C and the hydrogen flow rate of 80 sccm. The deposition rate, electrical resistivity, surface morphology, grain size, and optical properties of the deposited Cu films were investigated by the AES, four-point probe, SEM, XRD, and the visible spectrophotometer as a function of hydrogen gas flow rate, The results indicated that additional hydrogen gas affects the CVD hydrogen reduction reaction improving the purity, deposition rate, and electrical resistivity of Cu thin films. A prospective idea will be discussed for the preparation of Cu thin films showing a more enhanced electromigration resistance applicable to the next-generation interconnection.

  16. Accuracy of acoustic respiration rate monitoring in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Mario; Redford, Daniel T; Quigley, Thomas W; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Kurth, C Dean; Szmuk, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Rainbow acoustic monitoring (RRa) utilizes acoustic technology to continuously and noninvasively determine respiratory rate from an adhesive sensor located on the neck. We sought to validate the accuracy of RRa, by comparing it to capnography, impedance pneumography, and to a reference method of counting breaths in postsurgical children. Continuous respiration rate data were recorded from RRa and capnography. In a subset of patients, intermittent respiration rate from thoracic impedance pneumography was also recorded. The reference method, counted respiratory rate by the retrospective analysis of the RRa, and capnographic waveforms while listening to recorded breath sounds were used to compare respiration rate of both capnography and RRa. Bias, precision, and limits of agreement of RRa compared with capnography and RRa and capnography compared with the reference method were calculated. Tolerance and reliability to the acoustic sensor and nasal cannula were also assessed. Thirty-nine of 40 patients (97.5%) demonstrated good tolerance of the acoustic sensor, whereas 25 of 40 patients (62.5%) demonstrated good tolerance of the nasal cannula. Intermittent thoracic impedance produced erroneous respiratory rates (>50 b·min(-1) from the other methods) on 47% of occasions. The bias ± SD and limits of agreement were -0.30 ± 3.5 b·min(-1) and -7.3 to 6.6 b·min(-1) for RRa compared with capnography; -0.1 ± 2.5 b·min(-1) and -5.0 to 5.0 b·min(-1) for RRa compared with the reference method; and 0.2 ± 3.4 b·min(-1) and -6.8 to 6.7 b·min(-1) for capnography compared with the reference method. When compared to nasal capnography, RRa showed good agreement and similar accuracy and precision but was better tolerated in postsurgical pediatric patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Development of ion-exchange collectors for monitoring atmospheric deposition of inorganic pollutants in Alaska parklands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Arms, Jesse W.; Linder, Greg L.; Melton, Vanessa D.

    2016-09-19

    Between 2010 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a series of laboratory and field experiments designed to develop methodology to support the National Park Service’s long-term atmospheric pollutant monitoring efforts in parklands of Arctic Alaska. The goals of this research were to develop passive sampling methods that could be used for long-term monitoring of inorganic pollutants in remote areas of arctic parklands and characterize relations between wet and dry deposition of atmospheric pollutants to that of concentrations accumulated by mosses, specifically the stair-step, splendid feather moss, Hylocomium splendens. Mosses and lichens have been used by National Park Service managers as atmospheric pollutant biomonitors since about 1990; however, additional research is needed to better characterize the dynamics of moss bioaccumulation for various classes of atmospheric pollutants. To meet these research goals, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the use of passive ionexchange collectors (IECs) that were adapted from the design of Fenn and others (2004). Using a modified IEC configuration, mulitple experiments were completed that included the following: (a) preliminary laboratory and development testing of IECs, (b) pilot-scale validation field studies during 2012 with IECs at sites with instrumental monitoring stations, and (c) deployment of IECs in 2014 at sites in Alaska having known or suspected regional sources of atmospheric pollutants where samples of Hylocomium splendens moss also could be collected for comparison. The targeted substances primarily included ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate ions, and certain toxicologically important trace metals, including cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc.Deposition of atmospheric pollutants is comparatively low throughout most of Alaska; consequently, modifications of the original IEC design were needed. The most notable modification was conversion from a single-stage mixed-bed column to a two

  18. Smartphone-based photoplethysmographic imaging for heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafeef, Maha

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to make use of visible light reflected mode photoplethysmographic (PPG) imaging for heart rate (HR) monitoring via smartphones. The system uses the built-in camera feature in mobile phones to capture video from the subject's index fingertip. The video is processed, and then the PPG signal resulting from the video stream processing is used to calculate the subject's heart rate. Records from 19 subjects were used to evaluate the system's performance. The HR values obtained by the proposed method were compared with the actual HR. The obtained results show an accuracy of 99.7% and a maximum absolute error of 0.4 beats/min where most of the absolute errors lay in the range of 0.04-0.3 beats/min. Given the encouraging results, this type of HR measurement can be adopted with great benefit, especially in the conditions of personal use or home-based care. The proposed method represents an efficient portable solution for HR accurate detection and recording.

  19. Impact of deposition rate on the structural and magnetic properties of sputtered Ni/Cu multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpuz, Ali [Karamanoglu Mehmetbey Univ., Karaman (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Colmekci, Salih; Kockar, Hakan; Kuru, Hilal; Uckun, Mehmet [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2018-04-01

    The structural and corresponding magnetic properties of Ni/Cu films sputtered at low and high deposition rates were investigated as there is a limited number of related studies in this field. 5[Ni(10 nm)/Cu(30 nm)] multilayer thin films were deposited using two DC sputtering sources at low (0.02 nm/s) and high (0.10 nm/s) deposition rates of Ni layers. A face centered cubic phase was detected for both films. The surface of the film sputtered at the low deposition rate has a lot of micro-grains distributed uniformly and with sizes from 0.1 to 0.4 μm. Also, it has a vertical acicular morphology. At high deposition rate, the number of micro-grains considerably decreased, and some of their sizes increased up to 1 μm. The surface of the Ni/Cu multilayer deposited at the low rate has a relatively more grainy and rugged structure, whereas the surface of the film deposited at the high rate has a relatively larger lateral size of surface grains with a relatively fine morphology. Saturation magnetisation, M{sub s}, values were 90 and 138 emu/cm{sup 3} for deposition rates of 0.02 and 0.10 nm/s, respectively. Remanence, M{sub r}, values were also found to be 48 and 71 emu/cm{sup 3} for the low and high deposition rates, respectively. The coercivity, H{sub c}, values were 46 and 65 Oe for the low and high Ni deposition rates, respectively. The changes in the film surfaces provoked the changes in the H{sub c} values. The M{sub s}, M{sub r}, and H{sub c} values of the 5[Ni(10 nm)/Cu(30 nm)] films can be adjusted considering the surface morphologies and film contents caused by the different Ni deposition rates.

  20. Uronide Deposition Rates in the Primary Root of Zea mays1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Wendy Kuhn; Walker, Robert C.; Labavitch, John

    1984-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the rate of deposition of uronic acids in the elongation zone of Zea mays L. Crow WF9 × Mo 17 was determined using the continuity equation with experimentally determined values for uronide density and growth velocity. In spatial terms, the uronide deposition rate has a maximum of 0.4 micrograms per millimeter per hour at s = 3.5 mm (i.e., at the location 3.5 mm from the root tip) and decreases to 0.1 mg mm−1 h−1 by s = 10 mm. In terms of a material tissue element, a tissue segment located initially from s = 2.0 to s = 2.1 mm has 0.14 μg of uronic acids and increases in both length and uronic acid content until it is 0.9 mm long and has 0.7 μg of uronide when its center is at s = 10 mm. Simulations of radioactive labeling experiments show that 15 min is the appropriate time scale for pulse determinations of deposition rate profiles in a rapidly growing corn root. PMID:16663488

  1. Validation of Heart Rate Monitor Polar RS800 for Heart Rate Variability Analysis During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, David; Garatachea, Nuria; Almeida, Rute; Casajús, Jose A; Bailón, Raquel

    2018-03-01

    Hernando, D, Garatachea, N, Almeida, R, Casajús, JA, and Bailón, R. Validation of heart rate monitor Polar RS800 for heart rate variability analysis during exercise. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 716-725, 2018-Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during exercise is an interesting noninvasive tool to measure the cardiovascular response to the stress of exercise. Wearable heart rate monitors are a comfortable option to measure interbeat (RR) intervals while doing physical activities. It is necessary to evaluate the agreement between HRV parameters derived from the RR series recorded by wearable devices and those derived from an electrocardiogram (ECG) during dynamic exercise of low to high intensity. Twenty-three male volunteers performed an exercise stress test on a cycle ergometer. Subjects wore a Polar RS800 device, whereas ECG was also recorded simultaneously to extract the reference RR intervals. A time-frequency spectral analysis was performed to extract the instantaneous mean heart rate (HRM), and the power of low-frequency (PLF) and high-frequency (PHF) components, the latter centered on the respiratory frequency. Analysis was done in intervals of different exercise intensity based on oxygen consumption. Linear correlation, reliability, and agreement were computed in each interval. The agreement between the RR series obtained from the Polar device and from the ECG is high throughout the whole test although the shorter the RR is, the more differences there are. Both methods are interchangeable when analyzing HRV at rest. At high exercise intensity, HRM and PLF still presented a high correlation (ρ > 0.8) and excellent reliability and agreement indices (above 0.9). However, the PHF measurements from the Polar showed reliability and agreement coefficients around 0.5 or lower when the level of the exercise increases (for levels of O2 above 60%).

  2. Validating Whole-Airway CFD Predictions of DPI Aerosol Deposition at Multiple Flow Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, P Worth; Tian, Geng; Khajeh-Hosseini-Dalasm, Navvab; Hindle, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare aerosol deposition predictions of a new whole-airway CFD model with available in vivo data for a dry powder inhaler (DPI) considered across multiple inhalation waveforms, which affect both the particle size distribution (PSD) and particle deposition. The Novolizer DPI with a budesonide formulation was selected based on the availability of 2D gamma scintigraphy data in humans for three different well-defined inhalation waveforms. Initial in vitro cascade impaction experiments were conducted at multiple constant (square-wave) particle sizing flow rates to characterize PSDs. The whole-airway CFD modeling approach implemented the experimentally determined PSDs at the point of aerosol formation in the inhaler. Complete characteristic airway geometries for an adult were evaluated through the lobar bronchi, followed by stochastic individual pathway (SIP) approximations through the tracheobronchial region and new acinar moving wall models of the alveolar region. It was determined that the PSD used for each inhalation waveform should be based on a constant particle sizing flow rate equal to the average of the inhalation waveform's peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) and mean flow rate [i.e., AVG(PIFR, Mean)]. Using this technique, agreement with the in vivo data was acceptable with <15% relative differences averaged across the three regions considered for all inhalation waveforms. Defining a peripheral to central deposition ratio (P/C) based on alveolar and tracheobronchial compartments, respectively, large flow-rate-dependent differences were observed, which were not evident in the original 2D in vivo data. The agreement between the CFD predictions and in vivo data was dependent on accurate initial estimates of the PSD, emphasizing the need for a combination in vitro-in silico approach. Furthermore, use of the AVG(PIFR, Mean) value was identified as a potentially useful method for characterizing a DPI aerosol at a constant flow rate.

  3. High-rate anisotropic ablation and deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene using synchrotron radiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inayoshi, Muneto; Ikeda, Masanobu; Hori, Masaru; Goto, Toshio; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Hiraya, Atsunari.

    1995-01-01

    Both anisotropic ablation and thin film formation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were successfully demonstrated using synchrotron radiation (SR) irradiation of PTFE, that is, the SR ablation process. Anisotropic ablation by the SR irradiation was performed at an extremely high rate of 3500 μm/min at a PTFE target temperature of 200degC. Moreover, a PTFE thin film was formed at a high rate of 2.6 μm/min using SR ablation of PTFE. The chemical structure of the deposited film was similar to that of the PTFE target as determined from Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. (author)

  4. One-dimensional analysis of the rate of plasma-assisted sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmero, A.; Rudolph, H.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article a recently developed model [A. Palmero, H. Rudolph, and F. H. P. M. Habraken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211501 (2006)] is applied to analyze the transport of sputtered material from the cathode toward the growing film when using a plasma-assisted sputtering deposition technique. The argon pressure dependence of the deposition rate of aluminum, silicon, vanadium, chromium, germanium, tantalum, and tungsten under several different experimental conditions has been analyzed by fitting experimental results from the literature to the above-mentioned theory. Good fits are obtained. Three quantities are deduced from the fit: the temperature of the cathode and of the growing film, and the value of the effective cross section for thermalization due to elastic scattering of a sputtered particle on background gas atoms. The values derived from the fits for the growing film and cathode temperature are very similar to those experimentally determined and reported in the literature. The effective cross sections have been found to be approximately the corresponding geometrical cross section divided by the average number of collisions required for the thermalization, implying that the real and effective thermalization lengths have a similar value. Finally, the values of the throw distance appearing in the Keller-Simmons model, as well as its dependence on the deposition conditions have been understood invoking the values of the cathode and film temperature, as well as of the value of the effective cross section. The analysis shows the overall validity of this model for the transport of sputtered particles in sputter deposition

  5. Influence of deposition rate on the properties of tin coatings deposited on tool steels using arc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, P.; Abbas, M.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) widely used as hard coating material, was coated on tool steels, namely on high-speed steel (HSS) and D2 tool steel by physical vapour deposition method. The study concentrated on cathodic arc physical vapour deposition (CAPVD), a technique used for the deposition of hard coatings for tooling applications, and which has many advantages. The main drawback of this technique, however, is the formation of macrodroplets (MD's) during deposition, resulting in films with rougher morphology. Various standard characterization techniques and equipment, such as electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, hardness testing machine, scratch tester and pin-on-disc machine, were used to analyze and quantify the following properties and parameters, surface morphology, thickness, hardness, adhesion and coefficient of friction (COF) of the deposited coatings. Surface morphology revealed that the MD's produced during the etching stage, protruded through the thin film, resulting in film with deteriorated surface features. Both coating thickness and indentation loads influenced the hardness of the deposited coatings. The coatings deposited on HSS exhibit better adhesion compared to those on D2 tool steel. Standard deviation indicates that the coating deposited with thickness around 6.7 macro m showed the most stable trend of COF versus sliding distance. (author)

  6. The Influence of Cultivation System on Distribution Profile Of 137cs and Erosion / Deposition Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Suhartini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available 137Cs radiogenic content in the soil can be used to estimate the rate of erosion and deposition in an area occurring since 1950’s, by comparing the content of the 137Cs in observed site with those in a stable reference site. This experiment aimed to investigate the influence of cultivation type on distribution profile of 137Cs and distribution of erosion and deposition rate in cultivated area. A study site was small cultivated area with slope steepness <10o and length 2 km located in Bojong – Ciawi. For this purpose, the top of a slope was chosen for reference site and three plot sites were selected namely Land Use I that using simple cultivation, Land Use II that using simple cultivation with ridge and furrow, and Land Use III using machine cultivation. The results showed that cultivation could make a movement of 137Cs to the deeper layer and ridges and furrows cultivation system could minimized an erosion process. The net erosion and deposition for land Use I, II and III were -25 t/ha/yr , 24 t/ha/yr and -58 t/ha/yr, respectively.

  7. Development of electronic tattoo for pulse rate monitoring: Materials perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Shilpa Vikas; Sonavane, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    In India, there is a growing concern of the heart diseases and deaths due to heart failure. The severity of the problem can be minimised by efficient heart rate monitoring which can be used to provide before time caution to cater heart attack. Wearable sensor can be designed to sense the pulse. The sensor can be either placed near to heart or on the wrist to sense pulses and send pulse signals to the doctors. Such sensor should adhere to the skin for sufficiently long period without causing etching to the patient. It should also be bendable and stretchable like skin. This paper is a part of the research work carried out to develop patch type sensor, which is termed as Electronic Tattoo (ET). In pursuit for development of ET, we came across various designs and candidate materials which can be used for the ET. Thus, in this paper, we describe the process of selecting best suited method and material for the ET. It may also be noted that the sensor development is governed by the prevailing IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

  8. Bismuth nanowire growth under low deposition rate and its ohmic contact free of interface damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High quality bismuth (Bi nanowire and its ohmic contact free of interface damage are quite desired for its research and application. In this paper, we propose one new way to prepare high-quality single crystal Bi nanowires at a low deposition rate, by magnetron sputtering method without the assistance of template or catalyst. The slow deposition growth mechanism of Bi nanowire is successfully explained by an anisotropic corner crossing effect, which is very different from existing explanations. A novel approach free of interface damage to ohmic contact of Bi nanowire is proposed and its good electrical conductivity is confirmed by I-V characteristic measurement. Our method provides a quick and convenient way to produce high-quality Bi nanowires and construct ohmic contact for desirable devices.

  9. Laser deposition rates of thin films of selected metals and alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen

    Thin films of Cu, Zn and Sn as well as mixtures of these elements have been produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). The deposition rate of single and multicomponent metallic targets was determined. The strength of PLD is that the stoichiometry of complex compounds, even of complicated alloys...... or metal oxides, can be preserved from target to film. We apply this technique to design films of a mixture of Cu, Zn and Sn, which are constituents of the chalcogenide CZTS, which has a composition close to Cu2ZnSnS4. This compound is expected to be an important candidate for absorbers in new solar cells...... for alloys of the different elements as well as compounds with S will be presented....

  10. Nitrogen Deposition Reduces Decomposition Rates Through Shifts in Microbial Community Composition and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.; Zak, D.; Sinsabaugh, R.

    2002-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition may alter soil biological activity in northern hardwood forests by repressing phenol oxidase enzyme activity and altering microbial community composition, thereby slowing decomposition and increasing the export of phenolic compounds. We tested this hypothesis by adding 13C-labelled cellobiose, vanillin, and catechol to control and N fertilized soils (30 and 80 kg ha-1) collected from three forests; two dominated by Acer Saccharum and one dominated by Quercus Alba and Quercus Velutina. While N deposition increased total microbial respiration, it decreased soil oxidative enzyme activities, resulting in slower degradation rates of all compounds, and larger DOC pools. This effect was larger in the oak forest, where fungi dominate C-cycling processes. DNA and 13C-phospolipid analyses showed that N addition altered the fungal community and reduced the activity of fungal and bacterial populations in soil, potentially explaining reduced soil enzyme activities and incomplete decomposition.

  11. High-rate deposition of SI absorber layers by electron beam evaporation and first electron beam crystallization tests

    OpenAIRE

    Saager, Stefan; Ben Yaala, Marwa; Heinß, Jens-Peter; Temmler, Dietmar; Pfefferling, Bert; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In earlier electron beam physical vapor deposition tests (EB-PVD), using a conventional copper crucible (A), high Si deposition rates at relatively high EB power together with a contamination level of 1016 cm-3 are demonstrated. To improve the rate vs. EB power relation as well as the Si layer purity, two alternative high rate EBPVD methods are investigated and reported here - a contact-less crucible setup (B) and a crucible-free setup (C).In these experiments comparable deposition rates of ~...

  12. Comparison of soil erosion and deposition rates using radiocesium, RUSLE, and buried soils in dolines in East Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnage, K.M.; Lee, S.Y.; Foss, J.E.; Kim, K.H.; Larsen, I.L.

    1997-01-01

    Three dolines (sinkholes), each representing different land uses (crop, grass, and forest) in a karst area in East Tennesse, were selected to determine soil erosional and depositional rates. Three methods were used to estimate the rates: fallout radiocesium ( 137 Cs) redistribution, buried surface soil horizons (Ab horizon), and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE). When 137 Cs redistribution was examined, the average soil erosion rates were calculated to be 27 t ha -1 yr -1 at the cropland, 3 t ha -1 yr -1 at the grassland, and 2 t ha -1 yr -1 at the forest. By comparison, cropland erosion rate of 2.6 t ha -1 yr -1 , a grassland rate of 0.6 t ha -1 yr -1 , and a forest rate of 0.2 t ha -1 yr -1 were estimated by RUSLE. The 137 Cs method expressed higher rates than RUSLE because RUSLE tends to overestimate low erosion rates and does not account for deposition. The buried surface horizons method resulted in deposition rates that were 8 t ha -1 yr -1 (during 480 yr) at the cropland, 12 t ha -1 yr -1 (during 980 yr) at the grassland, and 4 t ha -1 yr -1 (during 101 yr) at the forest site. By examining 137 Cs redistribution, soil deposition rates were found to be 23 t ha -1 yr -1 at the cropland, 20 t ha -1 yr -1 at the grassland, and 16 t ha -1 yr -1 at the forest site. The variability in deposition rates was accounted for by temporal differences; 137 Cs expressed deposition during the last 38 yr, whereas Ab horizons represented deposition during hundreds of years. In most cases, land used affected both erosion and deposition rates - the highest rates of soil redistribution usually representing the cropland and the lowest, the forest. When this was not true, differences in the rates were attributed to differences in the size, shape, and closure of the dolines. (orig.)

  13. Dependences of deposition rate and OH content on concentration of added trichloroethylene in low-temperature silicon oxide films deposited using silicone oil and ozone gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Susumu; Jain, Puneet

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the dependences of the deposition rate and residual OH content of SiO2 films on the concentration of trichloroethylene (TCE), which was added during deposition at low temperatures of 160-260 °C with the reactant gases of silicone oil (SO) and O3. The deposition rate depends on the TCE concentration and is minimum at a concentration of ˜0.4 mol/m3 at 200 °C. The result can be explained by surface and gas-phase reactions. Experimentally, we also revealed that the thickness profile is strongly affected by gas-phase reaction, in which the TCE vapor was blown directly onto the substrate surface, where it mixed with SO and O3. Furthermore, it was found that adding TCE vapor reduces residual OH content in the SiO2 film deposited at 200 °C because TCE enhances the dehydration reaction.

  14. Electromagnetic sensors for monitoring of scour and deposition processes at bridges and offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Panagiotis; Tarantino, Alessandro; Judd, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Recent increases in precipitation have resulted in severe and frequent flooding incidents. This has put hydraulic structures at high risk of failure due to scour, with severe consequences to public safety and significant economic losses. Foundation scour is the leading cause of bridge failures and one of the main climate change impacts to highway and railway infrastructure. Scour action is also being considered as a major risk for offshore wind farm developments as it leads to excessive excavation of the surrounding seabed. Bed level conditions at underwater foundations are very difficult to evaluate, considering that scour holes are often re-filled by deposited loose material which is easily eroded during smaller scale events. An ability to gather information concerning the evolution of scouring will enable the validation of models derived from laboratory-based studies and the assessment of different engineering designs. Several efforts have focused on the development of instrumentation techniques to measure scour processes at foundations. However, they are not being used routinely due to numerous technical and cost issues; therefore, scour continues to be inspected visually. This research project presents a new sensing technique, designed to measure scour depth variation and sediment deposition around the foundations of bridges and offshore wind turbines, and to provide an early warning of an impending structural failure. The monitoring system consists of a probe with integrated electromagnetic sensors, designed to detect the change in the surrounding medium around the foundation structure. The probe is linked to a wireless network to enable remote data acquisition. A developed prototype and a commercial sensor were evaluated to quantify their capabilities to detect scour and sediment deposition processes. Finite element modelling was performed to define the optimum geometric characteristics of the prototype scour sensor based on models with various permittivity

  15. Longterm monitoring of ambient dose equivalent rates at aviation altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, B.; Burmeister, S.; Moeller, T.; Scharrenberg, E. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Briese, J. [Deutsche Lufthansa AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Burda, O.; Klages, T.; Langner, F.; Marquardt, J.; Wissmann, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig Germany (Germany); Matthiae, D.; Reitz, G. [German Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Linder Hoehe, 51147 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The complex radiation field at flight altitudes results mainly from the interaction of energetic charged particles with atmospheric molecules and atoms and consists of secondary neutrons, protons, gamma rays, electrons, positrons and muons. Due to the continuous interactions of primary and secondary particles within the atmosphere, the intensity of each component depends on the height. Since the Earth's magnetic field acts as rigidity filter for the charged primary particles, the flux of the primary particles into the atmosphere and the resulting intensity of secondary particles depend on the geomagnetic latitude being highest over the geomagnetic poles. The main primary component consists of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), mainly protons and alpha particles, whose flux is modulated in the heliosphere. Beside this slowly varying galactic component, solar energetic particle events may temporarily increase the intensity of this radiation field. In the frame of the Radiation Monitoring on Board Aircraft (RAMONA) collaboration, three NAVIgation and DOSimetry (NAVIDOS) systems were installed in 2008 and 2009 on board of three Lufthansa Airbus A340 aircraft. They have been maintained since then by the consortium. Two of the NAVIDOS units rely on the DOSimetry TELescopes (DOSTELs), one is based on a LIULIN detector. This unique setup is ideally suited to investigate variations in the radiation field at different flight altitudes and geomagnetic positions and has been used to measure the radiation exposure during the recent extended solar minimum and thereafter. With increasing solar activity in 2010 the measured dose rates have been decreasing. Since these variations depend on the location of the aircraft, a detailed data analysis is required and presented.

  16. Extreme nitrogen deposition can change methane oxidation rate in moist acidic tundra soil in Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Kang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, extreme nitrogen(N) deposition events are observed in Arctic regions where over 90% of the annual N deposition occurred in just a few days. Since Arctic ecosystems are typically N-limited, input of extremely high amount of N could substantially affect ecosystem processes. CH4 is a potent greenhouse gas that has 25 times greater global warming potential than CO2 over a 100-year time frame. Ammonium is known as an inhibitor of methane oxidation and nitrate also shows inhibitory effect on it in temperate ecosystems. However, effects of N addition on Arctic ecosystems are still elusive. We conducted a lab-scale incubation experiment with moist acidic tundra (MAT) soil from Council, Alaska to investigate the effect of extreme N deposition events on methane oxidation. Zero point five % methane was added to the head space to determine the potential methane oxidation rate of MAT soil. Three treatments (NH4NO3-AN, (NH4)2SO4-AS, KNO3-PN) were used to compare effects of ammonium, nitrate and salts. All treatments were added in 3 levels: 10μg N gd.w-1(10), 50μg N gd.w-1(50) and 100μg N gd.w-1(100). AN10 and AN50 increased methane oxidation rate 1.7, 6% respectively. However, AN100 shows -8.5% of inhibitory effect. In AS added samples, all 3 concentrations (AN10, AN50, AN100) stimulated methane oxidation rate with 4.7, 8.9, 4%, respectively. On the contrary, PN50 (-9%) and PN100 (-59.5%) exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. We also analyzed the microbial gene abundance and community structures of methane oxidizing bacteria using a DNA-based fingerprinting method (T-RFLP) Our study results suggest that NH4+ can stimulate methane oxidation in Arctic MAT soil, while NO3- can inhibit methane oxidation significantly.

  17. Characterisation of DLC films deposited using titanium isopropoxide (TIPOT) at different flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, R; Ali, N; Ghumman, C A A; Teodoro, O M N D; Ahmed, W

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the search for advanced biomaterials for biomedical applications, such as human implants and surgical cutting tools. It is known that both carbon and titanium exhibit good biocompatibility and have been used as implants in the human body. It is highly desirable to deposit biocompatible thin films onto a range of components in order to impart biocompatibility and to minimise wear in implants. Diamond like carbon (DLC) is a good candidate material for achieving biocompatibility and low wear rates. In this study, thin films of diamond-like-carbon DLC were deposited onto stainless steel (316) substrates using C2H2, argon and titanium isopropoxide (TIPOT) precursors. Argon was used to generate the plasma in the plasma enhanced vapour deposition (PECVD) system. A critical coating feature governing the performance of the component during service is film thickness. The as-grown films were in the thickness range 90-100 nm and were found to be dependent on TIPOT flow rate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterise the surface roughness of the samples. As the flow rate of TIPOT increased the average roughness was found to increase in conjunction with the film thickness. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the chemical structure of amorphous carbon matrix. Surface tension values were calculated using contact angle measurements. In general, the trend of the surface tension results exhibited an opposite trend to that of the contact angle. The elemental composition of the samples was characterised using a VG ToF SIMS (IX23LS) instrument and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surprisingly, SIMS and XPS results showed that the DLC samples did not show evidence of titanium since no peaks representing to titanium appeared on the SIMS/XPS spectra.

  18. Variable Accuracy of Wearable Heart Rate Monitors during Aerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen; Etiwy, Muhammad; Wang, Robert; Blackburn, Gordon; Phelan, Dermot; Gillinov, A Marc; Houghtaling, Penny; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Desai, Milind Y

    2017-08-01

    Athletes and members of the public increasingly rely on wearable HR monitors to guide physical activity and training. The accuracy of newer, optically based monitors is unconfirmed. We sought to assess the accuracy of five optically based HR monitors during various types of aerobic exercise. Fifty healthy adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 38 ± 12 yr, 54% female) completed exercise protocols on a treadmill, a stationary bicycle, and an elliptical trainer (±arm movement). Each participant underwent HR monitoring with an electrocardiogaphic chest strap monitor (Polar H7), forearm monitor (Scosche Rhythm+), and two randomly assigned wrist-worn HR monitors (Apple Watch, Fitbit Blaze, Garmin Forerunner 235, and TomTom Spark Cardio), one on each wrist. For each exercise type, HR was recorded at rest, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity. Agreement between HR measurements was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (rc). Across all exercise conditions, the chest strap monitor (Polar H7) had the best agreement with ECG (rc = 0.996) followed by the Apple Watch (rc = 0.92), the TomTom Spark (rc = 0.83), and the Garmin Forerunner (rc = 0.81). Scosche Rhythm+ and Fitbit Blaze were less accurate (rc = 0.75 and rc = 0.67, respectively). On treadmill, all devices performed well (rc = 0.88-0.93) except the Fitbit Blaze (rc = 0.76). While bicycling, only the Garmin, Apple Watch, and Scosche Rhythm+ had acceptable agreement (rc > 0.80). On the elliptical trainer without arm levers, only the Apple Watch was accurate (rc = 0.94). None of the devices was accurate during elliptical trainer use with arm levers (all rc < 0.80). The accuracy of wearable, optically based HR monitors varies with exercise type and is greatest on the treadmill and lowest on elliptical trainer. Electrode-containing chest monitors should be used when accurate HR measurement is imperative.

  19. Spatial variation in deposition rate coefficients of an adhesion-deficient bacterial strain in quartz sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Meiping; Camesano, Terri A; Johnson, William P

    2005-05-15

    The transport of bacterial strain DA001 was examined in packed quartz sand under a variety of environmentally relevant ionic strength and flow conditions. Under all conditions, the retained bacterial concentrations decreased with distance from the column inlet at a rate that was faster than loglinear, indicating that the deposition rate coefficient decreased with increasing transport distance. The hyperexponential retained profile contrasted againstthe nonmonotonic retained profiles that had been previously observed for this same bacterial strain in glass bead porous media, demonstrating that the form of deviation from log-linear behavior is highly sensitive to system conditions. The deposition rate constants in quartz sand were orders of magnitude below those expected from filtration theory, even in the absence of electrostatic energy barriers. The degree of hyperexponential deviation of the retained profiles from loglinear behavior did not decrease with increasing ionic strength in quartz sand. These observations demonstrate thatthe observed low adhesion and deviation from log-linear behavior was not driven by electrostatic repulsion. Measurements of the interaction forces between DA001 cells and the silicon nitride tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) showed that the bacterium possesses surface polymers with an average equilibrium length of 59.8 nm. AFM adhesion force measurements revealed low adhesion affinities between silicon nitride and DA001 polymers with approximately 95% of adhesion forces having magnitudes responsible for the low adhesion to silicon nitride, indicating that steric interactions from extracellular polymers controlled DA001 adhesion deficiency and deviation from log-linear behavior on quartz sand.

  20. Entrainment and deposition rates of droplets in annular two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, I.; Ishii, M.

    1986-01-01

    The droplet entrainment from a liquid film is important to the mass, momentum, and energy transfer process in annular two-phase flow. For example, the amount of entrainment as well as the rate of entrainment significantly affect the occurrences of the dryout, whereas the post-CHF heat transfer depends strongly on the entrainment and droplet sizes. Despite the importance of the entrainment rate, there have been no satisfactory correlations available in the literature. In view of these, correlations for entrainment rate covering both entrance region and equilibrium region were developed from a simple model in collaboration with data. Results show that the entrainment rate varies considerably in the entrainment-development region. However, at a certain distance from an inlet it attains an equilibrium value. A simple approximate correlation was obtained for the equilibrium state where entrainment rate and deposition rate becomes equal. The result indicates that the equilibrium entrainment rate is proportional to Weber number based on the hydraulic diameter of a tube. 34 references, 14 figures

  1. Effects of argon and oxygen flow rate on water vapor barrier properties of silicon oxide coatings deposited on polyethylene terephthalate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Ryong; Choudhury, Moinul Haque; Kim, Won-Ho; Kim, Gon-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Plasma polymer coatings were deposited from hexamethyldisiloxane on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates while varying the operating conditions, such as the Ar and O 2 flow rates, at a fixed radio frequency power of 300 W. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the untreated PET was 54.56 g/m 2 /day and was decreased after depositing the silicon oxide (SiO x ) coatings. The minimum WVTR, 0.47 g/m 2 /day, was observed at Ar and O 2 flow rates of 4 and 20 sccm, respectively, with a coating thickness of 415.44 nm. The intensity of the peaks for the Si-O-Si bending at 800-820 cm -1 and Si-O-Si stretching at 1000-1150 cm -1 varied depending on the Ar and O 2 flow rates. The contact angle of the SiO x coated PET increased as the Ar flow rate was increased from 2 to 8 sccm at a fixed O 2 flow rate of 20 sccm. It decreased gradually as the oxygen flow rate increased from 12 to 28 sccm at a fixed Ar carrier gas flow rate. The examination by atomic force microscopy revealed a correlation of the SiO x morphology and the water vapor barrier performance with the Ar and O 2 flow rates. The roughness of the deposited coatings increased when either the O 2 or Ar flow rate was increased.

  2. Evaluating the rate of migration of an uranium deposition front within the Uitenhage Aquifer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available of Geochemical Exploration 66 (1999) 269?276 www.elsevier.com/locate/jgeoexp Evaluating the rate of migration of an uranium deposition front within the Uitenhage Aquifer J.C. Vogel a,A.S.Talmaa, T.H.E. Heaton b, J. Kronfeld c,* a Quaternary Dating Research Unit... stream_source_info vogel_1999.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 18078 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name vogel_1999.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ELSEVIER Journal...

  3. Effect of deposition rate on melting point of copper film catalyst substrate at atomic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimpul, Rinaldo; Syuhada, Ibnu; Rosikhin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2018-03-01

    Annealing process of copper film catalyst substrate was studied by molcular dynamics simulation. This copper film catalyst substrate was produced using thermal evaporation method. The annealing process was limited in nanosecond order to observe the mechanism at atomic scale. We found that deposition rate parameter affected the melting point of catalyst substrate. The change of crystalline structure of copper atoms was observed before it had been already at melting point. The optimum annealing temperature was obtained to get the highest percentage of fcc structure on copper film catalyst substrate.

  4. Inter- and intra-annual chemical variability during the ice-free season in lakes with different flushing rates and acid deposition histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Shelley E; Dillon, Peter J; Somers, Keith; Keller, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying chemical variability in different lake types is important for the assessment of both chemical and biological responses to environmental change. For monitoring programs that emphasize a large number of lakes at the expense of frequent samples, high variability may influence how representative single samples are of the average conditions of individual lakes. Intensive temporal data from long-term research sites provide a unique opportunity to assess chemical variability in lakes with different characteristics. We compared the intra- and inter-annual variability of four acidification related variables (Gran alkalinity, pH, sulphate concentration, and total base cation concentration) in four lakes with different flushing rates and acid deposition histories. Variability was highest in lakes with high flushing rates and was not influenced by historic acid deposition in our study lakes. This has implications for the amount of effort required in monitoring programs. Lakes with high flushing rates will require more frequent sampling intervals than lakes with low flushing rates. Consideration of specific lake types should be included in the design of monitoring programs.

  5. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piégay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a−1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill.

  6. Influence of Cooling Rate in High-Temperature Area on Hardening of Deposited High-Cutting Chrome-Tungsten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malushin, N N; Valuev, D V; Valueva, A V; Serikbol, A; Borovikov, I F

    2015-01-01

    The authors study the influence of cooling rate in high-temperature area for thermal cycle of high-cutting chrome-tungsten metal weld deposit on the processes of carbide phase merging and austenite grain growth for the purpose of providing high hardness of deposited metal (HRC 64-66). (paper)

  7. Influence of Cooling Rate in High-Temperature Area on Hardening of Deposited High-Cutting Chrome-Tungsten Metal

    OpenAIRE

    Malushin, N. N.; Valuev, Denis Viktorovich; Valueva, Anna Vladimirovna; Serikbol, A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2015-01-01

    The authors study the influence of cooling rate in high-temperature area for thermal cycle of high-cutting chrome-tungsten metal weld deposit on the processes of carbide phase merging and austenite grain growth for the purpose of providing high hardness of deposited metal (HRC 64-66).

  8. Effect of Deposition Rate on Structure and Surface Morphology of Thin Evaporated Al Films on Dielectrics and Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, K.; Rubahn, H. G.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) films with thickness of 100 nm were grown on unheated glass, silicon and mica substrates by electron beam evaporation. The deposition rates were adjusted in the range between 0.1 nm/s and 2 nm/s, the pressure in the vacuum chamber during deposition was lower than 1.10(-3) Pa. The st...

  9. The Use of Biomonitors to Monitor Atmospheric Deposition of 210Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeran, Z.; Jacimovic, R.

    1998-01-01

    The main source of 210 Pb in the environment is the exhalation of 222 Rn gas from the ground to the atmosphere during the radioactive decay of natural uranium - radium chain. In the atmosphere this radionuclide is rapidly attached to small particles - aerosols, predominantly on those particles below 0.3 mm. The half-life of 210 Pb is longer than the atmospheric residence time of the aerosols on which it resides (1). By sedimentation and washout of aerosols this nuclide is then transferred to the soil or vegetation. The other main sources include burning of fossil fuels and phosphate fertilizers. The usual way to determine the levels of 210 Pb and other radionuclides in the atmosphere is the use of a high volume filter system, which should operate for a long time to collect enough material for analysis. An other approach to determining the outdoor levels of radionuclides is the use of suitable biomonitors such as lichens or mosses. These organisms, although neither evolutionarie nor taxonomically related, have some common characteristics which enable them to be used as monitors for atmospheric pollution. They lack roots and protective organs against the substances derived from the atmosphere (stomata and cuticle) and are very efficient accumulators of atmospheric particulate material and chemical substances such as radionuclides or heavy metals (2). The levels of these substances in lichens and mosses are usually much higher than in air particulates or precipitation and for these reason the analysis is much easier. Another advantage of biomonitors over conventional sampling of air particulates or precipitation is that the collection of lichens or mosses is very cheap therefore allows a very large number of sites to be included in the same survey and permits detailed geographical deposition patterns to be drawn (3). It must be emphasised that concentration data on elements or radionuclides in lichens or mosses represent the relative deposition patterns over a certain

  10. High-rate deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 films by oxygen plasma assist reactive evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tetsuya; Kuniyoshi, Yuji; Aoki, Wataru; Ezoe, Sho; Endo, Tatsuya; Hoshi, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    High-rate deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) film was attempted using oxygen plasma assisted reactive evaporation (OPARE) method. Photocatalytic properties of the film were investigated. During the deposition, the substrate temperature was fixed at 400 deg. C. The film deposition rate can be increased by increasing the supply of titanium atoms to the substrate, although oversupply of the titanium atoms causes oxygen deficiency in the films, which limits the deposition rate. The film structure depends strongly on the supply ratio of oxygen molecules to titanium atoms O 2 /Ti and changes from anatase to rutile structure as the O 2 /Ti supply ratio increased. Consequently, the maximum deposition rates of 77.0 nm min -1 and 145.0 nm min -1 were obtained, respectively, for the anatase and rutile film. Both films deposited at such high rates showed excellent hydrophilicity and organic decomposition performance. Even the film with rutile structure deposited at 145.0 nm min -1 had a contact angle of less than 2.5 deg. by UV irradiation for 5.0 h and an organics-decomposition performance index of 8.9 [μmol l -1 min -1 ] for methylene blue

  11. Mercury deposition/accumulation rates in the vicinity of a lead smelter as recorded by a peat deposit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Mihaljevič, M.; Rohovec, Jan; Zuna, M.; Šebek, O.; Strnad, L.; Hojdová, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 24 (2008), s. 5968-5977 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP526/07/P170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : mercury * deposition * Pb Smelter, * peat * historical record Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.890, year: 2008

  12. Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Zhang, Xian; Goidanich, Sara; Le Bozec, Nathalie; Herting, Gunilla; Leygraf, Christofer

    2014-02-15

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn>Cu sheet>Cu15Zn>Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu2(OH)3Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn5(OH)6(CO3)2 (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O/Zn2Al(OH)6Cl·2H2O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8·H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu2(OH)3Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sediment deposition rate in the Falefa River basin, Upolu Island, Samoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, James P.; Kostaschuk, Ray A.; Garimella, Sitaram

    2006-01-01

    The 137 Cs method was employed to investigate the recent historical rate of sediment deposition on a lowland alluvial floodplain in the Falefa River basin, Upolu Island, Samoa. Caesium stratigraphy in the floodplain sediment profile was clearly defined, with a broad peak at 145-175 cm depth. The measured rate of vertical accretion over the last 40 years is 4.0 ± 0.4 cm per year. This rate exceeds observations in humid environments elsewhere, but is similar to that recorded on other tropical Pacific Islands. Available flow data for the Vaisigano River in Samoa give a 'near-catastrophic' index value of 0.6 for flood variability. This is associated with the occurrence of tropical cyclones and storms in the Samoa area. Large floods therefore probably contribute to the high rate of floodplain sedimentation on Upolu Island. A small but growing body of evidence suggests that fluvial sedimentation rates on tropical Pacific islands are some of the highest in the world

  14. A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional plasma chemical vapor deposition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Inoue, Toru

    2009-01-01

    In order to make high-speed deposition of diamond effective, diamond growth rates for gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition are compared. A mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is used as the source gas for the gas-phase deposition, and a methanol solution of ethanol is used as the source liquid for the in-liquid deposition. The experimental system pressure is in the range of 60-150 kPa. While the growth rate of diamond increases as the pressure increases, the amount of input microwave energy per unit volume of diamond is 1 kW h/mm 3 regardless of the method used. Since the in-liquid deposition method provides a superior cooling effect through the evaporation of the liquid itself, a higher electric input power can be applied to the electrodes under higher pressure environments. The growth rate of in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process is found to be greater than conventional gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process under the same pressure conditions.

