WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitor yield functions

  1. Structure function monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, John T [Placitas, NM; Zimmer, Peter C [Albuquerque, NM; Ackermann, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-01-24

    Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

  2. Fiber optic yield monitor for a sugarcane chopper harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fiber optic yield monitoring system was developed for a sugarcane chopper harvester that utilizes a duty-cycle type approach with three fiber optic sensors mounted in the elevator floor to estimate cane yield. Field testing of the monitor demonstrated that there was a linear relationship between t...

  3. An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2011-08-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

  4. An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

  5. Towards a Solid Foundation of Using Remotely Sensed Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence for Crop Monitoring and Yield Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Sun, Y.; You, L.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The growing demand for food production due to population increase coupled with high vulnerability to volatile environmental changes poses a paramount challenge for mankind in the coming century. Real-time crop monitoring and yield forecasting must be a key part of any solution to this challenge as these activities provide vital information needed for effective and efficient crop management and for decision making. However, traditional methods of crop growth monitoring (e.g., remotely sensed vegetation indices) do not directly relate to the most important function of plants - photosynthesis and therefore crop yield. The recent advance in the satellite remote sensing of Solar-Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF), an integrative photosynthetic signal from molecular origin and a direct measure of plant functions holds great promise for real-time monitoring of crop growth conditions and forecasting yields. In this study, we use satellite measurements of SIF from both the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) onboard MetOp-A and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellites to estimate crop yield using both process-based and statistical models. We find that SIF-based crop yield well correlates with the global yield product Spatial Production Allocation Model (SPAM) derived from ground surveys for all major crops including maize, soybean, wheat, sorghum, and rice. The potential and challenges of using upcoming SIF satellite missions for crop monitoring and prediction will also be discussed.

  6. Functional dynamic factor models with application to yield curve forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Spencer

    2012-09-01

    Accurate forecasting of zero coupon bond yields for a continuum of maturities is paramount to bond portfolio management and derivative security pricing. Yet a universal model for yield curve forecasting has been elusive, and prior attempts often resulted in a trade-off between goodness of fit and consistency with economic theory. To address this, herein we propose a novel formulation which connects the dynamic factor model (DFM) framework with concepts from functional data analysis: a DFM with functional factor loading curves. This results in a model capable of forecasting functional time series. Further, in the yield curve context we show that the model retains economic interpretation. Model estimation is achieved through an expectation- maximization algorithm, where the time series parameters and factor loading curves are simultaneously estimated in a single step. Efficient computing is implemented and a data-driven smoothing parameter is nicely incorporated. We show that our model performs very well on forecasting actual yield data compared with existing approaches, especially in regard to profit-based assessment for an innovative trading exercise. We further illustrate the viability of our model to applications outside of yield forecasting.

  7. Capital yields assessment trough cross section production function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodera, Jan; Pánková, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 14 (2001), s. 79-87 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/00/0439 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : yield of capital * cross-section production function * maximisation of profit Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  8. Critical function monitoring system algorithm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate critical function status information is a key to operator decision-making during events threatening nuclear power plant safety. The Critical Function Monitoring System provides continuous critical function status monitoring by use of algorithms which mathematically represent the processes by which an operating staff would determine critical function status. This paper discusses in detail the systematic design methodology employed to develop adequate Critical Function Monitoring System algorithms

  9. The calibration of the MAST neutron yield monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stammers, Keith; Loughlin, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Several neutron detectors have been installed on MAST to monitor the temporal production of neutrons during neutral beam injection. This paper describes the detectors, their calibration and applications of the data. The main neutron diagnostic is a guarded fission chamber, with processing electronics that allow data collection in three modes of operation, and covers the whole range of neutron production rate to be expected from current operations and future upgrades. The scalar mode of operation is calibrated with a 252 Cf source inside the vacuum vessel and then MCNP modelling is used to relate this calibration to an extended plasma source. Plasma neutron data are used to extend the calibration to the Campbell and ion-current modes, with final uncertainties of approximately 8% in each case. Corroborative evidence for the accuracy of the calibration, obtained from neutron activation, indicates that the method is satisfactory. The neutron data are used routinely to keep track of the radio-activation of key components of the MAST tokamak

  10. Cranial neuronavigation with functional monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.; Oberle, J.; Kretschmer, T.; Richter, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Minimise the risks is an essential objective of neurosurgery. The technological progress achieved in the last few years, especially regarding imaging methods and image processing capabilities, offers the tools to manage the risks. The authors explain initial experience obtained with microscope-based cranial neuronavigation systems combined with direct cortical monitoring methods and give an outlook on expected devlopments in the future. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Advanced health monitor for automated driving functions

    OpenAIRE

    Mikovski Iotov, I.

    2017-01-01

    There is a trend in the automotive domain where driving functions are taken from the driver by automated driving functions. In order to guarantee the correct behavior of these auto-mated driving functions, the report introduces an Advanced Health Monitor that uses Tem-poral Logic and Probabilistic Analysis to indicate the system’s health.

  12. Advanced health monitor for automated driving functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikovski Iotov, I.

    2017-01-01

    There is a trend in the automotive domain where driving functions are taken from the driver by automated driving functions. In order to guarantee the correct behavior of these auto-mated driving functions, the report introduces an Advanced Health Monitor that uses Tem-poral Logic and Probabilistic

  13. Application of Adaptive Noise Cancellation for Anti-Vibration in Yield Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan LI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the process of grain harvest, yield monitor system acquires real-time spatial distribution information of crop yield to provide important basis of decision-making for subsequent assignments of precision agriculture. The measurement accuracy has been seriously affected by Combine working vibration. Based on an innovative test platform of wheat combine harvester for yield monitor, well simulate the working vibration at the field situation; impact-based grain flow sensor with the structure of dual-parallel-beams as test terminals and using the NI (National Instrument data acquisition card to acquire signals; grain impacted frequency as fundamental frequency to process harmonic extraction, and for extracted signals, applied the improved LMS adaptive algorithm to interference cancellation, aim to eliminate interference cased by working vibration. The comparative experiment show that the maximum relative error less than 2 % under the proposed method and proved that the proposed algorithm in this paper is effective.

  14. Use of Linear Discriminant Function Analysis in Five Yield Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K-means cluster analysis grouped the 134 accessions into four distinct groups. Pairwise Mahalanobis 2 distance (D) among some of the groups was highly significant. From the study the yield sub-characters pod length, pod width, peduncle length and 100-seed weight contributed most to group separation in the cowpea ...

  15. Diagnostic Yield of Extended Cardiac Patch Monitoring in Patients with Stroke or TIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie E Tung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is important to evaluate patients with TIA or stroke for atrial fibrillation (AF because the detection of AF changes the recommended anti-thrombotic regimen from treatment with an antiplatelet agent to oral anticoagulation. This study describes the diagnostic yield of a patch-based, single-use, and water-resistant 14-day continuous cardiac rhythm monitor (ZIO Patch in patients with stroke or TIA.Methods: We obtained data from the manufacturer and servicer of the ZIO Patch (iRhythm Technologies. Patients who were monitored between January 2012 and June 2013 and whose indication for monitoring was TIA or stroke were included. The duration of monitoring, the number and type of arrhythmias, and the time to first arrhythmia were documented. Results: 1,171 monitoring reports were analyzed. The mean monitor wear time was 10.9 days and the median wear time was 13.0 days (interquartile range 7.2-14.0. The median analyzable time relative to the total wear time was 98.7% (IQR 96.0-99.5%. AF was present in 5.0% of all reports. The mean duration before the first episode of paroxysmal AF (PAF was 1.5 days and the median duration was 0.4 days. 14.3% of first PAF episodes occurred after 48 hours. The mean PAF burden was 12.7% of the total monitoring duration. Conclusion: Excellent quality of the recordings and very good patient compliance coupled with a substantial proportion of AF detection beyond the first 48 hours of monitoring suggest that the cardiac patch is superior to conventional 48-hour Holter monitors for AF detection in patients with stroke or TIA.

  16. Diagnostic Yield of Extended Cardiac Patch Monitoring in Patients with Stroke or TIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Christie E; Su, Derek; Turakhia, Mintu P; Lansberg, Maarten G

    2014-01-01

    It is important to evaluate patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke for atrial fibrillation (AF) because the detection of AF changes the recommended anti-thrombotic regimen from treatment with an antiplatelet agent to oral anticoagulation. This study describes the diagnostic yield of a patch-based, single-use, and water-resistant 14-day continuous cardiac rhythm monitor (ZIO Patch) in patients with stroke or TIA. We obtained data from the manufacturer and servicer of the ZIO Patch (iRhythm Technologies). Patients who were monitored between January 2012 and June 2013 and whose indication for monitoring was TIA or stroke were included. The duration of monitoring, the number and type of arrhythmias, and the time to first arrhythmia were documented. One thousand one hundred seventy-one monitoring reports were analyzed. The mean monitor wear time was 10.9 days and the median wear time was 13.0 days (interquartile range 7.2-14.0). The median analyzable time relative to the total wear time was 98.7% (IQR 96.0-99.5%). AF was present in 5.0% of all reports. The mean duration before the first episode of paroxysmal AF (PAF) was 1.5 days and the median duration was 0.4 days. 14.3% of first PAF episodes occurred after 48 h. The mean PAF burden was 12.7% of the total monitoring duration. Excellent quality of the recordings and very good patient compliance coupled with a substantial proportion of AF detection beyond the first 48 h of monitoring suggest that the cardiac patch is superior to conventional 48-h Holter monitors for AF detection in patients with stroke or TIA.

  17. Monitoring kidney function in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Astrup, A S; Smidt, U M

    1994-01-01

    (SD))(p kidney function ml.min-1.year-1 was 4.7 (3.3) measured and 4.8 (3.5) estimated (mean(SD)) (NS), but the 95% limits...... of decline in glomerular filtration rate are comparable, but the limits of agreement are wide, which make the Cockroft-Gault method unacceptable for clinical purposes, i.e. monitoring progression in kidney function in the individual patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  18. Functional Fitness Monitor (FFM) : multidisciplinair innovatieproject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johan; van Holland, Berry; van Ittersum, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Doel van het project Functional Fitness Monitor (FFM) was het ontwikkelen van een innovatieve combinatie van test-, meet- en gedragsbeïnvloedings-technologie voor werknemers met fysiek en mentaal zware beroepen. De samenwerkende Groningse MKB-bedrijven en kennisinstanties beogen een prototype van

  19. HVM die yield improvement as a function of DRSEM ADC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwary, Sonu; Haas, Terry; McGarvey, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Given the current manufacturing technology roadmap and the competitiveness of the global semiconductor manufacturing environment in conjunction with the semiconductor manufacturing market dynamics, the market place continues to demand a reduced die manufacturing cost. This continuous pressure on lowering die cost in turn drives an aggressive yield learning curve, a key component of which is defect reduction of manufacturing induced anomalies. In order to meet and even exceed line and die yield targets there is a need to revamp defect classification strategies and place a greater emphasize on increasing the accuracy and purity of the Defect Review Scanning Electron Microscope (DRSEM) Automated Defect Classification (ADC) results while placing less emphasis on the ADC results of patterned/un-patterned wafer inspection systems. The increased emphasis on DRSEM ADC results allows for a high degree of automation and consistency in the classification data and eliminates variance induced by the manufacturing staff. This paper examines the use of SEM based Auto Defect Classification in a high volume manufacturing environment as a key driver in the reduction of defect limited yields.

  20. Estimation of effects of photosynthesis response functions on rice yields and seasonal variation of CO2 fixation using a photosynthesis-sterility type of crop yield model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, D.; Moriwaki, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a crop production model improvement: the previously adopted Michaelis-Menten (MM) type photosynthesis response function (fsub(rad-MM)) was replaced with a Prioul-Chartier (PC) type function (fsub(rad-PC)). The authors' analysis reflects concerns regarding the background effect of global warming, under simultaneous conditions of high air temperature and strong solar radiation. The MM type function fsub(rad-MM) can give excessive values leading to an overestimate of photosynthesis rate (PSN) and grain yield for paddy-rice. The MM model is applicable to many plants whose (PSN) increases concomitant with increased insolation: wheat, maize, soybean, etc. For paddy rice, the PSN apparently shows a maximum PSN. This paper proves that the MM model overestimated the PSN for paddy rice for sufficient solar radiation: the PSN using the PC model yields 10% lower values. However, the unit crop production index (CPIsub(U)) is almost independent of the MM and PC models because of respective standardization of both PSN and crop production index using average PSNsub(0) and CPIsub(0). The authors improved the estimation method using a photosynthesis-and-sterility based crop situation index (CSIsub(E)) to produce a crop yield index (CYIsub(E)), which is used to estimate rice yields in place of the crop situation index (CSI); the CSI gives a percentage of rice yields compared to normal annual production. The model calculates PSN including biomass effects, low-temperature sterility, and high-temperature injury by incorporating insolation, effective air temperature, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and effects of temperature on photosynthesis. Based on routine observation data, the method enables automated crop-production monitoring in remote regions without special observations. This method can quantify grain production early to raise an alarm in Southeast Asian countries, which must confront climate fluctuation through this era of global

  1. Functional dynamic factor models with application to yield curve forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Spencer; Shen, Haipeng; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2012-01-01

    resulted in a trade-off between goodness of fit and consistency with economic theory. To address this, herein we propose a novel formulation which connects the dynamic factor model (DFM) framework with concepts from functional data analysis: a DFM

  2. Simultaneous recording of EEG and electromyographic polygraphy increases the diagnostic yield of video-EEG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Aron T; Briggs, Belinda A; Seneviratne, Udaya

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the usefulness of adjunctive electromyographic (EMG) polygraphy in the diagnosis of clinical events captured during long-term video-EEG monitoring. A total of 40 patients (21 women, 19 men) aged between 19 and 72 years (mean 43) investigated using video-EEG monitoring were studied. Electromyographic activity was simultaneously recorded with EEG in four patients selected on clinical grounds. In these patients, surface EMG electrodes were placed over muscles suspected to be activated during a typical clinical event. Of the 40 patients investigated, 24 (60%) were given a diagnosis, whereas 16 (40%) remained undiagnosed. All four patients receiving adjunctive EMG polygraphy obtained a diagnosis, with three of these diagnoses being exclusively reliant on the EMG recordings. Specifically, one patient was diagnosed with propriospinal myoclonus, another patient was diagnosed with facio-mandibular myoclonus, and a third patient was found to have bruxism and periodic leg movements of sleep. The information obtained from surface EMG recordings aided the diagnosis of clinical events captured during video-EEG monitoring in 7.5% of the total cohort. This study suggests that EEG-EMG polygraphy may be used as a technique of improving the diagnostic yield of video-EEG monitoring in selected cases.

  3. An alternative approach for modeling strength differential effect in sheet metals with symmetric yield functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukuri, Srihari; Worswick, Michael J.

    2013-12-01

    An alternative approach is proposed to utilize symmetric yield functions for modeling the tension-compression asymmetry commonly observed in hcp materials. In this work, the strength differential (SD) effect is modeled by choosing separate symmetric plane stress yield functions (for example, Barlat Yld 2000-2d) for the tension i.e., in the first quadrant of principal stress space, and compression i.e., third quadrant of principal stress space. In the second and fourth quadrants, the yield locus is constructed by adopting interpolating functions between uniaxial tensile and compressive stress states. In this work, different interpolating functions are chosen and the predictive capability of each approach is discussed. The main advantage of this proposed approach is that the yield locus parameters are deterministic and relatively easy to identify when compared to the Cazacu family of yield functions commonly used for modeling SD effect observed in hcp materials.

  4. Assessment of Geant4 Prompt-Gamma Emission Yields in the Context of Proton Therapy Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marco; Dauvergne, Denis; Freud, Nicolas; Krimmer, Jochen; Létang, Jean M.; Testa, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo tools have been long used to assist the research and development of solutions for proton therapy monitoring. The present work focuses on the prompt-gamma emission yields by comparing experimental data with the outcomes of the current version of Geant4 using all applicable proton inelastic models. For the case in study and using the binary cascade model, it was found that Geant4 overestimates the prompt-gamma emission yields by 40.2 ± 0.3%, even though it predicts the prompt-gamma profile length of the experimental profile accurately. In addition, the default implementations of all proton inelastic models show an overestimation in the number of prompt gammas emitted. Finally, a set of built-in options and physically sound Geant4 source code changes have been tested in order to try to improve the discrepancy observed. A satisfactory agreement was found when using the QMD model with a wave packet width equal to 1.3 fm2. PMID:26858937

  5. Calculation of the total electron excitation cross section in the Born approximation using Slater wave functions for the Li (2s yields 2p), Li (2s yields 3p), Na (3s yields 4p), Mg (3p yields 4s), Ca (4s yields 4p) and K (4s yields 4p) excitations. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsic, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    Excitation of neutral atoms by inelastic scattering of incident electrons in gaseous nebulae were investigated using Slater Wave functions to describe the initial and final states of the atom. Total cross sections using the Born Approximation are calculated for: Li(2s yields 2p), Na(3s yields 4p), k(4s yields 4p). The intensity of emitted radiation from gaseous nebulae is also calculated, and Maxwell distribution is employed to average the kinetic energy of electrons.

  6. Toward Intelligent Hemodynamic Monitoring: A Functional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Squara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology is now available to allow a complete haemodynamic analysis; however this is only used in a small proportion of patients and seems to occur when the medical staff have the time and inclination. As a result of this, significant delays occur between an event, its diagnosis and therefore, any treatment required. We can speculate that we should be able to collect enough real time information to make a complete, real time, haemodynamic diagnosis in all critically ill patients. This article advocates for “intelligent haemodynamic monitoring”. Following the steps of a functional analysis, we answered six basic questions. (1 What is the actual best theoretical model for describing haemodynamic disorders? (2 What are the needed and necessary input/output data for describing this model? (3 What are the specific quality criteria and tolerances for collecting each input variable? (4 Based on these criteria, what are the validated available technologies for monitoring each input variable, continuously, real time, and if possible non-invasively? (5 How can we integrate all the needed reliably monitored input variables into the same system for continuously describing the global haemodynamic model? (6 Is it possible to implement this global model into intelligent programs that are able to differentiate clinically relevant changes as opposed to artificial changes and to display intelligent messages and/or diagnoses?

  7. Microbial Species and Functional Diversity in Rice Rhizosphere of High-yield Special Ecological Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Li-yuan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Taoyuan, Yunnan Province is a special eco-site which keeps the highest yield records of rice cultivation in small planting areas. Soil microbial species and functional diversity were evaluated using cultivation method and BIOLOG ecoplates. The results showed that the microbial community of the high yield region was more abundant, and the total microbial population was 2 times of the control, furthermore, the areas belonged to the healthy "bacteria" soil, which was showed as bacteria > actinomycetes > fungi. Bacteria were the dominant populations in the rhizosphere of high yielding rice field, and the yield formation of rice was not correlated with the depth of soil layers. In order to obtain more species diversity information, Shannon diversity index H, Shannon evenness index E and Simpson index D were analyzed, and the results showed that microbial community diversity and evenness were not the main differences between the high and general yield areas. Then, the functional diversity of soil microbial community was investigated through the average well color development(AWCD and diversity index analyses. The results of AWCD analysis indicated that the metabolic activity of soil microbial community in high yield paddy soils were stronger than the control. Moreover, the difference range from large to small showed as tillering stage > harvest period > seedling period > rotation period, the stronger the rice growth, the greater the difference between the high yield region and the control. At tillering stage and harvest stage, due to the vigorous plant growth, the root exudates were rich, and the microbial communities of high yield paddy soils showed a strong metabolic activity and strong ability to use carbon sources. The results of Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh indices analysis indicated that common microbial species was not a key factor affecting the yield of rice. Tillering stage was a key period for the growth of high yield rice, and many

  8. Functional food monitoring as part of the new Dutch dietary monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompelberg CJM; Jager M; Bakker MI; Buurma-Rethans EJM; Ocke MC; CVG

    2006-01-01

    Good data on functional food consumption necessary for an adequate Dutch nutrition policy are lacking. This lack may be overcome in future by including functional food monitoring in the new dietary monitoring system in the Netherlands. One specific form of monitoring could be an Internet-based

  9. Effect of the Yield Stress and r-value Distribution on the Earing Profile of Cup Drawing with Yld2000-2d Yield Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yanshan; Bae, Gihyun; Lee, Changsoo; Huh, Hoon

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the yield stress and r-value distribution on the earing in the cup drawing. The anisotropic yield function, Yld2000-2d yield function, is selected to describe the anisotropy of two metal sheets, 719B and AA5182-O. The tool dimension is referred from the Benchmark problem of NUMISHEET'2002. The Downhill Simplex method is applied to identify the anisotropic coefficients in Yld2000-2d yield function. Simulations of the drawing process are performed to investigate the earing profile of two materials. The earing profiles obtained from simulations are compared with the analytical model developed by Hosford and Caddell. Simulations are conducted with respect to the change of the yield stress and r-value distribution, respectively. The correlation between the anisotropy and the earing tendency is investigated based on simulation data. Finally, the earing mechanism is analyzed through the deformation process of the blank during the cup deep drawing. It can be concluded that ears locate at angular positions with lower yield stress and higher r-value while the valleys appear at the angular position with higher yield stress and lower r-value. The effect of the yield stress distribution is more important for the cup height distribution than that of the r-value distribution.

  10. Covariance functions across herd production levels for test day records on milk, fat, and protein yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Goddard, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Multiple-trait BLUP evaluations of test day records require a large number of genetic parameters. This study estimated covariances with a reduced model that included covariance functions in two dimensions (stage of lactation and herd production level) and all three yield traits. Records came from

  11. CROP YIELD AND CO2 FIXATION MONITORING IN ASIA USING A PHOTOSYNTHETICSTERILITY MODEL WITH SATELLITES AND METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daijiro Kaneko [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Matsue National College of Technology, Matsue (Japan); Toshiro Kumakura [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka (Japan); Peng Yang [Laboratory of Resources Remote Sensing and Digital Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing (China)

    2008-09-30

    This study is intended to develop a model for estimating carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) fixation in the carbon cycle and for monitoring grain yields using a photosynthetic-sterility model, which integrates solar radiation and air temperature effects on photosynthesis, along with grain-filling from heading to ripening. Grain production monitoring would support orderly crisis management to maintain food security in Asia, which is facing climate fluctuation through this century of global warming. The author improved a photosynthesis-and-sterility model to compute both the crop yield and crop situation index CSI, which gives a percentage of rice yields compared to normal annual production. The model calculates photosynthesis rates including biomass effects, lowtemperature sterility, and high-temperature injury by incorporating solar radiation, effective air temperature, the normalized difference vegetation index NDVI, and the effect of temperature on photosynthesis by grain plant leaves. A decision-tree method classifies the distribution of crop fields in Asia using MODIS fundamental landcover and SPOT VEGETATION data, which include the Normalized Vegetation index (NDVI) and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI). This study provides daily distributions of the photosynthesis rate, which is the CO2 fixation in Asian areas combined with the land-cover distribution, the Japanese geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS), and meteorological re-analysis data by National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The method is based on routine observation data, enabling automated monitoring of crop yields.

  12. Farm size, land yields, and the agricultural production function: an analysis for fifteen developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornia, G A

    1985-04-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between factor inputs, land yields, and labor productivity for farms of different size on the basis of FAO farm management data for 15 developing countries. For all but three countries a strong negative correlation is found between farm size on the one side, and factor inputs and yields per hectare on the other. The fitting of unconstrained production functions to the above data suggests that in only few cases can the decline in yields for increasing farm size be attributed to decreasing returns to scale. The higher yields observed in small farms are mainly to be ascribed to higher factor inputs and to a more intensive use of land. Therefore, where conspicuous labor surpluses exist, the superiority of small farming provides solid arguments in favor of land redistribution. Such an agrarian reform would determine higher output, higher labor absorption and a more equitable income distribution, thus contributing in a decisive manner to the alleviation of rural poverty. The paper also provides estimates of cross-sectional production functions for the 15 countries analyzed. Empirical relations are found between the output elasticities of land, labor, and intermediate inputs and physical indicators of their scarcity. The paper concludes by proposing a simple method for deriving a long-term production function for agriculture. 23 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  13. The role of ants, birds and bats for ecosystem functions and yield in oil palm plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmead, Lisa H; Darras, Kevin; Clough, Yann; Diaz, Patrick; Grass, Ingo; Hoffmann, Munir P; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Fardiansah, Rico; Tscharntke, Teja

    2017-07-01

    One of the world's most important and rapidly expanding crops, oil palm, is associated with low levels of biodiversity. Changes in predator communities might alter ecosystem services and subsequently sustainable management but these links have received little attention to date. Here, for the first time, we manipulated ant and flying vertebrate (birds and bats) access to oil palms in six smallholder plantations in Sumatra (Indonesia) and measured effects on arthropod communities, related ecosystem functions (herbivory, predation, decomposition and pollination) and crop yield. Arthropod predators increased in response to reductions in ant and bird access, but the overall effect of experimental manipulations on ecosystem functions was minimal. Similarly, effects on yield were not significant. We conclude that ecosystem functions and productivity in oil palm are, under current levels of low pest pressure and large pollinator populations, robust to large reductions of major predators. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Functional Modeling for Monitoring of Robotic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Haiyan; Bateman, Rikke R.; Zhang, Xinxin

    2018-01-01

    With the expansion of robotic applications in the industrial domain, it is important that the robots can execute their tasks in a safe and reliable way. A monitoring system can be implemented to ensure the detection of abnormal situations of the robots and report the abnormality to their human su...

  15. Effect of carrageenan addition on the yield and functional properties of charqui (Jerked Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rocha Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of carrageenan (CAR to improve the functional properties of the jerked beef (JF and to increase its processing yield. JB produced from Vastus lateralis with CAR (1.0% at 25ºC and NaCl (15.0% had approximately 15.0% higher moisture and a 32.0% higher processing yield in comparison to the control samples.JB-CAR presented shear force approximately 5.0 and 20% lower in the samples uncooked salted and desalted cooked, respectively, and sensorial acceptance above 80%. The results demonstrated the possibility of applying carrageenan to jerked beef in order to obtain an increase in the processing yield and a tender product while maintaining the sensorial quality and its intermediate-moisture meat product nature.

  16. Enhanced Yields in Organic Arable Crop Production by Eco-Functional Intensification using Intercropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Bedoussac, Laurent; Carlsson, Georg

    2015-01-01

    for enhancing yields in OA. EFI involves activating more knowledge and intensifying the beneficial effects of ecosystem functions, including agrobiodiversity (planned and associated) and soil fertility, and refocusing the importance of ecosystems services in agriculture. Organic farmers manage agrobiodiversity...... in space by intercropping, fitted into the organic crop rotation, has a strong potential to increase yield and hereby reduce the global environmental effects performance such as GHG per kg organic grain. Finally, we discuss likely barriers for increased use of intercropping in organic farming and suggest...... by planned crop diversification in time (crop rotation). However, cultivating genetically identical plants in OA sole crops (SC), limits resource use efficiency and yield per unit area. Intercropping (IC) of annual species or cultivars, perennial polycultures of forage or grain crops and agroforestry...

  17. Feasibility studies to assess the use of 236Pu as a radiochemical yield monitor in bioassay samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, P.D.; Kalsi, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Various plutonium compounds are handled in nuclear facilities of BARC. Hence, there is a possibility of occupational workers getting exposed to Pu. In vitro bioassay monitoring in which Pu is separated by chemical procedures from excreta samples and estimated by alpha-spectrometry, is the method of choice for the evaluation of internal dose to the occupational workers handling Pu. However, this method requires a suitable Pu tracer for reducing the uncertainties due to chemical yield in the separation, electro-deposition and counting efficiency. 242 Pu is commonly used as a tracer but due to its non-availability, efforts were made earlier to indigenously synthesis 236 Pu by proton irradiation of 237 Np in BARC-TIFR pelletron facility. The present study, reports the feasibility of using 236 Pu as a radiochemical yield monitor (tracer) in bioassay samples. (author)

  18. A Comparison between Standard and Functional Clustering Methodologies: Application to Agricultural Fields for Yield Pattern Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of spatial patterns within agricultural fields, presenting similar yield potential areas, stable through time, is very important for optimizing agricultural practices. This study proposes the evaluation of different clustering methodologies applied to multispectral satellite time series for retrieving temporally stable (constant patterns in agricultural fields, related to within-field yield spatial distribution. The ability of different clustering procedures for the recognition and mapping of constant patterns in fields of cereal crops was assessed. Crop vigor patterns, considered to be related to soils characteristics, and possibly indicative of yield potential, were derived by applying the different clustering algorithms to time series of Landsat images acquired on 94 agricultural fields near Rome (Italy. Two different approaches were applied and validated using Landsat 7 and 8 archived imagery. The first approach automatically extracts and calculates for each field of interest (FOI the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, then exploits the standard K-means clustering algorithm to derive constant patterns at the field level. The second approach applies novel clustering procedures directly to spectral reflectance time series, in particular: (1 standard K-means; (2 functional K-means; (3 multivariate functional principal components clustering analysis; (4 hierarchical clustering. The different approaches were validated through cluster accuracy estimates on a reference set of FOIs for which yield maps were available for some years. Results show that multivariate functional principal components clustering, with an a priori determination of the optimal number of classes for each FOI, provides a better accuracy than those of standard clustering algorithms. The proposed novel functional clustering methodologies are effective and efficient for constant pattern retrieval and can be used for a sustainable management of

  19. Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodruff, David P.; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    $, our bound resolves their main open question. Our lower bounds are based on new direct sum theorems for approximate majority, and yield significant improvements to problems in the data stream model, improving the bound for estimating $F_p, p > 2,$ in $t$ passes from $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{2/p......} t))$ to $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{4/p} t))$, giving the first bound for estimating $F_0$ in $t$ passes of $\\Omega(1/(\\eps^2 t))$ bits of space that does not use the gap-hamming problem, and showing a distribution for the gap-hamming problem with high external information cost or super...

  20. Transfer Function Control for Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for acquiring biometric data may include circuitry operative to receive an input signal indicative of a biometric condition, the circuitry being configured to process the input signal according to a transfer function thereof and to provide a corresponding processed input signal. A controller is configured to provide at least one control signal to the circuitry to programmatically modify the transfer function of the modular system to facilitate acquisition of the biometric data.

  1. Humans as Sensors: Assessing the Information Value of Qualitative Farmer's Crop Condition Surveys for Crop Yield Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguería, S.

