WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitoring critical episodes

  1. Critical function monitoring system algorithm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate critical function status information is a key to operator decision-making during events threatening nuclear power plant safety. The Critical Function Monitoring System provides continuous critical function status monitoring by use of algorithms which mathematically represent the processes by which an operating staff would determine critical function status. This paper discusses in detail the systematic design methodology employed to develop adequate Critical Function Monitoring System algorithms

  2. Critical incident monitoring in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Y C

    2006-12-01

    Critical incident monitoring in anaesthesia is an important tool for quality improvement and maintenance of high safety standards in anaesthetic services. It is now widely accepted as a useful quality improvement technique for reducing morbidity and mortality in anaesthesia and has become part of the many quality assurance programmes of many general hospitals under the Ministry of Health. Despite wide-spread reservations about its value, critical incident monitoring is a classical qualitative research technique which is particularly useful where problems are complex, contextual and influenced by the interaction of physical, psychological and social factors. Thus, it is well suited to be used in probing the complex factors behind human error and system failure. Human error has significant contributions to morbidities and mortalities in anaesthesia. Understanding the relationships between, errors, incidents and accidents is important for prevention and risk management to reduce harm to patients. Cardiac arrests in the operating theatre (OT) and prolonged stay in recovery, constituted the bulk of reported incidents. Cardiac arrests in OT resulted in significant mortality and involved mostly de-compensated patients and those with unstable cardiovascular functions, presenting for emergency operations. Prolonged-stay in the recovery extended period of observation for ill patients. Prolonged stay in recovery was justifiable in some cases, as these patients needed a longer period of post-operative observation until they were stable enough to return to the ward. The advantages of the relatively low cost, and the ability to provide a comprehensive body of detailed qualitative information, which can be used to develop strategies to prevent and manage existing problems and to plan further initiatives for patient safety makes critical incident monitoring a valuable tool in ensuring patient safety. The contribution of critical incident reporting to the issue of patient safety is

  3. A critical evaluation of the validity of episodic future thinking: A clinical neuropsychology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Amanda M

    2016-11-01

    Episodic future thinking is defined as the ability to mentally simulate a future event. Although episodic future thinking has been studied extensively in neuroscience, this construct has not been explored in depth from the perspective of clinical neuropsychology. The aim of this critical narrative review is to assess the validity and clinical implications of episodic future thinking. A systematic review of episodic future thinking literature was conducted. PubMed and PsycInfo were searched through July 2015 for review and empirical articles with the following search terms: "episodic future thinking," "future mental simulation," "imagining the future," "imagining new experiences," "future mental time travel," "future autobiographical experience," and "prospection." The review discusses evidence that episodic future thinking is important for adaptive functioning, which has implications for neurological populations. To determine the validity of episodic future thinking, the construct is evaluated with respect to related constructs, such as imagination, episodic memory, autobiographical memory, prospective memory, narrative construction, and working memory. Although it has been minimally investigated, there is evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for episodic future thinking. Research has not addressed the incremental validity of episodic future thinking. Practical considerations of episodic future thinking tasks and related constructs in a clinical neuropsychological setting are considered. The utility of episodic future thinking is currently unknown due to the lack of research investigating the validity of episodic future thinking. Future work is discussed, which could determine whether episodic future thinking is an important missing piece in standard clinical neuropsychological assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Hemodynamic monitoring in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voga, G

    1995-06-01

    Monitoring of vital functions is one of the most important and essential tools in the management of critically ill patients in the ICU. Today it is possible to detect and analyze a great variety of physiological signals by various noninvasive and invasive techniques. An intensivist should be able to select and perform the most appropriate monitoring method for the individual patient considering risk-benefit ratio of the particular monitoring technique and the need for immediate therapy, specific diagnosis, continuous monitoring and evaluation of morphology should be included. Despite rapid development of noninvasive monitoring techniques, invasive hemodynamic monitoring in still one of the most basic ICU procedures. It enables monitoring of pressures, flow and saturation, pressures in the systemic and pulmonary circulation, estimation of cardiac performance and judgment of the adequacy of the cardiocirculatory system. Carefully and correctly obtained information are basis for proper hemodynamic assessment which usually effects the therapeutic decisions.

  5. Incorporating episodicity into estimates of Critical Loads for juvenile salmonids in Scottish streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Bridcut

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical Load (CL methodology is currently used throughout Europe to assess the risks of ecological damage due to sulphur and nitrogen emissions. Critical acid neutralising capacity (ANCCRIT is used in CL estimates for freshwater systems as a surrogate for biological damage. Although UK CL maps presently use an ANC value of 0 μeq l-1, this value has been based largely on Norwegian lake studies, in which brown trout is chosen as a representative indicator organism. In this study, an ANC value specific for brown trout in Scottish streams was determined and issues were addressed such as salmon and trout sensitivity in streams, episodicity, afforestation and complicating factors such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC and labile aluminium (Al-L. Catchments with significant forest cover were selected to provide fishless sites and to provide catchment comparisons in unpolluted areas. Chemical factors were the primary determinant with land use a secondary determinant of the distribution of salmonid populations at the twenty-six study sites. ANC explained more variance in brown trout density than pH. The most significant index of episodicity was percent of time spent below an ANC of 0 μeq l-1. An ANCCRIT value of 39 μeq l-1 was obtained based on a 50% probability of brown trout occurrence. The use of this revised ANCCRIT value in the CL equation improved the relationship between trout status and exceedance of CLs. Uncertainties associated with variations in Al-L at any fixed ANCCRIT, particularly within forested catchments, and the role of DOC in modifying the toxicity of Al-L are discussed. Keywords: Critical Load, Critical acid neutralising capacity, brown trout, episodes, streams

  6. Reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) in daily life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi-Hansen, T; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Thorsteinsson, B

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Continuous glucose monitoring may reveal episodes of unrecognized hypoglycaemia. We evaluated reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded in daily life by the Medtronic MiniMed Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS). METHODS: Twenty-nine adult patients with Type 1...... data were recalibrated generating four different CGMS data sets [left-A (left side of abdomen, calibration set A), left-B, right-A and right-B]. Agreement between CGMS data sets was evaluated during hypoglycaemic events, comparing CGMS readings = 2.2 mmol/l with nadir values from corresponding CGMS...... data sets. CGMS readings were also compared with independent self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) values. RESULTS: With hypoglycaemia (CGMS readings = 2.2 mmol/l) in calibration set left-A, values below 3.5 mmol/l were present in 99% (95% CI: 95-100%) of samples in left-B, 91% (95% CI: 84...

  7. Individual differences in episodic memory abilities predict successful prospective memory output monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter Ball, B; Pitães, Margarida; Brewer, Gene A

    2018-02-07

    Output monitoring refers to memory for one's previously completed actions. In the context of prospective memory (PM) (e.g., remembering to take medication), failures of output monitoring can result in repetitions and omissions of planned actions (e.g., over- or under-medication). To be successful in output monitoring paradigms, participants must flexibly control attention to detect PM cues as well as engage controlled retrieval of previous actions whenever a particular cue is encountered. The current study examined individual differences in output monitoring abilities in a group of younger adults differing in attention control (AC) and episodic memory (EM) abilities. The results showed that AC ability uniquely predicted successful cue detection on the first presentation, whereas EM ability uniquely predicted successful output monitoring on the second presentation. The current study highlights the importance of examining external correlates of PM abilities and contributes to the growing body of research on individual differences in PM.

  8. Critical Learning Episodes In The Evolution Of Business Start-Ups: Business Incubators In South-Eastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Corradi (Ariane Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the evolution of business start-ups in the first three to five years. Evolution is defined here as a non-continuous learning process of entrepreneurs that creates and changes organizational routines. Two concepts are central: critical learning episodes and

  9. Critical learning episodes in the evolution of Brazilian business start-ups: a theoretical and analytical tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Corradi (Ariane Agnes)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates critical learning episodes as landmarks in the evolution of business start-ups. A framework that combines individual learning processes with the Penrosian resource-based theory of the firm, and the concepts of search and routines from evolutionary economics

  10. Age-related reduction of the confidence-accuracy relationship in episodic memory: effects of recollection quality and retrieval monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica T; Cramer, Stefanie J; Gallo, David A

    2012-12-01

    We investigated age-related reductions in episodic metamemory accuracy. Participants studied pictures and words in different colors and then took forced-choice recollection tests. These tests required recollection of the earlier presentation color, holding familiarity of the response options constant. Metamemory accuracy was assessed for each participant by comparing recollection test accuracy with corresponding confidence judgments. We found that recollection test accuracy was greater in younger than older adults and also for pictures than font color. Metamemory accuracy tracked each of these recollection differences, as well as individual differences in recollection test accuracy within each age group, suggesting that recollection ability affects metamemory accuracy. Critically, the age-related impairment in metamemory accuracy persisted even when the groups were matched on recollection test accuracy, suggesting that metamemory declines were not entirely due to differences in recollection frequency or quantity, but that differences in recollection quality and/or monitoring also played a role. We also found that age-related impairments in recollection and metamemory accuracy were equivalent for pictures and font colors. This result contrasted with previous false recognition findings, which predicted that older adults would be differentially impaired when monitoring memory for less distinctive memories. These and other results suggest that age-related reductions in metamemory accuracy are not entirely attributable to false recognition effects, but also depend heavily on deficient recollection and/or monitoring of specific details associated with studied stimuli. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Critical infrastructure monitoring using UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezos, Evangelos; Skitsas, Michael; Charalambous, Elisavet; Koutras, Nikolaos; Bliziotis, Dimitris; Themistocleous, Kyriacos

    2016-08-01

    The constant technological evolution in Computer Vision enabled the development of new techniques which in conjunction with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) may extract high quality photogrammetric products for several applications. Dense Image Matching (DIM) is a Computer Vision technique that can generate a dense 3D point cloud of an area or object. The use of UAV systems and DIM techniques is not only a flexible and attractive solution to produce accurate and high qualitative photogrammetric results but also is a major contribution to cost effectiveness. In this context, this study aims to highlight the benefits of the use of the UAVs in critical infrastructure monitoring applying DIM. A Multi-View Stereo (MVS) approach using multiple images (RGB digital aerial and oblique images), to fully cover the area of interest, is implemented. The application area is an Olympic venue in Attica, Greece, at an area of 400 acres. The results of our study indicate that the UAV+DIM approach respond very well to the increasingly greater demands for accurate and cost effective applications when provided with, a 3D point cloud and orthomosaic.

  12. A critical assessment of antipsychotic drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waraska, J; Nagle, J D

    1987-06-01

    Analytic problems associated with monitoring antipsychotic drug levels have largely been resolved. Despite the establishment of target values for some drugs, the clinical utility of such levels remains to be determined.

  13. Multimodal imaging-monitored progression of stroke-like episodes in a case of MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namer, Izzie Jacques; Wolff, Valérie; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Marescaux, Christian

    2014-03-01

    We report imaging findings during, between, and after 2 stroke-like episodes in a 45-year-old woman with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome with an A32243G mitochondrial mutation 6 years before. In November 2010, for a first episode, she showed mixed aphasia with logorrhea, disinhibition, agitation, euphoria, and a large left temporoparietal lesion. Symptomatology progressively regressed under L-arginine treatment. She was readmitted in June 2011 for a second episode with great anxiety, disorientation, impaired face recognition, worsening mixed aphasia, and a new right temporal lesion. After additional L-carnitine treatment, she remained without relapse for 14 months.

  14. Diagnostic value of combined esophageal multi-channel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring for gastroesophageal reflux in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi JIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the diagnostic value of using 24-hour combined esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH in the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER and pH monitoring alone in critically ill patients. Methods  A prospective observational study was performed including 116 critically ill adult patients admitted to ICU of Peking Haidian Hospital from Jul. 2013 to Dec. 2014. All the patients underwent 24-hour combined MⅡ-pH monitoring. GER episodes were recorded and its pH was recorded (acidic, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline and its composition was recorded (liquid, mixed and gas reflux. The results of the MⅡ-pH and the pH were monitored and compared. The demographic characteristics and clinical information were recorded. Results  MⅡ-pH was monitored for 5024 episodes of GER in 115 of 116(99.1% patients, with a mean of 43.28±3.96 episodes per patient (median, 34 episodes; range, 0-196 episodes. The pH monitoring detected 1868 episodes (100% acid in only 54 of 116(46.6% patients, with a mean of 7.66±1.65 episodes per patient (median, 0 episodes; range, 0-81 episodes. The number of episode of all reflux and liquid reflux diagnosed by pH monitoring alone was less than those diagnosed by MⅡ-pH monitoring (P=0.000, and there was no correlation in the episodes number of all reflux and liquid reflux between the two techniques (r=0.119, 0.231. Only a moderate correlation was found in the number of episodes of acidic reflux between the two techniques (r=0.656. Conclusion  MⅡ-pH monitoring is more sensitive than pH monitoring alone for establishing the diagnosis of GER. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.05.12

  15. Blood glucose control and monitoring in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, R.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with blood glucose control and blood glucose monitoring in intensive care unit (ICU) patients: two important aspects of care for and monitoring of critically ill patients. While the precise targets of blood glucose control in ICU patients remain a matter of debate, currently many,

  16. Criticality monitoring with digital systems and solid state neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willhoite, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    A commercially available system for criticality monitoring combines the well established technology of digital radiation monitoring with state-of-the art detector systems capable of detecting criticality excursions of varying length and intensity with a high degree of confidence. The field microcomputer servicing the detector clusters contains hardware and software to acquire detector information in both the digital count rate and bit sensing modes supported by the criticality detectors. In both cases special criticality logic in the field microcomputer is used to determine the validity of the criticality event. The solid-state neutron detector consists of a 6 LiF wafer coupled to a diffused-junction charged particle detector. Alpha particles resulting from (n,α) interactions within the lithium wafer produce a pulsed signal corresponding to neutron intensity. Special detector circuitry causes the setting of a criticality bit recognizable by the microcomputer should neutron field intensities either exceed a hardware selectable frequency or saturate the detector resulting in a high current condition. These two modes of criticality sensing, in combination with the standard method of comparing an operator selectable alarm setpoint with the detector count rate, results in a criticality system capable of effective operation under the most demanding criticality monitoring conditions

  17. Monitoring an air pollution episode in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and the HYSPLIT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Liu, Yihong; Wang, Yunpeng

    2017-07-01

    Urban air pollution is influenced not only by local emission sources including industry and vehicles, but also greatly by regional atmospheric pollutant transportation from the surrounding areas, especially in developed city clusters, like the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Taking an air pollution episode in Shenzhen as an example, this paper investigates the occurrence and evolution of the pollution episode and identifies the transport pathways of air pollutants in Shenzhen by combining MODIS satellite images and HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis. Results show that this pollution episode is mainly caused by the local emission of pollutants in PRD and oceanic air masses under specific weather conditions.

  18. Criticism and Depression among the Caregivers of At-Risk Mental State and First-Episode Psychosis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Hamaie

    Full Text Available Expressed emotion (EE, especially criticism, is an important predictor of outcomes for the patient for a wide range of mental health problems. To understand complex links between EE and various relevant variables in early phase psychosis, this study examined criticism, distress of caregivers, other patients', and caregivers' variables, and links between criticism and these variables in those with at-risk mental state (ARMS for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP. The participants were 56 patients (mean age 18.8 ± 4.2 years with ARMS and their caregivers (49.4 ± 5.8 years and 43 patients (21.7 ± 5.2 years with FEP and their caregivers (49.3 ± 7.4 years. We investigated criticisms made by caregivers using the Japanese version of the Family Attitude Scale and caregiver depressive symptoms via the self-report Beck Depression Inventory. We also assessed psychiatric symptoms and functioning of the patients. Approximately one-third of caregivers of patients with ARMS or FEP had depressive symptoms, predominately with mild-to-moderate symptom levels, whereas only a small portion exhibited high criticism. The level of criticism and depression were comparable between ARMS and FEP caregivers. The link between criticism, caregivers' depression, and patients' symptoms were observed in FEP but not in ARMS caregivers. These findings imply that the interaction between criticism and caregivers' and patients' mental states may develop during or after the onset of established psychosis and interventions for the caregivers should be tailored to the patient's specific stage of illness. Interventions for FEP caregivers should target their emotional distress and include education about patient's general symptoms.

  19. Monitoring the progressive increase of the longest episode of spontaneous movements in Guinea pig fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the changes in the duration of spontaneous movements in the guinea pig fetus after the appearance of its first movements. Every day from the 25th to the 35th gestation day, one fetus from each of twenty pregnant animals was examined by ultrasound. Fetal movements were observed for 5 min. The episode with the longest period of movement was taken into consideration and was recorded as: 3 s. Days 25 and 26 were characterized by episodes lasting 3 s (χ2 = 140.51 p <0.05. Tracking the dynamics of progressive increases in the longest episode of spontaneous movement could be a useful factor in estimating the maturity and condition of a fetus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175006/2011

  20. Sleep Scheduling in Critical Event Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Peng; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Kui

    In this paper, we focus on the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for critical event monitoring, where normally there are only small number of packets need to be transmitted, while when urgent event occurs, the alarm should be broadcast to the entire network as soon as possible. During

  1. Criticality safety considerations. Integral Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This report summarizes the criticality analysis performed to address criticality safety concerns and to support facility design during the conceptual design phase of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility. The report addresses the criticality safety concerns, the design features of the facility relative to criticality, and the results of the analysis of both normal operating and hypothetical off-normal conditions. Key references are provided (Appendix C) if additional information is desired by the reader. The MRS Facility design was developed and the related analysis was performed in accordance with the MRS Facility Functional Design Criteria and the Basis for Design. The detailed description and calculations are documented in the Integral MRS Facility Conceptual Design Report. In addition to the summary portion of this report, explanatary notes for various terms, calculation methodology, and design parameters are presented in Appendix A. Appendix B provides a brief glossary of technical terms

  2. Monitoring the Microcirculation in Critical Conditions: Possibilities and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Tokmakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analytical review of the references on the role of microcirculatory disorders in the development of critical conditions, the significance of circulatory monitoring, specifically, to make a presumptive prognosis of multiple organ dysfunction. It defines main directions in the diagnosis and correction of microcirculatory disorders as direct (infusion therapy and indirect (influence on the components of a systemic inflammatory response, by extending to microcirculatory correction microcirculatory exposures. Key words: critical conditions, multiple organ dysfunction, procedures to evaluate and correct microcirculation.

  3. The late posterior negativity in ERP studies of episodic memory: action monitoring and retrieval of attribute conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mikael; Mecklinger, Axel

    2003-10-01

    The focus of the present paper is a late posterior negative slow wave (LPN) that has frequently been reported in event-related potential (ERP) studies of memory. An overview of these studies suggests that two broad classes of experimental conditions tend to elicit this component: (a) item recognition tasks associated with enhanced action monitoring demands arising from response conflict and (b) memory tasks that require the binding of items with contextual information specifying the study episode. A combined stimulus- and response-locked analysis of data from two studies mapping onto these classes allowed a temporal and functional decomposition of the LPN. While only the LPN observed in the item recognition task could be attributed to the involvement of a posteriorly distributed response-locked error-related negativity (or error negativity; ERN/Ne) occurring immediately after the response, the source-memory task was associated with a stimulus-locked negative slow wave occurring prior and during response execution that was evident when data were matched for response latencies. We argue that the presence of the former reflects action monitoring due to high levels of response conflict, whereas the latter reflects retrieval processes that may act to reconstruct the prior study episode when task-relevant attribute conjunctions are not readily recovered or need continued evaluation.

  4. Monitoring critical facilities by using advanced RF devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Hanchung; Liu, Yung Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Shuler, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The ability to monitor critical environment parameters of nuclear plants at all times, particularly during and after a disruptive accident, is vital for the safety of plant personnel, rescue and recovery crews, and the surrounding communities. Conventional hard-wired assets that depend on supplied power may be decimated as a result of such events, as witnessed in the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power plant in March 2011. Self-powered monitoring devices operating on a wireless platform, on the other hand, may survive such calamity and remain functional. The devices would be pre-positioned at strategic locations, particularly where the dangerous build-up of contamination and radiation may preclude subsequent manned entrance and surveillance. Equipped with sensors for β-γ radiation, neutrons, hydrogen gas, temperature, humidity, pressure, and water level, as well as with criticality alarms and imaging equipment for heat, video, and other capabilities, these devices can provide vital surveillance information for assessing the extent of plant damage, mandating responses (e.g., evacuation before impending hydrogen explosion), and enabling overall safe and efficient recovery in a disaster. A radio frequency identification (RFID)-based system - called ARG-US - may be modified and adapted for this task. Developed by Argonne for DOE, ARG-US (meaning 'watchful guardian') has been used successfully to monitor and track sensitive nuclear materials packages at DOE sites. It utilizes sensors in the tags to continuously monitor the state of health of the packaging and promptly disseminates alarms to authorized users when any of the preset sensor thresholds is violated. By adding plant-specific monitoring sensors to the already strong sensor suite and adopting modular hardware, firmware, and software subsystems that are tailored for specific subsystems of a plant, a Remote Area Modular Monitoring (RAMM) system, built on a wireless sensor network (WSN) platform, is being

  5. Monitoring critical facilities by using advanced RF devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hanchung; Liu, Yung Y.; Shuler, James

    2013-01-01

    The ability to monitor critical environment parameters of nuclear plants at all times, particularly during and after a disruptive accident, is vital for the safety of plant personnel, rescue and recovery crews, and the surrounding communities. Conventional hard-wired assets that depend on supplied power may be decimated as a result of such events, as witnessed in the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power plant in March 2011. Self-powered monitoring devices operating on a wireless platform, on the other hand, may survive such calamity and remain functional. The devices would be pre-positioned at strategic locations, particularly where the dangerous build-up of contamination and radiation may preclude subsequent manned entrance and surveillance. Equipped with sensors for β-γ radiation, neutrons, hydrogen gas, temperature, humidity, pressure, and water level, as well as with criticality alarms and imaging equipment for heat, video, and other capabilities, these devices can provide vital surveillance information for assessing the extent of plant damage, mandating responses (e.g., evacuation before impending hydrogen explosion), and enabling overall safe and efficient recovery in a disaster. A radio frequency identification (RFID)-based system - called ARG-US - may be modified and adapted for this task. Developed by Argonne for DOE, ARG-US (meaning 'watchful guardian') has been used successfully to monitor and track sensitive nuclear materials packages at DOE sites. It utilizes sensors in the tags to continuously monitor the state of health of the packaging and promptly disseminates alarms to authorized users when any of the preset sensor thresholds is violated. By adding plant-specific monitoring sensors to the already strong sensor suite and adopting modular hardware, firmware, and software subsystems that are tailored for specific subsystems of a plant, a Remote Area Modular Monitoring (RAMM) system, built on a wireless sensor network (WSN) platform, is being

  6. Using titanite petrochronology to monitor CO2-degassing episodes from the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapa, Giulia; Groppo, Chiara; Rolfo, Franco; Petrelli, Maurizio; Mosca, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    Metamorphic degassing from active collisional orogens supplies a significant fraction of CO2 to the atmosphere, playing a fundamental role in the long-term (> 1 Ma) global carbon cycle (Gaillardet & Galy, 2008). The petro-chronologic study of the CO2-source rocks (e.g. calc-silicate rocks) in collisional settings is therefore fundamental to understand the nature, timing, duration and magnitude of the orogenic carbon cycle. So far, the incomplete knowledge of these systems hindered a reliable quantitative modelling of metamorphic CO2 fluxes. A detailed petrological modelling of a clinopyroxene + scapolite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + biotite + zoisite ± calcite calc-silicate rock from central Nepal Himalaya allowed us to identify and fully characterize - for the first time - different metamorphic reactions that led to the simultaneous growth of titanite and production of CO2. These reactions involve biotite (rather than rutile) as the Ti-bearing reactant counterpart of titanite. The results of petrological modelling combined with Zr-in-Ttn thermometry and U-Pb geochronology suggest that in the studied sample, most titanite grains grew during two nearly continuous episodes of titanite formation: a near-peak event at 730-740°C, 10 kbar, 25.5±1.5 Ma, and a peak event at 740-765°C, 10.5 kbar, 22±3 Ma. Both episodes of titanite growth are correlated to specific CO2-producing reactions, thus allowing to constrain the timing, duration and P-T conditions of the main CO2-producing events, as well as the amounts of CO2 produced. Assuming that fluids released at a depth of ca. 30 km are able to reach the Earth's surface 10 Ma after their production, it is therefore possible to speculate on the role exerted by the Himalayan orogenesis on the climate in the past. Gaillardet J. & Galy A. (2008): Himalaya-carbon sink or source? Science, 320, 1727-1728.

  7. Marine monitoring surveys for desalination plants-A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Lattemann, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies are standard practice and a regulatory requirement for most new desalination projects today. However, most of the EIA studies are limited to predictive information; that is, they gather information on the project and the project\\'s environment before project implementation to make predictions about likely impacts. The EIAs may involve comprehensive studies, such as field monitoring, laboratory toxicity testing, and modeling studies. Consequently, the"surprising paucity of useful experimental data, either from laboratory tests or from field monitoring studies", which was observed by the US National Research Council in 2008, has been gradually decreasing. However, there is still a long-term research need on the site-specific effects of desalination plants after project commissioning has taken place. A main challenge of field research is the adequate design of the monitoring studies, which have to adequately distinguish the effects of the desalination project from natural processes over long periods of time. The existing monitoring studies have so far used a wide range of approaches and methods to investigate the environmental impacts of desalination plant discharges. Shortfalls are often that they are limited in scope, short-term, or localized. In essence, many studies fall short of recognizing the potentially synergetic effects of the single waste components of the discharges on marine organisms and the complexity of the potential responses by the ecosystem. While the possible risk of damage arising from the concentrate discharge to the marine environment in close proximity to the outfall is at hand, no conclusive evidence can yet be provided concerning the long-term impacts of desalination plant discharges, let alone the cumulative impacts on certain sea areas. This paper conducts a critical review of existing monitoring programs for desalination plants. Shortcomings of current practices are identified and relevant

  8. Development of a criticality monitoring and alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egey, Julio; Izraelevitch, Federico H.; Matatagui, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    In this work we are presenting the development of a Criticality Monitor and Alarm System (SIMAC). It monitors the burst of radiation produced during such an accident and triggers an alarm for evacuation in case the radiation exceeds a pre-established threshold. It consists of two subsystems, one for gamma rays and the other for neutrons. Each subsystem has three independent detectors modules. Each module is composed of an ion chamber plus its associated electronics, feeding a logic module that in turn would trigger the evacuation alarm. An additional feature is a PC interface for data acquisition. The radiation detectors are ion chambers working in current mode. The electronics associated to each detector can manage a wide signal range using a logarithmic converter. (author)

  9. Progress report of the critical equipment monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantis, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Philadelphia Electric Company has contracted with Energy Data Systems to develop a Critical Equipment Monitoring System for its Peach Bottom Nuclear Plant. This computerized system is designed to acquire and maintain accurate and timely status information on plant equipment. It will provide auditable record of plant and equipment transactions. Positive equipment identification and location will be provided. Errors in complex logical checking will be minimized. This system should reduce operator loading and improve operator communicatin with the plant personnel. Phase I of this system was installed at Peach Bottom Nuclear Station May 1982. It provides the necessary hardware and software to do check-off lists on critical plant systems. This paper describes some of the start-up and operational problems encountered

  10. Low minute ventilation episodes during anesthesia recovery following intraperitoneal surgery as detected by a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Alexandre N; Martin, Yvette N; Sprung, Juraj; Imsirovic, Jasmin; Weingarten, Toby N

    2017-12-20

    An electrical impedance-based noninvasive respiratory volume monitor (RVM) accurately reports minute volume, tidal volume and respiratory rate. Here we used the RVM to quantify the occurrence of and evaluate the ability of clinical factors to predict respiratory depression in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). RVM generated respiratory data were collected from spontaneously breathing patients following intraperitoneal surgeries under general anesthesia admitted to the PACU. Respiratory depression was defined as low minute ventilation episode (LMVe, respiratory rate (respiratory rate was a poor predictor of LMVe (sensitivity = 11.8%). Other clinical variables (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea) were not found to be predictors of LMVe. Using RVM we identified that mild, clinically nondetectable, respiratory depression prior to opioid administration in the PACU was associated with the development of substantial subsequent respiratory depression during the PACU stay.

  11. Effects of episodic sediment supply on bedload transport rate in mountain rivers. Detecting debris flow activity using continuous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Taro; Sakurai, Wataru; Iuchi, Takuma; Izumiyama, Hiroaki; Borgatti, Lisa; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring of sediment transport from hillslopes to channel networks as a consequence of floods with suspended and bedload transport, hyperconcentrated flows, debris and mud flows is essential not only for scientific issues, but also for prevention and mitigation of natural disasters, i.e. for hazard assessment, land use planning and design of torrent control interventions. In steep, potentially unstable terrains, ground-based continuous monitoring of hillslope and hydrological processes is still highly localized and expensive, especially in terms of manpower. In recent years, new seismic and acoustic methods have been developed for continuous bedload monitoring in mountain rivers. Since downstream bedload transport rate is controlled by upstream sediment supply from tributary channels and bed-external sources, continuous bedload monitoring might be an effective tool for detecting the sediments mobilized by debris flow processes in the upper catchment and thus represent an indirect method to monitor slope instability processes at the catchment scale. However, there is poor information about the effects of episodic sediment supply from upstream bed-external sources on downstream bedload transport rate at a single flood time scale. We have examined the effects of sediment supply due to upstream debris flow events on downstream bedload transport rate along the Yotagiri River, central Japan. To do this, we have conducted continuous bedload observations using a hydrophone (Japanese pipe microphone) located 6.4 km downstream the lower end of a tributary affected by debris flows. Two debris flows occurred during the two-years-long observation period. As expected, bedload transport rate for a given flow depth showed to be larger after storms triggering debris flows. That is, although the magnitude of sediment supply from debris flows is not large, their effect on bedload is propagating >6 km downstream at a single flood time scale. This indicates that continuous bedload

  12. Normal-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry for critical dimension monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hsu-Ting; Kong, Wei; Terry, Fred Lewis

    2001-01-01

    In this letter, we show that normal-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry can be used for high-accuracy topography measurements on surface relief gratings. We present both experimental and theoretical results which show that spectroscopic ellipsometry or reflectance-difference spectroscopy at near-normal incidence coupled with vector diffraction theory for data analysis is capable of high-accuracy critical dimension (CD), feature height, and sidewall angle measurements in the extreme submicron regime. Quantitative comparisons of optical and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) topography measurements from a number of 350 nm line/space reactive-ion-etched Si gratings demonstrate the strong potential for in situ etching monitoring. This technique can be used for both ex situ and in situ applications and has the potential to replace the use of CD-SEM measurements in some applications. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  13. Structural integrity monitoring of critical components in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Maria; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Brad, Sebastian; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the results obtained as part of the Project 'Integrated Network for Structural Integrity Monitoring of Critical Components in Nuclear Facilities', RIMIS, a research work underway within the framework of the Ministry of Education and Research Programme 'Research of Excellence'. The main objective of the Project is to constitute a network integrating the national R and D institutes with preoccupations in the structural integrity assessment of critical components in the nuclear facilities operating in Romania, in order to elaborate a specific procedure for this field. The degradation mechanisms of the structural materials used in the CANDU type reactors, operated by Unit 1 and Unit 2 at Cernavoda (pressure tubes, fuel elements sheaths, steam generator tubing) and in the nuclear facilities relating to reactors of this type as, for instance, the Hydrogen Isotopes Separation facility, will be investigated. The development of a flexible procedure will offer the opportunity to extend the applications to other structural materials used in the nuclear field and in the non-nuclear fields as well, in cooperation with other institutes involved in the developed network. The expected results of the project will allow the integration of the network developed at national level in the structures of similar networks operating within the EU, the enhancement of the scientific importance of Romanian R and D organizations as well as the increase of our country's contribution in solving the major issues of the nuclear field. (authors)

  14. Preliminary Design of Critical Function Monitoring System of PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A critical function monitoring system of the PGSFR is preliminarily studied. The functions of CFMS are to display critical plant variables related to the safety of the plant during normal and accident conditions and guide the operators corrective actions to keep the plant in a safe condition and mitigate the consequences of accidents. The minimal critical functions of the PGSFR are composed of reactivity control, reactor core cooling, reactor coolant system integrity, primary heat transfer system(PHTS) heat removal, sodium water reaction mitigation, radiation control and containment conditions. The variables and alarm legs of each critical function of the PGSFR are as follows; - Reactivity control: The variables of reactivity control function are power range neutron flux instrumentation, intermediate range neutron flux instrumentation, source range neutron flux instrumentation, and control rod bottom contacts. The alarm leg to display the reactivity controls consists of status of control drop malfunction, high post trip power and thermal reactivity addition. - Reactor core cooling: The variables are PHTS sodium level, hot pool temperature of PHTS, subassembly exit temperature, cold pool temperature of the PHTS, PHTS pump current, and PHTS pump breaker status. The alarm leg consists of high core delta temperature, low sodium level of the PHTS, high subassembly exit temperature, and low PHTS pump load. - Reactor coolant system integrity: The variables are PHTS sodium level, cover gas pressure, and safeguard vessel sodium level. The alarm leg is composed of low sodium level of PHTS, high cover gas pressure and high sodium level of the safety guard vessel. - PHTS heat removal: The variables are PHTS sodium level, hot pool temperature of PHTS, core exit temperature, cold pool temperature of the PHTS, flow rate of passive residual heat removal system

  15. Preliminary Design of Critical Function Monitoring System of PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    A PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A critical function monitoring system of the PGSFR is preliminarily studied. The functions of CFMS are to display critical plant variables related to the safety of the plant during normal and accident conditions and guide the operators corrective actions to keep the plant in a safe condition and mitigate the consequences of accidents. The minimal critical functions of the PGSFR are composed of reactivity control, reactor core cooling, reactor coolant system integrity, primary heat transfer system(PHTS) heat removal, sodium water reaction mitigation, radiation control and containment conditions. The variables and alarm legs of each critical function of the PGSFR are as follows; - Reactivity control: The variables of reactivity control function are power range neutron flux instrumentation, intermediate range neutron flux instrumentation, source range neutron flux instrumentation, and control rod bottom contacts. The alarm leg to display the reactivity controls consists of status of control drop malfunction, high post trip power and thermal reactivity addition. - Reactor core cooling: The variables are PHTS sodium level, hot pool temperature of PHTS, subassembly exit temperature, cold pool temperature of the PHTS, PHTS pump current, and PHTS pump breaker status. The alarm leg consists of high core delta temperature, low sodium level of the PHTS, high subassembly exit temperature, and low PHTS pump load. - Reactor coolant system integrity: The variables are PHTS sodium level, cover gas pressure, and safeguard vessel sodium level. The alarm leg is composed of low sodium level of PHTS, high cover gas pressure and high sodium level of the safety guard vessel. - PHTS heat removal: The variables are PHTS sodium level, hot pool temperature of PHTS, core exit temperature, cold pool temperature of the PHTS, flow rate of passive residual heat removal system

  16. Monitoring and Hardware Management for Critical Fusion Plasma Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Paulo F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled nuclear fusion aims to obtain energy by particles collision confined inside a nuclear reactor (Tokamak. These ionized particles, heavier isotopes of hydrogen, are the main elements inside of plasma that is kept at high temperatures (millions of Celsius degrees. Due to high temperatures and magnetic confinement, plasma is exposed to several sources of instabilities which require a set of procedures by the control and data acquisition systems throughout fusion experiments processes. Control and data acquisition systems often used in nuclear fusion experiments are based on the Advanced Telecommunication Computer Architecture (AdvancedTCA® standard introduced by the Peripheral Component Interconnect Industrial Manufacturers Group (PICMG®, to meet the demands of telecommunications that require large amount of data (TB transportation at high transfer rates (Gb/s, to ensure high availability including features such as reliability, serviceability and redundancy. For efficient plasma control, systems are required to collect large amounts of data, process it, store for later analysis, make critical decisions in real time and provide status reports either from the experience itself or the electronic instrumentation involved. Moreover, systems should also ensure the correct handling of detected anomalies and identified faults, notify the system operator of occurred events, decisions taken to acknowledge and implemented changes. Therefore, for everything to work in compliance with specifications it is required that the instrumentation includes hardware management and monitoring mechanisms for both hardware and software. These mechanisms should check the system status by reading sensors, manage events, update inventory databases with hardware system components in use and maintenance, store collected information, update firmware and installed software modules, configure and handle alarms to detect possible system failures and prevent emergency

  17. Monitoring and Hardware Management for Critical Fusion Plasma Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo F.; Santos, Bruno; Correia, Miguel; Combo, Álvaro M.; Rodrigues, AntÓnio P.; Pereira, Rita C.; Fernandes, Ana; Cruz, Nuno; Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Batista, AntÓnio J. N.; Correia, Carlos M. B. A.; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Controlled nuclear fusion aims to obtain energy by particles collision confined inside a nuclear reactor (Tokamak). These ionized particles, heavier isotopes of hydrogen, are the main elements inside of plasma that is kept at high temperatures (millions of Celsius degrees). Due to high temperatures and magnetic confinement, plasma is exposed to several sources of instabilities which require a set of procedures by the control and data acquisition systems throughout fusion experiments processes. Control and data acquisition systems often used in nuclear fusion experiments are based on the Advanced Telecommunication Computer Architecture (AdvancedTCA®) standard introduced by the Peripheral Component Interconnect Industrial Manufacturers Group (PICMG®), to meet the demands of telecommunications that require large amount of data (TB) transportation at high transfer rates (Gb/s), to ensure high availability including features such as reliability, serviceability and redundancy. For efficient plasma control, systems are required to collect large amounts of data, process it, store for later analysis, make critical decisions in real time and provide status reports either from the experience itself or the electronic instrumentation involved. Moreover, systems should also ensure the correct handling of detected anomalies and identified faults, notify the system operator of occurred events, decisions taken to acknowledge and implemented changes. Therefore, for everything to work in compliance with specifications it is required that the instrumentation includes hardware management and monitoring mechanisms for both hardware and software. These mechanisms should check the system status by reading sensors, manage events, update inventory databases with hardware system components in use and maintenance, store collected information, update firmware and installed software modules, configure and handle alarms to detect possible system failures and prevent emergency scenarios

  18. Clinical use of lactate monitoring in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.W.N. Nijsten (Maarten); T.C. Jansen (Tim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIncreased blood lactate levels (hyperlactataemia) are common in critically ill patients. Although frequently used to diagnose inadequate tissue oxygenation, other processes not related to tissue oxygenation may increase lactate levels. Especially in critically ill patients, increased

  19. Episodic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  20. Marine monitoring surveys for desalination plants-A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Lattemann, Sabine; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    on the project and the project's environment before project implementation to make predictions about likely impacts. The EIAs may involve comprehensive studies, such as field monitoring, laboratory toxicity testing, and modeling studies. Consequently, the

  1. Sub-criticality monitoring for ADTR trademark control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Following the debut of the Accelerator Driven Thorium Reactor (ADTR trademark) Power Station at ENC 2010 in Barcelona, thorium as a reactor fuel has gained increasing support. The ADTR trademark concept reactor introduced the combination of an accelerator driven system (ADS) with traditional control rod technology, to provide a very high gain novel sub-critical ADS reactor design. The high gain of the system, while significantly reducing the demands on the accelerator design, pushes up operational sub-criticality (k eff ) closer to unity. In this paper we review this design and the progress made since ENC 2010. We compare 2 different methods of measuring the sub-critical neutron multiplication factor as the fuel cycle develops. The paper discusses the most recent work on k eff measurement and the interesting relationship between neutron flux, accelerator current and fuel temperature when using beam pulse methods to determine operational sub-criticality, of which a European patent is being granted. (orig.)

  2. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks – ground-based as well space-based – has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  3. Intelligent monitoring, control, and security of critical infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    Polycarpou, Marios

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the challenges that critical infrastructure systems face, and presents state of the art solutions to address them. How can we design intelligent systems or intelligent agents that can make appropriate real-time decisions in the management of such large-scale, complex systems? What are the primary challenges for critical infrastructure systems? The book also provides readers with the relevant information to recognize how important infrastructures are, and their role in connection with a society’s economy, security and prosperity. It goes on to describe state-of-the-art solutions to address these points, including new methodologies and instrumentation tools (e.g. embedded software and intelligent algorithms) for transforming and optimizing target infrastructures. The book is the most comprehensive resource to date for professionals in both the private and public sectors, while also offering an essential guide for students and researchers in the areas of modeling and analysis of critical in...

  4. Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Hemodynamic Monitor in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanayem, Nancy S; Hoffman, George M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss the technology and clinical interpretation of near infrared spectroscopy oximetry and its clinical application in patients with congenital heart disease. MEDLINE and PubMed. Near infrared spectroscopy provides a continuous noninvasive assessment of tissue oxygenation. Over 20 years ago, near infrared spectroscopy was introduced into clinical practice for monitoring cerebral oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults. Since that time, the utilization of near infrared spectroscopy has extended into the realm of pediatric cardiac surgery and is increasingly being used in the cardiac ICU to monitor tissue oxygenation perioperatively.

  5. The Media and the Image of War. Study Guide. Episode #724. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Claudia

    This program examines the series of myths generated by the media about war, peace, and the use of force. This episode explores the emergence of the popular interpretation of violence by "good" citizens who use violence to produce positive results during wartime. The study guide offers questions to use before viewing the video, questions to follow…

  6. The Press and the Pentagon. Study Guide. Episode #824. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. T.

    This program examines the changing relationship between the military and the press. In this episode leading journalists and military public affairs officials debate uses of censorship, access to the battlefield, and the impact of live television on military operations. The study guide offers questions to use before viewing the video, questions to…

  7. A short history and critical review of individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernli, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of X-rays and the radioactive element radium harmful radiation effects occurred, mainly in the medical field. Consequently, the radiologists, a new profession at that time, called for a limitation of radiation exposures. First proposals were to limit the exposure rate to prevent the incidence of skin erythema. It took more than two decades and there were many victims of severe radiation effects until a sound basis for radiation protection and individual monitoring was established. For external dosimetry, the film dosemeter was invented in the 1920's. This device, often combined with an ion chamber-based pencil dosemeter, dominated the systems used in personnel dosimetry until the end of the twentieth century. For internal exposure, the concept of limiting the 'body burden' was commonly used, and only in the late 1970's, the new concept of the 'effective dose equivalent' published in ICRP publication 26 allowed for a unified interpretation and, therefore, addition of the dosimetric quantities for external and internal exposures. By the end of the last century, individual monitoring had to survive an inflation of proposals for new quantities, but fortunately, it was also the time of vast developments of new technologies, methods and procedures. Later on, much room was given to highly sophisticated regulations, requirements, metrological concepts and administrative procedures. In this complex environment, the original task of individual monitoring became more and more hidden behind secondary loads. Now, like about hundred years ago, however with different motivation, once again the ultimate goal of the professional work has to be thought about by asking: Do people always know why they do what they do? Or simply: Why individual monitoring? (authors)

  8. Duration of episodes of untreated Acute Malnutrition in children 6–59 months as observed during monthly growth monitoring sessions in South of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoq, Mohammad; Waid, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Planning for management of severe and moderate acute malnutrition programs requires estimation of the caseload of children in need of care. Since incidence of acute malnutrition is not readily available, estimate of caseload is often derived from survey prevalence and the estimated duration of untreated episodes of acute malnutrition. However, information on the duration of acute malnutrition is limited. Sufficient guidance has not been given to planners on how to translate wasting prevalence rates into the probable caseload of a program based on Mid Upper Arm Circumference for admission. Objective: To report the duration of acute malnutrition in children 6 – 59 months as observed during community growth monitoring in the south of Bangladesh. Methodology: The study design was retrospective cohort using administrative data from Terre des hommes’ monthly Growth Monitoring Program in Patharghata Union of Barguna District in absence of any community management. Monitoring data were available between November 2011 and December 2012 for 3340 children and on average, 1766 children were measured each month. Of these children only 585 had observations for every time point. During analysis two models were run, one which imputed missing observations based on status before and after the missing observation and one utilizing complete records. Case definition: Based on the World Health Organization’s threshold for weight-for-height z-scores and MUAC, the duration of acute malnutrition began when children were identified with acute malnutrition The duration of acute malnutrition ended when children were not identified as suffering with acute malnutrition at any monthly visit. Episodes of acute malnutrition observed during the first and last periods of growth monitoring were excluded from the estimation of duration. Results: The prevalence of global acute malnutrition varied over the year, with a peak in June/July (29.7% & 29.0%) and a low in December

  9. Organization and methods of radiation monitoring while working at nuclear critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkin, G.V.; Komissarov, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    The organization and methods of environmental radiation monitoring while working at nuclear critical assemblies, are described. Necessary equipment for critical assemblies (signal and Ventilation systems, devices for recording accidental radiation levels of and for measuring radiation field distribution) and the personnel program of actions in case of nuclear accident. The dosimetric control at critical assemblies is usually ensured by telesystems. 8004-01 multi-channel dosimetric device is described as an example of such-system [ru

  10. Impaired action self-monitoring and cognitive confidence among ultra-high risk for psychosis and first-episode psychosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawęda, Ł; Li, E; Lavoie, S; Whitford, T J; Moritz, S; Nelson, B

    2018-01-01

    Self-monitoring biases and overconfidence in incorrect judgments have been suggested as playing a role in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Little is known about whether self-monitoring biases may contribute to early risk factors for psychosis. In this study, action self-monitoring (i.e., discrimination between imagined and performed actions) was investigated, along with confidence in judgments among ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis individuals and first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Thirty-six UHR for psychosis individuals, 25 FEP patients and 33 healthy controls (CON) participated in the study. Participants were assessed with the Action memory task. Simple actions were presented to participants verbally or non-verbally. Some actions were required to be physically performed and others were imagined. Participants were asked whether the action was presented verbally or non-verbally (action presentation type discrimination), and whether the action was performed or imagined (self-monitoring). Confidence self-ratings related to self-monitoring responses were obtained. The analysis of self-monitoring revealed that both UHR and FEP groups misattributed imagined actions as being performed (i.e., self-monitoring errors) significantly more often than the CON group. There were no differences regarding performed actions as being imagined. UHR and FEP groups made their false responses with higher confidence in their judgments than the CON group. There were no group differences regarding discrimination between the types of actions presented (verbal vs non-verbal). A specific type of self-monitoring bias (i.e., misattributing imagined actions with performed actions), accompanied by high confidence in this judgment, may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of a psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. First episode schizophrenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with schizophrenia present clinically with psychotic, negative and cognitive ... changes in their emotions, cognition or behaviour which may indicate a ... contribute 80% to the risk of schizophrenia developing. A number of .... Positive symptoms ... Depression ... treatment of first episode schizophrenia is of critical importance.

  12. Detection of critical PM2.5 emission sources and their contributions to a heavy haze episode in Beijing, China, using an adjoint model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shixian; An, Xingqin; Zhao, Tianliang; Sun, Zhaobin; Wang, Wei; Hou, Qing; Guo, Zengyuan; Wang, Chao

    2018-05-01

    Air pollution sources and their regional transport are important issues for air quality control. The Global-Regional Assimilation and Prediction System coupled with the China Meteorological Administration Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment (GRAPES-CUACE) aerosol adjoint model was applied to detect the sensitive primary emission sources of a haze episode in Beijing occurring between 19 and 21 November 2012. The high PM2.5 concentration peaks occurring at 05:00 and 23:00 LT (GMT+8) over Beijing on 21 November 2012 were set as the cost functions for the aerosol adjoint model. The critical emission regions of the first PM2.5 concentration peak were tracked to the west and south of Beijing, with 2 to 3 days of cumulative transport of air pollutants to Beijing. The critical emission regions of the second peak were mainly located to the south of Beijing, where southeasterly moist air transport led to the hygroscopic growth of particles and pollutant convergence in front of the Taihang Mountains during the daytime on 21 November. The temporal variations in the sensitivity coefficients for the two PM2.5 concentration peaks revealed that the response time of the onset of Beijing haze pollution from the local primary emissions is approximately 1-2 h and that from the surrounding primary emissions it is approximately 7-12 h. The upstream Hebei province has the largest impact on the two PM2.5 concentration peaks, and the contribution of emissions from Hebei province to the first PM2.5 concentration peak (43.6 %) is greater than that to the second PM2.5 concentration peak (41.5 %). The second most influential province for the 05:00 LT PM2.5 concentration peak is Beijing (31.2 %), followed by Shanxi (9.8 %), Tianjin (9.8 %), and Shandong (5.7 %). The second most influential province for the 23:00 LT PM2.5 concentration peak is Beijing (35.7 %), followed by Shanxi (8.1 %), Shandong (8.0 %), and Tianjin (6.7 %). The adjoint model results were compared with the forward

  13. Glucose monitoring as a guide to diabetes management. Critical subject review.

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, B.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To encourage a balanced approach to blood glucose monitoring in diabetes by a critical review of the history, power and cost of glucose testing. DATA SOURCES: The Cambridge Data Base was searched and was supplemented by a random review of other relevant sources, including textbooks, company pamphlets, and laboratory manuals. STUDY SELECTION: Keywords used were "glucosuria diagnosis," "blood glucose self-monitoring," "glycosylated hemoglobin," and "fructosamine" for the 10-year period...

  14. Characteristics of an environmentally monitored prolonged type 2 vaccine derived poliovirus shedding episode that stopped without intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Hovi

    Full Text Available Vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV type 2 strains strongly divergent from the corresponding vaccine strain, Sabin 2, were repeatedly isolated from sewage in Slovakia over a period of 22 months in 2003-2005. Cell cultures of stool specimens from known immune deficient patients and from an identified putative source population of 500 people failed to identify the potential excretor(s of the virus. The occurrence of VDPV in sewage stopped without any intervention. No paralytic cases were reported in Slovakia during the episode. According to a GenBank search and similarity plotting-analysis, the closest known relative of the first isolate PV2/03/SVK/E783 through all main sections of the genome was the type 2 poliovirus Sabin strain, with nucleotide identities in 5'UTR, P1, P2, P3, and 3'UTR parts of the genome of 88.6, 85.9, 87.3, 88.5, and 94.0 percent, respectively. Phenotypic properties of selected Slovakian aVDPV strains resembled those of VDPV strains isolated from immune deficient individuals with prolonged PV infection (iVDPV, including antigenic changes and moderate neurovirulence in the transgenic mouse model. One hundred and two unique VP1 coding sequences were determined from VDPV strains isolated from 34 sewage specimens. Nucleotide differences from Sabin 2 in the VP1 coding region ranged from 12.5 to 15.6 percent, and reached a maximum of 9.6 percent between the VDPV strains under study. Most of the nucleotide substitutions were synonymous but as many as 93 amino acid positions out of 301 in VP1 showed substitutions. We conclude that (1 individuals with prolonged poliovirus infection are not as rare as suggested by the studies on immune deficient patients known to the health care systems and (2 genetic divergence of VDPV strains may remain extensive during years long replication in humans.