  15. A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional plasma chemical vapor deposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Inoue, Toru

    2009-06-01

    In order to make high-speed deposition of diamond effective, diamond growth rates for gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition are compared. A mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is used as the source gas for the gas-phase deposition, and a methanol solution of ethanol is used as the source liquid for the in-liquid deposition. The experimental system pressure is in the range of 60-150 kPa. While the growth rate of diamond increases as the pressure increases, the amount of input microwave energy per unit volume of diamond is 1 kW h/mm3 regardless of the method used. Since the in-liquid deposition method provides a superior cooling effect through the evaporation of the liquid itself, a higher electric input power can be applied to the electrodes under higher pressure environments. The growth rate of in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process is found to be greater than conventional gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process under the same pressure conditions.

  16. High-rate deposition of epitaxial layers for efficient low-temperature thin film epitaxial silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, L.; Schmidt, J.; Wagner, T.A.; Bergmann, R.B. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physical Electronics

    2001-07-01

    Low-temperature deposition of Si for thin-film solar cells has previously been hampered by low deposition rates and low material quality, usually reflected by a low open-circuit voltage of these solar cells. In contrast, ion-assisted deposition produces Si films with a minority-carrier diffusion length of 40 {mu}m, obtained at a record deposition rate of 0.8 {mu}m/min and a deposition temperature of 650{sup o}C with a prebake at 810{sup o}C. A thin-film Si solar cell with a 20-{mu}m-thick epitaxial layer achieves an open-circuit voltage of 622 mV and a conversion efficiency of 12.7% without any light trapping structures and without high-temperature solar cell process steps. (author)

  17. Solar cell of 6.3% efficiency employing high deposition rate (8 nm/s) microcrystalline silicon photovoltaic layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobajima, Yasushi; Nishino, Mitsutoshi; Fukumori, Taiga; Kurihara, Masanori; Higuchi, Takuya; Nakano, Shinya; Toyama, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Hiroaki [Department of Systems Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Machikaneyama-cho 1-3, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si) films deposited at high growth rates up to 8.1 nm/s prepared by very-high-frequency-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD) at 18-24 Torr have been investigated. The relation between the deposition rates and input power revealed the depletion of silane. Under high-pressure deposition (HPD) conditions, the structural properties were improved. Furthermore, applying {mu}c-Si to n-i-p solar cells, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) was increased in accordance with the improvement of microstructure of i-layer. As a result, a conversion efficiency of 6.30% has been achieved employing the i-layer deposited at 8.1 nm/s under the HPD conditions. (author)

  18. Solar Energy Deposition Rates in the Mesosphere Derived from Airglow Measurements: Implications for the Ozone Model Deficit Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Garcia, Rolando R.; Roble, Raymond G.; Hagan, Maura

    2000-01-01

    We derive rates of energy deposition in the mesosphere due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone. The rates are derived directly from measurements of the 1.27-microns oxygen dayglow emission, independent of knowledge of the ozone abundance, the ozone absorption cross sections, and the ultraviolet solar irradiance in the ozone Hartley band. Fifty-six months of airglow data taken between 1982 and 1986 by the near-infrared spectrometer on the Solar-Mesosphere Explorer satellite are analyzed. The energy deposition rates exhibit altitude-dependent annual and semi-annual variations. We also find a positive correlation between temperatures and energy deposition rates near 90 km at low latitudes. This correlation is largely due to the semiannual oscillation in temperature and ozone and is consistent with model calculations. There is also a suggestion of possible tidal enhancement of this correlation based on recent theoretical and observational analyses. The airglow-derived rates of energy deposition are then compared with those computed by multidimensional numerical models. The observed and modeled deposition rates typically agree to within 20%. This agreement in energy deposition rates implies the same agreement exists between measured and modeled ozone volume mixing ratios in the mesosphere. Only in the upper mesosphere at midlatitudes during winter do we derive energy deposition rates (and hence ozone mixing ratios) consistently and significantly larger than the model calculations. This result is contrary to previous studies that have shown a large model deficit in the ozone abundance throughout the mesosphere. The climatology of solar energy deposition and heating presented in this paper is available to the community at the Middle Atmosphere Energy Budget Project web site at http://heat-budget.gats-inc.com.

  19. Patient Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate Monitoring With an Alert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... an Alert System Using the Omron 790it Blood Pressure. Monitor ... detailed medical information on the vital signs of patients and will save many lives that may be lost. Keywords: Omron .... at rest, in beats per minute (BPM):.

  20. High-rate sputter deposition of NiAl on sapphire fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, K.; Martinez, C.; Cremer, R.; Neuschuetz, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Once the fiber-matrix bonding has been optimized to meet the different requirements during fabrication and operation of the later composite component, sapphire fiber reinforced NiAl will be a potential candidate to substitute conventional superalloys as structural material for gas turbine blades. To improve the composite fabrication process, a direct deposition of the intermetallic matrix material onto hBN coated sapphire fibers prior to the consolidation of the fiber-matrix composite is proposed. It is believed that this will simplify the fabrication process and prevent pore formation during the diffusion bonding. In addition, the fiber volume fraction can be quite easily adjusted by varying the NiAl coating thickness. For this, a high-rate deposition of NiAl is in any case necessary. It has been achieved by a pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of combined Al-Ni targets with the fibers rotating between the two facing cathodes. The obtained nickel aluminide coatings were analyzed as to structure and composition by means of X-ray (GIXRD) as well as electron diffraction (RHEED) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The morphology of the NiAl coatings was examined by SEM. (orig.)

  1. Predicting the Effects of Powder Feeding Rates on Particle Impact Conditions and Cold Spray Deposited Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ozan C.; Widener, Christian A.; Carter, Michael J.; Johnson, Kyle W.

    2017-10-01

    As the industrial application of the cold spray technology grows, the need to optimize both the cost and the quality of the process grows with it. Parameter selection techniques available today require the use of a coupled system of equations to be solved to involve the losses due to particle loading in the gas stream. Such analyses cause a significant increase in the computational time in comparison with calculations with isentropic flow assumptions. In cold spray operations, engineers and operators may, therefore, neglect the effects of particle loading to simplify the multiparameter optimization process. In this study, two-way coupled (particle-fluid) quasi-one-dimensional fluid dynamics simulations are used to test the particle loading effects under many potential cold spray scenarios. Output of the simulations is statistically analyzed to build regression models that estimate the changes in particle impact velocity and temperature due to particle loading. This approach eases particle loading optimization for more complete analysis on deposition cost and time. The model was validated both numerically and experimentally. Further numerical analyses were completed to test the particle loading capacity and limitations of a nozzle with a commonly used throat size. Additional experimentation helped document the physical limitations to high-rate deposition.

  2. Estimating the erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed by the {sup 137}Cs tracing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mian [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of Sediment Research of Yellow River of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China)], E-mail: hnli-mian@163.com; Li Zhanbin [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710048 (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Yao Wenyi [Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Key Laboratory of Sediment Research of Yellow River of Ministry of Water Resources, Zhengzhou, Henan 450003 (China); Liu Puling [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Understanding the erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed is important for designing soil and water conservation measures. The objective of this study is to estimate the net soil loss and gain at points with various land use types and landform positions in a small watershed in the Sichuan Hilly Basin of China by the {sup 137}Cs tracing technique. Among various land use types, the order of erosion rate was bare rock > sloping cultivated land > forest land. The paddy field and Caotu (a kind of cultivated land located at the foot of hills) were depositional areas. The erosion rate under different landform was in this order: hillside > saddle > hilltop. The footslope and the valley were depositional areas. The {sup 137}Cs technique was shown to provide an effective means of documenting the spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition within the small watershed.

  3. Monitoring of Soft Deposition Layers in Liquid-Filled Tubes with Guided Acoustic Waves Excited by Clamp-on Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Sabrina; Singer, Ferdinand; Lasota, Sandra; Ebert, Sandra; Landskron, Johannes; Schwuchow, Katrin; Drese, Klaus Stefan; Lindner, Gerhard

    2018-02-09

    The monitoring of liquid-filled tubes with respect to the formation of soft deposition layers such as biofilms on the inner walls calls for non-invasive and long-term stable sensors, which can be attached to existing pipe structures. For this task a method is developed, which uses an ultrasonic clamp-on device. This method is based on the impact of such deposition layers on the propagation of circumferential guided waves on the pipe wall. Such waves are partly converted into longitudinal compressional waves in the liquid, which are back-converted to guided waves in a circular cross section of the pipe. Validating this approach, laboratory experiments with gelatin deposition layers on steel tubes exhibited a distinguishable sensitivity of both wave branches with respect to the thickness of such layers. This allows the monitoring of the layer growth.

  4. Application of geoelectric methods for man-caused gas deposit mapping and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymchuk, M. A.; Levashov, S. P.; Korchagin, I. N.; Syniuk, B. B.

    2009-04-01

    anomaly total area made S=20.7 hectares on 07.10.08, and S=19.7 hectares on 13.10.08 and S=10.5 hectares on 08.11.08. The anomaly intensity has decreased, some local extremum has appeared. All this testifies that there is an intensive degassing process of cross-section upper part through producing wells and the drilled degassing wells. Exclusively important feature of the FSPEF-VERS technology is an operationability(!) the of practical problems solving. For an emergency situation on gas field an operationability of technology has crucial importance. For one day of works only the field staff management has received considerable volume of operative information, allowing in quite proved manner to estimate as accident scales and it possible reasons, and so those threats, which this accident can represent for nearby located settlements. So, the imposing of a sketch-map of distribution of a "man-caused" gas deposit on a map of wells location has shown that this deposit does not extend over field border and, hence, does not represent essential threat for nearby settlements. Technology operationability in a whole and practical experience of repeated measurements testifies about possibility of the FSPEF-VERS methods using for operative carrying out of monitoring character survey. Such monitoring survey can be spent on a field after degassing wells drilling to check the process of gas pump-down from a "man-caused" deposit. Geoelectric researches on an emergency site of field on 08.11.08 and the received thus results practically show efficiency and working capacity of the FSPEF-VERS technology in a monitoring mode. The performed experimental works have shown, that process of gas pump-down from a "man-caused" deposit can be traced in time by the FSPEF-VERS technology. It is expedient to locate the additional degassing wells for definitive elimination of accident consequences with taking into account the data of monitoring works by FSPEF-VERS methods. The experiment results testify of

  5. Key factors influencing rates of heterotrophic sulfate reduction in active seafloor hydrothermal massive sulfide deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiana Laieikawai Frank

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal vents are thermally and geochemically dynamic habitats, and the organisms therein are subject to steep gradients in temperature and chemistry. To date, the influence of these environmental dynamics on microbial sulfate reduction has not been well constrained. Here, via multivariate experiments, we evaluate the effects of key environmental variables (temperature, pH, H2S, SO42-, DOC on sulfate reduction rates and metabolic energy yields in material recovered from a hydrothermal flange from the Grotto edifice in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Sulfate reduction was measured in batch reactions across a range of physico-chemical conditions. Temperature and pH were the strongest stimuli, and maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50 °C and pH 6, suggesting that the in situ community of sulfate-reducing organisms in Grotto flanges may be most active in a slightly acidic and moderate thermal/chemical regime. At pH 4, sulfate reduction rates increased with sulfide concentrations most likely due to the mitigation of metal toxicity. While substrate concentrations also influenced sulfate reduction rates, energy-rich conditions muted the effect of metabolic energetics on sulfate reduction rates. We posit that variability in sulfate reduction rates reflect the response of the active microbial consortia to environmental constraints on in situ microbial physiology, toxicity, and the type and extent of energy limitation. These experiments help to constrain models of the spatial contribution of heterotrophic sulfate reduction within the complex gradients inherent to seafloor hydrothermal deposits.

  6. Effect of oxygen flow rate on ITO thin films deposited by facing targets sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youn J.; Jin, Su B.; Kim, Sung I.; Choi, Yoon S.; Choi, In S.; Han, Jeon G.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at various oxygen flow rates using a planar magnetron sputtering system with facing targets. In this system, the strong internal magnets inside the target holders confine the plasma between the targets. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed a combination of amorphous and crystalline phases on the glass substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that the decrease in carrier concentration and increase in mobility were caused by a decrease in the concentration of Sn 4+ states. The electrical and optical properties of the ITO films were examined by Hall measurements and UV-visible spectroscopy, which showed a film resistivity and transmittance of 4.26 x l0 -4 Ω cm, and > 80% in the visible region, respectively.

  7. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Antti J; Jensen, Alexander C Ø; Kling, Kirsten I; Kling, Jens; Budtz, Hans Christian; Koponen, Ismo K; Tuinman, Ilse; Hussein, Tareq; Jensen, Keld A; Nørgaard, Asger; Levin, Marcus

    2018-01-05

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO 2 )-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m 3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm to 31μm-size particles and volatile organic compounds (VOC), as well as particle deposition onto room surfaces and on the spray gun user hand. The particle emission and deposition rates were quantified using aerosol mass balance modelling. The geometric mean particle number emission rate was 1.9×10 10 s -1 and the mean mass emission rate was 381μgs -1 . The respirable mass emission-rate was 65% lower than observed for the entire measured size-range. The mass emission rates were linearly scalable (±ca. 20%) to the process duration. The particle deposition rates were up to 15h -1 for deposited particles consisted of mainly TiO 2 , TiO 2 mixed with Cl and/or Ag, TiO 2 particles coated with carbon, and Ag particles with size ranging from 60nm to ca. 5μm. As expected, no significant VOC emissions were observed as a result of spraying. Finally, we provide recommendations for exposure model parameterization. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of illitization rate of smectite from the thermal history of Murakami deposit, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, G.; Arai, T.; Yusa, Y.; Sasaki, N.; Sakuramoto, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The research on illitization of smectite in the natural environment affords information on the long-term durability of bentonite which is the candidate for buffer material for high-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Murakami bentonite deposit in central Japan, where the bentonite and rhyolitic intrusive rock were distributed, was surveyed and the lateral variation of smectite to illite in the aureole of the rhyolite was studied. The radiometric ages of some minerals from the intrusive rock and the clay deposit were determined. Comparison of the mineral ages with closure temperature estimated for the various isotopic systems allowed the thermal history of the area. The age of the intrusion was 7.1 ± 0.5 Ma, and the cooling rate of the intrusive rock was estimated to be approximately 45C/Ma. Sedimentation ages of the clay bed were mostly within the range from 18 to 14 Ma. However, the fission-track age of zircon in the clay containing illite/smectite mixed layers was 6.4 ± 0.4 Ma, which was close to that of the intrusion. The latter value could be explained as the result of annealing of fission-tracks in zircon. The presence of annealing phenomena and the estimated cooling rate concluded that illitization had occurred in the period of 3.4 Ma at least under the temperature range from above 240 ± 50 to 105C. Illite-smectite mixed layers occurred from smectite in the process. The proportion of illite was about 40%. Approximately, 29 kcal/mol as a value of activation energy was calculated to the illitization

  9. Simulation of Silver Thin Films' Growth and Influence of Deposition Rate on Final Grain Size under Angle Flux and Standard Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jamshidnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a 2D stimulation model, FACET, is used for investigation of the relation between micro structure and deposition conditions such as substrate temperature, deposition rate and deposition angle of Ag thin films. It is observed that by increasing the deposition rate in standard conditions providing that the temperature of substrate is low, the average of final grain size is decreased. While, in deposition with angle flux the average of final grain size is increased.

  10. Simulation of spatially dependent excitation rates and power deposition in RF discharges for plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, M.J.; Anderson, H.M.; Hargis, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    In low pressure, radio frequency (RF) discharges of the type used in plasma processing of semiconductor materials, the rate of electron impact excitation and energy transfer processes depends upon both the phase of the RF excitation and position in the discharge. Electron impact collisions create radicals that diffuse or drift to the surfaces of interest where they are adsorbed or otherwise react. To the extent that these radicals have a finite lifetime, their transport time from point of creation to surface of interest is an important parameter. The spatial dependence of the rate of the initial electron impact collisions is therefore also an important parameter. The power that sustains the discharge is coupled into the system by two mechanisms: a high energy e-beam component of the electron distribution resulting from electrons falling through or being accelerated by the sheaths, and by joule heating in the body of the plasma. In this paper, the authors discuss the spatial dependence of excitation rates and the method of power deposition iin RF discharges of the type used for plasma processing

  11. In situ monitoring of electrical resistance during deposition of Ag and Al thin films by pulsed laser deposition: comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdellaoui, N.; Pereira, A.; Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Fitl, Přemysl; Lančok, Ján; Moine, B.; Pillonnet, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 418, Oct (2017), s. 517-521 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR GA16-22092S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10279S; GA MŠk LM2015088; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR010 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : pulsed laser deposition * metallic thin film * in-situ resistance measurement * silver * aluminium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  12. Influence of substrate temperature, growth rate and TCO substrate on the properties of CSS deposited CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, J., E-mail: jschaffner@surface.tu-darmstadt.de; Feldmeier, E.; Swirschuk, A.; Schimper, H.-J.; Klein, A.; Jaegermann, W.

    2011-08-31

    The growth of CdS thin films by close space sublimation (CSS) has been systematically studied using an ultra-high vacuum system known as DAISY-SOL in order to understand the basic growth mechanisms and their impact on the film properties. Substrate temperature and deposition rate were varied, and the surface properties of the CdS layer were determined by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) without breaking the vacuum. To analyze the influence of the deposition conditions on the layer morphology and crystallographic structure, the films were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SEM and AFM studies show a correlation between the deposition rate and the film morphology. For high deposition rates, edged grain shapes and smoother surfaces were observed than for low deposition rates. CdS films were deposited onto two different commercially available fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. XRD studies show that a high <200> texture of the FTO substrate prefers the CdS growth in <0001> orientation of the hexagonal crystal modification.

  13. Lung deposition of sub-micron aerosols calculated as a function of age and breathing rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental measurements of lung deposition and especially of regional deposition, of aerosols in the sub-micron size range have been so few that it is worthwhile establishing a method of calculation. A computer routine has therefore been developed to calculate aerosol deposition in successive bronchial and bronchiolar generations of the Weibel 'A' model of human lung for the sub-micron size range where deposition occurs solely by diffusion. This model can be scaled to represent lungs at various ages and vital capacities. Some calculated results are presented here and compared with measurements of lung deposition made under carefully controlled conditions in humans. (author)

  14. Simulation of Cooling Rate Effects on Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb Crack Formation in Direct Laser Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Li, Wei; Chen, Xueyang; Zhang, Yunlu; Newkirk, Joe; Liou, Frank; Dietrich, David

    2017-03-01

    Transient temperature history is vital in direct laser deposition (DLD) as it reveals the cooling rate at specific temperatures. Cooling rate directly relates to phase transformation and types of microstructure formed in deposits. In this paper, finite element analysis simulation was employed to study the transient temperature history and cooling rate at different experimental setups in the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb DLD process. An innovative prediction strategy was developed to model with a moving Gaussian distribution heat source and element birth and death technology in ANSYS®, and fabricate crack-free deposits. This approach helps to understand and analyze the impact of cooling rate and also explain phase information gathered from x-ray diffraction.

  15. Validation of dentine deposition rates in beluga whales by interspecies cross dating of temporal δ13C trends in teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory JD Matthews

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic time series from sequentially sampled growth layer groups (GLGs in marine mammal teeth can be combined to build chronologies allowing assessment of isotopic variation in marine ecosystems. Synchronous recording of baseline isotopic variation across dentinal GLGs of species with temporal and spatial overlap in foraging offers a unique opportunity for validation of marine mammal age estimation procedures through calibration of GLG deposition rates in one species against another whose GLG deposition has been independently determined. In this study, we compare trends in stable carbon isotope ratios (d13C across dentinal GLGs of three eastern Canadian Arctic (ECA beluga (Delphinapterus leucas populations through the 1960s-2000s with a d13C time series measured across dentinal GLGs of ECA/Northwest Atlantic killer whales (Orcinus orca from 1944-1999. We use confirmed annual GLG deposition in killer whales as a means to assess beluga GLG deposition, and show linear d13C declines across chronologies of both species were statistically indistinguishable when based on annual GLG deposition in beluga whales, but differed when based on biannual deposition. We suggest d13C declines reflect the oceanic 13C Suess effect, and provide additional support for annual GLG deposition in beluga whales by comparing rates of d13C declines across beluga GLGs with published annual d13C declines attributed to the oceanic 13C Suess effect in the North Atlantic.

  16. ESCLOUD: A computer program to calculate the air concentration, deposition rate and external dose rate from a continuous discharge of radioactive material to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.

    1980-03-01

    Radioactive material may be discharged to atmosphere in small quantities during the normal operation of a nuclear installation as part of a considered waste management practice. Estimates of the individual and collective dose equivalent rates resulting from such a discharge are required in a number of contexts: for example, in assessing compliance with dose limits, in estimating the radiological impact of the discharge and as an input into optimisation studies. The suite of programs which has been developed to undertake such calculations is made up of a number of independent modules one of which, ESCLOUD, is described in this report. The ESCLOUD program evaluates, as a function of distance and direction from the release point, the air concentration, deposition rate and external β and γ doses from airborne and deposited activity. The air concentration and deposition rate can be used as input to other modules for calculating inhalation and ingestion doses. (author)

  17. Influence of solution deposition rate on properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd–Alghafour, N. M., E-mail: na2013bil@gmail.com [Iraqi Ministry of Education, Anbar (Iraq); Ahmed, Naser M.; Hassan, Zai; Mohammad, Sabah M. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, University Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by using a cost-efficient spray pyrolysis technique. The films were grown at 350° through thermal decomposition of VCl{sub 3} in deionized water with different solution spray rates. The high resolution X-ray diffraction results revealed the formation of nanocrystalline films having orthorhombic structures with preferential orientation along (101) direction. The spray rate influenced the surface morphology and crystallite size of the films. The crystallite size was found to increase whereas the micro-strain was decreased by increasing the spray deposition rates. The increase in crystallite size and decrease in the macrostrain resulted in an improvement in the films’ crystallinity. The UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis indicated that the average transmittance of all films lies in the range 75-80 %. The band gap of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film was decreased from 2.65 to 2.46 eV with increase of the spray deposition rate from 5 ml/min to 10 ml/min. first, second, and third level headings (first level heading).

  18. Effect of trichloroethylene enhancement on deposition rate of low-temperature silicon oxide films by silicone oil and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Susumu; Jain, Puneet

    2017-08-01

    A low-temperature silcon oxide film was deposited at 160 to 220 °C using an atmospheric pressure CVD system with silicone oil vapor and ozone gases. It was found that the deposition rate is markedly increased by adding trichloroethylene (TCE) vapor, which is generated by bubbling TCE solution with N2 gas flow. The increase is more than 3 times that observed without TCE, and any contamination due to TCE is hardly observed in the deposited Si oxide films from Fourier transform infrared spectra.

  19. Influence of travel speed on spray deposition uniformity from an air-assisted variable-rate sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A newly developed LiDAR-guided air-assisted variable-rate sprayer for nursery and orchard applications was tested at various travel speeds to compare its spray deposition and coverage uniformity with constant-rate applications. Spray samplers, including nylon screens and water-sensitive papers (WSP)...

  20. 78 FR 64183 - Change to Existing Regulation Concerning the Interest Rate Paid on Cash Deposited To Secure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Account. These funds are held ``in trust'' for the obligor and currently earn simple interest at the rate..., the Government has paid simple interest at the rate of 3 percent per year on cash deposited by bond... #0;notices is to give interested persons an opportunity to participate in #0;the rule making prior to...

  1. Deposition Rate and Energy Enhancements of TiN Thin-Film in a Magnetized Sheet Plasma Source

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi Muhyuddin D. Barra; Henry J. Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been synthesized using the sheet plasma negative ion source (SPNIS). The parameters used for its effective synthesis has been determined from previous experiments and studies. In this study, further enhancement of the deposition rate of TiN synthesis and advancement of the SPNIS operation is presented. This is primarily achieved by the addition of Sm-Co permanent magnets and a modification of the configuration in the TiN deposition process. The ...

  2. Turnover of texture in low rate sputter-deposited nanocrystalline molybdenum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druesedau, T.P.; Klabunde, F.; Loehmann, M.; Hempel, T.; Blaesing, J.

    1997-01-01

    The crystallite size and orientation in molybdenum films prepared by magnetron sputtering at a low rate of typical 1 (angstrom)s and a pressure of 0.45 Pa was investigated by X-ray diffraction and texture analysis. The surface topography was studied using atomic force microscopy. Increasing the film thickness from 20 nm to 3 microm, the films show a turnover from a (110) fiber texture to a (211) mosaic-like texture. In the early state of growth (20 nm thickness) the development of dome-like structures on the surface is observed. The number of these structures increases with film thickness, whereas their size is weakly influenced. The effect of texture turnover is reduced by increasing the deposition rate by a factor of six, and it is absent for samples mounted above the center of the magnetron source. The effect of texture turnover is related to the bombardment of the films with high energetic argon neutrals resulting from backscattering at the target under oblique angle and causing resputtering. Due to the narrow angular distribution of the reflected argon, bombardment of the substrate plane is inhomogeneous and only significant for regions close to the erosion zone of the magnetron

  3. Heart Rate Monitoring in Team Sports—A Conceptual Framework for Contextualizing Heart Rate Measures for Training and Recovery Prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schneider

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules. In this regard, exercise-related heart rate measures are likely the most applicable markers, as they can be routinely assessed during warm-ups using short (3–5 min submaximal exercise protocols for an entire squad with common chest strap-based team monitoring devices. However, a comprehensive and meaningful monitoring of the training process requires the accurate separation of various types of responses, such as strain, recovery, and adaptation, which may all affect heart rate measures. Therefore, additional information on the training context (such as the training phase, training load, and intensity distribution combined with multivariate analysis, which includes markers of (perceived wellness and fatigue, should be considered when interpreting changes in heart rate indices. The aim of this article is to outline current limitations of heart rate monitoring, discuss methodological considerations of univariate and multivariate approaches, illustrate the influence of different analytical concepts on assessing meaningful changes in heart rate responses, and provide case examples for contextualizing heart rate measures using

  4. Heart Rate Monitoring in Team Sports-A Conceptual Framework for Contextualizing Heart Rate Measures for Training and Recovery Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christoph; Hanakam, Florian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Döweling, Alexander; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules. In this regard, exercise-related heart rate measures are likely the most applicable markers, as they can be routinely assessed during warm-ups using short (3-5 min) submaximal exercise protocols for an entire squad with common chest strap-based team monitoring devices. However, a comprehensive and meaningful monitoring of the training process requires the accurate separation of various types of responses, such as strain, recovery, and adaptation, which may all affect heart rate measures. Therefore, additional information on the training context (such as the training phase, training load, and intensity distribution) combined with multivariate analysis, which includes markers of (perceived) wellness and fatigue, should be considered when interpreting changes in heart rate indices. The aim of this article is to outline current limitations of heart rate monitoring, discuss methodological considerations of univariate and multivariate approaches, illustrate the influence of different analytical concepts on assessing meaningful changes in heart rate responses, and provide case examples for contextualizing heart rate measures using simple heuristics. To

  5. Spatial distribution assessment of particulate matter in an urban street canyon using biomagnetic leaf monitoring of tree crown deposited particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Jelle; Stokkaer, Ines; Snauwaert, Lies; Samson, Roeland

    2013-01-01

    Recently, biomagnetic monitoring of tree leaves has proven to be a good estimator for ambient particulate concentration. This paper investigates the usefulness of biomagnetic leaf monitoring of crown deposited particles to assess the spatial PM distribution inside individual tree crowns and an urban street canyon in Ghent (Belgium). Results demonstrate that biomagnetic monitoring can be used to assess spatial PM variations, even within single tree crowns. SIRM values decrease exponentially with height and azimuthal effects are obtained for wind exposed sides of the street canyon. Edge and canyon trees seem to be exposed differently. As far as we know, this study is the first to present biomagnetic monitoring results of different trees within a single street canyon. The results not only give valuable insights into the spatial distribution of particulate matter inside tree crowns and a street canyon, but also offer a great potential as validation tool for air quality modelling. Highlights: ► Spatial distribution of tree crown deposited PM was evaluated. ► SIRM values decrease exponentially with height. ► Azimuthal effects were observed at wind exposed sides of the street canyon. ► Edge and canyon trees seem to be exposed differently. ► Biomagnetic monitoring offers a great potential as validation of air quality models. -- Biomagnetic leaf monitoring provides useful insights into the spatial distribution of particulates inside individual tree crowns and an urban street canyon in Ghent (Belgium)

  6. A new respiratory rate monitor: development and initial clinical experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hök, B; Wiklund, L; Henneberg, S

    1993-01-01

    different kinds of interference, including motion artefacts. The sensor is nonexpensive, rugged, simple to apply and inherently safe. An instrument with continuous display of respiratory rate, and an audiovisual apnea alarm has been designed and built. The complete system has been tested on patients during...... and apnea. Such events may in some patients be as frequent as one incident per hour. One case of 'Ondine's curse' provided clear evidence that pulse oximetry has a low sensitivity to respiratory disorders....

  7. Revamping of stack monitoring system at CORAL facility and estimation of aerosol penetration using 'DEPOSITION2001' code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajoy, K.C.; Dhanasekaran, A.; Santhanam, R.; Rajagopal, V.; Jose, M.T.

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring of effluent discharge from stack forms an integral part of health physics surveillance programme and a mandatory requirement to ensure regulatory compliance. A unique challenge in stack monitoring is to obtain a representative sample from the flow stream and then transport the same to the monitoring devices with minimum losses. This paper describes the modification of the latter part of the transport line where distribution of sample begins to individual monitors. This work was initiated to address the issues of ageing, ease of use and to provide additional tapping points for future requirements. After revamping the sampling line, it was also validated using the computational code Deposition 2001a to ensure that the system meets even the ISO criteria

  8. Bulk deposition of base cationic nutrients in China's forests: Annual rates and spatial characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzai Du; Wim de Vries; Steven McNulty; Mark E. Fenn

    2018-01-01

    Base cations, such as potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+), are essential nutrients for plant growth and their atmospheric inputs can buffer the effect of acid deposition by nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) compounds. However, the spatial variation in atmospheric deposition of these base...

  9. Interannual Variability in Dust Deposition, Radiative Forcing, and Snowmelt Rates in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, M.; Painter, T. H.; Deems, J. S.; Barrett, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    Dust in snow accelerates snowmelt through its direct reduction of albedo and its further reduction of albedo by accelerating the growth of snow effective grain size. Since the Anglo expansion and disturbance of the western US that began in the mid 19th century, the mountain snow cover of the Colorado River Basin has been subject to five-fold greater dust loading. Here we present the impacts of dust deposition onto alpine snow cover using a 7-year energy balance record at the alpine and subalpine towers in the Senator Beck Basin Study Area (SBBSA), San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado, USA. We assess the radiative and hydrologic impacts with a two-layer point snow energy balance snowmelt model that calculates snowmelt and predicts point runoff using measured inputs of energy exchanges and snow properties. By removing the radiative forcing due to dust, we can determine snowmelt under observed dusty and modeled clean conditions. Additionally, we model the relative response of melt rates to simulated increases in air temperature. Our modeling results indicate that the number of days that dust advances retreat of snow cover and cumulative radiative forcing are linearly related to total dust concentration. The greatest dust radiative impact occurred in 2009, when the highest observed end of year dust concentrations reduced visible albedo to less than 0.35 during the last three weeks of snowcover and snow cover duration was shortened by 50 days. This work also shows that dust radiative forcing has a markedly greater impact on snow cover duration than increases in temperature in terms of acceleration of snowmelt. We have completed the same analysis over a 2-year energy balance record at the Grand Mesa Study plot (GMSP) in west central Colorado, 150 km north of SBBSA. This new location allows us to assess site variability. For example, at SBBSA 2010 and 2011 were the second and third highest dust deposition years, respectively, but 2010 was a larger year with 3

  10. Effect of Laser Power and Gas Flow Rate on Properties of Directed Energy Deposition of Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamood, Rasheedat M.

    2018-03-01

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) process belongs to the directed energy deposition class of additive manufacturing processes. It is an important manufacturing technology with lots of potentials especially for the automobile and aerospace industries. The laser metal deposition process is fairly new, and the process is very sensitive to the processing parameters. There is a high level of interactions among these process parameters. The surface finish of part produced using the laser metal deposition process is dependent on the processing parameters. Also, the economy of the LMD process depends largely on steps taken to eliminate or reduce the need for secondary finishing operations. In this study, the influence of laser power and gas flow rate on the microstructure, microhardness and surface finish produced during the laser metal deposition of Ti6Al4V was investigated. The laser power was varied between 1.8 kW and 3.0 kW, while the gas flow rate was varied between 2 l/min and 4 l/min. The microstructure was studied under an optical microscope, the microhardness was studied using a Metkon microhardness indenter, while the surface roughness was studied using a Jenoptik stylus surface analyzer. The results showed that better surface finish was produced at a laser power of 3.0 kW and a gas flow rate of 4 l/min.

  11. Deposition of airborne metals around the lead-zinc mine in Maarmorilik monitored by lichens and mosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilegaard, K.

    1994-01-01

    The deposition of heavy metals around the Pb-Zn mine in Maarmorilik (Greenland) was monitored during the year 1979-1990 by analyses of concentrations in in situ lichens (Cetraria nivalis and Umbilicaria Lyngei) and higher plants (rhododendron lapponicum). Concentrations of the metals Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, S b and Zn decreased with increasing distance from the mining and milling complex according to the model: y = ax b + C where y = concentrations, x = distance, c = background concentration, a and b = constants. The spread was most pronounced west of Maarmorilik. Exposed Pb-Zn mineralizations in the area were found not to influence the overall deposition pattern. The transport of pollutants to higher altitudes was little. Airborne pollution with Cd, Pb and Zn was monitored with suspended Sphagnumbags during a period with ship-loading of concentrates and compared to a period without this activity. There was a strongly increased deposition of airborne Cd, Pb and Zn during periods of ship-loading. The primary sources of pollution were the concentrate conveyor and the ship-loader. Sphagnum-bags were also used to monitor the effects of remedial actions carried out in the mining town. Analyses of the concentrations of Pb in Cetraria during the years 1979 to 1990 showed that pollution during the last years was only about half as large as during the early years. This decrease is attributed to the pollution abatement carried out at the mining complex. (au) (23 refs.)

  12. Scanning personnel for internal deposition of radioactive material with personnel contamination whole body friskers and portal monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobdell, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The potential for using personnel contamination devices such as whole body friskers and portal monitors for internal contamination monitoring was evaluated. Internally deposited radioactive material is typically determined with whole body counting systems. Whole body counts have traditionally been performed on personnel when they report for work, on a periodic basis (i.e., annually), when an uptake is suspected, and on termination. These counts incur significant expense. The monitored personnel pass through whole body friskers and portal monitors daily. This investigation was performed to determine if the external contamination monitors could provide an alternative to the more Costly whole body counting. The ability to detect 1% of a DAC for critical radioisotopes was applied as a detection criteria for this investigation. The results of whole body counts were used to identify the typical internal contamination radionuclides. From this list, the radioisotopes that would be the most difficult to measure were identified. From this review, 60 Co and 131 I were determined to be the critical radionuclides. One percent of a DAC for each isotope was placed, one at a time, in a humanoid phantom. The phantom was placed in the whole body frisker and open-quotes countedclose quotes. The phantom was carried through the portal monitor at a speed equivalent to a person walking through the monitor. Frequency of detection was derived for both systems. Practical aspects of integrating this screening system with traditional internal dosimetry programs are discussed

  13. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: Implications for monitoring training : Implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four

  14. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm ...

  15. Protein and lipid deposition rates in male broiler chickens : separate responses to amino acids and protein-free energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Stoutjesdijk, P.; Greef, de K.H.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments of similar design were conducted with male broiler chickens over two body weight ranges, 200 to 800 g in Experiment 1 and 800 to 1,600 g in Experiment 2. The data were used to test the hypothesis that protein deposition rate increases (linearly) with increasing amino acid intake,

  16. Understanding deposition rate loss in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: I. Ionization-driven electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N; Huo, C; Raadu, M A; Lundin, D; Helmersson, U; Vitelaru, C; Stancu, G D; Minea, T

    2012-01-01

    The lower deposition rate for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) compared with direct current magnetron sputtering for the same average power is often reported as a drawback. The often invoked reason is back-attraction of ionized sputtered material to the target due to a substantial negative potential profile, sometimes called an extended presheath, from the location of ionization toward the cathode. Recent studies in HiPIMS devices, using floating-emitting and swept-Langmuir probes, show that such extended potential profiles do exist, and that the electric fields E z directed toward the target can be strong enough to seriously reduce ion transport to the substrate. However, they also show that the potential drops involved can vary by up to an order of magnitude from case to case. There is a clear need to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify the key discharge variables that can be used for minimizing the back-attraction. We here present a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the problem of electric fields E z in the ionization region part of HiPIMS discharges, and their effect on the transport of ionized sputtered material. In particular, we have investigated the possibility of a ‘sweet spot’ in parameter space in which the back-attraction of ionized sputtered material is low. It is concluded that a sweet spot might possibly exist for some carefully optimized discharges, but probably in a rather narrow window of parameters. As a measure of how far a discharge is from such a window, a Townsend product Π Townsend is proposed. A parametric analysis of Π Townsend shows that the search for a sweet spot is complicated by the fact that contradictory demands appear for several of the externally controllable parameters such as high/low working gas pressure, short/long pulse length, high/low pulse power and high/low magnetic field strength. (paper)

  17. On the hazard rate process for imperfectly monitored multi-unit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, A.; Berenguer, C.; Grall, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a stochastic model to characterize the failure distribution of multi-unit systems when the current units state is imperfectly monitored. The definition of the hazard rate process existing with perfect monitoring is extended to the realistic case where the units failure time are not always detected (non-detection events). The so defined observed hazard rate process gives a better representation of the system behavior than the classical failure rate calculated without any information on the units state and than the hazard rate process based on perfect monitoring information. The quality of this representation is, however, conditioned by the monotony property of the process. This problem is mainly discussed and illustrated on a practical example (two parallel units). The results obtained motivate the use of the observed hazard rate process to characterize the stochastic behavior of the multi-unit systems and to optimize for example preventive maintenance policies

  18. On the hazard rate process for imperfectly monitored multi-unit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)]. E-mail: anne.barros@utt.fr; Berenguer, C. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Grall, A. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a stochastic model to characterize the failure distribution of multi-unit systems when the current units state is imperfectly monitored. The definition of the hazard rate process existing with perfect monitoring is extended to the realistic case where the units failure time are not always detected (non-detection events). The so defined observed hazard rate process gives a better representation of the system behavior than the classical failure rate calculated without any information on the units state and than the hazard rate process based on perfect monitoring information. The quality of this representation is, however, conditioned by the monotony property of the process. This problem is mainly discussed and illustrated on a practical example (two parallel units). The results obtained motivate the use of the observed hazard rate process to characterize the stochastic behavior of the multi-unit systems and to optimize for example preventive maintenance policies.