    2017-12-01

    While large efforts are devoted to developing crop status monitoring and yield forecasting systems trough the use of Earth observation data (mostly remotely sensed satellite imagery) and observational and modeled weather data, here we focus on the information value of qualitative data on crop status from direct observations made by humans. This kind of data has a high value as it reflects the expert opinion of individuals directly involved in the development of the crop. However, they have issues that prevent their direct use in crop monitoring and yield forecasting systems, such as their non-spatially explicit nature, or most importantly their qualitative nature. Indeed, while the human brain is good at categorizing the status of physical systems in terms of qualitative scales (`very good', `good', `fair', etcetera), it has difficulties in quantifying it in physical units. This has prevented the incorporation of this kind of data into systems that make extensive use of numerical information. Here we show an example of using qualitative crop condition data to estimate yields of the most important crops in the US early in the season. We use USDA weekly crop condition reports, which are based on a sample of thousands of reporters including mostly farmers and people in direct contact with them. These reporters provide subjective evaluations of crop conditions, in a scale including five levels ranging from `very poor' to `excellent'. The USDA report indicates, for each state, the proportion of reporters fort each condition level. We show how is it possible to model the underlying non-observed quantitative variable that reflects the crop status on each state, and how this model is consistent across states and years. Furthermore, we show how this information can be used to monitor the status of the crops and to produce yield forecasts early in the season. Finally, we discuss approaches for blending this information source with other, more classical earth data sources

  2. Intraoperative Functional Mapping and Monitoring during Glioma Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAITO, Taiichi; MURAGAKI, Yoshihiro; MARUYAMA, Takashi; TAMURA, Manabu; NITTA, Masayuki; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Glioma surgery represents a significant advance with respect to improving resection rates using new surgical techniques, including intraoperative functional mapping, monitoring, and imaging. Functional mapping under awake craniotomy can be used to detect individual eloquent tissues of speech and/or motor functions in order to prevent unexpected deficits and promote extensive resection. In addition, monitoring the patient’s neurological findings during resection is also very useful for maximizing the removal rate and minimizing deficits by alarming that the touched area is close to eloquent regions and fibers. Assessing several types of evoked potentials, including motor evoked potentials (MEPs), sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs), is also helpful for performing surgical monitoring in patients under general anesthesia (GA). We herein review the utility of intraoperative mapping and monitoring the assessment of neurological findings, with a particular focus on speech and the motor function, in patients undergoing glioma surgery. PMID:25744346

  3. Analysis on functions of mobile nuclear emergency monitoring lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Yongfang; Wang Yonghong; Gao Jing; Sun Jian

    2012-01-01

    According to the fundamental purpose and mission of nuclear emergency monitoring and based on technological aspects, this paper discusses and analyses the functions and basic requirements on equipment in mobile radiation measurement lab in nuclear emergency response. (authors)

  4. In-Situ Monitoring of Immune Function, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monitoring the health and wellness of mission pilots is a critically important function. Space flight has an adverse effect on the human immune response. During...

  5. Developing an automated database for monitoring ultrasound- and computed tomography-guided procedure complications and diagnostic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Jones, Lisa P; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W; Kolansky, Ana S; Hilton, Susan; Zafar, Hanna M

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring complications and diagnostic yield for image-guided procedures is an important component of maintaining high quality patient care promoted by professional societies in radiology and accreditation organizations such as the American College of Radiology (ACR) and Joint Commission. These outcome metrics can be used as part of a comprehensive quality assurance/quality improvement program to reduce variation in clinical practice, provide opportunities to engage in practice quality improvement, and contribute to developing national benchmarks and standards. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and successful implementation of an automated web-based software application to monitor procedural outcomes for US- and CT-guided procedures in an academic radiology department. The open source tools PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) and MySQL were used to extract relevant procedural information from the Radiology Information System (RIS), auto-populate the procedure log database, and develop a user interface that generates real-time reports of complication rates and diagnostic yield by site and by operator. Utilizing structured radiology report templates resulted in significantly improved accuracy of information auto-populated from radiology reports, as well as greater compliance with manual data entry. An automated web-based procedure log database is an effective tool to reliably track complication rates and diagnostic yield for US- and CT-guided procedures performed in a radiology department.

  6. Exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria in perfect-monitoring repeated games yield correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Dudebout, Nicolas; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.

  7. Exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria in perfect-monitoring repeated games yield correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Dudebout, Nicolas

    2014-12-15

    This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents\\' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.

  8. Calibration of the JET neutron yield monitors using the delayed neutron counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Belle, P.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.; de Leeuw, S.; D'Hondt, P.; Pillon, M.

    1990-01-01

    The time-resolved neutron yield is routinely measured on the JET tokamak using a set of fission chambers. At present, the preferred technique is to employ activation reactions to determine the neutron fluence at a well-chosen position and to relate the measured fluence to the total neutron emission by means of neutron transport calculations. The delayed neutron counting method is a particularly convenient method of performing the activation measurement and the fission cross sections are accurately known. This paper outlines the measurement technique as used on JET

  9. The uncertainty of crop yield projections is reduced by improved temperature response functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Enli; Martre, Pierre; Zhao, Zhigan

    2017-01-01

    , we show that variations in the mathematical functions currently used to simulate temperature responses of physiological processes in 29 wheat models account for >50% of uncertainty in simulated grain yields for mean growing season temperatures from 14 °C to 33 °C. We derived a set of new temperature......Quality) and analysing their results against the HSC data and an additional global dataset from the International Heat Stress Genotpye Experiment (IHSGE)8 carried out by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). More importantly, we derive, based on newest knowledge and data, a set of new...

  10. Crop yield monitoring in the Sahel using root zone soil moisture anomalies derived from SMOS soil moisture data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, François; Pellarin, Thierry; Alhassane, Agali; Traoré, Seydou; Baron, Christian

    2017-04-01

    West Africa is greatly vulnerable, especially in terms of food sustainability. Mainly based on rainfed agriculture, the high variability of the rainy season strongly impacts the crop production driven by the soil water availability in the soil. To monitor this water availability, classical methods are based on daily precipitation measurements. However, the raingauge network suffers from the poor network density in Africa (1/10000km2). Alternatively, real-time satellite-derived precipitations can be used, but they are known to suffer from large uncertainties which produce significant error on crop yield estimations. The present study proposes to use root soil moisture rather than precipitation to evaluate crop yield variations. First, a local analysis of the spatiotemporal impact of water deficit on millet crop production in Niger was done, from in-situ soil moisture measurements (AMMA-CATCH/OZCAR (French Critical Zone exploration network)) and in-situ millet yield survey. Crop yield measurements were obtained for 10 villages located in the Niamey region from 2005 to 2012. The mean production (over 8 years) is 690 kg/ha, and ranges from 381 to 872 kg/ha during this period. Various statistical relationships based on soil moisture estimates were tested, and the most promising one (R>0.9) linked the 30-cm soil moisture anomalies from mid-August to mid-September (grain filling period) to the crop yield anomalies. Based on this local study, it was proposed to derive regional statistical relationships using 30-cm soil moisture maps over West Africa. The selected approach was to use a simple hydrological model, the Antecedent Precipitation Index (API), forced by real-time satellite-based precipitation (CMORPH, PERSIANN, TRMM3B42). To reduce uncertainties related to the quality of real-time rainfall satellite products, SMOS soil moisture measurements were assimilated into the API model through a Particular Filter algorithm. Then, obtained soil moisture anomalies were

  11. Different methods to define utility functions yield similar results but engage different neural processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Heldmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of utility is fundamental to many economic theories, up to now a generally accepted method determining a subject’s utility function is not available. We investigated two methods that are used in economic sciences for describing utility functions by using response-locked event-related potentials in order to assess their neural underpinnings. For defining the certainty equivalent (CE, we used a lottery game with probabilities to win p=0.5, for identifying the subjects’ utility functions directly a standard bisection task was applied. Although the lottery tasks’ payoffs were only hypothetical, a pronounced negativity was observed resembling the error related negativity (ERN previously described in action monitoring research, but this occurred only for choices far away from the indifference point between money and lottery. By contrast, the bisection task failed to evoke an ERN irrespective of the responses’ correctness. Based on these findings we are reasoning that only decisions made in the lottery task achieved a level of subjective relevance that activates cognitive-emotional monitoring. In terms of economic sciences, our findings support the view that the bisection method is unaffected by any kind of probability valuation or other parameters related to risk and in combination with the lottery task can, therefore, be used to differentiate between payoff and probability valuation.

  12. Monitoring soil coverage and yield of cowpea furrow irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Leila Rocha Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract Cowpea crop is of great importance for northeast Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of saline water in different developing stages on plant growth and changes in soil characteristics, measured by soil coverage, and on yield of cowpea plants. The experiment was conducted under field conditions, during the dry season in a completely randomized block design with five treatments and five replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 4 lines of plants with 5.0 m long. The treatments evaluated were: 1. irrigation with groundwater with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.8 dS m-1 during the whole crop cycle; 2. saline water (5.0 dS m-1 during the whole crop cycle; 3, 4 and 5. saline water (5.0 dS m-1 up to 22nd, during 23rd to 42nd and from the 43rd to 62nd days after sowing, respectively, and groundwater in the remaining period. Soil coverage was evaluated by digital images using the software ENVI for image processing and classification. It was found that the continuous use of saline water inhibits plant growth, while irrigation with saline water during germination and initial growth stages caused retardation in plant development, but in this last case a recovery was observed in the final part of the experimental period. For treatments 2 and 3, a reduction was verified in the number of pods and in seed production, as compared to other treatments. Irrigation with saline water during 23 to 42 and 43 to 62 days after sowing did not affect reproductive and vegetative growth, but the saline water application in the pre-flowering (treatment 4 caused anticipation of the reproductive cycle.

  13. Combined application of Sentinel2A data and growth modelling for novel monitoring and prediction of pasture yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, A.; Punalekar, S.; Quaife, T. L.; Humphries, D.; Reynolds, C.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, 30% of the world's land area is covered by permanent pasture. Grazing ruminants convert forage materials into milk and meat for human consumption; ruminant production is a key agricultural enterprise. Management of pasture farms (nutrient and herbi-/pesticides application, grazing rotations) is often suboptimal. Furthermore, adverse weather can have negative effects on pasture growth and quality. Near real-time herbage monitoring and prediction could help improve farm profitability. While the use of remote sensing (RS) in the context of arable crop growth prediction is becoming more established, the same is not true for pasture. However, recently launched Sentinel satellites offer real opportunities to exploit high spatio-temporal resolution datasets for effective monitoring of pastures, as well as crops. A perennial grazed ryegrass field in the Southwest of the UK was monitored regularly using field hyperspectral spectro-radiometers. Simultaneously, leaf area index (LAI) was measured using a ceptometer, and yield was measured, indirectly using a `plate meter' and directly by destructive sampling. Two sets of spectral data were used to retrieve LAI with the PROSAIL radiative transfer model: (i) Sentinel-2A bands convolved from field spectral data, (ii) actual Sentinel-2A image pixels for the sampling plots. Retrieved LAI was compared against field observations. LAI estimates were assimilated in a bespoke growth model (including grazing and management), driven by weather data, for calibration of sensitive parameters using a 4D-Var scheme, to obtain pasture biomass. The developed approach was used to study a pasture farm in the South of the UK, for which a large number of Sentinel-2A images were available throughout 2016-17. Retrieved LAI compared well with in-situ LAI, and significantly improved yield estimates. The calibrated model parameters compared well with literature values. The model, guided by satellite data and general information on farm

  14. Stochastic Corn Yield Response Functions to Nitrogen for Corn after Corn, Corn after Cotton, and Corn after Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Christopher N.; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; McClure, Angela T.; Tyler, Donald D.; Zhou, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Deterministic and stochastic yield response plateau functions were estimated to determine the expected profit-maximizing nitrogen rates, yields, and net returns for corn grown after corn, cotton, and soybeans. The stochastic response functions were more appropriate than their deterministic counterparts, and the linear response stochastic plateau described the data the best. The profit-maximizing nitrogen rates were similar for corn after corn, cotton, and soybeans, but relative to corn after ...

  15. Application of Regional Drought and Crop Yield Information System to enhance drought monitoring and forecasting in Lower Mekong region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S.; Dutta, R.; Basnayake, S. B.; Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K. M.; Das, N.; Markert, K. N.; Cutter, P. G.; Towashiraporn, P.; Anderson, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Lower Mekong Region has been experiencing frequent and prolonged droughts resulting in severe damage to agricultural production leading to food insecurity and impacts on livelihoods of the farming communities. Climate variability further complicates the situation by making drought harder to forecast. The Regional Drought and Crop Yield Information System (RDCYIS), developed by SERVIR-Mekong, helps decision makers to take effective measures through monitoring, analyzing and forecasting of drought conditions and providing early warnings to farmers to make adjustments to cropping calendars. The RDCYIS is built on regionally calibrated Regional Hydrologic Extreme Assessment System (RHEAS) framework that integrates the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT) models, allowing both nowcast and forecast of drought. The RHEAS allows ingestion of numerus freely available earth observation and ground observation data to generate and customize drought related indices, variables and crop yield information for better decision making. The Lower Mekong region has experienced severe drought in 2016 encompassing the region's worst drought in 90 years. This paper presents the simulation of the 2016 drought event using RDCYIS based on its hindcast and forecast capabilities. The regionally calibrated RDCYIS can help capture salient features of drought through a variety of drought indices, soil variables, energy balance variables and water balance variables. The RDCYIS is capable of assimilating soil moisture data from different satellite products and perform ensemble runs to further reduce the uncertainty of it outputs. The calibrated results have correlation coefficient around 0.73 and NSE between 0.4-0.5. Based on the acceptable results of the retrospective runs, the system has the potential to generate reliable drought monitoring and forecasting information to improve decision-makings at operational, technological and

  16. Evaluation of NEB energy markets and supply monitoring function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    Canada's National Energy Board regulates the exports of oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids and electricity. It also regulates the construction, operation and tolls of international and interprovincial pipelines and power lines. It also monitors energy supply and market developments in Canada. The Board commissioned an evaluation of the monitoring function to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the monitoring activities, to identify gaps in these activities and to propose recommendations. The objectives of the monitoring mandate are to provide Canadians with information regarding Canadian energy markets, energy supply and demand, and to ensure that exports of natural gas, oil, natural gas liquids and electricity do not occur at the detriment of Canadian energy users. The Board ensures that Canadians have access to domestically produced energy on terms that are as favourable as those available to export buyers. The following recommendations were proposed to improve the monitoring of energy markets and supply: (1) increase focus and analysis on the functioning of gas (first priority) and other commodity markets, (2) increase emphasis on forward-looking market analysis and issue identification, (3) demonstrate continued leadership by encouraging public dialogue on a wide range of energy market issues, (4) improve communication and increase visibility of the NEB within the stakeholder community, (5) build on knowledge management and organizational learning capabilities, (6) improve communication and sharing of information between the Applications and Commodities Business Units, and (7) enhance organizational effectiveness of the Commodities Business Unit. figs

  17. Recombination yield of geminate radical pairs in low magnetic fields - A Green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doktorov, A.B.; Hansen, M.J.; Pedersen, J. Boiden

    2006-01-01

    An analytic expression for the recombination yield of a geminate radical pair with a single spin one half nuclei is derived. The expression is valid for any field strength of the static magnetic field. It is assumed that the spin mixing is caused solely by the hyperfine interaction of the nuclear spin and the difference in Zeeman energies of the two radical partners, that the recombination occurs at the distance of closest approach, and that there is a locally strong dephasing at contact. This is a special result of a new general approach where a Green's function technique is used to recast the stochastic Liouville equation into a low dimensional matrix equation that is particularly convenient for locally strong dephasing systems. The equation is expressed in terms of special values (determined by the magnetic parameters) of the Green's function for the relative motion of the radicals and it is therefore valid for any motional model, e.g. diffusion, one and two site models. The applicability of the strong dephasing approximation is illustrated by comparison with numerical exact results

  18. Method of inspecting the function of reactor noise monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Hirohito.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to inspect the function of a reactor noise monitoring device used for monitoring the operation abnormality in coolant circuits during reactor operation. Constitution: A cylinder incorporating a steel ball moved laterally by a pneumatic pressure is disposed to the main body of a reactor coolant circuit. A three-way solenoid valve disposed to a central control room outside to a radiation controlled area is connected with the cylinder by way of pneumatic pipeways. The three-way solenoid valve is operated for a certain period of time by a timer in the central control room to thereby impinge the steel ball in the cylinder against the main body of the coolant circuit and it is inspected as to whether the reactor noise monitoring system can detect the impinging energy or not. Accordingly, the remote control is possible from out of the radiation controlled area and the inspection work can be simplified. (Seki, T.)

  19. THE FEATURES OF AIRCRAFT FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Alexandrovich Krotov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The key steps of aircraft essential parameters and events monitoring during its operation are considered in the arti- cle. Conditions for specific risk monitoring are also presented.The notion of fail-safe feature of aircraft functional systems is analysed, and the necessity of continuous process of safety flight level estimate is shown. The method of quantitative assessment of key events and risks probabilities with the use of modern software is proposed. This method contains 5 basic stages: The monitoring parameters setting - this stage is initial and begins with the consideration of organization safety cul- ture, the main purposes and problems determination, the basic parameters and characteristics forming which are to be monitored. The event monitoring in operation - on this stage continuous process of key events searching and monitoring which are a thing of importance within the framework of the established problems takes place. This process is closely relat- ed to parameters monitoring set on the first stage. The event and risk estimate - this stage begins directly after the event has been discovered. The estimate pro- cess is as long as it is required to identify the event gravity. It also contains the preliminary risk estimate for using in priori- tization of initial expanded estimate and in the working out of plan for activities realization. The working out of plan for activities - on this stage correction data is determined that will make changes to aero- technics working out, operation, maintenance and to staff training directly in linkage to the problem event identified earlier. The activity carrying-out - the realization of actions according to the activity plan. This stage concludes priori- tization, planning and problem carrying-out. The dependence set between the probability of failure situations and the degree of their danger is shown. The key factors which are subject to be estimated while aircraft operating and which aim with

  20. Determination of yield and erosion damage functions using subjectively elicited data: application to smallholder tea in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda, Jayanath; Herath, Gamini; Chisholm, Anthony H.

    2001-01-01

    Tea has been Sri Lanka’s major export earner for several decades. However, soil erosion on tea‐producing land has had considerable on‐site and off‐site effects. This study quantifies soil erosion impacts for smallholder tea farms in Sri Lanka by estimating a yield damage function and an erosion damage function using a subjective elicitation technique. The Mitscherlich‐Spillman type of function was found to yield acceptable results. The study indicates that high rates of soil erosion require e...

  1. A unified inelastic constitutive equation in terms of anisotropic yield function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Imatani, S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to describe the material behavior under complicated loading conditions, inelastic constitutive equations accounting for the plasticity-creep interaction have been proposed by several researchers. However, these models are developed to predict the hardening and/or softening phenomena during the inelastic deformation processes, and two important features still remain to be considered; material anisotropy induced by the prior deformation history and inelastic flow or, in another word, directionality of the inelastic strain rate. This paper deals with a unified constitutive model capable of expressing both the deformation-induced anisotropy and the anisotropic flow. In the first part of the paper, an anisotropic yield function which can simulate both the Bauschinger effect and the cross effect is proposed. Then, the excess stress theory is applied to a viscoplastic constitutive relationship so as to describe the plasticity-creep interaction behavior. The experimental verification is carried out for SUS304 stainless steel at 650 degrees C in a biaxial stress state. Moreover, a generalized flow rule of the inelastic strain rate is also developed, by which the description of the ratcheting process can be improved

  2. Rice yield as a function of transplanting data using historic weather data from the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, H.A.; Aclan, A.P.; Kropff, M.J.; Cassman, K.G.

    1993-01-01

    Crop yield potential differs among environments in different years, and between seasons in the same year. Under good farm management with ample supply of water and nutrients, and without any pests and diseases, cultivar characteristics, temperature and solar radiation determine the potential yield of a crop. In 1992, 12-day old seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv IR72 were transplanted at IRRI [International Rice Research Inst., Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines] farm under irrigated conditions. Highest nitrogen input was 110 kg N/ha during the wet season (WS) and 225 kg N/ha in the dry season (DS). Nitrogen inputs in the wet season were lower to avoid lodging and to match crop N requirements. In both seasons, detailed measurements were obtained for a quantitative understanding of the determinants of rice yield potential. The eco-physiological growth model (ORYZA1) accurately simulated observed yields in the wet and dry seasons (6 and 9.5 t/ha, respectively). The model was used to simulate yields with different planting dates, using historic weather data from selected sites in the Philippines. Rice yield was simulated using leaf nitrogen levels measured in WS and DS experiments. In Los Banos, the highest yields were obtained when the crop was transplanted in December. When the leaf nitrogen measurements from the 1992 dry season experiment were incorporated in the model, predicted yield was higher throughout the year, with the effect more pronounced during the dry season

  3. Design of multi-function Hanford tank corrosion monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDGEMON, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-fiction corrosion monitoring system has been designed for installation into DST 241-AN-105 at the Hanford Site in fiscal year 1999. The 241-AN-105 system is the third-generation corrosion monitoring system described by TTP RLO-8-WT-21. Improvements and upgrades from the second-generation system (installed in 241-AN-102) that have been incorporated into the third-generation system include: Gasket seating surfaces utilize O-rings instead of a washer type gasket for improved seal; Probe design contains an equally spaced array of 22 thermocouples; Probe design contains an adjustable verification thermocouple; Probe design contains three ports for pressure/gas sampling; Probe design contains one set of strain gauges to monitor probe flexure if flexure occurs; Probe utilizes an adjustable collar to allow depth adjustment of probe during installation; System is capable of periodically conducting LPR scans; System is housed in a climate controlled enclosure adjacent to the riser containing the probe; System uses wireless Ethernet links to send data to Hanford Local Area Network; System uses commercial remote access software to allow remote command and control; and Above ground wiring uses driven shields to reduce external electrostatic noise in the data. These new design features have transformed what was primarily a second-generation corrosion monitoring system into a multi-function tank monitoring system that adds a great deal of functionality to the probe, provides for a better understanding of the relationship between corrosion and other tank operating parameters, and optimizes the use of the riser that houses the probe in the tank

  4. The central monitoring station of Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON): the architecture and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Saurabh; Ratheesh, M.P.; Mukundan, T.; Patel, M.D.; Nair, C.K.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON) is being established across the country by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The network consists of stations with automated systems for environmental radiation monitoring with online data communication facility. Currently about 100 stations are operational and additional 500 stations are expected to be installed by March, 2012. The network is established with different objectives, the main objective being the detection and reporting of any nuclear emergency anywhere in the country. The central monitoring station of the network is established in Mumbai. This paper describes the architecture and functions of IERMON Central Station. The Central Station consists of server room for online data collection from remote stations and maintenance of databases for various applications; central monitoring room for user interaction with database and IERMON website maintenance and development room for the development of new applications. The functions of IERMON Central Station include detection and reporting of nuclear emergency, maintenance of remote stations, enhancement of public awareness on environmental radiation through public display systems and website, etc. The details on system layout and data protocols can be found in the paper. (author)

  5. High yield purification of full-length functional hERG K+ channels produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbaek, Karen; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    knowledge this is the first reported high-yield production and purification of full length, tetrameric and functional hERG. This significant breakthrough will be paramount in obtaining hERG crystal structures, and in establishment of new high-throughput hERG drug safety screening assays....

  6. The Investigation of NPP Control and Monitoring Functional Analysis Applied to Functional Displays’ Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.

    2015-01-01

    NPP Control and Monitoring System has been recognised as extreme and safe as well as large scale product, thus it was one of the most major design activities that fully, accurately and operationally functional analysis. The results of functional analysis would be employed as initial instruction through the whole lifecycle of NPP Control and Monitoring System. In this paper, it was discovered that several disadvantages of present functional analysis methods included FAST, The Subtract and Operate Procedure and Functional Procedure Method; owing to the identity methods enveloped here was the combination of Functional Tree and System Structure, as well as its decomposition steps; and RCS Inventory Control function which is defined as one of the most significant control functions in Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirement Document has been employed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method; the analysis results of RCS Inventory function has been applied to direct the design and implementation of related displays, here the functional display of RCS Inventory Control function has been implemented on NuCON which is originated by SNPAS. Owing to the analyzing results, it would be ensured that the accuracy of information displayed to operators, thus the operator would be aware the condition of systems and then make the proper move to ensure the safety and productivity of NPP based on the received data. (author)

  7. Continuous monitoring of left ventricular function by VEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Kosaka, Noboru

    1988-01-01

    Using an ambulatory ventricular function monitor (VEST), left ventricular function (LVF) was examined in one healthy volunteer, 3 with ischemic heart disease, and one with dilated myocardiopathy (DMCP) under various conditions, such as treadmill exercise, standing, and sitting. It was also examined when two DCMP patients with associated left ventricular failure were given a nitrite (ISDM) and cardiotonic agent (E 1020). End-diastolic volume (EDV) decreased in the standing position, and increased in exercise, suggesting the involvement of venous blood pool in the legs. Ejection fraction (EF) decreased in the case of widespread ischemia during exercise. Drug tolerance test revealed decrease in EDV and end-systolic volume (ESV), no change in stroke volume (SV), and slight increase in EF on ISDM; and decrease in EDV and ESV, increase in SV, and marked increase in EF on E 1020. For EF, the VEST data were relatively well correlated with gamma camera data. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanba, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a study further advanced on a base of results of study on artificial intelligence for nuclear power', one of nuclear basis crossover studies, conducted at five years planning from 1989 fiscal year was executed. Here was conducted on study on a system technology for supplying cooperation, judgement process, judgement results, and so forth between decentralized artificial intelligent elements (agents) to operation managers (supervisors) by focussing a system for monitoring if autonomous decentralized system containing plant operation and robot group action functioned appropriately. In 1997 fiscal year, by mainly conducting development for displaying working state of robot group, some investigations on integrated management of each function already development and maintained were executed. Furthermore, some periodical meetings on realization of its integration with operation control system and maintenance system with other research institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  9. Yield of cherry tomatoes as a function of water salinity and irrigation frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of brackish water in agriculture can cause salinization of soils and reduce plant yield. This problem can be minimized by hydroponic cultivation, which improves plant development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of cherry tomatoes grown in hydroponic system with substrate under salinity levels of the nutrient solution (NS, exposure time to salinity and irrigation frequency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a randomized complete block design, in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with five replicates: six salinity levels of NS prepared with brackish water (3.01; 4.51; 5.94; 7.34; 8.71 and 10.40 dS m-1; two exposure times to NS (60 and 105 days and two irrigation frequencies (one irrigation per day and irrigation every two days. Yield and production components of cherry tomatoes cv. 'Rita' were evaluated. NS salinity affected plant yield, reducing fruit production, which was more significant when plants were subjected to a longer time of exposure to salinity. There was no difference between NS applications on fruit production, when these applications were performed once a day or once every two days.

  10. Functional grading of metal foam cores for yield-limited lightweight sandwich beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Yves; Pollien, Arnaud; Mortensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We show that grading the porosity in a bent metal skin/metal foam core sandwich can generate significant weight savings in yield-limited design when, and only when, there is a gradient in the applied moment along the sandwich beam

  11. The Activation of Non-evaporable Getters Monitored by AES, XPS, SSIMS and Secondary Electron Yield Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the potential of the three classical surface analysis techniques Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS) for the characterisation of non-evaporable getter (NEG) materials is assessed and artefacts are described. The various NEG samples have been analysed in the context of the development of NEG thin film coatings for use in accelerator ultra high vacuum (UHV) systems. The secondary electron yield (SEY), which is a functional surface property of great importance for the application of NEG to accelerators, has been measured. The maximum SEY of an air exposed TiZr and TiZrV coating can be reduced from above 2.0 to below 1.1 during a 2 h heat treatment at 250 and 200 °C, respectively. Saturating an activated TiZrV surface in UHV increases the maximum SEY by about 0.1. Thus, in UHV the SEY of an activated NEG coating does not exceed the threshold value of 1.35, above which multipacting is predicted to occur in th...

  12. A new macroscopically anisotropic pressure dependent yield function for metal matrix composite based on strain gradient plasticity for the microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2013-01-01

    Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... is investigated numerically using a unit cell model with periodic boundary conditions containing a single fiber deformed under generalized plane strain conditions. The homogenized response can be modeled by conventional plasticity with an anisotropic yield surface and a free energy depending on plastic strain...

  13. Semireal Time Monitoring Of The Functional Movements Of The Mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Robert J.; Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean; Molthen, Robert A.

    1983-07-01

    Many branches of dental practice would benefit from the availability of a relatively accurate, precise, and efficient method for monitoring the movements of the human mandible during function. Mechanical analog systems have been utilized in the past but these are difficult to quantify, have limited accuracy due to frictional resistance of the components, and contain information only on the borders of the envelopes of possible movement of the landmarks measured (rather than on the functional paths of the landmarks which lie within their envelopes). Those electronic solutions which have been attempted thus far have been prohibitively expensive and time consuming for clinical use, have had lag times between data acquisition and display, or have involved such restrictions of freedom of motion as to render ambiguous the meaning of the data obtained. We report work aimed at developing a relatively non-restrictive semi-real time acoustical system for monitoring the functional movement of the mandible relative to the rest of the head. A set of three sparking devices is mounted to the mandibular component of a light, relatively non-constraining extra-oral harness and another set of three sparkers is attached to the harness' cranial or skull component. The sparkers are fired sequentially by a multiplexer and the sound associated with each firing is recorded by an array of three or more microphones. Computations based on the known speed of sound are used to evaluate the distances between the sparkers and the microphones. These data can then be transformed by computer to provide numeric or graphic information on the movement of selected mandibular landmarks with respect to the skull. Total elapsed time between the firing of the sparkers and the display of graphic information need not exceed 30-60 seconds using even a relatively modest modern computer.

  14. Potato yield and quality as a function of the plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Varis

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of potato plant density on yield quantity and quality were investigated at the Hankkija Plant Breeding Institute from 1971-73, using seed rates of 1600, 3200 and 4800 kg/ha, and seed sizes of 40, 80 and 120 g. The varieties used were Ijsselster and Record. The number of stems per m2 rose with increasing seed rate and with increasing seed size. Stem number increased with seed rate faster for small seed than for large. The response in stem number was greater for Ijsselster than for Record. The number of stems per seed tuber fell as the plant density rose. The number of tubers per m2 altered in the same direction as the number of stems, but less responsively. The reason for this was that the number of tubers per stem decreased with increasing plant density. The tuber yield showed a continual increase with increasing plant density. At the lowest stem densities (less than 20—25 stems/m2 small seed gave better results than other sizes, but at the higher plant densities, the importance of seed size faded away and the yield was dependant on the plant density alone. Net yield (gross yield 2 x seed rate, however, was higher the smaller the seed used, whatever the stem density. Tuber size decreased when plant density increased, the proportion of large tubers diminishing most, especially when small seed was used. The proportion of small tubers altered more for Ijsselster than for Record. Seed size and seed rate did not on average significantly affect the proportion of Class I potatoes, though small seed gave results slightly better than other sizes. The starch content of the yield rose when the seed rate was increased (16.0-16.3 -16.5 % and fell with increasing seed size (16.5 16.2 16.1 %. The maximum variation was 15.8-16.7 %. The specific gravity distribution improved with increasing plant density. Raw discolouration of the tubers did not alter significantly as the plant density rose. Blackening of the tubers decreased with increasing plant

  15. Secondary Electron Yield on Cryogenic Surfaces as a Function of Physisorbed Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzucan, Asena; Taborelli, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    In LHC the electron cloud induced by photoelectrons, gas ionization and secondary electrons emitted from the beam pipe walls could be a limitation of the performance. The electron cloud induce heat load on the cryogenic system, cause pressure rise, emittance growth and beam instabilities, which in the end will limit the beam’s lifetime. Beam- induced multipacting, which can arise through oscillatory motion of photoelectrons and low-energy secondary electrons bouncing back and forth between opposite walls of the vacuum chamber during successive passage of proton bunches, represent therefore a potential problem for the machine. The secondary electron yield (SEY) is one of the key parameters for the electron cloud build up and multipacting phenomenon. An electron cloud occurs if the metal surface secondary electron yield is high enough for electron multiplication. This parameter has been extensively studied on room temperature samples but uncertainties remain for samples at cryogenic temperature. Indeed, at l...