  15. Characteristics of an Environmentally Monitored Prolonged Type 2 Vaccine Derived Poliovirus Shedding Episode that Stopped without Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovi, Tapani; Paananen, Anja; Blomqvist, Soile; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Al-Hello, Haider; Smura, Teemu; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nadova, Katarina; Sobotova, Zdenka; Gavrilin, Eugene; Roivainen, Merja

    2013-01-01

    Vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV) type 2 strains strongly divergent from the corresponding vaccine strain, Sabin 2, were repeatedly isolated from sewage in Slovakia over a period of 22 months in 2003–2005. Cell cultures of stool specimens from known immune deficient patients and from an identified putative source population of 500 people failed to identify the potential excretor(s) of the virus. The occurrence of VDPV in sewage stopped without any intervention. No paralytic cases were reported in Slovakia during the episode. According to a GenBank search and similarity plotting-analysis, the closest known relative of the first isolate PV2/03/SVK/E783 through all main sections of the genome was the type 2 poliovirus Sabin strain, with nucleotide identities in 5′UTR, P1, P2, P3, and 3′UTR parts of the genome of 88.6, 85.9, 87.3, 88.5, and 94.0 percent, respectively. Phenotypic properties of selected Slovakian aVDPV strains resembled those of VDPV strains isolated from immune deficient individuals with prolonged PV infection (iVDPV), including antigenic changes and moderate neurovirulence in the transgenic mouse model. One hundred and two unique VP1 coding sequences were determined from VDPV strains isolated from 34 sewage specimens. Nucleotide differences from Sabin 2 in the VP1 coding region ranged from 12.5 to 15.6 percent, and reached a maximum of 9.6 percent between the VDPV strains under study. Most of the nucleotide substitutions were synonymous but as many as 93 amino acid positions out of 301 in VP1 showed substitutions. We conclude that (1) individuals with prolonged poliovirus infection are not as rare as suggested by the studies on immune deficient patients known to the health care systems and (2) genetic divergence of VDPV strains may remain extensive during years long replication in humans. PMID:23935826

  16. The Interplay between Reflective Thinking, Critical Thinking, Self-Monitoring, and Academic Achievement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the associations among higher-order thinking skills (reflective thinking, critical thinking) and self-monitoring that contribute to academic achievement among university students. The sample consisted of 196 Iranian university students (mean age = 22.05, SD = 3.06; 112 females; 75 males) who were administered three…

  17. The effects of divided attention at study and reporting procedure on regulation and monitoring for episodic recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, James; Hope, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Eyewitnesses regulate the level of detail (grain size) reported to balance competing demands for informativeness and accuracy. However, research to date has predominantly examined metacognitive monitoring for semantic memory tasks, and used relatively artificial phased reporting procedures. Further, although the established role of confidence in this regulation process may affect the confidence-accuracy relation for volunteered responses in predictable ways, previous investigations of the confidence-accuracy relation for eyewitness recall have largely overlooked the regulation of response granularity. Using a non-phased paradigm, Experiment 1 compared reporting and monitoring following optimal and sub-optimal (divided attention) encoding conditions. Participants showed evidence of sacrificing accuracy for informativeness, even when memory quality was relatively weak. Participants in the divided (cf. full) attention condition showed reduced accuracy for fine- but not coarse-grained responses. However, indices of discrimination and confidence diagnosticity showed no effect of divided attention. Experiment 2 compared the effects of divided attention at encoding on reporting and monitoring using both non-phased and 2-phase procedures. Divided attention effects were consistent with Experiment 1. However, compared to those in the non-phased condition, participants in the 2-phase condition displayed a more conservative control strategy, and confidence ratings were less diagnostic of accuracy. When memory quality was reduced, although attempts to balance informativeness and accuracy increased the chance of fine-grained response errors, confidence provided an index of the likely accuracy of volunteered fine-grained responses for both condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Critical and subcritical damage monitoring of bonded composite repairs using innovative non-destructive techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikos, S. A.; Kordatos, E. Z.; Aggelis, D. G.; Matikas, T. E.; Paipetis, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    Infrared Thermography (IrT) has been shown to be capable of detecting and monitoring service induced damage of repair composite structures. Full-field imaging, along with portability are the primary benefits of the thermographic technique. On-line lock-in thermography has been reported to successfully monitor damage propagation or/and stress concentration in composite coupons, as mechanical stresses in structures induce heat concentration phenomena around flaws. During mechanical fatigue, cyclic loading plays the role of the heating source and this allows for critical and subcritical damage identification and monitoring using thermography. The Electrical Potential Change Technique (EPCT) is a new method for damage identification and monitoring during loading. The measurement of electrical potential changes at specific points of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRPs) under load are reported to enable the monitoring of strain or/and damage accumulation. Along with the aforementioned techniques Finally, Acoustic Emission (AE) method is well known to provide information about the location and type of damage. Damage accumulation due to cyclic loading imposes differentiation of certain parameters of AE like duration and energy. Within the scope of this study, infrared thermography is employed along with AE and EPCT methods in order to assess the integrity of bonded repair patches on composite substrates and to monitor critical and subcritical damage induced by the mechanical loading. The combined methodologies were effective in identifying damage initiation and propagation of bonded composite repairs.

  19. Methods for monitoring the initial load to critical in the fast test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.

    1975-08-01

    Conventional symmetric fuel loadings for the initial loading to critical of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR) are predicted to be more time consuming than asymmetric or trisector loadings. Potentially significant time savings can be realized by the latter, since adequate intermediate assessments of neutron multiplication can be made periodically without control rod reconnection in all trisectors. Experimental simulation of both loading schemes was carried out in the Reverse Approach to Critical (RAC) experiments in the Fast Test Reactor-Engineering Mockup Critical facility. Analyses of these experiments indicated that conventional source multiplication methods can be applied for monitoring either a symmetric or asymmetric fuel loading scheme equally well provided that detection efficiency corrections are employed. Methods for refining predictions of reactivity and count rates for the stages in a load to critical were also investigated. (auth)

  20. Continuous wireless pressure monitoring and mapping with ultra-small passive sensors for health monitoring and critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lisa Y; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Chortos, Alex L; Schwartz, Gregor; Tse, Victor; Lipomi, Darren J; Wong, H-S Philip; McConnell, Michael V; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-10-06

    Continuous monitoring of internal physiological parameters is essential for critical care patients, but currently can only be practically achieved via tethered solutions. Here we report a wireless, real-time pressure monitoring system with passive, flexible, millimetre-scale sensors, scaled down to unprecedented dimensions of 1 × 1 × 0.1 cubic millimeters. This level of dimensional scaling is enabled by novel sensor design and detection schemes, which overcome the operating frequency limits of traditional strategies and exhibit insensitivity to lossy tissue environments. We demonstrate the use of this system to capture human pulse waveforms wirelessly in real time as well as to monitor in vivo intracranial pressure continuously in proof-of-concept mice studies using sensors down to 2.5 × 2.5 × 0.1 cubic millimeters. We further introduce printable wireless sensor arrays and show their use in real-time spatial pressure mapping. Looking forward, this technology has broader applications in continuous wireless monitoring of multiple physiological parameters for biomedical research and patient care.

  1. Environment radiological monitoring by JNC related to the JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    Concerning the criticality accident at JCO Co., Ltd. (JCO) which occurred at 10:35 on 30th Sep. 1999, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) established ''JNC's task force'' at 12:35 on the same data in conjunction with Head Office and Tokai Works. JNC's task force had collaborated on environmental radiological monitoring with the government of Japan and the local governments. This report compiles the results of the environmental monitoring performed by JNC's task force based on the request from the government of Japan and the local governments. (author)

  2. Minimal-Intrusion Traffic Monitoring And Analysis In Mission-Critical Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Domingo Ajenjo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A good knowledge of expected and actual traffic patterns is an essential tool for network planning, design and operation in deployed, mission-critical applications. This paper describes those needs, and explains the Traffic Monitoring and Analysis Platform (TMAP concept, as developed in support of NATO deployed military headquarters Communications and Information Systems. It shows how a TMAP was deployed to a real NATO exercise, to prove the concept and baseline the traffic needs per application, per user community and per time of day. Then, it analyses the obtained results and derives conclusions on how to integrate traffic monitoring and analysis platforms in future deployments.

  3. Diagnosis and on-line displacement monitoring for critical pipe of fossil power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, J. S.; Hyun, J. S. [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Heo, J. R.; Lee, S. K.; Cho, S. Y. [Korea South-East Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    High temperature steam pipes of fossil power plant are subject to a severe thermal range and usually operates well into the creep range. Cyclic operation of the plant subjects the piping system to mechanical and thermal fatigue mechanisms and poor or malfunctional support assemblies can impose massive loads or stress onto the piping system. In order to prevent the serious damage and failure of the critical pipe system, various inspection methods such as visual inspection, computational analysis and on-line piping displacement monitoring were developed. 3-Dimensional piping displacement monitoring system was developed with using he aluminum alloy rod and rotary encoder type sensors, this system was installed and operated on the 'Y' fossil power plant successfully. It is expected that this study will contribute to the safety of piping system, which could minimize stress and extend the actual life of critical piping.

  4. Technology of Inspection and Real-time Displacement Monitoring on Critical Pipe for Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Jung Seob; Heo, Jae Sil [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sun Young [KLES, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jeong Yeol; Lee, Seong Kee [Korea South-East Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    High temperature steam pipes of thermal power plant are subject to a severe thermal range and usually operates well into the creep range. Cyclic operation of the plant subjects the piping system to mechanical and thermal fatigue damages. Also, poor or malfunctional supports can impose massive loads or stress onto the piping system. In order to prevent the serious damage and failure of the critical piping system, various inspection methods such as visual inspection, computational analysis and on-line piping displacement monitoring were developed. 3-dimensional piping displacement monitoring system was developed with using the aluminum alloy rod and rotary encoder sensors, this system was installed and operated on the high temperature steam piping of 'Y' thermal power plant successfully. It is expected that this study will contribute to the safety of piping system, which could minimize stress and extend the actual life of critical piping.

  5. Development of integrated containment and surveillance system for fast critical facility FCA. Portal and penetration monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Ogawa, Hironobu; Yokota, Yasuhiro.

    1998-01-01

    Manpower and radiation exposure problems, accompanied by frequent Non Destructive Assay (NDA) based inspections at the Fast Critical Facility FCA of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), are a burden for both the inspectorates and the facility operator. In the hope of alleviating these burdens, the development of containment and surveillance measures for the FCA was initiated in 1979. The integrated containment and surveillance system consists of a portal monitor and a penetration monitor. The reactor building provides an ideal containment measure because of its explosion-proof, airtight structure and limited number of penetrations. The function of the portal monitor is to detect undeclared removal of nuclear material from the reactor building through the doorway. The penetration monitor is designed for surveillance of diversion routes through containment boundaries, and of safeguards related activities for bypassing the portal monitor. The combination of monitoring by the penetration monitor of containment boundaries and all their penetrations except for the doorway, and monitoring by the portal monitor, provides complete coverage of realistic diversion routes. The development of the system was completed in 1988 and the field trial test was conducted for the period of twelve running months. The final report on the field trial was concluded on January 1990. The major conclusion of the report was that the system is effective, reliable and efficient. Following this successful conclusion, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) accepted the system for meeting its safeguards goals at the FCA on condition that an independent IAEA authentication equipment is provided. The development of the authentication equipment is accomplished as an separate Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) task. (author)

  6. Nuclear incident monitor criticality alarm instrument for the Savannah River Site: Technical manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy facility. The facility stores, processes, and works with fissionable material at a number of locations. Technical standards and US Department of Energy orders, require these locations to be monitored by criticality alarm systems under certain circumstances. The Savannah River Site calls such instruments Nuclear Incident Monitors or NIMs. The Sole purpose of the Nuclear Incident Monitor is to provide an immediate evacuation signal in the case of an accidental criticality in order to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The new unit is the third generation Nuclear Incident Monitor at the Savannah River Site. The second generation unit was developed in 1979. It was designed to eliminate vacuum-tube circuits, and was the first solid state NIM at SRS. The major design objectives of the second generation NIM were to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Ten prototype units have been built and tested. This report describes the design of the new NIM and the testing that took place to verify its acceptability

  7. Health Monitor for Multitasking, Safety-Critical, Real-Time Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerner, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Health Manager can detect Bad Health prior to a failure occurring by periodically monitoring the application software by looking for code corruption errors, and sanity-checking each critical data value prior to use. A processor s memory can fail and corrupt the software, or the software can accidentally write to the wrong address and overwrite the executing software. This innovation will continuously calculate a checksum of the software load to detect corrupted code. This will allow a system to detect a failure before it happens. This innovation monitors each software task (thread) so that if any task reports "bad health," or does not report to the Health Manager, the system is declared bad. The Health Manager reports overall system health to the outside world by outputting a square wave signal. If the square wave stops, this indicates that system health is bad or hung and cannot report. Either way, "bad health" can be detected, whether caused by an error, corrupted data, or a hung processor. A separate Health Monitor Task is started and run periodically in a loop that starts and stops pending on a semaphore. Each monitored task registers with the Health Manager, which maintains a count for the task. The registering task must indicate if it will run more or less often than the Health Manager. If the task runs more often than the Health Manager, the monitored task calls a health function that increments the count and verifies it did not go over max-count. When the periodic Health Manager runs, it verifies that the count did not go over the max-count and zeroes it. If the task runs less often than the Health Manager, the periodic Health Manager will increment the count. The monitored task zeroes the count, and both the Health Manager and monitored task verify that the count did not go over the max-count.

  8. Development of a structural health monitoring system for the life assessment of critical transportation infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Jauregui, David Villegas (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Daumueller, Andrew Nicholas (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)

    2012-02-01

    Recent structural failures such as the I-35W Mississippi River Bridge in Minnesota have underscored the urgent need for improved methods and procedures for evaluating our aging transportation infrastructure. This research seeks to develop a basis for a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to provide quantitative information related to the structural integrity of metallic structures to make appropriate management decisions and ensuring public safety. This research employs advanced structural analysis and nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for an accurate fatigue analysis. Metal railroad bridges in New Mexico will be the focus since many of these structures are over 100 years old and classified as fracture-critical. The term fracture-critical indicates that failure of a single component may result in complete collapse of the structure such as the one experienced by the I-35W Bridge. Failure may originate from sources such as loss of section due to corrosion or cracking caused by fatigue loading. Because standard inspection practice is primarily visual, these types of defects can go undetected due to oversight, lack of access to critical areas, or, in riveted members, hidden defects that are beneath fasteners or connection angles. Another issue is that it is difficult to determine the fatigue damage that a structure has experienced and the rate at which damage is accumulating due to uncertain history and load distribution in supporting members. A SHM system has several advantages that can overcome these limitations. SHM allows critical areas of the structure to be monitored more quantitatively under actual loading. The research needed to apply SHM to metallic structures was performed and a case study was carried out to show the potential of SHM-driven fatigue evaluation to assess the condition of critical transportation infrastructure and to guide inspectors to potential problem areas. This project combines the expertise in transportation infrastructure at New

  9. Formulation of a strategy for monitoring control integrity in critical digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe

    1991-01-01

    Advanced aircraft will require flight critical computer systems for stability augmentation as well as guidance and control that must perform reliably in adverse, as well as nominal, operating environments. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that can occur in electromagnetically harsh environments, involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. A strategy is presented for dynamic upset detection to be used in the evaluation of critical digital controllers during the design and/or validation phases of development. Critical controllers must be able to be used in adverse environments that result from disturbances caused by an electromagnetic source such as lightning, high intensity radiated field (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The upset detection strategy presented provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity that can result from redundancy management errors and control command calculation error that could occur in an electromagnetically harsh operating environment. The use is discussed of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors, redundancy management errors, and control effectiveness.

  10. Noise method for monitoring the sub-criticality in accelerator driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugama, Y.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Perez, R.B.; Perez-Navarro, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an absolute measurements technique for the sub-criticality determination is presented. The development of ADS, requires of methods to monitor and control the sub-criticality of this kind of systems, without interfering it's normal operation mode. This method is based on the Stochastic Neutron and Photon Transport Theory developed by Munoz-Cobo et al., and which can be implemented in presently available neutron transport codes. As a by-product of the methodology a monitoring measurement technique has been developed and verified using two coupled Monte Carlo programs. The spallation collisions and the high-energy transport are simulated with LAHET. The neutrons transports with energies less than 20 MeV and the estimation of the count statistics for neutron and/or gamma ray counters in fissile systems, is simulated with MCNP-DSP. It is possible to get the kinetics parameters and the k eff value of the sub-critical system through the analysis of the counter detectors. (author)

  11. Vibro-acoustic condition monitoring of Internal Combustion Engines: A critical review of existing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, S.; Bonfiglio, P.; Pompoli, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the state-of-the-art strategies and techniques based on vibro-acoustic signals that can monitor and diagnose malfunctions in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) under both test bench and vehicle operating conditions. Over recent years, several authors have summarized what is known in critical reviews mainly focused on reciprocating machines in general or on specific signal processing techniques: no attempts to deal with IC engine condition monitoring have been made. This paper first gives a brief summary of the generation of sound and vibration in ICEs in order to place further discussion on fault vibro-acoustic diagnosis in context. An overview of the monitoring and diagnostic techniques described in literature using both vibration and acoustic signals is also provided. Different faulty conditions are described which affect combustion, mechanics and the aerodynamics of ICEs. The importance of measuring acoustic signals, as opposed to vibration signals, is due since the former seem to be more suitable for implementation on on-board monitoring systems in view of their non-intrusive behaviour, capability in simultaneously capturing signatures from several mechanical components and because of the possibility of detecting faults affecting airborne transmission paths. In view of the recent needs of the industry to (-) optimize component structural durability adopting long-life cycles, (-) verify the engine final status at the end of the assembly line and (-) reduce the maintenance costs monitoring the ICE life during vehicle operations, monitoring and diagnosing system requests are continuously growing up. The present review can be considered a useful guideline for test engineers in understanding which types of fault can be diagnosed by using vibro-acoustic signals in sufficient time in both test bench and operating conditions and which transducer and signal processing technique (of which the essential background theory is here reported) could be

  12. Monitoring and Control of Urban Critical Infrastructures: A Novel Approach to System Design and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario La Manna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and control of urban critical infrastructures consists of the protection of assets such as houses, offices, government and private buildings, with low cost, high quality and high dependability. In order to satisfy all these requirements at the same time, the control of a number of assets has to be performed by means of automated systems based on networks of heterogeneous sensors. This new concept idea is based on the use of unmanned operations at each of the many remote assets (each asset is monitored through a network of sensors and a man-in-the-loop automated control in a central site (Operational Center, which performs alarm detection and system management.

  13. Personal dose monitoring in hospitals: Global assessment, critical applications and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covens, P.; Berus, D.; Buls, N.; Clerinx, P.; Vanhavere, F.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that medical applications using ionising radiation are wide spread and still increasing. Physicians, technicians, nurses and others constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Many hospital workers are consequently subjected to routine monitoring of professional radiation exposures. in the university hospital, UZ Brussel, 600 out of 4000 staff members are daily monitored for external radiation exposures. The most obvious applications of ionising radiation are diagnostic radiology, diagnostic or therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine and external radiation therapy or brachytherapy in radiotherapy departments. Other important applications also include various procedures in interventional radiology (IR), in vitro biomedical research and radiopharmaceutical production around cyclotrons. Besides the fact that many of the staff members, involved in these applications, are not measurably exposed, detailed studies were carried out at workplaces where routine dose monitoring encounters difficulties and for some applications where relatively high occupational exposures can be found. most of the studies are concentrated around nuclear medicine applications and IR. They contain assessments of both effective dose and doses at different parts of the body. The results contribute to better characterisation of the different workplaces in a way that critical applications can be identified. Moreover, conclusions point out future needs for practical routine dose monitoring and optimisation of radiation protection. (authors)

  14. ASIC-based design of NMR system health monitor for mission/safety-critical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, P

    2016-01-01

    N-modular redundancy (NMR) is a generic fault tolerance scheme that is widely used in safety-critical circuit/system designs to guarantee the correct operation with enhanced reliability. In passive NMR, at least a majority (N + 1)/2 out of N function modules is expected to operate correctly at any time, where N is odd. Apart from a conventional realization of the NMR system, it would be useful to provide a concurrent indication of the system's health so that an appropriate remedial action may be initiated depending upon an application's safety criticality. In this context, this article presents the novel design of a generic NMR system health monitor which features: (i) early fault warning logic, that is activated upon the production of a conflicting result by even one output of any arbitrary function module, and (ii) error signalling logic, which signals an error when the number of faulty function modules unfortunately attains a majority and the system outputs may no more be reliable. Two sample implementations of NMR systems viz. triple modular redundancy and quintuple modular redundancy with the proposed system health monitoring are presented in this work, with a 4-bit ALU used for the function modules. The simulations are performed using a 32/28 nm CMOS process technology.

  15. Accuracy of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring in critically ill adults: improved sensor performance with enhanced calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarathna, Lalantha; English, Shane W; Thabit, Hood; Caldwell, Karen; Allen, Janet M; Kumareswaran, Kavita; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Nodale, Marianna; Haidar, Ahmad; Evans, Mark L; Burnstein, Rowan; Hovorka, Roman

    2014-02-01

    Accurate real-time continuous glucose measurements may improve glucose control in the critical care unit. We evaluated the accuracy of the FreeStyle(®) Navigator(®) (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA) subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device in critically ill adults using two methods of calibration. In a randomized trial, paired CGM and reference glucose (hourly arterial blood glucose [ABG]) were collected over a 48-h period from 24 adults with critical illness (mean±SD age, 60±14 years; mean±SD body mass index, 29.6±9.3 kg/m(2); mean±SD Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score, 12±4 [range, 6-19]) and hyperglycemia. In 12 subjects, the CGM device was calibrated at variable intervals of 1-6 h using ABG. In the other 12 subjects, the sensor was calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions (1, 2, 10, and 24 h) using arterial blood and the built-in point-of-care glucometer. In total, 1,060 CGM-ABG pairs were analyzed over the glucose range from 4.3 to 18.8 mmol/L. Using enhanced calibration median (interquartile range) every 169 (122-213) min, the absolute relative deviation was lower (7.0% [3.5, 13.0] vs. 12.8% [6.3, 21.8], P<0.001), and the percentage of points in the Clarke error grid Zone A was higher (87.8% vs. 70.2%). Accuracy of the Navigator CGM device during critical illness was comparable to that observed in non-critical care settings. Further significant improvements in accuracy may be obtained by frequent calibrations with ABG measurements.

  16. The ISTIMES project: a new integrated system for monitoring critical transport infrastructures interested by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Monica; Massimo, Bavusi; Francesco, Soldovieri

    2010-05-01

    The research project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), was approved in the 7th Framework Programme, in the Joint Call ICT and Security and started on 1st July 2009. The purpose of ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring in order to achieve the critical transport infrastructures more reliable and safe. The transportation sector's components are susceptible to the consequences of natural disasters and can also be attractive as terrorist targets. The sector's size, its physically dispersed and decentralized nature, the many public and private entities involved in its operations, the critical importance of cost considerations, and the inherent requirement of convenient accessibility to its services by all users - make the transportation particularly vulnerable to security and safety threats. As well known, the surface transportation system consists of interconnected infrastructures including highways, transit systems, railroads, airports, waterways, pipelines and ports, and the vehicles, aircraft, and vessels that operate along these networks. Thus, interdependencies exist between transportation and nearly every other sector of the economy and the effective operation of this system is essential to the European economic productivity; therefore, transportation sector protection is of paramount importance since threats to it may impact other industries that rely on it. The system exploits an open network architecture that can accommodate a wide range of sensors, static and mobile, and can be easily scaled up to allow the integration of additional sensors and interfacing with other networks. It relies on heterogeneous state-of-the-art electromagnetic sensors, enabling a self-organizing, self-healing, ad-hoc networking of terrestrial sensors, supported by specific satellite

  17. Development of alarm logics for critical function monitoring in SMART-P reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Seung Hwan; Hur, Seop; Seo, Jae Kwang; Lee, Tae Ho; Park, Cheon Tae; Kang, Han Ok

    2003-04-01

    The alarm logics for the critical functions of SMART-P reactor are developed, which are based on the those of Korean Standard Nuclear power Plant(KSNP). The SMART-P reactor is an integral typed nuclear power plant and has the some different design features compared to those of KSNP. It, however, has the similar features in critical functions because it is a kind of pressurized water reactor. The alarm logics for Critical Function Monitoring System(CFMS) in SMART-P are developed from those for CFMS in KSNP. The alarm logics of CFMS in only the primary loop are, therefore, developed, though the general CFMS covered the status of primary and secondary loop including the features of the containment. The specific setpoint of related variables related to the alarm logics will be developed after the specific designs of SMART-P are finished. In appendix, we describe the conceptual architecture and variables of display screens on CFMS according to the developed alarm logics.

  18. Episodic Memories in Anxiety Disorders: Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Dere, Dorothea; Machulska, Alla; Adolph, Dirk; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD). The available literature on explicit, autobiographical, and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret, and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms. PMID:24795583

  19. Episodic memories in anxiety disorders: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin eZlomuzica

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize research on the emerging role of episodic memories in the context of anxiety disorders (AD. The available literature on explicit-, autobiographical- and episodic memory function in AD including neuroimaging studies is critically discussed. We describe the methodological diversity of episodic memory research in AD and discuss the need for novel tests to measure episodic memory in a clinical setting. We argue that alterations in episodic memory functions might contribute to the etiology of AD. We further explain why future research on the interplay between episodic memory function and emotional disorders as well as its neuroanatomical foundations offers the promise to increase the effectiveness of modern psychological treatments. We conclude that one major task is to develop methods and training programs that might help patients suffering from AD to better understand, interpret and possibly actively use their episodic memories in a way that would support therapeutic interventions and counteract the occurrence of symptoms.

  20. The use of source memory to identify one's own episodic confusion errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Tindell, D R; Pierce, B H; Gilliland, T R; Gerkens, D R

    2001-03-01

    In 4 category cued recall experiments, participants falsely recalled nonlist common members, a semantic confusion error. Errors were more likely if critical nonlist words were presented on an incidental task, causing source memory failures called episodic confusion errors. Participants could better identify the source of falsely recalled words if they had deeply processed the words on the incidental task. For deep but not shallow processing, participants could reliably include or exclude incidentally shown category members in recall. The illusion that critical items actually appeared on categorized lists was diminished but not eradicated when participants identified episodic confusion errors post hoc among their own recalled responses; participants often believed that critical items had been on both the incidental task and the study list. Improved source monitoring can potentially mitigate episodic (but not semantic) confusion errors.

  1. Episodic memory in nonhuman animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Victoria L; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-09-09

    Episodic memories differ from other types of memory because they represent aspects of the past not present in other memories, such as the time, place, or social context in which the memories were formed. Focus on phenomenal experience in human memory, such as the sense of 'having been there', has resulted in conceptualizations of episodic memory that are difficult or impossible to apply to nonhuman species. It is therefore a significant challenge for investigators to agree on objective behavioral criteria that can be applied in nonhuman animals and still capture features of memory thought to be critical in humans. Some investigators have attempted to use neurobiological parallels to bridge this gap; however, defining memory types on the basis of the brain structures involved rather than on identified cognitive mechanisms risks missing crucial functional aspects of episodic memory, which are ultimately behavioral. The most productive way forward is likely a combination of neurobiology and sophisticated cognitive testing that identifies the mental representations present in episodic memory. Investigators that have refined their approach from asking the naïve question "do nonhuman animals have episodic memory" to instead asking "what aspects of episodic memory are shared by humans and nonhumans" are making progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factitious psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Romano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mistaking psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes (PNEPEs for epileptic seizures (ES is potentially dangerous, and certain features should alert physicians to a possible PNEPE diagnosis. Psychogenic nonepileptic paroxysmal episodes due to factitious seizures carry particularly high risks of morbidity or mortality from nonindicated emergency treatment and, often, high costs in wasted medical treatment expenditures. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with PNEPEs that were misdiagnosed as ES. The patient had been on four antiseizure medications (ASMs with therapeutic serum levels and had had multiple intubations in the past for uncontrolled episodes. He had no episodes for two days of continuous video-EEG monitoring. He then disconnected his EEG cables and had an episode of generalized stiffening and cyanosis, followed by jerking and profuse bleeding from the mouth. The manifestations were unusually similar to those of ES, except that he was clearly startled by spraying water on his face, while he was stiff in all extremities and unresponsive. There were indications that he had sucked blood from his central venous catheter to expel through his mouth during his PNEPEs while consciously holding his breath. Normal video-EEG monitoring; the patient's volitional and deceptive acts to fabricate the appearance of illness, despite pain and personal endangerment; and the absence of reward other than remaining in a sick role were all consistent with a diagnosis of factitious disorder.

  3. Monitoring Rarity: The Critically Endangered Saharan Cheetah as a Flagship Species for a Threatened Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbachir, Farid; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Wacher, Tim; Belbachir-Bazi, Amel; Durant, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Deserts are particularly vulnerable to human impacts and have already suffered a substantial loss of biodiversity. In harsh and variable desert environments, large herbivores typically occur at low densities, and their large carnivore predators occur at even lower densities. The continued survival of large carnivores is key to healthy functioning desert ecosystems, and the ability to gather reliable information on these rare low density species, including presence, abundance and density, is critical to their monitoring and management. Here we test camera trap methodologies as a monitoring tool for an extremely rare wide-ranging large felid, the critically endangered Saharan cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus hecki). Two camera trapping surveys were carried out over 2–3 months across a 2,551km2 grid in the Ti-n-hağğen region in the Ahaggar Cultural Park, south central Algeria. A total of 32 records of Saharan cheetah were obtained. We show the behaviour and ecology of the Saharan cheetah is severely constrained by the harsh desert environment, leading them to be more nocturnal, be more wide-ranging, and occur at lower densities relative to cheetah in savannah environments. Density estimates ranged from 0.21–0.55/1,000km2, some of the lowest large carnivore densities ever recorded in Africa, and average home range size over 2–3 months was estimated at 1,583km2. We use our results to predict that, in order to detect presence of cheetah with p>0.95 a survey effort of at least 1,000 camera trap days is required. Our study identifies the Ahaggar Cultural Park as a key area for the conservation of the Saharan cheetah. The Saharan cheetah meets the requirements for a charismatic flagship species that can be used to “market” the Saharan landscape at a sufficiently large scale to help reverse the historical neglect of threatened Saharan ecosystems. PMID:25629400

  4. The performance of flash glucose monitoring in critically ill patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Paolo; Eastwood, Glenn M; Lucchetta, Luca; Ekinci, Elif I; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mårtensson, Johan

    2017-06-01

    Frequent glucose monitoring may improve glycaemic control in critically ill patients with diabetes. We aimed to assess the accuracy of a novel subcutaneous flash glucose monitor (FreeStyle Libre [Abbott Diabetes Care]) in these patients. We applied the FreeStyle Libre sensor to the upper arm of eight patients with diabetes in the intensive care unit and obtained hourly flash glucose measurements. Duplicate recordings were obtained to assess test-retest reliability. The reference glucose level was measured in arterial or capillary blood. We determined numerical accuracy using Bland- Altman methods, the mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and whether the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Point of Care Testing (CLSI POCT) criteria were met. Clarke error grid (CEG) and surveillance error grid (SEG) analyses were used to determine clinical accuracy. We compared 484 duplicate flash glucose measurements and observed a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97 and a coefficient of repeatability of 1.6 mmol/L. We studied 185 flash readings paired with arterial glucose levels, and 89 paired with capillary glucose levels. Using the arterial glucose level as the reference, we found a mean bias of 1.4 mmol/L (limits of agreement, -1.7 to 4.5 mmol/L). The MARD was 14% (95% CI, 12%-16%) and the proportion of measurements meeting ISO and CLSI POCT criteria was 64.3% and 56.8%, respectively. The proportions of values within a low-risk zone on CEG and SEG analyses were 97.8% and 99.5%, respectively. Using capillary glucose levels as the reference, we found that numerical and clinical accuracy were lower. The subcutaneous FreeStyle Libre blood glucose measurement system showed high test-retest reliability and acceptable accuracy when compared with arterial blood glucose measurement in critically ill patients with diabetes.

  5. Monitoring rarity: the critically endangered Saharan cheetah as a flagship species for a threatened ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Belbachir

    Full Text Available Deserts are particularly vulnerable to human impacts and have already suffered a substantial loss of biodiversity. In harsh and variable desert environments, large herbivores typically occur at low densities, and their large carnivore predators occur at even lower densities. The continued survival of large carnivores is key to healthy functioning desert ecosystems, and the ability to gather reliable information on these rare low density species, including presence, abundance and density, is critical to their monitoring and management. Here we test camera trap methodologies as a monitoring tool for an extremely rare wide-ranging large felid, the critically endangered Saharan cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus hecki. Two camera trapping surveys were carried out over 2-3 months across a 2,551 km2 grid in the Ti-n-hağğen region in the Ahaggar Cultural Park, south central Algeria. A total of 32 records of Saharan cheetah were obtained. We show the behaviour and ecology of the Saharan cheetah is severely constrained by the harsh desert environment, leading them to be more nocturnal, be more wide-ranging, and occur at lower densities relative to cheetah in savannah environments. Density estimates ranged from 0.21-0.55/1,000 km2, some of the lowest large carnivore densities ever recorded in Africa, and average home range size over 2-3 months was estimated at 1,583 km2. We use our results to predict that, in order to detect presence of cheetah with p>0.95 a survey effort of at least 1,000 camera trap days is required. Our study identifies the Ahaggar Cultural Park as a key area for the conservation of the Saharan cheetah. The Saharan cheetah meets the requirements for a charismatic flagship species that can be used to "market" the Saharan landscape at a sufficiently large scale to help reverse the historical neglect of threatened Saharan ecosystems.

  6. Monitoring rarity: the critically endangered Saharan cheetah as a flagship species for a threatened ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbachir, Farid; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Wacher, Tim; Belbachir-Bazi, Amel; Durant, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    Deserts are particularly vulnerable to human impacts and have already suffered a substantial loss of biodiversity. In harsh and variable desert environments, large herbivores typically occur at low densities, and their large carnivore predators occur at even lower densities. The continued survival of large carnivores is key to healthy functioning desert ecosystems, and the ability to gather reliable information on these rare low density species, including presence, abundance and density, is critical to their monitoring and management. Here we test camera trap methodologies as a monitoring tool for an extremely rare wide-ranging large felid, the critically endangered Saharan cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus hecki). Two camera trapping surveys were carried out over 2-3 months across a 2,551 km2 grid in the Ti-n-hağğen region in the Ahaggar Cultural Park, south central Algeria. A total of 32 records of Saharan cheetah were obtained. We show the behaviour and ecology of the Saharan cheetah is severely constrained by the harsh desert environment, leading them to be more nocturnal, be more wide-ranging, and occur at lower densities relative to cheetah in savannah environments. Density estimates ranged from 0.21-0.55/1,000 km2, some of the lowest large carnivore densities ever recorded in Africa, and average home range size over 2-3 months was estimated at 1,583 km2. We use our results to predict that, in order to detect presence of cheetah with p>0.95 a survey effort of at least 1,000 camera trap days is required. Our study identifies the Ahaggar Cultural Park as a key area for the conservation of the Saharan cheetah. The Saharan cheetah meets the requirements for a charismatic flagship species that can be used to "market" the Saharan landscape at a sufficiently large scale to help reverse the historical neglect of threatened Saharan ecosystems.

  7. Proposal of an intelligent wayside monitoring system for detection of critical ice accumulations on railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelberger, Frank; Wagner, Adrian; Ostermann, Michael; Maly, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    At railway lines with ballasted tracks, under unfavourable conditions, the so-called flying ballast can occur predominantly for trains driving at high speeds. Especially in wintertime, it is highly likely that the causes are adhered snow or ice deposits, which are falling off the vehicle. Due to the high kinetic energy, the impact can lead to the removal of ballast stones from the structure of the ballasted track. If the stones reach the height of vehicles underside, they may be accelerated significantly due to the collision with the vehicle or may detach further ice blocks. In the worst case, a reinforcing effect occurs, which can lead to considerable damage to railway vehicles (under-floor-area, vehicle exteriors, etc.) and infrastructure (signal masts, noise barriers, etc.). Additionally the flying gravel is a significant danger to people in the nearby area of the tracks. With this feasibility study the applicability and meaningfulness of an intelligent monitoring system for identification of the critical ice accumulation to prevent the ballast fly induced by ice dropping was examined. The key findings of the research are that the detection of ice on railway vehicles and the development of an intelligent monitoring seem to be possible with existing technologies, but a proof of concept in terms of field tests is necessary.

  8. HSI for monitoring the critical safety functions status tree of a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Almeida, Jose Carlos Soares de; Augusto, Silas Cordeiro; Jaime, Guilherme Dutra Gonzaga

    2013-01-01

    Critical safety function (CSF) is the most significant design concept for prioritize operator actions based on the potential threat to the three barriers (fuel cladding, primary coolant system boundary, and containment) and allows the operator to respond to these threats prior to event diagnosis. CSF has a hierarchical information structure that organizes the system variables affecting the plant safety in terms of goal-means relations. It is important that the operator should be aware of various success paths associated with each CSF in order to respond to unanticipated system failures quickly. When an emergency occurs in NPPs, the operator should monitor CSFs periodically and identify possible success paths as necessary, and try to stabilize or safely shut down the plant using emergency operating procedure (EOP) that includes steps to check the CSFs. This implies that safety function status check may become a cognitively burdensome task that needs to be supported by proper information display. The advanced human-system interface (HSI) in nuclear power plants provides an information environment that supports the operators' burdensome cognitive tasks. This paper describes a CSFs interface design for supporting the operator's tasks to monitor and identify the associated success path for Westinghouse 3-loops NPP. (author)

  9. Glucose monitoring as a guide to diabetes management. Critical subject review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B

    1996-06-01

    To encourage a balanced approach to blood glucose monitoring in diabetes by a critical review of the history, power and cost of glucose testing. The Cambridge Data Base was searched and was supplemented by a random review of other relevant sources, including textbooks, company pamphlets, and laboratory manuals. Keywords used were "glucosuria diagnosis," "blood glucose self-monitoring," "glycosylated hemoglobin," and "fructosamine" for the 10-year period ending 1992, restricted to English language and human. About 200 titles were retrieved and reviewed according to the author's judgment of relevance. "Snapshot tests" (venous and capillary blood glucose) and "memory tests" (urine glucose, glycated hemoglobin fractions and fructosamine) must be employed according to individual patients treatment goals. Day-to-day metabolic guidance is facilitated by capillary blood glucose testing for patients receiving insulin and by urine glucose testing for others. Capillary blood glucose testing is mandatory in cases of hypoglycemia unawareness (inability to sense hypoglycemia because of neuropathy) but is not a substitute for a knowledge of clinical hypoglycemia self-care. Criteria by reason (clinical judgement and cost effectiveness) must be separated from criteria by emotion (preoccupation with technology and marketing). No randomized studies show that any of these tests consistently improve clinical outcome. Optimal metabolic control and cost savings can be expected from a rational selection of tests.

  10. Immune Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials: Critical Issues of Functional Flow Cytometry-Based Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Macchia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometry- (FCM- based assays combining different phenotypic and functional markers have been developed in the past decade for informative and longitudinal analysis of polyfunctional T-cells. These technologies were designed to address the complexity and functional heterogeneity of cancer biology and cellular immunity and to define biomarkers predicting clinical response to anticancer treatment. So far, there is still a lack of standardization of some of these immunological tests. The aim of this review is to overview the latest technologies for immune monitoring and to highlight critical steps involved in some of the FCM-based cellular immune assays. In particular, our laboratory is focused on melanoma vaccine research and thus our main goal was the validation of a functional multiparameter test (FMT combining different functional and lineage markers to be applied in clinical trials involving patients with melanoma.

  11. Integrated network for structural integrity monitoring of critical components in nuclear facilities, RIMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Maria; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Brad, Sebastian; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2008-01-01

    The round table aims to join specialists working in the research area of the Romanian R and D Institutes and Universities involved in structural integrity assessment of materials, especially those working in the nuclear field, together with the representatives of the end user, the Cernavoda NPP. This scientific event will offer the opportunity to disseminate the theoretical, experimental and modelling activities, carried out to date, in the framework of the National Program 'Research of Excellence', Module I 2006-2008, managed by the National Authority for Scientific Research. Entitled 'Integrated Network for Structural Integrity Monitoring of Critical Components in Nuclear Facilities, RIMIS, the project has two main objectives: 1. - to elaborate a procedure applicable to the structural integrity assessment of critical components used in Romanian nuclear facilities (CANDU type Reactor, Hydrogen Isotopes Separation installations); 2. - to integrate the national networking into a similar one of European level, and to enhance the scientific significance of Romanian R and D organisations as well as to increase the contribution in solving major issues of the nuclear field. The topics of the round table will be focused on: 1. Development of a Structural Integrity Assessment Methodology applicable to the nuclear facilities components; 2. Experimental investigation methods and procedures; 3. Numeric simulation of nuclear components behaviour; 4. Further activities to finalize the assessment procedure. Also participations and contributions to sustain the activity in the European Network NULIFE, FP6 will be discussed. (authors)

  12. Noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring in critically ill pediatric patients at risk of bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Soler, P; Camacho Alonso, J M; González-Gómez, J M; Milano-Manso, G

    2017-05-01

    To determine the accuracy and usefulness of noninvasive continuous hemoglobin (Hb) monitoring in critically ill patients at risk of bleeding. An observational prospective study was made, comparing core laboratory Hb measurement (LabHb) as the gold standard versus transcutaneous hemoglobin monitoring (SpHb). Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary University Hospital. Patients weighing >3kg at risk of bleeding. SpHb was measured using the Radical7 pulse co-oximeter (Masimo Corp., Irvine, CA, USA) each time a blood sample was drawn for core laboratory analysis (Siemens ADVIA 2120i). Sociodemographic characteristics, perfusion index (PI), pleth variability index, heart rate, SaO 2 , rectal temperature, low signal quality and other events that can interfere with measurement. A total of 284 measurements were made (80 patients). Mean LabHb was 11.7±2.05g/dl. Mean SpHb was 12.32±2g/dl (Pearson 0.72, R 2 0.52). The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.69 (95%CI 0.55-0.78)(p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of 0.07 ±1.46g/dl. A lower PI and higher temperature independently increased the risk of low signal quality (OR 0.531 [95%CI 0.32-0.88] and 0.529 [95%CI 0.33-0.85], respectively). SpHb shows a good overall correlation to LabHb, though with wide limits of agreement. Its main advantage is continuous monitoring of patients at risk of bleeding. The reliability of the method is limited in cases with poor peripheral perfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Unraveling Structural Infrasound: understanding the science for persistent remote monitoring of critical infrastructure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, S. M.; Diaz-Alvarez, H.; McComas, S.; Costley, D.; Whitlow, R. D.; Jordan, A. M.; Taylor, O.

    2013-12-01

    In 2006, the Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) began a program designed to meet the capability gap associated with remote assessment of critical infrastructure. This program addresses issues arising from the use of geophysical techniques to solve engineering problems through persistent monitoring of critical infrastructure using infrasound. In the original 2006-2009 study of a railroad bridge in Ft. Leonard Wood, MO, the fundamental modes of motion of the structure were detected at up to 30 km away, with atmospheric excitation deemed to be the source driver. Follow-on research focused on the mechanically driven modes excited by traffic, with directional acoustic emanations. The success of the Ft. Wood ambient excitation study resulted in several subsequent programs to push the boundaries of this new technique for standoff assessment, discussed herein. Detection of scour and river system health monitoring are serious problems for monitoring civil infrastructure, from both civilian and military perspectives. Knowledge of overall system behavior over time is crucial for assessment of bridge foundations and barge navigation. This research focuses on the same steel-truss bridge from the Ft. Wood study, and analyzes 3D and 2D substructure models coupled with the superstructure reaction loads to assess the modal deformations within the infrasound bandwidth and the correlation to scour of embedment material. The Urban infrasound program is infrasound modeling, data analysis, and sensor research leading to the detection, classification and localization of threat activities in complex propagation environments. Three seismo-acoustic arrays were deployed on rooftops across the Southern Methodist University campus in Dallas, Texas, to characterize the urban infrasound environment. Structural sources within 15 km of the arrays have been identified through signal processing and confirmed through acoustical models. Infrasound is also being studied as a means of

  14. Application of lot quality assurance sampling for leprosy elimination monitoring--examination of some critical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, M D; Murthy, B N; Mahmood, K; Meeralakshmi, S; Nagaraju, B; Prabhakaran, R

    2004-04-01

    The concept of elimination of an infectious disease is different from eradication and in a way from control as well. In disease elimination programmes the desired reduced level of prevalence is set up as the target to be achieved in a practical time frame. Elimination can be considered in the context of national or regional levels. Prevalence levels depend on occurrence of new cases and thus could remain fluctuating. There are no ready pragmatic methods to monitor the progress of leprosy elimination programmes. We therefore tried to explore newer methods to answer these demands. With the lowering of prevalence of leprosy to the desired level of 1 case per 10000 population at the global level, the programme administrators' concern will be shifted to smaller areas e.g. national and sub-national levels. For monitoring this situation, we earlier observed that lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS), a quality control tool in industry was useful in the initially high endemic areas. However, critical factors such as geographical distribution of cases and adoption of cluster sampling design instead of simple random sampling design deserve attention before LQAS could generally be recommended. The present exercise was aimed at validating applicability of LQAS, and adopting these modifications for monitoring leprosy elimination in Tamil Nadu state, which was highly endemic for leprosy. A representative sample of 64000 people drawn from eight districts of Tamil Nadu state, India, with maximum allowable number of 25 cases was considered, using LQAS methodology to test whether leprosy prevalence was at or below 7 per 10000 population. Expected number of cases for each district was obtained assuming Poisson distribution. Goodness of fit for the observed and expected cases (closeness of the expected number of cases to those observed) was tested through chi(2). Enhancing factor (design effect) for sample size was obtained by computing the intraclass correlation. The survey actually

  15. Episodic Memory: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Historically, episodic memory has been described as autonoetic, personally relevant, complex, context-rich, and allowing mental time travel. In contrast, semantic memory, which is theorized to be free of context and personal relevance, is noetic and consists of general knowledge of facts about the world. The field of comparative psychology has adopted this distinction in order to study episodic memory in non-human animals. Our aim in this article is not only to reflect on the concept of episodic memory and the experimental approaches used in comparative psychology to study this phenomenon, but also to provide a critical analysis of these paradigms. We conclude the article by providing new avenues for future research. PMID:23781179

  16. Imagining the personal past: Episodic counterfactuals compared to episodic memories and episodic future projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özbek, Müge; Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    Episodic counterfactuals are imagined events that could have happened, but did not happen, in a person’s past. Such imagined past events are important aspects of mental life, affecting emotions, decisions, and behaviors. However, studies examining their phenomenological characteristics and content...... are few. Here we introduced a new method to systematically compare self-generated episodic counterfactuals to self-generated episodic memories and future projections with regard to their phenomenological characteristics (e.g., imagery, emotional valence, rehearsal) and content (e.g., reference to cultural...... distance. The findings show that imagined events are phenomenologically different from memories of experienced events, consistent with reality monitoring theory, and that imagined future events are different from both actual and imagined past events, consistent with some theories of motivation....

  17. How do episodic and semantic memory contribute to episodic foresight in young children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M; Caza, Julian S

    2014-01-01

    Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight.

  18. HOW DO EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY CONTRIBUTE TO EPISODIC FORESIGHT IN YOUNG CHILDREN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema eMartin Ordas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving’s definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight.

  19. How do episodic and semantic memory contribute to episodic foresight in young children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Caza, Julian S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and findings suggest that semantic memory also plays a significant role in imagining future scenarios. We draw on Tulving’s definition of episodic and semantic memory to provide a critical analysis of their role in episodic foresight tasks described in the developmental literature. We conclude by suggesting future directions of research that could further our understanding of how both episodic memory and semantic memory are intimately connected to episodic foresight. PMID:25071690

  20. Critical heat flux acoustic detection: Methods and application to ITER divertor vertical target monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Escourbiac, F. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Richou, M.; Cantone, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Constans, S. [AREVA-NP, Le Creusot (France)

    2013-10-15

    Actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) have to exhaust high heat fluxes from plasma radiation and plasma–wall interaction. Critical heat flux (CHF) event may occur in the cooling channel due to unexpected heat loading or operational conditions, and has to be detected as soon as possible. Therefore it is essential to develop means of monitoring based on precursory signals providing an early detection of this destructive phenomenon, in order to be able to stop operation before irremediable damages appear. Capabilities of CHF early detection based on acoustic techniques on PFC mock-ups cooled by pressurised water were already demonstrated. This paper addresses the problem of the detection in case of flow rate reduction and of flow dilution resulting from multiple plasma facing units (PFU) which are hydraulically connected in parallel, which is the case of ITER divertor. An experimental study is launched on a dedicated mock-up submitted to heat loads up to the CHF. It shows that the measurement of the acoustic waves, generated by the cooling phenomena, allows the CHF detection in conditions similar to that of the ITER divertor, with a reasonable number of sensors. The paper describes the mock-ups and the tests sequences, and comments the results.

  1. The heuristics of nurse responsiveness to critical patient monitor and ventilator alarms in a private room neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rohan; Mortel, Heidi van de; Feijs, Loe; Andriessen, Peter; Pul, Carola van

    2017-01-01

    Alarm fatigue is a well-recognized patient safety concern in intensive care settings. Decreased nurse responsiveness and slow response times to alarms are the potentially dangerous consequences of alarm fatigue. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that modulate nurse responsiveness to critical patient monitor and ventilator alarms in the context of a private room neonatal intensive care setting. The study design comprised of both a questionnaire and video monitoring of nurse-responsiveness to critical alarms. The Likert scale questionnaire, comprising of 50 questions across thematic clusters (critical alarms, yellow alarms, perception, design, nursing action, and context) was administered to 56 nurses (90% response rate). Nearly 6000 critical alarms were recorded from 10 infants in approximately 2400 hours of video monitoring. Logistic regression was used to identify patient and alarm-level factors that modulate nurse-responsiveness to critical alarms, with a response being defined as a nurse entering the patient's room within the 90s of the alarm being generated. Based on the questionnaire, the majority of nurses found critical alarms to be clinically relevant even though the alarms did not always mandate clinical action. Based on video observations, for a median of 34% (IQR, 20-52) of critical alarms, the nurse was already present in the room. For the remaining alarms, the response rate within 90s was 26%. The median response time was 55s (IQR, 37-70s). Desaturation alarms were the most prevalent and accounted for more than 50% of all alarms. The odds of responding to bradycardia alarms, compared to desaturation alarms, were 1.47 (95% CI = 1.21-1.78; heuristics in determining whether or not to respond to the alarm. Amongst other factors, the category and duration of critical alarms along with the clinical status of the patient determine nurse-responsiveness to alarms.

  2. Development and Feasibility Testing of a Critical Care EEG Monitoring Database for Standardized Clinical Reporting and Multicenter Collaborative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Woo; LaRoche, Suzette; Choi, Hyunmi; Rodriguez Ruiz, Andres A; Fertig, Evan; Politsky, Jeffrey M; Herman, Susan T; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Sansevere, Arnold J; Korb, Pearce J; Abend, Nicholas S; Goldstein, Joshua L; Sinha, Saurabh R; Dombrowski, Keith E; Ritzl, Eva K; Westover, Michael B; Gavvala, Jay R; Gerard, Elizabeth E; Schmitt, Sarah E; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Ding, Kan; Haas, Kevin F; Buchsbaum, Richard; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Wusthoff, Courtney J; Hopp, Jennifer L; Hahn, Cecil D

    2016-04-01

    The rapid expansion of the use of continuous critical care electroencephalogram (cEEG) monitoring and resulting multicenter research studies through the Critical Care EEG Monitoring Research Consortium has created the need for a collaborative data sharing mechanism and repository. The authors describe the development of a research database incorporating the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society standardized terminology for critical care EEG monitoring. The database includes flexible report generation tools that allow for daily clinical use. Key clinical and research variables were incorporated into a Microsoft Access database. To assess its utility for multicenter research data collection, the authors performed a 21-center feasibility study in which each center entered data from 12 consecutive intensive care unit monitoring patients. To assess its utility as a clinical report generating tool, three large volume centers used it to generate daily clinical critical care EEG reports. A total of 280 subjects were enrolled in the multicenter feasibility study. The duration of recording (median, 25.5 hours) varied significantly between the centers. The incidence of seizure (17.6%), periodic/rhythmic discharges (35.7%), and interictal epileptiform discharges (11.8%) was similar to previous studies. The database was used as a clinical reporting tool by 3 centers that entered a total of 3,144 unique patients covering 6,665 recording days. The Critical Care EEG Monitoring Research Consortium database has been successfully developed and implemented with a dual role as a collaborative research platform and a clinical reporting tool. It is now available for public download to be used as a clinical data repository and report generating tool.

  3. Monitoring the effect of air pollution episodes on health care consultations and ambulance call-outs in England during March/April 2014: A retrospective observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Alex J; Smith, Sue; Dobney, Alec; Thornes, John; Smith, Gillian E; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2016-07-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence illustrating the negative health effects of air pollution including increased risk of respiratory, cardiac and other morbid conditions. During March and April 2014 there were two air pollution episodes in England that occurred in close succession. We used national real-time syndromic surveillance systems, including general practitioner (GP) consultations, emergency department attendances, telehealth calls and ambulance dispatch calls to further understand the impact of these short term acute air pollution periods on the health seeking behaviour of the general public. Each air pollution period was comparable with respect to particulate matter concentrations (PM10 and PM2.5), however, the second period was longer in duration (6 days vs 3 days) and meteorologically driven 'Sahara dust' contributed to the pollution. Health surveillance data revealed a greater impact during the second period, with GP consultations, emergency department attendances and telehealth (NHS 111) calls increasing for asthma, wheeze and difficulty breathing indicators, particularly in patients aged 15-64 years. Across regions of England there was good agreement between air quality levels and health care seeking behaviour. The results further demonstrate the acute impact of short term air pollution episodes on public health and also illustrate the potential role of mass media reporting in escalating health care seeking behaviour. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanical Weakening during Fluid Injection in Critically Stressed Sandstones with Acoustic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.; Dautriat, J. D.; Sarout, J.; Macault, R.; Bertauld, D.