  19. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Enabled Body Sensor Network for Self-Powered Human Heart-Rate Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiming; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoshi; Zhou, Zhihao; Meng, Keyu; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-26

    Heart-rate monitoring plays a critical role in personal healthcare management. A low-cost, noninvasive, and user-friendly heart-rate monitoring system is highly desirable. Here, a self-powered wireless body sensor network (BSN) system is developed for heart-rate monitoring via integration of a downy-structure-based triboelectric nanogenerator (D-TENG), a power management circuit, a heart-rate sensor, a signal processing unit, and Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission. By converting the inertia energy of human walking into electric power, a maximum power of 2.28 mW with total conversion efficiency of 57.9% was delivered at low operation frequency, which is capable of immediately and sustainably driving the highly integrated BSN system. The acquired heart-rate signal by the sensor would be processed in the signal process circuit, sent to an external device via the Bluetooth module, and displayed on a personal cell phone in a real-time manner. Moreover, by combining a TENG-based generator and a TENG-based sensor, an all-TENG-based wireless BSN system was developed, realizing continuous and self-powered heart-rate monitoring. This work presents a potential method for personal heart-rate monitoring, featured as being self-powered, cost-effective, noninvasive, and user-friendly.

  20. Design of heart rate monitor based on piezoelectric sensor using an Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Veni; Muninggar, Jodelin; Shanti. N. A, Made R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Reading of result heart rate using an acoustic stethoscope needs a particular skill, quiet environment, and hearing sensitivity. This project had the purpose design of a user-friendly automatic heart rate monitor and especially in a noisy area which to eliminate problems and incorrect reading of result. The liquid crystal display shows a heart rate as a result of measurements. The design of the heart rate monitor has two main parts; the signal recorder that a piezoelectric sensor, a filter, and an amplifier as recorder. The second parts was Arduino microcontroller with reinforced. Besides, three supporting buttons provided as the manual switches, the ‘on’, the ‘start’, and ‘reset’ buttons. The values acquired from the heart rate monitor indicate that those were on the Vernier BPS-BTA value range. The measurement error factor of the heart rate monitor then compared to the Vernier BPS-BTA test device was 3.15%. Besides, the value of statistical independent-test indicates that there is no significant difference (P = 0.971) between the heart rate monitor device and the Vernier BPS-BTA. In conclusion, this device was ready to be used because it has almost the same accuracy with the standart device.

  1. Deep Learning versus Professional Healthcare Equipment: A Fine-Grained Breathing Rate Monitoring Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In mHealth field, accurate breathing rate monitoring technique has benefited a broad array of healthcare-related applications. Many approaches try to use smartphone or wearable device with fine-grained monitoring algorithm to accomplish the task, which can only be done by professional medical equipment before. However, such schemes usually result in bad performance in comparison to professional medical equipment. In this paper, we propose DeepFilter, a deep learning-based fine-grained breathing rate monitoring algorithm that works on smartphone and achieves professional-level accuracy. DeepFilter is a bidirectional recurrent neural network (RNN stacked with convolutional layers and speeded up by batch normalization. Moreover, we collect 16.17 GB breathing sound recording data of 248 hours from 109 and another 10 volunteers to train and test our model, respectively. The results show a reasonably good accuracy of breathing rate monitoring.

  2. High deposition rate of low resistive and transparent ZnO:Al on glass with an industrial moving belt APCVD reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Kniknie, B.; Steijvers, H.L.A.H.; Habets, D.; Simons, P.J.P.M.; Beckers, E.H.A.; Deelen, J. van

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum doped ZnOx (ZnOx:Al) films have been deposited on glass in an in-line industrial-type reactor by a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process at atmospheric pressure. ZnOx:Al films can be grown at very high deposition rates of ~ 14 nm/s for a substrate speed from 150 mm/min to 500

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of SrRuO3 thin-films: The role of the pulse repetition rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schraknepper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SrRuO3 thin-films were deposited with different pulse repetition rates, fdep, epitaxially on vicinal SrTiO3 substrates by means of pulsed laser deposition. The measurement of several physical properties (e.g., composition by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the out-of-plane lattice parameter, the electric conductivity, and the Curie temperature consistently reveals that an increase in laser repetition rate results in an increase in ruthenium deficiency in the films. By the same token, it is shown that when using low repetition rates, approaching a nearly stoichiometric cation ratio in SrRuO3 becomes feasible. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism to explain the widely observed Ru deficiency of SrRuO3 thin-films. Our findings demand these theoretical considerations to be based on kinetic rather than widely employed thermodynamic arguments.

  4. Models for financial crisis detection in Indonesia based on bank deposits, real exchange rate and terms of trade indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto; Zukhronah, Etik; Nur Aini, Anis

    2017-12-01

    Several times Indonesia has experienced to face a financial crisis, but the crisis occurred in 1997 had a tremendous impact on the economy and national stability. The impact of the crisis fall the exchange rate of rupiah against the dollar so it is needed the financial crisis detection system. Some data of bank deposits, real exchange rate and terms of trade indicators are used in this paper. Data taken from January 1990 until December 2016 are used to form the models with three state. Combination of volatility and Markov switching models are used to model the data. The result suggests that the appropriate model for bank deposit and terms of trade is SWARCH (3,1), and for real exchange rates is SWARCH (3,2).

  5. Effect of deposition conditions on the growth rate and electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roro, K.T.; Botha, J.R.; Leitch, A.W.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    ZnO thin films have been grown on glass substrates by MOCVD. The effect of deposition conditions such as VI/II molar ratio, DEZn flow rate and total reactor pressure on the growth rate and electrical properties of the films was studied. It is found that the growth rate decreases with an increase in the VI/II molar ratio. This behaviour is ascribed to the competitive adsorption of reactant species on the growth surface. The growth rate increases with an increase in DEZn flow rate, as expected. It is shown that the carrier concentration is independent of the DEZn flow rate. An increase in the total reactor pressure yields a decrease in growth rate. This phenomenon is attributed to the depletion of the gas phase due to parasitic prereactions between zinc and oxygen species at high pressure. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Influence of variable rates of neritic carbonate deposition on atmospheric carbon dioxide and pelagic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. C.; Opdyke, B. C.

    1995-01-01

    Short-term imbalances in the global cycle of shallow water calcium carbonate deposition and dissolution may be responsible for much of the observed Pleistocene change in atmospheric carbon dioxide content. However, any proposed changes in the alkalinity balance of the ocean must be reconciled with the sedimentary record of deep-sea carbonates. The possible magnitude of the effect of shallow water carbonate deposition on the dissolution of pelagic carbonate can be tested using numerical simulations of the global carbon cycle. Boundary conditions can be defined by using extant shallow water carbonate accumulation data and pelagic carbonate deposition/dissolution data. On timescales of thousands of years carbonate deposition versus dissolution is rarely out of equilibrium by more than 1.5 x 10(13) mole yr-1. Results indicate that the carbonate chemistry of the ocean is rarely at equilibrium on timescales less than 10 ka. This disequilibrium is probably due to sea level-induced changes in shallow water calcium carbonate deposition/dissolution, an interpretation that does not conflict with pelagic sedimentary data from the central Pacific.

  7. Increasing the deposition rate of microcrystalline and amorphous silicon thin films for photovoltaic applications - Phase IV: 1997-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes Phase IV of the project to test the feasibility and usefulness of Very High Frequency (VHF) plasma operation in large-area reactors suitable for the production of solar cell panels using thinly-deposited micro-crystalline silicon films. The report discusses the results of fast-deposition tests and trials using high-current DC arcs and VHF techniques to obtain deposition rates and film quality suitable for industrial processes for the production of thin-film solar cell panels. The effects of alternative plasma chemistry were also studied by adding silicon tetrafluoride to the standard silane/hydrogen mixtures. The report is concluded with calculations for optimum radio-frequency (RF) contact configuration for large area reactors with 1 m{sup 2} electrodes.

  8. Smart pillow for heart-rate monitoring using a fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihao; Teo, Ju Teng; Ng, Soon Huat; Yim, Huiqing

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a new method to monitor heart rate using fiber optic microbending based sensor for in-bed non-intrusive monitoring. The sensing system consists of transmitter, receiver, sensor mat, National Instrument (NI) data acquisition (DAQ) card and a computer for signal processing. The sensor mat is embedded inside a commercial pillow. The heart rate measurement system shows an accuracy of +/-2 beats, which has been successfully demonstrated in a field trial. The key technological advantage of our system is its ability to measure heart rate with no preparation and minimal compliance by the patient.

  9. Standard test method for determining atmospheric chloride deposition rate by wet candle method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a wet candle device and its use in measuring atmospheric chloride deposition (amount of chloride salts deposited from the atmosphere on a given area per unit time). 1.2 Data on atmospheric chloride deposition can be useful in classifying the corrosivity of a specific area, such as an atmospheric test site. Caution must be exercised, however, to take into consideration the season because airborne chlorides vary widely between seasons. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Rate of mass deposition of scaling compounds from seawater on the outer surface of heat exchangers in MED evaporators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, W. [Department of Natural Resources and Chemical Engineering, Tafila Technical University, Tafila (Jordan); Ulrich, J. [FB Ingenieurwissenschaften, Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The scaling problem in Multi Effect Distillation (MED) evaporators is investigated by the experimental measurement of the deposition rate under different operating conditions. The measurements are conducted in a batch vessel containing artificial seawater, which is allowed to contact the outer surface of a hot pipe under controlled temperature, salinity and pH. The rate of mass deposition is higher at elevated temperature. The salinity of the seawater also influences the scaling process - an increase in salinity from 47-59 g/L leads to an increase of 75.6 % in the deposition rate. Decreasing the pH value of seawater to 2.01 results in a complete inhibition of scaling, whereas the severity of the scaling increases in neutral and basic mediums. Polyacrylic acid is tested as an antifoulant and it was found that its presence in seawater reduces the scaling process. The nature of the heat transfer surface material also plays an important role in the scaling process. It is found experimentally that the rate of scaling is higher in the case of a Cu-Ni alloy as the surface material of the tube rather than stainless steel. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. On the intrinsic moisture permeation rate of remote microwave plasma-deposited silicon nitride layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Assche, F. J. H.; Unnikrishnan, S.; Michels, J. J.; van Mol, A. M. B.; van de Weijer, P.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Creatore, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a low substrate temperature (110 °C) remote microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process of silicon nitride barrier layers against moisture permeation for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and other moisture sensitive devices such as organic

  12. Modelling Measured Deposition and Resuspension Rates of Particles in Animal Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, P.; Moser, A.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    on the surfaces is shown as a function of time. High contents of organic dust in animal buildings can affect the health of both people and animals. Deposition on indoor surfaces is an important removal mechanism to reduce the airborne particle concentration. As a basis to develop methods to eliminate dust related...

  13. Acidic deposition in California: findings from a program of monitoring and effects research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, B.K.; Croes, B.E.; Brown, S.M.; Motallebi, N.; Westerdahl, F.D.; Margolis, H.G.; Cahill, B.T.; Mueller, M.D.; Holmes, J.R. [California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA (United States). Research Division

    1995-12-01

    California`s 14-year, 25 million dollar acidic deposition program has studied the causes and effects of acidic air pollutants. In contrast to the eastern United States where sulfur-derived (S-derived) by-products from coal combustion dominate precipitation chemistry, nitrogen-derived (N-derived) acids predominate in wet and dry deposition in California. Adverse effects on the human lung have not been observed after short-term exposures to acidity, but extended exposures to ambient acidity may pose a chronic risk. No irreversible, adverse effects on surface waters in the Sierra Nevada mountain range or to the state`s forests have been found due to extent acidic inputs. The longer-term outlook for forests is less certain because the impacts observed elsewhere occurred after decades of S and N deposition, but at lower ambient ozone levels. Ozone is the major air pollutant stressor for forests, but atmospheric N has the potential to cause adverse changes in soil nutrient cycling. Impacts on man-made materials in southern California (e.g. galvanized steel) were found to be minor. While California does not have an ambient air quality standard for acidic air pollutants, emission of precursors have declined since the 1960s due to changes in industrial practices, improvements in technology and adoption of control measures for ozone. Lowering emission from motor vehicles will be emphasized to prevent future increases in N deposition. 67 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Impact of acid atmosphere deposition on soils : field monitoring and aluminum chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid atmospheric deposition on concentrations and transfer of major solutes in acid, sandy soils was studied. Emphasis was given to mobilization and transport of potentially toxic aluminum. Data on solute concentrations and fluxes in meteoric water as well as soil solutions

  15. The principle and data analysis of online monitoring system of containment leak rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunwei; Yang Yongdeng; Qiao Yu; Liang Bo

    2014-01-01

    The use of online monitoring system of containment leak rate (EPP) in Qinshan 2nd nuclear power plant is introduced. When the containment leak rate reaches the operational limit, the system will automatically alarm and inform the unit operator to take the necessary action. But it is found that the EPP will give a mendacious alarm of 'Containment leak rate abnormity' once in a while during use. The mendacious alarm has an effect on the normal operation of the unit. The reason of the mendacious alarm is analyzed. The data monitored by the EPP are relative hysteretic and the veracity of the flow of compressed air into the containment has a significant influence on the data monitored by the EPP. (authors)

  16. Features of copper coatings growth at high-rate deposition using magnetron sputtering systems with a liquid metal target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bleykher, G.A.; Borduleva, A.O.; Yuryeva, A.V.; Krivobokov, V.P.; Lančok, Ján; Bulíř, Jiří; Drahokoupil, Jan; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Fekete, Ladislav; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Tomáštík, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 324, Sep (2017), s. 111-120 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetron sputtering * evaporation * high-rate coating deposition * coating properties * Cu coatings Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016

  17. Implementation of a wireless sensor network for heart rate monitoring in a senior center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jyh-How; Su, Tzu-Yao; Raknim, Paweeya; Lan, Kun-Chan

    2015-06-01

    Wearable sensor systems are widely used to monitor vital sign in hospitals and in recent years have also been used at home. In this article we present a system that includes a ring probe, sensor, radio, and receiver, designed for use as a long-term heart rate monitoring system in a senior center. The primary contribution of this article is successfully implementing a cheap, large-scale wireless heart rate monitoring system that is stable and comfortable to use 24 h a day. We developed new finger ring sensors for comfortable continuous wearing experience and used dynamic power adjustment on the ring so the sensor can detect pulses at different strength levels. Our system has been deployed in a senior center since May 2012, and 63 seniors have used this system in this period. During the 54-h system observation period, 10 alarms were set off. Eight of them were due to abnormal heart rate, and two of them were due to loose probes. The monitoring system runs stably with the senior center's existing WiFi network, and achieves 99.48% system availability. The managers and caregivers use our system as a reliable warning system for clinical deterioration. The results of the year-long deployment show that the wireless group heart rate monitoring system developed in this work is viable for use within a designated area.

  18. Spatial Distributions of Potassium, Solutes, and Their Deposition Rates in the Growth Zone of the Primary Corn Root 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Wendy Kuhn; Hsiao, Theodore C.; Diedenhofen, Ulrike; Matson, Christina

    1986-01-01

    Densities of osmoticum and potassium were measured as a function of distance from the tip of the primary root of Zea mays L. (cv WF9 × mo17). Millimeter segments were excised and analyzed for osmotic potential by a miniaturized freezing point depression technique, and for potassium by flame spectrophotometry. Local deposition rates were estimated from the continuity equation with values for density and growth velocity. Osmotic potential was uniform, −0.73 ± 0.05 megapascals, throughout the growth zone of well-watered roots. Osmoticum deposition rate was 260 μosmoles per gram fresh weight per hour. Potassium density fell from 117 micromoles per gram in the first mm region to 48 micromoles per gram at the base of the growth zone. Potassium deposition rates had a maximum of 29 micromoles per gram per hour at 3.5 millimeters from the tip and were positive (i.e. potassium was being added to the tissue) until 8 millimeters from the tip. The results are discussed in terms of ion relations of the growing zone and growth physics. PMID:16665121

  19. Electron dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure of the skin from uniformly deposited activity on the body surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors have been calculated for external exposure of the skin from electrons emitted by sources that are deposited uniformly on the body surface. The dose-rate factors are obtained from electron scaled point kernels developed by Berger. The dose-rate factors are calculated at depths of 4, 8, and 40 mg cm-2 below the body surface as recommended by Whitton, and at a depth of 7 mg cm-2 as recommended in ICRP Publication 26 (ICRP77). The dependence of the dose-rate factors at selected depths on the energy of the emitted electrons is displayed. The dose-rate factors for selected radionuclides of potential importance in radiological assessments are tabulated

  20. Evaluating Ammonia Deposition Rates for Deciduous Forest using Measurements and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Geels, Camilla; Hertel, Ole

    ). However, there are relatively few datasets of atmospheric NH3 fluxes available for forests which can contribute verifying model results. The atmospheric dry deposition of NH3 for the beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, Lille Bøgeskov, in Sorø, Denmark, is investigated using the high resolution...... these impacts, quantifying the magnitude of the NH3 flux in the biosphere atmosphere system is essential. Model simulations using the Danish Ammonia Modelling System (DAMOS) have recently indicated that particular forest ecosystems are exposed to critical load exceedances of N (Geels et al., not yet submitted......-agricultural areas (Skjøth et al. 2011, ACPD). New atmospheric NH3 flux measurements for Lille Bøgeskov have been conducted throughout 2011 and these data are presented and discussed in relation to the 2010 data of atmospheric NH3. Future studies aim to improve the description of dry deposition of NH3 for vegetative...

  1. Molecular and Microbial Mechanisms Increasing Soil C Storage Under Future Rates of Anthropogenic N Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zak, Donald R. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-11-17

    A growing body of evidence reveals that anthropogenic N deposition can reduce the microbial decay of plant detritus and increase soil C storage across a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems. This aspect of global change has the potential to constrain the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere, and hence slow the pace of climate warming. The molecular and microbial mechanisms underlying this biogeochemical response are not understood, and they are not a component of any coupled climate-biogeochemical model estimating ecosystem C storage, and hence, the future climate of an N-enriched Earth. Here, we report the use of genomic-enabled approaches to identify the molecular underpinnings of the microbial mechanisms leading to greater soil C storage in response to anthropogenic N deposition, thereby enabling us to better anticipate changes in soil C storage.

  2. Adequate technologies for wireless real-time dose rate monitoring for off-site emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielmann, R.; Buerkin, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: What are the requirements for off-site gamma dose rate monitoring systems? What are the pros and cons of available communication technologies? This report gives an overview of modern communication techniques and their applicability for reliable real-time data acquisition as basis for off-site nuclear emergency management. The results of three years operating experience with a wireless gamma dose rate monitoring system, installed around the NPPs of KURSK, KALININ and BALAKOVA (Russia) in the year 2000, are shown. (author)

  3. Effect of PbI2 deposition rate on two-step PVD/CVD all-vacuum prepared perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioakeimidis, Apostolos; Christodoulou, Christos; Lux-Steiner, Martha; Fostiropoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    In this work we fabricate all-vacuum processed methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite by a sequence of physical vapour deposition of PbI 2 and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of CH 3 NH 3 I under a static atmosphere. We demonstrate that for higher deposition rate the (001) planes of PbI 2 film show a higher degree of alignment parallel to the sample's surface. From X-ray diffraction data of the resulted perovskite film we derive that the intercalation rate of CH 3 NH 3 I is fostered for PbI 2 films with higher degree of (001) planes alignment. The stoichiometry of the produced perovskite film is also studied by Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Complete all-vacuum perovskite solar cells were fabricated on glass/ITO substrates coated by an ultra-thin (5 nm) Zn-phthalocyanine film as hole selective layer. A dependence of residual PbI 2 on the solar cells performance is displayed, while photovoltaic devices with efficiency up to η=11.6% were achieved. - Graphical abstract: A two-step PVD/CVD processed perovskite film with the CVD intercalation rate of CH 3 NCH 3 molecules been fostered by increasing the PVD rate of PbI 2 and prolonging the CVD time. - Highlights: • A simple PVD/CVD process for perovskite film production. • Increased PVD rate yields better alignment of the PbI 2 (001) crystallite planes. • CH 3 NH 3 I intercalation process fostered by increased PbI 2 PVD rate. • Stoichiometric CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 suitable as absorber in photovoltaic applications • Reduced PbI 2 residue at the bottom of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 improves device performance.

  4. Recent Nitrogen Deposition In Poland Monitored With The Moss Pleurozium Schreberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Paweł

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen was determined for Poland by moss biomonitoring. Nitrogen content was measured in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid. Mitt. sampled in 2010 from 320 sites evenly distributed throughout the country. Mosses (green parts contained an average 1.56% nitrogen. The result places Poland among the European countries most polluted by airborne nitrogen. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found in mosses from the central and southern parts of the country, and the lowest in samples from some eastern and northern regions. Multiple regression showed that this variability was due mostly to nitrogen emissions from agricultural and industrial areas (moss nitrogen was positively associated with the consumption of mineral nitrogen fertilizers and the magnitude of particulate pollution. Some details of the spatial variability of the nitrogen data indicate that local and regional point sources of pollution (e.g., chemical plants played an important role in shaping the nitrogen deposition pattern

  5. Real time monitoring of filament-assisted chemically vapor deposited diamond by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Cong; An, I.; Vedam, K.; Collins, R.W.; Nguyen, H.V.; Messier, R.

    1991-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry over the range 1.5-4.5 eV was applied as a real time probe of the processes occurring in the initial nucleation of thin film diamond by heated-filament assisted chemical vapor deposition. Using both untreated and diamond-polished c-Si substrates, as well as both carburized and uncarburized tungsten filaments, it was possible to separate and characterize competing phenomena, including the increase in surface temperature induced by filament ignition, the formation of carbide layers, contamination of the substrate by tungsten from the filament, annealing of diamond polishing damage, and, finally, diamond nucleation. An accurate measurement of the true temperature of the substrate surface averaged over the top 500 A can be obtained from the energy position of critical points in the c-Si band structure. For diamond deposition, we operated with an initial excess flow of CH 4 to stimulate nucleation. We applied real time feedback and manual control to reduce the CH 4 flow in the first monolayers of deposition. The thickness of diamond and an estimate of its nucleation density can be obtained from real time spectra, and the latter was in good agreement with that obtained from scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  6. Effect of daily noise exposure monitoring on annual rates of hearing loss in industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R; Cullen, Mark R; Slade, Martin D; Dixon-Ernst, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is prevalent, yet evidence on the effectiveness of preventive interventions is lacking. The effectiveness of a new technology allowing workers to monitor daily at-ear noise exposure was analysed. Workers in the hearing conservation program of an aluminium smelter were recruited because of accelerated rates of hearing loss. The intervention consisted of daily monitoring of at-ear noise exposure and regular feedback on exposures from supervisors. The annual rate of change in high frequency hearing average at 2, 3 and 4 KHz before intervention (2000-2004) and 4 years after intervention (2006-2009) was determined. Annual rates of loss were compared between 78 intervention subjects and 234 controls in other company smelters matched for age, gender and high frequency hearing threshold level in 2005. Individuals monitoring daily noise exposure experienced on average no further worsening of high frequency hearing (average rate of hearing change at 2, 3 and 4 KHz = -0.5 dB/year). Matched controls also showed decelerating hearing loss, the difference in rates between the two groups being significant (p hearing loss showed a similar trend but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Monitoring daily occupational noise exposure inside hearing protection with ongoing administrative feedback apparently reduces the risk of occupational NIHL in industrial workers. Longer follow-up of these workers will help determine the significance of the intervention effect. Intervention studies for the prevention of NIHL need to include appropriate control groups.

  7. Characterization of new a-Si:H detectors fabricated from amorphous silicon deposited at high rate by helium enhanced PECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochet, T.; Ilie, A.; Foulon, F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the characterization of new detectors fabricated from a-Si:H films deposited at high rates through the dilution of SiH 4 in helium. Rates of up to ten times (5.5 micrometer/h) that of the standard technique are obtained, allowing for the feasible fabrication of detectors having thickness up to 100 micrometers. The electrical characteristics (depletion voltage, residual space charge density) of the helium diluted material, have been investigated and compared to that of the standard material. The response of detectors, made from both materials, to 5.5 MeV alpha particles are compared. 6 figs., 5 tabs., 13 refs

  8. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C

  9. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

  10. In-flight monitoring of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Xu, Qiuyu; Liu, Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Wei, Daniel; Baughcum, Steven; Norris, Sharon; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    Severe air pollution and low on-time performance of commercial flights in China could increase particle deposition in the environmental control systems (ECSs) of commercial airliners. The particles deposited in the ECSs could negatively affect the performance of the airplanes. In addition, particles that penetrate into the aircraft cabin could adversely impact the health of passengers and crew members. This investigation conducted simultaneous measurements of particle mass concentration and size distribution inside and outside the cabin during 64 commercial flights of Boeing 737 and Airbus 320 aircraft departing from or arriving at Tianjin Airport in China. The results showed that the PM2.5 mass concentration deposition in the ECSs of these airplanes ranged from 50% to 90%, which was much higher than that measured in an airplane with a ground air-conditioning unit. The average deposition rates of particles with diameters of 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-5 μm, 5-10 μm, and >10 μm were 89 ± 8%, 85 ± 13%, 80 ± 13%, 73 ± 15%, and 80 ± 14%, respectively. The in-flight measurement results indicated that the particle concentration in the breathing zone was higher than that in the air-supply zone, which implies a significant contribution by particles in the interior of the cabin. Such particles come from human emissions or particle resuspension from interior surfaces.

  11. Environmental gamma dose rate monitoring along Mumbai-Pune route using environmental radiation monitor with navigational aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, N.; Kale, M.S.; Raman, N.; Krishnamachari, G.; Harikumar, M.; Sharma, D.N.; Mehta, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A continuous environmental radiation monitor with navigational aid (ERMNA) for mapping natural gamma radiation background on country wide scale by deployment in railway coaches, has been designed. The system makes use of Indian railway network which is one of the widest network of railways in the world covering nearly complete length and breadth of the country. The system uses an energy compensated (within ± 30%) GN detectors for measurement of environmental dose rate due to natural background, a global positioning system (GPS) for on-line acquisition of positional co-ordinates (longitude and latitude) and an 8085 based data acquisition and processing unit. This system is deployed in guard's cabin of a train. The dose rate data tagged with positional co-ordinates and collected by the system during train journey is down loaded into a Lap Top PC for storage, analysis and graphical representation. The system has been used for background monitoring between Mumbai and Pune. The dose rates recorded over a period of three months ranging from November 1996 to February 1997 along the route show no change in the values which vary from 4 μr/h to 6 μR/h along the route. It drops down to <3 μR/h within tunnels en route. (author)

  12. Exposure rate measurements on TV monitors LiF:Mg, Cu, P (GR- 200A) chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, S.S.; Sadagopan, Geetha; Bhatt, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    For measuring exposure rate on black and white TV monitor screen, LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200A) TLD chips were used. The samples were kept on TV monitor screen and exposed for 560 hrs with TV in 'ON' condition. The exposure rate on TV monitor screen was determined from integrated TL measurements and it varied from 0.081μGy/hr to 0.106 μGy/hr. Thus it was observed that the exposure levels were well below the prescribed limits (i.e. 5 μGy/h at 5 cm from the surface). LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200A) TLD discs were also used to estimate the dose level on the surface of two types of TV monitors. The samples were kept at five different locations on the two (14 C PT AND 20 C PT) models of TV monitors and exposed for 622 hrs. From the measurement of TL, integrated dose on the screen were in the range 3.86 mR to 12.34 mR, the corresponding dose rate being 6.206 mR/hr to 19.839 mR/hr. This ensures that doses were well below the recommended limit of 0.5 mR/hr at 5cm. (author)

  13. Sedimentation rates in eastern North America reveal strong links between regional climate, depositional environments, and sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; McLachlan, J. S.; Jackson, S. T.; Blaauw, M.; Christen, J.; Marlon, J.; Blois, J.; Williams, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    PalEON is a multidisciplinary project that combines paleo and modern ecological data with state-of-the-art statistical and modelling tools to examine the interactions between climate, fire and vegetation during the past two millennia in the northeastern United States. A fundamental challenge for PalEON (and paleo research more broadly) is to improve age modelling to yield more accurate sediment-core chronologies. To address this challenge, we assessed sedimentation rates and their controls for 218 lakes and mires in the northeastern U.S. Sedimentation rates (yr/cm) were calculated from age-depth models, which were obtained from the Neotoma database (www.neotomadb.org) and other contributed pollen records. The age models were recalibrated to IntCal09 and augmented in some cases using biostratigraphic markers (Picea decline, 16 kcal BP - 10.5 kcal BP; Quercus rise, 12 - 9.1 kcal BP; and Alnus decline, 11.5 - 10.6 kcal BP) as described in Blois et al. (2011). Relationships between sedimentation rates and sediment age, site longitude, and depositional environment (lacustrine or mire) are significant but weak. There are clear and significant links between variations in the NGRIP record of δ18O and sedimentation in mires across the PalEON region, but no links to lacustrine sedimentation rates. This result indicates that super-regional climatic control of primary productivity, and thus autochthonic sediment deposition, dominates in mires while deposition in lacustrine basins may be driven primarily by local and regional factors including watershed size, surficial materials,and regional vegetation. The shape of the gamma probability functions that best describe sedimentation rate distributions are calculated and presented here for use as priors in Bayesian age modelling applications such as BACON (Blaauw and Christen, in press). Future applications of this research are also discussed.

  14. The Design of a γ-dose rate monitoring meter Based on C8051F020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Wei; Liu Chong; Wu Longxiong; Yang Binhua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of γ-dose-rate monitoring meter based on C8051F020 single chip microcomputer (SCM), and also describes the solution of hardware and software. The peripheral circuit of USB is also included. This meter can rapidly measure γ-dose-rate and store more data in power failure. In addition, it is featured with low power, small size, strong anti-interference and accurate measurement. (authors)

  15. Monitoring of dose rates and radiation flux density in working rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajtor, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problems of determining the neutron field characteristics (dose equivalent rate and flux density) in relation to the environmental monitoring by radiation protection services. The measurement devices used for measuring dose equivalent rate and neutron flux density RUS-U8 multi-purpose scintillation radiometer and RUP-1 multi-purpose transportable radiometer as well as measurement technique are described. Recommendations are given for checking measuring devices calibration, registering measurement results [ru

  16. The software and hardware design of a 16 channel online dose rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Wenjuan; Yan Yonghong; Yang Shiming; Li Xiaonan; Min Jian

    2011-01-01

    The software and hardware design of a 16 channel online dose rate monitoring system is presented. After being amplified and A/D converted, the output signal of the sensors was sent to a microprocessor through an FPGA, where the low-frequency filter, calculation, temperature compensation and pedestal deduction were accomplished. Such steps corrected the variation of dark current dependent on temperature fluctuations in a effective way, and finally the instantaneous dose rate results with enough precise were obtained. (authors)

  17. Effectiveness of Devices to Monitor Biofouling and Metals Deposition on Plumbing Materials Exposed to a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Ginige, Maneesha P.; Garbin, Scott; Wylie, Jason; Krishna, K. C. Bal

    2017-01-01

    A Modified Robbins Device (MRD) was installed in a full-scale water distribution system to investigate biofouling and metal depositions on concrete, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and stainless steel surfaces. Bulk water monitoring and a KIWA monitor (with glass media) were used to offline monitor biofilm development on pipe wall surfaces. Results indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and metal concentrations on coupons increased with time. However, bacterial diversities decreased. Th...

  18. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219969; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger thus enabling detailed monitoring of the system and allowing for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special ‘Enhanced Bias’ event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  19. Syncope During Competitive Events: Interrogating Heart Rate Monitor Watches May Be Useful!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabouillot, Oscar; Bostanci, Kevin; Bouvier, Francois; Dumitrescu, Nicolae; Stéfuriac, Maria; Paule, Philippe; Roche, Nicolas-Charles

    2017-12-01

    This is a case report of a 45-year-old man who reported complete amnesia during the very first kilometer of a 10-km run. He was wearing a heart rate monitor (HRM). The interrogation of his HRM watch showed 200 bpm tachycardia beginning in the first kilometer and increasing up to 220 bpm during the last kilometer. The patient was asked to wear a Holter-monitor (Holter Research Laboratory; Helena, Montana USA) electrocardiogram (ECG) while practicing a training session. This examination allowed for the diagnosis of an adrenergic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) with an impressive auriculo-ventricular conduction over 260 bpm. This case highlights that non-medical devices, such as connected watches, can be helpful to diagnose arrhythmias. Thabouillot O , Bostanci K , Bouvier F , Dumitrescu N , Stéfuriac M , Paule P , Roche NC . Syncope during competitive events: interrogating heart rate monitor watches may be useful! Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):691-693.

  20. Si nanostructures grown by picosecond high repetition rate pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervolaraki, M.; Komninou, Ph.; Kioseoglou, J.; Athanasopoulos, G.I.; Giapintzakis, J.

    2013-01-01

    One-step growth of n-doped Si nanostructures by picosecond ultra fast pulsed laser deposition at 1064 nm is reported for the first time. The structure and morphology of the Si nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the shape of the Si nanostructures depends on the ambient argon pressure. Fibrous networks, cauliflower formations and Si rectangular crystals grew when argon pressure of 300 Pa, 30 Pa and vacuum (10 −3 Pa) conditions were used, respectively. In addition, the electrical resistance of the vacuum made material was investigated

  1. Si nanostructures grown by picosecond high repetition rate pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pervolaraki, M., E-mail: pervolaraki@ucy.ac.cy [Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Av., PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Komninou, Ph.; Kioseoglou, J. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Athanasopoulos, G.I. [Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Av., PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Giapintzakis, J., E-mail: giapintz@ucy.ac.cy [Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Av., PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-08-01

    One-step growth of n-doped Si nanostructures by picosecond ultra fast pulsed laser deposition at 1064 nm is reported for the first time. The structure and morphology of the Si nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the shape of the Si nanostructures depends on the ambient argon pressure. Fibrous networks, cauliflower formations and Si rectangular crystals grew when argon pressure of 300 Pa, 30 Pa and vacuum (10{sup −3} Pa) conditions were used, respectively. In addition, the electrical resistance of the vacuum made material was investigated.

  2. Novel texturing method for sputtered zinc oxide films prepared at high deposition rate from ceramic tube targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüpkes J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sputtered and wet-chemically texture etched zinc oxide (ZnO films on glass substrates are regularly applied as transparent front contact in silicon based thin film solar cells. In this study, chemical wet etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF and subsequently in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl on aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al films deposited by magnetron sputtering from ceramic tube targets at high discharge power (~10 kW/m target length is investigated. Films with thickness of around 800 nm were etched in diluted HCl acid and HF acid to achieve rough surface textures. It is found that the etching of the films in both etchants leads to different surface textures. A two steps etching process, which is especially favorable for films prepared at high deposition rate, was systematically studied. By etching first in diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF and subsequently in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl these films are furnished with a surface texture which is characterized by craters with typical diameter of around 500 − 1000 nm. The resulting surface structure is comparable to etched films sputtered at low deposition rate, which had been demonstrated to be able to achieve high efficiencies in silicon thin film solar cells.

  3. The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed in Boris Kidric Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koturovic, A.M.; Sobajic, M.V.; Smelcerovic, M.A.; Damljanovic, D.D.; Drndarevic, V.R.

    1989-01-01

    The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed and produced in Boris Kidric Institute, presented in this paper, are digital survey instruments. The common principle of these instruments is the 'simple precision' concept, i.e. predetermined time pulse counting. This principle is discussed and basic structure of these instruments is shown with their possibilities and features (author)

  4. X-γ dose rate continuous monitor with wide range based on single-chip microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Debo; Ling Qiu; Guo Lanying; Yang Binhua

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a concept about circuit designing of X-γ dose rate continuous monitor with wide range based on single-chip microcomputer, and also presents the design procedure of hardware and software, and gives several methods for solving the design procedure of hardware and software with emphasis. (authors)

  5. Sampling optimization trade-offs for long-term monitoring of gamma dose rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, S.J.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Twenhöfel, C.J.W.; Stöhlker, U.

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies a recently developed optimization method to examine the design of networks that monitor radiation under routine conditions. Annual gamma dose rates were modelled by combining regression with interpolation of the regression residuals using spatially exhaustive predictors and an

  6. Monitoring of the morphologic reconstruction of deposited ablation products in laser irradiation of silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and IR spectroscopy, it was established that, in the regime of continuous laser irradiation of silicon at P = 170 W in different gaseous atmospheres with an oxygen impurity, SiOx composite films with a complex morphology form. The main components of ablation products are clusters that form during flight of ablation products and as a result of separation of SiOx-clusters from the zone of the irradiation channel. The roughness and density of the films depend on the heating temperature of the target surface and the type of deposited clusters.

  7. Passive monitoring techniques for evaluating atmospheric ozone and nitrogen exposure and deposition to California ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Susan L. Schilling

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the exposure of ecosystems to ecologically relevant pollutants is needed for evaluating ecosystem effects and to identify regions and resources at risk. In California, ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) pollutants are of greatest concern for ecological effects. "Passive" monitoring methods have been developed to obtain spatially...

  8. Radioactivity monitoring in Ireland of air, deposition and water 1982-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, S.; McRandall, M.; Hayden, E.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1989-02-01

    The Nuclear Energy Board in conjunction with the Meteorological Service undertakes an environmental radioactivity monitoring programme with the objective of determining levels of artificially produced radioactivity in the Irish environment. The levels of radioactivity in airbourne dust, total fallout samples, precipitation and drinking water are presented for 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986 and 1987

  9. Nuclear interaction contribution to SEUs in heavy ion energy deposition in the ESA monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bahamonde, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The effects of nuclear interactions inducing Single Event Upsets in ESA SEU monitor are explored for heavy ion beams of different energies. The experimental and simulated results are compared, the possible causes of disagreement are suggested as well as the future steps to take.

  10. Electromagnetic energy deposition rate in the polar upper thermosphere derived from the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS Finland radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fujiwara

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available From simultaneous observations of the European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR and the Cooperative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System (CUTLASS Finland radar on 9 March 1999, we have derived the height distributions of the thermospheric heating rate at the F region height in association with electromagnetic energy inputs into the dayside polar cap/cusp region. The ESR and CUTLASS radar observations provide the ionospheric parameters with fine time-resolutions of a few minutes. Although the geomagnetic activity was rather moderate (Kp=3+~4, the electric field obtained from the ESR data sometimes shows values exceeding 40 mV/m. The estimated passive energy deposition rates are also larger than 150 W/kg in the upper thermosphere over the ESR site during the period of the enhanced electric field. In addition, enhancements of the Pedersen conductivity also contribute to heating the upper thermosphere, while there is only a small contribution for thermospheric heating from the direct particle heating due to soft particle precipitation in the dayside polar cap/cusp region. In the same period, the CUTLASS observations of the ion drift show the signature of poleward moving pulsed ionospheric flows with a recurrence rate of about 10–20 min. The estimated electromagnetic energy deposition rate shows the existence of the strong heat source in the dayside polar cap/cusp region of the upper thermosphere in association with the dayside magnetospheric phenomena of reconnections and flux transfer events.

  11. Electromagnetic energy deposition rate in the polar upper thermosphere derived from the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS Finland radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fujiwara

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available From simultaneous observations of the European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR and the Cooperative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System (CUTLASS Finland radar on 9 March 1999, we have derived the height distributions of the thermospheric heating rate at the F region height in association with electromagnetic energy inputs into the dayside polar cap/cusp region. The ESR and CUTLASS radar observations provide the ionospheric parameters with fine time-resolutions of a few minutes. Although the geomagnetic activity was rather moderate (Kp=3+~4, the electric field obtained from the ESR data sometimes shows values exceeding 40 mV/m. The estimated passive energy deposition rates are also larger than 150 W/kg in the upper thermosphere over the ESR site during the period of the enhanced electric field. In addition, enhancements of the Pedersen conductivity also contribute to heating the upper thermosphere, while there is only a small contribution for thermospheric heating from the direct particle heating due to soft particle precipitation in the dayside polar cap/cusp region. In the same period, the CUTLASS observations of the ion drift show the signature of poleward moving pulsed ionospheric flows with a recurrence rate of about 10–20 min. The estimated electromagnetic energy deposition rate shows the existence of the strong heat source in the dayside polar cap/cusp region of the upper thermosphere in association with the dayside magnetospheric phenomena of reconnections and flux transfer events.