  16. Functional imaging: monitoring heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weisheng; Reilly-Contag, Pamela; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-07-01

    The regulation of genetic elements can be monitored in living animals using photoproteins as reporters. Heme oxygenase (HO) is the key catabolic enzyme in the heme degradation pathway. Here, HO expression serves as a model for in vivo functional imaging of transcriptional regulation of a clinically relevant gene. HO enzymatic activity is inhibited by heme analogs, metalloporphyrins, but many members of this family of compounds also activate transcription of the HO-1 promoter. The degree of transcriptional activation by twelve metalloporphyrins, differing at the central metal and porphyrin ring substituents, was evaluated in both NIH 3T3 stable lines and transgenic animals containing HO-1 promoter-luciferase gene fusions. In the correlative cell culture assays, the metalloporphyrins increased transcription form the full length HO promoter fusion to varying degrees, but none increased transcription from a truncated HO-1 promoter. These results suggested that one or both of the two distal enhancer elements located at -4 and -10 Kb upstream from transcriptional start are required for HO-1 induction by heme and its analogs. The full-length HO-1-luc fusion was then evaluated as a transgene in mice. It was possible to monitor the effects of the metalloporphyrins, SnMP and ZnPP, in living animals over time. This spatiotemporal analyses of gene expression in vivo implied that alterations in porphyrin ring substituents and the central metal may affect the extent of gene activation. These data further indicate that using photoprotein reporters, subtle differences in gene expression can be monitored in living animals.

  17. The 2005 and 2012 major drought events in Iberia: monitoring vegetation dynamics and crop yields using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2014-05-01

    large sectors of Iberia for up to seven months (out of eleven) of the vegetative cycle. While in the case of the drought episode of 2005 the impact on vegetation covered roughly 2/3 of the Iberian Peninsula (Gouveia et al., 2012), whereas in the recent episode of 2012 the deficit in greenness affected a more restrictive area located in central Iberia. The vegetation response to water stress was also analysed and compared for different land cover types. Results revealed a stronger vulnerability to drought events for arable land with severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat), for Portugal and Spain in both years, however slightly less severe for 2012. In conclusion, and from an operational point of view, our results reveal the ability of the developed methodology to monitor vegetation stress and droughts in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012) Garcia-Herrera R., Paredes D., Trigo R. M., Trigo I. F., Hernandez E., Barriopedro D. and Mendes M. A., 2007: The Outstanding 2004/05 Drought in the Iberian Peninsula: Associated Atmospheric Circulation, J. Hydrometeorol., 8, 483-498. Gouveia C., Trigo R. M., and DaCamara C. C., 2009: Drought and vegetation stress monitoring in Portugal using satellite data, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 185-195, doi:10.5194/nhess-9-185- 2009. Gouveia C.M., Bastos A., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C., 2012: Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula". Natural Hazards Earth System Sciences, 12, 3123-3137, 2012, doi:10.5194/nhess-12-3123-2012. Hoerling M., Eischeid J., Perlwitz J., Quan X., Zhang T., Pegion P., 2012: On the Increased Frequency of Mediterranean Drought. J. Climate, 25, 2146-2161. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00296.1 Trigo R.M., Añel J., Barriopedro D., García-Herrera R., Gimeno L., Nieto R., Castillo R., Allen

  18. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Valéria A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Augusto, Anderson M; de Oliveira e Sousa, Lúcio; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L; Reeves, Jerry J

    2012-01-01

    Jaguars are threatened with extinction throughout their range. A sustainable captive population can serve as a hedge against extinction, but only if they are healthy and reproduce. Understanding how jaguars respond to stressors may help improve the captive environment and enhance their wellbeing. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge to validate a cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in jaguars; (2) investigate the relationship between fecal corticoid (FCM) and androgen metabolite (FAM) concentrations in males during the ACTH challenge; and (3) establish a range of physiological concentrations of FCMs for the proposed protocol. Seven jaguars (3 M, 4 F) received 500 IU/animal of ACTH. Pre- and post-ACTH fecal samples were assayed for corticoid (M and F) and androgen metabolites (M) by RIA. Concentrations of FCMs increased (P80.01) after ACTH injection (pre-ACTH: 0.90 ± 0.12 µg/g dry feces; post-ACTH: 2.55 ± 0.25 µg/g). Considering pre- and post-ACTH samples, FCM concentrations were higher (P80.01) in males (2.15 ± 0.20 µg/g) than in females (1.30 ± 0.20 µg/g), but the magnitude of the response to ACTH was comparable (P>0.05) between genders. After ACTH injection, FAMs increased in two (of 3) males; in one male, FCMs and FAMs were positively correlated (0.60; P80.01). Excretion of FCMs was assessed in 16 jaguars (7 M, 9 F) and found to be highly variable (range, 80.11-1.56 µg/g). In conclusion, this study presents a cortisol RIA for monitoring adrenocortical function in jaguars noninvasively. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Characterization of a diamond detector to be used as neutron yield monitor during the in-vessel calibration of JET neutron detectors in preparation of the DT experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, Mario; Angelone, Maurizio; Batistoni, Paola; Loreti, Stefano; Milocco, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A diamond detector has been characterized for use as neutron yield monitor of a portable 14 MeV neutron generator. • The system will be used for the 14 MeV calibration of JET neutron detector. • The results and the performances of the monitor are very satisfactory in term of accuracy and reliability. - Abstract: A new Deuterium-Tritium (DT) campaign is planned at JET. An accurate calibration for the 14 MeV neutron yield monitors is necessary. In order to perform the calibration a 14 MeV Neutron Generator with suitable intensity (∼10 8 n/s) will be used. Due to the intensity change during the Neutron Generator lifetime it would be necessary to monitor continuously the neutron emission intensity during the calibration using a compact detector attached to it. A high quality diamond detector has been chosen as one of the monitors. This detector has been fully characterized at the 14 MeV Frascati Neutron Generator facility. The characterization procedure and the resulting 14 MeV neutron response of the detector are described in this paper together with the obtained uncertainties.

  20. Yield and acidity indices of sunflower and soybean oils in function of grain drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the best conditions for drying and storing soybeans and sunflower grains to maintain their quality. In the first experiment, the soybeans were found to have initial moisture contents of 25 and 19% (w.b. at different drying air temperatures (75, 90, 105, and 120°C. In the second step, the soybeans were evaluated after they were stored in paper bags and plastic polyethylene at temperatures of 3, 10 and 23°C for six months. In the third experiment, sunflower grains were tested after exposure to drying air temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C, and under storage conditions of 25°C and 50%, 20°C and 60%, 30°C and 40% RH over six months in paper bags and raffia. Drying the sunflower seeds at 45°C and storing them at 30°C and 40% RH led to higher oil yields and lower acid numbers. The oil that was extracted from the acid number was higher for soybean grains that were dried down from initial concentrations of 25% water at a drying air temperature of 120°C. The air temperature in storage at 3°C favored for yield and reduction of the soybean oil acidity.

  1. Carbon monoxide improves neuronal differentiation and yield by increasing the functioning and number of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Alves, Paula M; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-08-01

    The process of cell differentiation goes hand-in-hand with metabolic adaptations, which are needed to provide energy and new metabolites. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and improve mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal differentiation processes were studied using the NT2 cell line, which is derived from human testicular embryonic teratocarcinoma and differentiates into post-mitotic neurons upon retinoic acid treatment. CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1) was used do deliver CO into cell culture. CO treatment improved NT2 neuronal differentiation and yield, since there were more neurons and the total cell number increased following the differentiation process. CO supplementation enhanced the mitochondrial population in post-mitotic neurons derived from NT2 cells, as indicated by an increase in mitochondrial DNA. CO treatment during neuronal differentiation increased the extent of the classical metabolic change that occurs during neuronal differentiation, from glycolytic to more oxidative metabolism, by decreasing the ratio of lactate production and glucose consumption. The expression of pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenases was higher, indicating an augmented oxidative metabolism. Moreover, these findings were corroborated by an increased percentage of (13) C incorporation from [U-(13) C]glucose into the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites malate and citrate, and also glutamate and aspartate in CO-treated cells. Finally, under low levels of oxygen (5%), which enhances glycolytic metabolism, some of the enhancing effects of CO on mitochondria were not observed. In conclusion, our data show that CO improves neuronal and mitochondrial yield by stimulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, and thus oxidative metabolism of NT2 cells during the process of neuronal differentiation. The process of cell differentiation is coupled with metabolic adaptations. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective

  2. NNLO corrections to anti B {yields} X{sub u}l anti {nu} in the shape-function region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asatrian, H.M. [Erevanskij Fizicheskij Inst., Erevan (Armenia); Greub, C. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Pecjak, B.D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The inclusive decay anti B {yields} X{sub u}l anti {nu} is of much interest because of its potential to constrain the CKM element vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke. Experimental cuts required to suppress charm background restrict measurements of this decay to the shape-function region, where the hadronic final state carries a large energy but only a moderate invariant mass. In this kinematic region, the differential decay distributions satisfy a factorization formula of the form H.J x S, where S is the non-perturbative shape function, and the object H.J is a perturbatively calculable hard-scattering kernel. In this paper we present the calculation of the hard function H at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbation theory. Combined with the known NNLO result for the jet function J, this completes the perturbative part of the NNLO calculation for this process. (orig.)

  3. Statistical modelling and deconvolution of yield meter data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøgersen, Frede Aakmann; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    2004-01-01

    and an impulse response function. This results in an unusual spatial covariance structure (depending on the driving pattern of the combine harverster) for the yield monitoring system data. Parameters of the impulse response function and the spatial covariance function of the yield are estimated using maximum...

  4. Sensitivity of the 252Cf(sf neutron observables to the FREYA input yield functions Y(A, Z, TKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randrup Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the fission event generator FREYA, we are studying the sensitivity of various neutron observables to the yield distribution Y (A,Z,TKE used as input to the code. Concentrating on spontaneous fission of 252Cf, we have sampled a large number of different input yield functions based on χ2 fits to the experimental data on Y (A and Y (TKE|A. For each of these input yield distributions, we then use FREYA to generate a large sample of complete fission events from which we extract a variety of neutron observables, including the multiplicity distribution, the associated correlation coefficients, and its factorial moments, the dependence of the mean neutron multiplicity on the total fragment kinetic energy TKE and on the fragment mass number A, the neutron energy spectrum, and the two-neutron angular correlation function. In this way, we can determine the variation of these observables resulting from the uncertainties in the experimental mesurements. The imposition of a constraint on the resulting mean neutron multiplicity reduces the variation of the calculated neutron observables and provides a means for shrinking the uncertainties associated with the measured data.

  5. Sensitivity of the 252Cf(sf) neutron observables to the FREYA input yield functions Y(A, Z, TKE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrup, Jørgen; Talou, Patrick; Vogt, Ramona

    2017-09-01

    Within the framework of the fission event generator FREYA, we are studying the sensitivity of various neutron observables to the yield distribution Y (A,Z,TKE) used as input to the code. Concentrating on spontaneous fission of 252Cf, we have sampled a large number of different input yield functions based on χ2 fits to the experimental data on Y (A) and Y (TKE|A). For each of these input yield distributions, we then use FREYA to generate a large sample of complete fission events from which we extract a variety of neutron observables, including the multiplicity distribution, the associated correlation coefficients, and its factorial moments, the dependence of the mean neutron multiplicity on the total fragment kinetic energy TKE and on the fragment mass number A, the neutron energy spectrum, and the two-neutron angular correlation function. In this way, we can determine the variation of these observables resulting from the uncertainties in the experimental mesurements. The imposition of a constraint on the resulting mean neutron multiplicity reduces the variation of the calculated neutron observables and provides a means for shrinking the uncertainties associated with the measured data.

  6. Redesigned purification yields a fully functional PutA protein dimer from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E D; Wood, J M

    1992-06-25

    Proline utilization by Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium requires expression of genes putP (encoding a proline transporter) and putA. Genetic data indicate that the PutA protein is both put repressor and a respiratory chain-linked dehydrogenase. We report a redesigned purification procedure as well as the physical characteristics and biological activities of the PutA protein purified from E. coli. The purified protein was homogeneous as determined by electrophoresis performed under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. Its N-terminal sequence corresponded to that predicted by the DNA sequence. We showed copurification of proline and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase activities. Purified PutA protein bound put DNA in vitro in an electrophoretic band-shift assay and it could be reconstituted to inverted membrane vesicles, yielding proline dehydrogenase activity. The Stokes radius and Svedberg coefficient of the protein were determined to be 7.1 nm and 9.9 S, respectively. These hydrodynamic data revealed that the protein in our preparation was dimeric with a molecular mass of 293 kDa and that it had an irregular shape indicated by the friction factor (f/f0) of 1.6.

  7. Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2009-01-01

    There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation, however the nature of the phenomenon as it equilibrates over longer flights has not been determined. This dysregulation may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. The clinical risk (if any) for exploration-class space flight is unknown, but may include increased incidence of infection, allergy, hypersensitivity, hematological malignancy or altered wound healing. The objective of this Supplemental Medical Objective (SMO) is to determine the status of the immune system, physiological stress and latent viral reactivation (a clinical outcome that can be measured) during both short and long-duration spaceflight. In addition, this study will develop and validate an immune monitoring strategy consistent with operational flight requirements and constraints. Pre-mission, in-flight and post-flight blood and saliva samples will be obtained from participating crewmembers. Assays included peripheral immunophenotype, T cell function, cytokine profiles (RNA, intracellular, secreted), viral-specific immunity, latent viral reactivation (EBV, CMV, VZV), and stress hormone measurements. This study is currently ongoing. To date, 10 short duration and 5 long-duration crewmembers have completed the study. Technically, the study is progressing well. In-flight blood samples are being collected, and returned for analysis, including functional assays that require live cells. For all in-flight samples to date, sample viability has been acceptable. Preliminary data (n = 4/7; long/short duration, respectively) indicate that distribution of most peripheral leukocyte subsets is largely unaltered during flight. Exceptions include elevated T cells, reduced B/NK cells, increased memory T cells and increased central memory CD8+ T cells. General T cell function, early blastogenesis response to mitogenic stimulation, is markedly

  8. Quantifying the effect of heat stress on daily milk yield and monitoring dynamic changes using an adaptive dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, G.; Engel, B.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Vellinga, T.V.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Automation and use of robots are increasingly being used within dairy farming and result in large amounts of real time data. This information provides a base for the new management concept of precision livestock farming. From 2003 to 2006, time series of herd mean daily milk yield were collected on

  9. Cognitive processing in putative functional gastrointestinal disorder: rumination yields orientation to social threat not pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maryanne; Chapman, Sarah C E

    2010-02-01

    Two possible roles of selective attention in the development and maintenance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined. First, hypervigilance to pain within FGID may exacerbate pain perception and pain-related distress. Second, hypervigilance to socially threatening stimuli could account for the disrupted social functioning reported by patients. Furthermore, stress-related variations in reported symptom severity and functioning impairments may reflect changes in cognitive bias with psychological state. Patterns of selective attention were probed within a sample of putative FGID participants (pFGID). The effect of rumination induction on performance on a modified exogenous cueing task was examined. Thirty-three women with pFGID and 27 matched controls responded to dot probes following pain, social threat and neutral word cues, both before and after rumination (passive self-focused thought), or distraction induction. Reaction times revealed that after rumination but not neutral distraction, pFGID participants showed enhanced attention to social threat words, but not to pain or neutral words. Between-group differences in mood, anxiety or depression could not account for these effects. These results implicate selective attention in social but not pain-related idiosyncrasies in FGID including IBS.

  10. Safety and Yield of Diagnostic ERCP in Liver Transplant Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayapal Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abnormal liver enzymes postorthotopic liver transplant (OLT may indicate significant biliary pathology or organ rejection. There is very little known in the literature regarding the current role of diagnostic ERCP in this scenario. Aim. To review the utility of diagnostic ERCP in patients presenting with abnormal liver function tests in the setting of OLT. Methods. A retrospective review of diagnostic ERCPs in patients with OLT from 2002 to 2013 from a prospectively maintained, IRB approved database. Results. Of the 474 ERCPs performed in OLT patients, 210 (44.3%; 95% CI 39.8–48.8 were performed for abnormal liver function tests during the study period. Majority of patients were Caucasian (83.8%, male (62.4% with median age of 55 years (IQR 48–62 years. Biliary cannulation was successful in 99.6% of cases and findings included stricture in 45 (21.4 %; biliary stones/sludge in 23 (11%; biliary dilation alone in 31 (14.8%; and normal in 91 (43.3%. Three (1.4% patients developed mild, self-limiting pancreatitis; one patient (0.5% developed cholangitis and two (1% had postsphincterotomy bleeding. Multivariate analyses showed significant association between dilated ducts on imaging with a therapeutic outcome. Conclusion. Diagnostic ERCP in OLT patients presenting with liver function test abnormalities is safe and frequently therapeutic.

  11. Thin-target excitation functions: a powerful tool for optimizing yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity of cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    In accelerator production of radionuclides, thin-target yield, y(E), is defined as a function of the projectile energy E, at the End Of an Instantaneous Bombardment (EOIB), as the slope at the origin of the growing curve of the activity per unit beam current (A/I) of a specific radionuclide vs. irradiation time, for a target in which the energy loss is negligible with respect to the projectile energy itself. In practice, y(E) is defined as the second derivative of A/I with respect to particle energy and irradiation time, calculated when the irradiation time tends to zero (EOIB). The thin-target yields of different radionuclides, produced by direct and side reactions, are numerically fitted, taking into account the overall statistical errors as weights. The 'effective' cross-section σ ± (E) as a function of projectile energy is proportional to thin-target yield, but the physical meaning of this parameter is poor, being only a raw summation of the several cross sections of the reaction channels concerned, weighted on target isotopic composition. Conversely, Thick-Target Yield, Y(E,ΔE), is defined as a two parameter function of the incident particle energy E(MeV) onto the target and the energy loss ΔE (MeV), in the target itself, obtained by integration of thin-target excitation function, y(E). This approach holds in the strict approximation of a monochromatic beam of energy E, not affected by either intrinsic energy spread or straggling. The energy straggling is computed by Monte Carlo computer codes, like TRIM 2001. In case of total particle energy absorption in the target, for a nuclear reaction of energy threshold E th , the function Y(E,ΔE) reaches a value Y(E,E- E th ), for ΔE=E- E th , that represents mathematically the envelope of the Y(E,ΔE) family of curves. This envelope is a monotonically increasing curve, never reaching either a maximum or a saturation value, even if its slope becomes negligible for high particle energies and energy losses. Some

  12. Yield of coeliac screening in abdominal pain-associated functional gastrointestinal system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansu, Aydan; Kuloğlu, Zarife; Demir, Arzu; Yaman, Aytaç

    2015-11-01

    Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) in childhood is common and in the majority functional. While CAP is one of the complaints of coeliac disease (CD), whether CAP as a sole complaint is indicative of CD is unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between CAP and CD. The study was conducted on 1047 children (61.1% female, mean age 9.6 ± 4.1 years) with CAP. Patients were evaluated according to the Rome III criteria. Patients with alarm symptoms and conditions known to be associated with CD were excluded. Patients were screened for CD using a rapid tissue transglutaminase (tTG) test; positive cases were tested by tTG ELISA, and duodenal biopsies were obtained if tTG was above the normal limit. Functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (FAP) were diagnosed in 384 (36.7%), 274 (26.2%) and 389 (37.2%) patients, respectively. In 13 patients, the tTG rapid test was positive; 10 were also positive for tTG by ELISA and histopathological evaluations diagnosed CD in all 10 patients. The overall prevalence of CD was 0.95% (2.2%, 0.5% and 0.5% in patients with IBS, FD and FAP, respectively). The prevalence of CD in patients with IBS was higher than expected but with borderline statistical significance (P = 0.053). CD is found as common in children with FD and FAP as in the general population. CD was more commonly diagnosed in IBS patients with borderline statistical significance. We suggest that particular attention be paid to children with IBS. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Monitoring and evaluation of need for nitrogen fertilizer topdressing for maize leaf chlorophyll readings and the relationship with grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out for two years in maize in succession to the wheat using no tillage system in a distroferric Red Latosol (Hapludox. Methods of management nitrogen fertilizer (120 kg ha-1 with ammonium sulphate were studied; the fertilizer was applied in maize sowing or in maize topdressing, and N with previous application in wheat sowing. In addition, leaf chlorophyll reading was used as an indicator for the need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer. Nitrogen supply index (NSI was shown to be effective at predicting need for topdressed nitrogen fertilizer for maize. The application of N improved the yield of the maize independent of the management system. The flowering stage was carried out at the appropriate time in order to estimate the nitrogen nutrition state and yield of maize using the relative chlorophyll level (RIC.

  14. Experiment, monitoring, and gradient methods used to infer climate change effects on plant communities yield consistent patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah C. Elmendorf; Gregory H.R. Henry; Robert D. Hollisterd; Anna Maria Fosaa; William A. Gould; Luise Hermanutz; Annika Hofgaard; Ingibjorg I. Jonsdottir; Janet C. Jorgenson; Esther Levesque; Borgbor Magnusson; Ulf Molau; Isla H. Myers-Smith; Steven F. Oberbauer; Christian Rixen; Craig E. Tweedie; Marilyn Walkers

    2015-01-01

    Inference about future climate change impacts typically relies on one of three approaches: manipulative experiments, historical comparisons (broadly defined to include monitoring the response to ambient climate fluctuations using repeat sampling of plots, dendroecology, and paleoecology techniques), and space-for-time substitutions derived from sampling along...

  15. Preliminary Design of Critical Function Monitoring System of PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A critical function monitoring system of the PGSFR is preliminarily studied. The functions of CFMS are to display critical plant variables related to the safety of the plant during normal and accident conditions and guide the operators corrective actions to keep the plant in a safe condition and mitigate the consequences of accidents. The minimal critical functions of the PGSFR are composed of reactivity control, reactor core cooling, reactor coolant system integrity, primary heat transfer system(PHTS) heat removal, sodium water reaction mitigation, radiation control and containment conditions. The variables and alarm legs of each critical function of the PGSFR are as follows; - Reactivity control: The variables of reactivity control function are power range neutron flux instrumentation, intermediate range neutron flux instrumentation, source range neutron flux instrumentation, and control rod bottom contacts. The alarm leg to display the reactivity controls consists of status of control drop malfunction, high post trip power and thermal reactivity addition. - Reactor core cooling: The variables are PHTS sodium level, hot pool temperature of PHTS, subassembly exit temperature, cold pool temperature of the PHTS, PHTS pump current, and PHTS pump breaker status. The alarm leg consists of high core delta temperature, low sodium level of the PHTS, high subassembly exit temperature, and low PHTS pump load. - Reactor coolant system integrity: The variables are PHTS sodium level, cover gas pressure, and safeguard vessel sodium level. The alarm leg is composed of low sodium level of PHTS, high cover gas pressure and high sodium level of the safety guard vessel. - PHTS heat removal: The variables are PHTS sodium level, hot pool temperature of PHTS, core exit temperature, cold pool temperature of the PHTS, flow rate of passive residual heat removal system

  16. Preliminary Design of Critical Function Monitoring System of PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    A PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A critical function monitoring system of the PGSFR is preliminarily studied. The functions of CFMS are to display critical plant variables related to the safety of the plant during normal and accident conditions and guide the operators corrective actions to keep the plant in a safe condition and mitigate the consequences of accidents. The minimal critical functions of the PGSFR are composed of reactivity control, reactor core cooling, reactor coolant system integrity, primary heat transfer system(PHTS) heat removal, sodium water reaction mitigation, radiation control and containment conditions. The variables and alarm legs of each critical function of the PGSFR are as follows; - Reactivity control: The variables of reactivity control function are power range neutron flux instrumentation, intermediate range neutron flux instrumentation, source range neutron flux instrumentation, and control rod bottom contacts. The alarm leg to display the reactivity controls consists of status of control drop malfunction, high post trip power and thermal reactivity addition. - Reactor core cooling: The variables are PHTS sodium level, hot pool temperature of PHTS, subassembly exit temperature, cold pool temperature of the PHTS, PHTS pump current, and PHTS pump breaker status. The alarm leg consists of high core delta temperature, low sodium level of the PHTS, high subassembly exit temperature, and low PHTS pump load. - Reactor coolant system integrity: The variables are PHTS sodium level, cover gas pressure, and safeguard vessel sodium level. The alarm leg is composed of low sodium level of PHTS, high cover gas pressure and high sodium level of the safety guard vessel. - PHTS heat removal: The variables are PHTS sodium level, hot pool temperature of PHTS, core exit temperature, cold pool temperature of the PHTS, flow rate of passive residual heat removal system

  17. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sangam L.; Scheben, Armin; Edwards, David; Spillane, Charles; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature) are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection efficiency and

  18. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam L. Dwivedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection

  19. Authorization for the functioning of service laboratories for personal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The requirements of the Brazilian CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) are established for the construction licensing and operation authorization of laboratories offering personnel monitoring services for external exposures to X-and gamma radiation. (I.C.R.) [pt

  20. Measurement of charged particle yields from therapeutic beams in view of the design of an innovative hadrontherapy dose monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G; Bini, F; Collamati, F; Collini, F; De Lucia, E; Durante, M; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Frallicciardi, P M; La Tessa, C; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Miraglia, F; Morganti, S; Ortega, P G; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Pinci, D; Russomando, A; Sarti, A; Schuy, C; Sciubba, A; Senzacqua, M; Solfaroli Camillocci, E; Vanstalle, M; Voena, C

    2015-01-01

    Particle Therapy (PT) is an emerging technique, which makes use of charged particles to efficiently cure different kinds of solid tumors. The high precision in the hadrons dose deposition requires an accurate monitoring to prevent the risk of under-dosage of the cancer region or of over-dosage of healthy tissues. Monitoring techniques are currently being developed and are based on the detection of particles produced by the beam interaction into the target, in particular: charged particles, result of target and/or projectile fragmentation, prompt photons coming from nucleus de-excitation and back-to-back γ s, produced in the positron annihilation from β + emitters created in the beam interaction with the target. It has been showed that the hadron beam dose release peak can be spatially correlated with the emission pattern of these secondary particles. Here we report about secondary particles production (charged fragments and prompt γ s) performed at different beam and energies that have a particular relevan...

  1. LV function monitoring to discard functional abnormalities in athletes with altered ventricular re-polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flotats, A.; Camacho, V.; Mena, E.; Tembl, A.; Estorch, M.; Carrio, I.; Serra-Grima, R.; Borras, X.; Cinca, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Marked ventricular re-polarization abnormalities (MRA) in athletes may suggest the presence of associated heart disease. Assessment of LV function during exercise may contribute to rule out heart disease and help to decide continuation of physical training. The aim of the study was to assess whether athletes with MRA show a particular response of LV function to exhausting exercise. Material and Methods: Thirty-nine male athletes underwent monitoring of LV function with a miniaturised radionuclide detector (VEST, Capintec, Inc.) during bicycle exhausting exercise. There were 22 athletes with MRA in the ECG at rest (negative T waves equal or more than 2mm in up to 3 ECG leads) and 17 with normal ECG. All were symptom free. Age and physical fitness were comparable in both groups. Clinical examination, ECG, exercise test and echocardiography were performed in all athletes. Results: In all cases LV wall thickness was that expected for highly conditioned sportsmen. Both groups of athletes attained a similar energy expenditure. During exercise, athletes with MRA showed a tendency to normalise re-polarization. There were no differences in heart rate, LV end-systolic volume, LVEF, cardiac output , and peak ejection and filling rates at rest, 50%, 75%, 85% and 100% of peak HR, nor at 2, 5 and 10 min of recovery between both groups of athletes. At rest stroke volume was lower in athletes with MRA (60% vs. 64%, p=0.044). There were also no differences in LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), except at peak HR, when EDV increased in athletes with normal ECG while it decreased in athletes with MRA (p=0.047). Conclusions: The presence of marked ventricular re-polarization abnormalities in athletes does not substantially affect exercise performance nor LV function and should not preclude physical training. The VEST is a useful means to assess LV function during exhausting upright bicycle exercise

  2. Comparison of parametric, orthogonal, and spline functions to model individual lactation curves for milk yield in Canadian Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Dimauro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Test day records for milk yield of 57,390 first lactation Canadian Holsteins were analyzed with a linear model that included the fixed effects of herd-test date and days in milk (DIM interval nested within age and calving season. Residuals from this model were analyzed as a new variable and fitted with a five parameter model, fourth-order Legendre polynomials, with linear, quadratic and cubic spline models with three knots. The fit of the models was rather poor, with about 30-40% of the curves showing an adjusted R-square lower than 0.20 across all models. Results underline a great difficulty in modelling individual deviations around the mean curve for milk yield. However, the Ali and Schaeffer (5 parameter model and the fourth-order Legendre polynomials were able to detect two basic shapes of individual deviations among the mean curve. Quadratic and, especially, cubic spline functions had better fitting performances but a poor predictive ability due to their great flexibility that results in an abrupt change of the estimated curve when data are missing. Parametric and orthogonal polynomials seem to be robust and affordable under this standpoint.

  3. The utilisation and diagnostic yield of radiological imaging in a specialist functional GI disorder clinic: an 11-year retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, Micheal; O'Neill, Siobhan B.; O'Donovan, Joanne P.; McWilliams, Sebastian; Murphy, Kevin P.; Maher, Michael M.; Desmond, Alan N.; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M.