    2014-12-01

    Water weakening is a well-known phenomenon which can lead to subsidence during the production of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The example of the Ekofisk oil field in the North Sea has been well documented for years. In order to assess water weakening effects in reservoir rocks, previous studies have focused on changes in the failure envelopes derived from mechanical tests conducted on rocks saturated either with water or with inert fluids. However, little attention has been paid so far on the mechanical behaviour during the fluid injection stage, like in enhanced oil recovery operations. We studied the effect of fluid injection on the mechanical behaviour of Sherwood sandstone, a weakly-consolidated sandstone sampled at Ladram Bay in UK. In order to highlight possible weakening effects, water and inert oil have been injected into critically-loaded samples to assess their effect on strength and elastic properties and to derive the acoustic signature of the saturation front for each fluid. The specimens were instrumented with 16 ultrasonic P-wave transducers for both passive and active acoustic monitoring during fluid injection and loading. After conducting standard triaxial tests on three samples saturated with air, water and oil respectively, mechanical creep tests were conducted on dry samples loaded at 80% of the compressive strength of the dry rock. While these conditions are kept constant, a fluid is injected at the bottom end of the sample with a low back pressure (0.5 MPa) to minimize effective stress variations during injection. Both water and oil were used as the injected pore fluid in two experiments. As soon as the fluids start to flow into the samples, creep is taking place with a much higher strain rate for water injection compared to oil injection. A transition from secondary creep to tertiary creep is observed in the water injection test whereas in the oil injection test no significant creep acceleration is observed after one pore volume of oil was

  5. Computer monitoring system for pilot plant nuclear criticality facility (solution ZPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Xiaokang; Liang Huiping

    1999-01-01

    The system is used for the Solution Zero Power Reactor physics measurement and safety monitoring. Its software modularization design enables multi-task real-time monitoring and off-time data processing. The system is labor/time saving to experimenters and will enhance the experiment precision and the reactor operation safety performance

  6. Using Automation to Monitor and Report Hazardous Waste Disposal Costs: A Mission-Critical Obligation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hassrick, H

    1996-01-01

    Controlling, monitoring, and reporting hazardous waste disposal costs has become increasingly important as environmental problems arise, costs escalate, and budgets contract. In FY94, the U.S. Army, Europe (USAREUR), spent...

  7. Daily electronic self-monitoring of subjective and objective symptoms in bipolar disorder—the MONARCA trial protocol (MONitoring, treAtment and pRediCtion of bipolAr disorder episodes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Electronic self-monitoring of affective symptoms using cell phones is suggested as a practical and inexpensive way to monitor illness activity and identify early signs of affective symptoms. It has never been tested in a randomised clinical trial whether electronic self-monitoring improves outcomes...... in bipolar disorder. We are conducting a trial testing the effect of using a Smartphone for self-monitoring in bipolar disorder....

  8. Children's episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Lee, Joshua

    2011-07-01

    Episodic memory develops during childhood and adolescence. This trajectory depends on several underlying processes. In this article, we first discuss the development of the basic binding processes (e.g., the processes by which elements are bound together to form a memory episode) and control processes (e.g., reasoning and metamemory processes) involved in episodic remembering. Then, we discuss the role of these processes in false-memory formation. In the subsequent sections, we examine the neural substrates of the development of episodic memory. Finally, we discuss atypical development of episodic memory. As we proceed through the article, we suggest potential avenues for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 365-373 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.114 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Policies and practices of beach monitoring in the Great Lakes, USA: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Beaches throughout the Great Lakes are monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (typically Escherichia coli) in order to protect the public from potential sewage contamination. Currently, there is no universal standard for sample collection and analysis or results interpretation. Monitoring policies are developed by individual beach management jurisdictions, and applications are highly variable across and within lakes, states, and provinces. Extensive research has demonstrated that sampling decisions for time, depth, number of replicates, frequency of sampling, and laboratory analysis all influence the results outcome, as well as calculations of the mean and interpretation of the results in policy decisions. Additional shortcomings to current monitoring approaches include appropriateness and reliability of currently used indicator bacteria and the overall goal of these monitoring programs. Current research is attempting to circumvent these complex issues by developing new tools and methods for beach monitoring. In this review, we highlight the variety of sampling routines used across the Great Lakes and the extensive body of research that challenges comparisons among beaches. We also assess the future of Great Lakes monitoring and the advantages and disadvantages of establishing standards that are evenly applied across all beaches.

  10. Development of a wireless monitoring system for fracture-critical bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasl, Jeremiah; Samaras, Vasilis; Reichenbach, Matthew; Helwig, Todd; Wood, Sharon L.; Potter, David; Lindenberg, Richard; Frank, Karl

    2011-04-01

    This paper provides a summary of ongoing research sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) that seeks to improve inspection practices for steel bridges by providing the technology and methodology for real-time monitoring. In order to reduce the time and cost of installing a monitoring system, the research team elected to use wireless communications within the sensor network. The investigation considered both IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4 communications protocols and identified the latter as more practical for bridge monitoring applications. Studies were conducted to investigate possible improvements in the network performance using high-gain antennas. Results from experiments conducted outside and on bridges with different antennas are presented in this paper. Although some benefits were observed using high-gain antennas, the inconsistent performance and higher cost relative to the current stock, omni-directional antennas does not justify their use.

  11. The probability of seizures during EEG monitoring in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westover, M Brandon; Shafi, Mouhsin M; Bianchi, Matt T; Moura, Lidia M V R; O'Rourke, Deirdre; Rosenthal, Eric S; Chu, Catherine J; Donovan, Samantha; Hoch, Daniel B; Kilbride, Ronan D; Cole, Andrew J; Cash, Sydney S

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the risk for seizures over time in relation to EEG findings in hospitalized adults undergoing continuous EEG monitoring (cEEG). Retrospective analysis of cEEG data and medical records from 625 consecutive adult inpatients monitored at a tertiary medical center. Using survival analysis methods, we estimated the time-dependent probability that a seizure will occur within the next 72-h, if no seizure has occurred yet, as a function of EEG abnormalities detected so far. Seizures occurred in 27% (168/625). The first seizure occurred early (monitoring) in 58% (98/168). In 527 patients without early seizures, 159 (30%) had early epileptiform abnormalities, versus 368 (70%) without. Seizures were eventually detected in 25% of patients with early epileptiform discharges, versus 8% without early discharges. The 72-h risk of seizures declined below 5% if no epileptiform abnormalities were present in the first two hours, whereas 16h of monitoring were required when epileptiform discharges were present. 20% (74/388) of patients without early epileptiform abnormalities later developed them; 23% (17/74) of these ultimately had seizures. Only 4% (12/294) experienced a seizure without preceding epileptiform abnormalities. Seizure risk in acute neurological illness decays rapidly, at a rate dependent on abnormalities detected early during monitoring. This study demonstrates that substantial risk stratification is possible based on early EEG abnormalities. These findings have implications for patient-specific determination of the required duration of cEEG monitoring in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuing pollution from the Rum Jungle U-Cu project: A critical evaluation of environmental monitoring and rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudd, Gavin M., E-mail: Gavin.Mudd@eng.monash.edu.a [Environmental Engineering, Dept of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Patterson, James [Environmental Engineering Consultant, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    The former Rum Jungle uranium-copper project, Australia, is an internationally important case study on environmental pollution from and rehabilitation of mining. The Rum Jungle mining project is briefly reviewed, followed by a critical evaluation of monitoring data and pollution loads prior to and after rehabilitation - leading to the conclusion that rehabilitation has clearly failed the test of time after just two decades. The most critical findings are the need to understand pollution cycles holistically, and designing monitoring regimes to match, explicit inclusion of radiological criteria (lacking in original planning), and finally the need to set targets based on environmental criteria. Two examples include polluted groundwater which was excluded from rehabilitation and the poor design, construction and/or performance of engineered soil covers - both leading to increasing acid drainage impacts on the Finniss River. The critical review therefore presents a valuable case study of the environmental performance of uranium mine site rehabilitation. - The Rum Jungle U-Cu project underwent extensive rehabilitation in the 1980's, however, it remains a major cause of pollution to the Finniss River.

  13. Critical evaluation of factors required to terminate the postclosure monitoring period at solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlaz, M.A.; Rooker, A.P.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Regulations governing the disposal of solid waste in landfills specify that they must be monitored for 30 years after closure unless this period is extended by the governing regulatory authority. Given the wide range of conditions under which refuse is buried, technical criteria, rather than...

  14. A New Device to Automate the Monitoring of Critical Patients’ Urine Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Otero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine output (UO is usually measured manually each hour in acutely ill patients. This task consumes a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, in the literature there is evidence that more frequent (minute-by-minute UO measurement could impact clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes. However, it is not feasible to manually take minute-by-minute UO measurements. A device capable of automatically monitoring UO could save precious time of the healthcare staff and improve patient outcomes through a more precise and continuous monitoring of this parameter. This paper presents a device capable of automatically monitoring UO. It provides minute by minute measures and it can generate alarms that warn of deviations from therapeutic goals. It uses a capacitive sensor for the measurement of the UO collected within a rigid container. When the container is full, it automatically empties without requiring any internal or external power supply or any intervention by the nursing staff. In vitro tests have been conducted to verify the proper operation and accuracy in the measures of the device. These tests confirm the viability of the device to automate the monitoring of UO.

  15. Nutrients: Learner's Guide for a Critical Path in Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    This learner's guide on nutrients is derived from a water monitoring curriculum developed at Ulster County Community College. There are 30 modules in this guide; each introduced with a statement of purpose and then broken down into an objective, learning conditions, and performance level. The modules cover: (1) safety; (2) chemical compounds; (3)…

  16. Indicator Organisms: Learner's Guide for a Critical Path in Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    This learner's guide on indicator organisms is derived from a water monitoring curriculum developed at Ulster County Community College. There are 37 modules in this guide; each is introduced with a statement of purpose and then broken down into units of instruction. These units contain an objective, learning conditions, and a performance level.…

  17. Seeing beyond monitors-Critical care nurses' multiple skills in patient observation: Descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastalo, Mika; Salminen, Leena; Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of multiple skills in patient observation in critical care nursing. Data from semi-structured interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Experienced critical care nurses (n=20) from three intensive care units in two university hospitals in Finland. Patient observation skills consist of: information gaining skills, information processing skills, decision-making skills and co-operation skills. The first three skills are integrated in the patient observation process, in which gaining information is a prerequisite for processing information that precedes making decisions. Co-operation has a special role as it occurs throughout the process. This study provided a comprehensive description of patient observation skills related to the three-phased patient observation process. The findings contribute to clarifying this part of the competence. The description of patient observation skills may be applied in both clinical practice and education as it may serve as a framework for orientation, ensuring clinical skills and designing learning environments. Based on this study, patient observation skills can be recommended to be included in critical care nursing education, orientation and as a part of critical care nurses' competence evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an asymmetric multiple-position neutron source (AMPNS) method to monitor the criticality of a degraded reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Levine, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical/experimental method has been developed to monitor the subcritical reactivity and unfold the k/sub infinity/ distribution of a degraded reactor core. The method uses several fixed neutron detectors and a Cf-252 neutron source placed sequentially in multiple positions in the core. Therefore, it is called the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method. The AMPNS method employs nucleonic codes to analyze the neutron multiplication of a Cf-252 neutron source. An optimization program, GPM, is utilized to unfold the k/sub infinity/ distribution of the degraded core, in which the desired performance measure minimizes the error between the calculated and the measured count rates of the degraded reactor core. The analytical/experimental approach is validated by performing experiments using the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR). A significant result of this study is that it provides a method to monitor the criticality of a damaged core during the recovery period

  19. First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Psychosis Treatment Share Fact Sheet: First Episode Psychosis Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy En Español Facts About Psychosis The word psychosis is used to describe conditions ...

  20. Real-Time Monitoring of Critical Care Analytes in the Bloodstream with Chemical Sensors: Progress and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Megan C; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    We review approaches and challenges in developing chemical sensor-based methods to accurately and continuously monitor levels of key analytes in blood related directly to the status of critically ill hospitalized patients. Electrochemical and optical sensor-based technologies have been pursued to measure important critical care species in blood [i.e., oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, electrolytes (K(+), Na(+), Cl(-), etc.), glucose, and lactate] in real-time or near real-time. The two main configurations examined to date for achieving this goal have been intravascular catheter sensors and patient attached ex vivo sensors with intermittent blood sampling via an attached indwelling catheter. We discuss the status of these configurations and the main issues affecting the accuracy of the measurements, including cell adhesion and thrombus formation on the surface of the sensors, sensor drift, sensor selectivity, etc. Recent approaches to mitigate these nagging performance issues that have prevented these technologies from clinical use are also discussed.

  1. IEEE 802.15.4 Frame Aggregation Enhancement to Provide High Performance in Life-Critical Patient Monitoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Muhammad Sajjad; Yu, Hongnian; Cang, Shuang

    2017-01-28

    In wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs), Quality of Service (QoS) provision for patient monitoring systems in terms of time-critical deadlines, high throughput and energy efficiency is a challenging task. The periodic data from these systems generates a large number of small packets in a short time period which needs an efficient channel access mechanism. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is recommended for low power devices and widely used for many wireless sensor networks applications. It provides a hybrid channel access mechanism at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer which plays a key role in overall successful transmission in WBASNs. There are many WBASN's MAC protocols that use this hybrid channel access mechanism in variety of sensor applications. However, these protocols are less efficient for patient monitoring systems where life critical data requires limited delay, high throughput and energy efficient communication simultaneously. To address these issues, this paper proposes a frame aggregation scheme by using the aggregated-MAC protocol data unit (A-MPDU) which works with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. To implement the scheme accurately, we develop a traffic patterns analysis mechanism to understand the requirements of the sensor nodes in patient monitoring systems, then model the channel access to find the performance gap on the basis of obtained requirements, finally propose the design based on the needs of patient monitoring systems. The mechanism is initially verified using numerical modelling and then simulation is conducted using NS2.29, Castalia 3.2 and OMNeT++. The proposed scheme provides the optimal performance considering the required QoS.

  2. A critical friend: monitoring and evaluation systems, development cooperation and local government. The case of Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignoli, Serena; Coticchia, Fabrizio; Mezzasalma, Annarosa

    2015-06-01

    The role of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems in the field of development cooperation has globally increased in last decades. International and regional organizations, as well as states, local governments and NGOs have largely adopted the tools provided by M&E in order to enhance transparency, effectiveness and efficiency. The paper aims at verifying how and to what extent the implementation of M&E systems has affected the overall quality of international cooperation projects financed by a local government. After a literature review on M&E in development cooperation, the research analyzes the wide range of activities (evaluation ex-ante, mid-term, final, monitoring, consultancy) carried out by the Evaluation Team of the XY in the last eight years in behalf of an Italian local government: the Region of Tuscany. The paper reveals the strategic significance of adopting M&E systems in the medium-long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating the recording and accuracy of fluid balance monitoring in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Diacon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The accurate assessment of fluid balance data collected during physical assessment as well as during monitoring and record-keeping forms an essential part of the baseline patient information that guides medical and nursing interventions aimed at achieving physiological stability in patients. An informal audit of 24-hour fluid balance records in a local intensive care unit (ICU showed that seven out of ten fluid balance calculations were incorrect.Objective. To identify and describe current clinical nursing practice in fluid balance monitoring and measurement accuracy in ICUs, conducted as part of a broader study in partial fulfilment of a Master of Nursing degree.Methods. A quantitative approach utilising a descriptive, exploratory study design was applied. An audit of 103 ICU records was conducted to establish the current practices and accuracy in recording of fluid balance monitoring. Data were collected using a purpose-designed tool based on relevant literature and practice experience. Results. Of the original recorded fluid balance calculations, 79% deviated by more than 50 mL from the audited calculations. Further­more, a significant relationship was shown between inaccurate fluid balance calculation and administration of diuretics (p=0.01. Conclusion. The majority of fluid balance records were incorrectly calculated.

  4. Introduction of a prehospital critical incident monitoring system--pilot project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Julian; Davis, Anna; Jennings, Paul; Bartley, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Hospital medical incident monitoring improves preventable morbidity and mortality rates. Error management systems have been adopted widely in this setting. Data relating to incident monitoring in the prehospital setting is limited. Implementation of an incident monitoring process in a prehospital setting. This is a prospective, descriptive study of the pilot phase of the implementation of an incident monitoring process in a regional prehospital setting, with a focus on trauma care. Paramedics and emergency department staff submitted anonymous incident reports, and a chart review was performed on patients who met major trauma criteria. Selected trauma cases were analyzed by a structured interview/debriefing process to elucidate undocumented incidents. A project committee coded and logged all incidents and developed recommendations. Of 4,429 ambulance responses, 41 cases were analyzed. Twenty-four (58.5%; 95% CI = 49.7-67.4%) were reported anonymously, and the rest were major trauma patients. A total of 77 incidents were identified (mean per case = 1.8; CI = 1.03-2.57). Anonymous cases revealed 26 incidents (mean = 1.1; CI = 0.98-1.22); eight trauma debriefings revealed 38 incidents (mean = 4.8; CI = 0.91-8.69) and nine trauma chart reviews revealed 13 incidents (mean = 1.6; CI = 1.04-2.16). A total of 56 of 77 (72.7%; CI = 65.5-80.0%) incidents related to system inadequacies, and 15 (57.7%; CI = 46.7-68.6%) anonymously reported incidents related to resource problems. A total of 35 of 77 (45.5%; CI = 40.4-50.5%) incidents had minimal or no impact on the patients' outcomes. Thirty-four of 77 (44.2%; CI = 39.3-49.1%) incidents were considered mitigated by circumstance. Incident monitoring led to generalized feedback in most cases (65 of 77; 84.4%; CI = 77.6-91.3%); in three cases (3.9%; CI = 3.7-4.1%), specific education occurred; two cases were reported to an external body (2.6%; CI = 2.5-2.7%); three cases resulted in remedial action (3.9%; CI = 3.7-4.1%); four for

  5. Data processing and critical function status display system in the nuclear power plant monitoring systems; Procesiranje podataka i prika zstanja kriticnih funkcija postrojenja u sistemima nadzora nuklrearne elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinjeri, Lj; Plackovic, R [SOUR Rade Koncar, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    The Critical Function Monitoring System is a data acquisition and display system designed for effective presentation of essential nuclear plant operational data enabling supervision of the safety status of the nuclear plant by the operational staff. In this article the system functional requirements have been analysed and in accordance with the results of this analysis approach to defininf the design basis for realisation of the Critical Function Monitoring System by 'RK' equipment has been briefly described. (author)

  6. Awareness of bispectral index monitoring system among the critical care nursing personnel in a tertiary care hospital of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bispectral index monitoring system (BIS is one of the several systems used to measure the effects of anaesthetic and sedative drugs on the brain and to track changes in the patient′s level of sedation and hypnosis. BIS monitoring provides information clinically relevant to the adjustment of dosages of sedating medication. It can help the nursing personnel in preventing under- and over sedation among intensive care unit (ICU patients. Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of nursing personnel working in the ICU regarding BIS. Methods: Fifty-four subjects participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess the knowledge of the nursing personnel regarding BIS. Focus group discussions were held among the nursing personnel to know their views regarding BIS. Results: Mean age (years of the subjects was 30.7΁7.19 (21-47 years, with a female preponderance. Although the use of BIS in ICU is not common, majority (94.44% were aware of BIS and its purpose. 79.62% of the subjects knew about its implication in patient care. The mean knowledge score of the subjects was 11.87΁2.43 (maximum score being 15. Conclusion: There exists an awareness among the critical care nursing staff in our institution regarding BIS and its clinical implications. Its use in the critical care setting may benefit the patients in terms of providing optimal sedation.

  7. Nuclear criticality safety 2005 and 2006. Monitoring, follow-up and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, Dennis

    2007-03-01

    A number of selected issues have dominated during 2005 and 2006. This include development of models for realism based on physics (not only statistics and praxis), criteria for criticality safety, regulations and standards, burnup credit, determination of source convergence in calculations, substantial improvements in calculation methods, validation of those methods, etc. In spite of some criticism against certain parts of the NRC FCSS/ISG-10, it is an important document. It should support both authorities and utilities to determine adequate safety margins. To a large extent, the principles that have been applied in Sweden since the 1970's are supported. The extra safety margin (MMS or Δk m ) that protects against unknown uncertainties in k eff should be related to the known uncertainty. In Sweden this has been achieved by limitation of the total, statistically determined standard deviation to 0.01. In addition, FCSS/ISG-10 supports the principle of using different values of Δk m for normal situations than for design basis incidents (must have very low probabilities). In Sweden, Δk m have been included in the design limits that have been 0.95 for normal scenarios and 0.98 for incident scenarios. The corresponding values of Δk m are 0.05 and 0.02. They are exactly the same values as are mentioned in FCSS/ISG-10. The recently issued SCALE 5.1 is very important for burnup credit. Similar capabilities have been available in Sweden, in the form of CASMO, PHOENIX and their predecessor BUXY, for more than 30 years. SCALE 5.1 makes reactor calculations available in a procedure that is easily accessible to specialists on criticality safety. The physics simulation of the irradiation (Monte Carlo through KENO in 3-D or deterministic through NEWT in 2-D) becomes much more realistic with SCALE 5.1 than with earlier versions. A very important project is the OECD/NEA study on reference values for criticality safety. The final report has now been distributed. Among other issues

  8. ASIC-based design of NMR system health monitor for mission/safety?critical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, P.

    2016-01-01

    N-modular redundancy (NMR) is a generic fault tolerance scheme that is widely used in safety?critical circuit/system designs to guarantee the correct operation with enhanced reliability. In passive NMR, at least a majority (N?+?1)/2 out of N function modules is expected to operate correctly at any time, where N is odd. Apart from a conventional realization of the NMR system, it would be useful to provide a concurrent indication of the system?s health so that an appropriate remedial action may...

  9. How successful are first episode programs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Rasmussen, Jesper Østrup; Melau, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been hypothesized that the first 5 years after first episode of psychosis are a critical period with opportunities for ameliorating the course of illness. On the basis of this rationale, specialized assertive early intervention services were developed. We wanted to inves...

  10. Reliable glucose monitoring by ex-vivo blood microdialysis and infrared spectrometry for patients in critical care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlsing, Thorsten; Delbeck, Sven; Budde, Janpeter; Ihrig, Dieter; Leonhardt, Steffen; Heise, H. Michael

    2017-02-01

    Blood glucose monitoring has been realised by biosensors in combination with micro-dialysis, using either subcutaneously or intravascularly implanted catheters. Another alternative is ex-vivo micro-dialysis of continuously sampled heparinized whole blood available from the patient even under critical care conditions. However, most devices suffer from inaccuracies due to variable recovery rates. Infrared spectrometry has been suggested for analyte quantification, since besides glucose other clinically relevant analytes can be simultaneously determined that are, e.g., important for intensive care patients. Perfusates with acetate and mannitol have been investigated as recovery markers (internal standards). In contrast to the previously used acetate, an almost linear dependency between mannitol loss and glucose recovery was observed for micro-dialysis of glucose spiked aqueous albumin solutions or porcine heparinized whole blood when testing flat membranes within a custom-made micro-dialysator. By this, a straightforward compensation of any dialysis recovery rate variation during patient monitoring is possible. The combination of microdialysis with infrared spectrometry provides a calibration-free assay for accurate continuous glucose monitoring, as reference spectra of dialysate components can be a-priori allocated.

  11. An investigation of high ozone episodes in the City of Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachi, YR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of ozone monitoring data in Johannesburg highlighted that the city is frequently affected by high ozone episodes. There is limited knowledge about the chemical and meteorological drivers of these high ozone episodes in Johannesburg...

  12. Identification of a Critical Time with Acoustic Emission Monitoring during Static Fatigue Tests on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Towards Lifetime Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Godin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-oxide fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites are promising candidates for some aeronautic applications that require good thermomechanical behavior over long periods of time. This study focuses on the behavior of a SiCf/[Si-B-C] composite with a self-healing matrix at intermediate temperature under air. Static fatigue experiments were performed below 600 °C and a lifetime diagram is presented. Damage is monitored both by strain measurement and acoustic emission during the static fatigue experiments. Two methods of real-time analysis of associated energy release have been developed. They allow for the identification of a characteristic time that was found to be close to 55% of the measured rupture time. This critical time reflects a critical local energy release assessed by the applicability of the Benioff law. This critical aspect is linked to a damage phase where slow crack growth in fibers is prevailing leading to ultimate fracture of the composite.

  13. A Critical Commentary on the 2017 AGNP Consensus Guidelines for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Jose

    2018-01-01

    In 2004, 2011, and 2017, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP), a group of German-speaking psychiatric researchers and psychiatrists, published successive versions of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) expert group consensus guidelines. The 2017 version has as a major strength its encyclopedic nature, including 1358 references. The guideline has 3 major sections: 1) theoretical aspects of TDM, 2) drug concentration levels in blood to guide neuropsychopharmacotherapy, and 3) practical aspects of TDM in psychiatry and neurology. The writer hopes the time is right for a TDM guideline in psychiatry, which is indicated for: 1) psychiatric researchers ready to value how TDM can contribute to moving psychopharmacology forward, 2) flexible clinicians ready to improve their patient care by personalizing dosing, and 3) today's psychiatry residents prepared as a new generation ready to be trained in TDM and willing to continue incorporating TDM as new psychiatric drugs are marketed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. A critical review of an extremity monitoring program at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, Patricia Wieland; Rosa, Luiz Antonio Ribeiro da

    1993-01-01

    Eventually the cyclotron of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN) may need maintenance; Its components are made of copper and they become highly activated after irradiations producing extensive 65 Zn sources. The individual monitoring of the maintenance workers is based on film badges and TLD rings. Both systems are calibrated in terms of 'Photon Dose Equivalent' and the extremity dosemeter is not able to discriminate the gamma and beta contributions to the total dose. Conservatively, it was possible to estimate, using another extremity dosemeter, that beta doses received by the workers' hands are three times higher than the gamma doses. Considering this result, and the ring TL responses, it was possible to estimate Hp(0.07), in the case of the hands, for all the IEN cyclotron maintenance workers, since 1983. The results show that Hp(0.07) values are about 2.88 times higher than the previous reported extremity doses in mSv. (author)

  15. Methods for forewarning of critical condition changes in monitoring civil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert K.; Hively, Lee M.

    2013-04-02

    Sensor modules (12) including accelerometers (20) are placed on a physical structure (10) and tri-axial accelerometer data is converted to mechanical power (P) data (41) which then processed to provide a forewarning (57) of a critical event concerning the physical structure (10). The forewarning is based on a number of occurrences of a composite measure of dissimilarity (C.sub.i) exceeding a forewarning threshold over a defined sampling time; and a forewarning signal (58) is provided to a human observer through a visual, audible or tangible signal. A forewarning of a structural failure can also be provided based on a number of occurrences of (C.sub.i) above a failure value threshold.

  16. Utilizing distributional analytics and electronic records to assess timeliness of inpatient blood glucose monitoring in non-critical care wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular and timely monitoring of blood glucose (BG levels in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus is crucial to optimizing inpatient glycaemic control. However, methods to quantify timeliness as a measurement of quality of care are lacking. We propose an analytical approach that utilizes BG measurements from electronic records to assess adherence to an inpatient BG monitoring protocol in hospital wards. Methods We applied our proposed analytical approach to electronic records obtained from 24 non-critical care wards in November and December 2013 from a tertiary care hospital in Singapore. We applied distributional analytics to evaluate daily adherence to BG monitoring timings. A one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (1S-KS test was performed to test daily BG timings against non-adherence represented by the uniform distribution. This test was performed among wards with high power, determined through simulation. The 1S-KS test was coupled with visualization via the cumulative distribution function (cdf plot and a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (2S-KS test, enabling comparison of the BG timing distributions between two consecutive days. We also applied mixture modelling to identify the key features in daily BG timings. Results We found that 11 out of the 24 wards had high power. Among these wards, 1S-KS test with cdf plots indicated adherence to BG monitoring protocols. Integrating both 1S-KS and 2S-KS information within a moving window consisting of two consecutive days did not suggest frequent potential change from or towards non-adherence to protocol. From mixture modelling among wards with high power, we consistently identified four components with high concentration of BG measurements taken before mealtimes and around bedtime. This agnostic analysis provided additional evidence that the wards were adherent to BG monitoring protocols. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of our proposed analytical approach as a monitoring

  17. Critical review of gamma spectrometry detection approaches for in-plant surface deposition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorich, Carola [Nuclear Fuels and Chemistry at the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA 94304, (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Surface deposition of activated corrosion product on oxide layers of light-water reactor primary system components is the primary source for ex-core radiation fields and personnel radiation exposure. Understanding the deposition mechanism and what factors influence the deposition and release behaviors are crucial for developing effective radiation field reduction measures. One of the available tools to assess the surface deposition is in-plant gamma spectrometry, which has been performed for several decades using either sodium iodide (NaI) or high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Lately, the much more mobile cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detectors are increasingly employed by stations because of their ease in use and handling. However, all of these gamma detectors face the same challenges; namely large-geometry samples of inconsistent sample compositions and sometimes gaps in the information necessary to establish proper efficiency calibrations. This paper reviews current measurements and efficiency calibration approaches taken in the industry. The validity of the measurement results and the feasibility of the data's use in understanding source term behavior is examined. Suggestions are made for the development of a more robust deposit characterization and radiation field monitoring program. (authors)

  18. Develop a practical means to monitor the criticality of the TMI-2 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Levine, S.H.; Imel, G.

    1984-06-01

    A method has been developed to monitor the subcritical reactivity and unfold the k/sub infinity/ distribution of a degraded reactor core. The method uses several fixed neutron detectors and a Cf-252 neutron source placed sequentially in multiple positions in the core. It is called the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method. The AMPNS method employs the nucleonic codes to analyze in two dimensions the neutron multiplication of a Cf-252 neutron source. Experiments were performed on the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR). The first set of experiments calibrates the k/sub infinity/'s of the fuel elements moved during the second set of experiments. The second set of experiments provides a means for both developing and validating the AMPNS method. Several test runs of optimization calculations have been made on the PSBR core assuming one of the subcritical configurations is a damaged core. Test runs of the AMPNS method reveals that when the core cell size and source position are correctly chosen, the solution converges to the correct k/sub eff/ and k/sub infinity/ distribution without any oscillations or instabilities. Application of the AMPNS method to the degraded TMI-2 core has been studied to provide some initial insight into this problem

  19. Heart rate variability to monitor performance in elite athletes: Criticalities and avoidable pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Daniela; Marchetti, Ilaria; Spataro, Antonio; Malacarne, Mara; Benzi, Manuela; Tamorri, Stefano; Sala, Roberto; Pagani, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    Spectral analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a simple, non-invasive technique that is widely used in sport to assess sympatho-vagal regulation of the heart. Its employment is increasing partly due to the rising usage of wearable devices. However data acquisition using these devices may be suboptimal because they cannot discriminate between sinus and non-sinus beats and do not record any data regarding respiratory frequency. This information is mandatory for a correct clinical interpretation. This study involved 974 elite athletes, all of them underwent a complete autonomic assessment, by way of Autoregressive HRV analysis. In 91 subjects (9% of the total population) we observed criticalities of either cardiac rhythm or respiration. Through perusal of one-lead ECG analysis we observed that 77 subjects had atrial or ventricular ectopy, i.e. conditions which impair stationarity and sinus rhythm. Running anyway autonomic nervous system analysis in this population, we observed that RR variance and raw values of LF and HF regions are significantly higher in arrhythmic subjects. In addition 14 subjects had slow (about 6 breath/min, 0.1Hz) respiration. This condition clouds the separation between LF from HF spectral regions of RR interval variability, respectively markers of the prevalent sympathetic and vagal modulation of SA node and of their synergistic interaction. Caution must be payed when assessing HRV with non-ECG wearable devices. Recording ECG signal and ensuring that respiratory rate is higher than 10 breath/min are both prerequisites for a more reliable analysis of HRV particularly in athletes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards better monitoring of technology critical elements in Europe: Coupling of natural and anthropogenic cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Blengini, Gian Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The characterization of elemental cycles has a rich history in biogeochemistry. Well known examples include the global carbon cycle, or the cycles of the 'grand nutrients' nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More recently, efforts have increased to better understand the natural cycling of technology critical elements (TCEs), i.e. elements with a high supply risk and economic importance in the EU. On the other hand, tools such as material-flow analysis (MFA) can help to understand how substances and goods are transported and accumulated in man-made technological systems ('anthroposphere'). However, to date both biogeochemical cycles and MFA studies suffer from narrow system boundaries, failing to fully illustrate relative anthropogenic and natural flow magnitude and the degree to which human activity has perturbed the natural cycling of elements. We discuss important interconnections between natural and anthropogenic cycles and relevant EU raw material dossiers. Increased integration of both cycles could help to better capture the transport and fate of elements in nature including their environmental/human health impacts, highlight potential future material stocks in the anthroposphere (in-use stocks) and in nature (e.g., in soils, tailings, or mining wastes), and estimate anticipated emissions of TCEs to nature in the future (based on dynamic stock modeling). A preliminary assessment of natural versus anthropogenic element fluxes indicates that anthropogenic fluxes induced by the EU-28 of palladium, platinum, and antimony (as a result of materials uses) might be greater than the respective global natural fluxes. Increased combination of MFA and natural cycle data at EU level could help to derive more complete material cycles and initiate a discussion between the research communities of biogeochemists and material flow analysts to more holistically address the issues of sustainable resource management. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  1. A critical analysis of one standard and five methods to monitor surface wetness and time-of-wetness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camuffo, Dario; della Valle, Antonio; Becherini, Francesca

    2018-05-01

    Surface wetness is a synergistic factor to determine atmospheric corrosion, monument weathering, mould growth, sick buildings, etc. However, its detection and monitoring are neither easy nor homogeneous, for a number of factors that may affect readings. Various types of methods and sensors, either commercial or prototypes built in the lab, have been investigated and compared, i.e. the international standard ISO 9223 to evaluate corrosivity after wetness and time-of-wetness; indirect evaluation of wetness, based on the dew point calculated after the output of temperature and relative humidity sensors and direct measurements by means of capacitive wetness sensors, safety sensors, rain sensors (also known as leaf wetness sensors), infrared reflection sensors and fibre optic sensors. A comparison between the different methods is presented, specifying physical principles, forms of wetting to which they are respondent (i.e. condensation, ice melting, splashing drops, percolation and capillary rise), critical factors, use and cost.

  2. Financial performance monitoring of the technical efficiency of critical access hospitals: a data envelopment analysis and logistic regression modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Asa B; Kerr, Bernard J; Bastian, Nathaniel D; Fulton, Lawrence V

    2012-01-01

    From 1980 to 1999, rural designated hospitals closed at a disproportionally high rate. In response to this emergent threat to healthcare access in rural settings, the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 made provisions for the creation of a new rural hospital--the critical access hospital (CAH). The conversion to CAH and the associated cost-based reimbursement scheme significantly slowed the closure rate of rural hospitals. This work investigates which methods can ensure the long-term viability of small hospitals. This article uses a two-step design to focus on a hypothesized relationship between technical efficiency of CAHs and a recently developed set of financial monitors for these entities. The goal is to identify the financial performance measures associated with efficiency. The first step uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to differentiate efficient from inefficient facilities within a data set of 183 CAHs. Determining DEA efficiency is an a priori categorization of hospitals in the data set as efficient or inefficient. In the second step, DEA efficiency is the categorical dependent variable (efficient = 0, inefficient = 1) in the subsequent binary logistic regression (LR) model. A set of six financial monitors selected from the array of 20 measures were the LR independent variables. We use a binary LR to test the null hypothesis that recently developed CAH financial indicators had no predictive value for categorizing a CAH as efficient or inefficient, (i.e., there is no relationship between DEA efficiency and fiscal performance).

  3. Continuous in-situ monitoring of dissolved gases for the characterization of the Critical Zone with a MIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Aquilina, Luc; de la Bernardie, Jérôme; Guihéneuf, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    In the perspective of a temporal and spatial exploration of the Critical Zone, we developed an in situ monitoring instrument for continuous dissolved gas analysis (N2, O2, CO2, CH4, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe). With a large resolution (5 orders of magnitude) and a capability of high frequency multi-tracer analysis (1 gas every 1.5 seconds), the MIMS (Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer) is an innovative tool allowing the investigation of a large panel of physical and biogeochemical processes. First of all, this study presents the results of groundwater tracer tests using dissolved gases in order to evaluate transport properties of a fractured media in Brittany, France (Ploemeur, ORE H+). The tracer test experiment showed that the MIMS is perfectly suitable for field work. The instrument provides precise measurements accurate enough to produce breakthrough curves during groundwater tracer tests. The results derived from 4He data gives transport parameters in good agreement with the results obtained with a fluorescent tracer. Combined with a pump and a multi-parameter probe, the MIMS is also capable to perform accurate dissolved gases well-logs allowing a real-time estimation of recharge conditions (temperature, excess air), aquifer stratification, redox conditions and groundwater residence time by 4He dating. Therefore, the MIMS is a valuable tool for in situ characterization of biogeochemical reactivity in aquatic systems, the determination of aquifer transport properties, the monitoring of groundwater recharge conditions and the characterization of aquifer-river exchanges.

  4. Database of episode-integrated solar energetic proton fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Zachary D.; Adams, James H.; Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.

    2018-04-01

    A new database of proton episode-integrated fluences is described. This database contains data from two different instruments on multiple satellites. The data are from instruments on the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-8 (IMP8) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) series. A method to normalize one set of data to one another is presented to create a seamless database spanning 1973 to 2016. A discussion of some of the characteristics that episodes exhibit is presented, including episode duration and number of peaks. As an example of what can be understood about episodes, the July 4, 2012 episode is examined in detail. The coronal mass ejections and solar flares that caused many of the fluctuations of the proton flux seen at Earth are associated with peaks in the proton flux during this episode. The reasoning for each choice is laid out to provide a reference for how CME and solar flares associations are made.

  5. Database of episode-integrated solar energetic proton fluences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Zachary D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new database of proton episode-integrated fluences is described. This database contains data from two different instruments on multiple satellites. The data are from instruments on the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-8 (IMP8 and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES series. A method to normalize one set of data to one another is presented to create a seamless database spanning 1973 to 2016. A discussion of some of the characteristics that episodes exhibit is presented, including episode duration and number of peaks. As an example of what can be understood about episodes, the July 4, 2012 episode is examined in detail. The coronal mass ejections and solar flares that caused many of the fluctuations of the proton flux seen at Earth are associated with peaks in the proton flux during this episode. The reasoning for each choice is laid out to provide a reference for how CME and solar flares associations are made.

  6. Perspectives on Episodic-like and Episodic Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bettina M Pause; Armin eZlomuzica; Kiyoka eKinugawa; Jean eMariani; Reinhard ePietrowsky; Ekrem eDere

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Further...

  7. Episodic-like memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephanie J; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2006-07-11

    A fundamental question in comparative cognition is whether animals remember unique, personal past experiences. It has long been argued that memories for specific events (referred to as episodic memory) are unique to humans. Recently, considerable evidence has accumulated to show that food-storing birds possess critical behavioral elements of episodic memory, referred to as episodic-like memory in acknowledgment of the fact that behavioral criteria do not assess subjective experiences. Here we show that rats have a detailed representation of remembered events and meet behavioral criteria for episodic-like memory. We provided rats with access to locations baited with distinctive (e.g., grape and raspberry) or nondistinctive (regular chow) flavors. Locations with a distinctive flavor replenished after a long but not a short delay, and locations with the nondistinctive flavor never replenished. One distinctive flavor was devalued after encoding its location by prefeeding that flavor (satiation) or by pairing it with lithium chloride (acquired taste aversion), while the other distinctive flavor was not devalued. The rats selectively decreased revisits to the devalued distinctive flavor but not to the nondevalued distinctive flavor. The present studies demonstrate that rats selectively encode the content of episodic-like memories.

  8. The Role of Episodic and Semantic Memory in Episodic Foresight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Louw, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a special form of future thinking, termed "episodic foresight" and its relation with episodic and semantic memory. We outline the methodologies that have largely been developed in the last five years to assess this capacity in young children and non-human animals. Drawing on Tulving's definition of episodic and semantic…

  9. Perspectives on Episodic-Like and Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pause, Bettina M.; Zlomuzica, Armin; Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Mariani, Jean; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Dere, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer’s disease deficits in episodic memory function are among the first cognitive symptoms observed. Furthermore, impaired episodic memory function is also observed in a variety of other neuropsychiatric diseases including dissociative disorders, schizophrenia, and Parkinson disease. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to induce and measure episodic memories in the laboratory and it is even more difficult to measure it in clinical populations. Presently, the tests used to assess episodic memory function do not comply with even down-sized definitions of episodic-like memory as a memory for what happened, where, and when. They also require sophisticated verbal competences and are difficult to apply to patient populations. In this review, we will summarize the progress made in defining behavioral criteria of episodic-like memory in animals (and humans) as well as the perspectives in developing novel tests of human episodic memory which can also account for phenomenological aspects of episodic memory such as autonoetic awareness. We will also define basic behavioral, procedural, and phenomenological criteria which might be helpful for the development of a valid and reliable clinical test of human episodic memory. PMID:23616754

  10. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  11. The Composition of Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Benton J.; And Others

    This study examined the interrelationships among a number of episodic memory tasks and among various attributes of memory. A sample of 200 college students was tested for ten sessions; 28 different measures of episodic memory were obtained. In addition, five measures of semantic memory were available. Results indicated that episodic and semantic…

  12. Addressing critical environmental data gaps via low-cost, real-time, cellular-based environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylor, K. K.; Wolf, A.; Siegfried, B.

    2014-12-01

    Models in the environmental sciences are repositories in a sense of the current state of understanding of critical processes. However, as our understanding of these processes (and their accompanying models) become more granular, the data requirements to parameterize them become more limiting. In addition, as these models become more useful, they are often pressed into service for decision support, meaning that they cannot accept the data latency typical of most environmental observations. Finally, the vast majority of environmental data is generated at highly-instrumented, infrastructure-rich "mega sites" in the US/Europe, while many of the most pressing environmental issues are in rural locales and in the developing world. Cellular-based environmental sensing is a promising means to provide granular data in real time from remote locales to improve model-based forecasting using data assimilation. Applications we are working on include drought forecasting and food security; forest and crop responses to weather and climate change; and rural water usage. Over the past two years, we have developed a suite of integrated hardware, firmware, and backend APIs that accommodates an unlimited variety of sensors, and propagates these data onto the internet over mobile networks. Scientific data holds a unique role for demanding well-characterized information on sensor error and our design attempts to balance error reduction with low costs. The result is a deployment system that undercuts competing commercial products by as much as 90%, allowing more ubiquitous deployment with lower risks associated with sensor loss. Enclosure design and power management are critical ingredients for remote deployments under variable environmental conditions. Sensors push data onto cloud storage and make this data available via public API's via a backend server that accommodates additional metadata essential for interpreting observations, particularly their measurement errors. The data these pods

  13. Development of authentication system for the fast critical assembly (FCA) portal monitor (P/M) and penetration monitor (PN/M) systems of JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hironobu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko

    1999-05-01

    The advanced comprehensive containment and surveillance system for the Fast Critical Assembly facility (FCA) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) consists of a Portal monitor (P/M) and a Penetration Monitor (PN/M) systems. The development of these systems was completed in 1988 for alleviating the burdens of manpower and radiation problems in the frequent NDA inspections. After the completion of the field trial test (Phase III), in 1990, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) accepted the system on condition that an independent IAEA authentication equipment would be provided. The development of the authentication measures was carried out jointly by both the Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) and the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), and also under the research agreement for the safeguards research and development between JAERI and the US Department of Energy (USDOE). The concept and design requirements of the authentication system were developed by IAEA, but the design and development of the authentication equipment were jointly funded both by JASPAS and POTAS, and also the fund of JAERI was provided for the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) through USDOE. SNL developed and constructed the authentication system in two phase as Phase I and Phase II. JAERI financed the development of the Phase I and Phase II hardware and software, and the installation of the authentication equipment at the FCA facility, and also carried out the modification of the circuitry and devices for both the P/M and the PN/M systems as well as the reconstruction of the PN/M Junction Unit for compatibility with the implementation of the authentication measures. After the completion of consecutive field trial test of the P/M, the PN/M and the authentication system, IAEA accepted the entire system as an effective and efficient routine inspection measures in 1996. This report describes the modification and reconstruction of

  14. Investigating the episodic buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Baddeley

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief account is presented of the three-component working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch. This is followed by an account of some of the problems it encountered in explaining how information from different subsystems with different codes could be combined, and how it was capable of communicating with long-term memory. In order to account for these, a fourth component was proposed, the episodic buffer. This was assumed to be a multidimensional store of limited capacity that can be accessed through conscious awareness. In an attempt to test and develop the concept, a series of experiments have explored the role of working memory in the binding of visual features into objects and verbal sequences into remembered sentences. The experiments use a dual task paradigm to investigate the role of the various subcomponents of working memory in binding. In contrast to our initial assumption, the episodic buffer appears to be a passive store, capable of storing bound features and making them available to conscious awareness, but not itself responsible for the process of binding.

  15. EEG Suppression Associated with Apneic Episodes in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evonne Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the EEG findings from an ex-preterm neonate at term equivalent age who presented with intermittent but prolonged apneic episodes which were presumed to be seizures. A total of 8 apneic episodes were captured (duration 23–376 seconds during EEG monitoring. The baseline EEG activity was appropriate for corrected gestational age and no electrographic seizure activity was recorded. The average baseline heart rate was 168 beats per minute (bpm and the baseline oxygen saturation level was in the mid-nineties. Periods of complete EEG suppression lasting 68 and 179 seconds, respectively, were recorded during 2 of these 8 apneic episodes. Both episodes were accompanied by bradycardia less than 70 bpm and oxygen saturation levels of less than 20%. Short but severe episodes of apnea can cause complete EEG suppression in the neonate.

  16. Episodic reinstatement in the medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Henson, Richard N A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Alink, Arjen

    2012-12-12

    The essence of episodic memory is our ability to reexperience past events in great detail, even in the absence of external stimulus cues. Does the phenomenological reinstatement of past experiences go along with reinstating unique neural representations in the brain? And if so, how is this accomplished by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain region intimately linked to episodic memory? Computational models suggest that such reinstatement (also termed "pattern completion") in cortical regions is mediated by the hippocampus, a key region of the MTL. Although recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated reinstatement of coarse item properties like stimulus category or task context across different brain regions, it has not yet been shown whether reinstatement can be observed at the level of individual, discrete events-arguably the defining feature of episodic memory-nor whether MTL structures like the hippocampus support this "true episodic" reinstatement. Here we show that neural activity patterns for unique word-scene combinations encountered during encoding are reinstated in human parahippocampal cortex (PhC) during retrieval. Critically, this reinstatement occurs when word-scene combinations are successfully recollected (even though the original scene is not visually presented) and does not encompass other stimulus domains (such as word-color associations). Finally, the degree of PhC reinstatement across retrieval events correlated with hippocampal activity, consistent with a role of the hippocampus in coordinating pattern completion in cortical regions.

  17. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  18. First-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    . Patients with first-episode psychosis had significantly high NEO-PI-R scores for neuroticism and agreeableness, and lower scores for conscientiousness and extroversion. The median time for remission in the total sample was three months. Female gender and better premorbid functioning were predictive of less...... negative symptoms and shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was predictive for shorter time to remission, stable remission, less severe positive psychotic symptoms, and better social functioning. Female gender, better premorbid social functioning and more education also contributed to a better...... should warn clinicians to pay attention to the more elaborate needs of these patients. A re-evaluation at three months should reveal that non-remitted patients with longer DUPs indicate high risk of continuous non-remission. A possible shift to clozapine for this group should be strongly considered....

  19. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mental images in episodic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Han, KyungHun

    2009-01-01

    Episodic memory, i.e. memorization of information within a spatiotemporal environment, is affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its loss may also occur in the normal aging process. The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate episodic memory in patients with AD by examining their cognitive skills in episodic memory through the introspection technique. A new method was used, wherein we assessed mental images of the subject's own past recalled in the mind like projected pictures and ...

  1. Critical parameters and measurement methods for post closure monitoring: A review of the state of the art and recommendations for further studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.F.; Majer, E.L.; Tsang, C.F.

    1987-05-01

    Both NRC and EPA regulations require programs of post closure monitoring to detect substantial and detrimental deviations from expected performance. The unexpected in this case would involve anomalous stress changes that might rupture the canisters or changes in the hydrologic regime that might accelerate corrosion. In the event of leakage brought about by any means transport of radionuclides to the accessible environment could occur through unexpected changes in the hydrologic flow regime caused either by the long term effects of the thermal loading by the waste or by changes in regional stress or hydrology. Studies of performance confirmation have identified six parameters or conditions that should be monitored that are associated with the thermal, mechanical and hydrologic phenomena introduced by the waste heat: temperature, stress, displacement, pore pressure, groundwater velocity and permeability. Since it is the thermal load that continues to increase after decommissioning, and which continues to alter the stress field and the hydrological regime, these same six parameters remain the critical ones in post closure monitoring. At two of the repository sites fractures have been clearly shown to be critical in modelling and performance confirmation; at the tuff site fluid saturation is also a critical parameter and for all the sites estimates of the groundwater velocity through the site are very important. Changes in fracture properties, saturation and fluid flow are thus of continuing importance in post closure monitoring. 14 refs., 19 figs

  2. The evolution of episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  3. The effect of episodic retrieval on inhibition in task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, James A; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka W; O'Loughlin, Rory

    2017-08-01

    Inhibition in task switching is inferred from n-2 repetition costs: the observation that ABA task switching sequences are responded to slower than CBA sequences. This is thought to reflect the persisting inhibition of Task A, which slows reactivation attempts. Mayr (2002) reported an experiment testing a critical noninhibitory account of this effect, namely episodic retrieval: If the trial parameters for Task A match across an ABA sequence, responses should be facilitated because of priming from episodic retrieval; a cost would occur if trial parameters mismatch. In a rule-switching paradigm, Mayr reported no significant difference in n-2 repetition cost when the trial parameters repeated or switched across an ABA sequence, in clear contrast to the episodic retrieval account. What remains unclear is whether successful episodic retrieval modulates the n-2 repetition cost. Across 3 experiments-including a close replication of Mayr-we find clear evidence of reduced n-2 task repetition costs when episodic retrieval is controlled. We find that the effect of episodic retrieval on the n-2 task repetition cost is increased when the cue-task relationship is made more abstract, suggesting the effect is because of interference in establishing the relevant attentional set. We also demonstrate that the episodic retrieval effect is not influenced by retrieval of low-level, perceptual, elements. Together, the data suggest the n-2 task repetition cost-typically attributable to an inhibitory mechanism-also reflects episodic retrieval effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, Tracy; Geng, Fengji; Blankenship, Sarah L; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Episodic memory relies on a distributed network of brain regions, with the hippocampus playing a critical and irreplaceable role. Few studies have examined how changes in this network contribute to episodic memory development early in life. The present addressed this gap by examining relations between hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in 4- and 6-year-old children (n=40). Results revealed similar hippocampal functional connectivity between age groups, which included lateral temporal regions, precuneus, and multiple parietal and prefrontal regions, and functional specialization along the longitudinal axis. Despite these similarities, developmental differences were also observed. Specifically, 3 (of 4) regions within the hippocampal memory network were positively associated with episodic memory in 6-year-old children, but negatively associated with episodic memory in 4-year-old children. In contrast, all 3 regions outside the hippocampal memory network were negatively associated with episodic memory in older children, but positively associated with episodic memory in younger children. These interactions are interpreted within an interactive specialization framework and suggest the hippocampus becomes functionally integrated with cortical regions that are part of the hippocampal memory network in adults and functionally segregated from regions unrelated to memory in adults, both of which are associated with age-related improvements in episodic memory ability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The Episodic Nature of Episodic-Like Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Alexander; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Eacott, Madeline J.

    2012-01-01

    Studying episodic memory in nonhuman animals has proved difficult because definitions in humans require conscious recollection. Here, we assessed humans' experience of episodic-like recognition memory tasks that have been used with animals. It was found that tasks using contextual information to discriminate events could only be accurately…

  6. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  7. Attentional episodes in visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks

  8. High-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry for the simultaneous or sequential monitoring of multiple lines. A critical review of current possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resano, M.; Flórez, M.R.; García-Ruiz, E.