  12. Field investigation of surface-deposited radon progeny as a possible predictor of the airborne radon progeny dose rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kainan; Steck, Daniel J; Field, R William

    2009-08-01

    The quantitative relationships between radon gas concentration, the surface-deposited activities of various radon progeny, the airborne radon progeny dose rate, and various residential environmental factors were investigated through actual field measurements in 38 selected Iowa houses occupied by either smokers or nonsmokers. Airborne dose rate was calculated from unattached and attached potential alpha energy concentrations (PAECs) using two dosimetric models with different activity-size weighting factors. These models are labeled Pdose and Jdose, respectively. Surface-deposited 218Po and 214Po were found significantly correlated to radon, unattached PAEC, and both airborne dose rates (p fireplace, or usage of a ceiling fan significantly, or marginally significantly, reduced the Pdose to 0.65 (90% CI 0.42-0.996), 0.54 (90% CI 0.28-1.02), and 0.66 (90% CI 0.45-0.96), respectively. For Jdose, only the usage of a ceiling fan significantly reduced the dose rate to 0.57 (90% CI 0.39-0.85). In smoking environments, deposited 218Po was a significant negative predictor for Pdose (RR 0.68, 90% CI 0.55-0.84) after adjusting for long-term 222Rn and environmental factors. A significant decrease of 0.72 (90% CI 0.64-0.83) in the mean Pdose was noted, after adjusting for the radon and radon progeny effects and other environmental factors, for every 10 additional cigarettes smoked in the room. A significant increase of 1.71 in the mean Pdose was found for large room size relative to small room size (90% CI 1.08-2.79) after adjusting for the radon and radon progeny effects as well as other environmental factors. Fireplace usage was found to significantly increase the mean Pdose to 1.71 (90% CI 1.20-2.45) after adjusting for other factors.

  13. ATLAS trigger operations: Monitoring with “Xmon” rate prediction system

    CERN Document Server

    Aukerman, Andrew Todd; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the operations and online monitoring with the “Xmon” rate prediction system for the trigger system at the ATLAS Experiment. A two-level trigger system reduces the LHC’s bunch-crossing rate, 40 MHz at design capacity, to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz, while maintaining a high efficiency of selecting events of interest. The Xmon system uses the luminosity value to predict trigger rates that are, in turn, compared with incoming rates. The predictions rely on past runs to parameterize the luminosity dependency of the event rate for a trigger algorithm. Some examples are given to illustrate the performance of the tool during recent operations.

  14. Comparison of Calibration of Sensors Used for the Quantification of Nuclear Energy Rate Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, J.; Reynard-Carette, C. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk (Poland); Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.F. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Jagielski, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technolgy, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    This present work deals with a collaborative program called GAMMA-MAJOR 'Development and qualification of a deterministic scheme for the evaluation of GAMMA heating in MTR reactors with exploitation as example MARIA reactor and Jules Horowitz Reactor' between the National Centre for Nuclear Research of Poland, the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission and Aix Marseille University. One of main objectives of this program is to optimize the nuclear heating quantification thanks to calculation validated from experimental measurements of radiation energy deposition carried out in irradiation reactors. The quantification of the nuclear heating is a key data especially for the thermal, mechanical design and sizing of irradiation experimental devices in specific irradiated conditions and locations. The determination of this data is usually performed by differential calorimeters and gamma thermometers such as used in the experimental multi-sensors device called CARMEN 'Calorimetric en Reacteur et Mesures des Emissions Nucleaires'. In the framework of the GAMMA-MAJOR program a new calorimeter was designed for the nuclear energy deposition quantification. It corresponds to a single-cell calorimeter and it is called KAROLINA. This calorimeter was recently tested during an irradiation campaign inside MARIA reactor in Poland. This new single-cell calorimeter differs from previous CALMOS or CARMEN type differential calorimeters according to three main points: its geometry, its preliminary out-of-pile calibration, and its in-pile measurement method. The differential calorimeter, which is made of two identical cells containing heaters, has a calibration method based on the use of steady thermal states reached by simulating the nuclear energy deposition into the calorimeter sample by Joule effect; whereas the single-cell calorimeter, which has no heater, is calibrated by using the transient thermal response of the sensor (heating and cooling

  15. Comparison of Calibration of Sensors Used for the Quantification of Nuclear Energy Rate Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Tarchalski, M.; Pytel, K.; Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.F.; Jagielski, J.

    2015-01-01

    This present work deals with a collaborative program called GAMMA-MAJOR 'Development and qualification of a deterministic scheme for the evaluation of GAMMA heating in MTR reactors with exploitation as example MARIA reactor and Jules Horowitz Reactor' between the National Centre for Nuclear Research of Poland, the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission and Aix Marseille University. One of main objectives of this program is to optimize the nuclear heating quantification thanks to calculation validated from experimental measurements of radiation energy deposition carried out in irradiation reactors. The quantification of the nuclear heating is a key data especially for the thermal, mechanical design and sizing of irradiation experimental devices in specific irradiated conditions and locations. The determination of this data is usually performed by differential calorimeters and gamma thermometers such as used in the experimental multi-sensors device called CARMEN 'Calorimetric en Reacteur et Mesures des Emissions Nucleaires'. In the framework of the GAMMA-MAJOR program a new calorimeter was designed for the nuclear energy deposition quantification. It corresponds to a single-cell calorimeter and it is called KAROLINA. This calorimeter was recently tested during an irradiation campaign inside MARIA reactor in Poland. This new single-cell calorimeter differs from previous CALMOS or CARMEN type differential calorimeters according to three main points: its geometry, its preliminary out-of-pile calibration, and its in-pile measurement method. The differential calorimeter, which is made of two identical cells containing heaters, has a calibration method based on the use of steady thermal states reached by simulating the nuclear energy deposition into the calorimeter sample by Joule effect; whereas the single-cell calorimeter, which has no heater, is calibrated by using the transient thermal response of the sensor (heating and cooling

  16. Comparative evaluation of heart rate-based monitors: Apple Watch vs Fitbit Charge HR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Hibbing, Paul; Mantis, Constantine; Welk, Gregory J

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the validity of energy expenditure (EE), steps, and heart rate measured with the Apple Watch 1 and Fitbit Charge HR. Thirty-nine healthy adults wore the two monitors while completing a semi-structured activity protocol consisting of 20 minutes of sedentary activity, 25 minutes of aerobic exercise, and 25 minutes of light intensity physical activity. Criterion measures were obtained from an Oxycon Mobile for EE, a pedometer for steps, and a Polar heart rate strap worn on the chest for heart rate. For estimating whole-trial EE, the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) from Fitbit Charge HR (32.9%) was more than twice that of Apple Watch 1 (15.2%). This trend was consistent for the individual conditions. Both monitors accurately assessed steps during aerobic activity (MAPE Apple : 6.2%; MAPE Fitbit : 9.4%) but overestimated steps in light physical activity. For heart rate, Fitbit Charge HR produced its smallest MAPE in sedentary behaviors (7.2%), followed by aerobic exercise (8.4%), and light activity (10.1%). The Apple Watch 1 had stronger validity than the Fitbit Charge HR for assessing overall EE and steps during aerobic exercise. The Fitbit Charge HR provided heart rate estimates that were statistically equivalent to Polar monitor.

  17. Monitoring and Analysis of Environmental Gamma Dose Rate around Serpong Nuclear Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Susila

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An environmental radiation monitoring system that continuously measures gamma dose rate around nuclear facilities is an important tool to present dose rate information to the public or authorities for radiological protection during both normal operation and radiological accidents. We have developed such a system that consists of six GM-based device for monitoring the environmental dose rate around Serpong Nuclear Complex. It has operated since 2010. In this study, a description of the system and analysis of measured data are presented. Analysis of the data for the last five years shows that the average dose rate levels were between 84-99 nSv/h which are still lower than terrestrial gamma radiation levels at several other locations in Indonesia. Time series analysis of the monitoring data demonstrates a good agreement between an increase in environmental gamma dose rate and the presence of iodine and argon in the air by in situ measurement. This result indicates that system is also effective for an early warning system in the case of radiological emergency.

  18. Determining the ventilation and aerosol deposition rates from routine indoor-air measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halios, Christos H; Helmis, Costas G; Deligianni, Katerina; Vratolis, Sterios; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of air exchange rate provides critical information in energy and indoor-air quality studies. Continuous measurement of ventilation rates is a rather costly exercise and requires specific instrumentation. In this work, an alternative methodology is proposed and tested, where the air exchange rate is calculated by utilizing indoor and outdoor routine measurements of a common pollutant such as SO2, whereas the uncertainties induced in the calculations are analytically determined. The application of this methodology is demonstrated, for three residential microenvironments in Athens, Greece, and the results are also compared against ventilation rates calculated from differential pressure measurements. The calculated time resolved ventilation rates were applied to the mass balance equation to estimate the particle loss rate which was found to agree with literature values at an average of 0.50 h(-1). The proposed method was further evaluated by applying a mass balance numerical model for the calculation of the indoor aerosol number concentrations, using the previously calculated ventilation rate, the outdoor measured number concentrations and the particle loss rates as input values. The model results for the indoors' concentrations were found to be compared well with the experimentally measured values.

  19. Multiple sulfur isotopes monitor fluid evolution of an Archean orogenic gold deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFlamme, Crystal; Sugiono, Dennis; Thébaud, Nicolas; Caruso, Stefano; Fiorentini, Marco; Selvaraja, Vikraman; Jeon, Heejin; Voute, François; Martin, Laure

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of a gold-bearing hydrothermal fluid from its source to the locus of gold deposition is complex as it experiences rapid changes in thermochemical conditions during ascent through the crust. Although it is well established that orogenic gold deposits are generated during time periods of abundant crustal growth and/or reworking, the source of fluid and the thermochemical processes that control gold precipitation remain poorly understood. In situ analyses of multiple sulfur isotopes offer a new window into the relationship between source reservoirs of Au-bearing fluids and the thermochemical processes that occur along their pathway to the final site of mineralisation. Whereas δ34S is able to track changes in the evolution of the thermodynamic conditions of ore-forming fluids, Δ33S is virtually indelible and can uniquely fingerprint an Archean sedimentary reservoir that has undergone mass independent fractionation of sulfur (MIF-S). We combine these two tracers (δ34S and Δ33S) to characterise a gold-bearing laminated quartz breccia ore zone and its sulfide-bearing alteration halo in the (+6 Moz Au) structurally-controlled Archean Waroonga deposit located in the Eastern Goldfields Superterrane of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Over 250 analyses of gold-associated sulfides yield a δ34S shift from what is interpreted as an early pre-mineralisation phase, with chalcopyrite-pyrrhotite (δ34S = +0.7‰ to +2.9‰) and arsenopyrite cores (δ34S = ∼-0.5‰), to a syn-mineralisation stage, reflected in Au-bearing arsenopyrite rims (δ34S = -7.6‰ to +1.5‰). This shift coincides with an unchanging Δ33S value (Δ33S = +0.3‰), both temporally throughout the Au-hosting hydrothermal sulfide paragenesis and spatially across the Au ore zone. These results indicate that sulfur is at least partially recycled from MIF-S-bearing Archean sediments. Further, the invariant nature of the observed MIF-S signature demonstrates that sulfur is derived from a

  20. Safe and effective error rate monitors for SS7 signaling links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes SS7 error monitor characteristics, discusses the existing SUERM (Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor), and develops the recently proposed EIM (Error Interval Monitor) for higher speed SS7 links. A SS7 error monitor is considered safe if it ensures acceptable link quality and is considered effective if it is tolerant to short-term phenomena. Formal criteria for safe and effective error monitors are formulated in this paper. This paper develops models of changeover transients, the unstable component of queue length resulting from errors. These models are in the form of recursive digital filters. Time is divided into sequential intervals. The filter's input is the number of errors which have occurred in each interval. The output is the corresponding change in transmit queue length. Engineered EIM's are constructed by comparing an estimated changeover transient with a threshold T using a transient model modified to enforce SS7 standards. When this estimate exceeds T, a changeover will be initiated and the link will be removed from service. EIM's can be differentiated from SUERM by the fact that EIM's monitor errors over an interval while SUERM's count errored messages. EIM's offer several advantages over SUERM's, including the fact that they are safe and effective, impose uniform standards in link quality, are easily implemented, and make minimal use of real-time resources.

  1. Characteristics of Noble Gas-filled Ionization Chambers for a Low Dose Rate Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Soo; Park, Se Hwan; Ha, Jan Ho; Lee, Jae Hyung; Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Jung Bok; Kim, Yong Kyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Cho, Seung Yeon

    2007-01-01

    An ionization chamber is still widely used in fields such as an environmental radiation monitoring, a Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) in nuclear facilities, and an industrial application due to its operational stability for a long period and its designs for its applications. Ionization chambers for RMS and an environmental radiation monitoring are requested to detect a low dose rate at as low as 10-2 mR/h and several 3R/h, respectively. Filling gas and its pressure are two of the important factors for an ionization chamber development to use it in these fields, because these can increase the sensitivity of an ionization chamber. We developed cylindrical and spherical ionization chambers for a low dose rate monitoring. Response of a cylindrical ionization chamber, which has a 1 L active volume, was compared when it was filled with Air, Ar, and Xe gas respectively. Response of a spherical ionization chamber was also compared in the case of 9 atm and 25 atm filling-pressures. An inter-comparison with a commercially available high pressure Ar ionization chamber and a fabricated ionization chamber was also performed. A High Pressure Xenon (HPXe) ionization chamber, which was configured with a shielding mesh to eliminate an induced charge of positive ions, was fabricated both for the measurement of an environmental dose rate and for the measurement of an energy spectrum

  2. Influence of cold rolling and strain rate on plastic response of powder metallurgy and chemical vapor deposition rhenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, B.J.; Subhash, G.

    1999-01-01

    The plastic response of two kinds of rhenium processed via powder metallurgy (PM) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were investigated under uniaxial compression over a range of strain rates. The PM rhenium, further cold rolled to 50 and 80 pct of the original thickness, was also investigated to assess the influence of cold work on the plastic behavior. A strong basal texture was detected in all the preceding materials as a result of processing and cold work. Both CVD and PM rhenium exhibited an increase in yield strength and flow stress with increasing strain rate. In PM rhenium, cold work resulted in an increase in hardness and yield strength and a decrease in the work hardening rate. The deformed microstructures revealed extensive twinning in CVD rhenium. At large strains, inhomogeneous deformation mode in the form of classical cup and cone fracture was noticed

  3. Flow rate effect on the structure and morphology of molybdenum oxide nanoparticles deposited by atmospheric-pressure microplasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Arumugam Chandra; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Mariotti, Davide; Sasaki, Takeshi; Terashima, Kazuo; Koshizaki, Naoto

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles of crystalline molybdenum oxide were prepared by changing the flow rate of plasma gas (2% oxygen balanced by Ar) using an atmospheric-pressure microplasma technique. The morphology and crystalline structure of the nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FESEM results revealed that the shape of the deposited nanoparticles depended on the plasma gas flow rate. The TEM results supported the FESEM observations. The transmission electron diffraction (TED) pattern revealed that the obtained nanoparticles changed from MoO 2 to MoO 3 with the flow-rate increase, and correspondingly the nanoparticle size drastically decreased. A process mechanism is proposed from the observations of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) during the process and consumed wire surface analysis from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and FESEM studies

  4. Design and Implementation of a Smart Sensor for Respiratory Rate Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte Luis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, development and implementation of a smart sensor to monitor the respiratory rate. This sensor is aimed at overcoming the drawbacks of other systems currently available in market, namely, devices that are costly, uncomfortable, difficult-to-install, provide low detection sensitivity, and little-to-null patient-to-patient calibration. The device is based on capacitive sensing by means of an LC oscillator. Experimental results show that the sensor meets the necessary requirements, making feasible the proposed monitoring system with the technology used.

  5. Monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in bioventing processes using in situ respiration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Byun, I G; Kim, Y O; Hwang, I S; Park, T J

    2006-01-01

    An in situ measuring system of respiration rate was applied for monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in a bioventing process for bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. Two laboratory-scale soil columns were packed with 5 kg of soil that was artificially contaminated by diesel fuel as final TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) concentration of 8,000 mg/kg soil. Nutrient was added to make a relative concentration of C:N:P = 100:10:1. One soil column was operated with continuous venting mode, and the other one with intermittent (6 h venting/6 h rest) venting mode. On-line O2 and CO2 gas measuring system was applied to measure O2 utilisation and CO2 production during biodegradation of diesel for 5 months. Biodegradation rate of TPH was calculated from respiration rate measured by the on-line gas measuring system. There were no apparent differences between calculated biodegradation rates from two columns with different venting modes. The variation of biodegradation rates corresponded well with trend of the remaining TPH concentrations comparing other biodegradation indicators, such as C17/pristane and C18/phytane ratio, dehydrogenase activity, and the ratio of hydrocarbon utilising bacteria to total heterotrophic bacteria. These results suggested that the on-line measuring system of respiration rate would be applied to monitoring biodegradation rate and to determine the potential applicability of bioventing process for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.

  6. The Reaction of the WIG Stock Market Index to Changes in the Interest Rates on Bank Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Przekota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the relationship between the money market and capital market is particularly important from the point of view of taking a decision on the location of investment capital. It may help to forecast future states. This study seeks to determine the relationship of the interest rate on deposits in zloty with the WIG stock index and the volume of turnover on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Analysis of correlation and VAR models are used. Analysis of long-term correlation indicates a negative relationship between the interest rate on deposits in banks and the value of the WIG stock-index. However, this may be spurious. The dependence between these variables may be more complex and should rather be seen as short term. It seems that in general the impact of an increase in interest rates on the value of the WIG index is negative in the short term, just as in the long term. In addition, in the short term these variables can move in the same direction. The results obtained in the research are consistent with results obtained for other national markets. This applies in particular to the relatively weak, negative correlation described above. (original abstract

  7. Correlation of film density and wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provine, J., E-mail: jprovine@stanford.edu; Schindler, Peter; Kim, Yongmin; Walch, Steve P.; Kim, Hyo Jin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kim, Ki-Hyun [Manufacturing Technology Center, Samsung Electronics, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The continued scaling in transistors and memory elements has necessitated the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}), particularly for use a low k dielectric spacer. One of the key material properties needed for SiN{sub x} films is a low wet etch rate (WER) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In this work, we report on the evaluation of multiple precursors for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of SiN{sub x} and evaluate the film’s WER in 100:1 dilutions of HF in H{sub 2}O. The remote plasma capability available in PEALD, enabled controlling the density of the SiN{sub x} film. Namely, prolonged plasma exposure made films denser which corresponded to lower WER in a systematic fashion. We determined that there is a strong correlation between WER and the density of the film that extends across multiple precursors, PEALD reactors, and a variety of process conditions. Limiting all steps in the deposition to a maximum temperature of 350 °C, it was shown to be possible to achieve a WER in PEALD SiN{sub x} of 6.1 Å/min, which is similar to WER of SiN{sub x} from LPCVD reactions at 850 °C.

  8. Protein and lipid deposition rates in growing pigs following a period ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal and Poultry Science

    Experimental evidence indicates that animals which are fatter than their desired level, show a reduction in .... composition and respective protein and lipid growth rates, an individual pig was the experimental unit. The ..... Cubana Ciencia Agric.

  9. Elastic and anelastic behavior of TBCs sprayed at high-deposition rates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valarezo, A.; Dwivedi, G.; Sampath, S.; Mušálek, Radek; Matějíček, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, 1-2 (2015), s. 160-167 ISSN 1059-9630 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 901; GA ČR(CZ) GPP108/12/P552 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : dense vertically cracked coating * elastic modulus * in-situ monitoring * mechanical properties * quenching stress * thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) * triplex system Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11666-014-0154-6

  10. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Antonio Carlos de; Brito, Lavinia C; Tanizaki, Kenny F; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais (LARAMG)-Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Pavilhao Haroldo Lisboa da Cunha Subsolo, Maracana-20550-013, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Franco, Marcia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Laboratorio de Bioquimica de Insetos, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2008-08-07

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of {sup 7}Be and {sup 40}K in E. crotonoides, {sup 210}Pb in T. bullata and {sup 137}Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of {sup 7}Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies.

  11. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Brito, Lavinia C.; Tanizaki, Kenny F.; Franco, Marcia; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S.

    2008-08-01

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of 7Be and 40K in E. crotonoides, 210Pb in T. bullata and 137Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of 7Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of 7Be and 210Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies.

  12. Plants as Bio-monitor Agents: Foliar Deposition of Be-7, Pb-210, K-40 and Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Antonio Carlos de; Brito, Lavinia C.; Tanizaki, Kenny F.; Lima, Rafaela; Paschoa, Anselmo S.; Franco, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    Leaves of Eremanthus crotonoides, Allagoptera arenaria, Byrsonima sericea, Tibouchina sp, Tocoyena bullata and Clusia hilariana were collected under the same climatic in an area of restinga in the Northeast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activity concentrations of selected radionuclides in the leaves samples were determined. The results obtained have shown a high concentration of 7 Be and 40 K in E. crotonoides, 210 Pb in T. bullata and 137 Cs in Tibouchina sp. The high activity concentration of 7 Be in E. crotonoides can be explained by the presence of trichomes in the leaves. E. crotonoides and T. bullata reveal high foliar deposition of 7 Be and 210 Pb, respectively, thus these species can be used as bio-monitors to evaluate the concentration and dispersion of radionuclides in environmental studies

  13. Mosses as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: comparison with total deposition and evaluation of bioconcentration factors. A year-long case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foan, Louise; Domercq, Maria; Bermejo, Raúl; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Simon, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) atmospheric deposition was evaluated at a remote site in Northern Spain using moss biomonitoring with Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., and by measuring the total deposition fluxes of PAHs. The year-long study allowed seasonal variations of PAH content in mosses to be observed, and these followed a similar trend to those of PAH fluxes in total deposition. Generally, atmospheric deposition of PAHs is greater in winter than in summer, due to more PAH emissions from domestic heating, less photoreactivity of the compounds, and intense leaching of the atmosphere by wet deposition. However, fractionation of these molecules between the environmental compartments occurs: PAH fluxes in total deposition and PAH concentrations in mosses are correlated with their solubility (r=0.852, pPAH fluxes can be estimated with moss biomonitoring data if the bioconcentration or 'enriching' factors are known. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Personal monitoring of 218Po and 214Po radionuclide deposition onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough, J.P.; Worley, A.; Moss, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Personal dosemeters have been utilized to monitor the deposition of the radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po onto individuals under normal environmental exposure conditions. Each detector consists of TASTRAK alpha-sensitive plastic incorporated into an ordinary working wristwatch. Subsequent analysis provides energy discrimination of the detected alpha-particle decays, and allows events from the individual radon decay products 218 Po and 214 Po, attached to the detector surface, to be uniquely identified. Assuming similar deposition onto skin and detector surfaces, the activity per unit area of deposited radionuclides can be determined for exposed skin. Forty-one personal dosemeters were issued to volunteers selected through the hospital medical physics departments at Reading, Northampton, Exeter and Plymouth. Each volunteer was also issued with a personal radon dosemeter to determine their individual radon exposure. The volunteers wore the two dosemeters simultaneously and continuously for a period of around one month. Correlations were observed between the radon exposure of the individual and the activity per unit area of 218 Po and 214 Po on the detector surface. From these correlations it can be estimated that at the UK average radon exposure of 20 Bq m -3 , the number of decays/cm 2 /year on continuously exposed skin surface is between 3500 and 28 000 for 218 Po, and between 7000 and 21 000 for 214 Po. These results can be combined with theoretical modelling of the dose distribution in the skin to yield the alpha-particle radiation dose to any identified target cells. (author)

  15. [Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of brain iron deposition: comparison between quantitative susceptibility mapping and transverse relaxation rate (R2*) mapping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ji-Jing; Feng, Yan-Qiu

    2018-03-20

    To evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and transverse relaxation rate (R2*) mapping in the measurement of brain iron deposition. Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) phantoms and mouse models of Parkinson's disease (PD) related to iron deposition in the substantia nigra (SN) underwent 7.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) scans (Bruker, 70/16) with a multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence, and the acquired data were processed to obtain QSM and R2*. Linear regression analysis was performed for susceptibility and R2* in the SPIO phantoms containing 5 SPIO concentrations (30, 15, 7.5, 3.75 and 1.875 µg/mL) to evaluate the accuracy of QSM and R2* in quantitative iron analysis. The sensitivities of QSM and R2* mapping in quantitative detection of brain iron deposition were assessed using mouse models of PD induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahy-dropyridine (MPTP) in comparison with the control mice. In SPIO phantoms, QSM provided a higher accuracy than R2* mapping and their goodness-of-fit coefficients (R 2 ) were 0.98 and 0.89, respectively. In the mouse models of PD and control mice, the susceptibility of the SN was significantly higher in the PD models (5.19∓1.58 vs 2.98∓0.88, n=5; Pbrain iron deposition than R2*, and the susceptibility derived by QSM can be a potentially useful biomarker for studying PD.

  16. Landslides Monitoring on Salt Deposits Using Geophysical Methods, Case study - Slanic Prahova, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu, Avram; Rusu, Emil; Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Ulmeanu, Antonio; Scutelnicu, Ioan; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2017-12-01

    Electrometry is most frequently applied geophysical method to examine dynamical phenomena related to the massive salt presence due to resistivity contrasts between salt, salt breccia and geological covering formations. On the vertical resistivity sections obtained with VES devices these three compartments are clearly differentiates by high resistivity for the massive salt, very low for salt breccia and variable for geological covering formations. When the land surface is inclined, shallow formations are moving gravitationally on the salt back, producing a landslide. Landslide monitoring involves repeated periodically measurements of geoelectrical profiles into a grid covering the slippery surface, in the same conditions (climate, electrodes position, instrument and measurement parameters). The purpose of monitoring landslides in Slanic Prahova area, was to detect the changes in resistivity distribution profiles to superior part of subsoil measured in 2014 and 2015. Measurement grid include several representative cross sections in susceptibility to landslides point of view. The results are graphically represented by changing the distribution of topography and resistivity differences between the two sets of geophysical measurements.

  17. Dry deposition study using filter packs at a rural and an urban monitoring sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Mariam Sumari; Rusdin Laiman; Kantasamy, Nesamalar; Sinyaw, S.U.

    2008-01-01

    Air samples were collected from 2004 to 2005 using four-staged filter packs at an urban site Petaling Jaya (PJ) and a rural-agricultural site Tanah Rata (TR). The samples were analysed for reactive gases consisting of NH 3 , HNO 3 , HCL and SO 2 while the aerosol components were analysed for SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , Cl - , Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and NH 4 + . For both PJ and TR, analysis indicates the dry deposition was dominated by the gaseous components. They range from about 78 % to 80 % of total compositions for urban PJ and 59 % to 63 % for rural TR. Among the four reactive gases, NH 3 is the most dominating component at both sites. Elevated NH 3 concentration in TR was mainly attributed to the use of nitrogenous fertilizer. For PJ high NH 3 could be due to local air pollution created by industries as well as agricultural activities. The acidic species associated with SO x and NO x are typically more abundant at PJ than TR. Their presence, and for most other chemical species, show similar increasing trend, and this reflect the growing use of fossil fuels associated with urbanization and industrialization, especially for PJ. (author)

  18. Direct measurement of burn up monitor by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) followed by Isotopic Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajimol, R.; Manoravi, P.; NaIini, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Joseph, M.

    2012-01-01

    Burn-up measurement is an important aspect in the assessment of fuel performance especially for experimental nuclear fuels. Conventional mass spectrometric technique offer the best accuracy for determination of burn-up but they suffer from the labour intensive and time consuming chemical separation procedures followed by mass spectrometric analysis. Our laboratory has reported a potential laser mass spectrometric technique with advantages of (i) direct and fast measurement of ion intensities of selected rare earth element and residual heavy element atoms to deduce burn up and (ii) adaptability to remote handling of radioactive samples. Direct quantification of burn up monitor element in fuel in the form of pellet as well as liquid was probed by pulsed laser deposition followed by Isotopic Dilution Mass Spectrometric technique (IDMS). The procedure involving laser ablation of heavy element (namely U and Pu) and fission product (Nd, La etc) from a simulated spent fuel matrix followed by isotopic dilution mass spectrometry using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has been presently attempted to arrive at the rare earth element to heavy element ratio to deduce burn up using the methodology described in our earlier work. The details of IDMS technique has been reviewed by Heumann et al. Accurately weighed amounts of major rare earth fission products such as Nd, La, Ce and Sm in solution form were mixed with known quantity of uranium solution (all the weights are corresponding to their fission yields and the residual heavy element atoms after a given burn up) and mixed together to attain uniformity. The solution is then dried and resulting powder was pelletized and sintered. Subsequently, the pellet was ablated with pulsed laser (8 ns, 532 nm, Nd-YAG) and the plume was deposited on a glass plate. This deposit was dissolved in minimum amount of nitric acid. A known volume of the solution was mixed with spike (for e.g., 150 Nd/ 142 Nd, 233 U/ 238 U in this study

  19. Plasma deposition of thin film silicon at low substrate temperature and at high growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831719

    2009-01-01

    To expand the range of applications for thin film solar cells incorporating hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H), the growth rate has to be increased 0.5 or less to several nm/s and the substrate temperature should be lowered to around 100 C. In

  20. 77 FR 5416 - Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... manage derivatives. First, an FCU would need to demonstrate relevant IRR exposure. One of the motivations... in ANPR I, the Board is considering whether to limit the types of derivatives instruments that some... considers it appropriate to limit the types of derivatives that an FCU may transact to interest rate...

  1. Spray deposition inside tree canopies from a newly developed variable-rate air assisted sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional spray applications in orchards and ornamental nurseries are not target-oriented, resulting in significant waste of pesticides and contamination of the environment. To address this problem, a variable-rate air-assisted sprayer implementing laser scanning technology was developed to apply...

  2. 76 FR 37030 - Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset Interest Rate Risk; Investment and Deposit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ..., with certain exceptions, are financial derivatives such as futures, options, interest rate swaps and... to evaluate any hedge transaction using derivatives must include the ability to capture all options... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 703 Financial Derivatives Transactions To Offset...

  3. Analysis of time series exposure rates obtained at a monitoring station around nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, I.; Ogawa, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Honda, Y.; Nakashima, Y.; Yoshimoto, T.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1991-01-01

    From the investigation on the variation of AAD rates monitored in the natural environment around nuclear power station, it may be concluded; (1) Differences between monthly averaged air absorbed dose rates (AAD rates) given by all data obtained and those obtained in fine weather become larger in winter (from Dec. to Feb.) (2) Cummulative frequency distributions of AAD rates are very different among four seasons. Remarkably high AAD rates are observed by heavy rains in summer and snow falls or rains in winter. (3) Though the hypothesis that the frequency distribution of AAD rates fit to the lognormal distribution can not be accepted by chi-square test, higher part of the frequency distribution of AAD rates agree approximately with the lognormal one. (4) Identification of AAD rates due to plume exposure may be possible by statistical analysis assuming lognormal distribution of AAD rates as well as the discrimination method based on the reference standard using mean values and standard deviations of the data obtained in fine weather. (author)

  4. Hydrological modelling of a slope covered with shallow pyroclastic deposits from field monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Greco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional hydrological model of a slope covered with pyroclastic materials is proposed. The soil cover is constituted by layers of loose volcanic ashes and pumices, with a total thickness between 1.8 m and 2.5 m, lying upon a fractured limestone bedrock. The mean inclination of the slope is around 40°, slightly larger than the friction angle of the ashes. Thus, the equilibrium of the slope, significantly affected by the cohesive contribution exerted by soil suction in unsaturated conditions, may be altered by rainfall infiltration. The model assumes a single homogeneous soil layer occupying the entire depth of the cover, and takes into account seasonally variable canopy interception of precipitation and root water uptake by vegetation, mainly constituted by deciduous chestnut woods with a dense underbrush growing during late spring and summer. The bottom boundary condition links water potential at the soil–bedrock interface with the fluctuations of the water table of the aquifer located in the fractured limestone, which is conceptually modelled as a linear reservoir. Most of the model parameters have been assigned according to literature indications or from experimental data. Soil suction and water content data measured between 1 January 2011 and 20 July 2011 at a monitoring station installed along the slope allowed the remaining parameters to be identified. The calibrated model, which reproduced very closely the data of the calibration set, has been applied to the simulation of the hydrological response of the slope to the hourly precipitation record of 1999, when a large flow-like landslide was triggered close to the monitored location. The simulation results show that the lowest soil suction ever attained occurred just at the time the landslide was triggered, indicating that the model is capable of predicting slope failure conditions.

  5. Online dose rate monitoring: Better information by using the IRMA concept (Integral Radiological Multidetector Arrays)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1989-01-01

    A new GM detector system has been developed for online environmental monitoring. The approach is unorthodox, but simple: A) Take a set of radiological probes and feed all their information to an 'intelligent' front-end. B) Elaborate some algorithms, so that the system will give out just one gamma dose rate (running over more than nine decades). C) If necessary, associate some additional sensors, and the system will exhibit better discriminating qualities for the detection of artificial nuclides in the environment. (orig.)

  6. Design of readout electronics for BES III online dose rate monitoring and protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shiming; Gong Guanghua; Shao Beibei; Li Jin

    2006-01-01

    To protect the beam pipe of BES III, Si PIN diodes will be used as detectors to monitor the dose rate level near the IP area. Analog to digital conversion is selected to read out the current signals of Si PIN diodes. Several low current amplifying and measuring methods are compared, mainly describing the theory of operation, software and hardware design and performance of the A/D conversion circuit. (authors)

  7. Effects of deposition rates on laser damage threshold of TiO2/SiO2 high reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jianke; Xu Cheng; Ma Jianyong; Fang Ming; Fan Zhengxiu; Jin Yunxia; Zhao Yuanan; He Hongbo; Shao Jianda

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 single layers and TiO 2 /SiO 2 high reflectors (HR) are prepared by electron beam evaporation at different TiO 2 deposition rates. It is found that the changes of properties of TiO 2 films with the increase of rate, such as the increase of refractive index and extinction coefficient and the decrease of physical thickness, lead to the spectrum shift and reflectivity bandwidth broadening of HR together with the increase of absorption and decrease of laser-induced damage threshold. The damages are found of different morphologies: a shallow pit to a seriously delaminated and deep crater, and the different amorphous-to-anatase-to-rutile phase transition processes detected by Raman study. The frequency shift of Raman vibration mode correlates with the strain in film. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis reveals that impurities and non-stoichiometric defects are two absorption initiations resulting to the laser-induced transformation.

  8. Wireless AE Event and Environmental Monitoring for Wind Turbine Blades at Low Sampling Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Omar M.; Tian, Gui Y.; Cumanan, K.; Neasham, J.

    Integration of acoustic wireless technology in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications introduces new challenges due to requirements of high sampling rates, additional communication bandwidth, memory space, and power resources. In order to circumvent these challenges, this chapter proposes a novel solution through building a wireless SHM technique in conjunction with acoustic emission (AE) with field deployment on the structure of a wind turbine. This solution requires a low sampling rate which is lower than the Nyquist rate. In addition, features extracted from aliased AE signals instead of reconstructing the original signals on-board the wireless nodes are exploited to monitor AE events, such as wind, rain, strong hail, and bird strike in different environmental conditions in conjunction with artificial AE sources. Time feature extraction algorithm, in addition to the principal component analysis (PCA) method, is used to extract and classify the relevant information, which in turn is used to classify or recognise a testing condition that is represented by the response signals. This proposed novel technique yields a significant data reduction during the monitoring process of wind turbine blades.

  9. Effect of deposition temperature and thermal annealing on the dry etch rate of a-C: H films for the dry etch hard process of semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Moo; Won, Jaihyung; Yim, Soyoung; Park, Se Jun; Choi, Jongsik; Kim, Jeongtae; Lee, Hyeondeok; Byun, Dongjin

    2012-01-01

    The effect of deposition and thermal annealing temperatures on the dry etch rate of a-C:H films was investigated to increase our fundamental understanding of the relationship between thermal annealing and dry etch rate and to obtain a low dry etch rate hard mask. The hydrocarbon contents and hydrogen concentration were decreased with increasing deposition and annealing temperatures. The I(D)/I(G) intensity ratio and extinction coefficient of the a-C:H films were increased with increasing deposition and annealing temperatures because of the increase of sp 2 bonds in the a-C:H films. There was no relationship between the density of the unpaired electrons and the deposition temperature, or between the density of the unpaired electrons and the annealing temperature. However, the thermally annealed a-C:H films had fewer unpaired electrons compared with the as-deposited ones. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the absence of any crystallographic change after thermal annealing. The density of the as-deposited films was increased with increasing deposition temperature. The density of the 600 °C annealed a-C:H films deposited under 450 °C was decreased but at 550 °C was increased, and the density of all 800 °C annealed films was increased. The dry etch rate of the as-deposited a-C:H films was negatively correlated with the deposition temperature. The dry etch rate of the 600 °C annealed a-C:H films deposited at 350 °C and 450 °C was faster than that of the as-deposited film and that of the 800 °C annealed a-C:H films deposited at 350 °C and 450 °C was 17% faster than that of the as-deposited film. However, the dry etch rate of the 550 °C deposited a-C:H film was decreased after annealing at 600 °C and 800 °C. The dry etch rate of the as-deposited films was decreased with increasing density but that of the annealed a-C:H films was not. These results indicated that the dry etch rate of a-C:H films for dry etch hard masks can be further decreased by

  10. Unconstrained monitoring of long-term heart and breath rates during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wenxi; Zhu, Xin; Wei, Daming; Nemoto, Tetsu; Sugitani, Kayo; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro

    2008-01-01

    An unconstrained method for the long-term monitoring of heart and breath rates during sleep is proposed. The system includes a sensor unit and a web-based network module. The sensor unit is set beneath a pillow to pick up the pressure variations from the head induced by inhalation/exhalation movements and heart pulsation during sleep. The measured pressure signal was digitized and transferred to a remote database server via the network module. A wavelet-based algorithm was employed to detect the heart and breath rates, as well as body movement, during sleep. The overall system was utilized for a total six-month trial operation delivered to a female subject. The profiles of the heart and breath rates on a beat-by-beat and daily basis were obtained. Movements during sleep were also estimated. The results show that the daily average percentage of undetectable periods (UPs) during 881.6 sleep hours over a 180 day period was 17.2%. A total of 89.2% of sleep hours had a UP of not more than 25%. The profile of the heart rate revealed a periodic property that corresponded to the female monthly menstrual cycle. Our system shows promise as a long-term unconstrained monitor for heart and breath rates, and for other physiological parameters related to the quality of sleep and the regularity of the menstrual cycle. (note)

  11. Visible-light active thin-film WO3 photocatalyst with controlled high-rate deposition by low-damage reactive-gas-flow sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuto Oka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A process based on reactive gas flow sputtering (GFS for depositing visible-light active photocatalytic WO3 films at high deposition rates and with high film quality was successfully demonstrated. The deposition rate for this process was over 10 times higher than that achieved by the conventional sputtering process and the process was highly stable. Furthermore, Pt nanoparticle-loaded WO3 films deposited by the GFS process exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than those deposited by conventional sputtering, where the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the extent of decomposition of CH3CHO under visible light irradiation. The decomposition time for 60 ppm of CH3CHO was 7.5 times more rapid on the films deposited by the GFS process than on the films deposited by the conventional process. During GFS deposition, there are no high-energy particles bombarding the growing film surface, whereas the bombardment of the surface with high-energy particles is a key feature of conventional sputtering. Hence, the WO3 films deposited by GFS should be of higher quality, with fewer structural defects, which would lead to a decrease in the number of centers for electron-hole recombination and to the efficient use of photogenerated holes for the decomposition of CH3CHO.

  12. The application of imperialist competitive algorithm for optimization of deposition rate in submerged arc welding process using TiO{sub 2} nano particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza; Eslampanah, Amirhossein; Ghaderi, Kianoosh [Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghakhani, Masood [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We used a novel optimization algorithm based on the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) to optimize the deposition rate in the submerged arc welding (SAW) process. This algorithm offers some advantages such as simplicity, accuracy and time saving. Experiments were conducted based on a five factor, five level rotatable central composite design (RCCD) to collect welding data for deposition rate as a function of welding current, arc voltage, contact tip to plate distance, welding speed and thickness of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles coated on the plates of mild steel. Furthermore, regression equation for deposition rate was obtained using least squares method. The regression equation as the cost function was optimized using ICA. Ultimately, the levels of input variables to achieve maximum deposition rate were obtained using ICA. Computational results indicate that the proposed algorithm is quite effective and powerful in optimizing the cost function.

  13. The application of imperialist competitive algorithm for optimization of deposition rate in submerged arc welding process using TiO2 nano particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza; Eslampanah, Amirhossein; Ghaderi, Kianoosh; Aghakhani, Masood

    2015-01-01

    We used a novel optimization algorithm based on the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) to optimize the deposition rate in the submerged arc welding (SAW) process. This algorithm offers some advantages such as simplicity, accuracy and time saving. Experiments were conducted based on a five factor, five level rotatable central composite design (RCCD) to collect welding data for deposition rate as a function of welding current, arc voltage, contact tip to plate distance, welding speed and thickness of TiO 2 nanoparticles coated on the plates of mild steel. Furthermore, regression equation for deposition rate was obtained using least squares method. The regression equation as the cost function was optimized using ICA. Ultimately, the levels of input variables to achieve maximum deposition rate were obtained using ICA. Computational results indicate that the proposed algorithm is quite effective and powerful in optimizing the cost function.