    2014-01-01

    The term functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) describes various aggregations of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms not explained by identifiable organic pathology; accordingly, their diagnosis rests on symptom-based criteria and a process of exclusion. Evidence is lacking on the appropriate use of abdominal imaging studies (AIS) in FGIDs. We investigated the utilisation of AIS (site, modality, diagnostic yield/significance) at a tertiary FGID clinic over an 11-year period. Of 1,621 patients, 507 (31 %; 67.5 % women, mean age 43.9 ± 17.37 years) referred from primary care had 997 AIS (1.7 per patient): ultrasonography (US) 36.1 %, fluoroscopy (FLS) 28.8 %, computed tomography (CT) 19.6 %, plain radiography (PR) 13.5 %, nuclear medicine (NM) 1 %. Of the 997 AIS, 55.6 % (554/997) were normal. Of the AIS with positive findings, 9.9 % (62/625) were deemed 'probably significant' and 14.7 % (92/625) 'significant'. Of the CT and FLS studies, 12.3 % and 13.6 %, respectively, yielded 'significant' abnormalities compared to 2.2 % of the US studies and 2.1 % of the PR studies. CT identified five of seven neoplasms, associated with male sex, increasing age and symptom onset after age 50 years. This study confirmed low use of AIS in tertiary FGID clinics and a high proportion of normal studies. Barium swallow/meal and CT were more likely to identify 'probably significant' or 'significant' findings, including neoplasms. (orig.)

  4. CO2 dose–response functions for wheat grain, protein and mineral yield based on FACE and open-top chamber experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleijel, Håkan; Högy, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Data from three Swedish open-top chamber and four German FACE experiments were combined to derive response functions for elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) effects on Cd, Zn, Mn, protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number of wheat. Grain yield and grain number were increased by ∼6% and ∼7%, respectively, per 100 ppm CO 2 ; the former effect was linked to plant nitrogen status. Grain mass was not influenced by eCO 2 , whereas Cd concentration was reduced. Unlike Zn, Mn and protein, effects on Cd yield were not related to effects on grain yield. Yields of Mn, Zn and (weakly) protein were positively affected by eCO 2 . For protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number, the results were consistent among the FACE and OTC experiments. A key conclusion was that yields of essential nutrients were enhanced (Mn > Zn > protein), although less than grain yield, which would not be expected from a simple dilution model. - Highlights: • Grain yield and grain number were positively affected by 6–7% per 100 ppm CO 2 . • Yield stimulation by CO 2 was influenced by plant nitrogen status. • Cd concentration was reduced by elevated CO 2 . • Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated by CO 2 , but less than grain yield. • A simple dilution model did not explain effects on Zn, Mn and protein. - Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated less by elevated CO 2 than grain yield, while Cd yield and grain mass were unaffected, in wheat exposed in FACE and open-top chambers

  5. Psychophysical analysis of monitor display functions affecting observer diagnostic performance of CT image on liquid crystal display monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Fujita, H.; Asai, Y.; Uemura, M.; Ookura, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Johkoh, T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to propose suitable display functions for CT image representation on liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors by analyzing the characteristics of the monitor's typical display functions using psychophysical analysis. The luminance of the LCD monitor was adjusted to a maximum of 275 cd/m 2 and 480 cd/m 2 . Three types of postcalibrated display functions (i.e., GSDF, CIELAB, and Exponential γ 2.2) were evaluated. Luminance calculation of a new grayscale test pattern (NGTP) was done for the conversion of the digital driving level (DDL) into the CT value. The psychophysical gradient δ of display functions for the CT value was evaluated and compared via statistical analysis. The δ value of GSDF and CIE decreased exponentially; however, the δ value of Exponential γ 2.2 showed a convex curve with a peak at a specific point. There was a statistically significant difference among the δ values of the three types of display functions on the 480 cd/m 2 maximum via Kruskal Wallis test (P<0.001). The GSDF was suitable for observation of abdominal and lung CT images; however, the display function combined the Exponential γ 2.2 and the GSDF functions and was ideal for observation of brain CT images by psychophysical analysis. (orig.)

  6. Practical Aspects of Research Monitoring: Methodological and Functional Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Onosov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of designing, testing and implementing the National system of monitoring the quality of meteorological services in Russia. Within the framework of this project a large-scale research program was carried out aimed to develop the conception, methodology, research tools and design of customer assessment of the Roshydromet services.

  7. Self-Monitoring of Gaze in High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Nadel, Jacqueline; Martin, Jean-Claude; Simonin, Jerome; Bailleul, Pauline; Wang, Yun; Gepner, Daniel; Le Barillier, Florence; Constant, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Atypical visual behaviour has been recently proposed to account for much of social misunderstanding in autism. Using an eye-tracking system and a gaze-contingent lens display, the present study explores self-monitoring of eye motion in two conditions: free visual exploration and guided exploration via blurring the visual field except for the focal…

  8. Reduction of CMIP5 models bias using Cumulative Distribution Function transform and impact on crops yields simulations across West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise Famien, Adjoua; Defrance, Dimitri; Sultan, Benjamin; Janicot, Serge; Vrac, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    Different CMIP exercises show that the simulations of the future/current temperature and precipitation are complex with a high uncertainty degree. For example, the African monsoon system is not correctly simulated and most of the CMIP5 models underestimate the precipitation. Therefore, Global Climate Models (GCMs) show significant systematic biases that require bias correction before it can be used in impacts studies. Several methods of bias corrections have been developed for several years and are increasingly using more complex statistical methods. The aims of this work is to show the interest of the CDFt (Cumulative Distribution Function transfom (Michelangeli et al.,2009)) method to reduce the data bias from 29 CMIP5 GCMs over Africa and to assess the impact of bias corrected data on crop yields prediction by the end of the 21st century. In this work, we apply the CDFt to daily data covering the period from 1950 to 2099 (Historical and RCP8.5) and we correct the climate variables (temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, wind) by the use of the new daily database from the EU project WATer and global CHange (WATCH) available from 1979 to 2013 as reference data. The performance of the method is assessed in several cases. First, data are corrected based on different calibrations periods and are compared, on one hand, with observations to estimate the sensitivity of the method to the calibration period and, on other hand, with another bias-correction method used in the ISIMIP project. We find that, whatever the calibration period used, CDFt corrects well the mean state of variables and preserves their trend, as well as daily rainfall occurrence and intensity distributions. However, some differences appear when compared to the outputs obtained with the method used in ISIMIP and show that the quality of the correction is strongly related to the reference data. Secondly, we validate the bias correction method with the agronomic simulations (SARRA-H model (Kouressy

  9. Studying sulfur functional groups in Norway spruce year rings using S L-edge total electron yield spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struis, Rudolf P.W.J.; Ludwig, Christian; Barrelet, Timothee; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Profiles of the major sulfur functional groups in mature Norway spruce wood tissue have been established for the first time. The big challenge was the development of a method suitable for sulfur speciation in samples with very low sulfur content (< 100 ppm). This became possible by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur L-edge in total electron yield (TEY) detection mode with thin gold-coated wood slices. Functional groups were identified using sulfur compound spectra as fingerprints. Latewood of single year rings revealed metabolic plausible sulfur forms, particularly inorganic sulfide, organic disulfide, methylthiol, and highly oxidized sulfur. Form-specific profiles with Norway spruces from three different Swiss forest sites revealed high, but hitherto little-noticed, sulfur intensities attributable to natural heartwood formation and a common, but physiologically unexpected maximum around year ring 1986 with trees from the industrialized Swiss Plateau. It is hypothesized whether it may have resulted from the huge reduction in sulfur emissions after 1980 due to Swiss policy. Comparison with total S content profiles from optical emission spectroscopy underlined the more accurate and temporally better resolved TEY data with single wood year rings and it opened novel insights into the wood cell chemistry

  10. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felix Diaz; Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea.

  11. The utilisation and diagnostic yield of radiological imaging in a specialist functional GI disorder clinic: an 11-year retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; O' Neill, Siobhan B.; O' Donovan, Joanne P.; McWilliams, Sebastian [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Murphy, Kevin P.; Maher, Michael M. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Desmond, Alan N. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Cork (Ireland); Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Center, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-12-15

    The term functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) describes various aggregations of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms not explained by identifiable organic pathology; accordingly, their diagnosis rests on symptom-based criteria and a process of exclusion. Evidence is lacking on the appropriate use of abdominal imaging studies (AIS) in FGIDs. We investigated the utilisation of AIS (site, modality, diagnostic yield/significance) at a tertiary FGID clinic over an 11-year period. Of 1,621 patients, 507 (31 %; 67.5 % women, mean age 43.9 ± 17.37 years) referred from primary care had 997 AIS (1.7 per patient): ultrasonography (US) 36.1 %, fluoroscopy (FLS) 28.8 %, computed tomography (CT) 19.6 %, plain radiography (PR) 13.5 %, nuclear medicine (NM) 1 %. Of the 997 AIS, 55.6 % (554/997) were normal. Of the AIS with positive findings, 9.9 % (62/625) were deemed 'probably significant' and 14.7 % (92/625) 'significant'. Of the CT and FLS studies, 12.3 % and 13.6 %, respectively, yielded 'significant' abnormalities compared to 2.2 % of the US studies and 2.1 % of the PR studies. CT identified five of seven neoplasms, associated with male sex, increasing age and symptom onset after age 50 years. This study confirmed low use of AIS in tertiary FGID clinics and a high proportion of normal studies. Barium swallow/meal and CT were more likely to identify 'probably significant' or 'significant' findings, including neoplasms. (orig.)

  12. Renal function monitoring in heart failure - what is the optimal frequency? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naher, Ahmed; Wright, David; Devonald, Mark Alexander John; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2018-01-01

    The second most common cause of hospitalization due to adverse drug reactions in the UK is renal dysfunction due to diuretics, particularly in patients with heart failure, where diuretic therapy is a mainstay of treatment regimens. Therefore, the optimal frequency for monitoring renal function in these patients is an important consideration for preventing renal failure and hospitalization. This review looks at the current evidence for optimal monitoring practices of renal function in patients with heart failure according to national and international guidelines on the management of heart failure (AHA/NICE/ESC/SIGN). Current guidance of renal function monitoring is in large part based on expert opinion, with a lack of clinical studies that have specifically evaluated the optimal frequency of renal function monitoring in patients with heart failure. Furthermore, there is variability between guidelines, and recommendations are typically nonspecific. Safer prescribing of diuretics in combination with other antiheart failure treatments requires better evidence for frequency of renal function monitoring. We suggest developing more personalized monitoring rather than from the current medication-based guidance. Such flexible clinical guidelines could be implemented using intelligent clinical decision support systems. Personalized renal function monitoring would be more effective in preventing renal decline, rather than reacting to it. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Monitoring aspirin therapy with the Platelet Function Analyzer-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jette; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low platelet response to aspirin has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of vascular events. The reported prevalence of aspirin low-responsiveness varies, which may be explained by poor reproducibility of the methods used to evaluate aspirin response and low compliance....... The Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) is a commonly used platelet function test. We aimed to assess the reproducibility of the PFA-100 and the agreement with optical platelet aggregometry (OPA) in healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with low-dose aspirin....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 43 patients with CAD took part in the study. During treatment with aspirin 75 mg daily, all participants had platelet function assessed in duplicate with the PFA-100 and OPA on 4 consecutive days. Additionally, platelet function was assessed before...

  14. In vivo Monitoring of Serotonin by Nanomaterial Functionalized Acupuncture Needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Tao; Tang, Li-Na; Ning, Yong; Shu, Qing; Liang, Feng-Xia; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture treatment is amazing but controversial. Up to now, the mechanism of treating diseases by acupuncture and moxibustion is still unclear, especially the occurrence of the molecular events in local acupoints. Herein, we report an extremely stable microsensor by modifying carbon nanotube (CNT) to the tip surface of acupuncture needle and applying this CNT-modified acupuncture needle for real time monitoring of serotonin (5-HT) in vivo. To stabilize CNT modification on the needle tip surface, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT) was employed as glue water to stick CNT on the needle. The detection limit of the CNT-modified needle was found to be approximately 50 nM and 78 nM in the PBS and the cell medium, respectively. In addition, the needle showed good selectivity to some inflammatory mediators and some electroactive molecules. For the first time, the CNT-modified needle could be directly probed into rat body for real time monitoring of 5-HT in vivo, showing a great potential for better understanding the mechanism of acupuncture treatment.

  15. Increasing Compliance in Students with Intellectual Disabilities Using Functional Behavioral Assessment and Self-Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jamie P.; Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Noncompliance in three elementary age students with intellectual disabilities was assessed using functional behavioral assessments. Escape was identified as the primary function of the behavior in all three students, and access to tangible items was identified in one of the students as a secondary function. Teacher-monitoring and self-monitoring…

  16. Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Purser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants; increase considerably as combustion changes from well-ventilated (Φ < 1 to under-ventilated (Φ = 1–3. It is therefore essential that bench-scale toxicity tests reproduce this behaviour across the Φ range. Yield data from repeat compartment fire tests for any specific fuel show some variation on either side of a best-fit curve for CO yield as a function of Φ. In order to quantify the extent to which data from the steady state tube furnace (SSTF [1]; ISO TS19700 [2] represents compartment fire yields; the range and average deviations of SSTF data for CO yields from the compartment fire best-fit curve were compared to those for direct compartment fire measurements for six different polymeric fuels with textile and non-textile applications and for generic post-flashover fire CO yield data. The average yields; range and standard deviations of the SSTF data around the best-fit compartment fire curves were found to be close to those for the compartment fire data. It is concluded that SSTF data are as good a predictor of compartment fire yields as are repeat compartment fire test data.

  17. Feasibility of estimate sediment yield in the non-sediment monitoring station area - A case study of Alishan River watershed,Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, ChiaChi; Chan, HsunChuan; Jia, YaFei; Zhang, YaoXin

    2017-04-01

    Due to the steep topography, frail geology and concentrated rainfall in wet season, slope disaster occurred frequently in Taiwan. In addition, heavy rainfall induced landslides in upper watersheds. The sediment yield on the slopeland affects the sediment transport in the river. Sediment deposits on the river bed reduce the river cross section and change the flow direction. Furthermore, it generates risks to residents' lives and property in the downstream. The Taiwanese government has been devoting increasing efforts on the sedimentary management issues and on reduction in disaster occurrence. However, due to the limited information on the environmental conditions in the upper stream, it is difficult to set up the sedimentary monitoring equipment. This study used the upper stream of the Qingshuei River, the Alishan River, as a study area. In August 2009, Typhoon Morakot caused the sedimentation of midstream and downstream river courses in the Alishan River. Because there is no any sediment monitoring stations within the Alishan River watershed, the sediment yield values are hard to determine. The objective of this study is to establish a method to analyze the event-landslide sediment transport in the river on the upper watershed. This study numerically investigated the sediment transport in the Alishan River by using the KINEROS 2 model developed by the United States Department of Agriculture and the CCHE1D model developed by the National Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering. The simulated results represent the morphology changes in the Alishan River during the typhoon events. The results consist of a critical strategy reference for the sedimentary management for the Alishan River watershed.

  18. Self-Monitoring Interventions for At-Risk Middle School Students: The Importance of Considering Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Donald E., III; Simonsen, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Self-monitoring is a popular, efficient, and effective intervention that is associated with improved academic and social behavior for students across age and ability levels. To date, this is the first study to directly compare the outcomes of self-monitoring functionally relevant and non-relevant replacement behaviors. Specifically, we used an…

  19. Estimation of Constituent Concentrations, Loads, and Yields in Streams of Johnson County, Northeast Kansas, Using Continuous Water-Quality Monitoring and Regression Models, October 2002 through December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Lee, Casey J.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2008-01-01

    Johnson County is one of the most rapidly developing counties in Kansas. Population growth and expanding urban land use affect the quality of county streams, which are important for human and environmental health, water supply, recreation, and aesthetic value. This report describes estimates of streamflow and constituent concentrations, loads, and yields in relation to watershed characteristics in five Johnson County streams using continuous in-stream sensor measurements. Specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen were monitored in five watersheds from October 2002 through December 2006. These continuous data were used in conjunction with discrete water samples to develop regression models for continuously estimating concentrations of other constituents. Continuous regression-based concentrations were estimated for suspended sediment, total suspended solids, dissolved solids and selected major ions, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and fecal-indicator bacteria. Continuous daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual loads were calculated from concentration estimates and streamflow. The data are used to describe differences in concentrations, loads, and yields and to explain these differences relative to watershed characteristics. Water quality at the five monitoring sites varied according to hydrologic conditions; contributing drainage area; land use (including degree of urbanization); relative contributions from point and nonpoint constituent sources; and human activity within each watershed. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were less than the Kansas aquatic-life-support criterion of 5.0 mg/L less than 10 percent of the time at all sites except Indian Creek, which had DO concentrations less than the criterion about 15 percent of the time. Concentrations of suspended sediment, chloride (winter only), indicator bacteria, and pesticides were substantially larger during periods of increased streamflow. Suspended

  20. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In this study, on a base of result of a nuclear substrate cross-over study on 'Artificial intelligence for nuclear plant' promoted by 5 years plan since 1989 fiscal year, further developed studies are conducted. The studies are promoted by next 5 years plan on following 6 items: (1) Study on stratified expression technique of autonomous function. (2) Study on expression technique of motion state in decentralized-cooperative function. (3) Study on expression technique of decision making process. (4) Integration to operation control system. (5) Integration to maintenance system. And, (6) Comprehensive evaluation experiment. In 1996 fiscal year, improvement and investigation on automatic classification function of plant state were executed. And, preparation of development environment for expression of robot group motion state was conducted. Furthermore, communication experiment using network to realize integration to operation control and maintenance systems and periodical meetings with other institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  1. Interference Tolerant Functional Near Infrared Spectrometer (fNIRS) for Cognitive State Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in the brain with Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising technique for monitoring cognitive state...

  2. Effects of blood transportation on human peripheral mononuclear cell yield, phenotype and function: implications for immune cell biobanking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Posevitz-Fejfár

    Full Text Available Human biospecimen collection, processing and preservation are rapidly emerging subjects providing essential support to clinical as well as basic researchers. Unlike collection of other biospecimens (e.g. DNA and serum, biobanking of viable immune cells, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and/or isolated immune cell subsets is still in its infancy. While certain aspects of processing and freezing conditions have been studied in the past years, little is known about the effect of blood transportation on immune cell survival, phenotype and specific functions. However, especially for multicentric and cooperative projects it is vital to precisely know those effects. In this study we investigated the effect of blood shipping and pre-processing delay on immune cell phenotype and function both on cellular and subcellular levels. Peripheral blood was collected from healthy volunteers (n = 9: at a distal location (shipped overnight and in the central laboratory (processed immediately. PBMC were processed in the central laboratory and analyzed post-cryopreservation. We analyzed yield, major immune subset distribution, proliferative capacity of T cells, cytokine pattern and T-cell receptor signal transduction. Results show that overnight transportation of blood samples does not globally compromise T- cell subsets as they largely retain their phenotype and proliferative capacity. However, NK and B cell frequencies, the production of certain PBMC-derived cytokines and IL-6 mediated cytokine signaling pathway are altered due to transportation. Various control experiments have been carried out to compare issues related to shipping versus pre-processing delay on site. Our results suggest the implementation of appropriate controls when using multicenter logistics for blood transportation aiming at subsequent isolation of viable immune cells, e.g. in multicenter clinical trials or studies analyzing immune cells/subsets. One important conclusion might

  3. Influência da distância entre passadas de colhedora equipada com monitor de colheita na precisão dos mapas de produtividade na cultura do milho Influence of distance between combines equipped with yield monitors on the precision of yield maps for corn crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio L. Bazzi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos entraves para a maior expansão da agricultura de precisão está, principalmente, no elevado custo dos equipamentos a serem utilizados. A geração de mapas de produtividade é a fase de mais fácil execução na agricultura de precisão. Entretanto, quando várias colhedoras operam simultaneamente em uma determinada área, nem sempre é possível dispor de monitores de colheita em todas as máquinas. Assim, neste trabalho, foi avaliado o decréscimo da precisão em mapas de produtividade obtidos a partir de áreas onde se utilizaram colhedoras não-equipadas com monitor de colheita associadas a colhedoras monitoradas. Também foram comparados os métodos de interpolação "inverso da distância ao quadrado" e "krigagem". Inicialmente, a interpolação do mapa com todos os pontos de amostragem (original foi gerada e, a partir dessa, foi feita a eliminação de passadas de modo a obter os mapas simulados. Na comparação entre os mapas simulados e o original, foi utilizado o coeficiente de desvio relativo - CDR, e o índice kappa. O número de passadas eliminadas diminuiu a precisão dos mapas em ambos os métodos de interpolação. Sendo assim, a quantidade mínima necessária de monitores em um conjunto de colhedoras depende da precisão desejada. Portanto, as máquinas devem ser intercaladas de maneira que as amostras sejam coletadas uniformemente por toda a área a ser colhida.One of the main obstacles to the larger expansion of precision agriculture is the high cost of the equipments to be used. The generation of yield maps is the easiest step in the sequence of the precision agriculture process. Nevertheless, the availability of yield monitors for all the machines is not always possible when several combines are concomitantly harvesting in a given area. Within this context, this research was carried out aiming to evaluate the decrease of precision of yield maps obtained from data collected in areas where combines not equipped with

  4. MLP based LOGSIG transfer function for solar generation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Din, Muhammad Faiz Md; Ahmad, Shahril; Arif, Farah Khairunnisa; Rizman, Zairi Ismael

    2018-02-01

    Solar panel is one of the renewable energy that can reduce the environmental pollution and have a wide potential of application. The exact solar prediction model will give a big impact on the management of solar power plants and the design of solar energy systems. This paper attempts to use Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network based transfer function. The MLP network can be used to calculate the temperature module (TM) in Malaysia. This can be done by simulating the collected data of four weather variables which are the ambient temperature (TA), local wind speed (VW), solar radiation flux (GT) and the relative humidity (RH) as the input into the neural network. The transfer function will be applied to the 14 types of training. Finally, an equation from the best training algorithm will be deduced to calculate the temperature module based on the input of weather variables in Malaysia.

  5. Using the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 for monitoring aspirin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Mickley, Hans; Korsholm, Lars

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the test characteristics of the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) in patients treated with aspirin. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study consisted of two sub-studies. In study 1, 10 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 10 controls had...... platelet function assessed by optical platelet aggregation and the PFA-100 method in two 5-week periods. Patients with IHD were treated with aspirin 150 mg/day (first 5-week period), and 300 mg/day (second 5-week period), whereas the controls only received aspirin (150 mg/day) during the second 5-week...... period. From the results of study 1, we found that a cut-off value for the PFA-100 collagen/epinephrine cartridge PFA-100 method and optical platelet aggregation was found. Within...

  6. Robust remote monitoring of breathing function by using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina B; Yu, Xinchi; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    An abnormal breathing rate (BR) is one of the strongest markers of physiological distress. Moreover, it plays an important role in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome, as well as in the diagnosis of respiratory disorders. However, the current measuring modalities can cause discomfort to the patient, since attachment to the patient's body is required. This paper proposes a new approach based on infrared thermography to remotely monitor BR. This method allows to (1) detect automatically the nose, (2) track the associate region of interest (ROI), and (3) extract BR. To evaluate the performance of this method, thermal recording of 5 healthy subjects were acquired. Results were compared with BR obtained by capnography. The introduced approach demonstrated an excellent performance. ROIs were precisely segmented and tracked. Furthermore, a Bland-Altman diagram showed a good agreement between estimated BR and gold standard. The mean correlation and mean absolute BR error are 0.92 ± 0.07 and 0.53 bpm, respectively. In summary, infrared thermography seems to be a great, clinically relevant alternative to attached sensors, due to its outstanding characteristics and performance.

  7. Monitoramento localizado da produtividade de milho cultivado sob irrigação Site-specific monitoring of corn yield cultivated under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio O. Santos

    2001-04-01

    ,3 ha, irrigated by a center-pivot system, monitoring of maize yield was done in the growing season 99/00 besides the soil fertility parameter. Results showed different patterns of yield distribution inside the field, and the causes of observed yield variability. Preliminary analysis of soil data showed low correlation between yield and soil chemical properties in a site-specific base. Observation of yield data suggests the development of strategic management zones, based on trend analysis of the most influent yield components.

  8. Monitoring of recurrent and superior laryngeal nerve function using an Airwayscope™ during thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijichi, Kei; Sasano, Hiroshi; Harima, Megumi; Murakami, Shingo

    2017-10-01

    In thyroid surgery, intraoperative identification and preservation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and superior laryngeal nerve external branch (SLNEB) are crucial. Several reports have proposed that electromyography (EMG) monitoring is an acceptable adjunct for identification and preservation of the RLN. However, a limited number of hospitals have access to an EMG monitoring system. Therefore, the development of another viable monitoring method is required. The aim of the present study was to design a new RLN and SLNEB monitoring method combining an Airwayscope™ (AWS) and a facial nerve stimulator. The facial nerve-stimulating electrode stimulates the RLN or SLNEB, so that the movement of the vocal cord may be observed with an AWS. This monitoring method was performed on 10 patients with a thyroid tumor. In all the cases, RLN and SLNEB were identified and vocal cord function was preserved. All the patients exhibited normal vocal cord function following surgery. Thus, the new RLN and SLNEB monitoring method using an AWS and a facial nerve stimulator is useful in thyroid surgery, and this method may be used as a reliable and available alternative to EMG monitoring to ensure the normal function of the vocal cord.

  9. Assessment of cortical and sub-cortical function in neonates by electrophysiological monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennekens, W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the assessment of cortical and sub-cortical function in neonates by electrophysiological monitoring, i.e. to evaluate the function of the neonatal cortex and brainstem through quantitative analysis of signals readily available in the NICU. These signals include

  10. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  11. Neurotechnology for monitoring and restoring sensory, motor, and autonomic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pae C.; Knaack, Gretchen; Weber, Douglas J.

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and exponential advances in micro- and nanotechnologies over the last decade have enabled devices that communicate directly with the nervous system to measure and influence neural activity. Many of the earliest implementations focused on restoration of sensory and motor function, but as knowledge of physiology advances and technology continues to improve in accuracy, precision, and safety, new modes of engaging with the autonomic system herald an era of health restoration that may augment or replace many conventional pharmacotherapies. DARPA's Biological Technologies Office is continuing to advance neurotechnology by investing in neural interface technologies that are effective, reliable, and safe for long-term use in humans. DARPA's Hand Proprioception and Touch Interfaces (HAPTIX) program is creating a fully implantable system that interfaces with peripheral nerves in amputees to enable natural control and sensation for prosthetic limbs. Beyond standard electrode implementations, the Electrical Prescriptions (ElectRx) program is investing in innovative approaches to minimally or non-invasively interface with the peripheral nervous system using novel magnetic, optogenetic, and ultrasound-based technologies. These new mechanisms of interrogating and stimulating the peripheral nervous system are driving towards unparalleled spatiotemporal resolution, specificity and targeting, and noninvasiveness to enable chronic, human-use applications in closed-loop neuromodulation for the treatment of disease.

  12. Update of neutron dose yields as a function of energy for protons and deuterons incident on beryllium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Haken, R.K.; Awschalom, M.; Rosenberg, I.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron absorbed dose yields (absorbed dose rates per unit incident current on targets at a given SAD or SSD) increase with incident charged particle energy for both protons and deuterons. Analyses of neutron dose yield versus incident particle energy have been performed for both deuterons and protons. It is the purpose of this report to update those analyses by pooling all of the more recent published results and to reanalyze the trend of yield, Y, versus incident energy, E, which in the past has been described by an expression of the form Y = aE/sup b/, where a and b are empirical constants. From the reanalyzed trend it is concluded that for a given size cyclotron (E/sub p/ = 2E/sub d/), the dose yields using protons are higher than those using deuterons up to a proton energy E/sub p/ of 64 MeV

  13. [Response of water yield function of ecosystem to land use change in Nansi Lake Basin based on CLUE-S model and InVEST model .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong Wei; Sun, Xiao Yin; Lian, Li Shu; Zhang, Da Zhi; Xu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Land use change has an important role in hydrological processes and utilization of water resources, and is the main driving force of water yield function of ecosystem. This paper analyzed the change of land use from 1990 to 2013 in Nansi Lake Basin, Shandong Province. The future land use in 2030 was also predicted and simulated by CLUE-S model. Based on land use scenarios, we analyzed the influence of land use change on ecosystem function of water yield in nearly 25 years through InVEST water yield model and spatial mapping. The results showed that the area of construction land increased by 3.5% in 2013 because of burgeoning urbanization process, but farmland area decreased by 2.4% which was conversed to construction land mostly. The simulated result of InVEST model suggested that water yield level of whole basin decreased firstly and increased subsequently during last 25 years and peaked at 232.1 mm in 2013. The construction land area would increase by 6.7% in 2030 based on the land use scenarios of fast urbanization, which would lead to a remarkable growth for water yield and risk of flowing flooding. However, the water yield level of whole basin would decrease by 1.2 % in 2013 if 300 meter-wide forest buffer strips around Nansi Lake were built up.

  14. The role of executive function in children's source monitoring with varying retrieval strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Becky; Roberts, Kim P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the relationship between executive function and source monitoring in young children has been inconclusive, with studies finding conflicting results about whether working memory and inhibitory control are related to source-monitoring ability. In this study, the role of working memory and inhibitory control in recognition memory and source monitoring with two different retrieval strategies were examined. Children (N = 263) aged 4–8 participated in science activities with two sources. They were later given a recognition and source-monitoring test, and completed measures of working memory and inhibitory control. During the source-monitoring test, half of the participants were asked about sources serially (one after the other) whereas the other half of the children were asked about sources in parallel (considering both sources simultaneously). Results demonstrated that working memory was a predictor of source-monitoring accuracy in both conditions, but inhibitory control was only related to source accuracy in the parallel condition. When age was controlled these relationships were no longer significant, suggesting that a more general cognitive development factor is a stronger predictor of source monitoring than executive function alone. Interestingly, the children aged 4–6 years made more accurate source decisions in the parallel condition than in the serial condition. The older children (aged 7–8) were overall more accurate than the younger children, and their accuracy did not differ as a function of interview condition. Suggestions are provided to guide further research in this area that will clarify the diverse results of previous studies examining whether executive function is a cognitive prerequisite for effective source monitoring. PMID:24847302

  15. Education technology with continuous real time monitoring of the current functional and emotional students' states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyushin, M. V.; Kolobashkina, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    The education technology with continuous monitoring of the current functional and emotional students' states is suggested. The application of this technology allows one to increase the effectiveness of practice through informed planning of the training load. For monitoring the current functional and emotional students' states non-contact remote technologies of person bioparameters registration are encouraged to use. These technologies are based on recording and processing in real time the main person bioparameters in a purely passive mode. Experimental testing of this technology has confirmed its effectiveness.