    2013-01-01

    This work examines the capabilities and limitations of commercially available high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry instrumentation for multi-line monitoring, discussing in detail the possible strategies to develop multi-element methodologies that are truly simultaneous, or else sequential, but from the same sample aliquot. Moreover, the simultaneous monitoring of various atomic or molecular lines may bring other important analytical advantages, such as: i) expansion of the linear range by monitoring multiplets; ii) improvements in the limit of detection and in precision by summing the signals from different lines of the same element or molecule; iii) simple correction for matrix-effects by selecting a suitable internal standard; or iv) accurate mathematical correction of spectral overlaps by simultaneous monitoring of free lines of the interfering molecule or element. This work discusses how authors have made use of these strategies to develop analytical methodologies that permit the straightforward analysis of complex samples. - Highlights: • HR CS AAS potential for simultaneous multi-line monitoring is critically examined. • Strategies to develop simultaneous multi-element methods are discussed. • Other benefits of multi-line monitoring (e.g., use of an IS or LSBC) are highlighted. • Selected examples from the literature are discussed in detail

  9. Rats Remember Items in Context Using Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Corbin, Hannah E; Dalecki, Stefan J; Gentry, Meredith; Brotheridge, Sydney; Sluka, Christina M; Wu, Jie-En; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-10-24

    Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of unique events in sequential order [1-3]. Animal models of episodic memory have successfully documented episodic memory of a single event (e.g., [4-8]). However, a fundamental feature of episodic memory in people is that it involves multiple events, and notably, episodic memory impairments in human diseases are not limited to a single event. Critically, it is not known whether animals remember many unique events using episodic memory. Here, we show that rats remember many unique events and the contexts in which the events occurred using episodic memory. We used an olfactory memory assessment in which new (but not old) odors were rewarded using 32 items. Rats were presented with 16 odors in one context and the same odors in a second context. To attain high accuracy, the rats needed to remember item in context because each odor was rewarded as a new item in each context. The demands on item-in-context memory were varied by assessing memory with 2, 3, 5, or 15 unpredictable transitions between contexts, and item-in-context memory survived a 45 min retention interval challenge. When the memory of item in context was put in conflict with non-episodic familiarity cues, rats relied on item in context using episodic memory. Our findings suggest that rats remember multiple unique events and the contexts in which these events occurred using episodic memory and support the view that rats may be used to model fundamental aspects of human cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The non-technical skills used by anaesthetic technicians in critical incidents reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring System between 2002 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, J S; Flin, R; Irwin, A

    2015-07-01

    The outcome of critical incidents in the operating theatre has been shown to be influenced by the behaviour of anaesthetic technicians (ATs) assisting anaesthetists, but the specific non-technical skills involved have not been described. We performed a review of critical incidents (n=1433) reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring System between 2002 and 2008 to identify which non-technical skills were used by ATs. The reports were assessed if they mentioned anaesthetic assistance or had the boxes ticked to identify "inadequate assistance" or "absent supervision or assistance". A total of 90 critical incidents involving ATs were retrieved, 69 of which described their use of non-technical skills. In 20 reports, the ATs ameliorated the critical incident, whilst in 46 they exacerbated the critical incident, and three cases had both positive and negative non-technical skills described. Situation awareness was identified in 39 reports, task management in 23, teamwork in 21 and decision-making in two, but there were no descriptions of issues related to leadership, stress or fatigue management. Situation awareness, task management and teamwork appear to be important non-technical skills for ATs in the development or management of critical incidents in the operating theatre. This analysis has been used to support the development of a non-technical skills taxonomy for anaesthetic assistants.

  11. Insufficient fluconazole exposure in pediatric cancer patients and the need for therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, Kim CM; Pereboom, Marieke; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Kosterink, Jos G W; Scholvinck, Elisabeth H.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fluconazole is recommended as first-line treatment in invasive candidiasis in children and infants. Although timely achievement of adequate exposure of fluconazole improves outcome, therapeutic drug monitoring is currently not recommended. Methods. We conducted a retrospective study of

  12. Pre-criticality testing of radiation monitors associated with protective and regulatory channels of PHWRs and related work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.M.; Rao, Suresh; Mahant, A.K.; Sathian, V.; Ghodke, Shobha; Satam, R.A.; Singh, Yashoda; Phadnis, U.V.; Shaha, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the various experiments that are regularly carried out for each PHWR since RAPS-2. The work involves performance evaluation of start-up counters and ion chambers used in Protective and Regulatory channels and start-up counters used both in-core and out of core. In addition, Radiation Safety Systems Division (RSSD) also carries out calibration of Delayed Neutron Monitors (DNM) and Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPND). Except SPND, all other detectors are tested not only at BARC but also at reactor sites prior to initial flushing of heavy water, using the actual circuitry and control instruments at site. The performance evaluation of SPNDs is carried out at A-1 location of APSARA reactor core. Apart from these, RSSD also carries out calibration of zonal classification monitors and health physics related radiation monitors at BARC. (author)

  13. Extremely Bright GRB 160625B with Multiple Emission Episodes: Evidence for Long-term Ejecta Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Hou-Jun; Lü, Jing; Zhong, Shu-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Hai-Ming; Lan, Lin; Lu, Rui-Jing; Liang, En-Wei [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Xie, Wei, E-mail: lhj@gxu.edu.edu, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-11-01

    GRB 160625B is an extremely bright GRB with three distinct emission episodes. By analyzing its data observed with the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi mission, we find that a multicolor blackbody (mBB) model can be used to fit very well the spectra of the initial short episode (Episode I) within the hypothesis of photosphere emission of a fireball model. The time-resolved spectra of its main episode (Episode II), which was detected with both GBM and LAT after a long quiescent stage (∼180 s) following the initial episode, can be fitted with a model comprising an mBB component plus a cutoff power-law (CPL) component. This GRB was detected again in the GBM and LAT bands with a long extended emission (Episode III) after a quiescent period of ∼300 s. The spectrum of Episode III is adequately fitted with CPL plus single power-law models, and no mBB component is required. These features may imply that the emission of the three episodes are dominated by distinct physics processes, i.e., Episode I is possible from the cocoon emission surrounding the relativistic jet, Episode II may be from photosphere emission and internal shock of the relativistic jet, and Episode III is contributed by internal and external shocks of the relativistic jet. On the other hand, both X-ray and optical afterglows are consistent with the standard external shocks model.

  14. [A new assessment for episodic memory. Episodic memory test and caregiver's episodic memory test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojea Ortega, T; González Álvarez de Sotomayor, M M; Pérez González, O; Fernández Fernández, O

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test is to evaluate episodic memory according to its definition in a way that is feasible for families and achieves high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. We administered a test consisting of 10 questions about episodic events to 332 subjects, of whom 65 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), 115 had amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 152 showed no cognitive impairment according to Reisberg's global deterioration scale (GDS). We calculated the test's sensitivity and specificity to distinguish AD from episodic aMCI and from normal ageing. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of aMCI was 0.94 and the best cut-off value was 20; for that value, sensitivity was 89% and specificity was 82%. For a diagnosis of AD, the area under the ROC curve was 0.99 and the best cut-off point was 17, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 91%. A subsequent study using similar methodology yielded similar results when the test was administered directly by the caregiver. The episodic memory test and the caregiver's episodic memory test are useful as brief screening tools for identifying patients with early-stage AD. It is suitable for use by primary care medical staff and in the home, since it can be administered by a caregiver. The test's limitations are that it must be administered by a reliable caregiver and the fact that it measures episodic memory only. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural Changes Underlying the Development of Episodic Memory During Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory is central to the human experience. In typically developing children, episodic memory improves rapidly during middle childhood. While the developmental cognitive neuroscience of episodic memory remains largely uncharted, recent research has begun to provide important insights. It has long been assumed that hippocampus-dependent binding mechanisms are in place by early childhood, and that improvements in episodic memory observed during middle childhood result from the protracted development of the prefrontal cortex. We revisit the notion that binding mechanisms are age-invariant, and propose that changes in the hippocampus and its projections to cortical regions also contribute to the development of episodic memory. We further review the role of developmental changes in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices in this development. Finally, we discuss changes in white matter tracts connecting brain regions that are critical for episodic memory. Overall, we argue that changes in episodic memory emerge from the concerted effort of a network of relevant brain structures. PMID:22770728

  16. Antipsychotic medication for early episode schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, John; Kao, Dennis; Soydan, Haluk; Adams, Clive E

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications in early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders is common, but both short and long-term effects on the illness are unclear. There have been numerous suggestions that people with early episodes of schizophrenia appear to respond differently than those with multiple prior episodes. The number of episodes may moderate response to drug treatment. Objectives To assess the effects of antipsychotic medication treatment on people with early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group register (July 2007) as well as references of included studies. We contacted authors of studies for further data. Selection criteria Studies with a majority of first and second episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders comparing initial antipsychotic medication treatment with placebo, milieu, or psychosocial treatment. Data collection and analysis Working independently, we critically appraised records from 681 studies, of which five studies met inclusion criteria. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) where possible. For continuous data, we calculated mean difference (MD). We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. Main results Five studies (combined total n=998) met inclusion criteria. Four studies (n=724) provided leaving the study early data and results suggested that individuals treated with a typical antipsychotic medication are less likely to leave the study early than those treated with placebo (Chlorpromazine: 3 RCTs n=353, RR 0.4 CI 0.3 to 0.5, NNT 3.2, Fluphenaxine: 1 RCT n=240, RR 0.5 CI 0.3 to 0.8, NNT 5; Thioridazine: 1 RCT n=236, RR 0.44 CI 0.3 to 0.7, NNT 4.3, Trifulperazine: 1 RCT n=94, RR 0.96 CI 0.3 to 3.6). Two studies contributed data to assessment of adverse effects and present a general pattern of more frequent side effects among individuals treated with typical antipsychotic medications

  17. Critical analysis of the positioning of monitoring system of the cyclotron accelerator; Analise critica do posicionamento de um sistema de monitoramento de acelerador Ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Julia A.; Passaro, Bruno M.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C.; Buchpigue, Carlos A. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear (CMN) do InRad HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com [CYCLOPET Radiofarmacos LTDA., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Ever since the first concerns arose about the possibility that the ionizing radiation induced detriment to human health, were created the methods of production, characterization and measurement of radiation, as well as definition of quantities that realistically express its interaction with human tissue. From this point, the monitoring program of the installation of a cyclotron must be continuously performed and contain the critical points of contamination according to the CNEN standard N.E. 3.02 - Radioprotection Service to avoid contamination and maintain radioactive exposure rates as low as reasonably achievable. The results obtained during the analysis showed that the positioning of monitors is suitable, except for the physico-chemical control laboratory monitors, which were installed next to the chapel of manipulation and below the dose calibrator. The answer obtained from the monitoring system in the position that the ionization chamber is in the door of the bunker should be taken into account, because the intensity of radiation emitted by the activation of the targets is slightly attenuated by the cyclotron. (author)

  18. Measurements of soil, surface water, and groundwater CO2 concentration variability within Earth's critical zone: low-cost, long-term, high-temporal resolution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, J. M.; Covington, M. D.; Williams, S. G. W.; Myre, J. M.; Rodriguez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Variability in CO2 fluxes within Earth's Critical zone occurs over a wide range of timescales. Resolving this and its drivers requires high-temporal resolution monitoring of CO2 both in the soil and aquatic environments. High-cost (> 1,000 USD) gas analyzers and data loggers present cost-barriers for investigations with limited budgets, particularly if high spatial resolution is desired. To overcome high-costs, we developed an Arduino based CO2 measuring platform (i.e. gas analyzer and data logger). The platform was deployed at multiple sites within the Critical Zone overlying the Springfield Plateau aquifer in Northwest Arkansas, USA. The CO2 gas analyzer used in this study was a relatively low-cost SenseAir K30. The analyzer's optical housing was covered by a PTFE semi-permeable membrane allowing for gas exchange between the analyzer and environment. Total approximate cost of the monitoring platform was 200 USD (2% detection limit) to 300 USD (10% detection limit) depending on the K30 model used. For testing purposes, we deployed the Arduino based platform alongside a commercial monitoring platform. CO2 concentration time series were nearly identical. Notably, CO2 cycles at the surface water site, which operated from January to April 2017, displayed a systematic increase in daily CO2 amplitude. Preliminary interpretation suggests key observation of seasonally increasing stream metabolic function. Other interpretations of observed cyclical and event-based behavior are out of the scope of the study; however, the presented method describes an accurate near-hourly characterization of CO2 variability. The new platform has been shown to be operational for several months, and we infer reliable operation for much longer deployments (> 1 year) given adequate environmental protection and power supply. Considering cost-savings, this platform is an attractive option for continuous, accurate, low-power, and low-cost CO2 monitoring for remote locations, globally.

  19. Differential Contributions of Language Skills to Children's Episodic Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemfuss, J. Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Theorists have identified language as a critical contributor to children's episodic memory development, yet studies linking language and memory have had mixed results. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms linking language and memory and to explain the previous mixed results. Sixty-four preschool children's receptive and productive…

  20. Critical review of the methods for monitoring of lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Wladislaw; Fleischer, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Lithium-ion battery packs in hybrid and pure electric vehicles are always equipped with a battery management system (BMS). The BMS consists of hardware and software for battery management including, among others, algorithms determining battery states. The continuous determination of battery states during operation is called battery monitoring. In this paper, the methods for monitoring of the battery state of charge, capacity, impedance parameters, available power, state of health, and remaining useful life are reviewed with the focus on elaboration of their strengths and weaknesses for the use in on-line BMS applications. To this end, more than 350 sources including scientific and technical literature are studied and the respective approaches are classified in various groups.

  1. New oil condition monitoring system, Wearsens® enables continuous, online detection of critical operating conditions and wear damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Mauntz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new oil sensor system is presented for the continuous, online measurement of the wear in turbines, industrial gears, generators, hydraulic systems and transformers. Detection of change is much earlier than existing technologies such as particle counting, vibration measurement or recording temperature. Thus targeted, corrective procedures and/or maintenance can be carried out before actual damage occurs. Efficient machine utilization, accurately timed preventive maintenance, increased service life and a reduction of downtime can all be achieved. The presented sensor system effectively controls the proper operation conditions of bearings and cogwheels in gears. The online diagnostics system measures components of the specific complex impedance of oils. For instance, metal abrasion due to wear debris, broken oil molecules, forming acids or oil soaps, result in an increase of the electrical conductivity, which directly correlates with the degree of contamination of the oil. For additivated lubricants, the stage of degradation of the additives can also be derived from changes in the dielectric constant. The determination of impurities or reduction in the quality of the oil and the quasi continuous evaluation of wear and chemical aging follow the holistic approach of a real-time monitoring of an alteration in the condition of the oil-machine system. Once the oil condition monitoring sensors are installed on the wind turbine, industrial gearbox and test stands, the measuring data can be displayed and evaluated elsewhere. The signals are transmitted to a web-based condition monitoring system via LAN, WLAN or serial interfaces of the sensor unit. Monitoring of the damage mechanisms during proper operation below the tolerance limits of the components enables specific preventive maintenance independent of rigid inspection intervals.

  2. Clinical presentation of terbinafine-induced severe liver injury and the value of laboratory monitoring: a Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, O N; Albrecht, J

    2017-11-01

    Many physicians monitor liver function tests during terbinafine therapy. To evaluate the symptoms of published cases of terbinafine-associated severe drug-induced liver injury (DILI) to assess the utility of laboratory monitoring. We based our search on the LiverTox database of the National Institutes of Health, but we also searched both PubMed and Embase. In addition, we hand searched the references of the papers we found. All reports of patients with DILI on terbinafine and with reported clinical symptoms, or absence thereof, were evaluated. Two independent reviewers (J.A. and O.N.K.) assessed articles for eligibility of inclusion, and collected and evaluated the data. Thirty-eight papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with reports of 69 symptomatic patients. The mean duration of terbinafine treatment until onset of symptoms was 30·2 days (range 5-84). Symptoms in order of frequency were jaundice, flu-like symptoms, dark urine and pruritus. Patients experienced symptoms for a mean and median of 14·8 and 16 days, respectively (range 0-42) until seeking medical attention. Patients who had DILI were symptomatic, usually with jaundice, abdominal pain and general malaise, but also with severe pruritus. No asymptomatic patient was identified through laboratory screening. The timeline of DILI onset varies significantly, but most cases occur between 4 and 6 weeks. There was no time point at which monitoring was meaningful, and we do not recommend monitoring of liver function tests on terbinafine; however, patients should be advised to discontinue treatment and look for medical care when symptoms of DILI occur. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Episodic payments (bundling): PART I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacofsky, D J

    2017-10-01

    Episodic, or bundled payments, is a concept now familiar to most in the healthcare arena, but the models are often misunderstood. Under a traditional fee-for-service model, each provider bills separately for their services which creates financial incentives to maximise volumes. Under a bundled payment, a single entity, often referred to as a convener (maybe the hospital, the physician group, or a third party) assumes the risk through a payer contract for all services provided within a defined episode of care, and receives a single (bundled) payment for all services provided for that episode. The time frame around the intervention is variable, but defined in advance, as are included and excluded costs. Timing of the actual payment in a bundle may either be before the episode occurs (prospective payment model), or after the end of the episode through a reconciliation (retrospective payment model). In either case, the defined costs over the defined time frame are borne by the convener. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1280-5. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  4. Four hour creatinine clearance is better than plasma creatinine for monitoring renal function in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, John W; Frampton, Christopher M; Walker, Robert J; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Endre, Zolt?n H

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is based on an increase in plasma creatinine, which is a slowly changing surrogate of decreased glomerular filtration rate. We investigated whether serial creatinine clearance, a direct measure of the glomerular filtration rate, provided more timely and accurate information on renal function than serial plasma creatinine in critically ill patients. Methods Serial plasma creatinine and 4-hour creatinine clearance were measured 12-hourly for 24 h...

  5. Monitoring of argatroban and lepirudin anticoagulation in critically ill patients by conventional laboratory parameters and rotational thromboelastometry - a prospectively controlled randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiderlinden, Martin; Werner, Patrick; Bahlmann, Astrid; Kemper, Johann; Brezina, Tobias; Schäfer, Maximilian; Görlinger, Klaus; Seidel, Holger; Kienbaum, Peter; Treschan, Tanja A

    2018-02-09

    Argatroban or lepirudin anticoagulation therapy in patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) or HIT suspect is typically monitored using the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Although aPTT correlates well with plasma levels of argatroban and lepirudin in healthy volunteers, it might not be the method of choice in critically ill patients. However, in-vivo data is lacking for this patient population. Therefore, we studied in vivo whether ROTEM or global clotting times would provide an alternative for monitoring the anticoagulant intensity effects in critically ill patients. This study was part of the double-blind randomized trial "Argatroban versus Lepirudin in critically ill patients (ALicia)", which compared critically ill patients treated with argatroban or lepirudin. Following institutional review board approval and written informed consent, for this sub-study blood of 35 critically ill patients was analysed. Before as well as 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after initiation of argatroban or lepirudin infusion, blood was analysed for aPTT, aPTT ratios, thrombin time (TT), INTEM CT,INTEM CT ratios, EXTEM CT, EXTEM CT ratios and maximum clot firmness (MCF) and correlated with the corresponding plasma concentrations of the direct thrombin inhibitor. To reach a target aPTT of 1.5 to 2 times baseline, median [IQR] plasma concentrations of 0.35 [0.01-1.2] μg/ml argatroban and 0.17 [0.1-0.32] μg/ml lepirudin were required. For both drugs, there was no significant correlation between aPTT and aPTT ratios and plasma concentrations. INTEM CT, INTEM CT ratios, EXTEM CT, EXTEM CT ratios, TT and TT ratios correlated significantly with plasma concentrations of both drugs. Additionally, agreement between argatroban plasma levels and EXTEM CT and EXTEM CT ratios were superior to agreement between argatroban plasma levels and aPTT in the Bland Altman analysis. MCF remained unchanged during therapy with both drugs. In critically ill patients, TT and ROTEM parameters

  6. Apathy in first episode psychosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, Julie; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Barder, Helene

    2012-01-01

    Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored.......Apathy is a common symptom in first episode psychosis (FEP), and is associated with poor functioning. Prevalence and correlates of apathy 10 years after the first psychotic episode remain unexplored....

  7. Visual associations cued recall A Paradigm for Measuring Episodic Memory Decline in Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, S.R.A.; Spaan, P.E.J.; Boelaarts, L.; Ponds, R.W.H.M.; Schmand, B.; de Jonghe, J.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Repeated measurements of episodic memory are needed for monitoring amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most episodic memory tests may pose a challenge to patients, even when they are in the milder stages of the disease. This cross-sectional study compared

  8. Clinical Validation of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Imipenem in Spent Effluent in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Aiping; Li, Zhe; Yu, Junxian; Li, Ren; Cheng, Sheng; Duan, Meili; Bai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether the therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem could be performed with spent effluent instead of blood sampling collected from critically ill patients under continuous renal replacement therapy. A prospective open-label study was conducted in a real clinical setting. Both blood and effluent samples were collected pairwise before imipenem administration and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h after imipenem administration. Plasma and effluent imipenem concentrations were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of blood and effluent samples were calculated. Eighty-three paired plasma and effluent samples were obtained from 10 patients. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the imipenem concentrations in plasma and effluent was 0.950 (Pimipenem concentration ratio was 1.044 (95% confidence interval, 0.975 to 1.114) with Bland-Altman analysis. No statistically significant difference was found in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters tested in paired plasma and effluent samples with Wilcoxon test. Spent effluent of continuous renal replacement therapy could be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem instead of blood sampling in critically ill patients.

  9. Episodic Autobiographical Memories over the Course of Time: Cognitive, Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Beatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The critical attributes of episodic memory are self, autonoetic consciousness and subjectively sensed time. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical overview of our already published researches into the nature of episodic memory over the course of time. We have developed a new method of assessing "autobiographical" memory (TEMPau task),…

  10. Neuroanatomical correlates of episodic encoding and retrieval in young and elderly subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daselaar, S.M.; Veltman, D.J.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Jonker, C.

    2003-01-01

    Lesion studies have shown convincingly that the medial temporal lobes (MTL) and frontal lobes are critical to episodic memory. Ageing generally has been found to have a generally negative effect on episodic memory performance, which might relate to neurofunctional changes in the frontal and medial

  11. Self-organised critical features in soil radon and MHz electromagnetic disturbances: Results from environmental monitoring in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petraki, Ermioni; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Anaxagoras; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Koulouras, Grigorios; Zisos, Athanasios; Nomicos, Constantinos; Louizi, Anna; Stonham, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issues of self-organised critical behaviour of soil-radon and MHz-electromagnetic disorders during intense seismic activity in SW Greece. A significant radon signal is re-analysed for environmental influences with Fast Fourier Transform and multivariate statistics. Self-organisation of signals is investigated via fractal evolving techniques and detrended fluctuation analysis. New lengthy radon data are presented and analysed accordingly. The data did not show self-similarities. Similar analysis applied to new important concurrent MHz-electromagnetic signals revealed analogous behaviour to radon. The signals precursory value is discussed. - Highlights: ► New radon–MHz signals for an area with peculiar radon disorders on 2008. ► Use of spectrograms-multivariate statistics in analysing environmental parameters. ► Spectral fractal techniques and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis in all signals. ► Pre-earthquake signals followed fractional Brownian motion model. ► Hurst analysis showed persistent–antipersistent self-organised critical patterns.

  12. Duration of wheezy episodes in early childhood is independent of the microbial trigger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Christian J; Vissing, Nadja H; Sevelsted, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    of wheezy episodes in young children depends on the microbial trigger. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-three children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 at-risk birth cohort were prospectively examined for common airway pathogenic bacteria and viruses during acute wheezy episodes...... in the first 3 years of life. Findings were related to symptomatic duration of episodes, as monitored in daily diary cards from birth. RESULTS: Eight hundred thirty-seven samples were investigated for viruses, bacteria, or both. Both viruses and bacteria were identified in 55% of episodes, bacteria were...

  13. Four hour creatinine clearance is better than plasma creatinine for monitoring renal function in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is based on an increase in plasma creatinine, which is a slowly changing surrogate of decreased glomerular filtration rate. We investigated whether serial creatinine clearance, a direct measure of the glomerular filtration rate, provided more timely and accurate information on renal function than serial plasma creatinine in critically ill patients. Methods Serial plasma creatinine and 4-hour creatinine clearance were measured 12-hourly for 24 hours and then daily in 484 patients. AKI was defined either as > 50% increase in plasma creatinine from baseline, or > 33.3% decrease in creatinine clearance. The diagnostic and predictive performance of the two AKI definitions were compared. Results Creatinine clearance decrease diagnosed AKI in 24% of those not diagnosed by plasma creatinine increase on entry. These patients entered the ICU sooner after insult than those diagnosed with AKI by plasma creatinine elevation (P = 0.0041). Mortality and dialysis requirement increased with the change in creatinine clearance-acute kidney injury severity class (P = 0.0021). Amongst patients with plasma creatinine creatinine clearance improved the prediction of AKI considerably (Net Reclassification Improvement 83%, Integrated Discrimination Improvement 0.29). On-entry, creatinine clearance associated with AKI severity and duration (P 33.3% decrease in creatinine clearance over the first 12 hours was associated with a 2.0-fold increased relative risk of dialysis or death. Conclusions Repeated 4-hour creatinine clearance measurements in critically ill patients allow earlier detection of AKI, as well as progression and recovery compared to plasma creatinine. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012606000032550. PMID:22713519

  14. Course of insight in manic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insight is an important factor associated with non compliance and poor outcome. Poor level of insight has been described as a characteristic in patients with acute bipolar disorder with more unawareness in social consequences with increasing severity in manic episode. Aim: Main aim of study was to see the baseline and longitudinal relationship between dimensions of insight with improvement in psychopathology. Setting and Design: Forty four patients diagnosed with mania, were selected from an inpatient setting at Institute of Mental Health and Hospital, Agra with mean age of 31.07(±9.00 years. They were assessed at base line and were followed up weekly or psychopathology and insight. Materials and Methods: The Young′s mania rating scale for psychopathology and insight was assessed on three dimensions of SUMD. Results: Twenty five patients eventually completed the study. There was a positive correlation with global insight and with psychopathology consistent in longitudinal follow-up (P<0.05, but not correlating for awareness for achieved effect of medication and social consequences. Linear regression showed a positive relationship at the first and second week of assessment of SUMD and YMRS scores (P=0.001; 0.019. Conclusion: Improvement in insight is graded in a manic episode as compared to psychopathology. There is slower improvement in awareness of social consequences of mental disorder. It means that improvement in psychopathology may not necessarily indicate remission and need further supervision to improve insight and hence monitoring.

  15. Relations between episodic memory, suggestibility, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition in the preschool child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Endestad, Tor; Magnussen, Svein

    2006-12-01

    The development of episodic memory, its relation to theory of mind (ToM), executive functions (e.g., cognitive inhibition), and to suggestibility was studied. Children (n= 115) between 3 and 6 years of age saw two versions of a video film and were tested for their memory of critical elements of the videos. Results indicated similar developmental trends for all memory measures, ToM, and inhibition, but ToM and inhibition were not associated with any memory measures. Correlations involving source memory was found in relation to specific questions, whereas inhibition and ToM were significantly correlated to resistance to suggestions. A regression analysis showed that age was the main contributor to resistance to suggestions, to correct source monitoring, and to correct responses to specific questions. Inhibition was also a significant main predictor of resistance to suggestive questions, whereas the relative contribution of ToM was wiped out when an extended model was tested.

  16. Modelación de episodios críticos de contaminación por material particulado (PM10 en Santiago de Chile: Comparación de la eficiencia predictiva de los modelos paramétricos y no paramétricos Modeling critical episodes of air pollution by PM10 in Santiago, Chile: Comparison of the predictive efficiency of parametric and non-parametric statistical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Alvarado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficiencia predictiva de modelos estadísticos paramétricos y no paramétricos para predecir episodios críticos de contaminación por material particulado PM10 del día siguiente, que superen en Santiago de Chile la norma de calidad diaria. Una predicción adecuada de tales episodios permite a la autoridad decretar medidas restrictivas que aminoren la gravedad del episodio, y consecuentemente proteger la salud de la comunidad. Método: Se trabajó con las concentraciones de material particulado PM10 registradas en una estación asociada a la red de monitorización de la calidad del aire MACAM-2, considerando 152 observaciones diarias de 14 variables, y con información meteorológica registrada durante los años 2001 a 2004. Se ajustaron modelos estadísticos paramétricos Gamma usando el paquete estadístico STATA v11, y no paramétricos usando una demo del software estadístico MARS v 2.0 distribuida por Salford-Systems. Resultados: Ambos métodos de modelación presentan una alta correlación entre los valores observados y los predichos. Los modelos Gamma presentan mejores aciertos que MARS para las concentraciones de PM10 con valores Objective: To evaluate the predictive efficiency of two statistical models (one parametric and the other non-parametric to predict critical episodes of air pollution exceeding daily air quality standards in Santiago, Chile by using the next day PM10 maximum 24h value. Accurate prediction of such episodes would allow restrictive measures to be applied by health authorities to reduce their seriousness and protect the community´s health. Methods: We used the PM10 concentrations registered by a station of the Air Quality Monitoring Network (152 daily observations of 14 variables and meteorological information gathered from 2001 to 2004. To construct predictive models, we fitted a parametric Gamma model using STATA v11 software and a non-parametric MARS model by using a demo version of Salford

  17. The impact of episodic coal mine drainage pollution on benthic macroinvertebrates in streams in the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCausland, A.; McTammany, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic coal mine drainage, caused by fluctuations in mine discharges relative to stream flow, has devastating effects on aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. Seven stream reaches in the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania were identified as chronically, episodically or not impaired by mine drainage, and sampled seasonally for 1 year to determine the effect of episodic mine drainage on macroinvertebrates. Specific conductance fluctuated seasonally in episodic sites; it was lower in winter when discharge increased and higher in summer when discharges decreased and mine drainage made up a larger proportion of stream flow. Although we hypothesized that episodic streams would have higher macroinvertebrate richness than chronic streams, comparisons showed no differences in richness between treatments. Episodic pollution may result from undersized or poorly maintained passive treatment systems; therefore, intensive macroinvertebrate monitoring may be needed to identify streams being affected by episodic mine drainage because macroinvertebrate richness may be sensitive to water quality fluctuations. - Episodic coal mine pollution decreases benthic macroinvertebrate richness and density

  18. Automatic cough episode detection using a vibroacoustic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Marcel; Pariaszewska, Katarzyna; Cybulski, Gerard

    2015-08-01

    Cough monitoring is an important element of the diagnostics of respiratory diseases. The European Respiratory Society recommends objective assessment of cough episodes and the search for methods of automatic analysis to make obtaining the quantitative parameters possible. The cough "events" could be classified by a microphone and a sensor that measures the vibrations of the chest. Analysis of the recorded signals consists of calculating the features vectors for selected episodes and of performing automatic classification using them. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of classification based on an artificial neural networks using vibroacoustic signals collected from chest. Six healthy, young men and eight healthy, young women carried out an imitated cough, hand clapping, speech and shouting. Three methods of parametrization were used to prepare the vectors of episode features - time domain, time-frequency domain and spectral modeling. We obtained the accuracy of 95% using artificial neural networks.

  19. Significance of autobiographical episodes and spacing effects in incidental memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Participants were presented with target words on two occasions, and were asked each time to generate a memory of a past episode associated with the targets. Participants were also instructed to rate the importance (significance elaboration) or pleasantness of the pisode (pleasantness elaboration) in an orienting task, followed by an unexpect d recall test. Significance elaboration led to better recall than pleasantness elaboration, but only in the spaced presentation. The spaced presentation led to better tree recall than massed presentation with significance elaboration, but the difference between the two types of presentation was not observed with pleasantness elaboration. These results suggest that the significance of an episode is more critical than the pleasantness of an episode in determining the effectiveness of autobiographical elaboration in facilitating recall.

  20. Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory. Functional dissociation in the medial temporal lobe structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukiura, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the critical role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions in the encoding and retrieval of episodic memory. It has also been shown that an emotional factor in human memory enhances episodic encoding and retrieval. However, there is little evidence regarding the specific contribution of each MTL region to the relational, contextual, and emotional processes of episodic memory. The goal of this review article is to identify differential activation patterns of the processes between MTL regions. Results from functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory show that the hippocampus is involved in encoding the relation between memory items, whereas the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices (anterior parahippocampal gyrus) contribute to the encoding of a single item. Additionally, the parahippocampal cortex (posterior parahippocampal gyrus) is selectively activated during the processing of contextual information of episodic memory. A similar pattern of functional dissociation is found in episodic memory retrieval. Functional neuroimaging has also shown that emotional information of episodic memory enhances amygdala-MTL correlations and that this enhancement is observed during both the encoding and retrieval of emotional memories. These findings from pervious neuroimaging studies suggest that different MTL regions could organize memory for personally experienced episodes via the 'relation' and 'context' factors of episodic memory, and that the emotional factor of episodes could modulate the functional organization in the MTL regions. (author)

  1. Criticality Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, A.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  2. Linking carbon and hydrologic fluxes in the critical zone: Observations from high-frequency monitoring of a weathered bedrock vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tune, A. K.; Druhan, J. L.; Wang, J.; Cargill, S.; Murphy, C.; Rempe, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    A principle challenge in quantifying feedbacks between continental weathering and atmospheric CO2 is to improve understanding of how biogeochemical processes in the critical zone influence the distribution and mobility of organic and inorganic carbon. In particular, in landscapes characterized by thin soils and heterogeneous weathered and fractured bedrock, little data exist to inform and constrain predictive models for carbon dynamics. Here, we present the results of an intensive water and gas sampling campaign across an 18 m thick, variably saturated argillite weathering profile in the Eel River CZO. We monitor water content in situ and regularly collect samples of freely-draining water, tightly-held water, and gas through wet and dry seasons using a novel Vadose-zone Monitoring System (VMS) consisting of sensors and samplers distributed across a 20 m long inclined borehole. This novel approach facilitates the interception of gas and water during transport across the entire variably saturated weathering profile. The data demonstrate that seasonal changes in saturation control the vertical distribution and mobility of carbon in the fractured critical zone. Concentrations of gaseous CO2, O2, and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon fluctuate significantly and repeatably with seasonal additions of water infiltrating the weathered bedrock. A persistent vertical structure in the concentrations of dissolved phases and gas concentrations broadly corresponds to depths associated with unsaturated, seasonally saturated, and chronically saturated zones. Associated variations in the vertical structure of mineralogy and elemental composition, including solid phase organic carbon content, are observed in core obtained during drilling. Together, our observations indicate significant respiration of organic carbon at depths greater than the base of the soil, and thus motivate further investigation of the role of heterogeneous weathered, bedrock environments, which are needed to

  3. Obesity and episodic memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2018-04-17

    Obesity-related lifestyle factors, such as physical activity behavior and dietary intake, have been shown to be associated with episodic memory function. From animal work, there is considerable biological plausibility linking obesity with worse memory function. There are no published systematic reviews evaluating the effects of obesity on episodic memory function among humans, and examining whether physical activity and diet influences this obesity-memory link. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the totality of research examining whether obesity is associated with episodic memory function, and whether physical activity and dietary behavior confounds this relationship. A review approach was employed, using PubMed, PsychInfo, and Sports Discus databases. Fourteen studies met our criteria. Among these 14 reviewed studies, eight were cross-sectional, four were prospective, and two employed a randomized controlled experimental design. Twelve of the 14 studies did not take into consideration dietary behavior in their analysis, and similarly, nine of the 14 studies did not take into consideration participant physical activity behavior. Among the 14 studies, ten found an inverse association of weight status on memory function, but for one of these studies, this association was attenuated after controlling for physical activity. Among the 14 evaluated studies, four did not find a direct effect of weight status on memory. Among the four null studies, one, however, found an indirect effect of BMI on episodic memory and another found a moderation effect of BMI and age on memory function. It appears that obesity may be associated with worse memory function, with the underlying mechanisms discussed herein. At this point, it is uncertain whether adiposity, itself, is influencing memory changes, or rather, whether adiposity-related lifestyle behaviors (e.g., physical inactivity and diet) are driving the obesity-memory relationship.

  4. The Risk of Tuberculosis Reinfection Soon after Cure of a First Disease Episode Is Extremely High in a Hyperendemic Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Uys

    Full Text Available Elevated rates of reinfection tuberculosis in various hyperendemic regions have been reported and, in particular, it has been shown that in a high-incidence setting near Cape Town, South Africa, the rate of reinfection tuberculosis (TB disease after cure of a previous TB disease episode is about four times greater than the rate of first-time TB disease. It is not known whether this elevated rate is caused by a high reinfection rate due, for instance, to living circumstances, or a high rate of progress to disease specific to the patients, or both. In order to address that question we analysed an extensive data set from clinics attended by TB patients in the high-incidence setting near Cape Town, South Africa and found that, in fact, the (average rate of reinfection (as opposed to the rate of reinfection disease after cure of a previous TB disease episode is initially about 0.85 per annum. This rate diminishes rapidly over time and after about ten years this rate is similar to the rate of infection in the general population. Also, the rate of progress to disease after reinfection is initially high but declines in subsequent years down to the figure typical for the general population. These findings suggest that the first few months after cure of a TB disease episode form a critical period for controlling reinfection disease in a hyperendemic setting and that monitoring such cured patients could pre-empt a reinfection progressing to active disease.

  5. Enhanced change detection index for disaster response, recovery assessment and monitoring of buildings and critical facilities-A case study for Muzzaffarabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis Pitts, Dilkushi A.; So, Emily

    2017-12-01

    The availability of Very High Resolution (VHR) optical sensors and a growing image archive that is frequently updated, allows the use of change detection in post-disaster recovery and monitoring for robust and rapid results. The proposed semi-automated GIS object-based method uses readily available pre-disaster GIS data and adds existing knowledge into the processing to enhance change detection. It also allows targeting specific types of changes pertaining to similar man-made objects such as buildings and critical facilities. The change detection method is based on pre/post normalized index, gradient of intensity, texture and edge similarity filters within the object and a set of training data. More emphasis is put on the building edges to capture the structural damage in quantifying change after disaster. Once the change is quantified, based on training data, the method can be used automatically to detect change in order to observe recovery over time in potentially large areas. Analysis over time can also contribute to obtaining a full picture of the recovery and development after disaster, thereby giving managers a better understanding of productive management and recovery practices. The recovery and monitoring can be analyzed using the index in zones extending from to epicentre of disaster or administrative boundaries over time.

  6. Early detection of first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven.......Early intervention is assumed to improve outcome in first-episode psychosis, but this has not been proven....

  7. Medial temporal lobe damage causes deficits in episodic memory and episodic future thinking not attributable to deficits in narrative construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Elizabeth; Keane, Margaret M; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2011-07-13

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) makes critical contributions to episodic memory, but its contributions to episodic future thinking remain a matter of debate. By one view, imagining future events relies on MTL mechanisms that also support memory for past events. Alternatively, it has recently been suggested that future thinking is independent of MTL-mediated processes and can be supported by regions outside the MTL. The current study investigated the nature and necessity of MTL involvement in imagining the future and tested the novel hypothesis that the MTL contributes to future thinking by supporting online binding processes related to narrative construction. Human amnesic patients with well characterized MTL damage and healthy controls constructed narratives about (1) future events, (2) past events, and (3) visually presented pictures. While all three tasks place similar demands on narrative construction, only the past and future conditions require memory/future thinking to mentally generate relevant narrative information. Patients produced impoverished descriptions of both past and future events but were unimpaired at producing detailed picture narratives. In addition, future-thinking performance positively correlated with episodic memory performance but did not correlate with picture narrative performance. Finally, future-thinking impairments were present when MTL lesions were restricted to the hippocampus and did not depend on the presence of neural damage outside the MTL. These results indicate that the ability to generate and maintain a detailed narrative is preserved in amnesia and suggest that a common MTL mechanism supports both episodic memory and episodic future thinking.

  8. Medial Temporal Lobe Damage Causes Deficits in Episodic Memory and Episodic Future Thinking Not Attributable to Deficits in Narrative Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Elizabeth; Keane, Margaret M.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) makes critical contributions to episodic memory, but its contributions to episodic future thinking remain a matter of debate. By one view, imagining future events relies on MTL mechanisms that also support memory for past events. Alternatively, it has recently been suggested that future thinking is independent of MTL-mediated processes and can be supported by regions outside the MTL. The current study investigated the nature and necessity of MTL involvement in imagining the future and tested the novel hypothesis that the MTL contributes to future thinking by supporting online binding processes related to narrative construction. Human amnesic patients with well-characterized MTL damage and healthy controls constructed narratives about (a) future events, (b) past events, and (c) visually-presented pictures. While all three tasks place similar demands on narrative construction, only the past and future conditions require memory/future thinking to mentally generate relevant narrative information. Patients produced impoverished descriptions of both past and future events but were unimpaired at producing detailed picture narratives. In addition, future-thinking performance positively correlated with episodic memory performance but did not correlate with picture narrative performance. Finally, future-thinking impairments were present when MTL lesions were restricted to the hippocampus and did not depend on the presence of neural damage outside the MTL. These results indicate that the ability to generate and maintain a detailed narrative is preserved in amnesia and suggest that a common MTL mechanism supports both episodic memory and episodic future thinking. PMID:21753003

  9. Diagnosis of Epilepsy and Related Episodic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Erik K; Cascino, Gregory D

    2016-02-01

    This review identifies the diverse and variable clinical presentations associated with epilepsy that may create challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Epilepsy has recently been redefined as a disease characterized by one or more seizures with a relatively high recurrence risk (ie, 60% or greater likelihood). The implication of this definition for therapy is that antiepileptic drug therapy may be initiated following a first seizure in certain situations.EEG remains the most commonly used study in the evaluation of people with epilepsy. Routine EEG may assist in diagnosis, classification of seizure type(s), identification of treatment, and monitoring the efficacy of therapy. Video-EEG monitoring permits seizure classification, assessment of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, and evaluation of candidacy for epilepsy surgery. MRI is pivotal in elucidating the etiology of the seizure disorder and in suggesting the localization of seizure onset. This article reviews the new International League Against Epilepsy practical clinical definition for epilepsy and the differential diagnosis of other physiologic paroxysmal spells, including syncope, parasomnias, transient ischemic attacks, and migraine, as well as psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. The initial investigational approaches to new-onset epilepsy are considered, including neuroimaging and neurophysiologic investigations with interictal and ictal video-EEG. Neurologists should maintain a high index of suspicion for epilepsy when children or adults present with a single paroxysmal spell or recurrent episodic events.

  10. Hypoxic Episodes in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard J; Di Fiore, Juliann M; Walsh, Michele C

    2015-12-01

    Hypoxic episodes are troublesome components of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Immature respiratory control seems to be the major contributor, superimposed on abnormal respiratory function. Relatively short respiratory pauses may precipitate desaturation and bradycardia. This population is predisposed to pulmonary hypertension; it is likely that pulmonary vasoconstriction also plays a role. The natural history has been well-characterized in the preterm population at risk for BPD; however, the consequences are less clear. Proposed associations of intermittent hypoxia include retinopathy of prematurity, sleep disordered breathing, and neurodevelopmental delay. Future study should address whether these associations are causal relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plastic modulation of episodic memory networks in the aging brain with cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feng; Yuan, Yonggui; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-07-15

    Social-cognitive processing has been posited to underlie general functions such as episodic memory. Episodic memory impairment is a recognized hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) who is at a high risk for dementia. Three canonical networks, self-referential processing, executive control processing and salience processing, have distinct roles in episodic memory retrieval processing. It remains unclear whether and how these sub-networks of the episodic memory retrieval system would be affected in aMCI. This task-state fMRI study constructed systems-level episodic memory retrieval sub-networks in 28 aMCI and 23 controls using two computational approaches: a multiple region-of-interest based approach and a voxel-level functional connectivity-based approach, respectively. These approaches produced the remarkably similar findings that the self-referential processing network made critical contributions to episodic memory retrieval in aMCI. More conspicuous alterations in self-referential processing of the episodic memory retrieval network were identified in aMCI. In order to complete a given episodic memory retrieval task, increases in cooperation between the self-referential processing network and other sub-networks were mobilized in aMCI. Self-referential processing mediate the cooperation of the episodic memory retrieval sub-networks as it may help to achieve neural plasticity and may contribute to the prevention and treatment of dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Episodic and Semantic Memory Contribute to Familiar and Novel Episodic Future Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Tong Wang; Tong Yue; Xi ting Huang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence indicates that episodic future thinking (EFT) relies on both episodic and semantic memory; however, event familiarity may importantly affect the extent to which episodic and semantic memory contribute to EFT. To test this possibility, two behavioral experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the proportion of episodic and semantic memory used in an EFT task. The results indicated that more episodic memory was used when imagining familiar fut...

  13. Considering the role of semantic memory in episodic future thinking: evidence from semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Muireann; Addis, Donna Rose; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    analyses that confirmed the relation between semantic memory deficits and episodic future thinking in semantic dementia, in contrast with the role of episodic memory deficits and episodic future thinking in Alzheimer's disease. Our findings demonstrate that semantic knowledge is critical for the construction of novel future events, providing the necessary scaffolding into which episodic details can be integrated. Further research is necessary to elucidate the precise contribution of semantic memory to future thinking, and to explore how deficits in self-projection manifest on behavioural and social levels in different dementia subtypes.

  14. Evaluation and benchmarking of an EC-QCL-based mid-infrared spectrometer for monitoring metabolic blood parameters in critical care units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, M.; Delbeck, S.; Busch, H.; Heise, H. M.; Ostendorf, A.

    2018-02-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy hyphenated with micro-dialysis is an excellent method for monitoring metabolic blood parameters as it enables the concurrent, reagent-free and precise measurement of multiple clinically relevant substances such as glucose, lactate and urea in micro-dialysates of blood or interstitial fluid. For a marketable implementation, quantum cascade lasers (QCL) seem to represent a favourable technology due to their high degree of miniaturization and potentially low production costs. In this work, an external cavity (EC) - QCL-based spectrometer and two Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers were benchmarked with regard to the precision, accuracy and long-term stability needed for the monitoring of critically ill patients. For the tests, ternary aqueous solutions of glucose, lactate and mannitol (the latter for dialysis recovery determination) were measured in custom-made flow-through transmission cells of different pathlengths and analyzed by Partial Least Squares calibration models. It was revealed, that the wavenumber tuning speed of the QCL had a severe impact on the EC-mirror trajectory due to matching the digital-analog-converter step frequency with the mechanical resonance frequency of the mirror actuation. By selecting an appropriate tuning speed, the mirror oscillations acted as a hardware smoothing filter for the significant intensity variations caused by mode hopping. Besides the tuning speed, the effects of averaging over multiple spectra and software smoothing parameters (Savitzky-Golay-filters and FT-smoothing) were investigated. The final settings led to a performance of the QCL-system, which was comparable with a research FTIR-spectrometer and even surpassed the performance of a small FTIR-mini-spectrometer.

  15. Episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking: intersections between memory and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L; Benoit, Roland G; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K

    2015-01-01

    This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one's personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one's personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Major events and minor episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.

    2014-01-01

    Bruno Pontecorvo was a freshly graduated twenty one years old physicist when he joined, in the summer of 1934, the research group led by Enrico Fermi. In October the Panisperna boys would make their most important discovery – radioactivity induced by slow neutrons – and shortly thereafter would be parted by personal and historical events. This paper describes some episodes of those early years and of later periods, sketching a portrait of the team: starting from the extraordinary human and scientific experience of via Panisperna, up to the patent negotiations in USA, to which Pontecorvo’s flight to URSS put an end with unexpected consequences; getting to his first return in Italy, allowed by the sovietic government in 1978, on the occasion of the conference celebrating Edoardo Amaldi’s 70. anniversary. That was the first of several encounters of the author of this paper with Bruno Pontecorvo, which are here briefly recounted, as minor episodes giving a personal perspective on the man.

  17. The value of episodic, intensive blood glucose monitoring in non-insulin treated persons with Type 2 Diabetes: design of the Structured Testing Program (STeP) study, a cluster-randomised, clinical trial [NCT00674986].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, William; Fisher, Lawrence; Schikman, Charles; Hinnen, Deborah; Parkin, Christopher; Jelsovsky, Zhihong; Amstutz, Linda; Schweitzer, Matthias; Wagner, Robin

    2010-05-18

    The value and utility of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin treated T2DM has yet to be clearly determined. Findings from studies in this population have been inconsistent, due mainly to design differences and limitations, including the prescribed frequency and timing of SMBG, role of the patient and physician in responding to SMBG results, inclusion criteria that may contribute to untoward floor effects, subject compliance, and cross-arm contamination. We have designed an SMBG intervention study that attempts to address these issues. The Structured Testing Program (STeP) study is a 12-month, cluster-randomised, multi-centre clinical trial to evaluate whether poorly controlled (HbA1c >or= 7.5%), non-insulin treated T2DM patients will benefit from a comprehensive, integrated physician/patient intervention using structured SMBG in US primary care practices. Thirty-four practices will be recruited and randomly assigned to an active control group (ACG) that receives enhanced usual care or to an enhanced usual care group plus structured SMBG (STG). A total of 504 patients will be enrolled; eligible patients at each site will be randomly selected using a defined protocol. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of at least 204 per arm, which will provide a 90% power to detect a difference of at least 0.5% in change from baseline in HbA1c values, assuming a common standard deviation of 1.5%. Differences in timing and degree of treatment intensification, cost effectiveness, and changes in patient self-management behaviours, mood, and quality of life (QOL) over time will also be assessed. Analysis of change in HbA1c and other dependent variables over time will be performed using both intent-to-treat and per protocol analyses. Trial results will be available in 2010. The intervention and trial design builds upon previous research by emphasizing appropriate and collaborative use of SMBG by both patients and physicians. Utilization of per

  18. The value of episodic, intensive blood glucose monitoring in non-insulin treated persons with type 2 diabetes: Design of the Structured Testing Program (STeP Study, a cluster-randomised, clinical trial [NCT00674986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelsovsky Zhihong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The value and utility of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG in non-insulin treated T2DM has yet to be clearly determined. Findings from studies in this population have been inconsistent, due mainly to design differences and limitations, including the prescribed frequency and timing of SMBG, role of the patient and physician in responding to SMBG results, inclusion criteria that may contribute to untoward floor effects, subject compliance, and cross-arm contamination. We have designed an SMBG intervention study that attempts to address these issues. Methods/design The Structured Testing Program (STeP study is a 12-month, cluster-randomised, multi-centre clinical trial to evaluate whether poorly controlled (HbA1c ≥ 7.5%, non-insulin treated T2DM patients will benefit from a comprehensive, integrated physician/patient intervention using structured SMBG in US primary care practices. Thirty-four practices will be recruited and randomly assigned to an active control group (ACG that receives enhanced usual care or to an enhanced usual care group plus structured SMBG (STG. A total of 504 patients will be enrolled; eligible patients at each site will be randomly selected using a defined protocol. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of at least 204 per arm, which will provide a 90% power to detect a difference of at least 0.5% in change from baseline in HbA1c values, assuming a common standard deviation of 1.5%. Differences in timing and degree of treatment intensification, cost effectiveness, and changes in patient self-management behaviours, mood, and quality of life (QOL over time will also be assessed. Analysis of change in HbA1c and other dependent variables over time will be performed using both intent-to-treat and per protocol analyses. Trial results will be available in 2010. Discussion The intervention and trial design builds upon previous research by emphasizing appropriate and collaborative use of

  19. Radiation monitoring using imaging plate technology: A case study of leaves affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and JCO criticality accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Shinzo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of a photostimulable phosphor screen imaging technique to detect radioactive contamination in the leaves of wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris L and fern (Dryopteris filix-max CL. Schoff plants affected by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The imaging plate technology is well known for many striking performances in two-dimensional radiation detection. Since imaging plate comprises an integrated detection system, it has been extensively applied to surface contamination distribution studies. In this study, plant samples were collected from high- and low-contaminated areas of Ukraine and Belarus, which were affected due to the Chernobyl accident and exposed to imaging technique. Samples from the highly contaminated areas revealed the highest photo-stimulated luminescence on the imaging plate. Moreover, the radio nuclides detected in the leaves by gamma and beta ray spectroscopy were 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. Additionally, in order to assess contamination, a comparison was also made with leaves of plants affected during the JCO criticality accident in Japan. Based on the results obtained, the importance of imaging plate technology in environmental radiation monitoring has been suggested.

  20. Are All Judgments Created Equal? An fMRI Study of Semantic and Episodic Metamemory Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggev, Niv; Zuckerman, Maya; Maril, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Metamemory refers to the ability of individuals to monitor and control their own memory performance. Although little theoretical consideration of the possible differences between the monitoring of episodic and of semantic knowledge has been published, results from patient and drug studies that used the "feeling of knowing" (FOK) paradigm show a…

  1. Episodic and Semantic Memory Contribute to Familiar and Novel Episodic Future Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Yue, Tong; Huang, Xi Ting

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that episodic future thinking (EFT) relies on both episodic and semantic memory; however, event familiarity may importantly affect the extent to which episodic and semantic memory contribute to EFT. To test this possibility, two behavioral experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the proportion of episodic and semantic memory used in an EFT task. The results indicated that more episodic memory was used when imagining familiar future events compared with novel future events. Conversely, significantly more semantic memory was used when imagining novel events compared with familiar events. Experiment 2 aimed to verify the results of Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, we found that familiarity moderated the effect of priming the episodic memory system on EFT; particularly, it increased the time required to construct a standard familiar episodic future event, but did not significantly affect novel episodic event reaction time. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that event familiarity importantly moderates episodic and semantic memory's contribution to EFT.