  14. Effectiveness of Devices to Monitor Biofouling and Metals Deposition on Plumbing Materials Exposed to a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Garbin, Scott; Wylie, Jason; Krishna, K C Bal

    2017-01-01

    A Modified Robbins Device (MRD) was installed in a full-scale water distribution system to investigate biofouling and metal depositions on concrete, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and stainless steel surfaces. Bulk water monitoring and a KIWA monitor (with glass media) were used to offline monitor biofilm development on pipe wall surfaces. Results indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and metal concentrations on coupons increased with time. However, bacterial diversities decreased. There was a positive correlation between increase of ATP and metal deposition on pipe surfaces of stainless steel and HDPE and no correlation was observed on concrete and glass surfaces. The shared bacterial diversity between bulk water and MRD was less than 20% and the diversity shared between the MRD and KIWA monitor was only 10%. The bacterial diversity on biofilm of plumbing material of MRD however, did not show a significant difference suggesting a lack of influence from plumbing material during early stage of biofilm development.

  15. Effectiveness of Devices to Monitor Biofouling and Metals Deposition on Plumbing Materials Exposed to a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha P Ginige

    Full Text Available A Modified Robbins Device (MRD was installed in a full-scale water distribution system to investigate biofouling and metal depositions on concrete, high-density polyethylene (HDPE and stainless steel surfaces. Bulk water monitoring and a KIWA monitor (with glass media were used to offline monitor biofilm development on pipe wall surfaces. Results indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP and metal concentrations on coupons increased with time. However, bacterial diversities decreased. There was a positive correlation between increase of ATP and metal deposition on pipe surfaces of stainless steel and HDPE and no correlation was observed on concrete and glass surfaces. The shared bacterial diversity between bulk water and MRD was less than 20% and the diversity shared between the MRD and KIWA monitor was only 10%. The bacterial diversity on biofilm of plumbing material of MRD however, did not show a significant difference suggesting a lack of influence from plumbing material during early stage of biofilm development.

  16. Field Investigation of the Surface-deposited Radon Progeny as a Possible Predictor of the Airborne Radon Progeny Dose Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kainan; Steck, Daniel J.; Field, R. William

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative relationships between radon gas concentration, the surface-deposited activities of various radon progeny, the airborne radon progeny dose rate, and various residential environmental factors were investigated through actual field measurements in 38 selected Iowa houses occupied by either smokers or nonsmokers. Airborne dose rate was calculated from unattached and attached potential alpha energy concentrations (PAECs) using two dosimetric models with different activity-size weighting factors. These models are labeled Pdose and Jdose, respectively. Surface-deposited 218Po and 214Po were found significantly correlated to radon, unattached PAEC, and both airborne dose rates (p fireplace, or usage of a ceiling fan significantly, or marginal significantly, reduced the Pdose to 0.65 (90% CI 0.42–0.996), 0.54 (90% CI 0.28–1.02) and 0.66 (90% CI 0.45–0.96), respectively. For Jdose, only the usage of a ceiling fan significantly reduced the dose rate to 0.57 (90% CI 0.39–0.85). In smoking environments, deposited 218Po was a significant negative predictor for Pdose (RR 0.68, 90% CI 0.55–0.84) after adjusting for long-term 222Rn and environmental factors. A significant decrease of 0.72 (90% CI 0.64–0.83) in the mean Pdose was noted, after adjusting for the radon and radon progeny effects and other environmental factors, for every 10 increasing cigarettes smoked in the room. A significant increase of 1.71 in the mean Pdose was found for large room size relative to small room size (90% CI 1.08–2.79) after adjusting for the radon and radon progeny effects as well as other environmental factors. Fireplace usage was found to significantly increase the mean Pdose to 1.71 (90% CI 1.20–2.45) after adjusting for other factors. PMID:19590273

  17. Methods for monitoring corals and crustose coralline algae to quantify in-situ calcification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jennifer M.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Hickey, T. Don

    2013-01-01

    The potential effect of global climate change on calcifying marine organisms, such as scleractinian (reef-building) corals, is becoming increasingly evident. Understanding the process of coral calcification and establishing baseline calcification rates are necessary to detect future changes in growth resulting from climate change or other stressors. Here we describe the methods used to establish a network of calcification-monitoring stations along the outer Florida Keys Reef Tract in 2009. In addition to detailing the initial setup and periodic monitoring of calcification stations, we discuss the utility and success of our design and offer suggestions for future deployments. Stations were designed such that whole coral colonies were securely attached to fixed apparati (n = 10 at each site) on the seafloor but also could be easily removed and reattached as needed for periodic weighing. Corals were weighed every 6 months, using the buoyant weight technique, to determine calcification rates in situ. Sites were visited in May and November to obtain winter and summer rates, respectively, and identify seasonal patterns in calcification. Calcification rates of the crustose coralline algal community also were measured by affixing commercially available plastic tiles, deployed vertically, at each station. Colonization by invertebrates and fleshy algae on the tiles was low, indicating relative specificity for the crustose coralline algal community. We also describe a new, nonlethal technique for sampling the corals, used following the completion of the monitoring period, in which two slabs were obtained from the center of each colony. Sampled corals were reattached to the seafloor, and most corals had completely recovered within 6 months. The station design and sampling methods described herein provide an effective approach to assessing coral and crustose coralline algal calcification rates across time and space, offering the ability to quantify the potential effects of

  18. Heart rate monitoring in soccer: interest and limits during competitive match play and training, practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Dellal; da Silva, Cristiano Diniz; Hill-Haas, Stephen; Wong, Del P; Natali, Antonio J; De Lima, Jorge R P; Bara Filho, Mauricio G B; Marins, Joao J C B; Garcia, Emerson Silami; Karim, Chamari

    2012-10-01

    The identification of physiological loads imposed by soccer training or match play reveals essential information, which may help improve training and recovery strategies. Until today, the use of heart rate (HR) monitoring is not standardized in soccer. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze, determine and compare the exercise intensity (EI) monitored by HR in professional, youth, and recreational soccer players during matches and training sessions using a meta-analysis. Heart rate is one of the most common physiological variables used to determine exercise internal training load. The mean EI recorded during competitive matches was described as 70-80% of VO2max or 80-90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), independent of the playing level. With respect to HR training zones, approximately 65% of the total match duration is spent at intensity of 70-90% HRmax and rarely below 65% HRmax. However, although HRmax is mostly employed in the literature, monitoring EI should be expressed in relation to reserve heart rate, as it was described as a more reliable indicator of HR, allowing interindividual comparisons. The HR response according to the playing position indicates that midfielders are characterized by the highest EI, followed by forwards and fullbacks. Moreover, in the second half of the match, the EI is lower than that observed during the first half; this reduction could be correlated with the level of the player's physical conditioning. Consequently, coaches may favor the use of interval training or small-sided training games because these are shown to improve both aerobic capacity and the ability to repeat high-intensity actions. Small-sided games allow reaching similar HR responses to those found during interval training and match play but with greater heterogeneity values. Future investigations should include a larger sample of players with special reference to playing position and the expression of EI in percentage of the reserve heart rate, analyzing the

  19. Spatiotemporal Changes in Atmospheric Deposition Rates Across The Czech Republic Estimated in The Selected Biomonitoring Campaigns. Examples of Results Available For Landscape Ecology and Land Use Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchara Ivan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several large-scale and fine-scale biomonitoring surveys were carried out in the Czech Republic to estimate current and long-term accumulated atmospheric deposition rates using moss, spruce bark and forest floor humus as bioindicators since the end of 1980s. The results of the bioindicator analyses significantly correlated with available figures of deposition rates detected at the EMEP or Czech national measurement stations.

  20. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to monitor ion cyclotron range of frequency wall cleaning Li/D co-deposition in EAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P.; Wu, D.; Sun, L.Y.; Zhao, D.Y.; Hai, R.; Li, C. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Ding, H., E-mail: hding@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Hu, Z.H.; Wang, L.; Hu, J.S.; Chen, J.L.; Luo, G.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • LIBS was applied to EAST for monitoring the cleaning performance of the first wall using He-ICRF cleaning. • The cleaning performance is effective under helium ambient gas and some measurements have been obtained. • The results also indicate that the influence of magnetic field on LIBS signal is much stronger in helium ambient gas. • The effect of delay time and laser fluence on the LIBS signal has been investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) under magnetic field condition has been studied in laboratory and EAST tokamak. The experimental results reveal that in helium ambient gas, the magnetic field significantly enhances the LIBS signal intensity (∼3 times). The effect of time delay and laser fluence on the intensity of LIBS has been investigated for optimizing the signal to background ratio (S/B). The developed LIBS approach has been applied to monitor the cleaning performance of the first wall in the fusion device of EAST using the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF). The experimental results demonstrate that the cleaning performance for Li/D co-deposition layer is effective under helium ambient gas. The removing rate of Li on the surface of W tile is faster than that on Mo tile in He-ICRF cleaning and the D/(D + H) ratio on Mo tile is higher by ∼1.2 times than that on W tile. This work would indicate the feasibility of using LIBS to monitor the wall cleaning processes in EAST tokamak.

  1. Graphene hydrogels deposited in nickel foams for high-rate electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Sheng, Kaixuan; Luo, Peihui; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2012-08-28

    Graphene hydrogel/nickel foam composite electrodes for high-rate electrochemical capacitors are produced by reduction of an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide in a nickel foam (upper half of figure). The micropores of the hydrogel are exposed to the electrolyte so that ions can enter and form electrochemical double-layers. The nickel framework shortens the distances of charge transfer. Therefore, the electrochemical capacitor exhibits highrate performance (see plots). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Monitoring fetal heart rate during pregnancy: contributions from advanced signal processing and wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Maria G; Fanelli, Andrea; Magenes, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring.

  3. Influence of deposition parameters on the refractive index and growth rate of diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.F.; Zheng, X.; Guo, L.J.; Liu, Z.T.; Xiu, N.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to use diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as protective and antireflection coatings for IR optical materials exposed to hostile environments, an investigation has been systematically conducted on the influence of the deposition parameters on the refractive index and growth rate of DLC films, which are two of the most important parameters in evaluating optical characteristics of antireflection coatings. The experimental results show that both the refractive index and growth rate of DLC films depend strongly on the negative d.c. bias voltage. The refractive index increases with increasing bias voltage and decreases with increasing partial pressure of the hydrocarbon gas and total flow rate of the mixture. The growth rate increases greatly when the bias voltage is larger than a threshold value. The various parameters which influence the structure and properties of DLC films are interrelated. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy results show that the strength of the C-H stretching absorption band in the range 3300-2850 cm -1 is gradually weakened with increasing negative bias voltage and argon concentration. High energy bombardment of the growing film plays an important role in the structure and hence the properties of DLC films. (orig.)

  4. Validity of a heart rate monitor during work in the laboratory and on the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A. D. Jr; Lee, S. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Bishop, P.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate heart rate measurement during work is required for many industrial hygiene and ergonomics situations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of heart rate measurements obtained by a simple, lightweight, commercially available wrist-worn heart rate monitor (HRM) during work (cycle exercise) sessions conducted in the laboratory and also during the particularly challenging work environment of space flight. Three different comparisons were made. The first compared HRM data to simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings of varying heart rates that were generated by an ECG simulator. The second compared HRM data to ECG recordings collected during work sessions of 14 subjects in the laboratory. Finally, ECG downlink and HRM data were compared in four astronauts who performed cycle exercise during space flight. The data were analyzed using regression techniques. The results were that the HRM recorded virtually identical heart rates compared with ECG recordings for the data set generated by an ECG simulator. The regression equation for the relationship between ECG versus HRM heart rate data during work in the laboratory was: ECG HR = 0.99 x (HRM) + 0.82 (r2 = 0.99). Finally, the agreement between ECG downlink data and HRM data during space flight was also very high, with the regression equation being: Downlink ECG HR = 1.05 x (HRM) -5.71 (r2 = 0.99). The results of this study indicate that the HRM provides accurate data and may be used to reliably obtain valid data regarding heart rate responses during work.

  5. Effect of N{sub 2} flow rate on the properties of N doped TiO{sub 2} films deposited by DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shou [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); Yang, Yong, E-mail: 88087113@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); Li, Gang; Jiang, Jiwen; Jin, Kewu; Yao, TingTing; Zhang, Kuanxiang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); Cao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116000 (China); Wang, Yun; Xu, Genbao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Float Glass, Bengbu Design & Research Institute for Glass Industry, Bengbu 233000 (China)

    2016-09-05

    N doped TiO{sub 2} films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature using DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering with a TiO{sub 2} ceramic target. The influences of N{sub 2} flow rate on the deposition rate, crystal structure, chemical composition and band gap of the deposited films were investigated by Optical profiler, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The film growth rate gradually decreased with increasing N{sub 2} flow rate. As N{sub 2} flow rate increased, the crystallization of the films deteriorated, and the films tended to form amorphous structure. XPS analysis revealed that N dopant atoms were added at the substitutional sites into TiO{sub 2} lattice structure. FE-SEM results showed that the grain size of the film decreased and the crystallinity degraded as N{sub 2} flow rate increases. In addition, N doping caused an obvious red shift in the optical absorption edge. - Highlights: • N doped TiO{sub 2} films were deposited by DC coupled RF magnetron reactive sputtering. • As N{sub 2} flow rate increases, the crystallization of the deposited films degrades. • The higher N{sub 2} flow rate is beneficial to form more substituted N in the film. • N doping causes an obvious red shift in the absorption wavelength.

  6. Effect of N_2 flow rate on the properties of N doped TiO_2 films deposited by DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Shou; Yang, Yong; Li, Gang; Jiang, Jiwen; Jin, Kewu; Yao, TingTing; Zhang, Kuanxiang; Cao, Xin; Wang, Yun; Xu, Genbao

    2016-01-01

    N doped TiO_2 films were deposited on glass substrates at room temperature using DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering with a TiO_2 ceramic target. The influences of N_2 flow rate on the deposition rate, crystal structure, chemical composition and band gap of the deposited films were investigated by Optical profiler, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The film growth rate gradually decreased with increasing N_2 flow rate. As N_2 flow rate increased, the crystallization of the films deteriorated, and the films tended to form amorphous structure. XPS analysis revealed that N dopant atoms were added at the substitutional sites into TiO_2 lattice structure. FE-SEM results showed that the grain size of the film decreased and the crystallinity degraded as N_2 flow rate increases. In addition, N doping caused an obvious red shift in the optical absorption edge. - Highlights: • N doped TiO_2 films were deposited by DC coupled RF magnetron reactive sputtering. • As N_2 flow rate increases, the crystallization of the deposited films degrades. • The higher N_2 flow rate is beneficial to form more substituted N in the film. • N doping causes an obvious red shift in the absorption wavelength.

  7. Energy-Neutral Data Collection Rate Control for IoT Animal Behavior Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Wilhelm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy-neutral operation (ENO is a major concern for Internet of things (IoT sensor systems. Animals can be tagged with IoT sensors to monitor their movement and behavior. These sensors wirelessly upload collected data and can receive parameters to change their operation. Typically, the behavior monitors are powered by a battery where the system relies upon harvesting solar radiation for sustainable operation. Solar panels typically are used as the harvesting mechanism and can have a level of uncertainty regarding consistent energy delivery due to factors such as adverse weather, foliage, time of day, and individual animal behavior. The variability of available energy inevitably creates a trade-off in the rate at which data can be collected with respect to incoming and stored energy. The objective of this research was to investigate and simulate methods and parameters that can control the data collection rate of an IoT behavior monitor to achieve sustained operation with unknown and random energy harvesting. Analysis and development of a control system were performed by creating a software model of energy consumption and then simulating using different initial conditions and random energy harvesting rates for evaluation. The contribution of this effort was the exploration into the usage of a discrete-time gain scheduled Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID that was tuned to a specific device configuration, using battery state of charge as an input, and found to maintain a battery level set-point, reject small solar harvesting energy disturbances, and maintain a consistent data collection rate throughout the day.

  8. Regional monitoring of deposition and effects of air pollution; Regional oevervakning av nedfall och effekter av luftfoeroreningar. Sammanfattande slutrapport fraan ett samarbetsprojekt mellan IVL, laenen och Naturvaardsverket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselsson, Cecilia; Ferm, Martin; Hallgren Larsson, Eva; Knulst, Johan; Loevblad, Gun; Malm, Gunnar; Westling, Olle

    2000-05-01

    Regional programmes in Sweden focused on deposition and effects of air pollutants have been evaluated by IVL, Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Various air quality protection associations and regional environmental authorities initiated the monitoring programmes during the period 1985 to 1990. The result of the evaluation is a revised and coordinated programme with improved methods. The new regional programme combines collection of field data with national model calculations of deposition of air pollutants. The new programme involves collection of deposition on open field (bulk) and in forest stands (throughfall), and soil solution, according to national and international standards. Improved methods for monitoring of base cation and nitrogen deposition have been developed. Ambient air concentrations are measured at some locations. The purpose is to describe environmental conditions, regional differences, and temporal changes. Data on forest stands, such as needle loss, growth, and soil chemistry, are available since most locations are permanent forest plots, established for scientific forest observations. Regional dispersion and deposition of air pollutants will be calculated with a model (SMHI-MATCH), developed for simulating the dispersion and deposition of Swedish emissions in relation to the long-range transport on a relatively fine scale (grid square 11 km). The programme also includes developed methods for data handling, interpretation, evaluation, quality assurance and demonstration of results in written reports and via Internet.

  9. Dosimetric accuracy at low monitor unit setting in electron beams at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, M.; Ravichandran, R.; Supe, Sanjay S.; Sharma, Anil K.

    1999-01-01

    As electron beam with low monitor unit (LMU) settings are used in some dosimetric studies, better understanding of accuracy in dose delivery at LMU setting is necessary. The dose measurements were carried out with 0.6 cm 3 farmer type ion chamber at d max in a polystyrene phantom. Measurements at different MUs show that the dose linearity ratio (DLR) increases as the MU setting decreases below 20 MU and DLRs are found to increase when the incident electron beams have higher energies. The increase in DLR is minimum for low dose rate setting for all five electron beam energies (6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV). As the variation in dose delivery is machine-specific, a detailed study should be conducted before the low MU setting is implemented. Since errors in dose delivery are high at higher dose rates, low dose rate may be better at low MU unit setting. (author)

  10. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-11-12

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests.

  11. Cardiovascular oscillations at the bedside: early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis using heart rate characteristics monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorman, J Randall; Lake, Douglas E; Delos, John B; Flower, Abigail A; Cao, Hanqing; Kovatchev, Boris P; Richman, Joshua S

    2011-01-01

    We have applied principles of statistical signal processing and nonlinear dynamics to analyze heart rate time series from premature newborn infants in order to assist in the early diagnosis of sepsis, a common and potentially deadly bacterial infection of the bloodstream. We began with the observation of reduced variability and transient decelerations in heart rate interval time series for hours up to days prior to clinical signs of illness. We find that measurements of standard deviation, sample asymmetry and sample entropy are highly related to imminent clinical illness. We developed multivariable statistical predictive models, and an interface to display the real-time results to clinicians. Using this approach, we have observed numerous cases in which incipient neonatal sepsis was diagnosed and treated without any clinical illness at all. This review focuses on the mathematical and statistical time series approaches used to detect these abnormal heart rate characteristics and present predictive monitoring information to the clinician

  12. Determination of the reaction rate coefficient of sulphide mine tailings deposited under water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoh, Akué Sylvette; Mbonimpa, Mamert; Bussière, Bruno

    2013-10-15

    The efficiency of a water cover to limit dissolved oxygen (DO) availability to underlying acid-generating mine tailings can be assessed by calculating the DO flux at the tailings-water interface. Fick's equations, which are generally used to calculate this flux, require knowing the effective DO diffusion coefficient (Dw) and the reaction (consumption) rate coefficient (Kr) of the tailings, or the DO concentration profile. Whereas Dw can be accurately estimated, few studies have measured the parameter Kr for submerged sulphide tailings. The objective of this study was to determine Kr for underwater sulphide tailings in a laboratory experiment. Samples of sulphide mine tailings (an approximately 6 cm layer) were placed in a cell under a water cover (approximately 2 cm) maintained at constant DO concentration. Two tailings were studied: TA1 with high sulphide content (83% pyrite) and TA2 with low sulphide content (2.8% pyrite). DO concentration was measured with a microelectrode at various depths above and below the tailings-water interface at 1 mm intervals. Results indicate that steady-state condition was rapidly attained. As expected, a diffusive boundary layer (DBL) was observed in all cases. An iterative back-calculation process using the numerical code POLLUTEv6 and taking the DBL into account provided the Kr values used to match calculated and experimental concentration profiles. Kr obtained for tailings TA1 and TA2 was about 80 d(-1) and 6.5 d(-1), respectively. For comparison purposes, Kr obtained from cell tests on tailings TA1 was lower than Kr calculated from the sulphate production rate obtained from shake-flask tests. Steady-state DO flux at the water-tailings interface was then calculated with POLLUTEv6 using tailings characteristics Dw and Kr. For the tested conditions, DO flux ranged from 608 to 758 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA1 and from 177 to 221 mg O2/m(2)/d for tailings TA2. The impact of placing a protective layer of inert material over

  13. Environmental stress in German forests; assessment of critical deposition levels and their exceedances and meteorological stress for crown condition monitoring sites in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Reinds, G.J.; Bleeker, A.; Vries, de W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimations of meteorological stress and atmospheric deposition were made for the systematic 8 x 8 km2 forest condition monitoring network in Germany for the years 1987-1995. Winter cold and late frost were important temperature stress variables and relative transpiration was a good

  14. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  15. Thermal post-deposition treatment effects on nanocrystalline hydrogenated silicon prepared by PECVD under different hydrogen flow rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amor, Sana Ben, E-mail: sana.benamor1@gmail.com [Photovoltaic Laboratory Research and Technology Centre of Energy, Borj-Cedria Science and Technology Park, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); University of Applied Medical Sciences of Hafr El Baten (Saudi Arabia); Meddeb, Hosny; Daik, Ridha; Othman, Afef Ben; Slama, Sonia Ben; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Photovoltaic Laboratory Research and Technology Centre of Energy, Borj-Cedria Science and Technology Park, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: At high annealing temperatures, many atoms do not suffer the attraction of surface species due to the thermal agitation and consequently few atoms are adsorbed. As the temperature is lowered the adsorption is more efficient to the point that is no more atoms in the gas phase. Indeed at relatively low temperatures, the atoms have too little energy to escape from the surface or even to vibrate against it. They lost their degree of freedom in the direction perpendicular to the surface. But this does not prevent the atoms to diffuse along the surface. As a result, the layer's thickness decrease with increasing the annealing temperature. - Highlights: The results extracted from this work are: • The post-deposition thermal treatment improves the crystallinity the film at moderate temperature (500 °C). • The higher annealing temperature can lead to decrease the silicon–hydrogen bonds and increase the Si–Si bonds. • Moderate annealing temperature (700 °C) seems to be crucial for obtaining high minority carrier life times. • Hydrogen effusion phenomenon start occurring at 500–550 °C and get worsen at 900 °C. - Abstract: In this paper, hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films were deposited on mono-crystalline silicon substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) under different hydrogen flow rates followed by a thermal treatment in an infrared furnace at different temperature ranging from 300 to 900 °C. The investigated structural, morphological and optoelectronic properties of samples were found to be strongly dependent on the annealing temperature. Raman spectroscopy revealed that nc-Si:H films contain crystalline, amorphous and mixed structures as well. We find that post-deposition thermal treatment may lead to a tendency for structural improvement and a decrease of the disorder in the film network at moderate temperature under 500 °C. As for annealing at higher temperature up to 900

  16. Effects of gas flow rate on the structure and elemental composition of tin oxide thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansoori, Muntaser; Al-Shaibani, Sahar; Al-Jaeedi, Ahlam; Lee, Jisung; Choi, Daniel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2017-12-01

    Photovoltaic technology is one of the key answers for a better sustainable future. An important layer in the structure of common photovoltaic cells is the transparent conductive oxide. A widely applied transparent conductive oxide is tin oxide (SnO2). The advantage of using tin oxide comes from its high stability and low cost in processing. In our study, we investigate effects of working gas flow rate and oxygen content in radio frequency (RF)-sputtering system on the growth of intrinsic SnO2 (i-SnO2) layers. X-ray diffraction results showed that amorphous-like with nano-crystallite structure, and the surface roughness varied from 1.715 to 3.936 nm. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed different types of point defects, such as tin interstitials and oxygen vacancies, in deposited i-SnO2 films.

  17. Effects of gas flow rate on the structure and elemental composition of tin oxide thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaser Al-Mansoori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic technology is one of the key answers for a better sustainable future. An important layer in the structure of common photovoltaic cells is the transparent conductive oxide. A widely applied transparent conductive oxide is tin oxide (SnO2. The advantage of using tin oxide comes from its high stability and low cost in processing. In our study, we investigate effects of working gas flow rate and oxygen content in radio frequency (RF-sputtering system on the growth of intrinsic SnO2 (i-SnO2 layers. X-ray diffraction results showed that amorphous-like with nano-crystallite structure, and the surface roughness varied from 1.715 to 3.936 nm. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed different types of point defects, such as tin interstitials and oxygen vacancies, in deposited i-SnO2 films.

  18. Calculation of the dose rate and air ionisation from radioactive fallout deposited at Chilton, Oxon (1951 to 1977)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.A.B.

    1978-06-01

    This report is a brief survey of the methods used for calculating the dose rate from deposited fallout and includes improvements in the computing techniques. The changes consist of (a) the use of a more exact allowance for weathering (b) the calculation doses to mid-month rather than end of each month (c) the inclusion of the contribution from Nb-95 in a more exact way to allow for its build-up and decay with time (d) the use of a more precise method for estimating the dose prior to 1954. The result is to increase the calculated total γ-ray dose from 1951 to 1976 by 17% from 153 to 179 mrad in air at 1 m with an increase of 11% in the beta-ray dose. The annual levels for natural γ and β radiation are 12 and 62 mrad respectively. (author)

  19. Monitoring method for an ambient Gamma exposure rate and its measurement analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jong Kwan [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Daily and seasonal variations of the ambient gamma ray exposure rates were measured by using a pressurized ion chamber from January 2003 to December 2005 in the Cheongju Regional Radiation Monitoring Post and the patterns of the distributions were studied. The annual average of the daily variation of the exposure rate was {approx}0.17 {mu}R/h. The exposure rate was found to be maximum during 8:00 am to 9:00 am and minimum during 8:00 pm to 10:00 pm. For the annual data, the exposure rate was the minimum during the month of February. The exposure rate increased from February to mid-October (except during the period from May to July with no change) and decreased from October to February. The seasonal variation was found to be about 1 {mu}R/h. Most of the measured values (96%) of the exposure rates fell under the normal distribution with a deviation of less than 4.8% and the remaining 4% had large fluctuations caused mainly by the rainfalls.

  20. Monitoring catalyst flow rate in a FCC cold pilot unity by gamma ray transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Marcio F.P.; Netto, Wilson F.S.; Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Junior, Isacc A.S.; Dantas, Carlos C.; Melo, Silvio B.; Lima, Emerson A.O.

    2013-01-01

    A model for monitoring catalyst mass flow in riser of Fluid Catalytic Cracking - FCC, pilot unity as a function of air flow and solid injection is proposed. The fluidized FCC- catalyst bed system is investigated in an experimental setup the Cold Pilot Unity - CPU by means of gamma ray transmission measurements. Riser in CPU simulates the reactor in FCC process. By automation control air flow is instrumentally measured in riser and the solid injection is manually controlled by valve adjusting. Keeping a constant solid injection, catalyst level at the return column was measured by gamma transmission for several air flow values in riser. The operational condition reached a steady state regime before given to setup a new air flow value. A calibration of catalyst level as a function of air flow in riser is calculated, therefore, a model for solid feed rate is derived. Recent published work evaluates solid concentration in riser of the CPU by means of gamma ray transmission, and a correlation with air velocity is obtained. In this work, the model for solid feed rate was further investigated by carrying out experiments to measure catalyst concentration at the same air flow values. These experiments lead to a model for monitoring catalyst flow in riser as function of solid feed rate and air flow. Simulation with random numbers produced with Matlab software allows to define validation criteria for the model parameters. (author)

  1. A Comparison of Mathematical Models of Fish Mercury Concentration as a Function of Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Rate and Watershed Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Moore, R. B.; Shanley, J. B.; Miller, E. K.; Kamman, N. C.; Nacci, D.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish and aquatic wildlife are complex functions of atmospheric Hg deposition rate, terrestrial and aquatic watershed characteristics that influence Hg methylation and export, and food chain characteristics determining Hg bioaccumulation. Because of the complexity and incomplete understanding of these processes, regional-scale models of fish tissue Hg concentration are necessarily empirical in nature, typically constructed through regression analysis of fish tissue Hg concentration data from many sampling locations on a set of potential explanatory variables. Unless the data sets are unusually long and show clear time trends, the empirical basis for model building must be based solely on spatial correlation. Predictive regional scale models are highly useful for improving understanding of the relevant biogeochemical processes, as well as for practical fish and wildlife management and human health protection. Mechanistically, the logical arrangement of explanatory variables is to multiply each of the individual Hg source terms (e.g. dry, wet, and gaseous deposition rates, and residual watershed Hg) for a given fish sampling location by source-specific terms pertaining to methylation, watershed transport, and biological uptake for that location (e.g. SO4 availability, hill slope, lake size). This mathematical form has the desirable property that predicted tissue concentration will approach zero as all individual source terms approach zero. One complication with this form, however, is that it is inconsistent with the standard linear multiple regression equation in which all terms (including those for sources and physical conditions) are additive. An important practical disadvantage of a model in which the Hg source terms are additive (rather than multiplicative) with their modifying factors is that predicted concentration is not zero when all sources are zero, making it unreliable for predicting the effects of large future reductions in

  2. Development of γ dose rate monitor based on FPGA and single-chip microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhiguo; Ling Qiu; Guo Lanying; Yang Binhua

    2009-01-01

    A novelγdose rate monitor with multiple channels signal collection in which takes the FPGA as the core process chip and single-chip microcomputer as the data processor had been developed. This paper introduced the communication interface design between FPGA and MCU, and gave the data acquisition module and the function simulation chart designed by FPGA. In addition, the software and hardware design diagrams of MCU had been given in this paper. The maximum digitallization was carried on in the designing process. The experiments showed that the scheme for the system matched to the requests completely. (authors)

  3. Indoor particle dynamics in a school office: determination of particle concentrations, deposition rates and penetration factors under naturally ventilated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, X C; Zhao, J J; Jing, Z; Wang, Q G; Ni, P F

    2018-05-09

    Recently, the problem of indoor particulate matter pollution has received much attention. An increasing number of epidemiological studies show that the concentration of atmospheric particulate matter has a significant effect on human health, even at very low concentrations. Most of these investigations have relied upon outdoor particle concentrations as surrogates of human exposures. However, considering that the concentration distribution of the indoor particulate matter is largely dependent on the extent to which these particles penetrate the building and on the degree of suspension in the indoor air, human exposures to particles of outdoor origin may not be equal to outdoor particle concentration levels. Therefore, it is critical to understand the relationship between the particle concentrations found outdoors and those found in indoor micro-environments. In this study, experiments were conducted using a naturally ventilated office located in Qingdao, China. The indoor and outdoor particle concentrations were measured at the same time using an optical counter with four size ranges. The particle size distribution ranged from 0.3 to 2.5 μm, and the experimental period was from April to September, 2016. Based on the experimental data, the dynamic and mass balance model based on time was used to estimate the penetration rate and deposition rate at air exchange rates of 0.03-0.25 h -1 . The values of the penetration rate and deposition velocity of indoor particles were determined to range from 0.45 to 0.82 h -1 and 1.71 to 2.82 m/h, respectively. In addition, the particulate pollution exposure in the indoor environment was analyzed to estimate the exposure hazard from indoor particulate matter pollution, which is important for human exposure to particles and associated health effects. The conclusions from this study can serve to provide a better understanding the dynamics and behaviors of airborne particle entering into buildings. And they will also highlight

  4. Hopfield neural network and optical fiber sensor as intelligent heart rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a design and fabrication of an intelligent fiber-optic sensor used for examining and monitoring heart rate activity. It is found in the literature that the use of fiber sensors as heart rate sensor is widely studied. However, the use of smart sensors based on Hopfield neural networks is very low. In this work, the sensor is a three fibers without cladding of about 1 cm, fed by laser light of 1550 nm of wavelength. The sensing portions are mounted with a micro sensitive diaphragm to transfer the pulse pressure on the left radial wrist. The influenced light intensity will be detected by a three photodetectors as inputs into the Hopfield neural network algorithm. The latter is a singlelayer auto-associative memory structure with a same input and output layers. The prior training weights are stored in the net memory for the standard recorded normal heart rate signals. The sensors' heads work on the reflection intensity basis. The novelty here is that the sensor uses a pulse pressure and Hopfield neural network in an integrity approach. The results showed a significant output measurements of heart rate and counting with a plausible error rate.

  5. VAMCIS, a new measuring channel for continuous monitoring of leak rates inside PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, G.; Dubail, A.; Lefevre, F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess the primary to secondary leakage, radioactive isotopes, formed in the primary coolant as a result of fission or neutron capture, are usually monitored in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) secondary coolant. Conventional methods mainly based on the detection of 133 Xe, tritium, and 41 Ar are widely used on French Electricite de France (EdF) PWRs. Some years ago, it appeared necessary to improve both leak rate assessments and steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) detection. A volumetric activity measuring channel inside steam (VAMCIS) has been developed for this purpose. The SGTR that occurred at the North Anna PWR has focused the attention of safety authorities on this new measuring channel. It is planned to implement VAMCIS at North Anna in order to check the leak rate variations more accurately

  6. Mechanisms and rates of atmospheric deposition of selected trace elements and sulfate to a deciduous forest watershed. [Roles of dry and wet deposition concentrations measured in Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, S.E.; Harriss, R.C.; Turner, R.R.; Shriner, D.S.; Huff, D.D.

    1979-06-01

    The critical links between anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and their effects on ecosystems are the mechanisms and rates of atmospheric deposition. The atmospheric input of several trace elements and sulfate to a deciduous forest canopy is quantified and the major mechanisms of deposition are determined. The study area was Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) in eastern Tennessee. The presence of a significant quantity of fly ash and dispersed soil particles on upward-facing leaf and flat surfaces suggested sedimentation to be a major mechanism of dry deposition to upper canopy elements. The agreement for deposition rates measured to inert, flat surfaces and to leaves was good for Cd, SO/sub 4//sup =/, Zn, and Mn but poor for Pb. The precipitation concentrations of H/sup +/, Pb, Mn, and SO/sub 4//sup =/ reached maximum values during the summer months. About 90% of the wet deposition of Pb and SO/sub 4//sup =/ was attributed to scavenging by in-cloud processes while for Cd and Mn, removal by in-cloud scavenging accounted for 60 to 70% of the deposition. The interception of incoming rain by the forest canopy resulted in a net increase in the concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn, and SO/sub 4//sup =/ but a net decrease in the concentration of H/sup +/. The source of these elements in the forest canopy was primarily dry deposited aerosols for Pb, primarily internal plant leaching for Mn, Cd, and Zn, and an approximately equal combination of the two for SO/sub 4//sup =/. Significant fractions of the total annual elemental flux to the forest floor in a representative chestnut oak stand were attributable to external sources for Pb (99%), Zn (44%), Cd (42%), SO/sub 4//sup =/ (39%), and Mn (14%), the remainder being related to internal element cycling mechanisms. On an annual scale the dry deposition process constituted a significant fraction of the total atmospheric input. (ERB)

  7. Evaluation of iron deposits in the reticuloendothelial system using T2-relaxation rate of MRI. Relation with serum ferritin and Fe concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Kae; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro

    1996-01-01

    MR imaging is a useful non-invasive technique to detect iron deposits in many organs, but it is difficult to evaluate quantitatively. This study was performed to determine the possibility whether T2 relaxation rate (1/T2) could quantify iron deposits in the reticuloendothelial system (liver, spleen and bone marrow) of 11 patients and four normal volunteers. A moderate correlation was obtained between T2-relaxation rate and the serum ferritin level. These results suggest that T2-relaxation rate may provide useful information for the repeated quantitative evaluation of patients with iron-overload-syndromes. (author)

  8. The effect of carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature on low pressure organic vapor phase deposition simulation by direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takao; Ueda, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    The process of low pressure organic vapor phase deposition (LP-OVPD) controls the growth of amorphous organic thin films, where the source gases (Alq3 molecule, etc.) are introduced into a hot wall reactor via an injection barrel using an inert carrier gas (N2 molecule). It is possible to control well the following substrate properties such as dopant concentration, deposition rate, and thickness uniformity of the thin film. In this paper, we present LP-OVPD simulation results using direct simulation Monte Carlo-Neutrals (Particle-PLUS neutral module) which is commercial software adopting direct simulation Monte Carlo method. By estimating properly the evaporation rate with experimental vaporization enthalpies, the calculated deposition rates on the substrate agree well with the experimental results that depend on carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature. PMID:23674843

  9. The effect of carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature on low pressure organic vapor phase deposition simulation by direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takao; Ueda, Noriaki

    2013-04-01

    The process of low pressure organic vapor phase deposition (LP-OVPD) controls the growth of amorphous organic thin films, where the source gases (Alq3 molecule, etc.) are introduced into a hot wall reactor via an injection barrel using an inert carrier gas (N2 molecule). It is possible to control well the following substrate properties such as dopant concentration, deposition rate, and thickness uniformity of the thin film. In this paper, we present LP-OVPD simulation results using direct simulation Monte Carlo-Neutrals (Particle-PLUS neutral module) which is commercial software adopting direct simulation Monte Carlo method. By estimating properly the evaporation rate with experimental vaporization enthalpies, the calculated deposition rates on the substrate agree well with the experimental results that depend on carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature.

  10. Rates of Return on Open-End Debt Investment Funds and Bank Deposits in Poland in the Years 1995–2015 – A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmann Iwona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a comparison of the rates of return on specific open-end debt investment funds in Poland with the rates of return on bank deposits, in light of different time horizons. A comparative analysis was conducted based on the quartiles of the empirical distributions of the rates of return on selected funds and bank deposits. The empirical distributions were obtained using a moving window of observation. The results were largely influenced by very high interest rates on bank deposits in Poland in the years 1995–2001 (in the case of the oldest funds, and by the boom in the bond market in the years 2011–2012 (for the youngest funds. The investment horizon turned out to be significant. The best and worst funds were identified.

  11. [Does intraoperative nerve monitoring reduce the rate of recurrent nerve palsies during thyroid surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, W; Dralle, H; Hamelmann, W; Thomusch, O; Sekulla, C; Meyer, Th; Timm, S; Thiede, A

    2002-05-01

    Two different aspects of the influence of neuromonitoring on the possible reduction of post-operative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies require critical examination: the nerve identification and the monitoring of it's functions. Due to the additional information from the EMG signals, neuromonitoring is the best method for identifying the nerves as compared to visual identification alone. There are still no randomized studies available that compare the visual and electrophysiological recurrent laryngeal nerve detection in thyroid operations with respect to the postoperative nerve palsies. Nevertheless, comparisons with historical collectives show that a constant low nerve-palsy-rate was achieved with electrophysiological detection in comparison to visual detection. The rate of nerve identification is normally very high and amounts to 99 % in our own patients. The data obtained during the "Quality assurance of benign and malignant Goiter" study show that in hemithyreoidectomy and subtotal resection, lower nerve-palsy-rates are achieved with neuromonitoring as compared to solely visual detection. Following subtotal resection, this discrepancy becomes even statistically significant. While monitoring the nerve functions with the presently used neuromonitoring technique, it is possible to observe the EMG-signal remaining constant or decreasing in volume. Assuming that a constant neuromonitoring signal represents a normal vocal cord, our evaluation shows that there is a small percentage of false negative and positive results. Looking at the permanent recurrent nerve palsy rates, this method has a specificity of 98 %, a sensitivity of 100 %, a positive prognostic value of 10 %, and a negative prognostic value of 100 %. Although an altered neuromonitoring signal can be taken as a clear indication of eventual nerve damage, an absolutely reliable statement about the postoperative vocal cord function is presently not possible with intraoperative neuromonitoring.