  16. Yield loss and economic thresholds of yellow nutsedge in irrigated rice as a function of the onset of flood irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon da Rosa Westendorff

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus is adapted to flooding and reduces yield in irrigated rice. Information on the competitive ability of this weed with the crop and the size of the economic damage caused is lacking. Mathematical models quantify the damage to crops and support control decision-making. This study aimed to determine yield losses and economic thresholds (ET of this weed in the culture according to weed population and time of onset of irrigation of the crop. The field study was conducted in the agricultural year of 2010/2011 in Pelotas/RS to evaluate the competitive ability of BRS Querência in competition with different population levels of yellow nutsedge and two periods of onset of flood irrigation (14 and 21 days after emergence. The hyperbolic model satisfactorily estimated yield losses caused by yellow nutsedge. Population of yellow nutsedge was the variable most fitted to the model. The delay of seven days for the beginning of rice irrigation causes decrease in competitive ability of BRS Querência, and based on the ET calculated to the price paid for rice, it is necessary between two and thirteen plants m-2 weed to justify the control in the first and second period of irrigation, respectively. Increases in yield, price paid for rice and control efficiency of the herbicide, besides reduction of costs of controlling promote reduction of ET of yellow nutsedge in rice crops, justifying the adoption of control measures even at smaller weed population.

  17. Functional Gene Discovery and Characterization of Genes and Alleles Affecting Wood Biomass Yield and Quality in Populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busov, Victor [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2017-02-12

    Adoption of biofuels as economically and environmentally viable alternative to fossil fuels would require development of specialized bioenergy varieties. A major goal in the breeding of such varieties is the improvement of lignocellulosic biomass yield and quality. These are complex traits and understanding the underpinning molecular mechanism can assist and accelerate their improvement. This is particularly important for tree bioenergy crops like poplars (species and hybrids from the genus Populus), for which breeding progress is extremely slow due to long generation cycles. A variety of approaches have been already undertaken to better understand the molecular bases of biomass yield and quality in poplar. An obvious void in these undertakings has been the application of mutagenesis. Mutagenesis has been instrumental in the discovery and characterization of many plant traits including such that affect biomass yield and quality. In this proposal we use activation tagging to discover genes that can significantly affect biomass associated traits directly in poplar, a premier bioenergy crop. We screened a population of 5,000 independent poplar activation tagging lines under greenhouse conditions for a battery of biomass yield traits. These same plants were then analyzed for changes in wood chemistry using pyMBMS. As a result of these screens we have identified nearly 800 mutants, which are significantly (P<0.05) different when compared to wild type. Of these majority (~700) are affected in one of ten different biomass yield traits and 100 in biomass quality traits (e.g., lignin, S/G ration and C6/C5 sugars). We successfully recovered the position of the tag in approximately 130 lines, showed activation in nearly half of them and performed recapitulation experiments with 20 genes prioritized by the significance of the phenotype. Recapitulation experiments are still ongoing for many of the genes but the results are encouraging. For example, we have shown successful

  18. Compliance monitoring in business processes: Functionalities, application, and tool-support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Linh Thao; Maggi, Fabrizio Maria; Montali, Marco; Rinderle-Ma, Stefanie; van der Aalst, Wil M P

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, monitoring the compliance of business processes with relevant regulations, constraints, and rules during runtime has evolved as major concern in literature and practice. Monitoring not only refers to continuously observing possible compliance violations, but also includes the ability to provide fine-grained feedback and to predict possible compliance violations in the future. The body of literature on business process compliance is large and approaches specifically addressing process monitoring are hard to identify. Moreover, proper means for the systematic comparison of these approaches are missing. Hence, it is unclear which approaches are suitable for particular scenarios. The goal of this paper is to define a framework for Compliance Monitoring Functionalities (CMF) that enables the systematic comparison of existing and new approaches for monitoring compliance rules over business processes during runtime. To define the scope of the framework, at first, related areas are identified and discussed. The CMFs are harvested based on a systematic literature review and five selected case studies. The appropriateness of the selection of CMFs is demonstrated in two ways: (a) a systematic comparison with pattern-based compliance approaches and (b) a classification of existing compliance monitoring approaches using the CMFs. Moreover, the application of the CMFs is showcased using three existing tools that are applied to two realistic data sets. Overall, the CMF framework provides powerful means to position existing and future compliance monitoring approaches.

  19. Functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors and system developed for full-scale pavement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; He, Jianping; Xing, Xiaoying; Cao, Dandan; Gao, Xipeng; Hao, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-05-19

    Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  20. Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  1. Investigation of prompt gamma-ray yields as a function of mass and charge of 236U fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdzel', A.A.; Gundorin, N.A.; Duka-Zojomi, A.; Kliman, Ya.; Krishtiak, J.

    1987-01-01

    New experimental results determining yields of the prompt gamma-rays from the excited states decay of fission fragments are presented. 80 gamma-transitions were observed in 51 fission fragments. The measurements were performed by Ge(Li)-spectrometry in coincidence with fast ionization chamber (10g 235 U). The beam of the resonance neutrons with energy range from 0.7 to 36 eV was used

  2. GRAIN YIELD AND PROFITABILITY IN CORN AS A FUNCTION OF GENOTYPE, BIOFERTILIZER AND NITROGEN, UNDER WARM CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cid Aguilar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Corn growth and production depend of the environmental conditions in which it grows and the nitrogen fertilizer that is crucial to increase grain yield. The use of bacteria for nitrogen fixation and mycorrhiza as a complement to the inorganic fertilizer, can be an option to increase yields, reduce production costs and conserve the environment. As an alternative to this problem, the objective of the present study was to determine the production of dry matter (DM, harvest index, grain yield (GY, and its components, and profitability in the genotypes of maize race "Vandeño", synthetic variety VS-535 and hybrids H-562 and H-7573, with and without biofertilizer and 0, 80 and 160 kg N ha-1. The study was conducted in Iguala, Gro. in early sown under irrigation, phenological stages were recorded. Assessments were evaluated at harvest. For the region of study and time of sowing, only differences between cultivars were observed. The differences observed were genotypical, by effect of biofertilizer and nitrogen in the production of DM and GY. The higher DM and GY were achieved with the combination of H-562, biofertilizer and 160 kg N ha-1 (3000 and 924 g m-2, respectively and the lower treatment correspond to H-562, without biofertilizer and nitrogen (1703 and 376 g m-2, respectively. The higher net income was achieved with H-562 and 160 kg N ha-1 regardless of the use of biofertilizer.

  3. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, S.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Egger, J.I.M.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to

  4. Self-Monitoring Kidney Function Post Transplantation: Reliability of Patient-Reported Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lint, C.L. van; Wang, W.; Dijk, S. van; Brinkman, W.P.; Rövekamp, T.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Rabelink, T.J.; Boog, P.J.M. van der

    2017-01-01

    Background: The high frequency of outpatient visits after kidney transplantation is burdensome to both the recovering patient and health care capacity. Self-monitoring kidney function offers a promising strategy to reduce the number of these outpatient visits. Objective: The objective of this study

  5. Monitoring the Performance of the Pedestrian Transfer Function of Train Stations Using Automatic Fare Collection Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Hoogenraad, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years all train stations in The Netherlands have been equipped with automatic fare collection gates and/or validators. All public transport passengers use a smart card to pay their fare. In this paper we present a monitor for the performance of the pedestrian function of train stations

  6. Unit-based functional IDDT testing for aging degradation monitoring in a VLIW processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yong; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, functional unit-based IDDT testing has been applied for a 90nm VLIW processor to monitor its aging degradation. This technique can provide health data for reliability evaluation as used in e.g. prognostic software for lifetime prediction. The test-program development based on the

  7. Cutaneous respirometry as novel technique to monitor mitochondrial function: A feasibility study in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Harms (Floor A.); R.J. Stolker (Robert); E.G. Mik (Egbert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique (PpIX-TSLT) is proposed as a potential clinical non-invasive tool to monitor mitochondrial function. This technique has been evaluated in several animal studies. Mitochondrial respirometry allows measurement in vivo of

  8. Functional MRI in schizophrenia. Diagnostics and therapy monitoring of cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients by functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtner, J.; Prayer, D.; Sachs, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are core psychopathological components of the symptomatic of schizophrenic patients. These dysfunctions are generally related to attention, executive functions and memory. This report provides information on the importance of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the different subtypes of cognitive dysfunctions. Furthermore, it describes the typical differences in the activation of individual brain regions between schizophrenic patients and healthy control persons. This information should be helpful in identifying the deficit profile of each patient and create an individual therapy plan. (orig.) [de

  9. Functions and requirements for Hanford single-shell tank leakage detection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the initial functions and requirements for leakage detection and monitoring applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site's 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall mission of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineering principles are being applied to this effort. This document reflects the an initial step in the systems engineering approach to decompose the mission into primary functions and requirements. The document is considered approximately 30% complete relative to the effort required to produce a final version that can be used to support demonstration and/or procurement of technologies. The functions and requirements in this document apply to detection and monitoring of below ground leaks from SST containment boundaries and the resulting soil contamination. Leakage detection and monitoring is invoked in the TWRS Program in three fourth level functions: (1) Store Waste, (2) Retrieve Waste, and (3) Disposition Excess Facilities (as identified in DOE/RL-92-60 Rev. 1, Tank Waste Remediation System Functions and Requirements)

  10. Yield of Prompt Gamma Radiation in Slow-Neutron Induced Fission of 235U as a Function of the Total Fragment Kinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1971-07-01

    Fission gamma radiation yields as functions of the total fragment kinetic energy were obtained for 235U thermal-neutron induced fission. The fragments were detected with silicon surface-barrier detectors and the gamma radiation with a Nal(Tl) scintillator. In some of the measurements mass selection was used so that the gamma radiation could also be measured as a function of fragment mass. Time discrimination between the fission gammas and the prompt neutrons released in the fission process was employed to reduce the background. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fission fragments. Fission-neutron and gamma-ray data of previous experiments were used for comparisons of the yields, and estimates were made of the variation of the prompt gamma-ray energy with the total fragment kinetic energy

  11. Monitoring pulmonary function with superimposed pulmonary gas exchange curves from standard analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, Harvey A; Noe, Frances E; Szalados, James E; Goodrich, Michael D; Busby, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    A repetitive graphic display of the single breath pulmonary function can indicate changes in cardiac and pulmonary physiology brought on by clinical events. Parallel advances in computer technology and monitoring make real-time, single breath pulmonary function clinically practicable. We describe a system built from a commercially available airway gas monitor and off the shelf computer and data-acquisition hardware. Analog data for gas flow rate, O2, and CO2 concentrations are introduced into a computer through an analog-to-digital conversion board. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) are calculated for each breath. Inspired minus expired concentrations for O2 and CO2 are displayed simultaneously with the expired gas flow rate curve for each breath. Dead-space and alveolar ventilation are calculated for each breath and readily appreciated from the display. Graphs illustrating the function of the system are presented for the following clinical scenarios; upper airway obstruction, bronchospasm, bronchopleural fistula, pulmonary perfusion changes and inadequate oxygen delivery. This paper describes a real-time, single breath pulmonary monitoring system that displays three parameters graphed against time: expired flow rate, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production. This system allows for early and rapid recognition of treatable conditions that may lead to adverse events without any additional patient measurements or invasive procedures. Monitoring systems similar to the one described in this paper may lead to a higher level of patient safety without any additional patient risk.

  12. Development of the work function monitoring method for a converter of a negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Sasao, Mamiko; Wada, Motoi; Ramos, H.J.

    1988-07-01

    A method to monitor the change in the work function of the converter surface in a self-extraction negative ion source is developed. The photoelectron emission from the Cs-Mo surface in a plasma is detected by irradiating surface with laser lights. Negative ions produced at the surface shows a strong correlation with the photoelectron current from the surface in hydrogen and helium discharges. The photoelectron current induced by the Ar + laser is used to detect the change in the cesium coverage, or the work function, while that by the dye laser is found to be suitable to confirm the region of the work function minimum. (author)

  13. In-season monitoring of hip and groin strength, health and function in elite youth soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Welvaert, Marijke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary purpose of this study was to describe an early detection and management strategy when monitoring in-season hip and groin strength, health and function in soccer. Secondly to compare pre-season to in-season test results. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Twenty......-seven elite male youth soccer players (age: 15.07±0.73years) volunteered to participate in the study. Monitoring tests included: adductor strength, adductor/abductor strength ratio and hip and groin outcome scores (HAGOS). Data were recorded at pre-season and at 22 monthly intervals in-season. Thresholds.......09, CI95%: 0.04, 0.13 respectively). HAGOS subscale scores were lowest at baseline with all, except Physical Activity, showing significant improvements at time-point one (ptime-loss were classified minimal or mild. CONCLUSIONS: In-season monitoring aimed at early detection...

  14. Rapid transient production in plants by replicating and non-replicating vectors yields high quality functional anti-HIV antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Sainsbury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of plants and plant cells to produce large amounts of recombinant protein has been well established. Due to advantages in terms of speed and yield, attention has recently turned towards the use of transient expression systems, including viral vectors, to produce proteins of pharmaceutical interest in plants. However, the effects of such high level expression from viral vectors and concomitant effects on host cells may affect the quality of the recombinant product.To assess the quality of antibodies transiently expressed to high levels in plants, we have expressed and characterised the human anti-HIV monoclonal antibody, 2G12, using both replicating and non-replicating systems based on deleted versions of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV RNA-2. The highest yield (approximately 100 mg/kg wet weight leaf tissue of affinity purified 2G12 was obtained when the non-replicating CPMV-HT system was used and the antibody was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Glycan analysis by mass-spectrometry showed that the glycosylation pattern was determined exclusively by whether the antibody was retained in the ER and did not depend on whether a replicating or non-replicating system was used. Characterisation of the binding and neutralisation properties of all the purified 2G12 variants from plants showed that these were generally similar to those of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell-produced 2G12.Overall, the results demonstrate that replicating and non-replicating CPMV-based vectors are able to direct the production of a recombinant IgG similar in activity to the CHO-produced control. Thus, a complex recombinant protein was produced with no apparent effect on its biochemical properties using either high-level expression or viral replication. The speed with which a recombinant pharmaceutical with excellent biochemical characteristics can be produced transiently in plants makes CPMV-based expression vectors an attractive option for

  15. Design of Safety Parameter Monitoring Function in a Research Reactor Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jaekwan; Suh, Yongsuk

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the safety parameter monitoring system (SPDS) is to help operating personnel in the control room make quick assessments of the plant safety status. Thus, the basic function of the SPDS is a provision of a continuous indication of plant parameters or derived variables representative of the safety status of the plant. NUREG-0737 Supplement 1 provides details of the functional criteria for the SPDS, as one of the action plan requirements from TMI accident. The system provides various functions as follows: · Alerting based on safety function decision logics, · Success path analysis to achieve the integrity of the safety functions, · 3 layer display architecture - safety function, success path display for each safety function, system summary and equipment details for each safety function, · Integration with computer-based procedure. According to a Notice of the NSSC No. 2012-31, a research reactor facility generating more than 2 MW of power should also be furnished with the SPDS for emergency preparedness. Generally, a research reactor is a small size facility, and its number of instrumentations is fewer than that of NPPs. In particular, it is actually hard to have various and powerful functions from an economic perspective. Therefore, a safety parameter display system optimized for a research reactor facility must be proposed. This paper provides the requirement analysis results and proposes the design of safety parameter monitoring function for a research reactor. The safety parameter monitoring function supporting control room personnel during emergency conditions should be designed in a research reactor facility. The facility size and number of signals are smaller than that of the power plants. Also, it is actually hard to have various and powerful functions of nuclear power plants from an economic perspective. Thus, a safety parameter display system optimized to a research reactor must be proposed. First, we found important design items

  16. Design of Safety Parameter Monitoring Function in a Research Reactor Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaekwan; Suh, Yongsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The primary purpose of the safety parameter monitoring system (SPDS) is to help operating personnel in the control room make quick assessments of the plant safety status. Thus, the basic function of the SPDS is a provision of a continuous indication of plant parameters or derived variables representative of the safety status of the plant. NUREG-0737 Supplement 1 provides details of the functional criteria for the SPDS, as one of the action plan requirements from TMI accident. The system provides various functions as follows: · Alerting based on safety function decision logics, · Success path analysis to achieve the integrity of the safety functions, · 3 layer display architecture - safety function, success path display for each safety function, system summary and equipment details for each safety function, · Integration with computer-based procedure. According to a Notice of the NSSC No. 2012-31, a research reactor facility generating more than 2 MW of power should also be furnished with the SPDS for emergency preparedness. Generally, a research reactor is a small size facility, and its number of instrumentations is fewer than that of NPPs. In particular, it is actually hard to have various and powerful functions from an economic perspective. Therefore, a safety parameter display system optimized for a research reactor facility must be proposed. This paper provides the requirement analysis results and proposes the design of safety parameter monitoring function for a research reactor. The safety parameter monitoring function supporting control room personnel during emergency conditions should be designed in a research reactor facility. The facility size and number of signals are smaller than that of the power plants. Also, it is actually hard to have various and powerful functions of nuclear power plants from an economic perspective. Thus, a safety parameter display system optimized to a research reactor must be proposed. First, we found important design items

  17. Cardiodynamicsgram: a novel tool for monitoring cardiac function in exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xu; Guo, Bokai; Gong, Yinglan; Xia, Ling; Yu, Jie

    2018-04-27

    This study evaluated the feasibility of cardiodynamicsgram (CDG) for monitoring the cardiac functions of athletes and exercisers. CDG could provide an effective, simple, and economical tool for exercise training. Seventeen middle-distance race athletes aged 14-28 years old were recruited. CDG tests and blood test including creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme, and high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) were performed before a high-intensity prolonged training, as well as 2 and 14 h after training, respectively. The CDG test result was unsatisfactory when the CK test result was used as standard. However, the accuracy of CDG test was about 80% when CK-MB and hsTnI were used as standards. Thus, CDG offers a noninvasive, simple, and economical approach for monitoring the cardiac function of athletes and exercisers during exercise training. Nonetheless, the applicability of CDG needs further investigation.

  18. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function

    OpenAIRE

    Hegyi Thomas; Hiatt Mark; Ciaccio Edward J; Drzewiecki Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to op...

  19. Gap assessment in current soil monitoring networks across Europe for measuring soil functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Saby, N. P. A.; Jones, A.; Louwagie, G.; Micheli, E.; Rutgers, M.; Schulte, R. P. O.; Spiegel, H.; Toth, G.; Creamer, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    Soil is the most important natural resource for life on Earth after water. Given its fundamental role in sustaining the human population, both the availability and quality of soil must be managed sustainably and protected. To ensure sustainable management we need to understand the intrinsic functional capacity of different soils across Europe and how it changes over time. Soil monitoring is needed to support evidence-based policies to incentivise sustainable soil management. To this aim, we assessed which soil attributes can be used as potential indicators of five soil functions; (1) primary production, (2) water purification and regulation, (3) carbon sequestration and climate regulation, (4) soil biodiversity and habitat provisioning and (5) recycling of nutrients. We compared this list of attributes to existing national (regional) and EU-wide soil monitoring networks. The overall picture highlighted a clearly unbalanced dataset, in which predominantly chemical soil parameters were included, and soil biological and physical attributes were severely under represented. Methods applied across countries for indicators also varied. At a European scale, the LUCAS-soil survey was evaluated and again confirmed a lack of important soil biological parameters, such as C mineralisation rate, microbial biomass and earthworm community, and soil physical measures such as bulk density. In summary, no current national or European monitoring system exists which has the capacity to quantify the five soil functions and therefore evaluate multi-functional capacity of a soil and in many countries no data exists at all. This paper calls for the addition of soil biological and some physical parameters within the LUCAS-soil survey at European scale and for further development of national soil monitoring schemes.

  20. The utilisation and diagnostic yield of radiological imaging in a specialist functional GI disorder clinic: an 11-year retrospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, Micheal

    2014-07-25

    The term functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) describes various aggregations of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms not explained by identifiable organic pathology; accordingly, their diagnosis rests on symptom-based criteria and a process of exclusion. Evidence is lacking on the appropriate use of abdominal imaging studies (AIS) in FGIDs.

  1. Metagenome-scale analysis yields insights into the structure and function of microbial communities in a copper bioleaching heap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Niu, Jiaojiao; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-01-19

    Metagenomics allows us to acquire the potential resources from both cultivatable and uncultivable microorganisms in the environment. Here, shotgun metagenome sequencing was used to investigate microbial communities from the surface layer of low grade copper tailings that were industrially bioleached at the Dexing Copper Mine, China. A bioinformatics analysis was further performed to elucidate structural and functional properties of the microbial communities in a copper bioleaching heap. Taxonomic analysis revealed unexpectedly high microbial biodiversity of this extremely acidic environment, as most sequences were phylogenetically assigned to Proteobacteria, while Euryarchaeota-related sequences occupied little proportion in this system, assuming that Archaea probably played little role in the bioleaching systems. At the genus level, the microbial community in mineral surface-layer was dominated by the sulfur- and iron-oxidizing acidophiles such as Acidithiobacillus-like populations, most of which were A. ferrivorans-like and A. ferrooxidans-like groups. In addition, Caudovirales were the dominant viral type observed in this extremely environment. Functional analysis illustrated that the principal participants related to the key metabolic pathways (carbon fixation, nitrogen metabolism, Fe(II) oxidation and sulfur metabolism) were mainly identified to be Acidithiobacillus-like, Thiobacillus-like and Leptospirillum-like microorganisms, indicating their vital roles. Also, microbial community harbored certain adaptive mechanisms (heavy metal resistance, low pH adaption, organic solvents tolerance and detoxification of hydroxyl radicals) as they performed their functions in the bioleaching system. Our study provides several valuable datasets for understanding the microbial community composition and function in the surface-layer of copper bioleaching heap.

  2. Enhancing the functionality of reactor protection systems to provide diagnostic and monitoring information: The ISATTM approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.A.; Rowe, B.J.; Jones, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The ISAT TM architecture has been successfully implemented as the Single Channel Trip System (SCTS), part of the primary protection system of Nuclear Electric's Dungeness 'B' Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors. The system is the first computer-based protection system licensed on a UK civil nuclear reactor. The system provides protection against single channel faults resulting in high coolant gas outlet temperature. The SCTS was designed to output data at several points in the system to an Ethernet to allow checks to be made on the operation of parts of the protection system and the system as a whole. In order to monitor the performance of this shutdown system a PC based monitoring system was developed to take input as data from the Ethernet, check its integrity and then analyze the data to provide information of the state of the system and subsystems. The SCTS monitor was basically intended to alert the operator to any fault on the safety system and indicate its source, provide a diagnosis of the cause of any trip initiated by the safety system, and log the occurrences of these incidents for later inspection. The intention was also to provide accurate real-time information on the thermocouple readings and to decrease the effort required to maintain the safety system. This paper will describe briefly the development of the ISAT TM monitoring system: how its requirements were arrived at, and how the design, code and testing were carried out to ensure approval for this application. It will then go on to report how the ISAT TM monitor has performed during its time in service: how more functionality has been added over and above its original requirements. Features of additional monitors for the SCTS and other ISAT TM systems will also be described. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs

  3. Optimization model of peach production relevant to input energies – Yield function in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatrehsamani, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Rahim; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Badarudin Badry, Ahmad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad

    2016-01-01

    energy to optimize energy input for peach production. • Determining significant factors on yield. • Using new policies to optimize input and reducing the negative effects of energy inputs.

  4. [Extension of cardiac monitoring function by used of ordinary ECG machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhencheng; Jiang, Yong; Ni, Lili; Wang, Hongyan

    2002-06-01

    This paper deals with a portable monitor system on liquid crystal display (LCD) based on this available ordinary ECG machine, which is low power and suitable for China's specific condition. Apart from developing the overall scheme of the system, this paper also has completed the design of the hardware and the software. The 80c196 single chip microcomputer is taken as the central microprocessor and real time electrocardiac single is data treated and analyzed in the system. With the performance of ordinary monitor, this machine also possesses the following functions: five types of arrhythmia analysis, alarm, freeze, and record of automatic pappering, convenient in carrying, with alternate-current (AC) or direct-current (DC) powered. The hardware circuit is simplified and the software structure is optimized in this paper. Multiple low power designs and LCD unit design are adopted and completed in it. Popular in usage, low in cost price, the portable monitor system will have a valuable influence on China's monitor system field.

  5. Immune Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials: Critical Issues of Functional Flow Cytometry-Based Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Macchia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometry- (FCM- based assays combining different phenotypic and functional markers have been developed in the past decade for informative and longitudinal analysis of polyfunctional T-cells. These technologies were designed to address the complexity and functional heterogeneity of cancer biology and cellular immunity and to define biomarkers predicting clinical response to anticancer treatment. So far, there is still a lack of standardization of some of these immunological tests. The aim of this review is to overview the latest technologies for immune monitoring and to highlight critical steps involved in some of the FCM-based cellular immune assays. In particular, our laboratory is focused on melanoma vaccine research and thus our main goal was the validation of a functional multiparameter test (FMT combining different functional and lineage markers to be applied in clinical trials involving patients with melanoma.

  6. Excitation function and yield for the 103Rh(d,2n)103Pd nuclear reaction: Optimization of the production of palladium-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manenti, Simone; Alí Santoro, María del Carmen; Cotogno, Giulio; Duchemin, Charlotte; Haddad, Ferid; Holzwarth, Uwe; Groppi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Deuteron-induced nuclear reactions for the generation of 103 Pd were investigated using the stacked-foil activation technique on rhodium targets at deuteron energies up to E d = 33 MeV. The excitation functions of the reactions 103 Rh(d,xn) 101,103 Pd, 103 Rh(d,x) 100g,cum,101m,g,102m,g Rh and 103 Rh(d,2p) 103 Ru have been measured, and the Thick-Target Yield for 103 Pd has been calculated.

  7. Influence of neural monitoring during thyroid surgery on nerve integrity and postoperative vocal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsman, A F; Warhurst, S; Fraser, S; Novakovic, D; Sidhu, S B

    2018-06-01

    Integrity of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) can be checked by intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM) after visualization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and nature of voice dysfunction following thyroid surgery with routine IONM. Thyroidectomies were performed with routine division of strap muscles and nerve monitoring to confirm integrity of the RLN and EBSLN following dissection. Patients were assessed for vocal function before surgery and at 1 and 3 months after operation. Assessment included use of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) 10, maximum phonation time, fundamental frequency, pitch range, harmonic to noise ratio, cepstral peak prominence and smoothed cepstral peak prominence. A total of 172 nerves at risk were analysed in 102 consecutive patients undergoing elective thyroid surgery. In 23·3 per cent of EBSLNs and 0·6 per cent of RLNs nerve identification required the assistance of IONM in addition to visualization. Nerve integrity was confirmed during surgery for 98·8 per cent of EBSLNs and 98·3 per cent of RLNs. There were no differences between preoperative and postoperative VHI-10 scores. Acoustic voice assessment showed small changes in maximum phonation time at 1 and 3 months after surgery. Where there is routine division of strap muscles, thyroidectomy using nerve monitoring confirmation of RLN and EBSLN function following dissection results in no clinically significant voice change.

  8. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegyi Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to opposite tabs located at the electrode belt ends. The slide was connected to a leaf spring, to which were bonded two piezoresistive transducers in a half-bridge circuit configuration. The device was tested for linearity and calibrated. The effect on infant respiratory function of constant belt tension in the normal range (30 g–90 g was determined. Results The mechanical response to a step input was second order (fn = 401 Hz, ζ = 0.08. The relationship between applied tension and output voltage was linear in the range 25–225 gm of applied tension (r2 = 0.99. Measured device sensitivity was 2.18 mV/gm tension using a 5 V bridge excitation voltage. When belt tension was increased in the normal range from 30 gm to 90 gm, there was no significant change in heart rate and most respiratory functions during monitoring. At an intermediate level of tension of 50 gm, pulmonary resistance and work of breathing significantly decreased. Conclusion The mechanical and electrical design of a device for monitoring electrocardiogram electrode belt tension is described. Within the typical range of application tension, cardiovascular and respiratory function are not substantially negatively affected by electrode belt force.

  9. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Hiatt, Mark; Hegyi, Thomas; Drzewiecki, Gary M

    2007-04-19

    Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to opposite tabs located at the electrode belt ends. The slide was connected to a leaf spring, to which were bonded two piezoresistive transducers in a half-bridge circuit configuration. The device was tested for linearity and calibrated. The effect on infant respiratory function of constant belt tension in the normal range (30 g-90 g) was determined. The mechanical response to a step input was second order (fn = 401 Hz, zeta = 0.08). The relationship between applied tension and output voltage was linear in the range 25-225 gm of applied tension (r2 = 0.99). Measured device sensitivity was 2.18 mV/gm tension using a 5 V bridge excitation voltage. When belt tension was increased in the normal range from 30 gm to 90 gm, there was no significant change in heart rate and most respiratory functions during monitoring. At an intermediate level of tension of 50 gm, pulmonary resistance and work of breathing significantly decreased. The mechanical and electrical design of a device for monitoring electrocardiogram electrode belt tension is described. Within the typical range of application tension, cardiovascular and respiratory function are not substantially negatively affected by electrode belt force.

  10. Alterations in conflict monitoring are related to functional connectivity in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg-Katz, Keren; Maidan, Inbal; Jacob, Yael; Giladi, Nir; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have difficulties in executive functions including conflict monitoring. The neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties are not yet fully understood. In order to examine the neural mechanisms related to conflict monitoring in PD, we evaluated 35 patients with PD and 20 healthy older adults while they performed a word-color Stroop paradigm in the MRI. Specifically, we focused on changes between the groups in task-related functional connectivity using psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is a brain node previously associated with the Stroop paradigm, was selected as the seed region for this analysis. Patients with PD, as compared to healthy controls, had reduced task-related functional connectivity between the ACC and parietal regions including the precuneus and inferior parietal lobe. This was seen only in the incongruent Stroop condition. A higher level of connectivity between the ACC and precuneus was correlated with a lower error rate in the conflicting, incongruent Stroop condition in the healthy controls, but not in the patients with PD. Furthermore, the patients also had reduced functional connectivity between the ACC and the superior frontal gyrus which was present in both the incongruent and congruent task condition. The present findings shed light on brain mechanisms that are apparently associated with specific cognitive difficulties in patients with PD. Among patients with PD, impaired conflict monitoring processing within the ACC-based fronto-parietal network may contribute to difficulties under increased executive demands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acoustic Emission based on sentry function to monitor the initiation of delamination in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiary Davijani, A.A.; Hajikhani, M.; Ahmadi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Constant load does not confirm constant damage in composite materials. → Different damages have different AE events. → Sentry function is a useful tool to monitor the initiation of damage in delamination. → The less sentry function number is the more damage the material has endured. -- Abstract: Delamination is the most common failure mode in composite materials, since it will result in the reduction of stiffness and can grow throughout other layers. Delamination is consisted of two main stages including initiation and propagation. Understanding the behavior of the material in these zones is very important, hence it has been thoroughly studied by different methods such as numerical methods, Acoustic Emission (AE), and modeling. Between these two regions initiation is a more vital stage in the delamination of the material. Once initiation occurs, which normally requires greater amount of force, cracks can easily propagate through the structure with little force and cause the failure of the structure. A better knowledge of initiation can lead to better design and production of stronger materials. Additionally, more knowledge about crack initiation and its internal microevents would help improve other parameters and result in higher strength against crack initiation. AE is a suitable method for in situ monitoring of damage in composite materials. In this study, AE was applied to test different glass/epoxy specimens which were loaded under mode I delamination. A function that combines AE and mechanical information is employed to investigate the initiation of delamination. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to verify the results of this function. It is shown that this method is an appropriate technique to monitor the behavior of the initiation of delamination.