  2. Caregiver psychoeducation for first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McWilliams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.

  3. Cognitive Processes Supporting Episodic Memory Formation in Childhood: The Role of Source Memory, Binding, and Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Vinaya; Bell, Martha Ann

    2010-01-01

    Episodic memories contain various forms of contextual detail (e.g., perceptual, emotional, cognitive details) that need to become integrated. Each of these contextual features can be used to attribute a memory episode to its source, or origin of information. Memory for source information is one critical component in the formation of episodic…

  4. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are

  5. A Role for the Left Angular Gyrus in Episodic Simulation and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Preston P; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-08-23

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in core network regions are critical for episodic simulation and episodic memory. In the current study, we used MRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess whether temporary disruption of the left angular gyrus would impair both episodic simulation and memory (16 participants, 10 females). Relative to TMS to a control site (vertex), disruption of the left angular gyrus significantly reduced the number of internal (i.e., episodic) details produced during the simulation and memory tasks, with a concomitant increase in external detail production (i.e., semantic, repetitive, or off-topic information), reflected by a significant detail by TMS site interaction. Difficulty in the simulation and memory tasks also increased after TMS to the left angular gyrus relative to the vertex. In contrast, performance in a nonepisodic control task did not differ statistically as a function of TMS site (i.e., number of free associates produced or difficulty in performing the free associate task). Together, these results are the first to demonstrate that the left angular gyrus is critical for both episodic simulation and episodic memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans have the ability to imagine future episodes (i.e., episodic simulation) and remember episodes from the past (i.e., episodic memory). A wealth of neuroimaging studies have revealed that these abilities are associated with enhanced activity in a core network of neural regions, including the hippocampus, medial prefrontal

  6. Hippocampal activation during retrieval of spatial context from episodic and semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; Nadel, Lynn; Payne, Jessica; Ryan, Lee

    2010-10-15

    The hippocampus, a region implicated in the processing of spatial information and episodic memory, is central to the debate concerning the relationship between episodic and semantic memory. Studies of medial temporal lobe amnesic patients provide evidence that the hippocampus is critical for the retrieval of episodic but not semantic memory. On the other hand, recent neuroimaging studies of intact individuals report hippocampal activation during retrieval of both autobiographical memories and semantic information that includes historical facts, famous faces, and categorical information, suggesting that episodic and semantic memory may engage the hippocampus during memory retrieval in similar ways. Few studies have matched episodic and semantic tasks for the degree to which they include spatial content, even though spatial content may be what drives hippocampal activation during semantic retrieval. To examine this issue, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which retrieval of spatial and nonspatial information was compared during an episodic and semantic recognition task. Results show that the hippocampus (1) participates preferentially in the retrieval of episodic memories; (2) is also engaged by retrieval of semantic memories, particularly those that include spatial information. These data suggest that sharp dissociations between episodic and semantic memory may be overly simplistic and that the hippocampus plays a role in the retrieval of spatial content whether drawn from a memory of one's own life experiences or real-world semantic knowledge. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Episodic autobiographical memory is associated with variation in the size of hippocampal subregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Daniela J; Bacopulos, Agnes; Amaral, Robert S C; Olsen, Rosanna K; Todd, Rebecca M; Anderson, Adam K; Levine, Brian

    2018-02-01

    Striking individual differences exist in the human capacity to recollect past events, yet, little is known about the neural correlates of such individual differences. Studies investigating hippocampal volume in relation to individual differences in laboratory measures of episodic memory in young adults suggest that whole hippocampal volume is unrelated (or even negatively associated) with episodic memory. However, anatomical and functional specialization across hippocampal subregions suggests that individual differences in episodic memory may be linked to particular hippocampal subregions, as opposed to whole hippocampal volume. Given that the DG/CA 2/3 circuitry is thought to be especially critical for supporting episodic memory in humans, we predicted that the volume of this region would be associated with individual variability in episodic memory. This prediction was supported using high-resolution MRI of the hippocampal subfields and measures of real-world (autobiographical) episodic memory. In addition to the association with DG/CA 2/3 , we further observed a relationship between episodic autobiographical memory and subiculum volume, whereas no association was observed with CA 1 or with whole hippocampal volume. These findings provide insight into the possible neural substrates that mediate individual differences in real-world episodic remembering in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Volume of hippocampal subfields and episodic memory in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joshua K; Ekstrom, Arne D; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-07-01

    Episodic memory critically depends on the hippocampus to bind the features of an experience into memory. Episodic memory develops in childhood and adolescence, and hippocampal changes during this period may contribute to this development. Little is known, however, about how the hippocampus contributes to episodic memory development. The hippocampus is comprised of several cytoarchitectural subfields with functional significance for episodic memory. However, hippocampal subfields have not been assessed in vivo during child development, nor has their relation with episodic memory been assessed during this period. In the present study, high-resolution T2-weighted images of the hippocampus were acquired in 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 14 years (M=11.30, SD=2.38), and hippocampal subfields were segmented using a protocol previously validated in adult populations. We first validated the method in children and adolescents and examined age-related differences in hippocampal subfields and correlations between subfield volumes and episodic memory. Significant age-related increases in the subfield volume were observed into early adolescence in the right CA3/DG and CA1. The right CA3/DG subfield volumes were positively correlated with accurate episodic memory for item-color relations, and the right CA3/DG and subiculum were negatively correlated with item false alarm rates. Subfield development appears to follow a protracted developmental trajectory, and likely plays a pivotal role in episodic memory development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Does reactivation trigger episodic memory change? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Iiona D; Napper, Lucy E; Hupbach, Almut

    2017-07-01

    According to the reconsolidation hypothesis, long-term memories return to a plastic state upon their reactivation, leaving them vulnerable to interference effects and requiring re-storage processes or else these memories might be permanently lost. The present study used a meta-analytic approach to critically evaluate the evidence for reactivation-induced changes in human episodic memory. Results indicated that reactivation makes episodic memories susceptible to physiological and behavioral interference. When applied shortly after reactivation, interference manipulations altered the amount of information that could be retrieved from the original learning event. This effect was more pronounced for remote memories and memories of narrative structure. Additionally, new learning following reactivation reliably increased the number of intrusions from new information into the original memory. These findings support a dynamic view of long-term memory by showing that memories can be changed long after they were acquired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrusions in Episodic Memory: Reconsolidation or Interference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingmüller, Angela; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Sommer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    It would be profoundly important if reconsolidation research in animals and other memory domains generalized to human episodic memory. A 3-d-list-discrimination procedure, based on free recall of objects, with a contextual reminder cue (the testing room), has been thought to demonstrate reconsolidation of human episodic memory (as noted in a…

  11. Comparative Cognition: Action Imitation Using Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-12-05

    Humans encounter a myriad of actions or events and later recall some of these events using episodic memory. New research suggests that dogs can imitate recently encountered actions using episodic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  13. Episodic memory and the witness trump card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jeremy; Craver, Carl

    2018-01-01

    We accept Mahr & Csibra's (M&C's) causal claim that episodic memory provides humans with the means for evaluating the veracity of reports about non-occurrent events. We reject their evolutionary argument that this is the proper function of episodic memory. We explore three intriguing implications of the causal claim, for cognitive neuropsychology, comparative psychology, and philosophy.

  14. Divergent thinking and constructing episodic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Donna Rose; Pan, Ling; Musicaro, Regina; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Divergent thinking likely plays an important role in simulating autobiographical events. We investigated whether divergent thinking is differentially associated with the ability to construct detailed imagined future and imagined past events as opposed to recalling past events. We also examined whether age differences in divergent thinking might underlie the reduced episodic detail generated by older adults. The richness of episodic detail comprising autobiographical events in young and older adults was assessed using the Autobiographical Interview. Divergent thinking abilities were measured using the Alternative Uses Task. Divergent thinking was significantly associated with the amount of episodic detail for imagined future events. Moreover, while age was significantly associated with imagined episodic detail, this effect was strongly related to age-related changes in episodic retrieval rather than divergent thinking.

  15. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 and episodic memory decline in Alzheimer's disease: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Amouyel, Philippe; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Pasquier, Florence; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of research has examined the relationship between episodic memory decline, the cognitive hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the presence of Apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) allele, a major genetic risk factor for the disease. Our review attempts to summarize and critically evaluate this literature. We performed a systematic search for studies assessing episodic memory in AD patients who were genotyped for APOE ε4 and identified fourteen papers. Although most of these papers reported significant relationships between APOE ε4 and episodic memory decline in AD, some papers did not confirm this relationship. Our review links this controversy to the conflicting literature about the effects of APOE ε4 on general cognitive functioning in AD. We identify several shortcoming and limitations of the research on the relationship between APOE ε4 and episodic memory in AD, such as small sample sizes, non-representative populations, lack of comparison of early-onset vs. late-onset disease, and lack of comparison among different genotypes that include APOE ε4 (i.e., zero, one, or two ε4 alleles). Another major shortcoming of the reviewed literature was the lack of comprehensive evaluation of episodic memory decline, since episodic memory was solely evaluated with regard to encoding and retrieval, omitting evaluation of core episodic features that decline in AD, such as context recall (e.g., how, where, and when an episodic event has occurred) and subjective experience of remembering (e.g., reliving, emotion and feeling during episodic recollection). Future research taking these limitations into consideration could illuminate the nature of the relationship between APOE ε4 and episodic memory decline in AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Episodic autobiographical memory in depression: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, C; Piolino, P; Jouvent, R; Allilaire, J-F; Fossati, P

    2006-10-01

    Autobiographical memory and personal identity (self) are linked by a reciprocal relationship. Autobiographical memory is critical for both grounding and changing the self. Individuals' current self-views, beliefs, and goals influence their recollections of the past. According to Tulving, episodic memory is characterized by autonoetic consciousness, which is associated with a sense of the self in the past (emotions and goals) and mental reliving of an experience. Its close relationship with self and emotion strongly involves episodic autobiographical memory in the psychopathology of depression. However, due to methodological and conceptual issues, little attention has been paid to episodic autobiographical memory in depression. Since the seminal work of Williams et al. 15 years ago, there is now growing interest around this issue. We reviewed the evidence for three major features of autobiographical memory functioning in depression: an increase in general memory retrieval (overgenerality), a mood-congruent memory effect and the high occurrence of intrusive memories of stressful events. Although it was first observed among suicidal patients, overgenerality is actually associated with both depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Overgenerality is not associated with anxious disorders other than post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or borderline personality disorder. Most of controlled studies carried out on autobiographical memory in depression rely on the Williams' Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). When presented with positive and negative cue words and asked to retrieve specific personal events, depressed patients (unlike matched controls) are less specific in their memories. They tend to recall repeated events (categorical overgeneral memories) rather than single episodes (specific memories). Overgenerality in depression is: 1) more evident with positive than with negative events (mood-congruent memory effect); 2) related to

  17. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    . Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software......The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made......, consisting of a Sibelius plug-in, a cross-platform application, called CriticalEd, and a REST-based solution, which handles data storage/retrieval. A prototype has been tested at the Danish Centre for Music Publication, and the results suggest that the system could greatly improve the efficiency...

  18. Neural changes underlying the development of episodic memory during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Bunge, Silvia A

    2012-10-01

    Episodic memory is central to the human experience. In typically developing children, episodic memory improves rapidly during middle childhood. While the developmental cognitive neuroscience of episodic memory remains largely uncharted, recent research has begun to provide important insights. It has long been assumed that hippocampus-dependent binding mechanisms are in place by early childhood, and that improvements in episodic memory observed during middle childhood result from the protracted development of the prefrontal cortex. We revisit the notion that binding mechanisms are age-invariant, and propose that changes in the hippocampus and its projections to cortical regions also contribute to the development of episodic memory. We further review the role of developmental changes in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices in this development. Finally, we discuss changes in white matter tracts connecting brain regions that are critical for episodic memory. Overall, we argue that changes in episodic memory emerge from the concerted effort of a network of relevant brain structures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural development of the hippocampus and episodic memory: developmental differences along the anterior/posterior axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaster, Dana; Pathman, Thanujeni; Lee, Joshua K; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-11-01

    The hippocampus is critically involved in episodic memory, yet relatively little is known about how the development of this structure contributes to the development of episodic memory during middle to late childhood. Previous research has inconsistently reported associations between hippocampal volume and episodic memory performance during this period. We argue that this inconsistency may be due to assessing the hippocampus as a whole, and propose to examine associations separately for subregions along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. In the present study, we examined age-related differences in volumes of the hippocampal head, body, and tail, and collected episodic memory measures in children ages 8-11 years and young adults (N = 62). We found that adults had a smaller right hippocampal head, larger hippocampal body bilaterally, and smaller right hippocampal tail compared with children. In adults, but not in children, better episodic memory performance was associated with smaller right hippocampal head and larger hippocampal body. In children, but not in adults, better episodic memory was associated with larger left hippocampal tail. Overall, the results suggest that protracted development of hippocampal subregions contribute to age-related differences in episodic memory. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Episodic memories predict adaptive value-based decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu; FeldmanHall, Oriel; Hunter, Lindsay E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Davachi, Lila

    2016-01-01

    Prior research illustrates that memory can guide value-based decision-making. For example, previous work has implicated both working memory and procedural memory (i.e., reinforcement learning) in guiding choice. However, other types of memories, such as episodic memory, may also influence decision-making. Here we test the role for episodic memory—specifically item versus associative memory—in supporting value-based choice. Participants completed a task where they first learned the value associated with trial unique lotteries. After a short delay, they completed a decision-making task where they could choose to re-engage with previously encountered lotteries, or new never before seen lotteries. Finally, participants completed a surprise memory test for the lotteries and their associated values. Results indicate that participants chose to re-engage more often with lotteries that resulted in high versus low rewards. Critically, participants not only formed detailed, associative memories for the reward values coupled with individual lotteries, but also exhibited adaptive decision-making only when they had intact associative memory. We further found that the relationship between adaptive choice and associative memory generalized to more complex, ecologically valid choice behavior, such as social decision-making. However, individuals more strongly encode experiences of social violations—such as being treated unfairly, suggesting a bias for how individuals form associative memories within social contexts. Together, these findings provide an important integration of episodic memory and decision-making literatures to better understand key mechanisms supporting adaptive behavior. PMID:26999046

  1. Major food safety episodes in Taiwan: implications for the necessity of international collaboration on safety assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Lai, Yuan-Hui; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-07-01

    The major food safety episodes that occurred in Taiwan during the past decade are briefly reviewed in this paper. Among the nine major episodes surveyed, with the exception of a U.S. beef (associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)-related incident, all the others were associated with chemical toxicants. The general public, which has a layperson attitude of zero tolerance toward food safety, may panic over these food-safety-associated incidents. However, the health effects and impacts of most incidents, with the exception of the melamine incident, were essentially not fully evaluated. The mass media play an important role in determining whether a food safety concern becomes a major incident. A well-coordinated and harmonized system for domestic and international collaboration to set up standards and regulations is critical, as observed in the incidents of pork with ractopamine, Chinese hairy crab with nitrofuran antibiotics, and U.S. wheat with malathion. In the future, it can be anticipated that food safety issues will draw more attention from the general public. For unknown new toxicants or illicit adulteration of food, the establishment of a more proactive safety assessment system to monitor potential threats and provide real-time information exchange is imperative. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Investigating a high ozone episode in a rural mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, A.; Strunk, A.; Carvalho, A.; Tchepel, O.; Miranda, A.I.; Borrego, C.; Saavedra, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Souto, J.; Casares, J.; Friese, E.; Elbern, H.

    2012-01-01

    A very high ozone episode with observed hourly values above 350 μg m −3 occurred in July 2005 at the Lamas d’Olo air quality monitoring station, located in a mountainous area in the north of Portugal. Aiming to identify the origin and formation of this ozone-rich episode, a statistical analysis and a modelling approach were applied. A cross-spectrum analysis in the frequency domain and a synoptic analysis of the meteorological and air quality time series were performed. In order to go further in this analysis, a numerical modelling approach was applied. The results indicate that the transport of ozone and its precursors is the main responsible for the high ozone concentrations. Together with the local mountain breeze and subsidence conditions, the sea-breeze circulation transporting pollutants from the coastal urban and industrialized areas that reach the site during late afternoon turn out to be the driving forces for the ozone peaks. - Highlights: ► A very high ozone episode occurred in a rural mountain site of Portugal in 2004. ► Data cross-spectrum analysis in the frequency domain was performed. ► A numerical modelling approach was also applied. ► The sea-breeze circulation transported pollutants from the urban and industrialized coast. ► The mountain breeze and subsidence conditions were also driving forces for ozone peaks. - The sea-breeze transporting pollutants from the coast, the mountain breeze and subsidence conditions, were the driving forces for the ozone episode occurred in a rural mountain site.

  3. Priming in Episodic and Semantic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    1979-01-01

    Four experiments examined priming between newly learned paired associates through two procedures, lexical decision and item recognition. Results argue against a functional separation of the semantic and episodic memory systems. (Author/AM)

  4. Neocortical connectivity during episodic memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Christopher; Greene, Matthew; Wager, Tor; Egner, Tobias; Hirsch, Joy; Mangels, Jennifer

    2006-05-01

    During the formation of new episodic memories, a rich array of perceptual information is bound together for long-term storage. However, the brain mechanisms by which sensory representations (such as colors, objects, or individuals) are selected for episodic encoding are currently unknown. We describe a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in which participants encoded the association between two classes of visual stimuli that elicit selective responses in the extrastriate visual cortex (faces and houses). Using connectivity analyses, we show that correlation in the hemodynamic signal between face- and place-sensitive voxels and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a reliable predictor of successful face-house binding. These data support the view that during episodic encoding, "top-down" control signals originating in the prefrontal cortex help determine which perceptual information is fated to be bound into the new episodic memory trace.

  5. Neocortical connectivity during episodic memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Summerfield

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of new episodic memories, a rich array of perceptual information is bound together for long-term storage. However, the brain mechanisms by which sensory representations (such as colors, objects, or individuals are selected for episodic encoding are currently unknown. We describe a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in which participants encoded the association between two classes of visual stimuli that elicit selective responses in the extrastriate visual cortex (faces and houses. Using connectivity analyses, we show that correlation in the hemodynamic signal between face- and place-sensitive voxels and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a reliable predictor of successful face-house binding. These data support the view that during episodic encoding, "top-down" control signals originating in the prefrontal cortex help determine which perceptual information is fated to be bound into the new episodic memory trace.

  6. Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R; Zola, S M

    1998-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory are two types of declarative memory. There have been two principal views about how this distinction might be reflected in the organization of memory functions in the brain. One view, that episodic memory and semantic memory are both dependent on the integrity of medial temporal lobe and midline diencephalic structures, predicts that amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe/diencephalic damage should be proportionately impaired in both episodic and semantic memory. An alternative view is that the capacity for semantic memory is spared, or partially spared, in amnesia relative to episodic memory ability. This article reviews two kinds of relevant data: 1) case studies where amnesia has occurred early in childhood, before much of an individual's semantic knowledge has been acquired, and 2) experimental studies with amnesic patients of fact and event learning, remembering and knowing, and remote memory. The data provide no compelling support for the view that episodic and semantic memory are affected differently in medial temporal lobe/diencephalic amnesia. However, episodic and semantic memory may be dissociable in those amnesic patients who additionally have severe frontal lobe damage.

  7. How do episodic and semantic memory contribute to episodic foresight in young children?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Atance, Cristina M.; Caza, Julian S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are able to transcend the present and mentally travel to another time, place, or perspective. Mentally projecting ourselves backwards (i.e., episodic memory) or forwards (i.e., episodic foresight) in time are crucial characteristics of the human memory system. Indeed, over the past few years, episodic memory has been argued to be involved both in our capacity to retrieve our personal past experiences and in our ability to imagine and foresee future scenarios. However, recent theory and...

  8. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E

    2012-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as "memory detection," little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  9. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio eGanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a probe item by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs between this item and comparison items (irrelevants. Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as memory detection, little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addressed the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study. Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing semantic knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive component (LPC than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. Thus, the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research.

  10. Concealed semantic and episodic autobiographical memory electrified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganis, Giorgio; Schendan, Haline E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiology-based concealed information tests (CIT) try to determine whether somebody possesses concealed information about a crime-related item (probe) by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) between this item and comparison items (irrelevants). Although the broader field is sometimes referred to as “memory detection,” little attention has been paid to the precise type of underlying memory involved. This study begins addressing this issue by examining the key distinction between semantic and episodic memory in the autobiographical domain within a CIT paradigm. This study also addresses the issue of whether multiple repetitions of the items over the course of the session habituate the brain responses. Participants were tested in a 3-stimulus CIT with semantic autobiographical probes (their own date of birth) and episodic autobiographical probes (a secret date learned just before the study). Results dissociated these two memory conditions on several ERP components. Semantic probes elicited a smaller frontal N2 than episodic probes, consistent with the idea that the frontal N2 decreases with greater pre-existing knowledge about the item. Likewise, semantic probes elicited a smaller central N400 than episodic probes. Semantic probes also elicited a larger P3b than episodic probes because of their richer meaning. In contrast, episodic probes elicited a larger late positive complex (LPC) than semantic probes, because of the recent episodic memory associated with them. All these ERPs showed a difference between probes and irrelevants in both memory conditions, except for the N400, which showed a difference only in the semantic condition. Finally, although repetition affected the ERPs, it did not reduce the difference between probes and irrelevants. These findings show that the type of memory associated with a probe has both theoretical and practical importance for CIT research. PMID:23355816

  11. Episodic memory for natural and transformed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Marilena; Vignando, Miriam; Foroni, Francesco; Pergola, Giulio; Rossi, Paola; Silveri, Maria Caterina; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2018-05-10

    It has been proposed that the conceptual knowledge of food and its putative subdivision into natural (i.e., fruit/vegetables) and transformed (i.e., food that underwent thermic or non-thermic processing) may follow the living/non-living distinction. In the present study, we investigated whether the advantage for living things compared to non-living things observed in episodic memory (the so-called animacy effect) extends to natural foods and transformed foods respectively. We pursued this issue in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we measured episodic memory for natural and transformed foods in young participants. In Experiment 2, we enrolled dementia-free centenarians, patients with Alzheimer's disease (DAT), Progressive primary aphasia (PPA), and healthy controls whose episodic memory was also tested for living/non-living things. Results showed that young participants had better recognition memory for transformed foods compared to natural foods. This difference disappeared in centenarians and patients. However, centenarians and PPA exhibited enhanced levels of false alarms (FA) with natural food, and DAT patients with both natural and transformed food. As far as the living/non-living distinction is concerned, the episodic memory for the living category appears more resilient to the decline compared to the non-living category in patients, particularly those with PPA. In conclusion, our study shows that transformed food is better remembered than natural food, suggesting that it is more salient and possibly relevant from an evolutionary perspective. The natural/transformed distinction appears susceptible to erosion only in the presence of a high degree of episodic memory impairment. These results offer novel insight on episodic memory of food, and also extend the current knowledge on the animacy effect in episodic memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Individualized prediction of illness course at the first psychotic episode: a support vector machine MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mourao-Miranda, J

    2012-05-01

    To date, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made little impact on the diagnosis and monitoring of psychoses in individual patients. In this study, we used a support vector machine (SVM) whole-brain classification approach to predict future illness course at the individual level from MRI data obtained at the first psychotic episode.

  13. Predictive effects of previous episodes on the risk of recurrence in depressive and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2005-01-01

    Findings from several studies have suggested that the risk of recurrence increases with the number of previous episodes in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, a comprehensive and critical review of the literature published during the past century shows that in several previous studies...

  14. Tributyltin--critical pollutant in whole water samples--development of traceable measurement methods for monitoring under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Janine; Fettig, Ina; Philipp, Rosemarie; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2015-07-01

    Tributyltin is listed as one of the priority substances in the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Despite its decreasing input in the environment, it is still present and has to be monitored. In the European Metrology Research Programme project ENV08, a sensitive and reliable analytical method according to the WFD was developed to quantify this environmental pollutant at a very low limit of quantification. With the development of such a primary reference method for tributyltin, the project helped to improve the quality and comparability of monitoring data. An overview of project aims and potential analytical tools is given.

  15. Criticality handbook. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinicke, W.; Krug, H.; Thomas, W.; Weber, W.; Gmal, B.

    1985-12-01

    The GRS Criticality Handbook is intended as a source of information on criticality problems for the persons concerned in industry, authorities, or research laboratories. It is to serve as a guide allowing quick and appropriate evaluation of criticality problems during design or erection of nuclear installations. This present issue replaces the one published in 1979, presenting revised and new data in a modified construction, but within the framework of the proven basic structure of the Handbook. Some fundamental knowledge is required of criticality problems and the relevant terms and definitions of nuclear safety, in order to fully deploy the information given. Part 1 of the Handbook therefore first introduces terminology and definitions, followed by experimental methods and calculation models for criticality calculations. The next chapters deal with the function and efficiency of neutron reflectors and neutron absorbers, measuring methods for criticality monitoring, organisational safety measures, and criticality accidents and their subsequent analysis. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Abstraction and generalization in statistical learning: implications for the relationship between semantic types and episodic tokens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Statistical approaches to emergent knowledge have tended to focus on the process by which experience of individual episodes accumulates into generalizable experience across episodes. However, there is a seemingly opposite, but equally critical, process that such experience affords: the process by which, from a space of types (e.g. onions—a semantic class that develops through exposure to individual episodes involving individual onions), we can perceive or create, on-the-fly, a specific token (a specific onion, perhaps one that is chopped) in the absence of any prior perceptual experience with that specific token. This article reviews a selection of statistical learning studies that lead to the speculation that this process—the generation, on the basis of semantic memory, of a novel episodic representation—is itself an instance of a statistical, in fact associative, process. The article concludes that the same processes that enable statistical abstraction across individual episodes to form semantic memories also enable the generation, from those semantic memories, of representations that correspond to individual tokens, and of novel episodic facts about those tokens. Statistical learning is a window onto these deeper processes that underpin cognition. This article is part of the themed issue ‘New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences’. PMID:27872378

  17. Abstraction and generalization in statistical learning: implications for the relationship between semantic types and episodic tokens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Gerry T M

    2017-01-05

    Statistical approaches to emergent knowledge have tended to focus on the process by which experience of individual episodes accumulates into generalizable experience across episodes. However, there is a seemingly opposite, but equally critical, process that such experience affords: the process by which, from a space of types (e.g. onions-a semantic class that develops through exposure to individual episodes involving individual onions), we can perceive or create, on-the-fly, a specific token (a specific onion, perhaps one that is chopped) in the absence of any prior perceptual experience with that specific token. This article reviews a selection of statistical learning studies that lead to the speculation that this process-the generation, on the basis of semantic memory, of a novel episodic representation-is itself an instance of a statistical, in fact associative, process. The article concludes that the same processes that enable statistical abstraction across individual episodes to form semantic memories also enable the generation, from those semantic memories, of representations that correspond to individual tokens, and of novel episodic facts about those tokens. Statistical learning is a window onto these deeper processes that underpin cognition.This article is part of the themed issue 'New frontiers for statistical learning in the cognitive sciences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  19. Episodic autobiographical memories over the course of time: cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolino, Pascale; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2009-09-01

    The critical attributes of episodic memory are self, autonoetic consciousness and subjectively sensed time. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical overview of our already published researches into the nature of episodic memory over the course of time. We have developed a new method of assessing autobiographical memory (TEMPau task), which is specially designed to measure these specific aspects, based on the sense of re-experiencing events from across the entire lifespan. Based on our findings of cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies, new insights into episodic autobiographical memories are presented, focusing on the effects of age of the subjects interacting with time interval in healthy subjects and lesioned patients. The multifaceted and complex nature of episodic memory is emphasized and it is suggested that mental time travel through subjective time, which allows individuals to re-experience specific past events through a feeling of self-awareness, is the last feature of autobiographical memory to become fully operational in development and the first feature to go in aging and most amnesias. Our findings highlight the critical role of frontotemporal areas in constructive autobiographical memory processes, and especially hippocampus, in re-experiencing episodic details from the recent or more distant past.

  20. Environmental stress in German forests; assessment of critical deposition levels and their exceedances and meteorological stress for crown condition monitoring sites in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Reinds, G.J.; Bleeker, A.; Vries, de W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimations of meteorological stress and atmospheric deposition were made for the systematic 8 x 8 km2 forest condition monitoring network in Germany for the years 1987-1995. Winter cold and late frost were important temperature stress variables and relative transpiration was a good

  1. Executive function, episodic memory, and Medicare expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Alex C; Austin, Andrea M; Grodstein, Francine; Bynum, Julie P W

    2017-07-01

    We examined the relationship between health care expenditures and cognition, focusing on differences across cognitive systems defined by global cognition, executive function, or episodic memory. We used linear regression models to compare annual health expenditures by cognitive status in 8125 Nurses' Health Study participants who completed a cognitive battery and were enrolled in Medicare parts A and B. Adjusting for demographics and comorbidity, executive impairment was associated with higher total annual expenditures of $1488 per person (P episodic memory impairment was found. Expenditures exhibited a linear relationship with executive function, but not episodic memory ($584 higher for every 1 standard deviation decrement in executive function; P < .01). Impairment in executive function is specifically and linearly associated with higher health care expenditures. Focusing on management strategies that address early losses in executive function may be effective in reducing costly services. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Episodic spontaneous hypothermia: a periodic childhood syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cynthia; Gener, Blanca; Garaizar, Carmen; Prats, José M

    2003-04-01

    Episodic spontaneous hypothermia is an infrequent disorder, with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. A systemic cause or underlying brain lesion has not been found for the disease. We report four new patients, 3-9 years old, with episodic hypothermia lower than 35 degrees C, marked facial pallor, and absent shivering. The episodes could last a few hours or four days, and recurred once a week or every 2-3 months. Two patients also demonstrated bradycardia, mild hypertension, and somnolence during the events; in one of them, profuse sweating was also a feature, and all four presented with either headache, a periodic childhood syndrome, or both (recurrent abdominal pain, cyclic vomiting, or vertigo). Three patients reported a family history of migraine. Neurologic examination, endocrine function, and imaging studies were normal. Migraine prophylactic therapy was of moderate efficacy. Spontaneous resolution was observed in one patient. The clinical characteristics of the syndrome allow for its inclusion as a childhood periodic syndrome related to migraine.

  3. Verbal episodic memory in young hypothyroid patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatsal Priyadarshi Pandey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypothyroidism affects cognitive functions especially memory. However, most of the previous studies have generally evaluated older hypothyroid patients and sample size of these studies varied in terms of age range. Aims: To see whether hypothyroidism affects memory in young patients. Settings and Design: The sample consisted of 11 hypothyroid patients with an age of 18–49 and 8 healthy controls matched on age and education. Subjects and Methods: Verbal episodic memory was assessed using Hindi adaptation of Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Statistical Analysis Used: An independent t-test was used to see the difference between mean performance of the patient group and healthy control on memory measures. Results: Results indicated nonsignificant difference between verbal episodic memory of patient group and healthy controls. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that hypothyroidism may not affect younger patients in terms of episodic verbal memory the same way as it does in the older patients.

  4. Episodic-like memory in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor J; Myggland, Allison; Duperreault, Erika; May, Zacnicte; Gallup, Joshua; Powell, Russell A; Schalomon, Melike; Digweed, Shannon M

    2016-11-01

    Episodic-like memory tests often aid in determining an animal's ability to recall the what, where, and which (context) of an event. To date, this type of memory has been demonstrated in humans, wild chacma baboons, corvids (Scrub jays), humming birds, mice, rats, Yucatan minipigs, and cuttlefish. The potential for this type of memory in zebrafish remains unexplored even though they are quickly becoming an essential model organism for the study of a variety of human cognitive and mental disorders. Here we explore the episodic-like capabilities of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a previously established mammalian memory paradigm. We demonstrate that when zebrafish were presented with a familiar object in a familiar context but a novel location within that context, they spend more time in the novel quadrant. Thus, zebrafish display episodic-like memory as they remember what object they saw, where they saw it (quadrant location), and on which occasion (yellow or blue walls) it was presented.

  5. Severity of depressive episodes during the course of depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether the severity of depressive episodes changes during the course of depressive disorder. Aims To investigate whether the severity of depressive episodes increases during the course of illness. Method Using a Danish nationwide case register, all psychiatric inpatients...... and out-patients with a main ICD-10 diagnosis of a single mild, moderate or severe depressive episode at the end of first contact were identified. Patients included in the study were from the period 1994-2003. Results A total of 19 392 patients received a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at first...... contact. The prevalence of severe depressive episodes increased from 25.5% at the first episode to 50.0% at the 15th episode and the prevalence of psychotic episodes increased from 8.7% at the first episode to 25.0% at the 15th episode. The same pattern was found regardless of gender, age at first contact...

  6. Severity of depressive episodes during the course of depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the severity of depressive episodes changes during the course of depressive disorder. AIMS: To investigate whether the severity of depressive episodes increases during the course of illness. METHOD: Using a Danish nationwide case register, all psychiatric in......-patients and out-patients with a main ICD-10 diagnosis of a single mild, moderate or severe depressive episode at the end of first contact were identified. Patients included in the study were from the period 1994-2003. RESULTS: A total of 19 392 patients received a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at first...... contact. The prevalence of severe depressive episodes increased from 25.5% at the first episode to 50.0% at the 15th episode and the prevalence of psychotic episodes increased from 8.7% at the first episode to 25.0% at the 15th episode. The same pattern was found regardless of gender, age at first contact...

  7. The nature of the semantic/episodic memory distinction: A missing piece of the "working through" process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley B; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    The relations between the semantic and episodic-autobiographical memory systems are more complex than described in the target article. We argue that understanding the noetic/autonoetic distinction provides critical insights into the foundation of the delineation between the two memory systems. Clarity with respect to the criteria for classification of these two systems, and the evolving conceptualization of episodic memory, can further neuroscientifically informed therapeutic approaches.

  8. Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure : activity 2 final report : information on SCADA systems and other security monitoring techniques used in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P.; Revie, R.W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2008-03-15

    This study evaluated various technologies for monitoring the security of remote pipeline infrastructure. The technologies included flow, pressure and mass variations; negative pressure waves; dynamic and statistical modelling; hydrocarbon-sensitive cables; fiber optic systems; infrared thermography; spectral imaging; and synthetic aperture radar and radio frequency identification methods. A brief outline of the technologies was provided, along with suggestions for integrating the technology with other commercially available tools designed to manage security and reduce risk. The study demonstrated that many monitoring technologies are suitable for detecting pipeline leaks and identifying third party intrusions. A combination of different methods may provide optimal security and accuracy in leak detection and location. Automatic range and plausibility checks can be used to enhance system security and to recognize invalid changes in measuring devices and poorly parameterized media. Detailed reviews of the technologies were included in 2 appendices. 28 refs., 2 appendices.

  9. Dominant KCNA2 mutation causes episodic ataxia and pharmacoresponsive epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Mark A; Bellows, Susannah T; Li, Melody; Carroll, Renée; Micallef, Silvana; Carvill, Gemma L; Myers, Candace T; Howell, Katherine B; Maljevic, Snezana; Lerche, Holger; Gazina, Elena V; Mefford, Heather C; Bahlo, Melanie; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Gecz, Jozef

    2016-11-08

    To identify the genetic basis of a family segregating episodic ataxia, infantile seizures, and heterogeneous epilepsies and to study the phenotypic spectrum of KCNA2 mutations. A family with 7 affected individuals over 3 generations underwent detailed phenotyping. Whole genome sequencing was performed on a mildly affected grandmother and her grandson with epileptic encephalopathy (EE). Segregating variants were filtered and prioritized based on functional annotations. The effects of the mutation on channel function were analyzed in vitro by voltage clamp assay and in silico by molecular modeling. KCNA2 was sequenced in 35 probands with heterogeneous phenotypes. The 7 family members had episodic ataxia (5), self-limited infantile seizures (5), evolving to genetic generalized epilepsy (4), focal seizures (2), and EE (1). They had a segregating novel mutation in the shaker type voltage-gated potassium channel KCNA2 (CCDS_827.1: c.765_773del; p.255_257del). A rare missense SCN2A (rs200884216) variant was also found in 2 affected siblings and their unaffected mother. The p.255_257del mutation caused dominant negative loss of channel function. Molecular modeling predicted repositioning of critical arginine residues in the voltage-sensing domain. KCNA2 sequencing revealed 1 de novo mutation (CCDS_827.1: c.890G>A; p.Arg297Gln) in a girl with EE, ataxia, and tremor. A KCNA2 mutation caused dominantly inherited episodic ataxia, mild infantile-onset seizures, and later generalized and focal epilepsies in the setting of normal intellect. This observation expands the KCNA2 phenotypic spectrum from EE often associated with chronic ataxia, reflecting the marked variation in severity observed in many ion channel disorders. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Critical pathway studies for selected radionuclides. Part of a coordinated programme on environmental monitoring for radiological protection in Asia and the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.

    1980-04-01

    The programme carried out critical pathway studies for selected radionuclides ( 60 Co, 63 Ni, 59 Fe, 54 Mn, sup(110m)Ag, 106 Ru and 144 Ce) and assessed population exposure in the vicinity of Tarapur Atomic Power Station. The following topics are covered under the programme. (i) Demographic study of dietary habits and consumption data for Tarapur population. (ii) Concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in food products. (iii) Determination of radionuclides in sea water, silt, marine algae and marine organisms at Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) Site. (iv) Behaviour of radionuclides released to marine environment. (v) Evaluation of critical exposure pathway. (vi) Population exposure in the vicinity of Tarapur Atomic Power Station

  11. Producing children in the 21st century: a critical discourse analysis of the science and techniques of monitoring early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the implications of commonly held ideologies within theories of child development. Despite critiques to doing so, developmental theory assumes that children's bodies are unitary, natural and material. The recent explosion of neuroscience illustrates the significance of historical, social and cultural contexts to portrayals of brain development, offering the opportunity for a critical departure in thinking. Instead, this neuroscience research has been taken up in ways that align with biomedical traditions and neoliberal values. This article uses a critical discursive approach, supported by Haraway's ideas of technoscience, to analyse a population-based early child development research initiative. This initiative organises a large-scale surveillance of children's development, operating from the premise that risks to development are best captured early to optimise children's potential. The analysis in this article shows an intermingling of health and economic discourses and clarifies how the child is a figure of significant contemporary social and political interests. In a poignant example of technobiopolitics, the collusion between health research, technologies and the state enrols health professionals to participate in the production of children as subjects of social value, figured as human capital, investments in the future, or alternatively, as waste. The analysis shows how practices that participate in what has become a developmental enterprise also participate in the marginalisation of the very children they intend to serve. Hence, there is the need to rethink practices critically and move towards innovative conceptualisations of child development that hold possibilities to resist these figurations.

  12. Predictors of recovery in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen F; Mors, Ole; Secher, Rikke Gry

    2013-01-01

    Recovery, the optimal goal in treatment, is the attainment of both symptomatic and functional remission over a sustained period of time. Identification of factors that promote recovery can help develop interventions that facilitate good outcomes for people with first episode psychosis....

  13. Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, and Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Carl F.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that creating a second-language semantic network can be conceived as developing a plan for retrieving second-language word forms. Characteristics of linguistic performance which will promote fluency are discussed in light of the distinction between episodic and semantic memory. (AMH)

  14. Episodes of care: is emergency medicine ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Beck, Dennis; Asplin, Brent R; Granovsky, Michael; Moorhead, John; Pilgrim, Randy; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2012-05-01

    Optimizing resource use, eliminating waste, aligning provider incentives, reducing overall costs, and coordinating the delivery of quality care while improving outcomes have been major themes of health care reform initiatives. Recent legislation contains several provisions designed to move away from the current fee-for-service payment mechanism toward a model that reimburses providers for caring for a population of patients over time while shifting more financial risk to providers. In this article, we review current approaches to episode of care development and reimbursement. We describe the challenges of incorporating emergency medicine into the episode of care approach and the uncertain influence this delivery model will have on emergency medicine care, including quality outcomes. We discuss the limitations of the episode of care payment model for emergency services and advocate retention of the current fee-for-service payment model, as well as identify research gaps that, if addressed, could be used to inform future policy decisions of emergency medicine health policy leaders. We then describe a meaningful role for emergency medicine in an episode of care setting. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  15. Autobiographical thinking interferes with episodic memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Craig

    Full Text Available New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an 'internal' memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues.

  16. Family Intervention in First-Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Sadath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Family interventions have produced benefits on clinical and family outcomes in long standing psychosis. However, little is known about the efficacy of such interventions in the early stages of psychosis. This article reviews published research over the last two decades on family intervention in first-episode psychosis. Electronic databases, such as PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect, have been systematically searched. In addition, an exhaustive Internet search was also carried out using Google and Google Scholar to identify the potential studies that evaluated family interventions in first-episode psychosis. We have identified seven reports of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs and five non-randomized and uncontrolled studies of family intervention. Our review on 12 reports of family intervention studies has shown mixed effects on outcomes in first-episode psychosis. Most of the reports showed no added benefits or very short-term benefits on primary clinical or family outcome variables. There is a dearth of family intervention studies in first-episode psychosis. More RCTs are needed to reach reliable conclusions.

  17. Dispositions, Emotions, Episodes and the Autonomous Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Anthony J.

    1986-01-01

    Explores the relationship between dispositions (i.e., continuities of inclinations and habits), episodic behavior, emotions, and desires; and the development of moral autonomy. Argues that autonomy requires a settled disposition toward the good. Contrasts theories of autonomy based on wants/desires and on ideals. (AYC)

  18. The Interpersonal Conflict Episode: A Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawski, Carl

    A detailed systems diagram elaborates the process of dealing with a single conflict episode between two parties or persons. Hypotheses are fully stated to lead the reader through the flow diagram. A concrete example illustrates its use. Detail is provided in an accounting scheme of virtually all possible variables to consider in analyzing a…

  19. Attentional control and competition between episodic representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akyürek, Elkan G.; Schubö, Anna; Hommel, Bernhard

    The relationship between attentional control and episodic representation was investigated in six experiments that employed a variant of the classic attentional blink paradigm. We introduced a task-irrelevant (unpredictive) color match between the first and second target stimulus in a three-stream

  20. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...

  1. Gender differences in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, A.; Lajer, M.; Lindhardt, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the description of 1 episode schizophrenia patients, female gender is associated with better social function and a higher degree of compliance, while males exhibit more negative symptoms and a higher degree of abuse. The question is raised whether gender specific differences exist which should...

  2. Episodic Specificity in Acquiring Thematic Knowledge of Novel Words from Descriptive Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meichao; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined whether thematic relations of the novel words could be acquired via descriptive episodes, and if yes, whether it could be generalized to thematically related words in a different scenario. In Experiment 1, a lexical decision task was used where the novel words served as primes for target words in four conditions: (1) corresponding concepts of the novel words, (2) thematically related words in the same episodes as that in learning condition, (3) thematically related words in different episodes, or (4) unrelated words served as targets. Event related potentials elicited by the targets revealed that compared to the unrelated words, the corresponding concepts and thematically related words in the same episodes elicited smaller N400s with a frontal-central distribution, whereas the thematically related words in different episodes elicited an enhanced late positive component. Experiment 2 further showed a priming effect of the corresponding concepts on the thematically related words in the same episodes as well as in a different episode, indicating that the absence of a priming effect of the learned novel words on the thematically related words in different episode could not be attributed to inappropriate selection of thematically related words in the two conditions. These results indicate that only the corresponding concepts and the thematically related words in the learning episodes were successfully primed, whereas the thematic association between the novel words and the thematically related words in different scenarios could only be recognized in a late processing stage. Our findings suggest that thematic knowledge of novel words is organized via separate scenarios, which are represented in a clustered manner in the semantic network.

  3. The Generalized Quantum Episodic Memory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueblood, Jennifer S; Hemmer, Pernille

    2017-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that experienced events are often mapped to too many episodic states, including those that are logically or experimentally incompatible with one another. For example, episodic over-distribution patterns show that the probability of accepting an item under different mutually exclusive conditions violates the disjunction rule. A related example, called subadditivity, occurs when the probability of accepting an item under mutually exclusive and exhaustive instruction conditions sums to a number >1. Both the over-distribution effect and subadditivity have been widely observed in item and source-memory paradigms. These phenomena are difficult to explain using standard memory frameworks, such as signal-detection theory. A dual-trace model called the over-distribution (OD) model (Brainerd & Reyna, 2008) can explain the episodic over-distribution effect, but not subadditivity. Our goal is to develop a model that can explain both effects. In this paper, we propose the Generalized Quantum Episodic Memory (GQEM) model, which extends the Quantum Episodic Memory (QEM) model developed by Brainerd, Wang, and Reyna (2013). We test GQEM by comparing it to the OD model using data from a novel item-memory experiment and a previously published source-memory experiment (Kellen, Singmann, & Klauer, 2014) examining the over-distribution effect. Using the best-fit parameters from the over-distribution experiments, we conclude by showing that the GQEM model can also account for subadditivity. Overall these results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that quantum probability theory is a valuable tool in modeling recognition memory. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Cannabis use and first manic episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, Nathalie; Zullino, Daniele; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2014-08-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug among patients with bipolar disorder. Available data has shown that the risk of psychotic disorders increases with the frequency and intensity of cannabis abuse. The present purpose was to review relevant studies to investigate whether cannabis use can be linked to the onset of mania in bipolar disorder. Articles published between 1972 and December 2013 were searched on Medline and PsychInfo using the following keywords: first manic episode, or onset mania, or bipolar disorder and cannabis. Relevant papers cited in the references of selected articles were further considered for inclusion into the review. Lifetime use of cannabis among bipolar patients appears to be around 70% and approximately 30% of patients with a bipolar disorder present a comorbidity of cannabis abuse or dependence. Cannabis use is associated with younger age at onset of first mania and with more frequent depressive or manic episodes, although the evidence is somewhat inconsistent. Likewise cannabis consumption is related to poorer outcome and an increased risk of rapid cycling or mixed episodes. In contrast, neuro-cognitive functioning seems to be positively affected in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. While cannabis use often precedes first manic episodes, the causal direction remains to be determined. Variations in definition of cannabis use/dependence. Lack of controlled studies limiting definite conclusions about a putative causal relationship between cannabis and onset of mania. Further investigations are needed to clarify the relationships between cannabis use and first manic episode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An analysis of high fine aerosol loading episodes in north-central Spain in the summer 2013 - Impact of Canadian biomass burning episode and local emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, M. A.; Mateos, D.; Cachorro, V. E.; Toledano, C.; de Frutos, A. M.; Calle, A.; Herguedas, A.; Marcos, J. L.

    2018-07-01

    This work presents an evaluation of a surprising and unusual high turbidity summer period in 2013 recorded in the north-central Iberian Peninsula (IP). The study is made up of three main pollution episodes characterized by very high aerosol optical depth (AOD) values with the presence of fine aerosol particles: the strongest long-range transport Canadian Biomass Burning (BB) event recorded, one of the longest-lasting European Anthropogenic (A) episodes and an extremely strong regional BB. The Canadian BB episode was unusually strong with maximum values of AOD(440 nm) ∼ 0.8, giving rise to the highest value recorded by photometer data in the IP with a clearly established Canadian origin. The anthropogenic pollution episode originated in Europe is mainly a consequence of the strong impact of Canadian BB events over north-central Europe. As regards the local episode, a forest fire in the nature reserve near the Duero River (north-central IP) impacted on the population over 200 km away from its source. These three episodes exhibited fingerprints in different aerosol columnar properties retrieved by sun-photometers of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) as well as in particle mass surface concentrations, PMx, measured by the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). Main statistics, time series and scatterplots relate aerosol loads (aerosol optical depth, AOD and particulate matter, PM) with aerosol size quantities (Ångström Exponent and PM ratio). More detailed microphysical/optical properties retrieved by AERONET inversion products are analysed in depth to describe these events: contribution of fine and coarse particles to AOD and its ratio (the fine mode fraction), volume particle size distribution, fine volume fraction, effective radius, sphericity fraction, single scattering albedo and absorption optical depth. Due to its relevance in climate studies, the aerosol radiative effect has been quantified for the top and bottom of the atmosphere

  6. PSYCHE: personalised monitoring systems for care in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, R; Bianchi, A M; Lau, K; Scilingo, E P

    2010-01-01

    One of the areas of great demand for the need of continuous monitoring, patient participation and medical prediction is that of mood disorders, more specifically bipolar disorders. Due to the unpredictable and episodic nature of bipolar disorder, it is necessary to take the traditional standard procedures of mood assessment through the administration of rating scales and questionnaires and integrate this with tangible data found in emerging research on central and peripheral changes in brain function that may be associated to the clinical status and response to treatment throughout the course of bipolar disorder. This paper presents PSYCHE system, a personal, cost-effective, multi-parametric monitoring system based on textile platforms and portable sensing devices for the long term and short term acquisition of data from selected class of patients affected by mood disorders. The acquired data will be processed and analyzed in the established platform that takes into account the Electronic Health Records (EHR) of the patient, a personalized data referee system, as well as medical analysis in order to verify the diagnosis and help in prognosis of the illness. Constant feedback and monitoring will be used to manage the illness, to give patients support, to facilitate interaction between patient and physician as well as to alert professionals in case of patients relapse and depressive or manic episodes income, as the ultimate goal is to identify signal trends indicating detection and prediction of critical events.

  7. Nuclear criticality safety 2005 and 2006. Monitoring, follow-up and communication; Nukleaer kriticitetssaekerhet 2005 och 2006. Bevakning, uppfoeljning och kommunikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennerdahl, Dennis (E Mennerdahl Systems, Taeby (SE))

    2007-03-15

    A number of selected issues have dominated during 2005 and 2006. This include development of models for realism based on physics (not only statistics and praxis), criteria for criticality safety, regulations and standards, burnup credit, determination of source convergence in calculations, substantial improvements in calculation methods, validation of those methods, etc. In spite of some criticism against certain parts of the NRC FCSS/ISG-10, it is an important document. It should support both authorities and utilities to determine adequate safety margins. To a large extent, the principles that have been applied in Sweden since the 1970's are supported. The extra safety margin (MMS or DELTAk{sub m}) that protects against unknown uncertainties in k{sub eff} should be related to the known uncertainty. In Sweden this has been achieved by limitation of the total, statistically determined standard deviation to 0.01. In addition, FCSS/ISG-10 supports the principle of using different values of DELTAk{sub m} for normal situations than for design basis incidents (must have very low probabilities). In Sweden, DELTAk{sub m} have been included in the design limits that have been 0.95 for normal scenarios and 0.98 for incident scenarios. The corresponding values of DELTAk{sub m} are 0.05 and 0.02. They are exactly the same values as are mentioned in FCSS/ISG-10. The recently issued SCALE 5.1 is very important for burnup credit. Similar capabilities have been available in Sweden, in the form of CASMO, PHOENIX and their predecessor BUXY, for more than 30 years. SCALE 5.1 makes reactor calculations available in a procedure that is easily accessible to specialists on criticality safety. The physics simulation of the irradiation (Monte Carlo through KENO in 3-D or deterministic through NEWT in 2-D) becomes much more realistic with SCALE 5.1 than with earlier versions. A very important project is the OECD/NEA study on reference values for criticality safety. The final report has

  8. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D., E-mail: pdhien@gmail.com [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet str. Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, P.D.; Dao, N.V. [National Hydro-Meteorological Center, 62-A2 Nguyen Chi Thanh str. Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-11-01

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM{sub 10} exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: {yields} Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. {yields} 24-h concentrations of PM{sub 10}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. {yields} Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. {yields} Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. {yields} Close

  9. Impact of screening and monitoring of capillary blood glucose in the detection of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in non-critical inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Silicani Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of screening hyper and hypoglycemia measured by capillary glycemia and standard monitorization of  hyperglycemic patients hospitalized in regular care units of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. Methods: The capillary glycemia was  measured by the Precision PCx (Abbott glucosimeter, using the PrecisionWeb (Abbott software. The detection of hyper and hypoglycemia during the months of May/June were compared to those of March/April in 2009 and to the frequency of the diagnosis of diabetes in 2007. Rresults: There was an increase in the glycemia screening from 27.7 to 77.5% of hospitalized patients (p < 0.001, of hyperglycemia detection (from 9.3 to 12.2%; p < 0.001 and of hypoglycemia (from 1.5 to 3.3%; p < 0.001 during  the months of May/June  2009. According to this action 14 patients for each additional case of hyperglycemia and 26 cases for each case of hypoglycemia were identified. The detection of hyperglycemia was significantly higher (p < 0.001 than the frequency of registered diagnosis related do diabetes in the year of 2007. Cconclusions: the adoption of an institutional program of glycemia monitorization improves the detection of hyper and hypoglycemia and glycemia control in hospitalized patients in regular care units.