  12. Influence of Nitrogen Gas Flow Rate on The Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Tin Deposited Carbon Steel Synthesized by Cae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mubarak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the preparation of titanium nitride (TiN thin films on carbon steel plates, using cathodic arc evaporation CAE PVD technique. We studied and discussed the effect of various nitrogen gas flow rates on microstructural and mechanical properties of TiN-coated carbon steel plates. The coating properties investigated in this work included the surface morphology, thickness of deposited coating, adhesion between the coating and substrate, coating composition, coating crystallography, hardness and surface characterization using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, Xray diffraction (XRD with glazing incidence angle (GIA technique, scratch tester, hardness testing machine, surface roughness tester and atomic force microscope (AFM. SEM analyses showed that all the films had columnar and dense structures with clearly defined substrate-film interfacial layers. The hardness of TiN-coated carbon steel was noted six times more than the hardness of uncoated one. An increase in nitrogen gas flow rate showed; decrease in the formation of macro-droplets, average roughness (Ra and root-mean-square (RMS values in CAE PVD technique. During XRD-GIA studies, it was observed that by increasing the nitrogen gas flow rate, the main peak [1,1,1] shifted toward the lower angular position. Microhardness of TiN-coated carbon steel showed about six times increase in hardness than the uncoated one. Scratch tester results showed an average adhesion between the coating material and substrate. Thanks to the high resolution power could be observed that by increasing nitrogen gas flow rate there was percentage increase in the bearing ratio while percentage decrease in histogram.

  13. High Growth Rate Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films and Devices Using ECR-PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium films (a-SiGe:H) and devices have been extensively studied because of the tunable band gap for matching the solar spectrum and mature the fabrication techniques. a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells have great potential for commercial manufacture because of very low cost and adaptability to large-scale manufacturing. Although it has been demonstrated that a-SiGe:H thin films and devices with good quality can be produced successfully, some issues regarding growth chemistry have remained yet unexplored, such as the hydrogen and inert-gas dilution, bombardment effect, and chemical annealing, to name a few. The alloying of the SiGe introduces above an order-of-magnitude higher defect density, which degrades the performance of the a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells. This degradation becomes worse when high growth-rate deposition is required. Preferential attachment of hydrogen to silicon, clustering of Ge and Si, and columnar structure and buried dihydride radicals make the film intolerably bad. The work presented here uses the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECR-PECVD) technique to fabricate a-SiGe:H films and devices with high growth rates. Helium gas, together with a small amount of H2, was used as the plasma species. Thickness, optical band gap, conductivity, Urbach energy, mobility-lifetime product, I-V curve, and quantum efficiency were characterized during the process of pursuing good materials. The microstructure of the a-(Si,Ge):H material was probed by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. They found that the advantages of using helium as the main plasma species are: (1) high growth rate--the energetic helium ions break the reactive gas more efficiently than hydrogen ions; (2) homogeneous growth--heavy helium ions impinging on the surface promote the surface mobility of the reactive radicals, so that heteroepitaxy growth as clustering of Ge and Si, columnar structure are

  14. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  15. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  16. Parents of preschoolers: expert media recommendations and ratings knowledge, media-effects beliefs, and monitoring practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B; Brouwer, Jason; Curtiss, Kathleen; McBroom, Evan

    2009-03-01

    Given the increase in screen media targeted at the very young, the purpose of this study was to examine preschooler parents' knowledge about expert recommendations for young children's screen media experience, their knowledge of specific screen media ratings, their beliefs about screen media effects, and actual monitoring practices. Parents of 94 children education, age and gender of child, and parents' perceptions of their child's favorite television show and favorite video or computer game. Eleven multiple-choice questions assessed the respondent's knowledge of expert recommendations for screen media for preschoolers and the meaning of television and video game content ratings. Fourteen questions addressed the typical amount of their preschooler's screen media exposure, parental rules regarding screen media use, and parents' beliefs about appropriate use of screen media for preschoolers. Preschoolers were exposed to an average of approximately 12 hours of screen media in a typical week. Parents believe that media do have either short- or long-term effects on preschoolers. Performance on factual questions was poor (mean score: 2.83 of 11). In particular, only 34% of the parents correctly identified the expert recommendation for children >2 years of age. Parents should continue to be educated about the need for preschoolers to participate in activities that promote language development, socialization, imagination, and physical activity. Although professionals should work to improve the ratings, and ultimately to implement a universal ratings system for all screen media, parents need to be encouraged to improve their understanding of current recommendations for screen media exposure and television and video game ratings.

  17. Portable Heart Rate Detector Based on Photoplethysmography with Android Programmable Devices for Ubiquitous Health Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Kin Lao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a miniature portable heart rate detector system is implemented by modern hardware ICs and simple sensor circuit with software executable on both PC and Android platform. The biosignal is first extracted via photoplethysmography (PPG principle into electric signal. Then a microprocessor is used to covert biosignal from analog to digital format, suitably for feeding into an RF module (nRF24L01 for RF transmission. On the receiver end, the computer and/or smart phone can analyze the data using a robust algorithm that can detect peaks of the PPG waveform, hence to calculating the heart rate. Some application software running on Windows and Android phone have been developed to display heart rate information and time domain waveform to users for health care monitoring. In the future, pure Bluetooth technology will be used for wireless personal communications instead of RF modules. At the same time, the data can be sent to computer console using existing available networks (3G, 4G, WiFi, etc. for health database logging purpose.

  18. Can we improve the clinical utility of respiratory rate as a monitored vital sign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyou; Reisner, Andrew T; Gribok, Andrei; McKenna, Thomas M; Reifman, Jaques

    2009-06-01

    Respiratory rate (RR) is a basic vital sign, measured and monitored throughout a wide spectrum of health care settings, although RR is historically difficult to measure in a reliable fashion. We explore an automated method that computes RR only during intervals of clean, regular, and consistent respiration and investigate its diagnostic use in a retrospective analysis of prehospital trauma casualties. At least 5 s of basic vital signs, including heart rate, RR, and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures, were continuously collected from 326 spontaneously breathing trauma casualties during helicopter transport to a level I trauma center. "Reliable" RR data were identified retrospectively using automated algorithms. The diagnostic performances of reliable versus standard RR were evaluated by calculation of the receiver operating characteristic curves using the maximum-likelihood method and comparison of the summary areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). Respiratory rate shows significant data-reliability differences. For identifying prehospital casualties who subsequently receive a respiratory intervention (hospital intubation or tube thoracotomy), standard RR yields an AUC of 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.69), whereas reliable RR yields an AUC of 0.67 (0.57-0.77), P support algorithms.

  19. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  20. Increased pregnancy rate with use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Janet E; Wakelin, Melanie; Ellis, Jayne E

    2007-02-01

    To determine the effect on pregnancy rates through use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor (CEFM) in women trying to conceive. Prospective study, in which volunteers were randomly assigned either to use or not to use the CEFM. All participants could also use other aids to conception. Data were self-reported by volunteers using daily diaries, supplied and collected by mail. Home use, under conditions normally experienced by over-the-counter purchasers of the marketed device. Women who were trying to conceive; 653 (CEFM 305, control 348) provided evaluable information. CEFM was used for two cycles. Cumulative pregnancy rates over two cycles of use. The cumulative pregnancy rate for 2 cycles was significantly higher in the CEFM group (22.7%) compared with the control group (14.4%). More women who had been trying to conceive for conceive for >6 months (odds ratio: 2.67). Previous pregnancy and younger age of partners were also significant prognostic factors, but use of other aids to conception was not. After adjustment for other factors, CEFM use remained a significant factor affecting the chance of conceiving within two cycles (odds ratio: 1.89). CEFM users found the device to be easy/very easy to use (90%) and convenient/very convenient (80%). Use of the CEFM increases the likelihood of getting pregnant during the first two cycles of use compared with its nonuse, in women who had been trying to conceive for up to 2 years.

  1. Dense CdS thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass by high-rate microreactor-assisted solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yu-Wei, E-mail: suyuweiwayne@gmail.com [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Ramprasad, Sudhir [Energy Processes and Materials Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Corvallis, OR 9730 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Han, Seung-Yeol; Wang, Wei [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Ryu, Si-Ok [School of Display and Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeonsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Palo, Daniel R. [Barr Engineering Co., Hibbing, MN 55747 (United States); Paul, Brian K. [School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Chang, Chih-hung [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition is demonstrated for the deposition of CdS thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The continuous flow system consists of a microscale T-junction micromixer with the co-axial water circulation heat exchanger to control the reacting chemical flux and optimize the heterogeneous surface reaction. Dense, high quality nanocrystallite CdS thin films were deposited at an average rate of 25.2 nm/min, which is significantly higher than the reported growth rate from typical batch chemical bath deposition process. Focused-ion-beam was used for transmission electron microscopy specimen preparation to characterize the interfacial microstructure of CdS and FTO layers. The band gap was determined at 2.44 eV by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. X-ray photon spectroscopy shows the binding energies of Cd 3d{sub 3/2}, Cd 3d{sub 5/2}, S 2P{sub 3/2} and S 2P{sub 1/2} at 411.7 eV, 404.8 eV, 162.1 eV and 163.4 eV, respectively. - Highlights: ► CdS films deposited using continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition (MASD) ► Dense nanocrystallite CdS films can be reached at a rate of 25.2 [nm/min]. ► MASD can approach higher film growth rate than conventional chemical bath deposition.

  2. Remote vital parameter monitoring in neonatology - robust, unobtrusive heart rate detection in a realistic clinical scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanik, Nikolai; Heimann, Konrad; Pereira, Carina; Paul, Michael; Blazek, Vladimir; Venema, Boudewijn; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2016-12-01

    Vital parameter monitoring of term and preterm infants during incubator care with self-adhesive electrodes or sensors directly positioned on the skin [e.g. photoplethysmography (PPG) for oxygen saturation or electrocardiography (ECG)] is an essential part of daily routine care in neonatal intensive care units. For various reasons, this kind of monitoring contains a lot of stress for the infants. Therefore, there is a need to measure vital parameters (for instance respiration, temperature, pulse, oxygen saturation) without mechanical or conductive contact. As a non-contact method of monitoring, we present an adapted version of camera-based photoplethysmography imaging (PPGI) according to neonatal requirements. Similar to classic PPG, the PPGI camera detects small temporal changes in the term and preterm infant's skin brightness due to the cardiovascular rhythm of dermal blood perfusion. We involved 10 preterm infants in a feasibility study [five males and five females; mean gestational age: 26 weeks (24-28 weeks); mean biological age: 35 days (8-41 days); mean weight at the time of investigation: 960 g (670-1290 g)]. The PPGI camera was placed directly above the incubators with the infant inside illuminated by an infrared light emitting diode (LED) array (850 nm). From each preterm infant, 5-min video sequences were recorded and analyzed post hoc. As the measurement scenario was kept as realistic as possible, the infants were not constrained in their movements in front of the camera. Movement intensities were assigned into five classes (1: no visible motion to 5: heavy struggling). PPGI was found to be significantly sensitive to movement artifacts. However, for movement classes 1-4, changes in blood perfusion according to the heart rate (HR) were recovered successfully (Pearson correlation: r=0.9759; r=0.765 if class 5 is included). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universal Hospital of the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany (EK 254/13).

  3. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between April 2009 and September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haycox, Jon; Pettitt, Will [ASC, Applied Seismology Consultants, Shrewsbury, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and changes in pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing. Monitoring of this volume has previously been performed during excavation (Pettitt et al. 1999), and during stages of canister heating and tunnel pressurisation (Haycox and Pettitt 2005a, b, 2006a, b, Zolezzi et al. 2007, 2008, Duckworth et al. 2008, 2009, Haycox and Duckworth 2009). Further information on the previous monitoring undertaken can be found in Appendix 1. This report covers the period between 1st April 2009 and 30th September 2009 and is the ninth 6-monthly processing and interpretation of the results from the experiment.

  4. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between October 2009 and March 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haycox, Jon; Andrews, Jennifer [ASC, Applied Seismology Consultants, Shrewsbury, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and changes in pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing. Monitoring of this volume has previously been performed during excavation (Pettitt et al. 1999), and during stages of canister heating and tunnel pressurisation (Haycox and Pettitt 2005a, b, 2006a, b, 2009, Zolezzi et al. 2007, 2008, Duckworth et al. 2008, 2009, Haycox and Duckworth 2009). Further information on the previous monitoring periods can be found in Appendix 1. This report covers the period between 1st October 2009 and 31st March 2010 and is the tenth 6-monthly processing and interpretation of the results from the experiment.

  5. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between October 2008 and March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haycox, Jon; Duckworth, Damion [ASC, Applied Seismology Consultants, Shrewsbury, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and changes in pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing. Monitoring of this volume has previously been performed during excavation (Pettitt et al. 1999), and during stages of canister heating and tunnel pressurisation (Haycox and Pettitt 2005a, b, 2006a, b, Zolezzi et al. 2007, 2008, Duckworth et al. 2008, 2009). Further information on the previous monitoring undertaken can be found in Appendix 1. This report covers the period between 1st October 2008 and 31st March 2009 and is the eighth 6-monthly processing and interpretation of the results from the experiment.

  6. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between April 2010 and September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haycox, Jon (ASC Applied Seismology Consultants (United Kingdom))

    2011-05-15

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and changes in pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing. Monitoring of this volume has previously been performed during excavation (Pettitt et al. 1999), and during stages of canister heating and tunnel pressurisation (Haycox and Pettitt 2005a, b, 2006a, b, Zolezzi et al. 2007, 2008, Duckworth et al. 2008, 2009, Haycox et al. 2009a, b, 2010). Appendix I contains further information about previous monitoring periods. This report covers the period between 1st April 2010 and 30th September 2010 and is the eleventh 6-monthly processing and interpretation of the results from the experiment

  7. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between October 2008 and March 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycox, Jon; Duckworth, Damion

    2009-06-01

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and changes in pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing. Monitoring of this volume has previously been performed during excavation (Pettitt et al. 1999), and during stages of canister heating and tunnel pressurisation (Haycox and Pettitt 2005a, b, 2006a, b, Zolezzi et al. 2007, 2008, Duckworth et al. 2008, 2009). Further information on the previous monitoring undertaken can be found in Appendix 1. This report covers the period between 1st October 2008 and 31st March 2009 and is the eighth 6-monthly processing and interpretation of the results from the experiment

  8. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between October 2009 and March 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycox, Jon; Andrews, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and changes in pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing. Monitoring of this volume has previously been performed during excavation (Pettitt et al. 1999), and during stages of canister heating and tunnel pressurisation (Haycox and Pettitt 2005a, b, 2006a, b, 2009, Zolezzi et al. 2007, 2008, Duckworth et al. 2008, 2009, Haycox and Duckworth 2009). Further information on the previous monitoring periods can be found in Appendix 1. This report covers the period between 1st October 2009 and 31st March 2010 and is the tenth 6-monthly processing and interpretation of the results from the experiment

  9. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between April 2009 and September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycox, Jon; Pettitt, Will

    2009-12-01

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and changes in pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing. Monitoring of this volume has previously been performed during excavation (Pettitt et al. 1999), and during stages of canister heating and tunnel pressurisation (Haycox and Pettitt 2005a, b, 2006a, b, Zolezzi et al. 2007, 2008, Duckworth et al. 2008, 2009, Haycox and Duckworth 2009). Further information on the previous monitoring undertaken can be found in Appendix 1. This report covers the period between 1st April 2009 and 30th September 2009 and is the ninth 6-monthly processing and interpretation of the results from the experiment

  10. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype Repository between April 2010 and September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haycox, Jon

    2011-05-01

    This report describes results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring around a canister deposition hole (DA3545G01) in the Prototype Repository Experiment at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The monitoring aims to examine changes in the rock mass caused by an experimental repository environment, in particular due to thermal stresses induced from canister heating and changes in pore pressures induced from tunnel sealing. Monitoring of this volume has previously been performed during excavation (Pettitt et al. 1999), and during stages of canister heating and tunnel pressurisation (Haycox and Pettitt 2005a, b, 2006a, b, Zolezzi et al. 2007, 2008, Duckworth et al. 2008, 2009, Haycox et al. 2009a, b, 2010). Appendix I contains further information about previous monitoring periods. This report covers the period between 1st April 2010 and 30th September 2010 and is the eleventh 6-monthly processing and interpretation of the results from the experiment

  11. Monitoring the Inhalation Flow Rate of Nebulized Aerosols Using an Ultrasonic Flow Meter: In Vitro Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael Y; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2017-06-01

    The measurement of aerosol flow rates without obscuration of the flow is of particular concern with in vivo lung deposition studies, where precise knowledge of aerosol particle size distributions is a necessary requirement for the development of predictive correlations. This study examines the utility of an ultrasonic flow meter for such measurements and determines if a valved system can be attached to the flow meter for sampling exhaled aerosols. The flow rate across a D-30 flow meter was compared with and without nebulization of 0.9% saline aerosols from a PARI LC Sprint nebulizer. Particle size distributions of the nebulized aerosol before and after adding the D-30 flow meter and duckbill valve were measured using a Spraytec laser diffraction system. Finally, the ability of the Thor D-30 to capture a realistic breathing profile was assessed. The mean ± standard error flow rates measured by the D-30 flow meter with and without nebulization were 10.4 ± 0.1 versus 10.4 ± 0.1 L/min, 66.4 ± 0.1 versus 67.2 ± 0.1 L/min, and 89.9 ± 0.1 versus 91.4 ± 0.1 L/min. The D-30 flow meter did not considerably affect the volumetric median diameter (VMD) of the aerosols, while the VMD reduced slightly by 0.65 μm at 10 L/min and 0.69 μm at 72 L/min upon the inclusion of a duckbill valve. Time-weighted average inhalation flow rates measured by D-30 flow meters placed upstream and downstream of the one-way valve agreed well, 31.9 versus 32.6 L/min, respectively. The D-30 flow meter can be used to accurately measure inhalation flow rates of nebulized aerosols without significantly impacting particle size distributions, and one-way duckbill valves can be used to isolate the inhalation portion of a breathing pattern to facilitate collection of exhaled doses.

  12. Rating of intra-operative neuro-monitoring results in operative correction of the spinal deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Skripnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work was filing the electrophysiological phenomena observed in the process of intra-operative neuromonitoring followed by development of the results’ scale of intra-operative neuro-physiological testing of the pyramidal tract. Materials and мethods. The selection for evaluation included data of 147 protocols of intra-operative neuromonitoring in 135 patients (53 males, 82 females, aged from 1 y. 5 m. to 52 years (14,1±0,7 years with spinal deformities of different etiology who underwent instrumentation spinal correction followed by fixation of thoracic / thoracolumbar spine segments using various variants of internal systems of trans-pedicular fixation. Intra-operative neuro-monitoring was performed using system «ISIS IOM» (Inomed Medizintechnik GmbH, Germany. The changes of motor evoked potentials were evaluated according to this scale. Results. Five types of pyramidal system reaction to operative invasion were revealed. According to neurophysiological criteria three grades of the risk of neurological disorders development during operative spinal deformity correction and, correspondingly, three levels of anxiety for the surgeon were defined. Conclusion. Intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring is the effective highly technological instrument to prevent neurological disorders in the spinal deformity. Offered rating scale of the risk of neurological complications gives the possibility to highlight three levels of anxiety during operative invasion.

  13. Real time monitoring automation of dose rate absorbed in air due to environmental gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Manzano de Armas, Jose F.; Alonso Abad, Dolores; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Tomas Zerquera, Juan; Caveda Ramos, Celia A.; Kalber, Olof; Fabelo Bonet, Orlando; Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Cartas Aguila, Hector; Leyva Fernandez, Julio C.

    2005-01-01

    The Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) as the head institution of the National Radiological Environmental Surveillance Network (RNVRA) has strengthened its detection and response capacity for a radiological emergency situation. The measurements of gamma dose rate at the main point of the RNVRA are obtained in real time and the CPHR receives the data coming from those points in a short time. To achieve the operability of the RNVRA it was necessary to complete the existent monitoring facilities using 4 automatic gamma probes, implementing in this way a real time measurement system. The software, GenitronProbe for obtaining the data automatically from the probe, Data Mail , for sending the data via e-mail, and Gamma Red , for receiving and processing the data in the head institution ,were developed

  14. Improving chemical solution deposited YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ film properties via high heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Dawley, J. T.; Clem, P. G.; Overmyer, D. L.

    2003-12-01

    The superconducting and structural properties of YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ (YBCO) films grown from chemical solution deposited (CSD) metallofluoride-based precursors improve by using high heating rates to the desired growth temperature. This is due to avoiding the nucleation of undesirable a-axis grains at lower temperatures, from 650 to 800 °C in p(O 2)=0.1%. Minimizing time spent in this range during the temperature ramp of the ex situ growth process depresses a-axis grain growth in favor of the desired c-axis orientation. Using optimized conditions, this results in high-quality YBCO films on LaAlO 3(1 0 0) with Jc(77 K) ∼ 3 MA/cm 2 for films thicknesses ranging from 60 to 140 nm. In particular, there is a dramatic decrease in a-axis grains in coated-conductors grown on CSD Nb-doped SrTiO 3(1 0 0) buffered Ni(1 0 0) tapes.

  15. Prototype Repository. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype. Repository between April 2007 and September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolezzi, F.; Haycox, J.R.; Pettitt, W.S. (Applied Seismology Consultants, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom))

    2008-07-01

    This six-month period of ultrasonic monitoring in the Prototype Repository Experiment, has been undertaken with the following objectives; - Produce accurate source locations for AEs so as to delineate the spatial and temporal extent of any brittle microcracking within the rock mass around the deposition hole and locate any movements on pre-existing macroscopic fractures; - Conduct regular ultrasonic surveys to assess the effect of heating and other environmental changes on the velocity and amplitude of transmitted ultrasonic waves; - Investigate changes in dynamic moduli and crack density to show how the properties of the rock volume around the deposition hole change through the experiment; - Relate the AE and ultrasonic measurements to the measured in situ stress regime and other operating parameters such as temperature and fluid pressure; - Outline how the results from this reporting period relate to previous monitoring periods, and into the overall experimental aims and objectives.

  16. Prototype Repository. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring results from deposition hole DA3545G01 in the Prototype. Repository between April 2007 and September 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolezzi, F.; Haycox, J.R.; Pettitt, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    This six-month period of ultrasonic monitoring in the Prototype Repository Experiment, has been undertaken with the following objectives; - Produce accurate source locations for AEs so as to delineate the spatial and temporal extent of any brittle microcracking within the rock mass around the deposition hole and locate any movements on pre-existing macroscopic fractures; - Conduct regular ultrasonic surveys to assess the effect of heating and other environmental changes on the velocity and amplitude of transmitted ultrasonic waves; - Investigate changes in dynamic moduli and crack density to show how the properties of the rock volume around the deposition hole change through the experiment; - Relate the AE and ultrasonic measurements to the measured in situ stress regime and other operating parameters such as temperature and fluid pressure; - Outline how the results from this reporting period relate to previous monitoring periods, and into the overall experimental aims and objectives

  17. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, M; Mabit, L; Nouira, A; Moussadek, R; Bouksirate, H; Duchemin, M; Benkdad, A

    2013-01-01

    In Morocco land degradation - mainly caused by soil erosion - is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42' W, 33° 47' N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of (137)Cs, (210)Pb(ex) as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 12.1 ha(-1) yr(-1) for (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the (137)Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Three-year monitoring study of radiocesium transfer and ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years (July 2011~) following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). Furthermore, effects of forest decontamination on the reduction of ambient dose rate were assessed quantitatively. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 157 kBq/m^2, 167 kBq/m^2, and 54 kBq/m^2, respectively. These values correspond to 36%, 39% and 12% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the forest type. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. We presented the analysis results of the relationship between radiocesium deposition flux and ambient dose rate at the forest floor. In addition to that, we reported the effects of forest decontamination (e.g., tree felling, removal of organic materials, woodchip pavement) on the reduction of ambient dose rate in the forest environment.

  19. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  20. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline A Boatin

    Full Text Available We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5% successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0 on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96. Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively, useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively, and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively. In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of

  1. Using epiphytic lichens to monitor nitrogen deposition near natural gas drilling operations in the Wind River Range, WY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. McMurray; Dave W. Roberts; Mark E. Fenn; Linda H. Geiser; Sarah Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Rapid expansion of natural gas drilling in Sublette County, WY (1999-present), has raised concerns about the potential ecological effects of enhanced atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition to the Wind River Range (WRR) including the Class I BridgerWilderness. We sampled annual throughfall (TF) N deposition and lichen thalli N concentrations under forest canopies in four...

  2. Composition and crystal structure of N doped TiO2 film deposited at different O2 flow rate by direct current sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wanyu; Ju, Dongying; Chai, Weiping

    2011-06-01

    N doped Ti02 films were deposited by direct current pulse magnetron sputtering system at room temperature. The influence of 02 flow rate on the crystal structure of deposited films was studied by Stylus profilometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometer. The results indicate that the 02 flow rate strongly controls the growth behavior and crystal structure of N doped Ti02 film. It is found that N element mainly exists as substitutional doped state and the chemical stiochiometry is near to TiO1.68±0.06N0.11±0.01 for all film samples. N doped Ti02 film deposited with 2 sccm (standard-state cubic centimeter per minute) 02 flow rate is amorphous structure with high growth rate, which contains both anatase phase and rutile phase crystal nucleuses. In this case, the film displays the mix-phase of anatase and rutile after annealing treatment. While N doped Ti02 film deposited with 12 cm(3)/min 02 flow rate displays anatase phase before and after annealing treatment. And it should be noticed that no TiN phase appears for all samples before and after annealing treatment. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Accuracy of a Wrist-Worn Wearable Device for Monitoring Heart Rates in Hospital Inpatients: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Ryan R; Boyd, J Gordon; Maslove, David M

    2016-09-20

    As the sensing capabilities of wearable devices improve, there is increasing interest in their application in medical settings. Capabilities such as heart rate monitoring may be useful in hospitalized patients as a means of enhancing routine monitoring or as part of an early warning system to detect clinical deterioration. To evaluate the accuracy of heart rate monitoring by a personal fitness tracker (PFT) among hospital inpatients. We conducted a prospective observational study of 50 stable patients in the intensive care unit who each completed 24 hours of heart rate monitoring using a wrist-worn PFT. Accuracy of heart rate recordings was compared with gold standard measurements derived from continuous electrocardiographic (cECG) monitoring. The accuracy of heart rates measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2.R) was also measured as a positive control. On a per-patient basis, PFT-derived heart rate values were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring (average bias of -1.14 beats per minute [bpm], with limits of agreement of 24 bpm). By comparison, Spo2.R recordings produced more accurate values (average bias of +0.15 bpm, limits of agreement of 13 bpm, P<.001 as compared with PFT). Personal fitness tracker device performance was significantly better in patients in sinus rhythm than in those who were not (average bias -0.99 bpm vs -5.02 bpm, P=.02). Personal fitness tracker-derived heart rates were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring in real-world testing and not as accurate as Spo2.R-derived heart rates. Performance was worse among patients who were not in sinus rhythm. Further clinical evaluation is indicated to see if PFTs can augment early warning systems in hospitals. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02527408; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02527408 (Archived by WebCite at  http://www.webcitation.org/6kOFez3on).

  4. Heart Rate Variability Monitoring during Sleep Based on Capacitively Coupled Textile Electrodes on a Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ji Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed and tested a capacitively coupled electrocardiogram (ECG measurement system using conductive textiles on a bed, for long-term healthcare monitoring. The system, which was designed to measure ECG in a bed with no constraints of sleep position and posture, included a foam layer to increase the contact region with the curvature of the body and a cover to ensure durability and easy installation. Nine healthy subjects participated in the experiment during polysomnography (PSG, and the heart rate (HR coverage and heart rate variability (HRV parameters were analyzed to evaluate the system. The experimental results showed that the mean of R-peak coverage was 98.0% (95.5%–99.7%, and the normalized errors of HRV time and spectral measures between the Ag/AgCl system and our system ranged from 0.15% to 4.20%. The root mean square errors for inter-beat (RR intervals and HR were 1.36 ms and 0.09 bpm, respectively. We also showed the potential of our developed system for rapid eye movement (REM sleep and wake detection as well as for recording of abnormal states.

  5. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Gahan, David; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K; Daniels, Stephen; Hopkins, M B

    2016-04-01

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  6. Measurement of deposition rate and ion energy distribution in a pulsed dc magnetron sputtering system using a retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shailesh, E-mail: shailesh.sharma6@mail.dcu.ie [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Gahan, David, E-mail: david.gahan@impedans.com; Scullin, Paul; Doyle, James; Lennon, Jj; Hopkins, M. B. [Impedans Limited, Chase House, City Junction Business Park, Northern Cross, D17 AK63, Dublin 17 (Ireland); Vijayaraghavan, Rajani K.; Daniels, Stephen [Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    A compact retarding field analyzer with embedded quartz crystal microbalance has been developed to measure deposition rate, ionized flux fraction, and ion energy distribution arriving at the substrate location. The sensor can be placed on grounded, electrically floating, or radio frequency (rf) biased electrodes. A calibration method is presented to compensate for temperature effects in the quartz crystal. The metal deposition rate, metal ionization fraction, and energy distribution of the ions arriving at the substrate location are investigated in an asymmetric bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering reactor under grounded, floating, and rf biased conditions. The diagnostic presented in this research work does not suffer from complications caused by water cooling arrangements to maintain constant temperature and is an attractive technique for characterizing a thin film deposition system.

  7. Study on the effect of deposition rate and concentration of Eu on the fluorescent lifetime of CsI: Tl thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yijun; Guo, Lina [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Shuang, E-mail: shuangliu@uestc.edu.cn [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Qianfeng; Zhang, Shangjian; Liu, Yong [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhong, Zhiyong [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2017-06-21

    Although there are many new scintillators being developed recently, CsI: Tl is still very efficient among them. The fluorescent lifetime is a very important parameter of CsI: Tl thin film and two series of experiments have been conducted to learn about it. Our experiments, however, have demonstrated that the deposition rate and the codoping of Eu{sup 2+} will significantly influence its fluorescent lifetime. In order to increase the efficiency of the imaging system, we intend to obtain a higher fluorescent lifetime for CsI: Tl thin film by controlling these two conditions. - Highlights: • We used vacuum vapor deposition method to grow the high-quality thin films. • The relationship between the deposition rate and the fluorescent lifetime of CsI: Tl thin film was tested. • Concentration of Eu on fluorescent lifetime of the CsI: Tl thin film was studied.

  8. Determination of the intensity of a power jump session by means of heart rate monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Grossl

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p129 A Power Jump (PJ session is considered to be a safe and easy class that also involves intermittent exercises that prolong the time to exhaustion. However, there is not enough information about this subject in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of a PJ session by means of heart rate (HR monitoring. Eleven physically active females participated in the study (age: 21.7 ± 1.9 years; body mass: 59.3 ± 4.8 kg; height: 162.6 ± 5.6 cm; percentage body fat: 22.6 ± 3.2 %. Participants were asked to perform an incremental test (IT, in order to obtain values for oxygen uptake (VO2, maximal heart rate (HRmax, heart rate deflection point (HRDP and energy expenditure (EE. The HR of the subjects was monitored during a special type of Power Jump session called “mix nine” on two different occasions. According to the HRDP values, physiological domains could be divided into three exercise intensity classes: moderate, heavy and severe. Descriptive statistics were adopted (mean ± SD. Student’s t test was used to compare HR and EE between PJ1 and PJ2. For comparisons between domains, two-way ANOVA and the Scheffé test were used. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Mean HRmax obtained during the IT was 195±10bpm. The velocities, HR and %HRmax corresponding to HRDP and 80% of HRDP were 10.1±0.95km.h-1, 178±7bpm and 91.7±4.0%; and 8.1±0.76km.h-1, 143±5bpm and 73.4±3.2%, respectively. Values for HRmean and EE were significantly different when PJ1 (161±11bpm, 386±58.2kcal and PJ2 (156±10bpm, 355.1±53.8kcal were compared. The times spent in each exercise intensity domain were: heavy 51±14.5%; severe 27±19.7% and moderate 23±8.7%. These results show that the subjects spent most of the time in the heavy exercise domain which, in turn, appears to be the most indicated for improving aerobic capacity.

  9. Assessment of skeletal muscle fatigue of road maintenance workers based on heart rate monitoring and myotonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalkis Henrijs

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This research work is dedicated to occupational health problems caused by ergonomic risks. The research object was road building industry, where workers have to work very intensively, have long work hours, are working in forced/constrained work postures and overstrain during the work specific parts of their bodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the work heaviness degree and to estimate the muscle fatigue of workers after one week work cycle. The study group consisted of 10 road construction and maintenance workers and 10 pavers aged between 20 and 60 years. Methods Physical load were analyzed by measuring heart rate (HR, work postures (OWAS and perceived exertion (RPE. Assessments of the muscles strain and functional state (tone were carried out using myotonometric (MYO measurements. The reliability of the statistical processing of heart rate monitoring and myotonometry data was determined using correlating analysis. Results This study showed that that road construction and repairing works should be considered as a hard work according to average metabolic energy consumption 8.1 ± 1.5 kcal/min; paving, in its turn, was a moderately hard work according to 7.2 ± 1.1 kcal/min. Several muscle tone levels were identified allowing subdivision of workers into three conditional categories basing on muscle tone and fatigue: I – absolute muscle relaxation and ability to relax; II – a state of equilibrium, when muscles are able to adapt to the work load and are partly able to relax; and III – muscle fatigue and increased tone. It was also found out that the increase of muscle tone and fatigue mainly depend on workers physical preparedness and length of service, and less – on their age. Conclusion We have concluded that a complex ergonomic analysis consisting of heart rate monitoring, assessment of compulsive working postures and myotonometry is appropriate to assess the work heaviness degree and can provide prognosis of

  10. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmansour, M.; Mabit, L.; Nouira, A.; Moussadek, R.; Bouksirate, H.; Duchemin, M.; Benkdad, A.

    2013-01-01

    In Morocco land degradation – mainly caused by soil erosion – is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42′ W, 33° 47′ N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of 137 Cs, 210 Pb ex as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha −1 yr −1 and 12.1 ha −1 yr −1 for 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the 137 Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion. - Highlights: ► Net erosion rates estimated by 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex techniques were found comparable. ► The water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field. ► Soil erosion process has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. ► The prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of

  11. Simultaneous monitoring of biofilm growth, microbial activity, and inorganic deposits on surfaces with an in situ, online, real-time, non-destructive, optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathmann, Martin; Mittenzwey, Klaus-Henrik; Sinn, Gert; Papadakis, Wassilios; Flemming, Hans-Curt

    2013-01-01

    Deposits on surfaces in water-bearing systems, also known as 'fouling', can lead to substantial losses in the performance of industrial processes as well as a decreased product quality. Early detection and localization of such deposits can, to a considerable extent, save such losses. However, most of the surfaces that become fouled, for example, in process water pipes, membrane systems, power plants, and food and beverage industries, are difficult to access and analyses conducted on the water phase do not reveal the site or extent of deposits. Furthermore, it is of interest to distinguish biological from non-biological deposits. Although they usually occur together, different countermeasures are necessary. Therefore, sensors are required that indicate the development of surface fouling in real-time, non-destructively, and in situ, preferably allowing for discrimination between chemical and/or biological deposits. In this paper, an optical deposit sensor is presented which fulfills these requirements. Based on multiple fluorescence excitation emission matrix analysis, it detects autofluorescence of amino acids as indicators of biomass. Autofluorescence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide + hydrogen is interpreted as an indicator of biological activity, thus it acts as a viability marker, making the method suited for assessing the efficacy of disinfection treatments. Scattering signals from abiotic deposits such as calcium carbonate or corrosion products can clearly be distinguished from biotic substances and monitored separately. The sensor provides an early warning of fouling, allowing for timely countermeasures to be deployed. It also provides an assessment of the success of cleaning treatments and is a promising tool for integrated antifouling strategies.

  12. Continuous monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous biogeochemical fluxes in the sub-seafloor; the Mosquito flux meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culling, D. P.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Berg, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Fluid flow through marine sediments and oceanic crust impacts seawater chemistry as well as diagenetic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic processes at plate boundaries, creates ore and gas hydrate deposits at and below seafloor, and establishes and maintains deep microbial ecosystems. However, steady-state fluid flow rates, as well as the temporal and spatial variability of fluid flow and composition are poorly constrained in many marine environments. A new, low-cost instrument deployable by ROV or submersible, named the Mosquito, was recently developed to provide continuous, long-term and campaign style monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous solute fluxes at multiple depths below the sea floor. The Mosquito consists of a frame that houses several osmotic pumps (Osmo-Samplers [OS]) connected to coils of tubing that terminate with an attachment to long thin titanium (Ti) needles, all of which are mounted to a release plate. The OS's consist of an acrylic housing which contains a brine chamber (BC) and a distilled water chamber (DWC) separated by semi permeable membranes. The osmotic gradient between the chambers drives the flow of distilled water into the BC. The DWC is connected to the Teflon tubing coil and a Ti needle, both of which are also filled with distilled water, thus the OS pulls fluid from the base of the needle through the tubing coil. One central Ti needle is attached to a custom-made tracer injection assembly, filled with a known volume of tracer, which is triggered, injecting a point source in the sediment. On a typical Mosquito, 4 needles are mounted vertically at varying depths with respect to the tracer injection needle, and 4 needles are mounted at equal depth but set at variable horizontal distances away from the tracer injection. Once the Mosquito has been placed on the seafloor, the release plate is manually triggered pushing the Ti needles into the sediment, then the tracer injection assembly is actuated. As the tracer is advected

  13. Monitoring and assessment of ingestive chewing sounds for prediction of herbage intake rate in grazing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J R; Cangiano, C A; Pece, M A; Larripa, M J; Milone, D H; Utsumi, S A; Laca, E A

    2018-05-01

    Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows' foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.

  14. Environmental radiation monitoring: mobile gamma dose rate measurements along Mumbai-Hyderabad rail route and Hyderabad city roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divkar, J.K.; Padmanabhan, N.; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Pujari, R.N.; Dogra, Santosh; Sharma, D.N.; Rajagopalan, S.; Srivastava, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Radiation monitoring based on gamma dose rate logging on a mobile platform integrated with real time position from a Global Positioning System is an effective tool to acquire dose rate profile and generate radiological map of any geographical region. The microcontroller based dose rate data acquisition system capable of storing the acquired data and transferring to an attached laptop/PC and providing a graphical illustration of relative variations in gamma background can also be used for quick assessment of environmental radiological impact assessment. This paper describes the methodology and results of the environmental gamma dose rate monitoring surveys carried out: (i) on Mumbai-Hyderabad rail route with the systems installed in the trains guard's room and (ii) Hyderabad city roads with systems installed in a monitoring van. The results indicate significant difference in the gamma background measured along the rail route between Mumbai-Hyderabad and in the radiological map generated after the Hyderabad city survey. (author)

  15. Determination of shell deposition rates of Arctica islandica from the New York Bight using natural 228Ra and 228Th and bomb-produced 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.; Cochran, J.K.; Nozaki, Y.; Thompson, I.; Jones, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Shell deposition rates of specimens of Arctica islandica (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the New York Bight were determined using natural 228 Ra and 228 Th and bomb 14 C. The specimens from deep (>55 m) offshore waters show annual growth banding. A shell obtained from the inner bight at <30-m depth seems to be younger than indicated by band counting

  16. Reasons why Plutonium 242 is the best fission chamber deposit to monitor the fast component of a high neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filliatre, P.; Oriol, L.; Jammes, C.; Vermeeren, L.