  12. Monitoring of lower urinary tract function in patients with spinal cord injury using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Nigro, Mark; Stothers, Lynn

    2012-02-01

    Background: One of the most important conditions where there is loss of normal bladder function is spinal cord injury (SCI). Currently, evaluation of bladder function is limited to periodic invasive urodynamic testing (UDS). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in monitoring bladder function in patients with SCI during bladder filling and emptying and to investigate the correlations of NIRS measures with simultaneous UDS parameters. NIRS is a non-invasive optical method to study tissue oxygenation, hemodynamics and function by monitoring changes in the chromophore concentrations of oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb) and total hemoglobin (tHb). Methods: 10 adult paraplegic patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction who were referred for regular urodynamic evaluation were recruited. Changes in O2Hb, HHb and tHb, and tissue saturation index (TSI%) in the detrusor were monitored and recorded by a wireless NIRS system during the urodynamic evaluation. Time points of urgency and urinary leakage were marked and patterns of change in NIRS parameters were compared to standard urodynamic pressure tracings. Results: Strong consistency between changes in NIRS-derived tHb and changes in intravesical pressure were observed during filling across the subjects. During bladder filling a gradual increase in O2Hb and tHb with minimal changes in HHb was observed. Interestingly, a drop in TSI% was detected seconds before strong urgency and urinary leakage. Conclusions: Our preliminary data suggest a relationship between noninvasive NIRS measures and UDS parameters during bladder filling in SCI patients.

  13. Probiotic-mediated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruit fermentation to yield functionalized products for augmented antibacterial and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Do-Youn

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation of blueberry fruit with selected probiotic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Lactobacillus brevis) and yeast (Starmerella bombicola) isolated from fermented starfish for the extraction of functionalized products for biomedical applications. All probiotic-based fermented extracts showed augmented antibacterial and antioxidant activity compared to the control. Biochemical parameters of viable cell count, titratable acidity, total phenol, total anthocyanin, total flavonoids, total sugar, and reducing sugar were analyzed during a 0-96 h fermentation period. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to determine the functional groups in the control and fermented extracts and it signifies the presence of alcohol groups, phenol groups, carboxylic acids, and aliphatic amines, respectively. The well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays determined that the S. bombicola-mediated fermented extract has excellent activity, followed by B. amyloliquefaciens and L. brevis, at a high concentration of 1.0 g/mL fermented extract. The ABTS and DPPH showed significant scavenging activity with IC 50 values of (30.52 ± 0.08)/(155.10 ± 0.06) μg/mL, (24.82 ± 0.16)/(74.21 ± 1.26) μg/mL, and (21.81 ± 0.08)/(125.11 ± 0.04) μg/mL for B. amyloliquefaciens, L. brevis, and S. bombicola, respectively. Developing a value-added fermented blueberry product will help circumvent losses because of the highly perishable nature of the fruit. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-06-13

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease's rehabilitative treatment.

  15. Extensive functional evaluations to monitor aerobic training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Tramonti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment.

  16. Functional design criteria for FY 1993-2000 groundwater monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this revision is to update the Line Item Project, 93-L-GFW-152 Functional Design Criteria (FDC) to reflect changes approved in change control M-24-91-6, Engineering Change Notices (ECNs), and expand the scope to include subsurface investigations along with the borehole drilling. This revision improves the ability and effectiveness of maintaining RCRA and Operational groundwater compliance by combining borehole and well drilling with subsurface data gathering objectives. The total projected number of wells to be installed under this project has decreased from 200 and the scope has been broadened to include additional subsurface investigation activities that usually occur simultaneously with most traditional borehole drilling and monitoring well installations. This includes borehole hydrogeologic characterization activities, and vadose monitoring. These activities are required under RCRA 40 CFR 264 and 265 and WAC 173-303 for site characterization, groundwater and vadose assessment and well placement

  17. The BEACON on-line core monitoring system. Functional upgrades and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, W.A.; Miller, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    The BEACON TM core monitor system has been in commercial operation since 1989 and was licensed by the USNRC for on-line core power distribution and thermal power limit monitoring in 1994. Since that time BEACON has been installed at 17 plants. Each of these customers has a different perspective on the use of data from BEACON and a different approach on the application of BEACON to support their plant operations. To support these varied needs and approaches the BEACON system has been divided into three operational levels to better match the system functions to the customer needs and approaches to system integration. Based on customer feedback, the BEACON system was upgraded in some areas and streamlined in other areas to better support the needs of each customer. The three operational levels of the BEACON system, the major product upgrades and system evolution that has taken place to support the needs and applications of our customers are discussed. (authors)

  18. Food and fitness: associations between crop yields and life-history traits in a longitudinally monitored pre-industrial human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Adam D; Holopainen, Jari; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-10-22

    Severe food shortage is associated with increased mortality and reduced reproductive success in contemporary and historical human populations. Studies of wild animal populations have shown that subtle variation in environmental conditions can influence patterns of mortality, fecundity and natural selection, but the fitness implications of such subtle variation on human populations are unclear. Here, we use longitudinal data on local grain production, births, marriages and mortality so as to assess the impact of crop yield variation on individual age-specific mortality and fecundity in two pre-industrial Finnish populations. Although crop yields and fitness traits showed profound year-to-year variation across the 70-year study period, associations between crop yields and mortality or fecundity were generally weak. However, post-reproductive individuals of both sexes, and individuals of lower socio-economic status experienced higher mortality when crop yields were low. This is the first longitudinal, individual-based study of the associations between environmental variation and fitness traits in pre-industrial humans, which emphasizes the importance of a portfolio of mechanisms for coping with low food availability in such populations. The results are consistent with evolutionary ecological predictions that natural selection for resilience to food shortage is likely to weaken with age and be most severe on those with the fewest resources.

  19. Effects of timing and severity of salinity stress on rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield, grain composition, and starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitisaksakul, Maysaya; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Shoemaker, Charles F; Chun, Areum; Tanadul, Orn-u-ma; Labavitch, John M; Beckles, Diane M

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this work was to examine agronomic, compositional, and functional changes in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) grains from plants grown under low-to-moderate salinity stress in the greenhouse. Plants were grown in sodium chloride-containing soil (2 or 4 dS/m(2) electrical conductivity), which was imposed 4-weeks after transplant (called Seedling EC2 and EC4) or after the appearance of the anthers (called Anthesis EC2 and EC4). The former simulates field conditions while the latter permits observation of the isolated effect of salt on grain filling processes. Key findings of this study are the following: (i) Plants showed adaptive responses to prolonged salt treatment with no negative effects on grain weight or fertility. Seedling EC2 plants had more panicles and enhanced caryopsis dimensions, while surprisingly, Seedling EC4 plants did not differ from the control group in the agronomic parameters measured. (ii) Grain starch increased in Seedling EC4 (32.6%) and Anthesis EC2 (39%), respectively, suggesting a stimulatory effect of salt on starch accumulation. (iii) The salinity treatment of 2 dS/m(2) was better tolerated at anthesis than the 4 dS/m(2) treatment as the latter led to reduced grain weight (28.8%) and seed fertility (19.4%) and compensatory increases in protein (20.1%) and nitrogen (19.8%) contents. (iv) Although some salinity treatments led to changes in starch content, these did not alter starch fine structure, morphology, or composition. We observed no differences in reducing sugar and amylose content or starch granule size distribution among any of the treatments. The only alterations in starch were limited to small changes in thermal properties and glucan chain distribution, which were only seen in the Anthesis EC4 treatment. This similarity of compositional and functional features was supported by multivariate analysis of all variables measured, which suggested that differences due to treatments were minimal. Overall, this study

  20. Effect of type of concentrated sweet cream buttermilk on the manufacture, yield, and functionality of pizza cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Lin, T; Jaeggi, J J; Martinelli, C J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2007-06-01

    Sweet cream buttermilk (SCB) is a rich source of phospholipids (PL). Most SCB is sold in a concentrated form. This study was conducted to determine if different concentration processes could affect the behavior of SCB as an ingredient in cheese. Sweet cream buttermilk was concentrated by 3 methods: cold ( pizza cheese was manufactured using the 3 different types of concentrated SCB as an ingredient in standardized milk. Cheesemilks of casein:fat ratio of 1.0 and final casein content approximately 2.7% were obtained by blending ultrafiltered (UF)-SCB retentate (19.9% solids), RO-SCB retentate (21.9% solids), or EVAP-SCB retentate (36.6% solids) with partially skimmed milk (11.2% solids) and cream (34.6% fat). Control milk (11.0% solids) was standardized by blending partially skimmed milk with cream. Cheese functionality was assessed using dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology, UW Meltprofiler (degree of flow after heating to 60 degrees C), and performance of cheese on pizza. Initial trials with SCB-fortified cheeses resulted in approximately 4 to 5% higher moisture (51 to 52%) than control cheese (approximately 47%). In subsequent trials, procedures were altered to obtain similar moisture content in all cheeses. Fat recoveries were significantly lower in RO- and EVAP-SCB cheeses than in control or UF-SCB cheeses. Nitrogen recoveries were not significantly different but tended to be slightly lower in control cheeses than the various SCB cheeses. Total PL recovered in SCB cheeses ( approximately 32 to 36%) were lower than control ( approximately 41%), even though SCB is high in PL. From the rheology test, the loss tangent curves at temperatures > 40 degrees C increased as cheese aged up to a month and were significantly lower in SCB cheeses than the control, indicating lower meltability. Degree of flow in all the cheeses was similar regardless of the treatment used, and as cheese ripened, it increased for all cheeses. Trichloroacetic acid-soluble N levels were

  1. Artificial stone dust-induced functional and inflammatory abnormalities in exposed workers monitored quantitatively by biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Noa; Shai, Amir Bar; Alkalay, Yifat; Israeli, Shani; Korenstein, Rafi; Kramer, Mordechai R; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture of kitchen and bath countertops in Israel is based mainly on artificial stone that contains 93% silica as natural quartz, and ∼3500 workers are involved in cutting and processing it. Artificial stone produces high concentrations of silica dust. Exposure to crystalline silica may cause silicosis, an irreversible lung disease. Our aim was to screen exposed workers by quantitative biometric monitoring of functional and inflammatory parameters. 68 exposed artificial stone workers were compared to 48 nonexposed individuals (controls). Exposed workers filled in questionnaires, and all participants underwent pulmonary function tests and induced sputum analyses. Silica was quantitated by a Niton XL3 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Pulmonary function test results of exposed workers were significantly lower and induced sputa showed significantly higher neutrophilic inflammation compared to controls; both processes were slowed down by the use of protective measures in the workplace. Particle size distribution in induced sputum samples of exposed workers was similar to that of artificial stone dust, which contained aluminium, zirconium and titanium in addition to silica. In conclusion, the quantitation of biometric parameters is useful for monitoring workers exposed to artificial stone in order to avoid deterioration over time.

  2. Multiple functional attributes of glucose-monitoring neurons in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, István; Hormay, Edina; Csetényi, Bettina; Nagy, Bernadett; Lénárd, László; Karádi, Zoltán

    2018-02-01

    Multiple functional attributes of glucose-monitoring neurons in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 73(1) XXX-XXX, 2017.- Special chemosensory cells, the glucose-monitoring (GM) neurons, reportedly involved in the central feeding control, exist in the medial orbitofrontal (ventrolateral prefrontal) cortex (mVLPFC). Electrophysiological, metabolic and behavioral studies reveal complex functional attributes of these cells and raise their homeostatic significance. Single neuron recordings, by means of the multibarreled microelectrophoretic technique, elucidate differential sensitivities of limbic forebrain neurons in the rat and the rhesus monkey to glucose and other chemicals, whereas gustatory stimulations demonstrate their distinct taste responsiveness. Metabolic examinations provide evidence for alteration of blood glucose level in glucose tolerance test and elevation of plasma triglyceride concentration after destruction of the local GM cells by streptozotocin (STZ). In behavioral studies, STZ microinjection into the mVLPFC fails to interfere with the acquisition of saccharin conditioned taste avoidance, does cause, however, taste perception deficit in taste reactivity tests. Multiple functional attributes of GM neurons in the mVLPFC, within the frame of the hierarchically organized central GM neuronal network, appear to play important role in the maintenance of the homeostatic balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cutaneous respirometry by dynamic measurement of mitochondrial oxygen tension for monitoring mitochondrial function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Floor A; Voorbeijtel, Wilhelmina J; Bodmer, Sander I A; Raat, Nicolaas J H; Mik, Egbert G

    2013-09-01

    Progress in diagnosis and treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic and acute disease could greatly benefit from techniques for monitoring of mitochondrial function in vivo. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo respirometry in skin. Mitochondrial oxygen measurements by means of oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX are shown to provide a robust basis for measurement of local oxygen disappearance rate (ODR). The fundamental principles behind the technology are described, together with an analysis method for retrievel of respirometry data. The feasibility and reproducibility of this clinically useful approach are demonstrated in a series of rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraoperative functional MRI as a new approach to monitor deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Sorger, Bettina; Girnus, Ralf; Lasek, Kathrin; Schulte, Oliver; Krug, Barbara; Lackner, Klaus; Maarouf, Mohammad; Sturm, Volker; Wedekind, Christoph; Bunke, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with technical aspects of intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for monitoring the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in a patient with Parkinson's disease. Under motor activation, therapeutic high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus was accompanied by an activation decrease in the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex and the ipsilateral cerebellum. Furthermore, an activation increase in the contralateral basal ganglia and insula region were detected. These findings demonstrate that fMRI constitutes a promising clinical application for investigating brain activity changes induced by DBS. (orig.)

  5. Online monitoring of dispersion functions and transfer matrices at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.; Fieguth, T.H.; Lohse, T.; Burchat, P.R.; Panvini, R.S.

    1989-03-01

    The symmetries of the chromatic correction sections in the SLC Final Focus System allow a high-resolution determination of the pulse-to-pulse energy fluctuations by exploiting the information from beam position monitors (BPMs) in regions of large dispersion. By correlating this signal with other BPMs, one can infer the dispersion function as well as spatial components of transfer matrices anywhere in the arcs and the Final Focus System without interrupting normal machine operation. We present results from data recorded during either periods of stable operation or periods when the linac energy was intentionally varied. 6 refs., 7 figs

  6. The costs and benefits of self-monitoring for higher functioning children and adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Heather A; Ono, Kim E; McMahon, Camilla M; Schwartz, Caley B; Usher, Lauren V; Mundy, Peter C

    2015-02-01

    The ability to regulate behaviors and emotions depends in part on the ability to flexibly monitor one's own progress toward a goal. Atypical patterns of response monitoring have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current study we examined the error related negativity (ERN), an electrophysiological index of response monitoring, in relation to behavioral, social cognitive, and emotional presentation in higher functioning children (8-16 years) diagnosed with autism (HFA: N = 38) and an age- and IQ-matched sample of children without autism (COM: N = 36). Both HFA and COM participants displayed larger amplitude responses to error compared to correct response trials and these amplitudes did not differ by diagnostic group. For participants with HFA, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with more parent-reported autistic symptoms and more self-reported internalizing problems. However, across the full sample, larger ERN amplitudes were associated with better performance on theory of mind tasks. The results are discussed in terms of the utility of electrophysiological measures for understanding essential moderating processes that contribute to the spectrum of behavioral expression in the development of ASD.

  7. Radio-immunoassay of salivary progesterone for monitoring ovarian function in female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luisi, M.; Franchi, F.; Bianchi, S.; Gravina, G.; Podesta, A.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-two women, aged from 25 to 41 years, with infertility due to chronic anovulation were admitted to the study together with 36 age-matched controls with proven ovulatory cycles. Paired plasma (3 ml) and whole unstimulated saliva (10 ml) samples were collected over a 30 day period, starting from the first day of a menstrual bleeding, in patients, and throughout the menstrual cycle, in controls. Salivary progesterone levels, measured in women with infertility, ranged from undetectable values to 16 pmol/l during the first, and from 36 to 98 pmol/l during the second half of the monitoring period. In eugonadal women the steroid levels ranged from 34 to 46 pmol/I and from 96 to 780 pmol/l during the follicular and luteal phases, respectively. The saliva/plasma progesterone ratio ranged from 0.58 to 2.71 p. cent and a good correlation between salivary and plasma levels was found at each time of monitoring. Many (86 p. cent) of patients, which were randomly allocated to a low-or high-dose epimestrol administration schedule, appeared to be sensitive to the drug, achieving, after therapy, salivary progesterone levels which were within the range of controls. Since correct assessment of luteal function in basal conditions and during therapy requires multiple steroid measurements, and since saliva can be obtained by non-invasive techniques, salivary assays represent an attractive alternative to plasma ones for monitoring ovarian activity, also during specific treatment

  8. Radio-immunoassay of salivary progesterone for monitoring ovarian function in female infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luisi, M.; Franchi, F.; Bianchi, S.; Gravina, G.; Podesta, A.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-two women, aged from 25 to 41 years, with infertility due to chronic anovulation were admitted to the study together with 36 age-matched controls with proven ovulatory cycles. Paired plasma (3 ml) and whole unstimulated saliva (10 ml) samples were collected over a 30 day period, starting from the first day of a menstrual bleeding, in patients, and throughout the menstrual cycle, in controls. Salivary progesterone levels, measured in women with infertility, ranged from undetectable values to 16 pmol/l during the first, and from 36 to 98 pmol/l during the second half of the monitoring period. In eugonadal women the steroid levels ranged from 34 to 46 pmol/I and from 96 to 780 pmol/l during the follicular and luteal phases, respectively. The saliva/plasma progesterone ratio ranged from 0.58 to 2.71 p. cent and a good correlation between salivary and plasma levels was found at each time of monitoring. Many (86 p. cent) of patients, which were randomly allocated to a low-or high-dose epimestrol administration schedule, appeared to be sensitive to the drug, achieving, after therapy, salivary progesterone levels which were within the range of controls. Since correct assessment of luteal function in basal conditions and during therapy requires multiple steroid measurements, and since saliva can be obtained by non-invasive techniques, salivary assays represent an attractive alternative to plasma ones for monitoring ovarian activity, also during specific treatment.

  9. [Application of the grayscale standard display function to general purpose liquid-crystal display monitors for clinical use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobukazu; Naka, Kentaro; Sueoka, Masaki; Higashida, Yoshiharu; Morishita, Junji

    2010-01-20

    Interpretations of medical images have been shifting to soft-copy readings with liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors. The display function of the medical-grade LCD monitor for soft-copy readings is recommended to calibrate the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) in accordance with the guidelines of Japan and other countries. In this study, the luminance and display function of five models of eight general purpose LCD monitors were measured to gain an understanding of their characteristics. Moreover, the display function (gamma 2.2 or gamma 1.8) of general purpose LCD monitors was converted to GSDF through the use of a look-up table, and the detectability of a simulated lung nodule in the chest x-ray image was examined. As a result, the maximum luminance, contrast ratio, and luminance uniformity of general purpose LCD monitors, except for one model of two LCD monitors, met the management grade 1 standard in the guideline JESRA X-0093-2005. In addition, the detectability of simulated lung nodule in the mediastinal space was obviously improved by converting the display function of a general purpose LCD monitor into GSDF.

  10. Land Cover Change Monitoring of Typical Functional Communities of Sichuan Province Based on ZY-3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. M.; Li, S.; Ying, G. W.; Wu, X. P.

    2018-04-01

    According to the function, land space types are divided into key development areas, restricted development areas and forbidden development areas in Sichuan Province. This paper monitors and analyses the changes of land cover in different typical functional areas from 2010 to 2017, which based on ZY-3 high-score images data and combined with statistical yearbook and thematic data of Sichuan Province. The results show that: The land cover types of typical key development zones are mainly composed of cultivated land, forest land, garden land, and housing construction land, which accounts for the total area of land cover 87 %. The land cover types of typical restricted development zone mainly consists of forest land and grassland, which occupy 97.71 % of the total area of the surface coverage. The land cover types of the typical prohibition development zone mainly consist of forest land, grassland, desert and bared earth, which accounts for the total area of land cover 99.31 %.

  11. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, freestanding electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function.

  12. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, free-standing electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on-demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function. PMID:26974408

  13. Nano-enabled paper humidity sensor for mobile based point-of-care lung function monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Mitradip; Nemade, Harshal B; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2017-08-15

    The frequency of breathing and peak flow rate of exhaled air are necessary parameters to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) such as asthma, bronchitis, or pneumonia. We developed a lung function monitoring point-of-care-testing device (LFM-POCT) consisting of mouthpiece, paper-based humidity sensor, micro-heater, and real-time monitoring unit. Fabrication of a mouthpiece of optimal length ensured that the exhaled air was focused on the humidity-sensor. The resistive relative humidity sensor was developed using a filter paper coated with nanoparticles, which could easily follow the frequency and peak flow rate of the human breathing. Adsorption followed by condensation of the water molecules of the humid air on the paper-sensor during the forced exhalation reduced the electrical resistance of the sensor, which was converted to an electrical signal for sensing. A micro-heater composed of a copper-coil embedded in a polymer matrix helped in maintaining an optimal temperature on the sensor surface. Thus, water condensed on the sensor surface only during forcible breathing and the sensor recovered rapidly after the exhalation was complete by rapid desorption of water molecules from the sensor surface. Two types of real-time monitoring units were integrated into the device based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and smart phones. The LED based unit displayed the diseased, critical, and fit conditions of the lungs by flashing LEDs of different colors. In comparison, for the mobile based monitoring unit, an application was developed employing an open source software, which established a wireless connectivity with the LFM-POCT device to perform the tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. HSI for monitoring the critical safety functions status tree of a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Almeida, Jose Carlos Soares de; Augusto, Silas Cordeiro; Jaime, Guilherme Dutra Gonzaga

    2013-01-01

    Critical safety function (CSF) is the most significant design concept for prioritize operator actions based on the potential threat to the three barriers (fuel cladding, primary coolant system boundary, and containment) and allows the operator to respond to these threats prior to event diagnosis. CSF has a hierarchical information structure that organizes the system variables affecting the plant safety in terms of goal-means relations. It is important that the operator should be aware of various success paths associated with each CSF in order to respond to unanticipated system failures quickly. When an emergency occurs in NPPs, the operator should monitor CSFs periodically and identify possible success paths as necessary, and try to stabilize or safely shut down the plant using emergency operating procedure (EOP) that includes steps to check the CSFs. This implies that safety function status check may become a cognitively burdensome task that needs to be supported by proper information display. The advanced human-system interface (HSI) in nuclear power plants provides an information environment that supports the operators' burdensome cognitive tasks. This paper describes a CSFs interface design for supporting the operator's tasks to monitor and identify the associated success path for Westinghouse 3-loops NPP. (author)

  15. Mobile personal health records for pregnancy monitoring functionalities: Analysis and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiri, Mariam; Idri, Ali; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio

    2016-10-01

    Personal Health Records (PHRs) are a rapidly growing area of health information technology. PHR users are able to manage their own health data and communicate with doctors in order to improve healthcare quality and efficiency. Mobile PHR (mPHR) applications for mobile devices have obtained an interesting market quota since the appearance of more powerful mobile devices. These devices allow users to gain access to applications that used to be available only for personal computers. This paper analyzes the functionalities of mobile PHRs that are specific to pregnancy monitoring. A well-known Systematic Literature Review (SLR) protocol was used in the analysis process. A questionnaire was developed for this task, based on the rigorous study of scientific literature concerning pregnancy and applications available on the market, with 9 data items and 35 quality assessments. The data items contain calendars, pregnancy information, health habits, counters, diaries, mobile features, security, backup, configuration and architectural design. A total of 33 mPHRs for pregnancy monitoring, available for iOS and Android, were selected from Apple App store and Google Play store, respectively. The results show that none of the mPHRs selected met 100% of the functionalities analyzed in this paper. The highest score achieved was 77%, while the lowest was 17%. In this paper, these features are discussed and possible paths for future development of similar applications are proposed, which may lead to a more efficient use of smartphone capabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategy of Surgical Resection for Glioma Based on Intraoperative Functional Mapping and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAMURA, Manabu; MURAGAKI, Yoshihiro; SAITO, Taiichi; MARUYAMA, Takashi; NITTA, Masayuki; TSUZUKI, Shunsuke; ISEKI, Hiroshi; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of papers have pointed out the relationship between aggressive resection of gliomas and survival prognosis. For maximum resection, the current concept of surgical decision-making is in “information-guided surgery” using multimodal intraoperative information. With this, anatomical information from intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and navigation, functional information from brain mapping and monitoring, and histopathological information must all be taken into account in the new perspective for innovative minimally invasive surgical treatment of glioma. Intraoperative neurofunctional information such as neurophysiological functional monitoring takes the most important part in the process to acquire objective visual data during tumor removal and to integrate these findings as digitized data for intraoperative surgical decision-making. Moreover, the analysis of qualitative data and threshold-setting for quantitative data raise difficult issues in the interpretation and processing of each data type, such as determination of motor evoked potential (MEP) decline, underestimation in tractography, and judgments of patient response for neurofunctional mapping and monitoring during awake craniotomy. Neurofunctional diagnosis of false-positives in these situations may affect the extent of resection, while false-negatives influence intra- and postoperative complication rates. Additionally, even though the various intraoperative visualized data from multiple sources contribute significantly to the reliability of surgical decisions when the information is integrated and provided, it is not uncommon for individual pieces of information to convey opposing suggestions. Such conflicting pieces of information facilitate higher-order decision-making that is dependent on the policies of the facility and the priorities of the patient, as well as the availability of the histopathological characteristics from resected tissue. PMID:26185825

  17. Color matters--material ejection and ion yields in UV-MALDI mass spectrometry as a function of laser wavelength and laser fluence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltwisch, Jens; Jaskolla, Thorsten W; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2013-10-01

    The success of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) as a widely employed analytical tool in the biomolecular sciences builds strongly on an effective laser-material interaction that is resulting in a soft co-desorption and ionization of matrix and imbedded biomolecules. To obtain a maximized ion yield for the analyte(s) of interest, in general both wavelength and fluence need to be tuned to match the specific optical absorption profile of the used matrix. However, commonly only lasers with fixed emission wavelengths of either 337 or 355 nm are used for MALDI-MS. Here, we employed a wavelength-tunable dye laser and recorded both the neutral material ejection and the MS ion data in a wide wavelength and fluence range between 280 and 377.5 nm. α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA), 4-chloro-α-cyanocinnamic acid (ClCCA), α-cyano-2,4-difluorocinnamic acid (DiFCCA), and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) were investigated as matrices, and several peptides as analytes. Recording of the material ejection was achieved by adopting a photoacoustic approach. Relative ion yields were derived by division of photoacoustic and ion signals. In this way, distinct wavelength/fluence regions can be identified for which maximum ion yields were obtained. For the tested matrices, optimal results were achieved for wavelengths corresponding to areas of high optical absorption of the respective matrix and at fluences about a factor of 2-3 above the matrix- and wavelength-dependent ion detection threshold fluences. The material ejection as probed by the photoacoustic method is excellently fitted by the quasithermal model, while a sigmoidal function allows for an empirical description of the ion signal-fluence relationship.

  18. Rice Crop Monitoring and Yield Estimation Through Cosmo Skymed and TerraSAR-X: A SAR-Based Experience in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pazhanivelan, S.; Kannan, P.; Christy Nirmala Mary, P.; Subramanian, E.; Jeyaraman, S.; Nelson, A.; Setiyono, T.; Holecz, F.; Barbieri, M.; Yadav, M.

    2015-01-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop governing food security in Asia. Reliable and regular information on the area under rice production is the basis of policy decisions related to imports, exports and prices which directly affect food security. Recent and planned launches of SAR sensors coupled with automated processing can provide sustainable solutions to the challenges on mapping and monitoring rice systems. High resolution (3m) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imageries were used...

  19. Acid-yield measurements of the gas-phase ozonolysis of ethene as a function of humidity using Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (CIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Leather

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase ethene ozonolysis experiments were conducted at room temperature to determine formic acid yields as a function of relative humidity (RH using the integrated EXTreme RAnge chamber-Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry technique, employing a CH3I ionisation scheme. RHs studied were <1, 11, 21, 27, 30 % and formic acid yields of (0.07±0.01 and (0.41±0.07 were determined at <1 % RH and 30 % RH respectively, showing a strong water dependence. It has been possible to estimate the ratio of the rate coefficient for the reaction of the Criegee biradical, CH2OO with water compared with decomposition. This analysis suggests that the rate of reaction with water ranges between 1×10−12–1×10−15 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and will therefore dominate its loss with respect to bimolecular processes in the atmosphere. Global model integrations suggest that this reaction between CH2OO and water may dominate the production of HC(OOH in the atmosphere.