  10. National monitoring study in Denmark finds increased and critical levels of copper and zinc in arable soils fertilized with pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Bak, Jesper

    2016-07-01

    The increasing consumption of copper and zinc in modern farming is linked to their documented benefit as growth promoting agents and usefulness for controlling diarrhoea. Copper and zinc are inert and non-degradable in the slurry and the environment and thereby introducing new challenges and concern. Therefore, a follow-up to pervious national soil monitoring programs on heavy metals was initiated in 2014 with special focus on the historical trends in soil concentrations of copper and zinc in Danish arable soils. Hereby it is possible to analyse trends for a 28 year period. Data shows that: 1) Amendment of soils with pig slurry has led to a significant increase in soil concentrations of copper and zinc, especially in the latest monitoring period from 1998 to 2014; 2) Predicted no-effect concentrations for soil dwelling species published by the European Union is exceeded for zinc in 45% of all soil samples, with the highest proportion on sandy soils; 3) The current use of zinc and copper in pig production may lead to leaching of metals, especially zinc, from fields fertilized with pig slurry in concentrations that may pose a risk to aquatic species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shapes of Venusian 'pancake' domes imply episodic emplacement and silicic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Jonathan H.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Grimm, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    The main evidence available for constraining the composition of the large circular 'pancake' domes on Venus is their gross morphology. Laboratory simulations using polyethylene glycol show that the height to diameter (aspect) ratios of domes of a given total volume depend critically on whether their extrusion was continuous or episodic, with more episodes leading to greater cooling and taller domes. Thus without observations of their emplacement, the compositions of Venusian domes cannot be uniquely constrained by their morphology. However, by considering a population of 51 Venusian domes to represent a sampling of many stages during the growth of domes with comparable histories, and by plotting aspect ratio versus total volume, we find that the shapes of the domes are most consistent with episodic emplacement. On Earth this mode of dome growth is found almost exclusively in lavas of dacite to rhyolite composition, strengthening earlier inferences about the presence of evolved magmas on Venus.

  12. Double-plating of ovine critical sized defects of the tibia: a low morbidity model enabling continuous in vivo monitoring of bone healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearce Alexandra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies using sheep critical sized defect models to test tissue engineered products report high morbidity and complications rates. This study evaluates a large bone defect model in the sheep tibia, stabilized with two, a novel Carbon fibre Poly-ether-ether-ketone (CF-PEEK and a locking compression plate (LCP which could sustain duration for up to 6 month with an acceptable low complication rate. Methods A large bone defect of 3 cm was performed in the mid diaphysis of the right tibia in 33 sheep. The defect was stabilised with the CF - PEEK plate and an LCP. All sheep were supported with slings for 8 weeks after surgery. The study was carried out for 3 months in 6 and for 6 months in 27 animals. Results The surgical procedure could easily be performed in all sheep and continuous in vivo radiographic evaluation of the defect was possible. This long bone critical sized defect model shows with 6.1% a low rate of complications compared with numbers mentioned in the literature. Conclusions This experimental animal model could serve as a standard model in comparative research. A well defined standard model would reduce the number of experimental animals needed in future studies and would therefore add to ethical considerations.

  13. Predictors of detection of alcohol use episodes using a transdermal alcohol sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Meade, E B; Glynn, Tiffany R

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish the ability of the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) alcohol sensor to detect different levels of self-reported alcohol consumption, and to determine whether gender and body mass index, alcohol dependence, bracelet version, and age of bracelet influenced detection of alcohol use. Heavy drinking adults (N = 66, 46% female) wore the SCRAM for 1-28 days and reported their alcohol use in daily Web-based surveys. Participant reports of alcohol use were matched with drinking episodes identified from bracelet readings. On days when bracelets were functional, 690 drinking episodes were reported and 502 of those episodes (72.8%) were detected using sensor data. Using generalized estimating equations, we found no gender differences in detection of reported drinking episodes (77% for women, 69% for men). In univariate analyses, at the level of fewer than 5 drinks, women's episodes were more likely to be detected, likely because of the significantly higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels of these episodes, whereas at the level of 5 or more drinks, there was no gender difference in detection (92.6% for women, 93.4% for men). In multivariable analyses, no variables other than number of drinks significantly predicted alcohol detection. In summary, the SCRAM sensor is very good at detecting 5 or more drinks; performance of the monitor below this level was better among women because of their higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels. Individual person characteristics and bracelet features were not related to detection after number of drinks was included. Minimal bracelet malfunctions were noted.

  14. Improving outcomes of first‐episode psychosis: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar‐Poli, Paolo; McGorry, Patrick D.; Kane, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Outcomes of psychotic disorders are associated with high personal, familiar, societal and clinical burden. There is thus an urgent clinical and societal need for improving those outcomes. Recent advances in research knowledge have opened new opportunities for ameliorating outcomes of psychosis during its early clinical stages. This paper critically reviews these opportunities, summarizing the state‐of‐the‐art knowledge and focusing on recent discoveries and future avenues for first episode research and clinical interventions. Candidate targets for primary universal prevention of psychosis at the population level are discussed. Potentials offered by primary selective prevention in asymptomatic subgroups (stage 0) are presented. Achievements of primary selected prevention in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (stage 1) are summarized, along with challenges and limitations of its implementation in clinical practice. Early intervention and secondary prevention strategies at the time of a first episode of psychosis (stage 2) are critically discussed, with a particular focus on minimizing the duration of untreated psychosis, improving treatment response, increasing patients’ satisfaction with treatment, reducing illicit substance abuse and preventing relapses. Early intervention and tertiary prevention strategies at the time of an incomplete recovery (stage 3) are further discussed, in particular with respect to addressing treatment resistance, improving well‐being and social skills with reduction of burden on the family, treatment of comorbid substance use, and prevention of multiple relapses and disease progression. In conclusion, to improve outcomes of a complex, heterogeneous syndrome such as psychosis, it is necessary to globally adopt complex models integrating a clinical staging framework and coordinated specialty care programmes that offer pre‐emptive interventions to high‐risk groups identified across the early stages of the disorder

  15. Episodic memory function is associated with multiple measures of white matter integrity in cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Neal Lockhart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging research indicates that white matter injury and integrity, measured respectively by white matter hyperintensities (WMH and fractional anisotropy (FA obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, differ with aging and cerebrovascular disease and are associated with episodic memory deficits in cognitively normal older adults. However, knowledge about tract-specific relationships between WMH, FA, and episodic memory in aging remains limited. We hypothesized that white matter connections between frontal cortex and subcortical structures as well as connections between frontal and temporo-parietal cortex would be most affected. In the current study, we examined relationships between WMH, FA and episodic memory in 15 young adults, 13 elders with minimal WMH and 15 elders with extensive WMH, using an episodic recognition memory test for object-color associations. Voxel-based statistics were used to identify voxel clusters where white matter measures were specifically associated with variations in episodic memory performance, and white matter tracts intersecting these clusters were analyzed to examine white matter-memory relationships. White matter injury and integrity measures were significantly associated with episodic memory in extensive regions of white matter, located predominantly in frontal, parietal, and subcortical regions. Template based tractography indicated that white matter injury, as measured by WMH, in the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory performance. Other tracts such as thalamo-frontal projections, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and dorsal cingulum bundle demonstrated strong negative associations as well. The results suggest that white matter injury to multiple pathways, including connections of frontal and temporal cortex and frontal-subcortical white matter tracts, plays a critical role in memory differences seen in older individuals.

  16. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  17. Vulnerability assessment of critical infrastructure : activity 2 progress report : information of SCADA systems and other security monitoring systems used in oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, G.P. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Laboratory

    2007-12-15

    Many pipelines are located in remote regions and subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Damage to pipelines can have significant economic and environmental impacts. This paper discussed the use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems to monitor and control oil and gas pipeline infrastructure. SCADA systems are a real time, distributed computerized system with an intelligent capability for condition identification and fault diagnosis. SCADA systems can be used to capture thousands of miles of pipeline system process data and distribute it to pipeline operators, whose work stations are networked with the SCADA central host computer. SCADA architectures include monolithic, distributed, and networked systems that can be distributed across wide area networks (WANs). SCADA security strategies must be implemented to ensure corporate network security. Case studies of SCADA systems currently used by oil and gas operators in Alberta were also presented. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Applications of dendrochronology and sediment geochronology to establish reference episodes for evaluations of environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Carroll, J.; Abraham, J.D.; Landeen, D.S. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, 2597 B 3/4 Road, Grand Junction, CO 81503 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Dendrochronology and sediment geochronology have been used to demonstrate retrospective monitoring of environmental radioactivity at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. {sup 14}C in annual growth rings of sagebrush preserved the temporal and spatial patterns of {sup 14}C resulting from dispersion downwind of a nuclear fuel processing facility at the Hanford Site in Washington State. As far as 10 km downwind of the facility, {sup 14}C concentrations were significantly higher in growth rings formed during a fuel processing episode than in rings produced during preoperational or postoperational episodes. An episode of uranium mill tailings deposition in pond sediments at the Grand Junction Office in Colorado was reconstructed using {sup 210}Pb geochronology constrained by a marker of peak {sup 137}Cs fallout. Uranium concentrations in ponds sediments deposited after the processing episode provide a reasonable cleanup standard. These reference episodes of environmental radioactivity reconstructed from measurements taken within contaminated environments can improve or replace reference area data as baseline information for dose reconstructions, risk assessments, and the establishment of cleanup standards. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Applications of dendrochronology and sediment geochronology to establish reference episodes for evaluations of environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, W.J.; Carroll, J.; Abraham, J.D.; Landeen, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Dendrochronology and sediment geochronology have been used to demonstrate retrospective monitoring of environmental radioactivity at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 14 C in annual growth rings of sagebrush preserved the temporal and spatial patterns of 14 C resulting from dispersion downwind of a nuclear fuel processing facility at the Hanford Site in Washington State. As far as 10 km downwind of the facility, 14 C concentrations were significantly higher in growth rings formed during a fuel processing episode than in rings produced during preoperational or postoperational episodes. An episode of uranium mill tailings deposition in pond sediments at the Grand Junction Office in Colorado was reconstructed using 210 Pb geochronology constrained by a marker of peak 137 Cs fallout. Uranium concentrations in ponds sediments deposited after the processing episode provide a reasonable cleanup standard. These reference episodes of environmental radioactivity reconstructed from measurements taken within contaminated environments can improve or replace reference area data as baseline information for dose reconstructions, risk assessments, and the establishment of cleanup standards. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of experiments-based monitoring of critical quality attributes for the spray-drying process of insulin by NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maltesen, Morten Jonas; van de Weert, Marco; Grohganz, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Moisture content and aerodynamic particle size are critical quality attributes for spray-dried protein formulations. In this study, spray-dried insulin powders intended for pulmonary delivery were produced applying design of experiments methodology. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in combination...... on the chemical information of the water molecules in the NIR spectrum. Models yielded prediction errors (RMSEP) between 0.39% and 0.48% with thermal gravimetric analysis used as reference method. The PLS models predicting the aerodynamic particle size were based on baseline offset in the NIR spectra and yielded...... less robust models with a Q (2) of 0.69. Based on the results in this study, NIR is a suitable tool for process analysis of the spray-drying process and for control of moisture content and particle size, in particular for smooth and spherical particles....

  2. Anatomy of the Episodic Buffer: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Patients with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Berlingeri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 Baddeley proposed the existence of a new component of working memory, the episodic buffer, which should contribute to the on-line maintenance of integrated memory traces. The author assumed that this component should be critical for immediate recall of a short story that exceeds the capacity of the phonological store. Accordingly, patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD should suffer of a deficit of the episodic buffer when immediate recall of a short story is impossible. On the other hand, the episodic buffer should be somewhat preserved in such patients when some IR can occur (Baddeley and Wilson, 2002. We adopted this logic for a voxel-based morphometry study. We compared the distribution of grey-matter density of two such groups of AD patients with a group of age-matched controls. We found that both AD groups had a significant atrophy of the left mid-hippocampus; on the other hand, the anterior part of the hippocampus was significantly more atrophic in patients who were also impaired on the immediate prose recall task. Six out of ten patients with no immediate recall were spared at “central executive” tasks. Taken together our findings suggest that the left anterior hippocampus contributes to the episodic buffer of the revised working memory model. We also suggest that the episodic buffer is somewhat independent from the central executive component of working memory.

  3. Preparing for what might happen: An episodic specificity induction impacts the generation of alternative future events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Helen G; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-12-01

    A critical adaptive feature of future thinking involves the ability to generate alternative versions of possible future events. However, little is known about the nature of the processes that support this ability. Here we examined whether an episodic specificity induction - brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience that selectively impacts tasks that draw on episodic retrieval - (1) boosts alternative event generation and (2) changes one's initial perceptions of negative future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly increased the number of alternative positive outcomes that participants generated to a series of standardized negative events, compared with a control induction not focused on episodic specificity. We also observed larger decreases in the perceived plausibility and negativity of the original events in the specificity condition, where participants generated more alternative outcomes, relative to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we replicated and extended these findings using a series of personalized negative events. Our findings support the idea that episodic memory processes are involved in generating alternative outcomes to anticipated future events, and that boosting the number of alternative outcomes is related to subsequent changes in the perceived plausibility and valence of the original events, which may have implications for psychological well-being. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. P300 is attenuated during dissociative episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Eiji

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the pathophysiology of dissociative phenomena using the P300 component of event-related potentials, quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG), and morphology measures of computed tomography scan. Event-related potentials during an auditory oddball paradigm and QEEG in resting state were recorded. Patients exhibited attenuation of P300 amplitudes compared with controls during dissociative episodes, but exhibited recovery to control levels in remission. Patients had a larger Sylvian fissure-brain ratio than did controls. QEEG findings revealed no significant differences between the patients and controls or between episodes and remission in the patient group. Attenuation of the P300 can be interpreted as the result of a negative feedback loop from the medial temporal lobe to the cortex, which decreases the amount of information flow, allocation of attentional resources, and updating of working memory to avoid both excessive long-term memory system activity in medial temporal lobe and resurgence of affect-laden memories.

  5. Experience of stigma and discrimination reported by people experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia and those with a first episode of depression: The FEDORA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Elizabeth A; Beldie, Alina; Brain, Cecilia; Jakovljevic, Miro; Jarema, Marek; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Marksteiner, Josef; Mohr, Pavel; Prelipceanu, Dan; Vasilache, Anamaria; Waern, Margda; Sartorius, Norman; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-08-01

    To record and measure the nature and severity of stigma and discrimination experienced by people during a first episode of schizophrenia and those with a first episode of major depressive disorder. The Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12) was used in a cross-sectional survey to elicit service user reports of anticipated and experienced discrimination by 150 people with a diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia and 176 with a diagnosis of first-episode major depressive disorder in seven countries (Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Sweden and Turkey). Participants with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder reported discrimination in a greater number of life areas than those with schizophrenia, as rated by the total DISC-12 score (p = .03). With regard to specific life areas, participants with depression reported more discrimination in regard to neighbours, dating, education, marriage, religious activities, physical health and acting as a parent than participants with schizophrenia. Participants with schizophrenia reported more discrimination with regard to the police compared to participants with depression. Stigma and discrimination because of mental illness change in the course of the mental diseases. Future research may take a longitudinal perspective to better understand the beginnings of stigmatisation and its trajectory through the life course and to identify critical periods at which anti-stigma interventions can most effectively be applied. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Episodic radon changes in subsurface soil gas along active faults and possible relation to earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.

    1980-01-01

    Subsurface soil gas along active faults in central California has been continuously monitored by the Track Etch method to test whether its radon-isotope content may show any premonitory changes useful for earthquake prediction. The monitoring network was installed in May 1975 and has since been gradually expanded to consist of more than 60 stations along a 380-km section of the San Andreas fault system between Santa Rosa and Cholame. This network has recorded several episodes, each lasting several weeks to several months, during which the radon concentration increased by a factor of approximately 2 above average along some long, but limited, fault segments (approx.100 km). These episodes occurred in different seasons and do not appear to be systematically related to changes in meteorological conditions. However, they coincided reasonably well in time and space with larger local earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of about 4.0. These episodic radon changes may be caused by a changing outgassing rate in the fault zones in response to some episodic strain changes, which incidentally caused the earthquakes

  7. Cognitive dissonance resolution depends on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammat, Mariam; Karoui, Imen El; Allali, Sébastien; Hagège, Joshua; Lehongre, Katia; Hasboun, Dominique; Baulac, Michel; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Michon, Agnès; Dubois, Bruno; Navarro, Vincent; Salti, Moti; Naccache, Lionel

    2017-01-23

    The notion that past choices affect preferences is one of the most influential concepts of social psychology since its first report in the 50 s, and its theorization within the cognitive dissonance framework. In the free-choice paradigm (FCP) after choosing between two similarly rated items, subjects reevaluate chosen items as more attractive and rejected items as less attractive. However the relations prevailing between episodic memory and choice-induced preference change (CIPC) remain highly debated: is this phenomenon dependent or independent from memory of past choices? We solve this theoretical debate by demonstrating that CIPC occurs exclusively for items which were correctly remembered as chosen or rejected during the choice stage. We used a combination of fMRI and intra-cranial electrophysiological recordings to reveal a modulation of left hippocampus activity, a hub of episodic memory retrieval, immediately before the occurrence of CIPC during item reevaluation. Finally, we show that contrarily to a previous influential report flawed by a statistical artifact, this phenomenon is absent in amnesic patients for forgotten items. These results demonstrate the dependence of cognitive dissonance on conscious episodic memory. This link between current preferences and previous choices suggests a homeostatic function of this regulative process, aiming at preserving subjective coherence.

  8. Cyclicity, episodicity, and continuity in accretionary wedge evolution: insights from geophysical imaging and physical analogue experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, N.

    2009-04-01

    of the incoming layer and thrust initiation, growth of the thrust slice, underthrusting and accretion of the thrust slice to the initiation of the next thrust slice. Each of these sub-processes generates a characteristic uplift pattern. As accretionary cycles take place in characteristic time periods of some ten thousands to some hundred thousands of years, the related uplift pattern may provide a key to investigate the timing of wedge evolution in the field. The spatio-temporal activity pattern of thrusts as observed in laboratory wedges suggests a mechanic segmentation of these wedges. Critical taper analysis shows that wedge segments may be sub-critical, critical, stable, or super-critical, depending on their geometry and physical properties. Similar segmentation also seems to be important in nature, as an inner, older wedge segment e.g. may act as a dynamic backstop for more recent accretion. Besides testing the influence of specific parameters on wedge evolution, scaled sandbox experiments also offer to consider transient boundary conditions, e.g. of material input to the wedge. Structurally and kinematically, laboratory wedges generated through episodical material input differ from wedges which have formed as a result of continuous input. Therefore, wedge structures as observed in such experimental wedges may offer a possibility to detect episodical accretion and periods of subduction erosion in natural wedges, such as at the South-Central Chilean convergent margin.

  9. Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  10. Critical point predication device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiko; Kariyama, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    An operation for predicting a critical point by using a existent reverse multiplication method has been complicated, and an effective multiplication factor could not be plotted directly to degrade the accuracy for the prediction. The present invention comprises a detector counting memory section for memorizing the counting sent from a power detector which monitors the reactor power, a reverse multiplication factor calculation section for calculating the reverse multiplication factor based on initial countings and current countings of the power detector, and a critical point prediction section for predicting the criticality by the reverse multiplication method relative to effective multiplication factors corresponding to the state of the reactor core previously determined depending on the cases. In addition, a reactor core characteristic calculation section is added for analyzing an effective multiplication factor depending on the state of the reactor core. Then, if the margin up to the criticality is reduced to lower than a predetermined value during critical operation, an alarm is generated to stop the critical operation when generation of a period of more than a predetermined value predicted by succeeding critical operation. With such procedures, forecasting for the critical point can be easily predicted upon critical operation to greatly mitigate an operator's burden and improve handling for the operation. (N.H.)

  11. A Critical Review of Consumer Wearables, Mobile Applications, and Equipment for Providing Biofeedback, Monitoring Stress, and Sleep in Physically Active Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Peake

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The commercial market for technologies to monitor and improve personal health and sports performance is ever expanding. A wide range of smart watches, bands, garments, and patches with embedded sensors, small portable devices and mobile applications now exist to record and provide users with feedback on many different physical performance variables. These variables include cardiorespiratory function, movement patterns, sweat analysis, tissue oxygenation, sleep, emotional state, and changes in cognitive function following concussion. In this review, we have summarized the features and evaluated the characteristics of a cross-section of technologies for health and sports performance according to what the technology is claimed to do, whether it has been validated and is reliable, and if it is suitable for general consumer use. Consumers who are choosing new technology should consider whether it (1 produces desirable (or non-desirable outcomes, (2 has been developed based on real-world need, and (3 has been tested and proven effective in applied studies in different settings. Among the technologies included in this review, more than half have not been validated through independent research. Only 5% of the technologies have been formally validated. Around 10% of technologies have been developed for and used in research. The value of such technologies for consumer use is debatable, however, because they may require extra time to set up and interpret the data they produce. Looking to the future, the rapidly expanding market of health and sports performance technology has much to offer consumers. To create a competitive advantage, companies producing health and performance technologies should consult with consumers to identify real-world need, and invest in research to prove the effectiveness of their products. To get the best value, consumers should carefully select such products, not only based on their personal needs, but also according to the

  12. Modelling of air quality for Winter and Summer episodes in Switzerland. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Barmpadimos, L.; Oderbolz, D.; Tinguely, M.; Prevot, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Villigen (Switzerland); Alfarra, R. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sandradewi, J. [Jisca Sandradewi, Hoexter (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    This final report issued by the General Energy Research Department and its Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) reports on the results obtained from the modelling of regional air quality for three episodes, January-February 2006, June 2006 and January 2007. The focus of the calculations is on particulate matter concentrations, as well as on ozone levels in summer. The model results were compared with the aerosol data collected by an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), which was operated during all three episodes as well as with the air quality monitoring data from further monitoring programs. The air quality model used in this study is described and the results obtained for various types of locations - rural, city, high-altitude and motorway-near - are presented and discussed. The models used are described.

  13. Rare presentation of intralobar pulmonary sequestration associated with repeated episodes of ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D Sheshagiri; Barik, Ramachandra

    2016-07-26

    Arterial supply of an intralobar pulmonary sequestration (IPS) from the coronary circulation is extremely rare. A significant coronary steal does not occur because of dual or triple sources of blood supply to sequestrated lung tissue. We present a 60-year-old woman who presented to us with repeated episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) in last 3 mo. Radio frequency ablation was ineffective. On evaluation, she had right lower lobe IPS with dual arterial blood supply, i.e., right pulmonary artery and the systemic arterial supply from the right coronary artery (RCA). Stress myocardial perfusion scan revealed significant inducible ischemia in the RCA territory. Coronary angiogram revealed critical stenosis of proximal RCA just after the origin of the systemic artery supplying IPS. The critical stenosis in the RCA was stented. At 12 mo follow-up, she had no further episodes of VT or angina.

  14. Methodology for the location of PMU for the monitoring of critical oscillations in power systems; Metodologia para la ubicacion de PMU para el monitoreo de oscilaciones criticas en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon Guizar, Jorge Guillermo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The deregulation and restructuring undergone by the electrical industry, as well as the tendency at world-wide level of reorganization in generation, transmission and distribution units has brought about, as a consequence, drastic changes in the operation of the electric power systems. The difficulties to construct new transmission power lines and the continuous increase in the electricity consumption are forcing more and more to operate the electric power systems every time nearer their safety limits. Nevertheless, to assure the system reliability without mattering what so plaintiff is the operating condition is a requirement that the electrical companies must satisfy. This panorama has motivated and impelled the use of new technologies for the critical indicators the monitoring that allow the electrical companies to guarantee the system safe operation. In this paper a methodology for the location of Fasorial Measurement Units, better known as FMU for the monitoring of the critical oscillation modes in the electric power systems is presented. [Spanish] La desregulacion y reestructuracion experimentada por la industria electrica, asi como la tendencia a nivel mundial de reorganizacion en unidades de generacion, transmision y distribucion ha traido como consecuencia cambios drasticos en la operacion de los sistemas electricos de potencia. Las dificultades para construir nuevas lineas de transmision y el incremento continuo en el consumo de electricidad estan forzando a operar el sistema electrico de potencia cada vez mas cerca de sus limites de seguridad. Sin embargo, asegurar la confiabilidad del sistema sin importar que tan demandante sea la condicion de operacion es un requisito que las companias electricas deben satisfacer. Este panorama ha motivado e impulsado el uso de nuevas tecnologias para el monitoreo de indicadores criticos que permitan a las companias electricas garantizar una operacion segura del sistema. En este trabajo se presenta una metodologia para

  15. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  16. The reduction of adult neurogenesis in depression impairs the retrieval of new as well as remote episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Demic, Selver; Cheng, Sen

    2018-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an impairment of episodic memory, but the mechanisms underlying this deficit remain unclear. Animal models of MDD find impaired adult neurogenesis (AN) in the dentate gyrus (DG), and AN in DG has been suggested to play a critical role in reducing the interference between overlapping memories through pattern separation. Here, we study the effect of reduced AN in MDD on the accuracy of episodic memory using computational modeling. We focus on how memory is affected when periods with a normal rate of AN (asymptomatic states) alternate with periods with a low rate (depressive episodes), which has never been studied before. Also, unlike previous models of adult neurogenesis, which consider memories as static patterns, we model episodic memory as sequences of neural activity patterns. In our model, AN adds additional random components to the memory patterns, which results in the decorrelation of similar patterns. Consistent with previous studies, higher rates of AN lead to higher memory accuracy in our model, which implies that memories stored in the depressive state are impaired. Intriguingly, our model makes the novel prediction that memories stored in an earlier asymptomatic state are also impaired by a later depressive episode. This retrograde effect exacerbates with increased duration of the depressive episode. Finally, pattern separation at the sensory processing stage does not improve, but rather worsens, the accuracy of episodic memory retrieval, suggesting an explanation for why AN is found in brain areas serving memory rather than sensory function. In conclusion, while cognitive retrieval biases might contribute to episodic memory deficits in MDD, our model suggests a mechanistic explanation that affects all episodic memories, regardless of emotional relevance.

  17. The reduction of adult neurogenesis in depression impairs the retrieval of new as well as remote episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Demic, Selver; Cheng, Sen

    2018-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an impairment of episodic memory, but the mechanisms underlying this deficit remain unclear. Animal models of MDD find impaired adult neurogenesis (AN) in the dentate gyrus (DG), and AN in DG has been suggested to play a critical role in reducing the interference between overlapping memories through pattern separation. Here, we study the effect of reduced AN in MDD on the accuracy of episodic memory using computational modeling. We focus on how memory is affected when periods with a normal rate of AN (asymptomatic states) alternate with periods with a low rate (depressive episodes), which has never been studied before. Also, unlike previous models of adult neurogenesis, which consider memories as static patterns, we model episodic memory as sequences of neural activity patterns. In our model, AN adds additional random components to the memory patterns, which results in the decorrelation of similar patterns. Consistent with previous studies, higher rates of AN lead to higher memory accuracy in our model, which implies that memories stored in the depressive state are impaired. Intriguingly, our model makes the novel prediction that memories stored in an earlier asymptomatic state are also impaired by a later depressive episode. This retrograde effect exacerbates with increased duration of the depressive episode. Finally, pattern separation at the sensory processing stage does not improve, but rather worsens, the accuracy of episodic memory retrieval, suggesting an explanation for why AN is found in brain areas serving memory rather than sensory function. In conclusion, while cognitive retrieval biases might contribute to episodic memory deficits in MDD, our model suggests a mechanistic explanation that affects all episodic memories, regardless of emotional relevance. PMID:29879169

  18. The contributions of handedness and working memory to episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aparna; Christman, Stephen D; Propper, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    Past studies have independently shown associations of working memory and degree of handedness with episodic memory retrieval. The current study takes a step ahead by examining whether handedness and working memory independently predict episodic memory. In agreement with past studies, there was an inconsistent-handed advantage for episodic memory; however, this advantage was absent for working memory tasks. Furthermore, regression analyses showed handedness, and complex working memory predicted episodic memory performance at different times. Results are discussed in light of theories of episodic memory and hemispheric interaction.

  19. Neuropsychological Impairment in Prodromal, First-Episode, and Chronic Psychosis: Assessing RBANS Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William S.; Woodberry, Kristen A.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tang, YingYing; Guo, Qian; Zhuo, KaiMing; Qian, ZhenYing; Cui, HuiRu; Zhu, YiKang; Jiang, LiJuan; Chow, Annabelle; Tang, YunXiang; Li, ChunBo; Jiang, KaiDa; Yi, ZhengHui; Xiao, ZePing; Wang, JiJun

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits are observed throughout all developmental phases of psychosis. However, prior studies have usually focused on a limited illness period and used a wide variety of cognitive instruments. Therefore, it has been difficult to characterize or highlight cognitive functioning in different stages of psychosis. Method We administered the RBANS (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status) tests to 4 participant subgroups, including healthy volunteers (controls, HC, n = 28), subjects at high risk for clinical psychosis (prodrome, CHR, n = 27), first-episode schizophrenia patients (FE-Sz, n = 26), and mid-term and long-term chronic schizophrenia patients (Ch-Sz, n =147). Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses of RBANS index scores were assessed among groups. We examined clinical outcomes over 2 years between the CHR and HC subjects, and RBANS domains were used as possible predictors for conversion to psychosis. Results Performance on all RBANS domains was significantly impaired during a post-onset stage of psychosis (FE-Sz and Ch-Sz), and RBANS scores declined along with disease progression. Regression analyses showed that for CHR and HC subjects, baseline impairment in delayed memory (DM) significantly predicted conversion to psychosis. Additionally, partial correlations showed that for FE-Sz and Ch-Sz subjects, DM was the only correlate with a later stage of psychosis. Conclusions Cognitive deficits broadly emerged, and diminished functioning followed along with disease progression. Impairment in DM is perhaps one domain that helps us understand the development of psychosis. A critical need is to monitor and treat memory functioning for psychotic patients throughout all phases of the disease. PMID:25973925

  20. Autobiographical Memory and Episodic Future Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Recalling the past and imagining the future is thought to employ very similar cognitive mechanisms. The strategic retrieval of specific past autobiographical events has been shown to depend on executive processes, and to be affected by cue imageability. The cognitive mechanisms underlying...... that autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking were affected similarly by cue imageability, suggesting that retrieval strategy can be manipulated in similar ways for both temporal directions. Furthermore, executive control processes (as measured by verbal fluency) was correlated with fluency and number...... of details in both memories and future thoughts, indicating the involvement of some common component processes in autobiographical memory and future thinking....

  1. Monitorización de úlceras por presión en una Unidad de cuidados intensivos Monitorization of pressure ulcers in a critical care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Esperón Güimil

    2007-09-01

    frequent localizations: sacrum and heels and nose, lips, ears for the iatrogenic ones. Causal factors of IPU: 49% were caused by endotraqueal tube and fixation system; 42% by nasogastric tube. The highest number of lesions was registered in surgical patients. Average patient: male, 63 years old, surgical diagnosis, high risk of suffering PU. A statistically significant association could only be established between the no. of PUs and the use of special surfaces for the handling of the pressure (S.D.: -0,553; 95% CI: -1,089, -0,017, p= 0, 04. Discussion: An important factor in the appearance of the PUs appears to be iatrogenic causes. To classify patients according to their risk of suffering PUs, it is critical to carry out a continuous assessment. The use of special surfaces for the handling of the pressure has a positive influence in the mean number of PUs patients present.

  2. Lifespan trends of autobiographical remembering: episodicity and search for meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena; Welzer, Harald

    2013-09-01

    Autobiographical memories of older adults show fewer episodic and more non-episodic elements than those of younger adults. This semantization effect is attributed to a loss of episodic memory ability. However the alternative explanation by an increasing proclivity to search for meaning has not been ruled out to date. To test whether a decrease in episodicity and an increase in meaning-making in autobiographical narratives are related across the lifespan, we used different instructions, one focussing on specific episodes, the other on embedding events in life, in two lifespan samples. A continuous decrease of episodic quality of memory (memory specificity, narrative quality) was confirmed. An increase of search for meaning (interpretation, life story integration) was confirmed only up to middle adulthood. This non-inverse development of episodicity and searching for meaning in older age speaks for an autonomous semantization effect that is not merely due to an increase in interpretative preferences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. On the Development of Episodic Memory: Two Basic Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonna Jelsbak; Sonne, Trine; Kingo, Osman Skjold

    2013-01-01

    In this focused review we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?”, and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory...... is outlined. We argue in favor of employing a definition of episodic memory allowing us to investigate the development of episodic memory by purely behavioral measures. Second, research related to each of the two questions are presented and discussed, at first separately, and subsequently together. We argue...... and attempt to demonstrate, that pursuing answers to both questions is of crucial importance – both conceptually and methodologically - if we are ever to understand the early development of episodic memory. ...

  4. Critical Jostling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pippin Barr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.

  5. Critical Proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how w...

  6. Neutrophils in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Braedon

    2018-03-01

    During critical illness, dramatic alterations in neutrophil biology are observed including abnormalities of granulopoeisis and lifespan, cell trafficking and antimicrobial effector functions. As a result, neutrophils transition from powerful antimicrobial protectors into dangerous mediators of tissue injury and organ dysfunction. In this article, the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of critical illness (sepsis, trauma, burns and others) will be explored, including pathological changes to neutrophil function during critical illness and the utility of monitoring aspects of the neutrophil phenotype as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognostication. Lastly, we review findings from clinical trials of therapies that target the harmful effects of neutrophils, providing a bench-to-bedside perspective on neutrophils in critical illness.

  7. Trace gas variations at Cape Point, South Africa, during May 1997 following a regional biomass burning episode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brunke, EG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available During the continuous monitoring of atmospheric parameters at the station Cape Point (34 degrees S, 18 degrees E), a smoke plume originating from a controlled fire of 30 year old fynbos was observed on 6 May 1997. For this episode, which...

  8. Episodic grammar: a computational model of the interaction between episodic and semantic memory in language processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, G.; Zuidema, W.; Carlson, L.; Hoelscher, C.; Shipley, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model of the interaction of semantic and episodic memory in language processing. Our work shows how language processing can be understood in terms of memory retrieval. We point out that the perceived dichotomy between rule-based versus exemplar-based language modelling can be

  9. Episodic memory for human-like agents and human-like agents for episodic memory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brom, C.; Lukavský, Jiří; Kadlec, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 227-244 ISSN 1793-8473 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : episodic memory * virtual agent * modelling Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.worldscinet.com/ijmc/02/0202/S1793843010000461.html

  10. Esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH-testing in the study of apparent life threatening episode incidents in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blasco-Alonso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The conventional 24-hour pH monitoring is the gold standard for the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER, a possible cause of Apparent Life Threatening Episodes (ALTE. However, multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII may provide advantages. Objectives: Comparison of the results of MII and pH monitoring in patients undergoing MII-pH monitoring in the 3-year study period because of having suffered from ALTE. Material and methods: Prospective study of MII-pH monitoring performed in our unit to infants 5 min per patient and clearance of 1.20 (IQ: 0.70-2.20 min/reflux. With pH monitoring analysis, 14 children (35.9 % could have been diagnosed as GER (8 mild, 4 moderate and 2 severe based on the classical criteria. MII identified a total of 8,895 events; only 3,219 among them were refluxes, with a median of 75 (IQ: 54-111 per patient, 1.30 (IQ: 1.3-2.6 episodes/hour. With MII-pH monitoring combination there were 21.60 (SD 15.21 acid reflux episodes, 67.33 weekly acid (SD 32.09 and 3.34 (SD 7.23 non-acid, being finally diagnosed 33 patients as GER. Conclusions: The association of pH monitoring and MII provides additional information that improves GER diagnostic performance without posing any additional risk to the infant patient. The non-acid/weekly acid refluxes, not detected by pH monitoring, account for a high percentage of episodes, this may have diagnostic and therapeutic significance, especially in infants. Further studies are needed to assess the normality of MMI in pediatric patients.

  11. Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation and mistakes in LCA studies are as old as the tool itself, and so is its critical review. Besides preventing misuse and unsupported claims, critical review may also help identifying mistakes and more justifiable assumptions as well as generally improve the quality of a study. It thus...... supports the robustness of an LCA and increases trust in its results and conclusions. The focus of this chapter is on understanding what a critical review is, how the international standards define it, what its main elements are, and what reviewer qualifications are required. It is not the objective...... of this chapter to learn how to conduct a critical review, neither from a reviewer nor from a practitioner perspective. The foundation of this chapter and the basis for any critical review of LCA studies are the International Standards ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006 and ISO TS 14071:2014....

  12. Variation in payments for spine surgery episodes of care: implications for episode-based bundled payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Elyne N; Ellimoottil, Chandy; Dupree, James M; Park, Paul; Ryan, Andrew M

    2018-05-25

    OBJECTIVE Spine surgery is expensive and marked by high variation across regions and providers. Bundled payments have potential to reduce unwarranted spending associated with spine surgery. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of commercial and Medicare claims data from January 2012 through March 2015 in the state of Michigan. The objective was to quantify variation in payments for spine surgery in adult patients, document sources of variation, and determine influence of patient-level, surgeon-level, and hospital-level factors. METHODS Hierarchical regression models were used to analyze contributions of patient-level covariates and influence of individual surgeons and hospitals. The primary outcome was price-standardized 90-day episode payments. Intraclass correlation coefficients-measures of variability accounted for by each level of a hierarchical model-were used to quantify sources of spending variation. RESULTS The authors analyzed 17,436 spine surgery episodes performed by 195 surgeons at 50 hospitals. Mean price-standardized 90-day episode payments in the highest spending quintile exceeded mean payments for episodes in the lowest cost quintile by $42,953 (p accounting for patient-level covariates, the remaining hospital-level and surgeon-level effects accounted for 2.0% (95% CI 1.1%-3.8%) and 4.0% (95% CI 2.9%-5.6%) of total variation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Significant variation exists in total episode payments for spine surgery, driven mostly by variation in post-discharge and facility payments. Hospital and surgeon effects account for relatively little of the observed variation.

  13. Risk Factors for a Second Episode of Hemoptysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Seki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Hemoptysis is an alarming symptom of underlying lung disease. Clinicians are often unsure how to deal with and follow up patients who have had a single episode of hemoptysis, especially if the cause remains unknown despite thorough examination, because a second, more severe episode of hemoptysis might occur despite an apparently stable condition. Investigations were done, using multivariate analyses, to see whether several clinical factors present during an initial episode of hemoptysis could be used to predict a second episode. Subjects and Methods Eighty patients with an initial episode of hemoptysis who underwent both computed tomographic and bronchoscopic examinations from 2003 through 2005 were reviewed. Results The isolation of bacteria from bronchial lavage fluid (odds ratio 13.5, P = 0.001 and the failure to determine the cause of the initial episode of hemoptysis (odds ratio 7.0, P = 0.014 were significant independent predictors of a second episode of hemoptysis. Subset analysis showed that isolation of either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Haemophilus influenzae increased the likelihood of a second episode of hemoptysis (P = 0.077, even if colonization, representing host-bacterial equilibrium, had occurred. Furthermore, the failure to determine the etiology of an initial episode of hemoptysis was associated with an increased risk of a massive second episode (P = 0.042, regardless of the volume of the initial episode. Conclusions In patients with bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract or an initial episode of hemoptysis of unknown etiology, there is an increased possibility of a second episode of hemoptysis.

  14. Selective deficits in episodic feeling of knowing in ageing: a novel use of the general knowledge task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morson, Suzannah M; Moulin, Chris J A; Souchay, Céline

    2015-05-01

    Failure to recall an item from memory can be accompanied by the subjective experience that the item is known but currently unavailable for report. The feeling of knowing (FOK) task allows measurement of the predictive accuracy of this reflective judgement. Young and older adults were asked to provide answers to general knowledge questions both prior to and after learning, thus measuring both semantic and episodic memory for the items. FOK judgements were made at each stage for all unrecalled responses, providing a measure of predictive accuracy for semantic and episodic knowledge. Results demonstrated a selective effect of age on episodic FOK resolution, with older adults found to have impaired episodic FOK accuracy while semantic FOK accuracy remained intact. Although recall and recognition measures of episodic memory are equivalent between the two age groups, older adults may have been unable to access contextual details on which to base their FOK judgements. The results suggest that older adults are not able to accurately predict future recognition of unrecalled episodic information, and consequently may have difficulties in monitoring recently encoded memories. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Soldiers, Angels and Women: the episode of the empty Tomb in Ist and IInd Century Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano SPLÉNDIDO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The narration of the Passion of the Christ was an apologetic tool essential for the ?rst christians because it provided them with a soteriologist perspective and, also, re?ected the political and social experiences of the writing communities. The episodes of Jesus’ arrest and death were accounts clearly meant for polemics not only with externals, jews and gentiles, but also with other Christian ?owings. On the basis of this notion we propose to analyse the episode of Jesus’ women disciples in front of the empty sepulchre from a historic perspective which will explain the changes that have taken place as a result of the positions and interests of the different writers. To do this, we will move around a time span which goes from the middle of the decade of the 70’s in Ist century up to the end of IInd century. We will begin the analysis with the Gospel of Mark, the ?rst testimony of the episode of the empty tomb. This episode is considered a novelty which comes from the Christian-helenistic circle of Antioch, since Paul did not seem to have known about it in his letters. Then we will proceed to consider the versions proposed by the Gospels of Matthew, Luke, John, the Epistula Apostolorum and the Gospel of Peter. As a closing element and also to provide a ?nal balance we will turn to the opinion of the pagan critic Celsus.

  16. Sewage Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  17. Oscillator monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Present high-speed data acquisition systems in nuclear diagnostics use high-frequency oscillators to provide timing references for signals recorded on fast, traveling-wave oscilloscopes. An oscillator's sinusoidal wave shape is superimposed on the recorded signal with each cycle representing a fixed time increment. During data analysis the sinusoid is stripped from the signal, leaving a clean signal shape with known timing. Since all signal/time relationships are totally dependant upon working oscillators, these critical devices must have remote verification of proper operation. This manual presents the newly-developed oscillator monitor which will provide the required verification

  18. Emerging Directions in Emotional Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcos, Florin; Katsumi, Yuta; Weymar, Mathias; Moore, Matthew; Tsukiura, Takashi; Dolcos, Sanda

    2017-01-01

    Building upon the existing literature on emotional memory, the present review examines emerging evidence from brain imaging investigations regarding four research directions: (1) Social Emotional Memory, (2) The Role of Emotion Regulation in the Impact of Emotion on Memory, (3) The Impact of Emotion on Associative or Relational Memory, and (4) The Role of Individual Differences in Emotional Memory. Across these four domains, available evidence demonstrates that emotion- and memory-related medial temporal lobe brain regions (amygdala and hippocampus, respectively), together with prefrontal cortical regions, play a pivotal role during both encoding and retrieval of emotional episodic memories. This evidence sheds light on the neural mechanisms of emotional memories in healthy functioning, and has important implications for understanding clinical conditions that are associated with negative affective biases in encoding and retrieving emotional memories. PMID:29255432

  19. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies in episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Brainerd, C J

    2017-09-01

    It has recently been found that episodic memory displays analogues of the well-known disjunction and conjunction fallacies of probability judgement. The aim of the present research was, for the first time, to study these memory fallacies together under the same conditions, and test theoretical predictions about the reasons for each. The focus was on predictions about the influence of semantic gist, target versus context recollection, and proactive versus retroactive interference. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies increased in conditions in which subjects were able to form semantic connections among list words. In addition, disjunction fallacies were increased by manipulations that minimised proactive interference, whereas conjunction fallacies were increased by manipulations that minimised retroactive interference. That pattern suggests that disjunction fallacies are more dependent on target recollection, whereas conjunction fallacies are more dependent on context recollection.

  20. Certain number-theoretic episodes in algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaramakrishnan, R

    2006-01-01

    Many basic ideas of algebra and number theory intertwine, making it ideal to explore both at the same time. Certain Number-Theoretic Episodes in Algebra focuses on some important aspects of interconnections between number theory and commutative algebra. Using a pedagogical approach, the author presents the conceptual foundations of commutative algebra arising from number theory. Self-contained, the book examines situations where explicit algebraic analogues of theorems of number theory are available. Coverage is divided into four parts, beginning with elements of number theory and algebra such as theorems of Euler, Fermat, and Lagrange, Euclidean domains, and finite groups. In the second part, the book details ordered fields, fields with valuation, and other algebraic structures. This is followed by a review of fundamentals of algebraic number theory in the third part. The final part explores links with ring theory, finite dimensional algebras, and the Goldbach problem.

  1. Design Challenges of an Episode-Based Payment Model in Oncology: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Oncology Care Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Ronald M; Muldoon, L Daniel; Schumacher, Heidi K; Strawbridge, Larisa M; York, Andrew W; Mortimer, Laura K; Falb, Alison F; Cox, Katherine J; Bazell, Carol; Lukens, Ellen W; Kapp, Mary C; Rajkumar, Rahul; Bassano, Amy; Conway, Patrick H

    2017-07-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services developed the Oncology Care Model as an episode-based payment model to encourage participating practitioners to provide higher-quality, better-coordinated care at a lower cost to the nearly three-quarter million fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with cancer who receive chemotherapy each year. Episode payment models can be complex. They combine into a single benchmark price all payments for services during an episode of illness, many of which may be delivered at different times by different providers in different locations. Policy and technical decisions include the definition of the episode, including its initiation, duration, and included services; the identification of beneficiaries included in the model; and beneficiary attribution to practitioners with overall responsibility for managing their care. In addition, the calculation and risk adjustment of benchmark episode prices for the bundle of services must reflect geographic cost variations and diverse patient populations, including varying disease subtypes, medical comorbidities, changes in standards of care over time, the adoption of expensive new drugs (especially in oncology), as well as diverse practice patterns. Other steps include timely monitoring and intervention as needed to avoid shifting the attribution of beneficiaries on the basis of their expected episode expenditures as well as to ensure the provision of necessary medical services and the development of a meaningful link to quality measurement and improvement through the episode-based payment methodology. The complex and diverse nature of oncology business relationships and the specific rules and requirements of Medicare payment systems for different types of providers intensify these issues. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services believes that by sharing its approach to addressing these decisions and challenges, it may facilitate greater understanding of the model within the oncology

  2. Recovery from episodes during the course of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the duration of treated episodes changes during the course of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder. METHOD: The rate of recovery from successive hospitalized episodes was estimated with survival analyses in a case-register study...... including all hospital admissions with primary affective disorder in Denmark during the period 1971-1993. RESULTS: A total of 9174 patients with recurrent episodes were followed from their first admission. The rate of recovery from hospitalized episodes did not change with the number of episodes in unipolar...... or bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the rate of recovery was constant across episodes, regardless of the combination of age, gender and type of disorder. Initially in the course of the illness, the rate was a little faster for bipolar than for unipolar patients, but later in the course of the illness the rate...

  3. Severity of depressive episodes according to ICD-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ICD-10 categorisation of severity of depression into mild, moderate and severe depressive episodes has not been validated. AIMS: To validate the ICD-10 categorisation of severity of depression by estimating its predictive ability on the course of illness and suicidal outcome. METHOD......: All psychiatric in-patients in Denmark who had received a diagnosis of a single depressive episode at their first discharge between 1994 and 1999 were identified. The risk of relapse and the risk of suicide were compared for patients discharged with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single mild, moderate...... or severe depressive episode. RESULTS: At their first discharge, 1103 patients had an ICD-10 diagnosis of mild depressive episode, 3182 had a diagnosis of moderate depressive episode and 2914 had a diagnosis of severe depressive episode. The risk of relapse and the risk of suicide were significantly...

  4. Critical Arts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both formal and informal) in culture and social theory. CRITICAL ARTS aims to challenge and ... Book Review: Brian McNair, An Introduction to Political Communication (3rd edition), London: Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0415307082, 272pp. Phil Joffe ...

  5. Critical Proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Simon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  6. Critical proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.

  7. Forecasting long-range atmospheric transport episodes of polychlorinated biphenyls using FLEXPART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Anne Karine; Eckhardt, Sabine; Schlabach, Martin; Stohl, Andreas; Breivik, Knut

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air is costly and can only be done for a limited number of samples. It is thus beneficial to maximize the information content of the samples analyzed via a targeted observation strategy. Using polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as an example, a forecasting system to predict and evaluate long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) episodes of POPs at a remote site in southern Norway has been developed. The system uses the Lagrangian particle transport model FLEXPART, and can be used for triggering extra ("targeted") sampling when LRAT episodes are predicted to occur. The system was evaluated by comparing targeted samples collected over 12-25 h during individual LRAT episodes with monitoring samples regularly collected over one day per week throughout a year. Measured concentrations in all targeted samples were above the 75th percentile of the concentrations obtained from the regular monitoring program and included the highest measured values of all samples. This clearly demonstrates the success of the targeted sampling strategy.

  8. Visual associations cued recall A Paradigm for Measuring Episodic Memory Decline in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sascha R A; Spaan, Pauline E J; Boelaarts, Leo; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Schmand, Ben; de Jonghe, Jos F M

    2016-09-01

    Repeated measurements of episodic memory are needed for monitoring amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most episodic memory tests may pose a challenge to patients, even when they are in the milder stages of the disease. This cross-sectional study compared floor effects of the Visual Association Test (VAT) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in healthy elderly controls and in patients with aMCI or AD (N = 125). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether linear or quadratic trends best fitted the data of cognitive test performance across global cognitive impairment. Results showed that VAT total scores decreased linearly across the range of global cognitive impairment, whereas RAVLT total scores showed a quadratic trend, with total scores levelling off for 90% of aMCI patients and 94% of AD patients. We conclude that the VAT shows few if any floor effects in patients with aMCI and mild AD and is therefore a potentially promising cognitive test for monitoring episodic memory impairment.

  9. Criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.

    1983-01-01

    When a sufficient quantity of fissile material is brought together a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction will be started in it and will continue until some change occurs in the fissile material to stop the chain reaction. The quantity of fissile material required is the 'Critical Mass'. This is not a fixed quantity even for a given type of fissile material but varies between quite wide limits depending on a number of factors. In a nuclear reactor the critical mass of fissile material is assembled under well-defined condition to produce a controllable chain reaction. The same materials have to be handled outside the reactor in all stages of fuel element manufacture, storage, transport and irradiated fuel reprocessing. At any stage it is possible (at least in principle) to assemble a critical mass and thus initiate an accidental and uncontrollable chain reaction. Avoiding this is what criticality safety is all about. A system is just critical when the rate of production of neutrons balances the rate of loss either by escape or by absorption. The factors affecting criticality are, therefore, those which effect neutron production and loss. The principal ones are:- type of nuclide and enrichment (or isotopic composition), moderation, reflection, concentration (density), shape and interaction. Each factor is considered in detail. (author)

  10. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  11. Reduced context effects on retrieval in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M Talamini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent modeling study by the authors predicted that contextual information is poorly integrated into episodic representations in schizophrenia, and that this is a main cause of the retrieval deficits seen in schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have tested this prediction in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and matched controls. The benefit from contextual cues in retrieval was strongly reduced in patients. On the other hand, retrieval based on item cues was spared. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that reduced integration of context information into episodic representations is a core deficit in schizophrenia and one of the main causes of episodic memory impairment.

  12. Neonatal episodic hypoglycemia: a finding of valproic acid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoban, Dilek; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Akın, Mustafa Ali; Akçakuş, Mustafa; Güneş, Tamer

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of epilepsy during pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Drugs need to be used to control seizures in the mothers. In utero, exposure to valproic acid (VPA) and phenytoin (PH) may cause congenital malformations and also withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, jitteriness and symptoms of hypoglycemia. We present here a newborn with episodic hypoglycemia due to in utero exposure to VPA and PH. The mother was diagnosed as having complex partial epilepsy and was treated with PH (200 mg/day) and VPA (600 mg/day). The offspring developed jitteriness on the second day of life. The infant was hypoglycemic (32 mg/dl). These findings were accepted as withdrawal symptoms, since serum levels of VPA and PH were 37.8 μg/ml (50-100 μg/ml) and 6.37 μg/dl (10-20 μg/ml), respectively. Measurement of blood glucose is important and should be carefully monitored in infants exposed to antiepileptics in utero.