    2008-01-01

    The FNDS project aims at developing fission chambers to measure on-line the fast component of a high neutron flux (∼10 14 ncm -2 s -1 or more) with a significant thermal component. We identify with simulations the deposits of fission chambers that are best suited to this goal. We address the question of the evolution of the deposit by radiative capture and decay. A deposit of 242 Pu appears as the best choice, with a high initial sensitivity to fast neutrons only slowly degrading under irradiation. The effect of unavoidable impurities was assessed: small concentrations of 241 Pu and 239 Pu can be tolerated

  17. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m -2 BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 ml · kg -1 · min -1 VO 2max ). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The intersubject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min -1 per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p = .026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p = .574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p = .032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p = .026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  18. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Sahoko [Mie University, Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies (Japan); Li, Weihua [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Omura, Seiichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Fujitani, Yuji [National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Hiraku, Yusuke [Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine (Japan); Hisanaga, Naomi [Aichi Gakusen University, Faculty of Human Science and Design (Japan); Wakai, Kenji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine (Japan); Ding, Xuncheng [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Kobayashi, Takahiro, E-mail: takakoba@airies.or.jp [Association for International Research Initiatives for Environmental Studies (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@rs.tus.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO{sub 2} particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N–N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/−) or percentage of RR 50+/− that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58–30.8 mg/m{sup 3} during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m{sup 3}). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO{sub 2} particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  19. Surface Passivation of MoO3 Nanorods by Atomic Layer Deposition Towards High Rate Durable Li Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2015-06-03

    We demonstrate an effective strategy to overcome the degradation of MoO3 nanorod anodes in Lithium (Li) ion batteries at high rate cycling. This is achieved by conformal nanoscale surface passivation of the MoO3 nanorods by HfO2 using atomic layer deposition (ALD). At high current density such as 1500 mA/g, the specific capacity of HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes is 68% higher than bare MoO3 electrodes after 50 charge/discharge cycles. After 50 charge/discharge cycles, HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes exhibited specific capacity of 657 mAh/g, on the other hand, bare MoO3 showed only 460 mAh/g. Furthermore, we observed that HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes tend to stabilize faster than bare MoO3 electrodes because nanoscale HfO2 layer prevents structural degradation of MoO3 nanorods. Additionally, the growth temperature of MoO3 nanorods and the effect of HfO2 layer thickness was studied and found to be important parameters for optimum battery performance. The growth temperature defines the microstructural features and HfO2 layer thickness defines the diffusion coefficient of Li–ions through the passivation layer to the active material. Furthermore, ex–situ HRTEM, X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and X–ray diffraction was carried out to explain the capacity retention mechanism after HfO2 coating.

  20. Surface Passivation of MoO3 Nanorods by Atomic Layer Deposition Towards High Rate Durable Li Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal; Shahid, Muhammad; Nagaraju, Doddahalli H.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an effective strategy to overcome the degradation of MoO3 nanorod anodes in Lithium (Li) ion batteries at high rate cycling. This is achieved by conformal nanoscale surface passivation of the MoO3 nanorods by HfO2 using atomic layer deposition (ALD). At high current density such as 1500 mA/g, the specific capacity of HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes is 68% higher than bare MoO3 electrodes after 50 charge/discharge cycles. After 50 charge/discharge cycles, HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes exhibited specific capacity of 657 mAh/g, on the other hand, bare MoO3 showed only 460 mAh/g. Furthermore, we observed that HfO2 coated MoO3 electrodes tend to stabilize faster than bare MoO3 electrodes because nanoscale HfO2 layer prevents structural degradation of MoO3 nanorods. Additionally, the growth temperature of MoO3 nanorods and the effect of HfO2 layer thickness was studied and found to be important parameters for optimum battery performance. The growth temperature defines the microstructural features and HfO2 layer thickness defines the diffusion coefficient of Li–ions through the passivation layer to the active material. Furthermore, ex–situ HRTEM, X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and X–ray diffraction was carried out to explain the capacity retention mechanism after HfO2 coating.

  1. Temporal stability and rates of post-depositional change in geochemical signatures of brown trout Salmo trutta scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D; Shephard, S; Kelly, F L

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates temporal stability in the scale microchemistry of brown trout Salmo trutta in feeder streams of a large heterogeneous lake catchment and rates of change after migration into the lake. Laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify the elemental concentrations of Na, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ba and Sr in archived (1997-2002) scales of juvenile S. trutta collected from six major feeder streams of Lough Mask, County Mayo, Ireland. Water-element Ca ratios within these streams were determined for the fish sampling period and for a later period (2013-2015). Salmo trutta scale Sr and Ba concentrations were significantly (P < 0·05) correlated with stream water sample Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios respectively from both periods, indicating multi-annual stability in scale and water-elemental signatures. Discriminant analysis of scale chemistries correctly classified 91% of sampled juvenile S. trutta to their stream of origin using a cross-validated classification model. This model was used to test whether assumed post-depositional change in scale element concentrations reduced correct natal stream classification of S. trutta in successive years after migration into Lough Mask. Fish residing in the lake for 1-3 years could be reliably classified to their most likely natal stream, but the probability of correct classification diminished strongly with longer lake residence. Use of scale chemistry to identify natal streams of lake S. trutta should focus on recent migrants, but may not require contemporary water chemistry data. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. High-rate deposition of high-quality Sn-doped In2O3 films by reactive magnetron sputtering using alloy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Nobuto; Kawase, Yukari; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2012-01-01

    Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO) films were deposited on heated (200 °C) fused silica glass substrates by reactive DC sputtering with mid-frequency pulsing (50 kHz) and a plasma control unit combined with a feedback system of the optical emission intensity for the atomic O* line at 777 nm. A planar In–Sn alloy target was connected to the switching unit, which was operated in the unipolar pulse mode. The power density on the target was maintained at 4.4 W cm −2 during deposition. The feedback system precisely controlled the oxidation of the target surface in “the transition region.” The ITO film with lowest resistivity (3.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm) was obtained with a deposition rate of 310 nm min −1 and transmittance in the visible region of approximately 80%. The deposition rate was about 6 times higher than that of ITO films deposited by conventional sputtering using an oxide target.

  3. Biological monitoring of the deposition and transport of radioactive aerosol particles in the Chernobyl NPP zone of influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorova, N.V.; Garger, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    Plants are one of the main links in the trophic chains of radionuclide transport. The role of plants in such transport was studied mainly in relation to soluble compounds of radionuclides, or to global fallout in which radionuclides were in soluble or exchangeable forms. The specifics of the Chernobyl accident led to the radioactivity occurring in particular forms, and the kinetics of radionuclide migration within trophic chains sometimes vary considerably from what was established in earlier experiments. It is important to study the interaction between plants and ''hot particles'', whose physico-chemical properties determine their non-solubility, which is characteristic, for example, of the carbides and oxides of some metals. When particles come into contact with plant surface tissues, ''dissolving'' factors come into play such as changes in the acidity of the solution or interaction with complex-forming compounds and organic materials exuded by the leaves of some plants. Thanks to these factors, many plants are capable of extracting compounds of low solubility from the soil minerals. Making use of macro- and micro-radioautography, we set out to estimate the rate of conversion of low-solubility radionuclide particles into biologically mobile forms of radionuclides accessible to plants; to study the density of fuel particle fallout in the near-ground layer of the atmosphere and to assess how this varies at different distances from the fallout source over time (during the four years following the accident, 1986-1989); to study the size of the particles deposited on the leaves of plants at various strata, their activity, morphology and behaviour when kept in the form of herbarium exhibits; and to assess the contribution of alpha-active particles to the general amount of fallout and how it changes over time. (author)

  4. Improvement of InN layers deposited on Si(111) by RF sputtering using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdueza-Felip, S.; Ibáñez, J.; Monroy, E.; González-Herráez, M.; Artús, L.; Naranjo, F.B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer on structural and optical properties of wurtzite nanocrystalline InN films deposited on Si(111) substrates by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The deposition conditions of the InN buffer layer were optimized in terms of morphological and structural quality, leading to films with surface root-mean-square roughness of ∼ 1 nm under low-growth-rate conditions (60 nm/h). The use of the developed InN buffer layer improves the crystalline quality of the subsequent InN thick films deposited at high growth rate (180 nm/h), as confirmed by the narrowing of X-ray diffraction peaks and the increase of the average grain size of the layers. This improvement of the structural quality is further confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements. Room temperature PL emission peaking at ∼ 1.58 eV is observed for InN samples grown with the developed buffer layer. The crystal and optical quality obtained for InN films grown on Si(111) using the low-growth-rate InN buffer layer become comparable to high-quality InN films deposited directly on GaN templates by RF sputtering. - Highlights: ► Improved RF-sputtered InN films on Si(111) using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer. ► Enhanced structural quality confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. ► Room-temperature photoluminescence emission at 1.58 eV. ► InN films deposited with buffer layer on Si comparable to InN LAYERS on GaN templates.

  5. Improvement of InN layers deposited on Si(111) by RF sputtering using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdueza-Felip, S., E-mail: sirona.valdueza@depeca.uah.es [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Ibanez, J. [Institut de Ciencies de la Terra Jaume Almera, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Monroy, E. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/NPSC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Gonzalez-Herraez, M. [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Artus, L. [Institut de Ciencies de la Terra Jaume Almera, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-31

    We investigate the influence of a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer on structural and optical properties of wurtzite nanocrystalline InN films deposited on Si(111) substrates by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The deposition conditions of the InN buffer layer were optimized in terms of morphological and structural quality, leading to films with surface root-mean-square roughness of {approx} 1 nm under low-growth-rate conditions (60 nm/h). The use of the developed InN buffer layer improves the crystalline quality of the subsequent InN thick films deposited at high growth rate (180 nm/h), as confirmed by the narrowing of X-ray diffraction peaks and the increase of the average grain size of the layers. This improvement of the structural quality is further confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements. Room temperature PL emission peaking at {approx} 1.58 eV is observed for InN samples grown with the developed buffer layer. The crystal and optical quality obtained for InN films grown on Si(111) using the low-growth-rate InN buffer layer become comparable to high-quality InN films deposited directly on GaN templates by RF sputtering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved RF-sputtered InN films on Si(111) using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced structural quality confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room-temperature photoluminescence emission at 1.58 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer InN films deposited with buffer layer on Si comparable to InN LAYERS on GaN templates.

  6. Final Report Real Time Monitoring of Rates of Subsurface Microbial Activity Associated with Natural Attenuation and Electron Donor Availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-03-22

    The project was successful in developing new sensing technologies for monitoring rates of microbial activity in soils and sediments and also developed a novel proof-of-concept for monitoring the presence of bioavailable concentrations of a diversity of metabolites and toxic components in sedimentary environments. These studies led not only to publications in the peer-reviewed literature, but also two patent applications and a start-up company.

  7. The rf-power dependences of the deposition rate, the hardness and the corrosion-resistance of the chromium nitride film deposited by using a dual ion beam sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jongmin; Lee, Chongmu

    2006-01-01

    The hexavalent chromium used in chromium plating is so toxic that it is very hazardous to human body and possibly causes cancer in humans. Therefore, it is indispensable to develop an alternative deposition technique. Dependences of the deposition rate, the phases, the hardness, the surface roughness and the corrosion-resistance of CrN x deposited on the high speed steel substrate by using a dual ion beam sputtering system on the rf-power were investigated to see the feasibility of sputtering as an alternative technique for chromium plating. The dual ion beam sputtering system used in this study was designed in such a way as the primary argon ion beam and the secondary nitrogen ion beam are injected toward the target and the substrate, respectively so that the chromium atoms at the chromium target surface may not nearly react with nitrogen atoms. The hardness and the surface roughness were measured by a micro-Vicker's hardness tester and an atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. X-ray diffraction analyses were performed to identify phases in the films. The deposition rate of CrN x depends more strongly upon the rf-power for argon ion beam than that for nitrogen ion beam. The hardness of the CrN x film is highest when the volume percent of the Cr 2 N phase in the film is highest. Amorphous films are obtained when the rf-power for nitrogen ion beam is much higher than that for argon ion beam. The CrN x film deposited by using the sputtering technique under the optimal condition provides corrosion-resistance comparable to that of the electroplated chromium

  8. Highly effective synthesis of NiO/CNT nanohybrids by atomic layer deposition for high-rate and long-life supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Wang, Guilong; Wan, Gengping; Wang, Guizhen; Lin, Shiwei; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Kan; Bai, Zhiming; Xiang, Yang

    2016-09-21

    In this work, we report an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for the fabrication of NiO/CNT hybrid structures in order to improve electronic conductivity, enhance cycling stability and increase rate capability of NiO used as supercapacitor electrodes. A uniform NiO coating can be well deposited on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through simultaneously employing O3 and H2O as oxidizing agents in a single ALD cycle of NiO for the first time, with a high growth rate of nearly 0.3 Å per cycle. The electrochemical properties of the as-prepared NiO/CNT were then investigated. The results show that the electrochemical capacitive properties are strongly associated with the thickness of the NiO coating. The NiO/CNT composite materials with 200 cycles of NiO deposition exhibit the best electrochemical properties, involving high specific capacitance (622 F g(-1) at 2 A g(-1), 2013 F g(-1) for NiO), excellent rate capability (74% retained at 50 A g(-1)) and outstanding cycling stability. The impressive results presented here suggest a great potential for the fabrication of composite electrode materials by atomic layer deposition applied in high energy density storage systems.

  9. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  10. Forehead reflectance photoplethysmography to monitor heart rate: preliminary results from neonatal patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M R; Carpenter, J; Crowe, J A; Teoh, J; Hayes-Gill, B R; Marlow, N; Ward, C; Mann, C; Sharkey, D

    2014-01-01

    Around 5%–10% of newborn babies require some form of resuscitation at birth and heart rate (HR) is the best guide of efficacy. We report the development and first trial of a device that continuously monitors neonatal HR, with a view to deployment in the delivery room to guide newborn resuscitation. The device uses forehead reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) with modulated light and lock-in detection. Forehead fixation has numerous advantages including ease of sensor placement, whilst perfusion at the forehead is better maintained in comparison to the extremities. Green light (525 nm) was used, in preference to the more usual red or infrared wavelengths, to optimize the amplitude of the pulsatile signal. Experimental results are presented showing simultaneous PPG and electrocardiogram (ECG) HRs from babies (n = 77), gestational age 26–42 weeks, on a neonatal intensive care unit. In babies ⩾32 weeks gestation, the median reliability was 97.7% at ±10 bpm and the limits of agreement (LOA) between PPG and ECG were +8.39 bpm and −8.39 bpm. In babies <32 weeks gestation, the median reliability was 94.8% at ±10 bpm and the LOA were +11.53 bpm and −12.01 bpm. Clinical evaluation during newborn deliveries is now underway. (paper)

  11. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías, R; García, M A; Ramos, J; Bragós, R; Fernández, M

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  12. Incidence Angle Effect of Energetic Carbon Ions on Deposition Rate, Topography, and Structure of Ultrathin Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, N.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of the incidence angle of energetic carbon ions on the thickness, topography, and structure of ultrathin amorphous carbon (a-C) films synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was examined in the context of numerical and experimental results. The thickness of a-C films deposited at different incidence angles was investigated in the light of Monte Carlo simulations, and the calculated depth profiles were compared with those obtained from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The topography and structure of the a-C films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The film thickness decreased with the increase of the incidence angle, while the surface roughness increased and the content of tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp 3) decreased significantly with the increase of the incidence angle above 45° , measured from the surface normal. TEM, AFM, and XPS results indicate that the smoothest and thinnest a-C films with the highest content of sp 3 carbon bonding were produced for an incidence angle of 45°. The findings of this study have direct implications in ultrahigh-density magnetic recording, where ultrathin and smooth a-C films with high sp 3 contents are of critical importance. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. The influences of anneal temperature and cooling rate on microstructure and tensile properties of laser deposited Ti–4Al–1.5Mn titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, X.J.; Zhang, S.Q.; Wang, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the heat treatment parameters of laser deposited near-α titanium alloy. • Microstructure/tensile property relationships are demonstrated and discussed. • Higher cooling rate leads to finer microstructure and higher strength. • Higher anneal temperature promotes strength without ductility obviously decreased. - Abstract: As a metal near-net-shape manufacturing technology, direct laser fabrication has a great potential to reduce costs and delivery time and received an intense attention in the field of titanium alloy aerospace components fabrications. However, the laser deposited titanium alloys usually have equivalent strength and lower ductility compared to the wrought counterparts due to their lamellar microstructure. To investigate the responses of laser deposit titanium alloy Ti–4Al–1.5Mn to anneal parameters, various anneal temperatures and cooling rates were applied in this study. Microstructures were examined by Optical Microscope (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Microhardness test and room temperature tensile tests were employed to evaluate the tensile properties of the as-deposited and annealed specimens. Results show that air cooling from the α + β phase region generates a microstructure composed of coarse primary α plates and fine lamellar transformed β, while water quenching produces similar but much finer microstructure. Moreover, higher cooling rate generates more area fraction of fine transformed β. With increasing anneal temperature, the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength increase for both cooling methods. Moreover, higher cooling rate leads to higher strength as expected. It is worth noting that both the strength and ductility of the laser deposited alloy improved by water quenched from the α + β duplex phase region. The improved tensile properties were mainly owing to the fine lamellar transformed β in the special bimodal microstructure

  14. Reasons why Plutonium 242 is the best fission chamber deposit to monitor the fast component of a high neutron flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filliatre, P. [CEA, DEN, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France)], E-mail: philippe.filliatre@cea.fr; Oriol, L.; Jammes, C. [CEA, DEN, SPEx/LDCI, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France); Vermeeren, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Laboratoire Commun d' Instrumentation CEA-SCK-CEN (France)

    2008-08-11

    The FNDS project aims at developing fission chambers to measure on-line the fast component of a high neutron flux ({approx}10{sup 14}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1} or more) with a significant thermal component. We identify with simulations the deposits of fission chambers that are best suited to this goal. We address the question of the evolution of the deposit by radiative capture and decay. A deposit of {sup 242}Pu appears as the best choice, with a high initial sensitivity to fast neutrons only slowly degrading under irradiation. The effect of unavoidable impurities was assessed: small concentrations of {sup 241}Pu and {sup 239}Pu can be tolerated.

  15. Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe; 2: atmospheric deposition and its impacts on soil solution chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Reinds, G.J.; Vel, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of air pollution and other stress factors on forests, a Pan-European programme for intensive and continuous monitoring of forest ecosystems has been implemented in 1994. Results of this intensive monitoring programme presented in this paper are

  16. Measurement and monitoring of entrance exposure dose rate in X-ray image intensifier television with dose rate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J [Bezirkskrankenhaus Brandenburg (German Democratic Republic)

    1981-03-01

    For X-ray image intensifier television operation very low entrance dose rates (about 5.2 nA/kg) are stated and demanded, respectively. These required values are often manifold exceeded in practice so that a check seems to be necessary. It is shown and proved how these measurements can be performed with simple, generally available means of measurement in the radiological practice. For ZnCdS-image intensifiers should be considered that about 13 nA/kg for the large entrance size are not to be exceeded; for the CsI type lower values (factor 1.5) are practicable because of the twofold quantum absorption efficiency. Furthermore, some tests for a semiquantitative function check of the automatic dose rate control are proposed.

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Structure Monitoring during Integrated Leakage Rate Testing Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As the last barrier of nuclear reactor, prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs play an important role in nuclear power plants (NPPs. To test the mechanical property of PCCV during the integrated leakage rate testing (ILRT, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor was used to monitor concrete strain. In addition, a finite element method (FEM model was built to simulate the progress of the ILRT. The results showed that the strain monitored by FBG had the same trend compared to the inner pressure variation. The calculation results showed a similar trend compared with the monitoring results and provided much information about the locations in which the strain sensors should be installed. Therefore, it is confirmed that FBG sensors and FEM simulation are very useful in PCCV structure monitoring.

  18. Polarization (ellipsometric) measurements of liquid condensate deposition and evaporation rates and dew points in flowing salt/ash-containing combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, K.; Rosner, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    An application of an optical polarization technique in a combustion environment is demonstrated by following, in real-time, growth rates of boric oxide condensate on heated platinum ribbons exposed to seeded propane-air combustion gases. The results obtained agree with the results of earlier interference measurements and also with theoretical chemical vapor deposition predictions. In comparison with the interference method, the polarization technique places less stringent requirements on surface quality, which may justify the added optical components needed for such measurements.

  19. Monitoring and prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in military veterans with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameed Ahmed M Khatana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with serious mental illness (SMI and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors--is significantly higher in these patients than in the general population. Metabolic monitoring among patients using second generation antipsychotics (SGAs--a risk factor for metabolic syndrome--has been shown to be inadequate despite the release of several guidelines. However, patients with SMI have several factors independent of medication use that predispose them to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Our study therefore examines monitoring and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI, including those not using SGAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively identified all patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder during 2005-2006 and obtained demographic and clinical data. Incomplete monitoring of metabolic syndrome was defined as being unable to determine the status of at least one of the syndrome components. Of the 1,401 patients included (bipolar disorder: 822; schizophrenia: 222; and schizoaffective disorder: 357, 21.4% were incompletely monitored. Only 54.8% of patients who were not prescribed SGAs and did not have previous diagnoses of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were monitored for all metabolic syndrome components compared to 92.4% of patients who had all three of these characteristics. Among patients monitored for metabolic syndrome completely, age-adjusted prevalence of the syndrome was 48.4%, with no significant difference between the three psychiatric groups. CONCLUSIONS: Only one half of patients with SMI not using SGAs or previously diagnosed with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were completely monitored for metabolic syndrome components compared to greater than 90% of those with these characteristics

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING LINDEN TREE LEAVES AS NATURAL TRAPS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION: A PILOT STUDY IN TRANSILVANIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHÁLY BRAUN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution caused by toxic elements is an emerging problem of concern. Tree leaves have been widely used as indicator of atmospheric pollutions and they are effective alternatives to the moreusual biomonitoring methods. Tree leaves can be used as natural traps of atmospheric deposition. Elemental composition of dust deposited onto leaf surfaces can be used to characterize the urban environment. A pilot survey including 16 Romanian settlements was carried out in order to evaluate the characteristics and sources of air pollutants. Tree leaves (Tilia tomentosa, Tilia cordata, Tilia platyphyllos were collected and used for the measurements. Elemental analyses were carried out by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Principal component and discriminant analyses were used to characterizing and estimating the level of pollution. Settlements were grouped on the basis of discriminant function values. Multivariate comparison of chemical data ordered the settlements into 3 main groups, which showed a systematic geographic distribution.

  1. Regional monitoring of metals in the Munich metropolitan area: Comparison of biomonitoring (standardized grass culture) with deposition and airborne particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietl, C.; Reifenhaeuser, W.; Vierle, O.; Peichl, L.; Faus-Kessler, Th.

    2000-01-01

    In the Munich metropolitan area a close association of lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb) impacts with traffic was observed in 1992 and 1993. The intercorrelation of both metals was found by samples of standardised grass cultures and was reflected by deposition sampling, too. With respect to location-specific variations, however, both methods revealed differing gradients of Pb and Sb concentrations with increasing distance from traffic. It appeared that Sb variations according to traffic implications were particularly well indicated by means of biomonitoring, while Pb variations were not indicated adequately. As a result, a special qualification of grass to selectively collect metals on airborne dust according to particle sizes was suggested. Further investigations on the correlations between metal biomonitoring, metal deposition and airborne metals in 1994 - 1996 corroborated method-specific sampling features. They in turn showed that one interference is the individual prevalence of the metals on different particle sizes. (author)

  2. SSDL quality assurance for environmental dose/dose rate monitoring of photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Member states of IAEA have recently approved an expanded Nuclear Safety Programme and two International Conventions have been signed. One concerns early notification of a nuclear accident, and the other concerns assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. In the course of the implementation of these conventions an international system will be established by the Agency for the reception and dissemination of data following a nuclear accident. Such data should include the results of radiation measurements obtained by radiation monitoring. These data must be reliable, and comparable. This assures that numerical values of measured quantities obtained at different times, sites and countries, and with different instruments, can be compared in order that the competent authorities may draw conclusions. Such measurements may also have legal consequences. This implies that the instruments used for the measurement should comply with the relevant international specifications, and that the readings of these instruments be traceable to the international measurement system. At a meeting of an expert working group on International Cooperation in Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection held in November 1986, a proposal to produce a technical document on ''The role of SSDLs in the quality assurance programme relating to the use of dose and dose rate meters for personal and environmental measurements'' received high priority, and at a subsequent meeting of the Board of Governors the proposal was approved. Prior to these proposals the SSDL Scientific Committee at its annual meeting in May 1986 also advised the IAEA to promote measures to ensure world wide reliability and traceability of dose measurements in the field of radiation protection. On 26-30 January 1987 an Advisory Group Meeting on ''The role of SSDLs in the dosimetry of unintentional radiation exposures'' was organized by the IAEA. This Advisory Group assisted the Agency in the formulation of a

  3. Optimizing the data acquisition rate for a remotely controllable structural monitoring system with parallel operation and self-adaptive sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Wenjuan; Guo, Aihuang; Liu, Yang; Azmi, Asrul Izam; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel technique that optimizes the real-time remote monitoring and control of dispersed civil infrastructures. The monitoring system is based on fiber Bragg gating (FBG) sensors, and transfers data via Ethernet. This technique combines parallel operation and self-adaptive sampling to increase the data acquisition rate in remote controllable structural monitoring systems. The compact parallel operation mode is highly efficient at achieving the highest possible data acquisition rate for the FBG sensor based local data acquisition system. Self-adaptive sampling is introduced to continuously coordinate local acquisition and remote control for data acquisition rate optimization. Key issues which impact the operation of the whole system, such as the real-time data acquisition rate, data processing capability, and buffer usage, are investigated. The results show that, by introducing parallel operation and self-adaptive sampling, the data acquisition rate can be increased by several times without affecting the system operating performance on both local data acquisition and remote process control

  4. A consideration of two biochemical approaches to monitoring human populations for a change in germ cell mutation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.; Mohrenweiser, H.; Satoh, Chiyoko; Hamilton, H.B.

    1978-10-01

    This report presents two different strategies for monitoring increased mutation rates resulting from exposure to an environmental mutagen, both of which are based on the detection of biochemical variants of polypeptides. Using the first strategy, one monitors a defined population continuously for the rate at which children with such a variant are born to normal parents. An increase in this rate implies increasing exposure to a mutagen. With the second strategy, one contrasts the findings in the children born to a control group or groups with the findings in the children born to an exposed group, however this is defined. An example of each strategy is included. The alternatives to mutation which must be considered when a child with a variant is found to have nonaffected parents are considered. The numbers of individuals necessary to detect an increase of a specified magnitude are discussed. (author)

  5. Trends in air concentration and deposition at background monitoring sites in Sweden - major inorganic compounds, heavy metals and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, K.; Svensson, Annika; Sjoeberg, K.; Pihl Karlsson, G.

    2001-09-01

    This report describes concentrations in air of sulphur compounds, soot, nitrogen compounds and ozone in Sweden between 1985-1998. Time trends of concentration in precipitation and deposition of sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity, base cations and chloride in six different regions covering Sweden are evaluated during the period 1983-1998. Trends of heavy metals in precipitation have been analysed for the period 1983-1998 and the change in heavy metal concentration, 1975-1995, in mosses is described. Data used in the trend analyses originates from measurements performed at six Swedish EMEP stations and from approximately 25 stations within the national Precipitation Chemistry Network. Two different statistical methods, linear regression and the non-parametric Mann Kendall test, have been used to evaluate changes in annual mean values. Time trends of concentration of sulphur dioxide, particulate sulphate, soot, nitrogen dioxide, total nitrate and total ammonium in air show highly significant decreasing trends, except for soot at one station in northern Sweden. Concentrations of ozone have a strong seasonal variation with a peak occurring in spring every year. However, annual ozone concentrations show no obvious trends in spite of decreasing emissions of the precursors NOx and VOC. A slight indication of a decreasing trend in the number of ozone episodes might be seen from 1990 to 1998. Sulphate concentrations in precipitation and deposition show strongly significant decreasing trends in the whole country. Concentrations and deposition of nitrate and ammonium have been decreasing in all areas except for nitrate at stations in south-west and north-west Sweden and ammonium in south-west Sweden. Acidity has decreased in all areas since 1989, resulting in increasing pH values in Sweden. The interannual variations of concentration and deposition of base cations and chloride are large and few general trends can be seen during 1983-1997. Time trends of four heavy metals in

  6. Factors controlling present-day tufa dynamics in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (Iberian Range, Spain): depositional environmental settings, sedimentation rates and hydrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Urbez, M.; Arenas, C.; Sancho, C.; Osácar, C.; Auqué, L.; Pardo, G.

    2010-07-01

    The tufa record and hydrochemical characteristics of the River Piedra in the Monasterio de Piedra Natural Park (NE Spain) were studied for 6 years. The mean discharge of this river was 1.22 m3/s. The water was supersaturated with calcium carbonate. The HCO3 -, Ca2+ and TDIC concentrations decreased along the 0.5-km-long studied stretch, whereas the calcite SI showed no systematic downstream or seasonal variation over the same stretch. Several sedimentary subenvironments exist in which four broad types of tufa facies form: (1) Dense laminated tufa (stromatolites), (2) Dense to porous, massive tufa, (3) Porous, coarsely laminated tufa with bryophytes and algae, and (4) Dense, hard, laminated deposits in caves. The half-yearly period thickness and weight of sediment accumulated on 14 tablets installed in several subenvironments showed that the deposition rate was greater in fast flowing river areas and in stepped waterfalls, and lower in slow flowing or standing river areas and in spray and splash areas. Mechanical CO2 outgassing is the main factor controlling calcite precipitation on the river bed and in waterfalls, but this process does not explain the seasonal changes in depositional rates. The deposition rates showed a half-yearly period pattern recorded in all fluvial subenvironments persistent over time (5.26 mm, 0.86 g/cm2 in warm periods; 2.26 mm, 0.13 g/cm2 in cool periods). Mass balance calculations showed higher calcite mass values in warm (21.58 mg/L) than in cool (13.68 mg/L) periods. This biannual variation is mainly attributed to the seasonal differences in temperature that caused changes in inorganic calcite precipitation rate and in biomass and the correlative photosynthetic activity. Tufa sedimentation was therefore controlled by both physicochemical and biological processes. The results of this study may help test depositional rates and their environmental controls and thus assess the climatic and hydrological significance of ancient tufas in semi

  7. Effects of episodic sediment supply on bedload transport rate in mountain rivers. Detecting debris flow activity using continuous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Taro; Sakurai, Wataru; Iuchi, Takuma; Izumiyama, Hiroaki; Borgatti, Lisa; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring of sediment transport from hillslopes to channel networks as a consequence of floods with suspended and bedload transport, hyperconcentrated flows, debris and mud flows is essential not only for scientific issues, but also for prevention and mitigation of natural disasters, i.e. for hazard assessment, land use planning and design of torrent control interventions. In steep, potentially unstable terrains, ground-based continuous monitoring of hillslope and hydrological processes is still highly localized and expensive, especially in terms of manpower. In recent years, new seismic and acoustic methods have been developed for continuous bedload monitoring in mountain rivers. Since downstream bedload transport rate is controlled by upstream sediment supply from tributary channels and bed-external sources, continuous bedload monitoring might be an effective tool for detecting the sediments mobilized by debris flow processes in the upper catchment and thus represent an indirect method to monitor slope instability processes at the catchment scale. However, there is poor information about the effects of episodic sediment supply from upstream bed-external sources on downstream bedload transport rate at a single flood time scale. We have examined the effects of sediment supply due to upstream debris flow events on downstream bedload transport rate along the Yotagiri River, central Japan. To do this, we have conducted continuous bedload observations using a hydrophone (Japanese pipe microphone) located 6.4 km downstream the lower end of a tributary affected by debris flows. Two debris flows occurred during the two-years-long observation period. As expected, bedload transport rate for a given flow depth showed to be larger after storms triggering debris flows. That is, although the magnitude of sediment supply from debris flows is not large, their effect on bedload is propagating >6 km downstream at a single flood time scale. This indicates that continuous bedload

  8. Thermomechanical response of 3D laser-deposited Ti–6Al–4V alloy over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng-Hui [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Guo, Wei-Guo, E-mail: weiguo@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Huang, Wei-Dong [The State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Su, Yu [Department of Mechanics, School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Lin, Xin [The State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Yuan, Kang-Bo [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2015-10-28

    To understand and evaluate the thermomechanical property of Ti–6Al–4V alloy prepared by the 3D laser deposition technology, an uniaxial compression test was performed on cylindrical samples using an electronic universal testing machine and enhanced Hopkinson technique, over the range of strain rate from 0.001/s to 5000/s, and at initial temperatures from the room temperature to 1173 K. The microstructure of the undeformed and deformed samples was examined through optical microscopy and the use of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The experimental results show the followings: (1) the anisotropy of the mechanical property of this alloy is not significant despite the visible stratification at the exterior surfaces; (2) initial defects, such as the initial voids and lack of fusion, are found in the microstructure and in the crack surfaces of the deformed samples, and they are considered as a major source of crack initiation and propagation; (3) adiabatic shear bands and shearing can easily develop at all selected temperatures for samples under compression; (4) the yield and ultimate strengths of this laser-deposited Ti–6Al–4V alloy are both lower than those of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy prepared by forging and electron beam melting, whereas both of its strengths are higher than those of a conventional grade Ti–6Al–4V alloy at high strain rate only. In addition to compression tests we also conducted tensile loading tests on the laser-deposited alloy at both low and high strain rates (0.1/s and 1000/s). There is significant tension/compression asymmetry in the mechanical response under high-strain-rate loading. It was found that the quasi-static tensile fracturing exhibits typical composite fracture characteristic with quasi-cleavages and dimples, while the high-strain-rate fracturing is characterized by ductile fracture behavior.

  9. Surface analysis monitoring of polyelectrolyte deposition on Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Cruz, Angel L.; Fachini, Estevao R.; Miranda, Felix A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2007-01-01

    Thin films are currently gaining interest in many areas such as integrated optics, sensors, friction, reducing coatings, surface orientation layers, and general industrial applications. Recently, molecular self-assembling techniques have been applied for thin film deposition of electrically conducting polymers, conjugated polymers for light-emitting devices, nanoparticles, and noncentrosymmetric-ordered second order nonlinear optical (NOL) devices. Polyelectrolytes self-assemblies have been used to prepare thin films. The alternate immersion of a charged surface in polyannion and a polycation solution leads usually to the formation of films known as polyelectrolyte multilayers. These polyanion and polycation structures are not neutral. However, charge compensation appears on the surface. This constitutes the building driving force of the polyelectrolyte multilayer films. The present approach consists of two parts: (a) the chemisorption of 11-mercaptoundecylamine (MUA) to construct a self-assembled monolayer with the consequent protonation of the amine, and (b) the deposition of opposite charged polyelectrolytes in a sandwich fashion. The approach has the advantage that ionic attraction between opposite charges is the driving force for the multilayer buildup. For our purposes, the multilayer of polyelectrolytes depends on the quality of the surface needed for the application. In many cases, this approach will be used in a way that the roughness factor defects will be diminished. The polyelectrolytes selected for the study were: polystyrene sulfonate sodium salt (PSS), poly vinylsulfate potassium salt (PVS), and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH), as shown in . The deposition of polyelectrolytes was carried out by a dipping procedure with the corresponding polyelectrolyte. Monitoring of the alternate deposition of polyelectrolyte bilayers was done by surface analysis techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), specular reflectance infrared (IR), and

  10. Influences of oxygen gas flow rate on electrical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass and sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hisao; Song, Huaping; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films deposited on glass and c-plane sapphire substrates have been comparatively studied in order to explore the role of grain boundaries in electrical properties. The influences of oxygen gas flow rates (OFRs) during the deposition by ion-plating were examined. The dependences of carrier concentration, lattice parameters, and characteristic of thermal desorption of Zn on the OFR showed common features between glass and sapphire substrates, however, the Hall mobility showed different behavior. The Hall mobility of GZO films on glass increased with increasing OFR of up to 15 sccm, and decreased with further increasing OFR. On the other hand, the Hall mobility of GZO films on c-sapphire increased for up to 25 sccm. The role of grain boundary in polycrystalline GZO films has been discussed. - Highlights: • Ga-doped ZnO films were deposited on glass and c-sapphire by ion-plating. • The epitaxial growth on c-sapphire was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. • Dependence of Hall mobility showed different tendency between glass and sapphire. • Grain boundaries influence transport properties at high O 2 gas flow rate

  11. Effect of the hydrogen flow rate on the structural and optical properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Amor, Sana; Dimassi, Wissem; Ali Tebai, Mohamed; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Photovoltaic Laboratory Research and Technology Centre of Energy, Borj-Cedria Science and Technology Park, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2012-10-15

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films were deposited from pure silane (SiH{sub 4}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas mixture by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method at low temperature (400 C) using high rf power (60 W). The structural and optical properties of these films are systematically investigated as a function of the flow rate of hydrogen (F{sub H2}).The surface morphology is analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterization of these films with low angle X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystallite size in the films tends to decrease with increase in (F{sub H2}). The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis showed that at low values of (F{sub H2}),the hydrogen bonding in Si:H films shifts from di-hydrogen (Si-H{sub 2}) and (Si-H{sub 2})n complexes to the mono-hydrogen (Si-H) bonding configuration. Finally, for these optimized conditions, the deposition rate decreases with increasing (F{sub H2}). (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. The use of crowdsourcing for dietary self-monitoring: crowdsourced ratings of food pictures are comparable to ratings by trained observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Helander, Elina E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Perez-Macias, Jose Maria; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-04-01

    Crowdsourcing dietary ratings for food photographs, which uses the input of several users to provide feedback, has potential to assist with dietary self-monitoring. This study assessed how closely crowdsourced ratings of foods and beverages contained in 450 pictures from the Eatery mobile app as rated by peer users (fellow Eatery app users) (n = 5006 peers, mean 18.4 peer ratings/photo) using a simple 'healthiness' scale were related to the ratings of the same pictures by trained observers (raters). In addition, the foods and beverages present in each picture were categorized and the impact on the peer rating scale by food/beverage category was examined. Raters were trained to provide a 'healthiness' score using criteria from the 2010 US Dietary Guidelines. The average of all three raters' scores was highly correlated with the peer healthiness score for all photos (r = 0.88, pcrowdsourcing holds potential to provide basic feedback on overall diet quality to users utilizing a low burden approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Facilitating control of fed-batch fermentation processes by monitoring the growth rates of saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulers, M.L.B.; Ariaans, L.J.J.M.; Soeterboek, R.; Giuseppin, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a growth rate controller for a fed-batch bioprocess. An observer estimates the growth rate. The observer is based on knowledge about the stoichiometric relations of the process. Furthermore, the observer needs online measurements of the oxygen uptake rate and the

  14. Monitoring of ovarian activity by measurement of urinary excretion rates of estrone glucuronide and pregnanediol glucuronide using the Ovarian Monitor, Part II: reliability of home testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Leonard F; Vigil, Pilar; Gross, Barbara; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Cooke, Delwyn G; Brown, James B

    2012-02-01

    The UNDP/WHO/World Bank/Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (Geneva) set up a study to determine whether it is feasible for women to monitor their ovarian activity reliably by home testing. Daily self-monitoring of urinary hormone metabolites for menstrual cycle assessment was evaluated by comparison of results obtained with the Home Ovarian Monitor by untrained users both at home and in study centres. Women collected daily data for urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG) for two cycles, then the procedure was repeated in the women's local centre (in Chile, Australia or New Zealand) giving a total of 113 duplicate cycles. The tests were performed without the benefit of replicates or quality controls. The home and centre cycles were normalized and compared to identify assay errors, and the resulting home and centre menstrual cycle profiles were averaged. Reliable mean cycle profiles were obtained with the home and centre excretion rates agreeing to within 36 ± 21 nmol/24 h for E1G and 0.77 ± 0.28 µmol/24 h for baseline PdG values (1-5 µmol/24 h). The cycles had a mean length of 28.1 ± 3.1 days (n = 112; 5th and 95th percentiles: 24 and 35 days, respectively), a mean follicular phase of 14.8 ± 3.1 days (n = 107; 5th and 95th percentiles: 11 and 21 days) and a mean luteal phase length of 13.3 ± 1.5 days (n = 106; 5th and 95th percentiles: 11 and 17 days), calculated from the day of the LH peak. The study confirmed that the Ovarian Monitor pre-coated assay tubes worked well even in the hands of lay users, without standard curves, quality controls or replicates. Point-of-care monitoring to give reliable fertility data is feasible.

  15. Certified reference materials - beech leaves and spruce needles - for the quality control in monitoring damage in forests by acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, E A; Griepink, B [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Community Bureau of Reference; Muntau, H [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    1989-12-01

    The chemical determination of various elements in leaves or needles allows to establish the damage caused by acid deposition. To control the quality of such determinations the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) produced two Certified Reference Materials: Beech leaves (CRM No. 100) and Spruce needles (CRM No. 101). After a careful preparation procedure, a homogeneity study and a long term stability study, the materials were certified for: Cl, N, P and S in CRM No. 100, Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, N, P, S and Zn in CRM No. 101. Indicative values on the content of 19 majors and trace elements are also reported. (orig.).

  16. Monitoring of radiation in airdust, deposition and an overall country milk sample. Results in the Netherlands in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overwater, R.M.W.; Aldenkamp, F.J.; Drost, R.M.S; Glastra, P.; Hiemastra, Y.S.; Kik, M.J.; Koolwijk, A.C.; Koolwijk, A.C.; Kwakman, P.J.M.; Koops, J.C.; Van Lunenburg, A.P.P.A.; Nissan, L.; Ockhuizen, A.; Reinen, H.A.J.M.; Tax, R.B.; Tijsmans, M.H.; Van Zanten, R.