  20. Different Modes of Monitoring and Correction of Cardiac Function During Operations Under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Krichevsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to comparatively evaluate the efficiency of intensive care measures chosen on the basis of traditional monitoring of central hemodynamics (CH or on that of the data of transesophageal echocardiography (TE echoCG.Materials and methods: 50 patients were examined at coronary bypass surgery under extracorporeal circulation. Under a prospective comparative analysis were two algorithms of treatment policy: maintenance of cardiac index, by using the maximum volemic load, or that of left ventricular systolic function under guidance of transesophageal echocardiography.Results: Significantly (p<0.05 larger doses of dopamine and/or dobutamine were required to maintain adequate left ventricular systolic function. However, this treatment policy showed much better (p<0.05 circulatory parameters in the postperfusion period. At the same time the duration of postoperative inotropic therapy in these patients proved to be significantly (p<0.05 less.Conclusion. The treatment policy based on the maintenance of left ventricular systolic function under guidance of TE echoCG leads to the shortest circulatory stabilization during myocardial revascularization. The application of a volemic load and the expectant use of inotropic drugs result in a longer restoration of operated heart function

  1. Imaging assessment of a portable hemodialysis device: detection of possible failure modes and monitoring of functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunsola, Olufoladare G; Kim, Steven H; Chang, Ryan; Kuo, Yuo-Chen; Hetts, Steven W; Heller, Alex; Kant, Rishi; Saeed, Maythem; Fissell, William H; Roy, Shuvo; Wilson, Mark W

    2014-03-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility and limitations of various imaging modalities in the noninvasive assessment of a novel compact hemodialyzer under development for renal replacement therapy, with specific aim towards monitoring its functional performance. The prototype is a 4×3×6 cm aluminum cartridge housing "blood" and "dialysate" flow paths arranged in parallel. A sheet of semipermeable silicon nanopore membranes forms the blood-dialysate interface, allowing passage of small molecules. Blood flow was simulated using a peristaltic pump to instill iodinated contrast through the blood compartment, while de-ionized water was instilled through the dialysate compartment at a matched rate in the countercurrent direction. Images were acquired under these flow conditions using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), fluoroscopy, high-resolution quantitative computed tomography (HR-QCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MDCT was used to monitor contrast diffusion efficiency by plotting contrast density as a function of position along the path of flow through the cartridge during steady state infusion at 1 and 20 mL/min. Both linear and exponential regressions were used to model contrast decay along the flow path. Both linear and exponential models of contrast decay appeared to be reasonable approximations, yielding similar results for contrast diffusion during a single pass through the cartridge. There was no measurable difference in contrast diffusion when comparing 1 mL/min and 20 mL/min flow rates. Fluoroscopy allowed a gross qualitative assessment of flow within the device, and revealed flow inhomogeneity within the corner of the cartridge opposite the blood inlet port. MRI and HR-QCT were both severely limited due to the paramagnetic properties and high atomic number of the target material, respectively. During testing, we encountered several causes of device malfunction, including leak formation, trapped gas, and contrast

  2. The relative biological effectiveness of fractionated doses of fast neutrons (42 MeV sub d yields Be ) for normal tissues. Pt. 3; Effects on lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezvani, M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Robbins, M.E.C.; Hamlet, R. (Churchill Hospital, Oxford (UK)); Barnes, D.W.H.; Sansom, J.M.; Adams, P.J.V. (Medical Research Council, Harwell (UK). Radiobiological Research Unit)

    1990-11-01

    The effect of single and fractionated doses of fast neutrons (42 MeV{sub d{yields}Bc}) on the early and late radiation responses of the pig lung have been assessed by the measurement of changes in lung function using a {sup 133}Xe washout technique. The results obtained for irradiation schedules with fast neutrons have been compared with those after photon irradiation. There was no statistically significant difference between the values for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for the early and late radiation response of the lung. The RBE of the neutron beam increased with decreasing size of dose/fraction with an upper limit value of 4.39 {plus minus} 0.94 for infinitely small X-ray doses per fraction. (author).

  3. Self-Monitoring Kidney Function Post Transplantation: Reliability of Patient-Reported Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lint, Céline; Wang, Wenxin; van Dijk, Sandra; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Rövekamp, Ton Jm; Neerincx, Mark A; Rabelink, Ton J; van der Boog, Paul Jm

    2017-09-26

    The high frequency of outpatient visits after kidney transplantation is burdensome to both the recovering patient and health care capacity. Self-monitoring kidney function offers a promising strategy to reduce the number of these outpatient visits. The objective of this study was to investigate whether it is safe to rely on patients' self-measurements of creatinine and blood pressure, using data from a self-management randomized controlled trial. For self-monitoring creatinine, each participant received a StatSensor Xpress-i Creatinine Meter and related test material. For self-monitoring blood pressure, each participant received a Microlife WatchBP Home, an oscillometric device for blood pressure self-measurement on the upper arm. Both devices had a memory function and the option to download stored values to a computer. During the first year post transplantation, 54 patients registered their self-measured creatinine values in a Web-based Self-Management Support System (SMSS) which provided automatic feedback on the registered values (eg, seek contact with hospital). Values registered in the SMSS were compared with those logged automatically in the creatinine device to study reliability of registered data. Adherence to measurement frequency was determined by comparing the number of requested with the number of performed measurements. To study adherence to provided feedback, SMSS-logged feedback and information from the electronic hospital files were analyzed. Level of adherence was highest during months 2-4 post transplantation with over 90% (42/47) of patients performing at least 75% of the requested measurements. Overall, 87.00% (3448/3963) of all registered creatinine values were entered correctly, although values were often registered several days later. If (the number of) measured and registered values deviated, the mean of registered creatinine values was significantly lower than what was measured, suggesting active selection of lower creatinine values

  4. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  5. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline A Boatin

    Full Text Available We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5% successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0 on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96. Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively, useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively, and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively. In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of

  6. Ambulatory monitoring of left ventricular function in patients with Parkinson`s disease and postural hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nappi, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Cuocolo, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Iazzetta, N. [Inst. of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Ferrara, L.A. [Inst. of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Marotta, T. [Inst. of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Pace, L. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Nicolai, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); De Michele, G. [Inst. of Neurological Sciences, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Campanella, G. [Inst. of Neurological Sciences, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Salvatore, M. [National Cancer Inst., Naples (Italy); Postiglione, A. [Inst. of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Univ. ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy)

    1994-12-01

    Left ventricular (LV) function was continuously monitored using a radionuclide detector (VEST) after intravenous injection of 25 mCi technetium-99m labelled red blood cells in nine patients with Parkinson`s disease and postural hypotension (group 1) and ten patients with Parkinson`s disease but without postural hypotension (group 2). LV function and blood pressure were monitored in the supine position for 15 min (period A), upon changing posture from the supine to the upright position for 10 min (period B), and upon returning to the supine position for 10 min (period C). In group 1, the passage from period A to period B induced a significant decrease in end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and ejection fraction (all P<0.01). In group 2, ejection fraction increased (P<0.05) upon changing posture from the supine to the upright position. Ejection fraction (F=33, P<0.01), end-diastolic volume (F=9, P<0.05) and end-systolic volume (F=10, P<0.05) were significantly different between the two groups. In group 1, stroke volume, cardiac output and vascular peripheral resistance decreased from period A to period B (all P<0.001). In group 2, no changes in stroke volume, cardiac output and vascular peripheral resistance were observed from period A to period B. All parameters were similar in the two groups during the periods A and C. Upon changing posture from the supine to the upright position, patients with Parkinson`s disease and postural hypotension showed marked changes in parameters of LV function induced by vascular abnormalities. The results of this study may help to clarify the potential risk of sudden postural changes in such patients, which may cause fainting, syncope and increased risk of ischaemic coronary and cerebrovascular attacks and of lower limb fractures. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxy-silane (APTMS) functionalized Gd2O3:Eu(3+) red phosphor with enhanced quantum yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akhil; Hirata, G A; Farías, M H; Castillón, F F

    2016-02-12

    We report the surface modification of nanocrystalline Gd2O3:Eu(3+) phosphor by (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS). The nanoparticles were first coated with silica using the Stöber process, and then annealed at 650 °C for 2 h. Afterwards, APTMS was functionalized onto the silica layer to obtain Gd2O3:Eu(3+) nanoparticles bearing amine groups on the surface. The effect of silica coating, and the subsequent annealing process on the crystallization of the nanophosphor were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) confirmed the presence of a silica layer of ∼45 nm thickness. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of silica and the amine groups. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis demonstrated an increased emission after functionalization of nanoparticles. Absolute quantum yield (QY) measurements revealed an 18% enhancement in QY in functionalized nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles, which is of great importance for their biomedical applications.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxy-silane (APTMS) functionalized Gd2O3:Eu3+ red phosphor with enhanced quantum yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akhil; Hirata, G. A.; Farías, M. H.; Castillón, F. F.

    2016-02-01

    We report the surface modification of nanocrystalline Gd2O3:Eu3+ phosphor by (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS). The nanoparticles were first coated with silica using the Stöber process, and then annealed at 650 °C for 2 h. Afterwards, APTMS was functionalized onto the silica layer to obtain Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanoparticles bearing amine groups on the surface. The effect of silica coating, and the subsequent annealing process on the crystallization of the nanophosphor were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) confirmed the presence of a silica layer of ∼45 nm thickness. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of silica and the amine groups. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis demonstrated an increased emission after functionalization of nanoparticles. Absolute quantum yield (QY) measurements revealed an 18% enhancement in QY in functionalized nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles, which is of great importance for their biomedical applications.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxy-silane (APTMS) functionalized Gd2O3:Eu3+ red phosphor with enhanced quantum yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Akhil; Hirata, G A; Farías, M H; Castillón, F F

    2016-01-01

    We report the surface modification of nanocrystalline Gd 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphor by (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS). The nanoparticles were first coated with silica using the Stöber process, and then annealed at 650 °C for 2 h. Afterwards, APTMS was functionalized onto the silica layer to obtain Gd 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ nanoparticles bearing amine groups on the surface. The effect of silica coating, and the subsequent annealing process on the crystallization of the nanophosphor were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) confirmed the presence of a silica layer of ∼45 nm thickness. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of silica and the amine groups. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis demonstrated an increased emission after functionalization of nanoparticles. Absolute quantum yield (QY) measurements revealed an 18% enhancement in QY in functionalized nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles, which is of great importance for their biomedical applications. (paper)

  10. An error-related negativity potential investigation of response monitoring function in individuals with Internet addiction disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe eZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD is an impulse disorder or at least related to impulse control disorder. Deficits in executive functioning, including response monitoring, have been proposed as a hallmark feature of impulse control disorders. The error-related negativity (ERN reflects individual’s ability to monitor behavior. Since IAD belongs to a compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder, theoretically, it should present response monitoring functional deficit characteristics of some disorders, such as substance dependence, ADHD or alcohol abuse, testing with an Erikson flanker task. Up to now, no studies on response monitoring functional deficit in IAD were reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics in a modified Erikson flanker task.23 subjects were recruited as IAD group. 23 matched age, gender and education healthy persons were recruited as control group. All participants completed the modified Erikson flanker task while measured with event-related potentials (ERPs. IAD group made more total error rates than did controls (P < 0.01; Reactive times for total error responses in IAD group were shorter than did controls (P < 0.01. The mean ERN amplitudes of total error response conditions at frontal electrode sites and at central electrode sites of IAD group were reduced compared with control group (all P < 0.01. These results revealed that IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics and shares ERN characteristics of compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder.

  11. Multi-functional smart aggregate-based structural health monitoring of circular reinforced concrete columns subjected to seismic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Haichang; Song, Gangbing; Moslehy, Yashar; Mo, Y L; Sanders, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a recently developed multi-functional piezoceramic-based device, named the smart aggregate, is used for the health monitoring of concrete columns subjected to shake table excitations. Two circular reinforced concrete columns instrumented with smart aggregates were fabricated and tested with a recorded seismic excitation at the structural laboratory at the University of Nevada—Reno. In the tests, the smart aggregates were used to perform multiple monitoring functions that included dynamic seismic response detection, structural health monitoring and white noise response detection. In the proposed health monitoring approach, a damage index was developed on the basis of the comparison of the transfer function with the baseline function obtained in the healthy state. A sensor-history damage index matrix is developed to monitor the damage evolution process. Experimental results showed that the acceleration level can be evaluated from the amplitude of the dynamic seismic response; the damage statuses at different locations were evaluated using a damage index matrix; the first modal frequency obtained from the white noise response decreased with increase of the damage severity. The proposed multi-functional smart aggregates have great potential for use in the structural health monitoring of large-scale concrete structures

  12. Water Quality in the Upper Anacostia River, Maryland: Continuous and Discrete Monitoring with Simulations to Estimate Concentrations and Yields, 2003-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cherie V.; Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica L.; Feit Majedi, Brenda L.; Foster, Gregory D.

    2007-01-01

    concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen had lower values of multiple R2 than suspended sediment, but the estimated bias for all the models was similar. The models for total nitrogen and total phosphorus tended to under-predict high concentrations and to over-predict low concentrations as compared to measured values. Annual yields (loads per square area in kilograms per year per square kilometer) were estimated for suspended sediment, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus using the U.S. Geological Survey models ESTIMATOR and LOADEST. The model LOADEST used hourly time steps and allowed the use of turbidity, which is strongly correlated to concentrations of suspended sediment, as a predictor variable. Annual yields for total nitrogen and total phosphorus were slightly higher but similar to previous estimates for other watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay, but annual yields for suspended sediment were higher by an order of magnitude for the two Anacostia River stations. Annual yields of suspended sediment at the two Anacostia River stations ranged from 131,000 to 248,000 kilograms per year per square kilometer for 2004 and 2005. LOADEST estimates were similar to those determined with ESTIMATOR, but had reduced errors associated with the estimates.

  13. Development of alarm logics for critical function monitoring in SMART-P reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Seung Hwan; Hur, Seop; Seo, Jae Kwang; Lee, Tae Ho; Park, Cheon Tae; Kang, Han Ok

    2003-04-01

    The alarm logics for the critical functions of SMART-P reactor are developed, which are based on the those of Korean Standard Nuclear power Plant(KSNP). The SMART-P reactor is an integral typed nuclear power plant and has the some different design features compared to those of KSNP. It, however, has the similar features in critical functions because it is a kind of pressurized water reactor. The alarm logics for Critical Function Monitoring System(CFMS) in SMART-P are developed from those for CFMS in KSNP. The alarm logics of CFMS in only the primary loop are, therefore, developed, though the general CFMS covered the status of primary and secondary loop including the features of the containment. The specific setpoint of related variables related to the alarm logics will be developed after the specific designs of SMART-P are finished. In appendix, we describe the conceptual architecture and variables of display screens on CFMS according to the developed alarm logics.

  14. Shear Wave Elastography of the Spleen for Monitoring Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Function: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Zheng, Xiao; Zheng, Yuan-Yi; Zuo, Guo-Qing; Ran, Hai-Tao; Auh, Yong Ho; Waldron, Levi; Chan, Tiffany; Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-05-01

    To assess the feasibility of splenic shear wave elastography in monitoring transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) function. We measured splenic shear wave velocity (SWV), main portal vein velocity (PVV), and splenic vein velocity (SVV) in 33 patients 1 day before and 3 days to 12 months after TIPS placement. We also measured PVV, SVV, and SWV in 10 of 33 patients with TIPS dysfunction 1 day before and 3 to 6 days after TIPS revision. Analyses included differences in portosystemic pressure gradient (PPG), PVV, SVV, and mean SWV before and after TIPS procedures; comparison of median SWV before and after TIPS procedures; differences in PVV, SVV, and SWV before and at different times up to 12 months after TIPS placement; accuracy of PVV, SVV, and SWV in determining TIPS dysfunction; and correlation between PPG and SWV. During 12 months of follow-up, 23 of 33 patients had functioning TIPS, and 10 had TIPS dysfunction. The median SWV was significantly different before and after primary TIPS placement (3.60 versus 3.05 m/s; P = .005), as well as before and after revision (3.73 versus 3.06 m/s; P = .003). The PPG, PVV, and SVV were also significantly different before and after TIPS placement and revision (P function and determining TIPS dysfunction. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. [Evaluation and analysis of monitoring and early warning functions of the occupational disease reporting system in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojun; Li, Tao; Liu, Mengxuan

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the monitoring and early warning functions of the occupational disease reporting system right now in China, and to analyze their influencing factors. An improved audit tool (ODIT) was used to score the monitoring and early warning functions with a total score of 10. The nine indices were completeness of information on the reporting form, coverage of the reporting system, accessibility of criteria or guidelines for diagnosis, education and training for physicians, completeness of the reporting system, statistical methods, investigation of special cases, release of monitoring information, and release of early warning information. According to the evaluation, the occupational disease reporting system in China had a score of 5.5 in monitoring existing occupational diseases with a low score for release of monitoring information; the reporting system had a score of 6.5 in early warning of newly occurring occupational diseases with low scores for education and training for physicians as well as completeness of the reporting system. The occupational disease reporting system in China still does not have full function in monitoring and early warning. It is the education and participation of physicians from general hospitals in the diagnosis and treatment of occupational diseases and suspected occupational diseases that need to be enhanced. In addition, the problem of monitoring the incidence of occupational diseases needs to be solved as soon as possible.

  16. Decomposition yields of the functional groups in gamma-radiolysis of the potassium and N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine salts of benzylpenicillin in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziegielewski, J.O.

    1976-01-01

    The yields of particular groups in the potassium of benzylpenicillin and benzatine penicillin were determined by the NMR method. The total yields of groups are in agreement with the total radiation decomposition yields of the penicillin molecules, as determined by the spectrophotometric, polarimetric and iodometric methods. (author)

  17. Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

  18. Automatic monitoring of ecosystem structure and functions using integrated low-cost near surface sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.; Hwang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Near surface sensors are able to acquire more reliable and detailed information with higher temporal resolution than satellite observations. Conventional near surface sensors usually work individually, and thus they require considerable manpower from data collection through information extraction and sharing. Recent advances of Internet of Things (IoT) provides unprecedented opportunities to integrate various low-cost sensors as an intelligent near surface observation system for monitoring ecosystem structure and functions. In this study, we developed a Smart Surface Sensing System (4S), which can automatically collect, transfer, process and analyze data, and then publish time series results on public-available website. The system is composed of micro-computer Raspberry pi, micro-controller Arduino, multi-spectral spectrometers made from Light Emitting Diode (LED), visible and near infrared cameras, and Internet module. All components are connected with each other and Raspberry pi intelligently controls the automatic data production chain. We did intensive tests and calibrations in-lab. Then, we conducted in-situ observations at a rice paddy field and a deciduous broadleaf forest. During the whole growth season, 4S obtained landscape images, spectral reflectance in red, green, blue, and near infrared, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR), and leaf area index (LAI) continuously. Also We compared 4S data with other independent measurements. NDVI obtained from 4S agreed well with Jaz hyperspectrometer at both diurnal and seasonal scales (R2 = 0.92, RMSE = 0.059), and 4S derived fPAR and LAI were comparable to LAI-2200 and destructive measurements in both magnitude and seasonal trajectory. We believe that the integrated low-cost near surface sensor could help research community monitoring ecosystem structure and functions closer and easier through a network system.

  19. THE LANDSCAPE OF THE NEUTRINO MECHANISM OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE: NEUTRON STAR AND BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS, EXPLOSION ENERGIES, AND NICKEL YIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Thompson, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    If the neutrino luminosity from the proto-neutron star formed during a massive star core collapse exceeds a critical threshold, a supernova (SN) results. Using spherical quasi-static evolutionary sequences for hundreds of progenitors over a range of metallicities, we study how the explosion threshold maps onto observables, including the fraction of successful explosions, the neutron star (NS) and black hole (BH) mass functions, the explosion energies (E SN ) and nickel yields (M Ni ), and their mutual correlations. Successful explosions are intertwined with failures in a complex pattern that is not simply related to initial progenitor mass or compactness. We predict that progenitors with initial masses of 15 ± 1, 19 ± 1, and ∼21-26 M ☉ are most likely to form BHs, that the BH formation probability is non-zero at solar-metallicity and increases significantly at low metallicity, and that low luminosity, low Ni-yield SNe come from progenitors close to success/failure interfaces. We qualitatively reproduce the observed E SN -M Ni correlation, we predict a correlation between the mean and width of the NS mass and E SN distributions, and that the means of the NS and BH mass distributions are correlated. We show that the observed mean NS mass of ≅ 1.33 M ☉ implies that the successful explosion fraction is higher than 0.35. Overall, we show that the neutrino mechanism can in principle explain the observed properties of SNe and their compact objects. We argue that the rugged landscape of progenitors and outcomes mandates that SN theory should focus on reproducing the wide ranging distributions of observed SN properties

  20. Reaction F + C2H4: Rate Constant and Yields of the Reaction Products as a Function of Temperature over 298-950 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedjanian, Yuri

    2018-03-29

    The kinetics and products of the reaction of F + C 2 H 4 have been studied in a discharge flow reactor combined with an electron impact ionization mass spectrometer at nearly 2 Torr total pressure of helium in the temperature range 298-950 K. The total rate constant of the reaction, k 1 = (1.78 ± 0.30) × 10 -10 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , determined under pseudo-first-order conditions, monitoring the kinetics of F atom consumption in excess of C 2 H 4 , was found to be temperature independent in the temperature range used. H, C 2 H 3 F, and HF were identified as the reaction products. Absolute measurements of the yields of these species allowed to determine the branching ratios, k 1b / k 1 = (0.73 ± 0.07) exp(-(425 ± 45)/ T) and k 1a / k 1 = 1 - (0.73 ± 0.07) exp(-(425 ± 45)/ T) and partial rate constants for addition-elimination (H + C 2 H 3 F) and H atom abstraction (HF + C 2 H 3 ) pathways of the title reaction: k 1a = (0.80 ± 0.07) × 10 -10 exp(189 ± 37/ T) and k 1b = (1.26 ± 0.13) × 10 -10 exp(-414 ± 45/ T) cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , respectively, at T = 298-950 K and with 2σ quoted uncertainties. The overall reaction rate constant can be adequately described by both the temperature independent value and as a sum of k 1a and k 1b . The kinetic and mechanistic data from the present study are discussed in comparison with previous absolute and relative measurements and theoretical calculations.

  1. Magnetic induction pneumography: a planar coil system for continuous monitoring of lung function via contactless measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doga Gursoy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of lung function is of particular interest to the mechanically ventilated patients during critical care. Recent studies have shown that magnetic induction measurements with single coils provide signals which are correlated with the lung dynamics and this idea is extended here by using a 5 by 5 planar coil matrix for data acquisition in order to image the regional thoracic conductivity changes. The coil matrix can easily be mounted onto the patient bed, and thus, the problems faced in methods that use contacting sensors can readily be eliminated and the patient comfort can be improved. In the proposed technique, the data are acquired by successively exciting each coil in order to induce an eddy-current density within the dorsal tissues and measuring the corresponding response magnetic field strength by the remaining coils. The recorded set of data is then used to reconstruct the internal conductivity distribution by means of algorithms that minimize the residual norm between the estimated and measured data. To investigate the feasibility of the technique, the sensitivity maps and the point spread functions at different locations and depths were studied. To simulate a realistic scenario, a chest model was generated by segmenting the tissue boundaries from NMR images. The reconstructions of the ventilation distribution and the development of an edematous lung injury were presented. The imaging artifacts caused by either the incorrect positioning of the patient or the expansion of the chest wall due to breathing were illustrated by simulations.

  2. LAND COVER CHANGE MONITORING OF TYPICAL FUNCTIONAL COMMUNITIES OF SICHUAN PROVINCE BASED ON ZY-3 DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the function, land space types are divided into key development areas, restricted development areas and forbidden development areas in Sichuan Province. This paper monitors and analyses the changes of land cover in different typical functional areas from 2010 to 2017, which based on ZY-3 high-score images data and combined with statistical yearbook and thematic data of Sichuan Province. The results show that: The land cover types of typical key development zones are mainly composed of cultivated land, forest land, garden land, and housing construction land, which accounts for the total area of land cover 87 %. The land cover types of typical restricted development zone mainly consists of forest land and grassland, which occupy 97.71 % of the total area of the surface coverage. The land cover types of the typical prohibition development zone mainly consist of forest land, grassland, desert and bared earth, which accounts for the total area of land cover 99.31 %.

  3. Multi-functional surface acoustic wave sensor for monitoring enviromental and structural condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Y.; Kon, T.; Okazaki, T.; Saigusa, Y.; Nomura, T.

    2006-03-01

    As a first step to develop a health monitoring system with active and embedded nondestructive evaluation devices for the machineries and structures, multi-functional SAW (surface acoustic wave) device was developed. A piezoelectric LiNbO3(x-y cut) materials were used as a SAW substrate on which IDT(20μm pitch) was produced by lithography. On the surface of a path of SAW between IDTs, environmentally active material films of shape memory Ti50Ni41Cu(at%) with non-linear hysteresis and superelastic Ti48Ni43Cu(at%) with linear deformation behavior were formed by magnetron-sputtering technique. In this study, these two kinds of shape memory alloys SMA) system were used to measure 1) loading level, 2) phase transformation and 3)stress-strain hysteresis under cyclic loading by utilizing their linearity and non-linearity deformation behaviors. Temperature and stress dependencies of SAW signal were also investigated in the non-sputtered film state. Signal amplitude and phase change of SAW were chosen to measure as the sensing parameters. As a result, temperature, stress level, phase transformation in SMA depending on temperature and mechanical damage accumulation could be measured by the proposed multi-functional SAW sensor. Moreover, the wireless SAW sensing system which has a unique feature of no supplying electric battery was constructed, and the same characteristic evaluation is confirmed in comparison with wired case.

  4. Flow and suspended sediment yield monitoring of the Apennines' watershed of the Sillaro stream (Prov. BO). 1998 Data analysis; Monitoraggio del deflusso liquido e solido del tratto appenninico del T. Sillaro. Analisi dei dati del 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavanelli, D.; Taglioli, G. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Economia e Ingegneria Agrarie; Sarti, A.

    2000-07-01

    The accurate assessment of surface water erosion in watershed is aided by the indications provided by the yield of fluvial solids and in particular by suspended sediment yield. Confining itself to a research study of hydrological and erosion phenomena present at the mountain watershed of the Sillaro Torrent, a monitoring station of water flow and sediment yield was set up at the enclosed end of the mountain basin. This paper contains the presentation and evaluation of the statistics revealed during the course of 1998. The fluctuation of sediment yield appears to be connected to the variation of water flow, the annual soil loss has been assessed at 54446 t, equal to an average soil loss over the entire basin of 0.26 mm. [Italian] La stima diretta dell'erosione idrica superficiale a scala di bacino idrografico puo' avvalersi delle indicazioni fornite dal trasporto solido fluviale, ed in particolare dal trasporto in sospensione. Nell'ambito di una ricerca volta allo studio dei fenomeni idrologici ed erosivi a carico del bacino montano del T. Sillaro (prov. BO), e' stata realizzata, presso la sezione di chiusa del bacino, una stazione di misura per il monitoraggio dei deflussi liquidi e della torbida. Nella presente nota viene fornita la descrizione e la valutazione dei dati rilevati nel corso del 1998. Le fluttuazioni dei valori di trasporto torbido appaiono legate alle variazioni di portata, mentre il deflusso torbido annuo per il 1998 e' stato valutato in 54.446, pari ad una perdita annua media di suolo sull'intero bacino di 0.26 mm.

  5. Validation of two inventories for the diagnosis and monitoring of functional memory disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Klaus; Metternich, Birgitta

    2009-09-01

    Functional memory disorder (FMD) is an acquired nonorganic condition characterized by significant deficits of memory and concentration that occur in daily living and are thought to be caused by psychosocial burden and distress. FMD is an important differential diagnosis to organic mild cognitive impairment. Although frequent, FMD is under-researched and mostly diagnosed by exclusion rather than by positive diagnostic criteria. Diagnosis can be difficult in patients with borderline cognitive test results. To aid in the clinical diagnosis and monitoring of FMD, a short 10-item FMD questionnaire and a 22-item FMD rating scale were developed. They asses a range of memory complaints thought to be indicative of FMD. Each of the two inventories was applied and evaluated in a separate study involving FMD patients and control groups. In one study, the natural course of FMD was observed. In the other study, the effect of a therapeutic intervention was assessed. Here, we present the full text of the two FMD inventories and data on test quality characteristics. Internal consistency and split-half-reliability indices were excellent throughout. At suitable cutoffs, both versions discriminated FMD patients from control subjects with high accuracy. Both also demonstrated discriminant construct validity. Moreover, the long version demonstrated high test-retest reliability and convergent construct validity and proved to be sensitive to change. The short version of the FMD inventory is a helpful tool in the clinical diagnosis of FMD. The longer version is suitable for monitoring of FMD severity in the context of therapeutic interventions and observational studies. To determine whether the inventories can discriminate FMD from organic mild cognitive impairment, further studies are required.

  6. The yield of adequate and conclusive fine-needle aspiration results in thyroid nodules is uniform across functional and goiter types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liel, Y

    1999-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the cytological characteristics of hyperfunctioning (hot) thyroid nodules. Concern has been expressed that fine-needle aspiration (FNA) identifies hot nodules as follicular tumors or indeterminate, and as a consequence patients could be unnecessarily referred for surgery. Between 1979 and 1996, thyroid FNA was performed on 829 patients. Result of thyroid scan was available in 326; 69 (21%) patients had hot, and 257 (79%) had warm or cold thyroid nodules. Nodules in each of these major groups were divided into 2 subgroups: clinically solitary nodules and dominant nodules in multinodular goiters (MNG). The frequencies of adequate versus inadequate FNA samples, and of conclusive versus indeterminate FNA results were determined separately for each of the groups and subgroups. In addition, patients with hot nodules and overt hyperthyroidism were identified and evaluated separately. Bivariate analyses were performed for the frequency of adequate versus inadequate smears and conclusive versus indeterminate results between hot, toxic, and cold-warm nodules, and between solitary nodules and MNG. The frequency of adequate aspirations and conclusive results in the various groups and subgroups was found to be statistically indistinguishable. In conclusion, the yield of adequate samples and the rate of conclusive results of FNA in thyroid nodules is similar, irrespective of the functional state or of goiter presentation. Hot thyroid nodules do not seem to produce an increase in the rate of inadequate or indeterminate FNA results, and therefore, do not affect the overall performance of thyroid FNA.