  13. Learning to remember: The early ontogeny of episodic memory☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, Sinéad L.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years the neural correlates of human episodic memory have been the focus of intense neuroscientific scrutiny. By contrast, neuroscience has paid substantially less attention to understanding the emergence of this neurocognitive system. In this review we consider how the study of memory development has evolved. In doing so, we concentrate primarily on the first postnatal year because it is within this time window that the most dramatic shifts in scientific opinion have occurred. Moreover, this time frame includes the critical age (∼9 months) at which human infants purportedly first begin to demonstrate rudimentary hippocampal-dependent memory. We review the evidence for and against this assertion, note the lack of direct neurocognitive data speaking to this issue, and question how demonstrations of exuberant relational learning and memory in infants as young as 3-months old can be accommodated within extant models. Finally, we discuss whether current impasses in the infant memory literature could be leveraged by making greater use of neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which have been deployed so successfully in adults. PMID:24480487

  14. Effect of general anesthesia and major versus minor surgery on late postoperative episodic and constant hypoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Oturai, P; Erichsen, C J

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relative contribution of general anesthesia alone and in combination with the surgical procedure to the pathogenesis of late postoperative hypoxemia. DESIGN: Open, controlled study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: 60 patients undergoing major abdominal...... surgery and 16 patients undergoing middle ear surgery, both with comparable general anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were monitored with continuous pulse oximetry on one preoperative night and the second postoperative night. Significant episodic or constant hypoxemia did not occur...... on the second postoperative night following middle ear surgery and general anesthesia, but severe episodic and constant hypoxemia did occur on the second postoperative after major abdominal surgery and general anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: General anesthesia in itself is not an important factor in the development...

  15. An episodic specificity induction enhances means-end problem solving in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-12-01

    Episodic memory plays an important role not only in remembering past experiences, but also in constructing simulations of future experiences and solving means-end social problems. We recently found that an episodic specificity induction-brief training in recollecting details of past experiences-enhances performance of young and older adults on memory and imagination tasks. Here we tested the hypothesis that this specificity induction would also positively impact a means-end problem-solving task on which age-related changes have been linked to impaired episodic memory. Young and older adults received the specificity induction or a control induction before completing a means-end problem-solving task, as well as memory and imagination tasks. Consistent with previous findings, older adults provided fewer relevant steps on problem solving than did young adults, and their responses also contained fewer internal (i.e., episodic) details across the 3 tasks. There was no difference in the number of other (e.g., irrelevant) steps on problem solving or external (i.e., semantic) details generated on the 3 tasks as a function of age. Critically, the specificity induction increased the number of relevant steps and internal details (but not other steps or external details) that both young and older adults generated in problem solving compared with the control induction, as well as the number of internal details (but not external details) generated for memory and imagination. Our findings support the idea that episodic retrieval processes are involved in means-end problem solving, extend the range of tasks on which a specificity induction targets these processes, and show that the problem-solving performance of older adults can benefit from a specificity induction as much as that of young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Characterizing episodic memory retrieval: electrophysiological evidence for diminished familiarity following unitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Lea K; Murray, Jamie G; Donaldson, David I

    2012-08-01

    Episodic memory relies on both recollection and familiarity; why these processes are differentially engaged during retrieval remains unclear. Traditionally, recollection has been considered necessary for tasks requiring associative retrieval, whereas familiarity supports recognition of items. Recently, however, familiarity has been shown to contribute to associative recognition if stimuli are "unitized" at encoding (a single representation is created from multiple elements)-the "benefit" of unitization. Here, we ask if there is also a "cost" of unitization; are the elements of unitized representations less accessible via familiarity? We manipulated unitization during encoding and used ERPs to index familiarity and recollection at retrieval. The data revealed a selective reduction in the neural correlate of familiarity for individual words originally encoded in unitized compared with nonunitized word pairs. This finding reveals a measurable cost of unitization, suggesting that the nature of to-be-remembered stimuli is critical in determining whether familiarity contributes to episodic memory.

  17. Narrative organisation at encoding facilitated children's long-term episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Bui, Van-Kim; Song, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of narrative organisation at encoding on long-term episodic memory in a sample of five- to seven-year-old children (N = 113). At an initial interview, children were asked to narrate a story from a picture book. Six months later, they were interviewed again and asked to recall the story and answer a series of direct questions about the story. Children who initially encoded more information in narrative and produced more complete, complex, cohesive and coherent narratives remembered the story in greater detail and accuracy following the six-month interval, independent of age and verbal skills. The relation between narrative organisation and memory was consistent across culture and gender. These findings provide new insight into the critical role of narrative in episodic memory.

  18. The OCAPI collaborative platform: study of two particle pollution episodes in 2016 in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, Gilles; Michoud, Vincent; Formenti, Paola; Gratien, Aline; Beekmann, Matthias; Peinado, Florian; Favez, Olivier; Haeffelin, Martial; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Bodichon, Renaud; Gros, Valérie; Ghersi, Véronique; Meleux, Frédérik; Xuéref-Rémy, Irène

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution and its impacts are subject to an expanded interest since the middle of the 20th century, especially in urban areas which gathered an important part of emission sources. These polluted urban air masses are composed by a complex mixture of gases and aerosols coming from various emission sources (vehicular traffic, industries, residential heating, agricultural activities, natural sources) or chemical processes. To efficiently reduce this pollution and its impacts on population, it is important to understand its drivers, its sources and its impact on human health. To get some insights in Paris air pollution, a collaborative measurement platform called OCAPI ("Observation de la Composition Atmosphérique Parisienne de l'IPSL") has been built and implies several Parisian research laboratories of IPSL institute (CEREA, LSCE, LMD, LISA, LATMOS, LERMA and METIS) as well as public agencies and institutes in charge of Paris air pollution monitoring (AIRPARIF, INERIS). OCAPI platform aims at gathering skills and instruments of these laboratories to measure the composition and dynamics of Paris atmosphere. In this framework, multi-site measurements were performed during two intense particle pollution episodes which occurred in March 2016 and between November and December 2016. These two episodes were characterized by different meteorological conditions and different type of emission sources. Indeed, March episode was related to intense agricultural activities and high ammonium nitrate contribution to aerosol composition; while end of year episode was related to low wind speed, cold conditions and thin boundary layer which favoured the stagnation of locally emitted pollutants. This latter episode was characterized by large contribution of organics in aerosol composition. In this presentation, a study of these two episodes will be presented. We will first present the context and the OCAPI platform. Then, first results of dynamics and aerosol composition

  19. Transformed Neural Pattern Reinstatement during Episodic Memory Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaoqian; Dong, Qi; Gao, Jiahong; Men, Weiwei; Poldrack, Russell A; Xue, Gui

    2017-03-15

    Contemporary models of episodic memory posit that remembering involves the reenactment of encoding processes. Although encoding-retrieval similarity has been consistently reported and linked to memory success, the nature of neural pattern reinstatement is poorly understood. Using high-resolution fMRI on human subjects, our results obtained clear evidence for item-specific pattern reinstatement in the frontoparietal cortex, even when the encoding-retrieval pairs shared no perceptual similarity. No item-specific pattern reinstatement was found in the ventral visual cortex. Importantly, the brain regions and voxels carrying item-specific representation differed significantly between encoding and retrieval, and the item specificity for encoding-retrieval similarity was smaller than that for encoding or retrieval, suggesting different nature of representations between encoding and retrieval. Moreover, cross-region representational similarity analysis suggests that the encoded representation in the ventral visual cortex was reinstated in the frontoparietal cortex during retrieval. Together, these results suggest that, in addition to reinstatement of the originally encoded pattern in the brain regions that perform encoding processes, retrieval may also involve the reinstatement of a transformed representation of the encoded information. These results emphasize the constructive nature of memory retrieval that helps to serve important adaptive functions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Episodic memory enables humans to vividly reexperience past events, yet how this is achieved at the neural level is barely understood. A long-standing hypothesis posits that memory retrieval involves the faithful reinstatement of encoding-related activity. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the neural representations during encoding and retrieval. We found strong pattern reinstatement in the frontoparietal cortex, but not in the ventral visual cortex, that represents visual details. Critically

  20. Sleep to be social: The critical role of sleep and memory for social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Paulus, Frieder M; Krach, Sören

    2018-01-01

    Humans are highly social animals who critically need to remember information from social episodes in order to successfully navigate future social interactions. We propose that such episodic memories about social encounters are processed during sleep, following the learning experience, with sleep abstracting and consolidating social gist knowledge (e.g., beliefs, first impressions, or stereotypes) about others that supports relationships and interpersonal communication.

  1. The Interaction between Semantic Representation and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Rüther, Naima; Bellebaum, Christian; Wiskott, Laurenz; Cheng, Sen

    2018-02-01

    The experimental evidence on the interrelation between episodic memory and semantic memory is inconclusive. Are they independent systems, different aspects of a single system, or separate but strongly interacting systems? Here, we propose a computational role for the interaction between the semantic and episodic systems that might help resolve this debate. We hypothesize that episodic memories are represented as sequences of activation patterns. These patterns are the output of a semantic representational network that compresses the high-dimensional sensory input. We show quantitatively that the accuracy of episodic memory crucially depends on the quality of the semantic representation. We compare two types of semantic representations: appropriate representations, which means that the representation is used to store input sequences that are of the same type as those that it was trained on, and inappropriate representations, which means that stored inputs differ from the training data. Retrieval accuracy is higher for appropriate representations because the encoded sequences are less divergent than those encoded with inappropriate representations. Consistent with our model prediction, we found that human subjects remember some aspects of episodes significantly more accurately if they had previously been familiarized with the objects occurring in the episode, as compared to episodes involving unfamiliar objects. We thus conclude that the interaction with the semantic system plays an important role for episodic memory.

  2. Episodic and Semantic Aspects of Memory for Prose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooling, D. James

    This report describes research on Bartlett's theory of constructive memory. In experiment one, schematic retention is related to Tulving's distinction between episodic and semantic memory. With the passage of time, memory for prose reflects decreasing output from episodic memory and increasing output from semantic memory. In experiment two,…

  3. The Role of Episodic Memory in Learning from University Lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapadat, Judith C.; Martin, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Results from a study involving 34 undergraduates supported the prediction from Paivo's dual coding theory (1986) that imaginal elaborations during lectures assist students' recall of both episodic and declarative information. The prediction that episodic memories would mediate retention of declarative information from the lecture was not…

  4. Constructive episodic simulation, flexible recombination, and memory errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L; Carpenter, Alexis C; Devitt, Aleea; Roberts, Reece P; Addis, Donna Rose

    2018-01-01

    According to Mahr & Csibra (M&C), the view that the constructive nature of episodic memory is related to its role in simulating future events has difficulty explaining why memory is often accurate. We hold this view, but disagree with their conclusion. Here we consider ideas and evidence regarding flexible recombination processes in episodic retrieval that accommodate both accuracy and distortion.

  5. Neurological soft signs discriminating mood disorders from first episode schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, MPM; Liddle, PF; Burgerhof, JGM; Knegtering, R; Bosch, RJ

    Objective: To investigate the specificity of neurological soft signs (NSS) for first episode schizophrenia compared with mood disorders. Method: We assessed NSS in a sample of 60 healthy controls, 191 first episode psychosis patients and 81 mood disorder patients. We used a principle component

  6. Emotion episodes of Afrikaans-speaking employees in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara S. Jonker

    2013-07-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the positive and negative emotion episodes and frequencies of working Afrikaans-speaking adults. Motivation for the study: To date, no study has been conducted to determine emotion episodes amongst White Afrikaans-speaking working adults in South Africa. Gooty, Connelly, Griffith and Gupta also argue for research on emotions in the natural settings in which they occur – the workplace. Research design, approach and method: A survey design with an availability sample was used. The participants (N = 179 consisted of White Afrikaans-speaking working adults. The Episode Grid was administered to capture the emotion episodes. Main findings: The main emotion episodes reported on with positive content included goal achievement, receiving recognition and personal incidents. Emotion episodes with negative content included categories such as behaviour of work colleagues, acts of boss/superior/management and task requirements. Practical and/or managerial implications: The findings are useful for managers who want to enhance the emotional quality of the work-life of employees. Changes could be made, for example, to practices of giving recognition within work environments and the clarification of task requirements. The knowledge on emotion episodes could be very useful in planning interventions. Contribution and/or value-adding: The findings and results of this study provided insight into emotion episodes as events in the workplace can cause positive and negative workplace experiences. This information should be taken into consideration with regard to wellness and emotion measurement efforts.

  7. Vection Modulates Emotional Valence of Autobiographical Episodic Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Takeharu; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether illusory self-motion perception ("vection") induced by viewing upward and downward grating motion stimuli can alter the emotional valence of recollected autobiographical episodic memories. We found that participants recollected positive episodes more often while perceiving upward vection. However, when we tested a small moving…

  8. Remembering in Contradictory Minds: Disjunction Fallacies in Episodic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Aydin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Disjunction fallacies have been extensively studied in probability judgment. They should also occur in episodic memory, if remembering a cue's episodic state depends on how its state is described on a memory test (e.g., being described as a target vs. as a distractor). If memory is description-dependent, cues will be remembered as occupying…

  9. How Does Intentionality of Encoding Affect Memory for Episodic Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael; Butterworth, Karla; Nilsson, Jonna; Hamilton, Colin J.; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory enables the detailed and vivid recall of past events, including target and wider contextual information. In this paper, we investigated whether/how encoding intentionality affects the retention of target and contextual episodic information from a novel experience. Healthy adults performed (1) a "What-Where-When"…

  10. Electroconvulsive therapy in single manic episodes: a case series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of Bipolar I Disorder patients with a single manic episode. Method: In a retrospective study, we reviewed medical records of inpatients who had been admitted to treat a single manic episode of Bipolar I Disorder at Noor University Hospital, ...

  11. What's new@CERN, episode 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video productions

    2011-01-01

    On Monday 7 November at 4pm in English and 4.20pm in French, watch "What's new@CERN" on webcast.cern.ch. In this second episode: LHC performance, a journey to the particle source and this past month's news.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-posterframe-640x360-at-30-percent.jpg', '1394250', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164/CERN-MOVIE-2011-164-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4');

  12. Anterograde Episodic Memory in Korsakoff Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2016-01-01

    A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with “polyneuropathy,” the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia. PMID:22644546

  13. Perceptive biases in major depressive episode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Naudin

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Alterations in emotional processing occur during a major depressive episode (MDE, and olfaction and facial expressions have implications in emotional and social interactions. To gain a better understanding of these processes, we characterized the perceptive sensorial biases, potential links, and potential remission after antidepressant treatment of MDE. METHODS: We recruited 22 patients with acute MDE, both before and after three months of antidepressant treatment, and 41 healthy volunteers matched by age and smoking status. The participants underwent a clinical assessment (Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Physical and Social Anhedonia scales, Pleasure-Displeasure Scale, an olfactory evaluation (hedonic aspect, familiarity and emotional impact of odors, and a computerized Facial Affect Recognition task. RESULTS: MDE was associated with an olfactory bias concerning hedonic and emotional aspects, including negative olfactory alliesthesia (unpleasant odorants perceived as more unpleasant, facial emotion expression recognition (happy facial expressions, and in part olfactory anhedonia (pleasant odorants perceived as less pleasant. In addition, the results revealed that these impairments represent state markers of MDE, suggesting that the patients recovered the same sensory processing as healthy subjects after antidepressant treatment. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that MDE is associated with negative biases toward olfactory perception and the recognition of facial emotional expressions. The link between these two sensory parameters suggests common underlying processes.

  14. Anterograde episodic memory in Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-06-01

    A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with "polyneuropathy," the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia.

  15. Key features of human episodic recollection in the cross-episode retrieval of rat hippocampus representations of space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Kelemen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological studies focus on memory retrieval as a reproduction of what was experienced and have established that neural discharge is replayed to express memory. However, cognitive psychology has established that recollection is not a verbatim replay of stored information. Recollection is constructive, the product of memory retrieval cues, the information stored in memory, and the subject's state of mind. We discovered key features of constructive recollection embedded in the rat CA1 ensemble discharge during an active avoidance task. Rats learned two task variants, one with the arena stable, the other with it rotating; each variant defined a distinct behavioral episode. During the rotating episode, the ensemble discharge of CA1 principal neurons was dynamically organized to concurrently represent space in two distinct codes. The code for spatial reference frame switched rapidly between representing the rat's current location in either the stationary spatial frame of the room or the rotating frame of the arena. The code for task variant switched less frequently between a representation of the current rotating episode and the stable episode from the rat's past. The characteristics and interplay of these two hippocampal codes revealed three key properties of constructive recollection. (1 Although the ensemble representations of the stable and rotating episodes were distinct, ensemble discharge during rotation occasionally resembled the stable condition, demonstrating cross-episode retrieval of the representation of the remote, stable episode. (2 This cross-episode retrieval at the level of the code for task variant was more likely when the rotating arena was about to match its orientation in the stable episode. (3 The likelihood of cross-episode retrieval was influenced by preretrieval information that was signaled at the level of the code for spatial reference frame. Thus key features of episodic recollection manifest in rat hippocampal

  16. Episodic Memory and Beyond: The Hippocampus and Neocortex in Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovitch, Morris; Cabeza, Roberto; Winocur, Gordon; Nadel, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has seen dramatic technological and conceptual changes in research on episodic memory and the brain. New technologies, and increased use of more naturalistic observations, have enabled investigators to delve deeply into the structures that mediate episodic memory, particularly the hippocampus, and to track functional and structural interactions among brain regions that support it. Conceptually, episodic memory is increasingly being viewed as subject to lifelong transformations that are reflected in the neural substrates that mediate it. In keeping with this dynamic perspective, research on episodic memory (and the hippocampus) has infiltrated domains, from perception to language and from empathy to problem solving, that were once considered outside its boundaries. Using the component process model as a framework, and focusing on the hippocampus, its subfields, and specialization along its longitudinal axis, along with its interaction with other brain regions, we consider these new developments and their implications for the organization of episodic memory and its contribution to functions in other domains.

  17. Critical Vidders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svegaard, Robin Sebastian Kaszmarczyk

    2015-01-01

    This article will introduce and take a look at a specific subset of the fan created remix videos known as vids, namely those that deal with feminist based critique of media. Through examples, it will show how fans construct and present their critique, and finally broach the topic of the critical ...

  18. Suicide risk in placebo-controlled trials of treatment for acute manic episode and prevention of manic-depressive episode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storosum, Jitschak G.; Wohlfarth, Tamar; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Linszen, Don H.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; van Zwieten, Barbara J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The authors' goal was to investigate whether there is a greater suicide risk in the placebo arms of placebo-controlled studies of active medication for the treatment of acute manic episode and the prevention of manic/depressive episode. If so, this would be a strong ethical argument

  19. Episode cycles with increasing recurrences in first-episode bipolar-I disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldessarini, R J; Salvatore, P; Khalsa, H-M K; Imaz-Etxeberria, H; Gonzalez-Pinto, A; Tohen, M

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary review of a century of studies of the course of manic-depressive syndromes produced 40 reports, of which approximately one-third report evidence of shortening wellness intervals or cycle-lengths with more recurrences, and two-thirds did not. We evaluated inter-episode intervals (cycle-length) in 128 clinically-treated, DSM-IV bipolar-I disorder patients followed prospectively and systematically over 5.7 years, with 6.5 episodes/person. As expected, cycle-length varied inversely with total cycle-count/person; however, multivariate linear regression found only longer initial hospitalization and fewer total cycles to be associated with cycle-length, whereas cycle-number (1, 2, 3, etc.), sex, intake-age, and first-episode polarity were not. Regression of within-subject cycle-length versus cycle-number yielded individual slope-functions with pseudo-random distribution (28% fell within ±1 month/cycle of the null [zero-slope]). Mean duration of early and late euthymic intervals (cycles 2 vs. 5) in patients with matched recurrence-counts was nearly identical. The course of bipolar-I disorder from onset was largely random or chaotic over nearly 6 years from onset. Only a minority of patients showed either cycle-acceleration or slowing, without changes in wellness intervals. The findings may be influenced by treatment-effects, but seem to indicate that most current bipolar-I disorder patients are unlikely to show progressive shortening of recurrence-cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Overview of the LADCO winter nitrate study: hourly ammonia, nitric acid and PM2.5 composition at an urban and rural site pair during PM2.5 episodes in the US Great Lakes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shaw

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the LADCO (Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium Winter Nitrate Study (WNS is presented. Sampling was conducted at ground level at an urban-rural pair of sites during January–March 2009 in eastern Wisconsin, toward the western edge of the US Great Lakes region. Areas surrounding these sites experience multiday episodes of wintertime PM2.5 pollution characterized by high fractions of ammonium nitrate in PM, low wind speeds, and air mass stagnation. Hourly surface monitoring of inorganic gases and aerosols supplemented long-term 24-h aerosol chemistry monitoring at these locations. The urban site (Milwaukee, WI experienced 13 PM2.5 episodes, defined as periods where the seven-hour moving average PM2.5 concentration exceeded 27 μg m−3 for at least four consecutive hours. The rural site experienced seven episodes by the same metric, and all rural episodes coincided with urban episodes. Episodes were characterized by low pressure systems, shallow/stable boundary layer, light winds, and increased temperature and relative humidity relative to climatological mean conditions. They often occurred in the presence of regional snow cover at temperatures near freezing, when snow melt and sublimation could generate fog and strengthen the boundary layer inversion. Substantial contribution to nitrate production from nighttime chemistry of ozone and NO2 to N2O5 and nitric acid is likely and requires further investigation. Pollutant-specific urban excess during episode and non-episode conditions is presented. The largest remaining uncertainties in the conceptual model of the wintertime episodes are the variability from episode-to-episode in ammonia emissions, the balance of daytime and nighttime nitrate production, the relationship between ammonia controls, NOx controls and ammonium nitrate reductions, and the extent to which snow and fog are causal (either through meteorological or chemical processes rather than just correlated with episodes

  1. Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Kreis Taglieber

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of

  2. Olfactory Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Lasutschinkow, Patricia; Ishizuka, Koko; Sawa, Akira

    2018-04-06

    Though olfactory deficits are well-documented in schizophrenia, fewer studies have examined olfactory performance profiles across the psychosis spectrum. The current study examined odor identification, discrimination, and detection threshold performance in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depression with psychotic features, and other psychotic conditions. FEP patients (n = 97) and healthy adults (n = 98) completed birhinal assessments of odor identification, discrimination, and detection threshold sensitivity for lyral and citralva. Participants also completed measures of anticipatory pleasure, anhedonia, and empathy. Differences in olfactory performances were assessed between FEP patients and controls and within FEP subgroups. Sex-stratified post hoc analyses were employed for a complete analysis of sex differences. Relationships between self-report measures and olfactory scores were also examined. Individuals with psychosis had poorer scores across all olfactory measures when compared to the control group. Within the psychosis cohort, patients with schizophrenia-associated psychosis had poorer odor identification, discrimination, and citralva detection threshold scores relative to controls. In schizophrenia patients, greater olfactory disturbance was associated with increased negative symptomatology, greater self-reported anhedonia, and lower self-reported anticipatory pleasure. Patients with mood-associated psychosis performed comparable to controls though men and women in this cohort showed differential olfactory profiles. These findings indicate that olfactory deficits extend beyond measures of odor identification in FEP with greater deficits observed in schizophrenia-related subgroups of psychosis. Studies examining whether greater olfactory dysfunction confers greater risk for developing schizophrenia relative to other forms of psychosis are

  3. Acute rejection episodes after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamida Fethi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute rejection episodes (AREs are a major determinant of renal allograft survival. The incorporation of new immunosuppressive agents explains, at least partially, the improvement seen in the results of transplantation in recent years. The objectives of this study are to analyze the incidence and severity of AREs, their risk factors and their influence on graft and patient survival. We retrospectively studied 280 kidney transplants performed in adults at the Charles Nicolle Hospital, Tunis, between 1986 and 2004. The diagnosis of ARE was based on clinical data and response to treatment. Allograft biopsies were performed in ten cases. The treatment of AREs consisted of pulse methylprednisolone and anti-thymocyte globulin. There were 186 males (66.4% and 94 females (33.6%, and their mean age was 31 ± 8.9 years. Overall, the 280 study patients experienced a total of 113 AREs. Of them, 85 had only one ARE, 28 had two to three and none had more than three AREs. A total of 68 AREs were completely re-versible, 42 were partially reversible while three could not be reversed with treatment. The mean inci-dence of AREs was 40.4%. The incidence was > 45% between 1986 and 1997, decreased to 20.5% between 1998 and 2000 and to 9% between 2001 and 2004. Graft survival rates in patients with and without AREs were respectively 91% and 93% at three years, 82% and 90% at five years and 73% and 83% at 10 years. We found a decrease in the incidence of AREs in recent years in our study patients, and this was related to the introduction of sensitized cross-match and the newer immunosuppressive agents, particularly MMF. Additionally, AREs had a deleterious impact on late graft survival in our study population.

  4. Values in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agid, Ofer; Mcdonald, Krysta; Fervaha, Gagan; Littrell, Romie; Thoma, Jessica; Zipursky, Robert B; Foussias, George; Remington, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Functional impairment continues to represent a major challenge in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, patients with schizophrenia report a level of happiness comparable with control subjects, even in the face of the prominent functional deficits, a finding at odds with evidence indicating a positive relation between happiness and level of functioning. In attempting to reconcile these findings, we chose to examine the issue of values, defined as affectively infused criteria or motivational goals used to select and justify actions, people, and the self, as values are related to both happiness and functioning. Fifty-six first-episode patients in remission and 56 healthy control subjects completed happiness and values measures. Statistical analyses included correlations, analysis of variance, structural equation modelling, and smallest space analysis. Results indicated that patients with schizophrenia placed significantly greater priority on the value dimensions of Tradition (P = 0.02) and Power (P = 0.03), and significantly less priority on Self-direction (P = 0.007) and Stimulation, (P = 0.008). Essentially, people with schizophrenia place more emphasis on the customs and ideas that traditional culture or religion provide in conjunction with a decreased interest in change, which is at odds with the expectations of early adulthood. This value difference could be related to functional deficits. To this point, we have assumed that people hold to the same values that guided them before the illness' onset, but this may not be the case. Our study indicates that values differ in people with schizophrenia, compared with control subjects, even early in the illness and in the face of symptomatic remission.

  5. A trade-off between local and distributed information processing associated with remote episodic versus semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Vakorin, Vasily; Ross, Bernhard; Levine, Brian; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory and semantic memory produce very different subjective experiences yet rely on overlapping networks of brain regions for processing. Traditional approaches for characterizing functional brain networks emphasize static states of function and thus are blind to the dynamic information processing within and across brain regions. This study used information theoretic measures of entropy to quantify changes in the complexity of the brain's response as measured by magnetoencephalography while participants listened to audio recordings describing past personal episodic and general semantic events. Personal episodic recordings evoked richer subjective mnemonic experiences and more complex brain responses than general semantic recordings. Critically, we observed a trade-off between the relative contribution of local versus distributed entropy, such that personal episodic recordings produced relatively more local entropy whereas general semantic recordings produced relatively more distributed entropy. Changes in the relative contributions of local and distributed entropy to the total complexity of the system provides a potential mechanism that allows the same network of brain regions to represent cognitive information as either specific episodes or more general semantic knowledge.

  6. Constructive episodic simulation: dissociable effects of a specificity induction on remembering, imagining, and describing in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Kevin P; Gaesser, Brendan; Schacter, Daniel L

    2014-05-01

    According to the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis (Schacter & Addis, 2007), both remembered past and imagined future events rely heavily on episodic memory. An alternative hypothesis is that observed similarities between remembering and imagining reflect the influence of broader factors such as descriptive ability, narrative style, or inhibitory control. We attempted to distinguish between these 2 hypotheses by examining the impact of an episodic specificity induction on memory, imagination, and picture description in young and older adults. In Experiment 1, participants received the specificity induction or a control induction prior to the memory, imagination, and description tasks. Older adults provided fewer internal (i.e., episodic) and more external (i.e., semantic) details than young adults across the 3 tasks irrespective of induction. Critically, however, the specificity induction selectively increased internal but not external details for memory and imagination in both age groups compared with the control induction. By contrast, the induction did not affect internal (or external) details for picture description. Experiment 2 replicated these results in young adults using a different control induction. Our findings point to a dissociation between episodic processes involved in memory and imagination and nonepisodic processes involved in picture description. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Criticality accident:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, Susana I.

    2000-01-01

    A criticality accident occurred at 10:35 on September 30, 1999. It occurred in a precipitation tank in a Conversion Test Building at the JCO Tokai Works site in Tokaimura (Tokai Village) in the Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan. STA provisionally rated this accident a 4 on the seven-level, logarithmic International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). The September 30, 1999 criticality accident at the JCO Tokai Works Site in Tokaimura, Japan in described in preliminary, technical detail. Information is based on preliminary presentations to technical groups by Japanese scientists and spokespersons, translations by technical and non-technical persons of technical web postings by various nuclear authorities, and English-language non-technical reports from various news media and nuclear-interest groups. (author)

  8. Critical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, H.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown how to solve the master equation for a Markov process including a critical point by means of successive approximations in terms of a small parameter. A critical point occurs if, by adjusting an externally controlled quantity, the system shows a transition from normal monostable to bistable behaviour. The fundamental idea of the theory is to separate the master equation into its proper irreducible part and a corrective remainder. The irreducible or zeroth order stochastic approximation will be a relatively simple Fokker-Planck equation that contains the essential features of the process. Once the solution of this irreducible equation is known, the higher order corrections in the original master equation can be incorporated in a systematic manner. (Auth.)

  9. Critical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, W.G.; Perry, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO 3 is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs

  10. Espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo para a monitorização da perfusão tecidual Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring peripheral tissue perfusion in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A espectroscopia no infravermelho próximo (NIRS tem sido principalmente usada na investigação da oxigenação periférica tecidual de forma não invasiva e contínua. O princípio da espectroscopia consiste na aplicação da luz no comprimento de onda do infravermelho-próximo para avaliar, de forma quantitativa e qualitativa, os componentes moleculares relacionadas à oxigenação tecidual. Baseado na relação das concentrações da deoxiemoglobina e da oxiemoglobina no tecido, a NIRS obtém informações para o cálculo da oxigenação tecidual. Embora possa ser aplicada em qualquer órgão, como método não invasivo é principalmente usada para a monitorização da oxigenação muscular periférica. Os parâmetros medidos pela NIRS podem ser calculados diretamente ou através de intervenções fisiológicas para alterar a circulação no local da aferição, sendo as mais usadas a oclusão arterial e a oclusão venosa. Deste modo, pode-se obter informações sobre a saturação do oxigênio muscular periférico e tecidual, bem como do fluxo sanguíneo e consumo de oxigênio local. Seu uso é direcionado principalmente para a monitorização da oxigenação tecidual periférica durante ressuscitação do choque no trauma e em pacientes sépticos, bem como a monitorização dos distúrbios da microcirculação regional. Esta revisão abordará os princípios físicos da espectroscopia no IV-próximo, e das principais aplicações clínicas deste instrumento de monitorização, com ênfase nos estudos que investigaram a utilidade da NIRS na área de terapia intensiva e também no setor de emergência clínica.Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive technique that allows determination of tissue oxygenation based on spectro-photometric quantitation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin within a tissue. This technique has gained acceptance as a tool to monitor peripheral tissue perfusion in critically ill patient. NIRS principle is based on

  11. Smog episodes in the Lodz agglomeration in the years 2014-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wielgosiński Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in the winter season we are alarmed about the poor air quality in Poland and significantly exceeded permissible concentrations of certain pollutants, especially PM10 and PM2.5, which are a result of so-called low emissions. The authors analyze smog episodes in the Lodz agglomeration by comparing the recorded values of selected pollutant concentrations at monitoring stations of the Regional Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Lodz with the meteorological conditions prevailing at this time. The analysis covers data from the years 2014-2017.

  12. Smog episodes in the Lodz agglomeration in the years 2014-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Czerwińska, Justyna; Namiecińska, Olga; Cichowicz, Robert

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, in the winter season we are alarmed about the poor air quality in Poland and significantly exceeded permissible concentrations of certain pollutants, especially PM10 and PM2.5, which are a result of so-called low emissions. The authors analyze smog episodes in the Lodz agglomeration by comparing the recorded values of selected pollutant concentrations at monitoring stations of the Regional Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Lodz with the meteorological conditions prevailing at this time. The analysis covers data from the years 2014-2017.

  13. Validity of meteorologic emission and imission parameters when simulating an air pollution episode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarevska, Ana; Mirchevski, Metodija

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives light to the current situation with air-quality monitoring in the region of the city of Skopje, compared to the WHO, EEA, US EPA guidelines in order to obtain relevant results when simulating an air pollution episode. The results of the comparative analysis of the regular measurements of SO 2 ground concentration in the city of Skopje, R. Macedonia and the ground concentrations obtained with the CALPUFF simulation show discrepancy up to 86,1%. The main origin of such discrepancy is due to the lack of needed quality and quantity of the input parameters for a regular air quality simulation in the concerned region. (Original)

  14. Episodic and Binge Gambling: An Exploration and Preliminary Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, S; Nespoli, E; Jebadurai, J K; Smith, N; Bowden-Jones, H

    2018-03-01

    The DSM-5 includes provisions for episodic forms of gambling disorder, with such changes aligned with earlier accounts of potential binge gambling behaviours. However, there is little research that indicates the utility of these classifications of episodic or binge gambling, and this study considered their characteristics in a clinical sample. It involved administration of a new binge gambling screening tool, along with routine measures, to n = 214 patients entering a specialist treatment clinic for gambling problems. Results indicated that episodic gambling was common in this clinical context, with 28 and 32% of patients reporting gambling episodes that were (a) regular and alternating, and (b) irregular and intermittent, respectively. These patterns were distinguished by factors including associations with covariates that indicated differences from continuous gamblers. For example, the irregular episodic gamblers, but not the regular pattern, demonstrated lower levels of problem gambling severity and comorbidity. Rates of potential binge gambling, which was defined in terms of additional criteria, were around 4% and numbers were insufficient for comparable analyses. The findings support inclusion of episodic forms of gambling disorder in the DSM-5, but highlight the need for improved recognition and research on heterogeneous forms of episodic gambling.

  15. Elements of episodic-like memory in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2009-03-01

    Representations of unique events from one's past constitute the content of episodic memories. A number of studies with non-human animals have revealed that animals remember specific episodes from their past (referred to as episodic-like memory). The development of animal models of memory holds enormous potential for gaining insight into the biological bases of human memory. Specifically, given the extensive knowledge of the rodent brain, the development of rodent models of episodic memory would open new opportunities to explore the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neurophysiological, and molecular mechanisms of memory. Development of such animal models holds enormous potential for studying functional changes in episodic memory in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, amnesia, and other human memory pathologies. This article reviews several approaches that have been used to assess episodic-like memory in animals. The approaches reviewed include the discrimination of what, where, and when in a radial arm maze, dissociation of recollection and familiarity, object recognition, binding, unexpected questions, and anticipation of a reproductive state. The diversity of approaches may promote the development of converging lines of evidence on the difficult problem of assessing episodic-like memory in animals.

  16. Neural Mechanisms of Episodic Retrieval Support Divergent Creative Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Kevin P; Thakral, Preston P; Beaty, Roger E; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-11-17

    Prior research has indicated that brain regions and networks that support semantic memory, top-down and bottom-up attention, and cognitive control are all involved in divergent creative thinking. Kernels of evidence suggest that neural processes supporting episodic memory-the retrieval of particular elements of prior experiences-may also be involved in divergent thinking, but such processes have typically been characterized as not very relevant for, or even a hindrance to, creative output. In the present study, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with an experimental manipulation to test formally, for the first time, episodic memory's involvement in divergent thinking. Following a manipulation that facilitates detailed episodic retrieval, we observed greater neural activity in the hippocampus and stronger connectivity between a core brain network linked to episodic processing and a frontoparietal brain network linked to cognitive control during divergent thinking relative to an object association control task that requires little divergent thinking. Stronger coupling following the retrieval manipulation extended to a subsequent resting-state scan. Neural effects of the episodic manipulation were consistent with behavioral effects of enhanced idea production on divergent thinking but not object association. The results indicate that conceptual frameworks should accommodate the idea that episodic retrieval can function as a component process of creative idea generation, and highlight how the brain flexibly utilizes the retrieval of episodic details for tasks beyond simple remembering. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M; Alosco, Michael L; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E; Sperling, Reisa A; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-11-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n=29, age 18-31 years) and older adults (n=31, ages 55-82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults.

  18. Cortical Thickness and Episodic Memory Impairment in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzo, Bernardo Canedo; Sanchez, Tiago Arruda; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Netto, Tania Maria; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in brain cortical thickness of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with and without episodic memory impairment and healthy controls. We studied 51 patients divided in 2 groups (SLE with episodic memory deficit, n = 17; SLE without episodic memory deficit, n = 34) by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and 34 healthy controls. Groups were paired based on sex, age, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and accumulation of disease burden. Cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging scans was determined using the FreeSurfer software package. SLE patients with episodic memory deficits presented reduced cortical thickness in the left supramarginal cortex and superior temporal gyrus when compared to the control group and in the right superior frontal, caudal, and rostral middle frontal and precentral gyri when compared to the SLE group without episodic memory impairment considering time since diagnosis of SLE as covaried. There were no significant differences in the cortical thickness between the SLE without episodic memory and control groups. Different memory-related cortical regions thinning were found in the episodic memory deficit group when individually compared to the groups of patients without memory impairment and healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  19. Why do we remember? The communicative function of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Johannes; Csibra, Gergely

    2017-01-19

    Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, 'autonoetic' character. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms, and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken towards an event simulation. On this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the past. Instead, empirical findings suggest that the contents of human episodic memory are often constructed in the service of the explicit justification of such beliefs. Existing accounts of episodic memory function that have focused on explaining its constructive character through its role in 'future-oriented mental time travel' neither do justice to its capacity to ground veridical beliefs about the past nor to its representational format. We provide an account of the metarepresentational structure of episodic memory in terms of its role in communicative interaction. The generative nature of recollection allows us to represent and communicate the reasons for why we hold certain beliefs about the past. In this process, autonoesis corresponds to the capacity to determine when and how to assert epistemic authority in making claims about the past. A domain where such claims are indispensable are human social engagements. Such engagements commonly require the justification of entitlements and obligations, which is often possible only by explicit reference to specific past events.

  20. Aging-related episodic memory decline: are emotions the key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Schumm, Sophie; Pollina, Monica; Depre, Marion; Jungbluth, Carolin; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Sebban, Claude; Zlomuzica, Armin; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Pause, Bettina; Mariani, Jean; Dere, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the recollection of personal experiences that contain information on what has happened and also where and when these events took place. Episodic memory function is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegerative diseases. We examined episodic memory performance with a novel test in young (N = 17, age: 21–45), middle-aged (N = 16, age: 48–62) and aged but otherwise healthy participants (N = 8, age: 71–83) along with measurements of trait and state anxiety. As expected we found significantly impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group as compared to the young group. The aged group also showed impaired working memory performance as well as significantly decreased levels of trait anxiety. No significant correlation between the total episodic memory and trait or state anxiety scores was found. The present results show an age-dependent episodic memory decline along with lower trait anxiety in the aged group. Yet, it still remains to be determined whether this difference in anxiety is related to the impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group. PMID:23378831

  1. White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi T. Ngo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted children’s performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory. Keywords: White matter, Memory development, Episodic memory, Diffusion weighted imaging

  2. Microbiology of Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients with Multiple Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessim, Sharon J.; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Bargman, Joanne M.; Jassal, Sarbjit V.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)–associated peritonitis clusters within patients. Patient factors contribute to peritonitis risk, but there is also entrapment of organisms within the biofilm that forms on PD catheters. It is hypothesized that this biofilm may prevent complete eradication of organisms, predisposing to multiple infections with the same organism. ♦ Methods: Using data collected in the Canadian multicenter Baxter POET (Peritonitis, Organism, Exit sites, Tunnel infections) database from 1996 to 2005, we studied incident PD patients with 2 or more peritonitis episodes. We determined the proportion of patients with 2 or more episodes caused by the same organism. In addition, using a multivariate logistic regression model, we tested whether prior peritonitis with a given organism predicted the occurrence of a subsequent episode with the same organism. ♦ Results: During their time on PD, 558 patients experienced 2 or more peritonitis episodes. Of those 558 patients, 181 (32%) had at least 2 episodes with the same organism. The organism most commonly causing repeat infection was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), accounting for 65.7% of cases. Compared with peritonitis caused by other organisms, a first CNS peritonitis episode was associated with an increased risk of subsequent CNS peritonitis within 1 year (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 2.8; p peritonitis, 48% of repeat episodes occurred within 6 months of the earlier episode. ♦ Conclusions: In contrast to previous data, we did not find a high proportion of patients with multiple peritonitis episodes caused by the same organism. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the organism most likely to cause peritonitis more than once in a given patient, and a prior CNS peritonitis was associated with an increased risk of CNS peritonitis within the subsequent year. PMID:22215659

  3. Tiny intraplate earthquakes triggered by nearby episodic tremor and slip in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, J.E.; Hotovec, A.J.; Ghosh, A.; Creager, K.C.; Gomberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) has been observed in many subduction zones, but its mechanical underpinnings as well as its potential for triggering damaging earthquakes have proven difficult to assess. Here we use a seismic array in Cascadia of unprecedented density to monitor seismicity around a moderate 16 day ETS episode. In the 4 months of data we examine, we observe five tiny earthquakes within the subducting slab during the episode and only one more in the same area, which was just before and nearby the next ETS burst. These earthquakes concentrate along the sides and updip edge of the ETS region, consistent with greater stress concentration there than near the middle and downdip edge of the tremor area. Most of the seismicity is below the megathrust, with a similar depth extent to the background intraslab seismicity. The pattern of earthquakes that we find suggests slow slip has a more continuous temporal and spatial pattern than the tremor loci, which notoriously appear in bursts, jumps, and streaks. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Scale dependence of the episodic hydrochemical response of nested catchments at Plynlimon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Foster

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous monitoring of the surface water chemistry of the forested catchments at Plynlimon has concentrated on weekly measurements. Hence, peak values and details of the rapid changes in chemistry occurring during events tend to be missed, particularly for smaller catchments. Knowledge of the detailed hydrochemical response is necessary to predict effects on stream ecology and to quantify processes occurring within the catchment. This information is vital if the likely impacts of changes in landuse and pollutant input on episodic hydrochemical variations are to be modelled. A summary of daily and three-hourly chemistry for the River Severn headwaters at Plynlimon, central Wales is presented. Data are from the summer and autumn of 1995 and the winter and summer of 1996. The effects of antecedent conditions, soiltype, landuse and groundwater and tributary inflow on stream episodic hydrochemical response are discussed for a range of spatial scales, including first, second and third order streams. Detailed information on the chemical changes due to a discrete groundwater inflow into the bed of one stream shows that, during episodes, its influence on stream chemistry is overridden by that of event water. A comparison of drainage ditch chemistry with main stream chemistry during storm events is used to consider the importance of tributary inflow at these times. The contrast in results between sites is assessed, to evaluate the effects of clearfelling and soil type on stream event chemistry.

  5. Metacognitive mastery in persons with first-episode psychosis and their caregivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Lysaker, Paul H.; Trauelsen, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    While metacognitive mastery seems to be closely linked to general functioning in persons with psychosis, little is known of metacognitive capacity of family members, who often play an important role in recovery and often report high levels of distress. We gathered assessments of metacognitive...... mastery from persons with first-episode psychosis and their mothers. We found that relatively higher overall mean mastery levels among the dyads, was related to less negative caregiver experiences, and less caregiver criticism. Greater levels of mastery were related to decreased duration of untreated...... psychosis. Clinical implications in terms of family intervention programmes repertoire are discussed....

  6. The parallel impact of episodic memory and episodic future thinking on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Chen, William H; Reily, Natalie M; Castel, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the effects of both episodic memory and episodic future thinking (EFT) on snack food intake. In Study 1, female participants (n = 158) were asked to recall their lunch from earlier in the day, to think about the dinner they planned to have later in the day, or to think about a non-food activity before taking part in a cookie taste test. Participants who recalled their lunch or who thought about their dinner ate less than did participants who thought about non-food activities. These effects were not explained by group differences in the hedonic value of the food. Study 2 examined whether the suppression effect observed in Study 1 was driven by a general health consciousness. Female participants (n = 74) were asked to think about their past or future exercise (or a non-exercise activity), but thinking about exercise had no impact on participants' cookie consumption. Overall, both thinking about past food intake and imagining future food intake had the same suppression effect on participants' current food intake, but further research is needed to determine the underlying mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recreational atmospheric pollution episodes: Inhalable metalliferous particles from firework displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Cruz Minguillón, Mari; Pey, Jorge; Rodriguez, Sergio; Vicente Miró, José; Felis, Carles; Gibbons, Wes

    The use of fireworks creates an unusual and distinctive anthropogenic atmospheric pollution event. We report on aerosol samples collected during Las Fallas in Valencia, a 6-day celebration famous for its firework displays, and add comparative data on firework- and bonfire-contaminated atmospheric aerosol samples collected from elsewhere in Spain (Barcelona, L'Alcora, and Borriana) and during the Guy Fawkes celebrations in London. Specific high-profile official firework events during Las Fallas included the afternoon Mascletà and the nightly aerial displays (especially in the climactic final 2 days of the fiesta) and were accompanied by pollution spikes in suspended particles, NO, SO 2, and the creation and dispersal of an aerosol cloud enriched in a range of metallic elements. Notable metal aerosol concentration increases recorded during Las Fallas were potassium (from 500 to 5900 ng m -3), aluminium (as Al 2O 3 from around 600 to 2200 ng m -3), titanium (from 200 to 700 ng m -3), magnesium (from 100 to 500 ng m -3), lead (from 17 to 379 ng m -3), barium (from 39 to 322 ng m -3), strontium (from 3 to 112 ng m -3), copper (from 12 to 71 ng m -3), and antimony (from 1 to 52 ng m -3). Firework-contaminated aerosols of similarly metalliferous composition were also identified at the other monitoring sites, although different sites show variations attributable to other sources such as bonfires and local industry. Unusual levels of the trace elements Ba, Sr and (to a lesser extent) Cu, always in proportions with Ba dominant, along with strongly enhanced K, Pb, and Sb, are identified as being particularly characteristic of firework aerosols. Although firework-related recreational pollution episodes are transient in nature, they are highly concentrated, contribute significantly to total annual metal emissions, and are on average fine enough to be easily inhaled and a health risk to susceptible individuals.

  8. Is verbal episodic memory in elderly with amyloid deposits preserved through altered neuronal function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Madison, Cindee; Oh, Hwamee; Wirth, Miranka; van Berckel, Bart N M; Jagust, William J

    2014-08-01

    A potential mechanism that enables intellectual preservation in cognitively normal elderly that harbor beta-amyloid (Aβ) pathology is heightened cerebral glucose metabolism. To investigate cross-sectional inter-relationships between Aβ, glucose metabolism, and cognition, 81 subjects (mean age: 75 ± 7 years) underwent [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound-B and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans and neuropsychological testing. They were divided into low-Aβ (n = 53), intermediate-Aβ (n = 13) and high-Aβ (n = 15) groups as defined by their global cortical [(11)C]PIB retention. Glucose metabolism was assessed using a MetaROI mask that covers metabolically critical regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., posterior cingulate and bilateral angular and inferior temporal gyri). Previously validated factor scores for verbal and visual episodic memory, semantic memory, working memory, and executive functioning were used to evaluate cognitive performances. Greater Aβ deposition in the precuneus was associated with higher metabolic activity (at trend level) and lower visual episodic memory scores. Glucose metabolism did not correlate with cognition across all subjects. However, heightened metabolic activity was associated with better verbal episodic memory performance in subjects with elevated amyloid levels. This preliminary study suggests that neural compensation, as a manifestation of brain reserve, enables elderly supposedly on the path to AD, at least temporarily, to preserve cognitive function. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Imaging episodic memory: implications for cognitive theories and phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, L

    1999-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies are beginning to identify neuroanatomical correlates of various cognitive functions. This paper presents results relevant to several theories and phenomena of episodic memory, including component processes of episodic retrieval, encoding specificity, inhibition, item versus source memory, encoding-retrieval overlap, and the picture-superiority effect. Overall, by revealing specific activation patterns, the results provide support for existing theoretical views and they add some unique information which may be important to consider in future attempts to develop cognitive theories of episodic memory.

  10. Familial Hemiplegic Migraine and Recurrent Episodes of Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaBianca, Sonja; Jensen, Rigmor; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M

    2015-01-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare autosomal dominant form of migraine with motor aura. We present a case report of a father and son with very similar attacks of hemiplegic migraine and recurrent episodes of accompanying psychoses. Previously, such episodes led to hospitalization...... and extended clinical examinations, which further worsened the psychoses. Since the episodes were recognized as related to the hemiplegic migraine, a treatment strategy combining sleep and sedation was initiated and progression onto psychosis was almost completely avoided in both father and son. Genetic...

  11. Monitoring in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, P G; Pitts, L

    1997-01-01

    In the past several years, improvements in technology have advanced the monitoring capabilities for patients with TBI. The primary goal of monitoring the patient with TBI is to prevent secondary insults to the brain, primarily cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia may occur early and without clinical correlation and portends a poor outcome. Measurement of ICP is the cornerstone of monitoring in the patient with TBI. Monitoring of ICP provides a measurement of CPP and a rough estimation of CBF. However, with alterations in pressure autoregulation, measurement of CPP does not always allow for determination of CBF. To circumvent this problem, direct measurements of CBF can be performed using clearance techniques (133Xe, N2O, Xe-CT) or invasive monitoring techniques (LDF, TDF, NIRS). Although direct and quantitative, clearance techniques do not allow for continuous monitoring. Invasive CBF monitoring techniques are new, and artifactual results can be problematic. The techniques of jugular venous saturation monitoring and TCD are well established and are powerful adjuncts to ICP monitoring. They allow the clinician to monitor cerebral oxygen extraction and blood flow velocity, respectively, for any given CPP. Use of TCD may predict posttraumatic vasospasm before clinical sequelae. Jugular venous saturation monitoring may detect clinically occult episodes of cerebral ischemia and increased oxygen extraction. Jugular venous saturation monitoring optimizes the use of hyperventilation in the treatment of intracranial hypertension. Although PET and SPECT scanning allow direct measurement of CMRO2, these techniques have limited application currently. Similarly, microdialysis is in its infancy but has demonstrated great promise for metabolic monitoring. EEG and SEP are excellent adjuncts to the monitoring arsenal and provide immediate information on current brain function. With improvements in electronic telemetry, functional monitoring by EEG or SEP may become an important

  12. Somali refugees' experiences with their general practitioners: frames of reference and critical episodes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmann, C.T.; Bensing, J.M.; Ruijter, A. de; Boeije, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the results of a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with Somali refugees living in The Netherlands, on their experiences with general practitioners (GPs). The central question is: what are the frames of reference participants use to interpret their experiences? The

  13. Somali refugees’ experiences with their general practitioners: frames of reference and critical episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titia Feldmann, C.; Bensing, J.; Ruijter, Arie de; Boeije, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the results of a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with Somali refugees living in The Netherlands, on their experiences with general practitioners (GPs). The central question is: what are the frames of reference participants use to interpret their experiences? The

  14. Extreme value predictions and critical wave episodes for marine structures by FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to advocate for a very effective stochastic procedure, based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), for extreme value predictions related to wave induced loads. Three different applications will be illustrated. The first deals with a jack-up rig where second...... order stochastic waves are included in the analysis. The second application is parametric roll motions of ships. Finally, the motion of a TLP floating foundation for an offshore wind turbine is analysed taking into account large motions....

  15. Extreme value predictions and critical wave episodes for marine structures by FORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to advocate for a very effective stochastic procedure, based on the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), for extreme value predictions related to wave induced loads. Three different applications will be illustrated. The first deals with a jack-up rig where second...... order stochastic waves are included in the analysis. The second application is parametric roll motions of ships. Finally, the motion of a TLP floating foundation for an offshore wind turbine is analysed taking into account large motions....

  16. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  17. Asthma episodes: stigma, children, and Hollywood films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cindy Dell

    2012-03-01

    Asthma has been systematically stigmatized in Hollywood feature films, including films seen by children. Through content analysis of 66 movies containing one or more scenes showing asthma, and through informant interviews with a dozen U.S. children about representative scenes, the study explores how stigmatizing portrayals are interpreted, accepted, or resisted. Children suffering from asthma actively counterargued with incriminating excerpts, but in some respects their healthy friends were less critical. Overall, children viewed stigmatizing scenes in terms of the social interaction and the social ethics entailed. They did not scrutinize the characters for damaged selfhood, per se, but dwelled on the social processes out of which stigma is erected.