    1998-02-01

    The results of radiation measurements of the atmosphere in the Netherlands by the RIVM Laboratory of Radiation Research (LSO) are presented for the year 1996. The programme of RIVM/LSO includes samples of airdust and deposition taken at the RIVM premises in Bilthoven, Netherlands. An overall country milk sample, a mixture of milk samples from four milk factories in the Netherlands, was also analysed. In 1996, the yearly average gross alpha-activity and gross beta-activity concentrations in airdust sampled with a high volume sampler were 0.0671 ± 0.0009 (SD 0.03) and 0.540 ± 0.003 (SD 0.33) mBq.m -3 , where SD illustrates the variation in weekly averages during the year. These values are of the same order as those of the period 1992-1995. The yearly average activity concentrations in airdust, measured using gamma-spectroscopy, for the nuclides 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pb were 3890 ± 50 (SD 1320), 1.60 ± 0.03 (SD 1.2) and 500 ± 10 (SD 390) mBq.m-3. The yearly total gross alpha- and gross beta-activities of the deposition in Bilthoven, Netherlands, were 16.4 ± 1.5 and 67 ± 5 Bq.m-2, and the yearly total deposition of 3H was 970 ± 50 Bq.m-2. The total activities of 137Cs, 7Be and 210Pb in deposition were 0.55 ± 0.03, 920 ± 20 and 64.9 ± 1.6 Bq.m-2, respectively. The 210Pb-analysis and 210Po-analysis results obtained using alpha-spectroscopy were 57 ± 3 and 9 ± 2 Bq.m-2. These activities are all of the same order as those in previous years. The yearly average concentration of 137Cs in consumer milk from a nationwide sample mix was 0.073 ± 0.010 Bq.L-1, which is almost equal to that of the previous year. The results for 90Sr are lower than the detection limit of 0.2 Bq.L-1. 22 refs

  17. Study of optimal operation management by a monitoring system for corrosion and heat-transfer rate of condensate pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Katsmi; Kominami, Hirohiko; Atsumi, Tetsuro; Nagata, Koji (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Sumitomo Light Metal Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-09-26

    In order to optimize the anticorrosion and antifouling management of aluminum brass condensate pipes, the monitoring system was developed, which could control a corrosion resistance and heat transfer rate during operation. Since a polarization resistance could be used as an index for anticorrosion control, while a heat transmission coefficient or cleanliness factor for heat transfer control, a polarization resistance meter and fouling meter were made as prototype detectors. Fundamental test of a model condenser (simulated by-pass pipe) was performed using a processing system combined with the meters, and monitored data and analytical data of the test were arranged. System performance was ascertained to be preferable by the verification test on a real condenser, however, more compact system was required for practical use because of restriction in by-pass pipe installation. In addition to the monitoring function, a control function for sponge ball cleaning and iron ion injection was also added to keep the specified index value. 13 figs,. 1 tab.

  18. Evaluation of the environmental equivalent dose rate using area monitors for neutrons in clinical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Ana Paula; Pereira, Walsan Wagner; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Batista, Delano V.S.

    2009-01-01

    The Neutron Laboratory of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute - IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, initiated studies on the process of calibration of neutron area monitors and the results of the measurements performed at radiotherapy treatment rooms, containing clinical accelerators

  19. Monitoring the heavy metal atmospheric deposition in Romania using the neutron activation analysis of bio-indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaciu, Adriana

    1997-01-01

    This research is the direct result of a protocol between NIPNE-HH Bucharest, Romania and JINR-Dubna, Russia on one side, and NIPNE-HH Bucharest, Romania and the University of Trondheim, Norway on the other side. Since the summer of 1995, a systematic sampling of bio-indicators has been carried out. The bio-indicators are represented by three species of bryophytes with an endemic development in the Romanian area: Hylocomium splendens, Hypnum cupresiforme and Pleurozium schreberi. A large area of 45,000 km 2 , including the Carpathian Arch between the Olt River Gorge (Southern Carpathian Mountains) and the northern Romanian border (Eastern Carpathian Mountains) was covered. Some of the samples were prepared in the laboratory and analyzed by nuclear analysis methods of a high sensitivity and accuracy i.e., neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Other samples are to be prepared and analyzed. The results will be shown as distribution maps for heavy metal concentrations in the studied area. The analysis were carried out at NIPNE-HH-Bucharest, JINR-Dubna and Trondheim University. Part of the results have already been included in the European Atlas of the Heavy Metal Atmospheric Depositions, published by the Northern Countries Council. The distribution maps of atmospheric depositions in Romania will also be included in the above mentioned Atlas. (author)

  20. Fourth IRMF comparison of calibrations of portable gamma-ray dose- rate monitors 2001-2002 Ionising radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, V E

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a fourth comparison of calibrations of gamma-ray dose-rate monitors in which fifteen establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three gamma-ray monitors for calibration in the fields produced using sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and sup 6 sup 0 Co. The instruments used were an Electra with MC 20 probe, a Mini-Instruments Mini-rad 1000 and a Siemens electronic personal dosemeter Mk 2 (EPD). The responses relative to 'true' dose equivalent rate were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the facilities and fields employed. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments. However, the participants' treatment of uncertainties needs improvement and demonstrates a need for guidance in this area.

  1. Performance of a GM tube based environmental dose rate monitor operating in the Time-To-Count mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zickefoose, J.; Kulkarni, T.; Martinson, T.; Phillips, K.; Voelker, M. [Canberra Industries Inc. (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in the aftermath of a natural disaster underline the importance of a large array of networked environmental monitors to cover areas around nuclear power plants. These monitors should meet a few basic criteria: have a uniform response over a wide range of gamma energies, have a uniform response over a wide range of incident angles, and have a large dynamic range. Many of these criteria are met if the probe is qualified to the international standard IEC 60532 (Radiation protection instrumentation - Installed dose rate meters, warning assemblies and monitors - X and gamma radiation of energy between 50 keV and 7 MeV), which specifically deals with energy response, angle of incidence, dynamic range, response time, and a number of environmental characteristics. EcoGamma is a dual GM tube environmental gamma radiation monitor designed specifically to meet the requirements of IEC 60532 and operate in the most extreme conditions. EcoGamma utilizes two energy compensated GM tubes operating with a Time-To-Count (TTC) collection algorithm. The TTC algorithm extends the lifetime and range of a GM tube significantly and allows the dual GM tube probe to achieve linearity over approximately 10 decades of gamma dose rate (from the Sv/hr range to 100 Sv/hr). In the TTC mode of operation, the GM tube is not maintained in a biased condition continuously. This is different from a traditional counting system where the GM tube is held at a constant bias continuously and the total number of strikes that the tube registers are counted. The traditional approach allows for good sensitivity, but does not lend itself to a long lifetime of the tube and is susceptible to linearity issues at high count rates. TTC on the other hand only biases the tube for short periods of time and in effect measures the time between events, which is statistically representative of the total strike rate. Since the tube is not continually biased, the life of the tube

  2. Performance of a GM tube based environmental dose rate monitor operating in the Time-To-Count mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zickefoose, J.; Kulkarni, T.; Martinson, T.; Phillips, K.; Voelker, M.

    2015-01-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in the aftermath of a natural disaster underline the importance of a large array of networked environmental monitors to cover areas around nuclear power plants. These monitors should meet a few basic criteria: have a uniform response over a wide range of gamma energies, have a uniform response over a wide range of incident angles, and have a large dynamic range. Many of these criteria are met if the probe is qualified to the international standard IEC 60532 (Radiation protection instrumentation - Installed dose rate meters, warning assemblies and monitors - X and gamma radiation of energy between 50 keV and 7 MeV), which specifically deals with energy response, angle of incidence, dynamic range, response time, and a number of environmental characteristics. EcoGamma is a dual GM tube environmental gamma radiation monitor designed specifically to meet the requirements of IEC 60532 and operate in the most extreme conditions. EcoGamma utilizes two energy compensated GM tubes operating with a Time-To-Count (TTC) collection algorithm. The TTC algorithm extends the lifetime and range of a GM tube significantly and allows the dual GM tube probe to achieve linearity over approximately 10 decades of gamma dose rate (from the Sv/hr range to 100 Sv/hr). In the TTC mode of operation, the GM tube is not maintained in a biased condition continuously. This is different from a traditional counting system where the GM tube is held at a constant bias continuously and the total number of strikes that the tube registers are counted. The traditional approach allows for good sensitivity, but does not lend itself to a long lifetime of the tube and is susceptible to linearity issues at high count rates. TTC on the other hand only biases the tube for short periods of time and in effect measures the time between events, which is statistically representative of the total strike rate. Since the tube is not continually biased, the life of the tube

  3. Use of air sampling data from uranium mills to estimate respiratory tract deposition rates for inhaled yellowcake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium aerosols generated during normal yellowcake packaging operations were sampled at four uranium mills. Samplers located in the packaging area were operated before, during and after drums of dried yellowcake were filled and sealed. Mediar aerosol concentrations ranged from 0.04 μg U/l to 0.34 μg U/1 during the routine packaging operations at the four mills. The aerosols were heterogeneous and included a broad range of particle sizes. Both the concentrations and particle size distributions varied with time. Aerosol characteristics could often be related to individual packaging steps. Sampling of yellowcake by hand from a filled open drum to measure the yellowcake moisture content need not pose a unique hazard to the operator. The combined results show that appreciable amounts of airborne uranium would be expected to deposit in the nasopharyngeal compartment of the respiratory tract if inhaled by a worker not wearing respiratory protection

  4. An expert system for corrosion rate monitoring and diagnosis in the heating circuits of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducelli, C.; Conte, E.; Federico, A.G.; Tripi, A.; Ronchetti, C.

    1988-01-01

    The radiation field of out of core components of a water reactor primary plant depends on corrosion product equilibria. The computer programs that try to simulate the behaviour of the corrosion products and the radiation build up didn't provide good results, especially in describing several different plants with the same program. In order to obtain better results the authors decided to use a different approach, building an expert system, which performs on-line corrosion rate monitoring by means of a number of probes connected to an automatic corrosimeter, evaluates expected corrosion rate values and behaviours, and, if there are discrepancies, performs a diagnosis, providing suggestions to overcome the difficulty. (author)

  5. Using preventive home monitoring to reduce hospital admission rates and reduce costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Birthe Irene; Haesum, Lisa K E; Soerensen, Natascha

    2012-01-01

    We studied whether preventive home monitoring of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could reduce the frequency of hospital admissions and lower the cost of hospitalization. Patients were recruited from a health centre, general practitioner (GP) or the pulmonary hospital ward....... They were randomized to usual care or tele-rehabilitation with a telehealth monitoring device installed in their home for four months. A total of 111 patients were suitable for inclusion and consented to be randomized: 60 patients were allocated to intervention and three were lost to follow...... of admissions was €3461 per patient in the intervention group and €4576 in the control group; this difference was not significant. The Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to hospital admission were longer for the intervention group than the controls, but the difference was not significant. Future work requires...

  6. Determination of void fraction from source range monitor and mass flow rate data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    This is a report on the calculation of the TMI-2 primary coolant system local void fraction from source range neutron flux monitor data and from hot leg mass flowrate meter data during the first 100 minutes of the accident. The methods of calculation of void fraction from the two data sources is explained and the results are compared. It is indicated that the void fraction determined using the mass flowrate data contained an error of unknown magnitude due to the assumption of constant homogeneous volumetric flowrate used in the calculation and required further work. Void fraction determined from the source range monitor data is felt to be usable although an uncertainty analysis has not been performed

  7. Monitoring oral temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) during capture and handling in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arthur W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Stamper, M. Andrew; Colee, James; Powell, James A.; Reid, James P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Harr, Kendal E.

    2012-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are captured, handled, and transported to facilitate conservation, research, and rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring manatee oral temperature (OT), heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RR) during out-of-water handling can assist efforts to maintain animal well-being and improve medical response to evidence of declining health. To determine effects of capture on manatee vital signs, we monitored OT, HR, and RR continuously for a 50-min period in 38 healthy, awake, juvenile and adult Florida manatees (T. m. latirostris) and 48 similar Antillean manatees (T. m. manatus). We examined creatine kinase (CK), potassium (K+), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate values for each animal to assess possible systemic inflammation and muscular trauma. OT range was 29.5 to 36.2° C, HR range was 32 to 88 beats/min, and RR range was 0 to 17 breaths/5 min. Antillean manatees had higher initial OT, HR, and RR than Florida manatees (p capture and handling in the field or in a captive care setting.

  8. D2O clusters isolated in rare-gas solids: Dependence of infrared spectrum on concentration, deposition rate, heating temperature, and matrix material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi; Arakawa, Ichiro; Yamakawa, Koichiro

    2018-04-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of D2O monomers and clusters isolated in rare-gas matrices were systematically reinvestigated under the control of the following factors: the D2O concentration, deposition rate, heating temperature, and rare-gas species. We clearly show that the cluster-size distribution is dependent on not only the D2O concentration but also the deposition rate of a sample; as the rate got higher, smaller clusters were preferentially formed. Under the heating procedures at different temperatures, the cluster-size growth was successfully observed. Since the monomer diffusion was not enough to balance the changes in the column densities of the clusters, the dimer diffusion was likely to contribute the cluster growth. The frequencies of the bonded-OD stretches of (D2O)k with k = 2-6 were almost linearly correlated with the square root of the critical temperature of the matrix material. Additional absorption peaks of (D2O)2 and (D2O)3 in a Xe matrix were assigned to the species trapped in tight accommodation sites.

  9. The effect of the solution flow rate on the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaf, A.; Benkhetta, Y.; Saidi, H.; Bouhdjar, A.; Bendjedidi, H.; Nouadji, M.; Lehraki, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we used a system based on ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. By witch, we have deposited thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the variation of solution flow rate from 50 ml / h to 150 ml / h, and set other parameters such as the concentration of the solution, the deposition time, substrate temperature and the nozzel -substrate distance. In order to study the influence of the solution flow rate on the properties of the films produced, we have several characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction to determine the films structure, the scanning electron microscopy SEM for the morphology of the surfaces, EDS spectroscopy for the chemical composition, UV-Visible-Nir spectroscopy for determination the optical proprieties of thin films.The experimental results show that: the films have hexagonal structure at the type (wurtzite), the average size of grains varies from 20.11 to 32.45 nm, the transmittance of the films equals 80% in visible rang and the band gap is varied between 3.274 and 3.282 eV, when the solution flow rate increases from 50 to 150 ml/h

  10. The effect of the solution flow rate on the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaf, A.; Benkhetta, Y.; Saidi, H.; Bouhdjar, A.; Bendjedidi, H.; Nouadji, M.; Lehraki, N.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we used a system based on ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. By witch, we have deposited thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the variation of solution flow rate from 50 ml / h to 150 ml / h, and set other parameters such as the concentration of the solution, the deposition time, substrate temperature and the nozzel -substrate distance. In order to study the influence of the solution flow rate on the properties of the films produced, we have several characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction to determine the films structure, the scanning electron microscopy SEM for the morphology of the surfaces, EDS spectroscopy for the chemical composition, UV-Visible-Nir spectroscopy for determination the optical proprieties of thin films.The experimental results show that: the films have hexagonal structure at the type (wurtzite), the average size of grains varies from 20.11 to 32.45 nm, the transmittance of the films equals 80% in visible rang and the band gap is varied between 3.274 and 3.282 eV, when the solution flow rate increases from 50 to 150 ml/h.

  11. A dynamic compensation method for natural ambient dose rate based on 6 years data from the Dutch radioactivity monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetsers, R.C.G.M.; Blaauboer, R.O.

    1997-01-01

    The significant variations in time exhibited by background radiation hinders a sensitive recognition of human-induced factors. A comprehensive study in the Netherlands has examined the influence of the various natural processes on the natural background using six years data from the Dutch nuclear emergency network. Results presented concentrate on temporal variations in ambient dose-equivalent rate, H*(10), and have led to simple expressions to model the ambient dose rate using a limited set of readily available parameters, i.e. air pressure, deposition rate and equilibrium equivalent decay product concentration of 222 Rn, EEDC. Best values and uncertainty ranges of the applied parameters are reported. Remaining variations, e.g. due to variations in the cosmic radiation intensity and the radon soil profile, are shown to be small in the Netherlands, with one exception when the cosmogenic dose rate at sea level was decreased for a period of months due to a global deflection of the earth's magnetic field in the summer of 1991. The resulting compensation method for the natural ambient dose rate enables sensitive detection of anomalies, supporting the surveillance of nuclear installations and the management of nuclear emergency networks. (Author)

  12. Short-term assessment of the sediment deposition rate and water conditions during a rainy season on La Azufrada coral reef, Gorgona Island, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Lozano-Cortés

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major stresses on corals is the settlement of suspended sediment on their surfaces. This leads to the blocking of light, the covering of the coral mucus surface and an increased risk of disease. For this reason sediment deposition on a reef is considered a highly important variable in coral reef studies. With the use of sediment traps and oceanographic sensors, the sediment deposition rate and water conditions during a rainy season (April-May 2009 on a Tropical Eastern Pacific coral reef (La Azufrada at Gorgona Island in Colombia were investigated. To quantify sediment deposition, sediment traps were established in nine stations along the coral reef (three stations per reef zone: backreef, flat and slope. To minimize disturbance by aquatic organisms in the sediment traps these were filled with hypersaline borax-buffered 10% formaline solution before their deployment; animals found in the filter contents were fixed and stored in a 4% formalin solution, frozen and identified in the laboratory. To determine the water conditions, discrete samples of water from 1 m and 10 m depths were collected using a Niskin bottle. Oceanographic variables (temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen as well as turbidity, chlorophyll and nutrient concentration (nitrite, nitrate and phosphorus were measured in the samples from both depths. Vertical records of temperature and salinity were carried out with a Seabird-19 CTD nearest to La Azufrada and water transparency was measured using a Secchi disk. We found a mean trap collection rate of 23.30±4.34gm-2d-1 and did not detect a significant difference in the trap collection rate among reef zones. The mean temperature and salinity in the coral reef depth zone (0-10m layer were 26.98±0.19°C and 32.60±0.52, respectively. Fourteen taxonomic groups of invertebrates were detected inside the sediment traps with bivalves and copepods being the most abundant and frequen. The findings presented here constitute

  13. Short-term assessment of the sediment deposition rate and water conditions during a rainy season on La Azufrada coral reef, Gorgona Island, Colombia

    KAUST Repository

    Lozano-Cortés, Diego F

    2014-02-01

    One of the major stresses on corals is the settlement of suspended sediment on their surfaces. This leads to the blocking of light, the covering of the coral mucus surface and an increased risk of disease. For this reason sediment deposition on a reef is considered a highly important variable in coral reef studies. With the use of sediment traps and oceanographic sensors, the sediment deposition rate and water conditions during a rainy season (April-May 2009) on a Tropical Eastern Pacific coral reef (La Azufrada) at Gorgona Island in Colombia were investigated. To quantify sediment deposition, sediment traps were established in nine stations along the coral reef (three stations per reef zone: backreef, flat and slope). To minimize disturbance by aquatic organisms in the sediment traps these were filled with hypersaline borax-buffered 10% formaline solution before their deployment; animals found in the filter contents were fixed and stored in a 4% formalin solution, frozen and identified in the laboratory. To determine the water conditions, discrete samples of water from 1 m and 10 m depths were collected using a Niskin bottle. Oceanographic variables (temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen) as well as turbidity, chlorophyll and nutrient concentration (nitrite, nitrate and phosphorus) were measured in the samples from both depths. Vertical records of temperature and salinity were carried out with a Seabird-19 CTD nearest to La Azufrada and water transparency was measured using a Secchi disk. We found a mean trap collection rate of 23.30±4.34gm-2d-1 and did not detect a significant difference in the trap collection rate among reef zones. The mean temperature and salinity in the coral reef depth zone (0-10m layer) were 26.98±0.19°C and 32.60±0.52, respectively. Fourteen taxonomic groups of invertebrates were detected inside the sediment traps with bivalves and copepods being the most abundant and frequen. The findings presented here constitute the first report

  14. Aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition of V2O5 cathodes with high rate capabilities for magnesium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Charalampos; Jia, Chenglin; Mathew, Shiny; Palgrave, Robert G.; Moss, Benjamin; Kafizas, Andreas; Vernardou, Dimitra

    2018-04-01

    The growth of orthorhombic vanadium pentoxide nanostructures was accomplished using an aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition process. These materials showed excellent electrochemical performance for magnesium-ion storage in an aqueous electrolyte; showing specific discharge capacities of up to 427 mAh g-1 with a capacity retention of 82% after 2000 scans under a high specific current of 5.9 A g-1. The high rate capability suggested good structural stability and high reversibility. We believe the development of low-cost and large-area coating methods, such as the technique used herein, will be essential for the upscalable fabrication of next-generation rechargeable battery technologies.

  15. Minimum detectable activity and false alarm rate relationships for alpha continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy rule for Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR Part 835, December 1993) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual (the RCM) (DOE/EH-0256T, Rev. 1, April 1994) require the use of continuous air monitors (CAMs) in normally occupied areas where an individual is likely to be exposed to a concentration of airborne radioactivity exceeding the derived air concentration (DAC) or where there is a need to alert potentially exposed individuals to unexpected increases in airborne radioactivity levels. The DAC is the airborne concentration that equals the annual limit on intake divided by the volume of air breathed by an average worker for a working year of 2000 h (assuming a breathing volume of 2400 m 3 ). It is equivalent to the airborne concentration to which a worker could be exposed for an entire working year (2000 h) without exceeding the allowable annual limit on intake. The rule and the RCM further require that real-time air monitors have an alarm capability and sufficient sensitivity to alert potentially exposed individuals that immediate action is necessary in order to minimize or terminate inhalation exposures. The RCM also recommends that real-time air monitors should be capable of measuring 1 DAC when averaged over 8 h (8 DAC-h) under laboratory conditions. In response to these recommendations, we are developing procedures for determining the basic sensitivity of alpha CAMs under laboratory conditions and for documenting practical alarm set points for routine use of CAMs under a range of radon and thoron concentrations

  16. Effect of PbI{sub 2} deposition rate on two-step PVD/CVD all-vacuum prepared perovskite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioakeimidis, Apostolos; Christodoulou, Christos; Lux-Steiner, Martha; Fostiropoulos, Konstantinos, E-mail: fostiropoulos@helmholtz-berlin.de

    2016-12-15

    In this work we fabricate all-vacuum processed methyl ammonium lead halide perovskite by a sequence of physical vapour deposition of PbI{sub 2} and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I under a static atmosphere. We demonstrate that for higher deposition rate the (001) planes of PbI{sub 2} film show a higher degree of alignment parallel to the sample's surface. From X-ray diffraction data of the resulted perovskite film we derive that the intercalation rate of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I is fostered for PbI{sub 2} films with higher degree of (001) planes alignment. The stoichiometry of the produced perovskite film is also studied by Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Complete all-vacuum perovskite solar cells were fabricated on glass/ITO substrates coated by an ultra-thin (5 nm) Zn-phthalocyanine film as hole selective layer. A dependence of residual PbI{sub 2} on the solar cells performance is displayed, while photovoltaic devices with efficiency up to η=11.6% were achieved. - Graphical abstract: A two-step PVD/CVD processed perovskite film with the CVD intercalation rate of CH{sub 3}NCH{sub 3} molecules been fostered by increasing the PVD rate of PbI{sub 2} and prolonging the CVD time. - Highlights: • A simple PVD/CVD process for perovskite film production. • Increased PVD rate yields better alignment of the PbI{sub 2} (001) crystallite planes. • CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I intercalation process fostered by increased PbI{sub 2} PVD rate. • Stoichiometric CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} suitable as absorber in photovoltaic applications • Reduced PbI{sub 2} residue at the bottom of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} improves device performance.

  17. Operative correction of judoists’ training loads on the base of on-line monitoring of heart beats rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qiang Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: ensure increase of effectiveness of training process’s control by means of operative correction of training loads of different qualification judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate indicators. Material: the research was conducted on the base of Brest SCJSOR № 1. Judo wrestlers of different sport qualification (age 17-19 years old, n=15 participated in the research. Monitoring of judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate was carried out with the help of system “Polar”. Results: we have found factorial structure of functional fitness in every profile of sportsmen. Model characteristics of judo wrestlers were supplemented with the most important sides of functional fitness. Analysis of indicators of restoration effectiveness indicators (REI in both groups of judo wrestlers showed high level of organism’s responsiveness to training load of special and power orientation in comparison with speed power load. We have worked out algorithm of operative correction of training loads by indicators of heart beats rate in training process, depending on orientation and intensity of loads’ physiological influence on judo wrestler. Conclusions: Telemetric on-line monitoring of sportsman’s heart beats rate and calculation of REI permit to objectively assess effectiveness of training’s construction and of micro-cycle in total and detect in due time the trend to development of over-loading and failure of adaptation.

  18. Operative correction of judoists’ training loads on the base of on-line monitoring of heart beats rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: ensure increase of effectiveness of training process’s control by means of operative correction of training loads of different qualification judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate indicators. Material: the research was conducted on the base of Brest SCJSOR № 1. Judo wrestlers of different sport qualification (age 17-19 years old, n=15 participated in the research. Monitoring of judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate was carried out with the help of system “Polar”. Results: we have found factorial structure of functional fitness in every profile of sportsmen. Model characteristics of judo wrestlers were supplemented with the most important sides of functional fitness. Analysis of indicators of restoration effectiveness indicators (REI in both groups of judo wrestlers showed high level of organism’s responsiveness to training load of special and power orientation in comparison with speed power load. We have worked out algorithm of operative correction of training loads by indicators of heart beats rate in training process, depending on orientation and intensity of loads’ physiological influence on judo wrestler. Conclusions: Telemetric on-line monitoring of sportsman’s heart beats rate and calculation of REI permit to objectively assess effectiveness of training’s construction and of micro-cycle in total and detect in due time the trend to development of over-loading and failure of adaptation.

  19. High rate (∼7 nm/s), atmospheric pressure deposition of ZnO front electrode for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells with efficiency beyond 15%

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Grob, F.; Frijters, C.; Poodt, P.; Ramachandra, R.; Winands, H.; Simor, M.; Bolt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) films have been grown on a moving glass substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. High deposition rates of ∼7 nm/s are achieved at low temperature (200°C) for a substrate speed from 20 to 60 mm/min. ZnO films are highly transparent in

  20. Lichens as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: A comparison with soil, air and pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, Sofia; Maguas, Cristina; Matos, Joao; Pereira, Maria Joao; Branquinho, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate lichens as biomonitors of PAH atmospheric deposition; for that, an inter-comparison between the PAH profile and concentrations intercepted in lichens with those of air, soil and pine needles was performed. The study was conducted in a petro-industrial area and the results showed that PAH profiles in lichens were similar to those of the air and pine needles, but completely different from those of soils. Lichens accumulated higher PAH concentrations when compared to the other environmental compartments and its concentrations were significantly and linearly correlated with concentrations of PAHs in soil; we showed that a translation of the lichen PAHs concentrations into regulatory standards is possible, fulfilling one of the most important requirements of using lichens as biomonitors. With lichens we were then able to characterize the air PAHs profile of urban, petro-industrial and background areas. - Lichen PAH concentrations can identify geographic areas that may be out of compliance with regulatory standards.

  1. A Multi-Channel Opto-Electronic Sensor to Accurately Monitor Heart Rate against Motion Artefact during Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alzahrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA, and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05; a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001; the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA from −17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001; the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from −15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate.

  2. Monitoring failure rates of commercial implant brands; substantial equivalence in question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, Philippe; Becker, William; Becker, Burton

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the failure rates of two distinct dental implant systems in a clinical practice setting. Date of implant placement and loss were entered prospectively in a data registry system. Failure rates of two commercially pure titanium implants, one with a porous oxydized surface (POS) and the other with a chemically altered surface (CAS), were assessed using a quality control chart and survival analyses. A total of 860 POS and 759 CAS implants were placed. A warning of an increased failure rate of the CAS implant was identified by means of the quality control chart. Survival analyses indicated that the CAS implant failure rate was twice that of the POS implant (Hazard Ratio: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.33-3.28, P-value POS implant was associated with a non-significant 64% drop in the implant failure rate within less than a year (HR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.12-1.14; P-value POS implant and an 8% failure with the CAS implant appears inconsistent with the assumption of substantial equivalence. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Nitrogen deposition outweighs climatic variability in driving annual growth rate of canopy beech trees: Evidence from long-term growth reconstruction across a geographic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilesca, Tiziana; Rita, Angelo; Brunetti, Michele; Giammarchi, Francesco; Leonardi, Stefano; Magnani, Federico; van Noije, Twan; Tonon, Giustino; Borghetti, Marco

    2018-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of climatic variability and atmospheric nitrogen deposition in driving long-term tree growth in canopy beech trees along a geographic gradient in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula, from the Alps to the southern Apennines. We sampled dominant trees at different developmental stages (from young to mature tree cohorts, with tree ages spanning from 35 to 160 years) and used stem analysis to infer historic reconstruction of tree volume and dominant height. Annual growth volume (G V ) and height (G H ) variability were related to annual variability in model simulated atmospheric nitrogen deposition and site-specific climatic variables, (i.e. mean annual temperature, total annual precipitation, mean growing period temperature, total growing period precipitation, and standard precipitation evapotranspiration index) and atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including tree cambial age among growth predictors. Generalized additive models (GAM), linear mixed-effects models (LMM), and Bayesian regression models (BRM) were independently employed to assess explanatory variables. The main results from our study were as follows: (i) tree age was the main explanatory variable for long-term growth variability; (ii) GAM, LMM, and BRM results consistently indicated climatic variables and CO 2 effects on G V and G H were weak, therefore evidence of recent climatic variability influence on beech annual growth rates was limited in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula; (iii) instead, significant positive nitrogen deposition (N dep ) effects were repeatedly observed in G V and G H ; the positive effects of N dep on canopy height growth rates, which tended to level off at N dep values greater than approximately 1.0 g m -2  y -1 , were interpreted as positive impacts on forest stand above-ground net productivity at the selected study sites. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. High efficiency high rate microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells deposited at plasma excitation frequencies larger than 100 MHz

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strobel, C.; Leszczynska, B.; Merkel, U.; Kuske, J.; Fischer, D.D.; Albert, M.; Holovský, Jakub; Michard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 143, Dec (2015), 347-353 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12029 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283501 - Fast Track Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : VHF * PECVD * microcrystalline silicon * solar cell * high rate * high efficiency Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.732, year: 2015

  5. Achieving high mobility ZnO : Al at very high growth rates by dc filtered cathodic arc deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsberg, R J; Lim, S H N; Wallig, J; Anders, A; Zhu, Y K; Milliron, D J

    2011-01-01

    Achieving a high growth rate is paramount for making large-area transparent conducting oxide coatings at a low cost. Unfortunately, the quality of thin films grown by most techniques degrades as the growth rate increases. Filtered dc cathodic arc is a lesser known technique which produces a stream of highly ionized plasma, in stark contrast to the neutral atoms produced by standard sputter sources. Ions bring a large amount of potential energy to the growing surface which is in the form of heat, not momentum. By minimizing the distance from cathode to substrate, the high ion flux gives a very high effective growth temperature near the film surface without causing damage from bombardment. The high surface temperature is a direct consequence of the high growth rate and allows for high-quality crystal growth. Using this technique, 500-1300 nm thick and highly transparent ZnO : Al films were grown on glass at rates exceeding 250 nm min -1 while maintaining resistivity below 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm with electron mobility as high as 60 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . (fast track communication)

  6. IRD-CNEN whole body counter capabilities for in vivo monitoring of internally deposited radionuclides in human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, A.L.A.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.br, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao in Vivo

    2015-07-01

    Internal exposure to radionuclides may occur as a result of a variety of practices, such as in nuclear industry, production of radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine, biological research and agriculture; as well as in mining and milling of minerals with associated NORM. The IRD whole-body counter consists of shielded room equipped with an array of four HPGe detectors and two NaI(Tl) with dimensions of 8” x 4” and 3” x 3”. The detection systems are able to detect and quantify a large variety of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 3000 keV. The minimum detectable activities for most of the radionuclides of interest allow occupational monitoring as well evaluation of accidental intakes. (author)

  7. The role of strain rate during deposition of CAP on Ti6Al4V by superplastic deformation-like method using high-temperature compression test machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramdan, R.D.; Jauhari, I.; Hasan, R.; Masdek, N.R. Nik

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation of superplastic deformation method for the deposition of carbonated-apatite (CAP) on the well-know titanium alloy, Ti6Al4V. This deposition process was carried out using high-temperature compression test machine, at temperature of 775 deg. C, different strain rates, and conducted along the elastic region of the sample. Before the process, titanium substrate was cryogenically treated in order to approach superplastic characteristic during the process. After the process, thin film of CAP was created on the substrate with the thickness from 0.71 μm to 1.42 μm. The resulted film has a high density of CAP that covered completely the surface of the substrate. From the stress-strain relation chart, it can be observed that as the strain rate decreases, the area under stress-strain chart also decreases. This condition influences the density of CAP layer on the substrate that as this area decreases, the density of CAP layer also decreases as also confirmed by X-ray diffraction characterization. In addition, since the resulting layer of CAP is in the form of thin film, this layer did not alter the hardness of the substrate as measured by Vickers hardness test method. On the other hand, the resulting films also show a good bonding strength properties as the layer remain exist after friction test against polishing clothes for 1 h

  8. Improvement in high-voltage and high rate cycling performance of nickel-rich layered cathode materials via facile chemical vapor deposition with methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyuk Son, In; Park, Kwangjin; Hwan Park, Jong

    2017-01-01

    Nickel-rich layered-oxide materials are considered promising candidates for application as cathode material in high-energy lithium ion batteries. However, their cycling performance at high voltages and rate conditions require further improvement for the purpose of commercialization. Here, we report on the facile surface modification of nickel-rich layered oxide by chemical vapor deposition with methane which yields a conductive and protective artificial solid electrolyte interphase layer consisting of amorphous carbon, alkyl lithium carbonate, and lithium carbonate. We examine the mechanism of the protective layer formation and structural deformation of the nickel-rich layered oxide during chemical vapor deposition with methane. Via optimizing the reaction conditions, we improve the electrical conductivity as well as the interfacial stability of the nickel-rich layered oxide without inducing structural deformation. The surface-modified nickel-rich layered oxide exhibits an improved performance due to the resulting enhanced rate capability, high initial efficiency, and long cycle life at high voltage (>4.5 V).

  9. Ga N nano wires and nano tubes growth by chemical vapor deposition method at different NH{sub 3} flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, P.; Liu, Y.; Meng, X. [Wuhan University, School of Physics and Technology, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro and Nanostructures of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Ga N nano wires and nano tubes have been successfully synthesized via the simple chemical vapor deposition method. NH{sub 3} flow rate was found to be a crucial factor in the synthesis of different type of Ga N which affects the shape and the diameter of generated Ga N nano structures. X-ray diffraction confirms that Ga N nano wires grown on Si(111) substrate under 900 degrees Celsius and with NH{sub 3} flow rate of 50 sc cm presents the preferred orientation growth in the (002) direction. It is beneficial to the growth of nano structure through catalyst annealing. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure the size and structures of the samples. (Author)

  10. Real-time monitoring and measurement of wax deposition in pipelines via non-invasive electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock Sow Mei, Irene; Ismail, Idris; Shafquet, Areeba; Abdullah, Bawadi

    2016-02-01

    Tomographic analysis of the behavior of waxy crude oil in pipelines is important to permit appropriate corrective actions to be taken to remediate the wax deposit layer before pipelines are entirely plugged. In this study, a non-invasive/non-intrusive electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system has been applied to provide real-time visualization of the formation of paraffin waxes and to measure the amount of wax fraction from the Malay Basin waxy crude oil sample under the static condition. Analogous expressions to estimate the wax fraction of the waxy crude oil across the temperatures range of 30-50 °C was obtained by using Otsu’s and Kuo’s threshold algorithms. Otsu’s method suggested that the wax fraction can be estimated by the correlation coefficient β =0.0459{{T}3}-5.3535{{T}2}+200.36T-2353.7 while Kuo’s method provides a similar correlation with β =0.0741{{T}3}-8.4915{{T}2}+314.96T-3721.2 . These correlations show good agreements with the results which are obtained from the conventional weighting method. This study suggested that Kuo’s threshold algorithm is more promising when integrated into the ECT system compared to Otsu’s algorithm because the former provides higher accuracy wax fraction measurement results below the wax appearance temperature for waxy crude oil. This study is significant because it serves as a preliminary investigation for the application of ECT in the oil and gas industry for online measurement and detection of wax fraction without causing disturbance to the process flow.

  11. Developing algorithms for healthcare insurers to systematically monitor surgical site infection rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingston James M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Claims data provide rapid indicators of SSIs for coronary artery bypass surgery and have been shown to successfully rank hospitals by SSI rates. We now operationalize this method for use by payers without transfer of protected health information, or any insurer data, to external analytic centers. Results We performed a descriptive study testing the operationalization of software for payers to routinely assess surgical infection rates among hospitals where enrollees receive cardiac procedures. We developed five SAS programs and a user manual for direct use by health plans and payers. The manual and programs were refined following provision to two national insurers who applied the programs to claims databases, following instructions on data preparation, data validation, analysis, and verification and interpretation of program output. A final set of programs and user manual successfully guided health plan programmer analysts to apply SSI algorithms to claims databases. Validation steps identified common problems such as incomplete preparation of data, missing data, insufficient sample size, and other issues that might result in program failure. Several user prompts enabled health plans to select time windows, strata such as insurance type, and the threshold number of procedures performed by a hospital before inclusion in regression models assessing relative SSI rates among hospitals. No health plan data was transferred to outside entities. Programs, on default settings, provided descriptive tables of SSI indicators stratified by hospital, insurer type, SSI indicator (inpatient, outpatient, antibiotic, and six-month period. Regression models provided rankings of hospital SSI indicator rates by quartiles, adjusted for comorbidities. Programs are publicly available without charge. Conclusion We describe a free, user-friendly software package that enables payers to routinely assess and identify hospitals with potentially high SSI

  12. Strength and Conditioning Coaches’ Application of the Session Rating of Perceived Exertion Method of Monitoring Within Professional Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comyns Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE is a method of monitoring and managing training loads. The purpose of this study was to research how and for what purpose strength and conditioning (S&C coaches implement this monitoring method within professional rugby union. The study also aimed to assess if S&C coaches found this monitoring method to be valid and effective. An online survey containing 24 fixed response questions was used to assess how S&C coaches applied the session-RPE method. The survey was piloted with expert researchers and practitioners in the area of session-RPE prior to distribution and alterations were made to the survey based on the experts’ feedback. Twenty S&C coaches working with professional rugby union clubs in Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales completed the survey. The coaches’ responses indicated that the majority found the session-RPE to be a valid and effective monitoring method. While some good implementation practices were identified, not all of the coaches adhered to these guidelines which may impact on the accuracy of the collected data. For example, 30% of coaches do not collect the RPE for every session that a player does per week limiting the use of the session-RPE variables cumulative training load, training monotony, training strain and acute:chronic load ratio. S&C coaches within rugby should consider using session-RPE as a method of monitoring and implement the method in a manner reflective of research findings to enhance the potential applications of this system in maximising adaptations and minimising the risk of injury.

  13. Plutonium-aerosol emission rates and human pulmonary deposition calculations for Nuclear Site 201, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    This study determined the plutonium-aerosol fluxes from the soil to quantify (1) the extent of potential human exposure by deep-lung retention of alpha-emitting particles; (2) the source term should there be any significant, long-term, transport of plutonium aerosols; and (3) the resuspension factor and rate so that, for the first time at any nuclear site, one may calculate how long it will take for wind erosion to carry away a significant amount of the contaminated soil. High-volume air samplers and cascade impactors were used to characterize the plutonium aerosols. Meteorological flux-profile methods were used to calculate dust and plutonium aerosol emission rates. A floorless wind tunnel (10-m long) was used to examine resuspension under steady-state, high wind speed. The resuspension factor was two orders of magnitude lower than the other comparable sites at NTS and elsewhere, and the average resuspension rate of 5.3 x 10 -8 /d was also very low, so that the half-time for resuspension by wind erosion was about 36,000 y

  14. Discussion on the formula of electrostatic collection radon exhalation rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Quanlu; Zhang Zhihui

    1998-01-01

    The formula for calculating radon exhalation rate from the surface of materials are deduced based the theory of radioactivity decay by considering factors which effect the change of radon and its decay products. The selection of value of Z in the formula are also discussed and some problems that exist in the available formula used to calculate the radon exhalation rate are explicated. The practical formula are deduced by adopting the effective decay constant λ e of radon in the collector. The fraction of α particles emitted by radon which effects the measurement results and the contribution of radon decay products left in the former measurement to the next measurement are also considered, and the correction factors are given respectively. The method is more complete and more practical