  18. A potential spatial working memory training task to improve both episodic memory and fluid intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Rudebeck

    Full Text Available One current challenge in cognitive training is to create a training regime that benefits multiple cognitive domains, including episodic memory, without relying on a large battery of tasks, which can be time-consuming and difficult to learn. By giving careful consideration to the neural correlates underlying episodic and working memory, we devised a computerized working memory training task in which neurologically healthy participants were required to monitor and detect repetitions in two streams of spatial information (spatial location and scene identity presented simultaneously (i.e. a dual n-back paradigm. Participants' episodic memory abilities were assessed before and after training using two object and scene recognition memory tasks incorporating memory confidence judgments. Furthermore, to determine the generalizability of the effects of training, we also assessed fluid intelligence using a matrix reasoning task. By examining the difference between pre- and post-training performance (i.e. gain scores, we found that the trainers, compared to non-trainers, exhibited a significant improvement in fluid intelligence after 20 days. Interestingly, pre-training fluid intelligence performance, but not training task improvement, was a significant predictor of post-training fluid intelligence improvement, with lower pre-training fluid intelligence associated with greater post-training gain. Crucially, trainers who improved the most on the training task also showed an improvement in recognition memory as captured by d-prime scores and estimates of recollection and familiarity memory. Training task improvement was a significant predictor of gains in recognition and familiarity memory performance, with greater training improvement leading to more marked gains. In contrast, lower pre-training recollection memory scores, and not training task improvement, led to greater recollection memory performance after training. Our findings demonstrate that practice

  19. Distinct slow and fast cortical theta dynamics in episodic memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastötter, Bernhard; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-07-01

    Brain oscillations in the theta frequency band (3-8 Hz) have been shown to be critically involved in human episodic memory retrieval. In prior work, both positive and negative relationships between cortical theta power and retrieval success have been reported. This study examined the hypothesis that slow and fast cortical theta oscillations at the edges of the traditional theta frequency band are differentially related to retrieval success. Scalp EEG was recorded in healthy human participants as they performed a cued-recall episodic memory task. Slow (~3 Hz) and fast (~7 Hz) theta oscillations at retrieval were examined as a function of whether an item was recalled or not and as a function of the items' output position at test. Recall success typically declines with output position, due to increases in interference level. The results showed that slow theta power was positively related but fast theta power was negatively related to retrieval success. Concurrent positive and negative episodic memory effects for slow and fast theta oscillations were dissociable in time and space, showing different time courses and different spatial locations on the scalp. Moreover, fast theta power increased from early to late output positions, whereas slow theta power was unaffected by items' output position. Together with prior work, the results suggest that slow and fast theta oscillations have distinct functional roles in episodic memory retrieval, with slow theta oscillations being related to processes of recollection and conscious awareness, and fast theta oscillations being linked to processes of interference and interference resolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-Term Patterns in C-Q Relations in an Adirondack Stream Reveal Decreasing Severity of Episodic Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D. A.; Lawrence, G. B.; Driscoll, C. T.; Sullivan, T. J.; Shao, S.; McDonnell, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    Episodic acidification occurs when surface water pH and ANC decrease temporarily during rain events and snowmelt. The principal drivers of episodic acidification are increases in sulfuric acid, nitric acid, organic acids, and dilution of base cations. In regions where surface waters are sensitive to acid deposition, ANC values may approach or decline below 0 µeq/L during high flows, which may result in deleterious effects to sensitive aquatic biota. The Adirondack Mountains of New York have abundant streams and lakes, many of which are highly sensitive to the effects of acid deposition. Long-term monitoring data indicate that pH and ANC in regional surface waters are increasing in response to decreases in the acidity of atmospheric deposition that result from decreasing SO2 and NOx emissions as the Clean Air Act and its ancillary rules and amendments have been implemented. Most surface-water monitoring focuses on low-flow and broad seasonal patterns, and less is known about how episodic acidification has responded to emissions decreases. Here, we report on spatial and temporal patterns in episodic acidification through analysis of C-Q relations from surveys that target varying flow conditions as well as data from a few long-term intensively sampled stream monitoring sites. Each stream sample was assigned a Q percentile value based on a resident or nearby gage, and a statistical relation between ANC values and Q percentile was developed. The magnitude of episodic decreases in ANC increases as low-flow ANC increases, a pattern that likely results from an increasing influence of dilution, especially evident when low-flow ANC values exceed 100 µeq/L. Chronically acidic streams with low-flow ANC near 0 µeq/L show little episodic acidification, whereas streams with low-flow ANC values of about 50 µeq/L generally show ANC decreases to less than 0 µeq/L at high flow. Preliminary analysis of a 24-yr data set (1991-2014) at Buck Creek indicates that increases in high

  1. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  2. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  3. Episodic recruitment of the rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata (Born ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Episodic recruitment of the rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778) on the Transkei coast. ... This single recruitment, which is 6 to 31 times the annual mean recorded over the last 6 to 7 years, represents 5 ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Factors associated with hypoglycemia episodes in hospitalized type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    during hospital stay were those admitted due to other causes but subsequently developed hypoglycemia ..... Table 3: Association between causes and severity of hypoglycemia episodes .... An animal study in ... American Diabetes Association.

  5. Episodic crustal growth in the Bundelkhand craton of central India ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hiredya Chauhan

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... geochemical features indicate formation of the K-granites by anhydrous partial melting of the Paleo- ...... A metamorphic episode from white mica schist is reported ...... monian G 2013 Central/eastern Indian Bundelkhand and.

  6. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  7. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  8. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  9. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  10. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  11. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  12. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  13. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  14. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  15. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  16. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  17. Depression and quality of life in first-episode psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Renwick, Laoise

    2012-07-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has gained recognition as a valid measure of outcome in first-episode psychosis (FEP). This study aimed to determine the influence of specific groups of depressive symptoms on separate domains of subjectively appraised QOL.

  18. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  19. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  20. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  1. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  2. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  3. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  4. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  5. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1996)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  6. Treatment Episode Data Set: Discharges (TEDS-D-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Discharges (TEDS-D) is a national census data system of annual discharges from substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-D...

  7. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  8. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  9. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  10. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  11. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  12. Treatment Episode Data Set: Admissions (TEDS-A-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Treatment Episode Data Set -- Admissions (TEDS-A) is a national census data system of annual admissions to substance abuse treatment facilities. TEDS-A provides...

  13. III. NIH TOOLBOX COGNITION BATTERY (CB): MEASURING EPISODIC MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Dikmen, Sureyya S.; Heaton, Robert K.; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Beaumont, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most significant domains of cognition is episodic memory, which allows for rapid acquisition and long-term storage of new information. For purposes of the NIH Toolbox, we devised a new test of episodic memory. The nonverbal NIH Toolbox Picture Sequence Memory Test (TPSMT) requires participants to reproduce the order of an arbitrarily ordered sequence of pictures presented on a computer. To adjust for ability, sequence length varies from 6 to 15 pictures. Multiple trials are adminis...

  14. Interdependence of episodic and semantic memory: Evidence from neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    GREENBERG, DANIEL L.; VERFAELLIE, MIEKE

    2010-01-01

    Tulving's (1972) theory of memory draws a distinction between general knowledge (semantic memory) and memory for events (episodic memory). Neuropsychological studies have generally examined each type of memory in isolation, but theorists have long argued that these two forms of memory are interdependent. Here we review several lines of neuropsychological research that have explored the interdependence of episodic and semantic memory. The studies show that these forms of memory can affect each...

  15. Elements of episodic-like memory in animals.

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, N S; Griffiths, D P; Emery, N J; Dickinson, A

    2001-01-01

    A number of psychologists have suggested that episodic memory is a uniquely human phenomenon and, until recently, there was little evidence that animals could recall a unique past experience and respond appropriately. Experiments on food-caching memory in scrub jays question this assumption. On the basis of a single caching episode, scrub jays can remember when and where they cached a variety of foods that differ in the rate at which they degrade, in a way that is inexplicable by relative fam...

  16. REDEFINING ENSO EPISODES BASED ON CHANGED CLIMATE REFERENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-yan; ZHAI Pan-mao; REN Fu-min

    2005-01-01

    Through studying changes in ENSO indices relative to change of climate reference from 1961~1990 to 1971~2000, the study generated new standards to define ENSO episodes and their intensities. Then according to the new climate references and new index standards, ENSO episodes and their intensities for the period 1951 -2003 have been classified. Finally, an analysis has been performed comparing the new characteristics with the old ones for ENSO period, peak values and intensities.

  17. Phenomenology of future-oriented mind-wandering episodes

    OpenAIRE

    David eStawarczyk; Helena eCassol; Arnaud eD'Argembeau

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that prospective and non-prospective forms of mind-wandering possess distinct properties, yet little is known about what exactly differentiates between future-oriented and non-future-oriented mind-wandering episodes. In the present study, we used multilevel exploratory factor analyses to examine the factorial structure of various phenomenological dimensions of mind-wandering, and we then investigated whether future-oriented mind-wandering episodes differ from other cl...

  18. Intermittent Hypoxic Episodes in Preterm Infants: Do They Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Richard J.; Wang, Katherine; Köroğlu, Özge; Di Fiore, Juliann; Kc, Prabha

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxic episodes are typically a consequence of immature respiratory control and remain a troublesome challenge for the neonatologist. Furthermore, their frequency and magnitude are underestimated by clinically employed pulse oximeter settings. In extremely low birth weight infants the incidence of intermittent hypoxia progressively increases over the first 4 weeks of postnatal life, with a subsequent plateau followed by a slow decline beginning at weeks 6–8. Such episodic hypoxi...

  19. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood.......Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  20. Episode forecasting in bipolar disorder: Is energy better than mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Abigail; Bradler, Kamil; Hintze, Arend

    2018-01-22

    Bipolar disorder is a severe mood disorder characterized by alternating episodes of mania and depression. Several interventions have been developed to decrease high admission rates and high suicides rates associated with the illness, including psychoeducation and early episode detection, with mixed results. More recently, machine learning approaches have been used to aid clinical diagnosis or to detect a particular clinical state; however, contradictory results arise from confusion around which of the several automatically generated data are the most contributory and useful to detect a particular clinical state. Our aim for this study was to apply machine learning techniques and nonlinear analyses to a physiological time series dataset in order to find the best predictor for forecasting episodes in mood disorders. We employed three different techniques: entropy calculations and two different machine learning approaches (genetic programming and Markov Brains as classifiers) to determine whether mood, energy or sleep was the best predictor to forecast a mood episode in a physiological time series. Evening energy was the best predictor for both manic and depressive episodes in each of the three aforementioned techniques. This suggests that energy might be a better predictor than mood for forecasting mood episodes in bipolar disorder and that these particular machine learning approaches are valuable tools to be used clinically. Energy should be considered as an important factor for episode prediction. Machine learning approaches provide better tools to forecast episodes and to increase our understanding of the processes that underlie mood regulation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Episodes from the Early History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboe, Asger

    The author does not attempt to give a general survey of early astronomy; rather, he chooses to present a few "episodes" and treats them in detail. However, first he provides the necessary astronomical background in his descriptive account of what you can see when you look at the sky with the naked eye, unblinkered by received knowledge, but with curiosity and wit. Chapter 1 deals with the arithmetical astronomy of ancient Mesopotamia where astronomy first was made an exact science. Next are treated Greek geometrical models for planetary motion, culminating in Ptolemy's equant models in his Almagest. Ptolemy does not assign them absolute size in this work, but, as is shown here, if we scale the models properly, they will yield good values, not only of the directions to the planets, but of the distances to them, as well. Thus one can immediately find the dimensions of the Copernican System from parameters in the Almagest - we have evidence that Copernicus did just that. Further, Islamic astronomers' modifications of Ptolemy's models by devices using only uniform circular motion are discussed, as are Copernicus's adoption of some of them. finally, it is made precise which bothersome problem was resolved by the heliocentric hypothesis, as it was by the Tychonic arrangement. Next, the Ptolemaic System, the first cosmological scheme to incorporate quantitative models, is described as Ptolemy himself did it in a recenlty recovered passage from his Planetary Hypotheses. Here he does assign absolute size to his models in order to fit them into the snugly nested spherical shells that made up his universe. This much maligned system was, in fact, a harmonious construct that remained the basis for how educated people thought of their world for a millennium and a half. Finally, after a brief review of the geometry of the ellipse, the author gives an elementary derivation of Kepler's equation, and shows how Kepler solved it, and further proves that a planet moves very nearly

  2. Intermittent inhaled corticosteroids in infants with episodic wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Hermansen, Mette Northman; Loland, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that asthma is preceded by a stage of recurrent episodes of wheezing during the first years of life and that inhaled corticosteroid therapy during symptomatic episodes in this early phase may delay progression to persistent wheezing. METHODS: We assigned one-month-old ......BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that asthma is preceded by a stage of recurrent episodes of wheezing during the first years of life and that inhaled corticosteroid therapy during symptomatic episodes in this early phase may delay progression to persistent wheezing. METHODS: We assigned one......-month-old infants to treatment with two-week courses of inhaled budesonide (400 mug per day) or placebo, initiated after a three-day episode of wheezing, in this single-center, randomized, double-blind, prospective study of three years' duration. The primary outcome was the number of symptom-free days; key...... secondary outcomes were the time to discontinuation due to persistent wheezing and safety, as evaluated by height and bone mineral density at the end of the study. RESULTS: We enrolled 411 infants and randomly assigned 294 to receive budesonide at a first episode of wheezing. The proportion of symptom...

  3. Episodic and semantic memory in children with mesial temporal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzezak, Patricia; Guimarães, Catarina; Fuentes, Daniel; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Valente, Kette Dualibi Ramos

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze semantic and episodic memory deficits in children with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and their correlation with clinical epilepsy variables. For this purpose, 19 consecutive children and adolescents with MTS (8 to 16 years old) were evaluated and their performance on five episodic memory tests (short- and long-term memory and learning) and four semantic memory tests was compared with that of 28 healthy volunteers. Patients performed worse on tests of immediate and delayed verbal episodic memory, visual episodic memory, verbal and visual learning, mental scanning for semantic clues, object naming, word definition, and repetition of sentences. Clinical variables such as early age at seizure onset, severity of epilepsy, and polytherapy impaired distinct types of memory. These data confirm that children with MTS have episodic memory deficits and add new information on semantic memory. The data also demonstrate that clinical variables contribute differently to episodic and semantic memory performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  5. White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chi T; Alm, Kylie H; Metoki, Athanasia; Hampton, William; Riggins, Tracy; Newcombe, Nora S; Olson, Ingrid R

    2017-12-01

    Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted children's performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Subjective Experience of Episodic Memory and Metacognition: A Neurodevelopmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchay, Céline; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Pauly-Takacs, Katalin; Wojcik, Dominika Zofia; Eustache, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Episodic retrieval is characterized by the subjective experience of remembering. This experience enables the co-ordination of memory retrieval processes and can be acted on metacognitively. In successful retrieval, the feeling of remembering may be accompanied by recall of important contextual information. On the other hand, when people fail (or struggle) to retrieve information, other feelings, thoughts, and information may come to mind. In this review, we examine the subjective and metacognitive basis of episodic memory function from a neurodevelopmental perspective, looking at recollection paradigms (such as source memory, and the report of recollective experience) and metacognitive paradigms such as the feeling of knowing). We start by considering healthy development, and provide a brief review of the development of episodic memory, with a particular focus on the ability of children to report first-person experiences of remembering. We then consider neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as amnesia acquired in infancy, autism, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome, or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This review shows that different episodic processes develop at different rates, and that across a broad set of different NDDs there are various types of episodic memory impairment, each with possibly a different character. This literature is in agreement with the idea that episodic memory is a multifaceted process. PMID:24399944

  7. Functional neuroimaging of semantic and episodic musical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Hervé

    2005-12-01

    The distinction between episodic and semantic memory has become very popular since it was first proposed by Tulving in 1972. So far, very few neuropsychological, psychophysical, and imaging studies have related to the mnemonic aspects of music, notably on the long-term memory features, and practically nothing is known about the functional anatomy of long-term memory for music. Numerous functional imaging studies have shown that retrieval from semantic and episodic memory is subserved by distinct neural networks. For instance, the HERA model (hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry) ascribes to the left prefrontal cortex a preferential role in the encoding process of episodic material and the recall of semantic information, while the right prefrontal cortex would preferentially operate in the recall of episodic information. However, these results were essentially obtained with verbal and visuo-spatial material. We have done a study to determine the neural substrates underlying the semantic and episodic components of music using familiar and nonfamiliar melodic tunes. Two distinct patterns of activations were found: bilateral activation of the middle and superior frontal areas and precuneus for episodic memory, and activation of the medial and orbital frontal cortex bilaterally, left angular gyrus, and the anterior part of the left middle and superior temporal gyri for semantic memory. We discuss these findings in light of the available neuropsychological data obtained in brain-damaged subjects and functional neuroimaging studies.

  8. Modeling HIV-1 drug resistance as episodic directional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ben; de Oliveira, Tulio; Seebregts, Chris; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Scheffler, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of substitutions conferring drug resistance to HIV-1 is both episodic, occurring when patients are on antiretroviral therapy, and strongly directional, with site-specific resistant residues increasing in frequency over time. While methods exist to detect episodic diversifying selection and continuous directional selection, no evolutionary model combining these two properties has been proposed. We present two models of episodic directional selection (MEDS and EDEPS) which allow the a priori specification of lineages expected to have undergone directional selection. The models infer the sites and target residues that were likely subject to directional selection, using either codon or protein sequences. Compared to its null model of episodic diversifying selection, MEDS provides a superior fit to most sites known to be involved in drug resistance, and neither one test for episodic diversifying selection nor another for constant directional selection are able to detect as many true positives as MEDS and EDEPS while maintaining acceptable levels of false positives. This suggests that episodic directional selection is a better description of the process driving the evolution of drug resistance.

  9. Modeling HIV-1 drug resistance as episodic directional selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Murrell

    Full Text Available The evolution of substitutions conferring drug resistance to HIV-1 is both episodic, occurring when patients are on antiretroviral therapy, and strongly directional, with site-specific resistant residues increasing in frequency over time. While methods exist to detect episodic diversifying selection and continuous directional selection, no evolutionary model combining these two properties has been proposed. We present two models of episodic directional selection (MEDS and EDEPS which allow the a priori specification of lineages expected to have undergone directional selection. The models infer the sites and target residues that were likely subject to directional selection, using either codon or protein sequences. Compared to its null model of episodic diversifying selection, MEDS provides a superior fit to most sites known to be involved in drug resistance, and neither one test for episodic diversifying selection nor another for constant directional selection are able to detect as many true positives as MEDS and EDEPS while maintaining acceptable levels of false positives. This suggests that episodic directional selection is a better description of the process driving the evolution of drug resistance.

  10. [MELAS: Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hidetomo; Ono, Kenjiro

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondrial disease is caused by a deficiency in the energy supply to cells due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease that presents with stroke-like episodes such as acute onset of neurological deficits and characteristic imaging findings. Stroke-like episodes in MELAS have the following features: 1) neurological deficits due to localization of lesions in the brain, 2) episodes often accompany epilepsy, 3) lesions do not follow the vascular supply area, 4) lesions are more often seen in the posterior brain than in the anterior brain, 5) lesions spread to an adjacent area in the brain, and 6) neurological symptoms often disappear together with imaging findings, but later relapse. About 80% of patients with MELAS have an A-to-G transition mutation at the nucleotide pair 3243 in the dihydrouridine loop of mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR), which causes the absence of posttranscriptional taurine modification at the wobble nucleotide of mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) and disrupts protein synthesis. However, the precise pathophysiology of stroke-like episodes is under investigation, with possible hypotheses for these episodes including mitochondrial angiopathy, mitochondrial cytopathy, and neuron-astrocyte uncoupling. With regard to treatment, L-arginine and taurine have recently been suggested for relief of clinical symptoms.

  11. Acupuncture for the prevention of episodic migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Klaus; Allais, Gianni; Brinkhaus, Benno; Fei, Yutong; Mehring, Michael; Vertosick, Emily A.; Vickers, Andrew; White, Adrian R

    2016-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is often used for migraine prevention but its effectiveness is still controversial. We present an update of our Cochrane review from 2009. Objectives To investigate whether acupuncture is a) more effective than no prophylactic treatment/routine care only; b) more effective than sham (placebo) acupuncture; and c) as effective as prophylactic treatment with drugs in reducing headache frequency in adults with episodic migraine. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL: 2016, issue 1); MEDLINE (via Ovid, 2008 to January 2016); Ovid EMBASE (2008 to January 2016); and Ovid AMED (1985 to January 2016). We checked PubMed for recent publications to April 2016. We searched the World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Trials Registry Platform to February 2016 for ongoing and unpublished trials. Selection criteria We included randomized trials at least eight weeks in duration that compared an acupuncture intervention with a no-acupuncture control (no prophylactic treatment or routine care only), a sham-acupuncture intervention, or prophylactic drug in participants with episodic migraine. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers checked eligibility; extracted information on participants, interventions, methods and results, and assessed risk of bias and quality of the acupuncture intervention. The primary outcome was migraine frequency (preferably migraine days, attacks or headache days if migraine days not measured/reported) after treatment and at follow-up. The secondary outcome was response (at least 50% frequency reduction). Safety outcomes were number of participants dropping out due to adverse effects and number of participants reporting at least one adverse effect. We calculated pooled effect size estimates using a fixed-effect model. We assessed the evidence using GRADE and created ’Summary of findings’ tables. Main results Twenty-two trials including 4985 participants in total (median 71, range

  12. 2011 Critical Success Factors Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Critical Success Factors Report is the North Carolina Community College System's major accountability document. This annual performance report serves to inform colleges and the public on the performance of North Carolina's 58 community colleges. In 1993, the State Board of Community Colleges began monitoring performance data on specific…

  13. Dictionary criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    Dictionary criticism is part of the lexicographical universe and reviewing of electronic and printed dictionaries is not an exercise in linguistics or in subject fields but an exercise in lexicography. It does not follow from this that dictionary reviews should not be based on a linguistic approach......, but that the linguistic approach is only one of several approaches to dictionary reviewing. Similarly, the linguistic and factual competences of reviewers should not be relegated to an insignificant position in the review process. Moreover, reviewers should define the object of their reviews, the dictionary, as a complex...... information tool with several components and in terms of significant lexicographical features: lexicographical functions, data and structures. This emphasises the fact that dictionaries are much more than mere vessels of linguistic categories, namely lexicographical tools that have been developed to fulfil...

  14. Study of metamemory in patients with chronic alcoholism using a feeling-of-knowing episodic memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Pinon, Karine; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Allain, Philippe; Eustache, Francis; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2010-11-01

    Alcoholism affects various cognitive processes, including components of memory. Metamemory, though of particular interest for patient treatment, has not yet been extensively investigated.  A feeling-of-knowing (FOK) measure of metamemory was administered to 28 alcoholic patients and 28 healthy controls during an episodic memory task including the learning of 20 pairs of items, followed by a 20-minute delayed recall and a recognition task. Prior to recognition, participants rated their ability to recognize each nonrecalled word among 4 items. This episodic FOK measure served to compare predictions of future recognition performance and actual recognition performance. Furthermore, a subjective measure of metamemory, the Metamemory In Adulthood (MIA) questionnaire, was completed by patients and controls. This assessment of alcoholic patients' metamemory profile was accompanied by an evaluation of episodic memory and executive functioning. FOK results revealed deficits in accuracy, with the alcoholic patients providing overestimations. There were also links between FOK inaccuracy, executive decline, and episodic memory impairment in patients. MIA results showed that although alcoholics did display memory difficulties, they did not differ from controls on questions about memory capacity. Chronic alcoholism affects both episodic memory and metamemory for novel information. Patients were relatively unaware of their memory deficits and believed that their memory was as good as that of the healthy controls. The monitoring measure (FOK) and the subjective measure of metamemory (MIA) showed that patients with chronic alcoholism overestimated their memory capacities. Episodic memory deficit and executive dysfunction would explain metamemory decline in this clinical population. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Influence of low ozone episodes on erythemal UV-B radiation in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Pietsch, Helga; Blumthaler, Mario; Weihs, Philipp; Rieder, Harald E.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of low ozone episodes on UV-B radiation in Austria during the period 1999 to 2015. To this aim observations of total column ozone (TCO) in the Greater Alpine Region (Arosa, Switzerland; Hohenpeissenberg, Germany; Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; Sonnblick, Austria), and erythemal UV-B radiation, available from 12 sites of the Austrian UV-B monitoring network, are analyzed. As previous definitions for low ozone episodes are not particularly suited to investigate effects on UV radiation, a novel threshold approach—considering anomalies—is developed to provide a joint framework for the analysis of extremes. TCO and UV extremes are negatively correlated, although modulating effects of sunshine duration impact the robustness of the statistical relationship. Therefore, information on relative sunshine duration (SDrel), available at (or nearby) UV-B monitoring sites, is included as explanatory variable in the analysis. The joint analysis of anomalies of both UV index (UVI) and total ozone (∆UVI, ∆TCO) and SDrel across sites shows that more than 65% of observations with strongly negative ozone anomalies (∆TCO 1), we find (across all sites) that about 90% correspond to negative ∆TCO. The remaining 10% of days occurred during fair weather conditions (SDrel ≥ 80%) explaining the appearance of ∆UVI > 1 despite positive TCO anomalies. Further, we introduce an anomaly amplification factor (AAF), which quantifies the expected change of the ∆UVI for a given change in ∆TCO.

  16. PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION IN THE NORTH OF PORTUGAL: A HIGH TROPOSHERIC OZONE EPISODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A.; Carvalho, A.; Tchepel, O.; Ferreira, J.; Martins, H.; Miranda, A.; Borrego, C.; Saavedra, S.; Rodríguez, A.; Souto, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Very high concentrations of ozone are continuously measured at the monitoring station at Lamas d’Olo, located at the North of Portugal,. A particular high photochemical episode occurred between 11 and 13 of July 2005, registering ozone hourly maximum values above 350 µg.m-3. This ozone-rich episode is investigated in this paper, in order to identify its origin and formation. Besides the analysis of both meteorological and air quality monitoring datasets, a numerical modelling approach, based on MM5-CAMx system, was used to simulate the dispersion and transport (horizontal and vertical) of the photochemical pollutants and its precursors. A cross spectrum analysis of the meteorological and air quality time series was performed, in the frequency domain, to establish the relationships between ozone data measured at Lamas d’Olo with air quality data from neighbourhood stations and meteorological parameters. Results point out different behaviour/contribution between the analysed sites. Moreover, different contributions of the u and v wind component on the ozone concentration fluctuations were found suggesting the presence a mountain breeze circulation and a north synoptic transport. The preliminary modelling results pointed out that the vertical transport of pollutants are responsible for the measured high concentrations, combined with particular meteorological conditions, related to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) development. The pollutants transported and existent at high vertical levels are captured/trapped when the PBL height reaches its daily maximum, and extremely high ozone ground level concentrations are consequently measured.

  17. Particle size distribution and composition in a mechanically ventilated school building during air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J L; Larson, R R; Eskelson, E; Wood, E M; Veranth, J M

    2008-10-01

    Particle count-based size distribution and PM(2.5) mass were monitored inside and outside an elementary school in Salt Lake City (UT, USA) during the winter atmospheric inversion season. The site is influenced by urban traffic and the airshed is subject to periods of high PM(2.5) concentration that is mainly submicron ammonium and nitrate. The school building has mechanical ventilation with filtration and variable-volume makeup air. Comparison of the indoor and outdoor particle size distribution on the five cleanest and five most polluted school days during the study showed that the ambient submicron particulate matter (PM) penetrated the building, but indoor concentrations were about one-eighth of outdoor levels. The indoor:outdoor PM(2.5) mass ratio averaged 0.12 and particle number ratio for sizes smaller than 1 microm averaged 0.13. The indoor submicron particle count and indoor PM(2.5) mass increased slightly during pollution episodes but remained well below outdoor levels. When the building was occupied the indoor coarse particle count was much higher than ambient levels. These results contribute to understanding the relationship between ambient monitoring station data and the actual human exposure inside institutional buildings. The study confirms that staying inside a mechanically ventilated building reduces exposure to outdoor submicron particles. This study supports the premise that remaining inside buildings during particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes reduces exposure to submicron PM. New data on a mechanically ventilated institutional building supplements similar studies made in residences.

  18. Why do we remember? The communicative function of episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Johannes B.; Csibra, Gergely

    2017-01-01

    Short Abstract We propose a novel account of episodic memory function based on a conceptual and empirical analysis of its role in belief formation. We provide a critique of the view that episodic memory serves future-directed imagination, and argue that the central features of this capacity can instead be explained by the role it plays in human communication. On this view, episodic memory allows us to communicatively support our interpretations of the past by gauging when we can assert epistemic authority. This capacity is ineliminable in justification of, and negotiations about, social commitments established by past interactions. Long Abstract Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential, ‘autonoetic’ character. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms, and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken towards an event simulation. On this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the past. Instead, empirical findings suggest that the contents of human episodic memory are often constructed in the service of the explicit justification of such beliefs. Existing accounts of episodic memory function that have focused on explaining its constructive character through its role in ‘future-oriented mental time travel’ neither do justice to its capacity to ground veridical beliefs about the past nor to its representational format. We provide an account of the metarepresentational structure of episodic memory in terms of its role in communicative interaction. The generative nature of recollection allows us to represent and communicate the reasons for why we hold certain beliefs about the past. In this process, autonoesis corresponds to the capacity to

  19. [Tunisian mothers' beliefs about their child's first psychotic episode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgou, S; Halayem, S; Bouden, A; Halayem, M B

    2012-12-01

    Initiating psychiatric treatment depends on several factors including clinical, personal, familial and economic factors. In the case of a first psychotic episode in an adolescent, parents, especially mothers, have a critical role in initiating psychiatric treatment for their child. In this study, we investigated mothers' beliefs about their child's first psychotic episode. Participants were adolescents consulting the department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the Razi hospital in Tunisia. They were aged from 12 to 19 years at the onset of their medical follow-up. Their diagnoses were schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and schizophreniform disorder according to DSM-IV. A questionnaire was submitted to patients' mothers after their approval. It was divided into two parts. The first part was used to collect information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the mothers and their children. The second part was composed of the following four questions in Tunisian dialect: (1) what did you think was the matter when you first noticed psychotic symptoms in your child? (2) what was the main reason for which you thought psychiatric treatment was necessary? (3) what obstacles did you perceive in initiating psychiatric treatment? (4) do you have any advice or suggestions for caregivers on how they could facilitate an early start of treatment? Twenty-two mothers were included. The mean age of the mothers at onset of the follow-up of their child was 42 years (SD: 4.81). Ten mothers had never been schooled, five had primary school level, four had secondary school level, three had bachelor's degree and two had a diploma of doctorate; 63.6% of the mothers were housewives. The mean age of patients was 13.77 years at the start of their medical follow-up (SD= ± 2.14). Most of the patients were male (14 males for eight girls). Most patients were diagnosed as having schizophrenia (91%); 4.5% were diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder and 4.5% with

  20. Recirculation, stagnation and ventilation: The 2014 legionella episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Gouveia, Célia M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2017-04-01

    period covering the 2014 event (7-25 November 2014). Hourly zonal (u) and meridional (v) wind components were retrieved from hindcast regional climate simulation covering the whole Iberian Peninsula (IP) with a spatial resolution of 9 km. This simulation was performed with the WRF model and for this study, the u and v components were extracted for a set of 12 points of the simulation grid around Lisbon. The preliminary results regarding the average daily critical transport indices for the 1989-2007 period clearly indicate that the airshed is prone to ventilation as these events have a dominant presence through most of the study period (72%), relatively to the occurrence of recirculation (10%) and stagnation (<2%) events. Comparatively to the 1989-2007 period, the 2014 episode is truly exceptional. [1] Allwine KJ, Whiteman CD., 1994. Atmospheric Environment 28: 713-721. [2] Blystad H, Brantsæter AB, Løvoll Ø., 2005. Eurosurveillance weekly release, 10(5) [3] Nguyen T, Ilef D, Jarraud S, Rouil L, Campese C, Che D, Haeghebaert S, Ganiayre F, Marcel F, Etienne J, Desenclos J-C, 2006. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 193, 1, 102-111. [4] Mohan M, Bhati S. 2012. Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering, S1:003.

  1. Genetic screening and testing in an episode-based payment model: preserving patient autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Sharon; Farrell, Ruth M; Lockwood, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The State of Ohio is implementing an episode-based payment model for perinatal care. All costs of care will be tabulated for each live birth and assigned to the delivering provider, creating a three-tiered model for reimbursement for care. Providers will be reimbursed as usual for care that is average in cost and quality, while instituting rewards or penalties for those outside the expected range in either domain. There are few exclusions, and all methods of genetic screening and diagnostic testing are included in the episode cost calculation as proposed. Prenatal ultrasonography, genetic screening, and diagnostic testing are critical components of the delivery of high-quality, evidence-based prenatal care. These tests provide pregnant women with key information about the pregnancy, which, in turn, allows them to work closely with their health care provider to determine optimal prenatal care. The concepts of informed consent and decision-making, cornerstones of the ethical practice of medicine, are founded on the principles of autonomy and respect for persons. These principles recognize that patients' rights to make choices and take actions are based on their personal beliefs and values. Given the personal nature of such decisions, it is critical that patients have unbarred access to prenatal genetic tests if they elect to use them as part of their prenatal care. The proposed restructuring of reimbursement creates a clear conflict between patient autonomy and physician financial incentives.

  2. Functional connectivity pattern during rest within the episodic memory network in association with episodic memory performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent

    2015-02-28

    In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). The previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. We did a seed-based functional connectivity analysis (SBA), using the regions of the episodic memory network that showed a significantly different activation pattern during task-related fMRI as seeds. The functional connectivity scores (FC) were further correlated with episodic memory task performance. Our results revealed decreased FC scores within frontal areas and between frontal and temporal/hippocampal/limbic regions in BD patients in comparison with controls. We observed higher FC in BD patients compared with controls between frontal and limbic regions. The decrease in fronto-frontal functional connectivity in BD patients showed a significant positive association with episodic memory performance. The association between task-independent dysfunctional frontal-limbic FC and episodic memory performance may be relevant for current pathophysiological models of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Personalized and automated remote monitoring of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, Arnaud; Mabo, Philippe; Temal, Lynda; Van Hille, Pascal; Dameron, Olivier; Deléger, Louise; Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Jacques, Julie; Chazard, Emmanuel; Laporte, Laure; Henry, Christine; Burgun, Anita

    2016-03-01

    Remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices is a growing standard; yet, remote follow-up and management of alerts represents a time-consuming task for physicians or trained staff. This study evaluates an automatic mechanism based on artificial intelligence tools to filter atrial fibrillation (AF) alerts based on their medical significance. We evaluated this method on alerts for AF episodes that occurred in 60 pacemaker recipients. AKENATON prototype workflow includes two steps: natural language-processing algorithms abstract the patient health record to a digital version, then a knowledge-based algorithm based on an applied formal ontology allows to calculate the CHA2DS2-VASc score and evaluate the anticoagulation status of the patient. Each alert is then automatically classified by importance from low to critical, by mimicking medical reasoning. Final classification was compared with human expert analysis by two physicians. A total of 1783 alerts about AF episode >5 min in 60 patients were processed. A 1749 of 1783 alerts (98%) were adequately classified and there were no underestimation of alert importance in the remaining 34 misclassified alerts. This work demonstrates the ability of a pilot system to classify alerts and improves personalized remote monitoring of patients. In particular, our method allows integration of patient medical history with device alert notifications, which is useful both from medical and resource-management perspectives. The system was able to automatically classify the importance of 1783 AF alerts in 60 patients, which resulted in an 84% reduction in notification workload, while preserving patient safety. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Air Pollution Episodes Associated with Prescribed Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M.; Di Virgilio, G.; Jiang, N.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution events associated with wildfires have been associated with extreme health impacts. Prescribed burns are an important tool to reduce the severity of wildfires. However, if undertaken during unfavourable meteorological conditions, they too have the capacity to trigger extreme air pollution events. The Australian state of New South Wales has increased the annual average area treated by prescribed burn activities by 45%, in order to limit wildfire activity. Prescribed burns need to be undertaken during meteorological conditions that allow the fuel load to burn, while still allowing the burn to remain under control. These conditions are similar to those that inhibit atmospheric dispersion, resulting in a fine balance between managing fire risk and managing ambient air pollution. During prescribed burns, the Sydney air shed can experience elevated particulate matter concentrations, especially fine particulates (PM2.5) that occasionally exceed national air quality standards. Using pollutant and meteorological data from sixteen monitoring stations in Sydney we used generalized additive model and CART analyses to profile the meteorological conditions influencing air quality during planned burns. The insights gained from this study will help improve prescribed burn scheduling in order to reduce the pollution risk to the community, while allowing fire agencies to conduct this important work.

  5. Functional brain imaging of episodic memory decline in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, L

    2017-01-01

    The episodic long-term memory system supports remembering of events. It is considered to be the most age-sensitive system, with an average onset of decline around 60 years of age. However, there is marked interindividual variability, such that some individuals show faster than average change and others show no or very little change. This variability may be related to the risk of developing dementia, with elevated risk for individuals with accelerated episodic memory decline. Brain imaging with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signalling or positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to reveal the brain bases of declining episodic memory in ageing. Several studies have demonstrated a link between age-related episodic memory decline and the hippocampus during active mnemonic processing, which is further supported by studies of hippocampal functional connectivity in the resting state. The hippocampus interacts with anterior and posterior neocortical regions to support episodic memory, and alterations in hippocampus-neocortex connectivity have been shown to contribute to impaired episodic memory. Multimodal MRI studies and more recently hybrid MRI/PET studies allow consideration of various factors that can influence the association between the hippocampal BOLD signal and memory performance. These include neurovascular factors, grey and white matter structural alterations, dopaminergic neurotransmission, amyloid-Β and glucose metabolism. Knowledge about the brain bases of episodic memory decline can guide interventions to strengthen memory in older adults, particularly in those with an elevated risk of developing dementia, with promising results for combinations of cognitive and physical stimulation. © 2016 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. What if? Neural activity underlying semantic and episodic counterfactual thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Natasha; Ruzic, Luka; Stewart, Gregory W; Spreng, R Nathan; De Brigard, Felipe

    2018-05-25

    Counterfactual thinking (CFT) is the process of mentally simulating alternative versions of known facts. In the past decade, cognitive neuroscientists have begun to uncover the neural underpinnings of CFT, particularly episodic CFT (eCFT), which activates regions in the default network (DN) also activated by episodic memory (eM) recall. However, the engagement of DN regions is different for distinct kinds of eCFT. More plausible counterfactuals and counterfactuals about oneself show stronger activity in DN regions compared to implausible and other- or object-focused counterfactuals. The current study sought to identify a source for this difference in DN activity. Specifically, self-focused counterfactuals may also be more plausible, suggesting that DN core regions are sensitive to the plausibility of a simulation. On the other hand, plausible and self-focused counterfactuals may involve more episodic information than implausible and other-focused counterfactuals, which would imply DN sensitivity to episodic information. In the current study, we compared episodic and semantic counterfactuals generated to be plausible or implausible against episodic and semantic memory reactivation using fMRI. Taking multivariate and univariate approaches, we found that the DN is engaged more during episodic simulations, including eM and all eCFT, than during semantic simulations. Semantic simulations engaged more inferior temporal and lateral occipital regions. The only region that showed strong plausibility effects was the hippocampus, which was significantly engaged for implausible CFT but not for plausible CFT, suggestive of binding more disparate information. Consequences of these findings for the cognitive neuroscience of mental simulation are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. [Repeated poisoning episodes: Alarm sign of risk situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Elsa; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Martínez Sánchez, Lidia; Ferrer Bosch, Nuria; Luaces Cubells, Carles

    2017-11-01

    Prevention is an essential aspect in paediatric poisonings, especially when recurrent episodes are detected. The aims of this article are to detect the recurrence rate for suspected poisoning in emergency consultations, as well as to identify the cases in which specific preventive measures are indicated, and to determine whether the creation of a specific item for recurrent episodes in the computerised medical records system facilitates its detection. A retrospective study was conducted on patients less than 18 years of age treated in the emergency room due to suspected poisoning during 2013 and 2014. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of previous episodes. From January 2014, a specific item is present in the computerised medical records of the poisoned patient, where the history of previous episodes is registered. The preventive measures used between both groups were compared. A total of 731 consultations were recorded for suspected poisoning. A history of previous episodes was detected in 9% of cases. Medical injury reports and follow-up in outpatient clinics were more often performed in patients with recurrent episodes than in patients without them (28.8% vs 18.0%, P=.034, and 65.2% vs. 18.8%, P<.001, respectively). In 2013, the recurrence rate was 5.9% vs 12% in 2014 (P=.004). The recurrence rate observed is significant. Although preventive measures are more frequently indicated in these patients, their application is low. The creation of a specific item for recurrent episodes in a computerised medical records system facilitates their detection. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing the meteorological conditions of a deep Italian Alpine valley system by means of a measuring campaign and simulations with two models during a summer smog episode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dosio, A.; Emeis, S.; Graziani, G.; Junkermann, W.; Levy, A.

    2001-01-01

    The typical features of a summer smog episode in the highly complex terrain of the Province of Bolzano (Northern Italy) were investigated by numerical modelling with two non-hydrostatic models, ground-based monitoring stations, and vertical profiling with two sodars and an ultra-light aircraft. High

  9. Radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.Eh.; B'yuli, D.K.; Karmikel, Dzh.Kh.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation monitoring of personnel, used medical ionizing radiation source, are given. The necessity to carry out radiation monitoring of situation at medical personnel's positions and personnel dosimetry is marked. It is convenient to subdivide radiation monitoring into 3 types: usual, surgical and special. Usual monitoring is connected with current work; surgical monitoring is carried out to receive information during a concrete operation; special monitoring is used to detect possible deviation from standard conditions of work or when suspecting them

  10. System Predicts Critical Runway Performance Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Ernest W.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Runway-navigation-monitor (RNM) and critical-distances-process electronic equipment designed to provide pilot with timely and reliable predictive navigation information relating to takeoff, landing and runway-turnoff operations. Enables pilot to make critical decisions about runway maneuvers with high confidence during emergencies. Utilizes ground-referenced position data only to drive purely navigational monitor system independent of statuses of systems in aircraft.

  11. International Conference on Durability of Critical Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Cherepetskaya, Elena; Pospichal, Vaclav

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Durability of Critical Infrastructure. Monitoring and Testing held in Satov, Czech Republic from 6 to 9 December 2016. It discusses the developments in the theoretical and practical aspects in the fields of Safety, Sustainability and Durability of the Critical Infrastructure. The contributions are dealing with monitoring and testing of structural and composite materials with a new methods for their using for protection and prevention of the selected objects.

  12. Preschool children's proto-episodic memory assessed by deferred imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patrick; Russell, Charlotte; Russell, James

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments, both employing deferred imitation, we studied the developmental origins of episodic memory in two- to three-year-old children by adopting a "minimalist" view of episodic memory based on its What-When-Where ("WWW": spatiotemporal plus semantic) content. We argued that the temporal element within spatiotemporal should be the order/simultaneity of the event elements, but that it is not clear whether the spatial content should be egocentric or allocentric. We also argued that episodic recollection should be configural (tending towards all-or-nothing recall of the WWW elements). Our first deferred imitation experiment, using a two-dimensional (2D) display, produced superior-to-chance performance after 2.5 years but no evidence of configural memory. Moreover, performance did not differ from that on a What-What-What control task. Our second deferred imitation study required the children to reproduce actions on an object in a room, thereby affording layout-based spatial cues. In this case, not only was there superior-to-chance performance after 2.5 years but memory was also configural at both ages. We discuss the importance of allocentric spatial cues in episodic recall in early proto-episodic memory and reflect on the possible role of hippocampal development in this process.

  13. Modelling episodic acidification of surface waters: the state of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, K N; Wigington, P J; Davies, T D; Tranter, M

    1992-01-01

    Field studies of chemical changes in surface waters associated with rainfall and snowmelt events have provided evidence of episodic acidification of lakes and streams in Europe and North America. Modelling these chemical changes is particularly challenging because of the variability associated with hydrological transport and chemical transformation processes in catchments. This paper provides a review of mathematical models that have been applied to the problem of episodic acidification. Several empirical approaches, including regression models, mixing models and time series models, support a strong hydrological interpretation of episodic acidification. Regional application of several models has suggested that acidic episodes (in which the acid neutralizing capacity becomes negative) are relatively common in surface waters in several regions of the US that receive acid deposition. Results from physically based models have suggested a lack of understanding of hydrological flowpaths, hydraulic residence times and biogeochemical reactions, particularly those involving aluminum. The ability to better predict episodic chemical responses of surface waters is thus dependent upon elucidation of these and other physical and chemical processes.

  14. Elements of episodic-like memory in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, N S; Griffiths, D P; Emery, N J; Dickinson, A

    2001-09-29

    A number of psychologists have suggested that episodic memory is a uniquely human phenomenon and, until recently, there was little evidence that animals could recall a unique past experience and respond appropriately. Experiments on food-caching memory in scrub jays question this assumption. On the basis of a single caching episode, scrub jays can remember when and where they cached a variety of foods that differ in the rate at which they degrade, in a way that is inexplicable by relative familiarity. They can update their memory of the contents of a cache depending on whether or not they have emptied the cache site, and can also remember where another bird has hidden caches, suggesting that they encode rich representations of the caching event. They make temporal generalizations about when perishable items should degrade and also remember the relative time since caching when the same food is cached in distinct sites at different times. These results show that jays form integrated memories for the location, content and time of caching. This memory capability fulfils Tulving's behavioural criteria for episodic memory and is thus termed 'episodic-like'. We suggest that several features of episodic memory may not be unique to humans.

  15. Infectious episodes in runners before and after a roadrace.

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    Nieman, D C; Johanssen, L M; Lee, J W

    1989-09-01

    Various researchers have implied that regular and moderate exercise training may improve the ability of the immune system to protect the host from infection. In contrast, acute, maximal, and exhaustive exercise may have negative effects of the immune system. This study compared the incidence of infectious episodes in 273 runners during a two month training period prior to a 5 K, 10 K, or half-marathon race. In addition, the effect of the race experience on infectious episodes was studied. Twenty-five percent of the runners training more than 15 miles per week reported at least one infectious episode as compared with 34.3% of runners training less than 15 miles per week (p = 0.09). Only 6.8% of the runners preparing for the half-marathon race reported becoming sick with the flu versus 17.9% of the 5 K and 10 K runners (p = 0.067). During the week following the roadrace, runners did not report an increase in infectious episodes as compared to the week prior to the race. These trends suggest that runners with a more serious commitment to regular exercise may experience less infectious episodes than recreational runners because of both direct and indirect affects on immunosurveillance. In addition, the stressful race experience does not appear to increase risk of acquiring an acute respiratory infection.

  16. Longitudinal association between hippocampus atrophy and episodic-memory decline.

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    Gorbach, Tetiana; Pudas, Sara; Lundquist, Anders; Orädd, Greger; Josefsson, Maria; Salami, Alireza; de Luna, Xavier; Nyberg, Lars

    2017-03-01

    There is marked variability in both onset and rate of episodic-memory decline in aging. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have revealed that the extent of age-related brain changes varies markedly across individuals. Past studies of whether regional atrophy accounts for episodic-memory decline in aging have yielded inconclusive findings. Here we related 15-year changes in episodic memory to 4-year changes in cortical and subcortical gray matter volume and in white-matter connectivity and lesions. In addition, changes in word fluency, fluid IQ (Block Design), and processing speed were estimated and related to structural brain changes. Significant negative change over time was observed for all cognitive and brain measures. A robust brain-cognition change-change association was observed for episodic-memory decline and atrophy in the hippocampus. This association was significant for older (65-80 years) but not middle-aged (55-60 years) participants and not sensitive to the assumption of ignorable attrition. Thus, these longitudinal findings highlight medial-temporal lobe system integrity as particularly crucial for maintaining episodic-memory functioning in older age. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Retrospective study on structural neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Coentre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. No consensus between guidelines exists regarding neuroimaging in first-episode psychosis. The purpose of this study is to assess anomalies found in structural neuroimaging exams (brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the initial medical work-up of patients presenting first-episode psychosis. Methods. The study subjects were 32 patients aged 18–48 years (mean age: 29.6 years, consecutively admitted with first-episode psychosis diagnosis. Socio-demographic and clinical data and neuroimaging exams (CT and MRI were retrospectively studied. Diagnostic assessments were made using the Operational Criteria Checklist +. Neuroimaging images (CT and MRI and respective reports were analysed by an experienced consultant psychiatrist. Results. None of the patients had abnormalities in neuroimaging exams responsible for psychotic symptoms. Thirty-seven percent of patients had incidental brain findings not causally related to the psychosis (brain atrophy, arachnoid cyst, asymmetric lateral ventricles, dilated lateral ventricles, plagiocephaly and falx cerebri calcification. No further medical referral was needed for any of these patients. No significant differences regarding gender, age, diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, in-stay and cannabis use were found between patients who had neuroimaging abnormalities versus those without. Discussion. This study suggests that structural neuroimaging exams reveal scarce abnormalities in young patients with first-episode psychosis. Structural neuroimaging is especially useful in first-episode psychosis patients with neurological symptoms, atypical clinical picture and old age.

  18. Interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal CA1 area is essential for episodic-like memory in rats.

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    Chao, Owen Y; Nikolaus, Susanne; Lira Brandão, Marcus; Huston, Joseph P; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2017-05-01

    The interplay between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus, particularly the hippocampal CA3 area, is critical for episodic memory. To what extent the mPFC also interacts with the hippocampus CA1 subregion still requires elucidation. To investigate this issue, male rats received unilateral N-methyl- D -aspartate lesions of the mPFC together with unilateral lesions of the hippocampal CA1 area, either in the same (control) or in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection). They underwent an episodic-like memory test, combining what-where-when information, and separate tests for novel object preference (what), object place preference (where) and temporal order memory (when). Compared to controls, the disconnected mPFC-CA1 rats exhibited disrupted episodic-like memory with an impaired integration of the what-where-when elements. Both groups showed intact memories for what and when, while only the control group showed intact memory for where. These findings suggest that the functional interaction of the mPFC-CA1 circuit is crucial for the processing of episodic memory and, in particular, for the integration of the spatial memory component. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Amygdala-prefrontal cortex resting-state functional connectivity varies with first depressive or manic episode in bipolar disorder.

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    Wei, Shengnan; Geng, Haiyang; Jiang, Xiaowei; Zhou, Qian; Chang, Miao; Zhou, Yifang; Xu, Ke; Tang, Yanqing; Wang, Fei

    2017-02-22

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most complex mental illnesses, characterized by interactive depressive and manic states that are 2 contrary symptoms of disease states. The bilateral amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) appear to play critical roles in BD; however, abnormalities seem to manifest differently in the 2 states and may provide further insight into underlying mechanisms. Sixteen participants with first-episode depressive and 13 participants with first-episode manic states of bipolar disorder as well as 30 healthy control (HC) participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the bilateral amygdala and PFC was compared among the 3 groups. Compared with depressive state participants of the BD group, manic state participants of the BD group showed a significant decrease in rsFC between the amygdala and right orbital frontal cortex (pamygdala and left middle frontal cortex was significantly decreased in depressive and manic state participants of the BD group when compared with the HC group (pamygdala- left PFC functional connectivity might present the trait feature for BD, while deficits in amygdala- right PFC functional connectivity might be specific to manic episode, compared to depressive episode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Nearly Lethal Screw: An Unusual Cause of Recurrent Bradycardia and Asystole Episodes after Fixation of the Cervical Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Frenkel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 51-year-old man who was injured in a bicycle accident. His main injury was an unstable fracture of the cervical and thoracic vertebral column. Several hours after his arrival to the hospital the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF of the cervical and thoracic spine. The patient was hospitalized in our critical care unit for 99 days. During this time patient had several episodes of severe bradycardia and asystole; some were short with spontaneous return to sinus and some required pharmacological treatment and even Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR. Initially, these episodes were attributed to the high cervical spine injury, but, later on, CT scan suggested that a fixation screw abutted on the esophagus and activated the vagus nerve by direct pressure. After repositioning of the cervical fixation, the bradycardia and asystole episodes were no longer observed and the patient was released to a rehabilitation ward. This case is presented in order to alert practitioners to the possibility that, after operative fixation of cervical spine injuries, recurrent episodes of bradyarrhythmia can be caused by incorrect placement of the fixation screws and might be confused with the natural history of the high cervical cord injury.