  7. Monitoring of Renal Allograft Function with Different Equations: What are the Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushljetikj Irena Rambabova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of graft function by creatinine concentrations in serum and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR is recommended after kidney transplantation. KDIGO recommendations on the treatment of transplant patients advocate usage of one of the existing mathematical equations based on serum creatinine. We compared clinical application of three equations based on serum creatinine in monitoring the function of transplanted kidney. Methods. A total number of 55 adult patients who received their first renal allograft from living donors at our transplant center in between 2011-2014 were included into the study. Renal allograft GFR was estimated by the Cockroft-Gault, Nankivell and MDRD formula, and correlated with clinical parameters of donors and recipients. Results. The mean age of recipients was 35.7±9.5 (range 16-58, and the mean age of donors was 55.5±9.0 (34- 77 years. Out of this group of 55 transplant patients, 50(90.91% were on hemodialysis (HD prior to transplantation. HD treatment was shorter than 24 months in 37(74% transplant patients. The calculated GFR with MDRD equation showed the highest mean value at 6 and 12 months (68.46±21.5; 68.39±24.6, respectively and the lowest at 48 months (42.79±12.9. According to the Cockroft&Gault equation GFR was the highest at 12 months (88.91±24.9 and the lowest at 48 months (66.53±18.1 ml/min. The highest mean level (80.53±17.7 of the calculated GFR with the Nankivell equation was obtained at 12 months and the lowest (67.81±16.7 ml/min at 48 months. The values of Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the calculated GFR and the MDRD at 2 years after transplantation according to donor’s age of r=-0.3224, correlation between GFR and the Cockfroft & Gault at 6 and 12 months and donor’s age (r=-0.2735 and r=-0.2818, and correlation between GFR and the Nankivell at 2 years and donor’s age of r=-0.2681, suggested a conclusion that calculated GFR was lower in recipients

  8. Simulation of fruit-set and trophic competition and optimization of yield advantages in six Capsicum cultivars using functional-structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y T; Wubs, A M; Mathieu, A; Heuvelink, E; Zhu, J Y; Hu, B G; Cournède, P H; de Reffye, P

    2011-04-01

    Many indeterminate plants can have wide fluctuations in the pattern of fruit-set and harvest. Fruit-set in these types of plants depends largely on the balance between source (assimilate supply) and sink strength (assimilate demand) within the plant. This study aims to evaluate the ability of functional-structural plant models to simulate different fruit-set patterns among Capsicum cultivars through source-sink relationships. A greenhouse experiment of six Capsicum cultivars characterized with different fruit weight and fruit-set was conducted. Fruit-set patterns and potential fruit sink strength were determined through measurement. Source and sink strength of other organs were determined via the GREENLAB model, with a description of plant organ weight and dimensions according to plant topological structure established from the measured data as inputs. Parameter optimization was determined using a generalized least squares method for the entire growth cycle. Fruit sink strength differed among cultivars. Vegetative sink strength was generally lower for large-fruited cultivars than for small-fruited ones. The larger the size of the fruit, the larger variation there was in fruit-set and fruit yield. Large-fruited cultivars need a higher source-sink ratio for fruit-set, which means higher demand for assimilates. Temporal heterogeneity of fruit-set affected both number and yield of fruit. The simulation study showed that reducing heterogeneity of fruit-set was obtained by different approaches: for example, increasing source strength; decreasing vegetative sink strength, source-sink ratio for fruit-set and flower appearance rate; and harvesting individual fruits earlier before full ripeness. Simulation results showed that, when we increased source strength or decreased vegetative sink strength, fruit-set and fruit weight increased. However, no significant differences were found between large-fruited and small-fruited groups of cultivars regarding the effects of source

  9. Diagnosis of digestive functional disease by the statistics of continuous monitoring of esophageal acidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Landa, Rogelio; Cardenas Cardenas, Eduardo; Fossion, Ruben; Pérez Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2014-11-01

    Technological advances in the last few decennia allow the monitoring of many physiological observables in a continuous way, which in physics is called a "time series". The best studied physiological time series is that of the heart rhythm, which can be derived from an electrocardiogram (ECG). Studies have shown that a healthy heart is characterized by a complex time series and high heart rate variability (HRV). In adverse conditions, the cardiac time series degenerates towards randomness (as seen in, e.g., fibrillation) or rigidity (as seen in, e.g., ageing), both corresponding to a loss of HRV as described by, e.g., Golberger et. al [1]. Cardiac and digestive rhythms are regulated by the autonomous nervous system (ANS), that consists of two antagonistic branches, the orthosympathetic branch (ONS) that accelerates the cardiac rhythm but decelerates the digestive system, and the parasympathetic brand (PNS) that works in the opposite way. Because of this reason, one might expect that the statistics of gastro-esophageal time series, as described by Gardner et. al. [2,3], reflects the health state of the digestive system in a similar way as HRV in the cardiac case, described by Minocha et. al. In the present project, we apply statistical methods derived from HRV analysis to time series of esophageal acidity (24h pHmetry). The study is realized on data from a large patient population from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán. Our focus is on patients with functional disease (symptoms but no anatomical damage). We find that traditional statistical approaches (e.g. Fourier spectral analysis) are unable to distinguish between different degenerations of the digestive system, such as gastric esophageal reflux disease (GERD) or functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID).

  10. The investigation of specific biochemical markers in monitoring kidney function of drug addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorowski, Jacek; Marchewka, Zofia; Łapiński, Łukasz; Szymańska, Beata; Głowacka, Krystyna; Knysz, Brygida; Długosz, Anna; Wiela-Hojeńska, Anna

    2013-12-05

    An increasingly important issue in the Polish population is drug abuse. It leads to extensive damage of parenchymal organs, including kidney. Establishing early markers of organ damage and their monitoring during rehabilitation therapy is therefore of pivotal importance. This study evaluated the utility of highly specific and selective markers (NGAL, IL-18, a and π-GST isoenzyme, and ß2-M). The influence of opioid drugs and other factors on kidney function (HIV and HCV infections, duration and the kind of drugs abused) was determined. Urine collected from 83 subjects who abused drugs and 33 healthy volunteers was tested with ELISA using specific antibodies (IBL, Biotron, Bioporto-Diagnostics). HIV infection was confirmed with western-blotting and HCV with PCR. CD4 lymphocytes were quantified with flow cytometry. RFLP and PCR were used to determine the viral load of HIV and HCV (genotype). A significant increase of IL-18, NGAL and β2M activity in heroin addicts compared to the control group was noted as well as the influence of HIV infection on NGAL and β2M excretion. A statistically significant (p=0.04) correlation between the viral load and IL-18 concentration was noted while no significant influence of the duration and the kind of drugs abused, the route of intake or the age of addicts was seen. Only the NGAL concentration was sex dependent and significantly higher in women. This study showed the specific, clinical utility of IL-18, NGAL, and β2M in the evaluation of renal function in drug addicts. Early detection of nephropathy with biochemical indicators might help prevent severe conditions that require hospitalization and intensive care.

  11. Fluorescent blood glucose monitor by hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots based sensing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yuezhen; Wang, Xiaoxun; Sun, Jian; Jiao, Shoufeng; Chen, Hongqi; Gao, Feng; Wang, Lun, E-mail: wanglun@mail.ahnu.edu.cn

    2014-01-31

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Hemin is assembled onto the surfaces of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). •With the aid of hemin, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} could quench the FL signal of GQDs obviously. •Based on this effect, a fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of glucose. •The proposed method provides a new pathway to explore practical application of GQDs. -- Abstract: In the present work, a highly sensitive and specific fluorescent biosensor for blood glucose monitoring is developed based on hemin-functionalized graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and glucose oxidase (GOx) system. The GQDs which are simply prepared by pyrolyzing citric acid exhibit strong fluorescence and good water-solubility. Due to the noncovalent assembly between hemin and GQDs, the addition of hemin can make hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) to destroy the passivated surface of GQDs, leading to significant fluorescence quenching of GQDs. Based on this effect, a novel fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of glucose. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of glucose is from 9 to 300 μM, and the limit of detection is 0.1 μM. As unique properties of GQDs, the proposed biosensor is green, simple, cost-efficient, and it is successfully applied to the determination of glucose in human serum. In addition, the proposed method provides a new pathway to further design the biosensors based on the assembly of GQDs with hemin for detection of biomolecules.

  12. Functional Segregation within the Muscles of Aquatic Propulsion in the Asiatic Water Monitor (Varanus salvator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Arthur Young

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water monitor lizards (Varanus salvator swim using sinusoidal oscillations generated at the base of their long (50% of total body length tail. In an effort to determine which level of the structural/organizational hierarchy of muscle is associated with functional segregation between the muscles of the tail base, an array of muscle features — myosin heavy chain profiles, enzymatic fiber types, twitch and tetanic force production, rates of fatigue, muscle compliance, and electrical activity patterns — were quantitated. The two examined axial muscles, longissimus and iliocaudalis, were generally similar at the molecular, biochemical, and physiological levels, but differed at the biomechanics level and in their activation pattern. The appendicular muscle examined, caudofemoralis, differed from the axial muscles particularly at the molecular and physiological levels, and it exhibited a unique compliance profile and pattern of electrical activation. There were some apparent contradictions between the different structural/organizational levels examined. These contradictions, coupled with a unique myosin heavy chain profile, lead to the hypothesis that there are previously un-described molecular/biochemical specializations within varanid skeletal muscles.

  13. Crosslinked basement membrane-based coatings enhance glucose sensor function and continuous glucose monitoring in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, Ulrike; Ludzinska, Izabela; Czajkowski, Caroline; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L

    2018-01-01

    Overcoming sensor-induced tissue reactions is an essential element of achieving successful continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the management of diabetes, particularly when used in closed loop technology. Recently, we demonstrated that basement membrane (BM)-based glucose sensor coatings significantly reduced tissue reactions at sites of device implantation. However, the biocompatible BM-based biohydrogel sensor coating rapidly degraded over a less than a 3-week period, which effectively eliminated the protective sensor coating. In an effort to increase the stability and effectiveness of the BM coating, we evaluated the impact of crosslinking BM utilizing glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent, designated as X-Cultrex. Sensor performance (nonrecalibrated) was evaluated for the impact of these X-Cultrex coatings in vitro and in vivo. Sensor performance was assessed over a 28-day time period in a murine CGM model and expressed as mean absolute relative difference (MARD) values. Tissue reactivity of Cultrex-coated, X-Cultrex-coated, and uncoated glucose sensors was evaluated over a 28-day time period in vivo using standard histological techniques. These studies demonstrated that X-Cultrex-based sensor coatings had no effect on glucose sensor function in vitro. In vivo, glucose sensor performance was significantly enhanced following X-Cultrex coating throughout the 28-day study. Histological evaluations of X-Cultrex-treated sensors demonstrated significantly less tissue reactivity when compared to uncoated sensors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 7-16, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Patient experiences with self-monitoring renal function after renal transplantation: results from a single-center prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lint, Céline L; van der Boog, Paul Jm; Wang, Wenxin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Rövekamp, Ton Jm; Neerincx, Mark A; Rabelink, Ton J; van Dijk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    After a kidney transplantation, patients have to visit the hospital often to monitor for early signs of graft rejection. Self-monitoring of creatinine in addition to blood pressure at home could alleviate the burden of frequent outpatient visits, but only if patients are willing to self-monitor and if they adhere to the self-monitoring measurement regimen. A prospective pilot study was conducted to assess patients' experiences and satisfaction. For 3 months after transplantation, 30 patients registered self-measured creatinine and blood pressure values in an online record to which their physician had access to. Patients completed a questionnaire at baseline and follow-up to assess satisfaction, attitude, self-efficacy regarding self-monitoring, worries, and physician support. Adherence was studied by comparing the number of registered with the number of requested measurements. Patients were highly motivated to self-monitor kidney function, and reported high levels of general satisfaction. Level of satisfaction was positively related to perceived support from physicians (Pself-efficacy (Pmonitoring of creatinine and blood pressure after transplantation offers a promising strategy. Important prerequisites for safe implementation in transplant care seem to be support from physicians and patients' confidence in both their own self-monitoring skills and the accuracy of the devices used.

  15. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  16. Self-Monitoring Checklists for Inquiry Problem-Solving: Functional Problem-Solving Methods for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bridget; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Three students with mild to moderate intellectual and multiple disability, enrolled in a self-contained functional curriculum class were taught to use a self-monitoring checklist and science notebook to increase independence in inquiry problem-solving skills. Using a single-subject multiple-probe design, all students acquired inquiry…

  17. Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in Tunisian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimane, Naceur; Haffar, M.A.; Chetoui, C.; Bahri, M.

    2005-01-01

    Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in tunisian and pregnancy in tunisian cattle Results saved during field application in four Tunisian farms from 924 dairy cows. A total of 2830 milk samples were collected from these cows at 3 fixed intervals to evaluate the level of Progesterone: at Artificial Insemination (AI) time (1034), 12th day (948) and at 22nd to 24th days after AI (848). Progesterone concentrations in samples done at AI moment (n=1034) revealed that 10.1% of cows was inseminated at improper moment (progesterone level higher or equal to 1nmol/l). In the second category (samples collected 12 days after AI, n=948), allowed distinguishing between two different situations: (1)- Cycling cows: progesterone concentration was higher or equal to 3nmol/l (69.4%). (2)- Non cycling cows: progesterone level was strictly lower than 3nmol/l (30.6%). The aim of progesterone assay of samples collected in the third category (22 to 24 days after AI) is to establish the Early Non Pregnancy Diagnosis (ENPD). Recorded data allow distinguishing: (1)- Non pregnant females: progesterone concentration is strictly less than 2nmol/l. The confirmation of this situation was carried out by rectal palpation. The gathered information indicated that ENPD accuracy is equal to 96.6%. (2)- Pregnant females: progesterone level is to be higher than or equal to 3.5nmol/l. The ENPD accuracy is 73.3% after confirmation using rectal palpation. (3)- Doubtful females: progesterone concentration is to be between (2 and 3.5nmol/l). Fertility and fecundity criteria were determined by using AIDA software, the analysis considered some variation factors such as cow parity, body score condition, number of services, inseminator, and milk production

  18. FibroChip, a Functional DNA Microarray to Monitor Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Activities of Rumen Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Comtet-Marre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants fulfill their energy needs for growth primarily through microbial breakdown of plant biomass in the rumen. Several biotic and abiotic factors influence the efficiency of fiber degradation, which can ultimately impact animal productivity and health. To provide more insight into mechanisms involved in the modulation of fibrolytic activity, a functional DNA microarray targeting genes encoding key enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation by rumen microbiota was designed. Eight carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme families (GH5, GH9, GH10, GH11, GH43, GH48, CE1, and CE6 were selected which represented 392 genes from bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. The DNA microarray, designated as FibroChip, was validated using targets of increasing complexity and demonstrated sensitivity and specificity. In addition, FibroChip was evaluated for its explorative and semi-quantitative potential. Differential expression of CAZyme genes was evidenced in the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 grown on wheat straw or cellobiose. FibroChip was used to identify the expressed CAZyme genes from the targeted families in the rumen of a cow fed a mixed diet based on grass silage. Among expressed genes, those encoding GH43, GH5, and GH10 families were the most represented. Most of the F. succinogenes genes detected by the FibroChip were also detected following RNA-seq analysis of RNA transcripts obtained from the rumen fluid sample. Use of the FibroChip also indicated that transcripts of fiber degrading enzymes derived from eukaryotes (protozoa and anaerobic fungi represented a significant proportion of the total microbial mRNA pool. FibroChip represents a reliable and high-throughput tool that enables researchers to monitor active members of fiber degradation in the rumen.

  19. FibroChip, a Functional DNA Microarray to Monitor Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Activities of Rumen Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtet-Marre, Sophie; Chaucheyras-Durand, Frédérique; Bouzid, Ourdia; Mosoni, Pascale; Bayat, Ali R; Peyret, Pierre; Forano, Evelyne

    2018-01-01

    Ruminants fulfill their energy needs for growth primarily through microbial breakdown of plant biomass in the rumen. Several biotic and abiotic factors influence the efficiency of fiber degradation, which can ultimately impact animal productivity and health. To provide more insight into mechanisms involved in the modulation of fibrolytic activity, a functional DNA microarray targeting genes encoding key enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation by rumen microbiota was designed. Eight carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) families (GH5, GH9, GH10, GH11, GH43, GH48, CE1, and CE6) were selected which represented 392 genes from bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. The DNA microarray, designated as FibroChip, was validated using targets of increasing complexity and demonstrated sensitivity and specificity. In addition, FibroChip was evaluated for its explorative and semi-quantitative potential. Differential expression of CAZyme genes was evidenced in the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 grown on wheat straw or cellobiose. FibroChip was used to identify the expressed CAZyme genes from the targeted families in the rumen of a cow fed a mixed diet based on grass silage. Among expressed genes, those encoding GH43, GH5, and GH10 families were the most represented. Most of the F. succinogenes genes detected by the FibroChip were also detected following RNA-seq analysis of RNA transcripts obtained from the rumen fluid sample. Use of the FibroChip also indicated that transcripts of fiber degrading enzymes derived from eukaryotes (protozoa and anaerobic fungi) represented a significant proportion of the total microbial mRNA pool. FibroChip represents a reliable and high-throughput tool that enables researchers to monitor active members of fiber degradation in the rumen.

  20. User-centered development and testing of a monitoring system that provides feedback regarding physical functioning to elderly people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Joan; Neyens, Jacques CL; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; van Rossum, Erik; Sipers, Walther; Habets, Herbert; Hewson, David J; de Witte, Luc P

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To involve elderly people during the development of a mobile interface of a monitoring system that provides feedback to them regarding changes in physical functioning and to test the system in a pilot study. Methods and participants The iterative user-centered development process consisted of the following phases: (1) selection of user representatives; (2) analysis of users and their context; (3) identification of user requirements; (4) development of the interface; and (5) evaluation of the interface in the lab. Subsequently, the monitoring and feedback system was tested in a pilot study by five patients who were recruited via a geriatric outpatient clinic. Participants used a bathroom scale to monitor weight and balance, and a mobile phone to monitor physical activity on a daily basis for six weeks. Personalized feedback was provided via the interface of the mobile phone. Usability was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 7 using a modified version of the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ); higher scores indicated better usability. Interviews were conducted to gain insight into the experiences of the participants with the system. Results The developed interface uses colors, emoticons, and written and/or spoken text messages to provide daily feedback regarding (changes in) weight, balance, and physical activity. The participants rated the usability of the monitoring and feedback system with a mean score of 5.2 (standard deviation 0.90) on the modified PSSUQ. The interviews revealed that most participants liked using the system and appreciated that it signaled changes in their physical functioning. However, usability was negatively influenced by a few technical errors. Conclusion Involvement of elderly users during the development process resulted in an interface with good usability. However, the technical functioning of the monitoring system needs to be optimized before it can be used to support elderly people in their self-management. PMID

  1. Automated system of monitoring and positioning of functional units of mining technological machines for coal-mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshcheryakov Yaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is show to the development of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional nodes of mining technological machines. It describes the structure, element base, algorithms for identifying the operating states of a walking excavator; various types of errors in the functioning of microelectromechanical gyroscopes and accelerometers, as well as methods for their correction based on the Madgwick fusion filter. The results of industrial tests of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional units on one of the opencast coal mines of Kuzbass are presented. This work is addressed to specialists working in the fields of the development of embedded systems and control systems, radio electronics, mechatronics, and robotics.

  2. Beyond Self-Monitoring: Understanding Non-functional Aspects of Home-based Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2013-01-01

    the appropriation of healthcare technologies and people with comorbidity may have diverse but co-existing monitoring needs. In this paper, we seek to understand home-based health monitoring practices to better design and integrate them into people’s everyday life. We perform an analysis of socio......-technical complexities in home-based healthcare technologies through three case studies of self-monitoring: 1) pre-eclampsia (i.e. pregnancy poisoning), 2) heart conditions, and 3) preventive care. Through the analysis seven themes emerged (people, resources, places, routines, knowledge, control and motivation) that can...... facilitate the understanding of home-based healthcare activities. We present three modes of self-monitoring use and provide a set of design recommendations for future Ubicomp designs of home-based healthcare technology....

  3. Monitoring, metacognition, and executive function: elucidating the role of self-reflection in the development of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kristen E; Zelazo, Philip David

    2011-01-01

    While an abundance of research has investigated the development of the automatic and controlled processes through which individuals control their thoughts, emotions, and actions, less research has emphasized the role of the self in self-regulation. This chapter synthesizes four literatures that have examined the mechanisms through which the individual acts in a managerial role, evaluating the current status of the system and initiating regulatory actions as necessary. Taken together, these literatures (on executive function, error monitoring, metacognition, and uncertainty monitoring) suggest that self-reflection plays a critical role in self-regulation, and that developmental improvements in self-reflection (via increasing levels of conscious awareness and enhanced calibration of monitoring systems) may serve as driving forces underlying developmental improvement (and temperamental individual differences) in children's ability to control their thoughts and actions.

  4. Water quality in the Anacostia River, Maryland and Rock Creek, Washington, D.C.: Continuous and discrete monitoring with simulations to estimate concentrations and yields of nutrients, suspended sediment, and bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cherie V.; Chanat, Jeffrey G.; Bell, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and loading estimates for nutrients, suspended sediment, and E. coli bacteria were summarized for three water-quality monitoring stations on the Anacostia River in Maryland and one station on Rock Creek in Washington, D.C. Both streams are tributaries to the Potomac River in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area and contribute to the Chesapeake Bay estuary. Two stations on the Anacostia River, Northeast Branch at Riverdale, Maryland and Northwest Branch near Hyattsville, Maryland, have been monitored for water quality during the study period from 2003 to 2011 and are located near the shift from nontidal to tidal conditions near Bladensburg, Maryland. A station on Paint Branch is nested above the station on the Northeast Branch Anacostia River, and has slightly less developed land cover than the Northeast and Northwest Branch stations. The Rock Creek station is located in Rock Creek Park, but the land cover in the watershed surrounding the park is urbanized. Stepwise log-linear regression models were developed to estimate the concentrations of suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and E. coli bacteria from continuous field monitors. Turbidity was the strongest predictor variable for all water-quality parameters. For bacteria, water temperature improved the models enough to be included as a second predictor variable due to the strong dependence of stream metabolism on temperature. Coefficients of determination (R2) for the models were highest for log concentrations of suspended sediment (0.9) and total phosphorus (0.8 to 0.9), followed by E. coli bacteria (0.75 to 0.8), and total nitrogen (0.6). Water-quality data provided baselines for conditions prior to accelerated implementation of multiple stormwater controls in the watersheds. Counties are currently in the process of enhancing stormwater controls in both watersheds. Annual yields were estimated for suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and E. coli bacteria using

  5. Cutaneous Respirometry as Novel Technique to Monitor Mitochondrial Function: A Feasibility Study in Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolker, Robert Jan; Mik, Egbert

    2016-01-01

    Background The protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique (PpIX-TSLT) is proposed as a potential clinical non-invasive tool to monitor mitochondrial function. This technique has been evaluated in several animal studies. Mitochondrial respirometry allows measurement in vivo of mitochondrial oxygen tension (mitoPO2) and mitochondrial oxygen consumption (mitoVO2) in skin. This study describes the first use of a clinical prototype in skin of humans. Methods The clinical prototype was tested in 30 healthy volunteers. A self-adhesive patch containing 2 mg 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was applied on the skin of the anterior chest wall (sternal) for induction of mitochondrial protoporphyrin IX and was protected from light for 5 h. MitoPO2 was measured by means of oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX. MitoVO2 was determined by dynamic mitoPO2 measurements on the primed skin, while locally blocking oxygen supply by applying local pressure with the measurement probe. MitoPO2 was recorded before and during a 60-s period of compression of the microcirculation, at an interval of 1 Hz. Oxygen consumption (i.e. the local oxygen disappearance rate) was calculated from the decay of the mitoPO2 slope. Results Oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence measurements were successfully performed in the skin of 27 volunteers. The average value (± SD) of mitoPO2 was 44 ± 17 mmHg and mean mitoVO2 values were 5.8 ± 2.3 and 6.1 ± 1.6 mmHg s-1 at a skin temperature of 34°C and 40°C, respectively. No major discomfort during measurement and no long-term dermatological abnormalities were reported in a survey performed 1 month after measurements. Conclusion These results show that the clinical prototype allows measurement of mitochondrial oxygenation and oxygen consumption in humans. The development of this clinically applicable device offers opportunities for further evaluation of the technique in humans and the start of first clinical studies. PMID:27455073

  6. Study on Developing a System with IP Functionality to Monitor the Status of Containers in Maritime Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hoon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing demand from consignors and shipping companies for real-time monitoring of maritime cargo due to increases in fresh, dangerous, and high-value cargo. Although larger carriers have developed and integrated their own systems for such real-time monitoring services, small- and medium-sized shippers are struggling with the heavy costs and workforce associated with such capability. This study introduces a system that can do real-time monitoring of the location of shipping containers and their internal status by using IP-RFID that in cludes IP functionality. This system is composed of a tag, a smart point, and a service platform.  The monitoring tags are attached to regular containers to track the opening and closing of the doors, the internal temperature, and humidity. The tags then send the data to the smart point where the GPS information is added. The data packet is then finally transmitted to the service platform for location tracking.  In particular, as the tags in this system have IP functionality like Multicast, they are capable of communicating with the users and also allow users to control them. In order to provide such functionality, the smart points can serve as a gateway between the service platform and the tag. By managing the tag’s connection information and the status of transmission at the smart point, the service platform can directly communicate with tags connected to the respective smart point. This technology could be applied in a diverse range of maritime and non-maritime areas including warehouse management. As for maritime logistics, it also often goes through ground, port, and air transportation phases. Further studies should monitor the actual performance of this equipment across the various phases of maritime logistics to empirically test the systems proposed herein.

  7. Monitoring of right ventricular function by single probe system (nuclear stethoscope) and sup(81m)Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Ohmine, Hiromi; Kimura, Motomasa [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1982-12-01

    A single probe system (nuclear stethoscope) was developed to evaluate the monitoring of right ventricular function by sup(81m)Kr continuous infusion method. Optimal right ventricular and background positions were determined by position/monitor mode on beat-to-beat basis, and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was calculated by multi-gated method (MUGA). The correlation coefficient of nuclear stethoscope RVEF and camera-computer RVEF (MUGA) was 0.82, while the correlation coefficient of nuclear stethoscope RVEF and camera-computer RVEF (first-pass method) was 0.64. Therefore, the RVEF by nuclear stethoscope is useful for monitoring of right ventricular function. Clinical applications by sup(81m)Kr and nuclear stethoscope were as follows. 1. Exercise/rest RVEF is an extremely sensitive indicator to discriminate coronary artery disease (RCA occlusion) from normal subjects. 2. Beat-to-beat right ventricular volume response is useful for the monitoring of arrythmia such as atrial fibrillation.

  8. Monitoring of right ventricular function by single probe system (nuclear stethoscope) and sup(81m)Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Ohmine, Hiromi; Kimura, Motomasa

    1982-01-01

    A single probe system (nuclear stethoscope) was developed to evaluate the monitoring of right ventricular function by sup(81m)Kr continuous infusion method. Optimal right ventricular and background positions were determined by position/monitor mode on beat-to-beat basis, and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was calculated by multi-gated method (MUGA). The correlation coefficient of nuclear stethoscope RVEF and camera-computer RVEF (MUGA) was 0.82, while the correlation coefficient of nuclear stethoscope RVEF and camera-computer RVEF (first-pass method) was 0.64. Therefore, the RVEF by nuclear stethoscope is useful for monitoring of right ventricular function. Clinical applications by sup(81m)Kr and nuclear stethoscope were as follows. 1. Exercise/rest RVEF is an extremely sensitive indicator to discriminate coronary artery disease (RCA occlusion) from normal subjects. 2. Beat-to-beat right ventricular volume response is useful for the monitoring of arrythmia such as atrial fibrillation. (author)

  9. [Design and implementation of online statistical analysis function in information system of air pollution and health impact monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yiran; Hao, Shuxin; Zhang, Guoqing; Liu, Jie; Liu, Yue; Xu, Dongqun

    2018-01-01

    To implement the online statistical analysis function in information system of air pollution and health impact monitoring, and obtain the data analysis information real-time. Using the descriptive statistical method as well as time-series analysis and multivariate regression analysis, SQL language and visual tools to implement online statistical analysis based on database software. Generate basic statistical tables and summary tables of air pollution exposure and health impact data online; Generate tendency charts of each data part online and proceed interaction connecting to database; Generate butting sheets which can lead to R, SAS and SPSS directly online. The information system air pollution and health impact monitoring implements the statistical analysis function online, which can provide real-time analysis result to its users.

  10. ADNP-CSMA Random Multiple Access protocol application with the function of monitoring in Ad Hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ad Hoc networks,the net work of mobile nodes exchange information with their wireless transceiver equipment,the network throughput is in increased,compared to other such multiple hops network.Moreover along with the rapid development of modern information,communication business also will be increase.However,the access and adaptive of previous CSMA protocol are insufficient.According to these properties,this paper presents a kind of adaptive dual clock with monitoring function P-CSMA random multiple access protocol(ADNP-CSMA,and discusses two kinds of P-CSMA.ACK with monitoring function is introduced to maintain the stability of the whole system,and the introduction of dual clock mechanism reduces the channel of idle period.It calculate the system throughput expression through the method of average period,and the simulation results show that the system is constant in the case of high load throughput.

  11. Engineering Task Plan for the 241-AN-105 Multi-Function Corrosion Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDGEMON, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the activities associated with the installation of the corrosion probe assembly into riser WST-RISER-016 (formerly 15B) of tank 241-AN-105. The corrosion monitoring system utilizes the technique of electrochemical noise (EN) for monitoring waste tank corrosion. Typically, EN consists of low frequency (4 Hz) and small amplitude signals that are spontaneously generated by electrochemical reactions occurring at corroding or other surfaces. EN analysis is well suited for monitoring and identifying the onset of localized corrosion, and for measuring uniform corrosion rates. A typical EN based corrosion-monitoring system measures instantaneous fluctuations in corrosion current and potential between three nominally identical electrodes of the material of interest immersed in the environment of interest. Time-dependent fluctuations in corrosion current are described by electrochemical current noise, and time-dependent fluctuations of corrosion potential are described by electrochemical noise. The corrosion monitoring system is designed to detect the onset of localized corrosion phenomena if tank conditions should change to allow these phenomena to occur. In addition to the EN technique, the system also facilitates the use of the Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) technique to collect uniform corrosion rate information. LPR measures the linearity at the origin of the polarization curve for overvoltages up to a few millivolts away from the rest potential or natural corrosion potential. The slope of the current vs. voltage plot gives information on uniform corrosion rates

  12. Mitochondrial function and tissue vitality: bench-to-bedside real-time optical monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayevsky, Avraham; Walden, Raphael; Pewzner, Eliyahu; Deutsch, Assaf; Heldenberg, Eitan; Lavee, Jacob; Tager, Salis; Kachel, Erez; Raanani, Ehud; Preisman, Sergey; Glauber, Violete; Segal, Eran

    2011-06-01

    Background: The involvement of mitochondria in pathological states, such as neurodegenerative diseases, sepsis, stroke, and cancer, are well documented. Monitoring of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence in vivo as an intracellular oxygen indicator was established in 1950 to 1970 by Britton Chance and collaborators. We use a multiparametric monitoring system enabling assessment of tissue vitality. In order to use this technology in clinical practice, the commercial developed device, the CritiView (CRV), is tested in animal models as well as in patients. Methods and Results: The new CRV enables the optical monitoring of four different parameters, representing the energy balance of various tissues in vivo. Mitochondrial NADH is measured by surface fluorometry/reflectometry. In addition, tissue microcirculatory blood flow, tissue reflectance and oxygenation are measured as well. The device is tested both in vitro and in vivo in a small animal model and in preliminary clinical trials in patients undergoing vascular or open heart surgery. In patients, the monitoring is started immediately after the insertion of a three-way Foley catheter (urine collection) to the patient and is stopped when the patient is discharged from the operating room. The results show that monitoring the urethral wall vitality provides information in correlation to the surgical procedure performed.

  13. Changes in water budgets and sediment yields from a hypothetical agricultural field as a function of landscape and management characteristics--A unit field modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Crop agriculture occupies 13 percent of the conterminous United States. Agricultural management practices, such as crop and tillage types, affect the hydrologic flow paths through the landscape. Some agricultural practices, such as drainage and irrigation, create entirely new hydrologic flow paths upon the landscapes where they are implemented. These hydrologic changes can affect the magnitude and partitioning of water budgets and sediment erosion. Given the wide degree of variability amongst agricultural settings, changes in the magnitudes of hydrologic flow paths and sediment erosion induced by agricultural management practices commonly are difficult to characterize, quantify, and compare using only field observations. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to simulate two landscape characteristics (slope and soil texture) and three agricultural management practices (land cover/crop type, tillage type, and selected agricultural land management practices) to evaluate their effects on the water budgets of and sediment yield from agricultural lands. An array of sixty-eight 60-year simulations were run, each representing a distinct natural or agricultural scenario with various slopes, soil textures, crop or land cover types, tillage types, and select agricultural management practices on an isolated 16.2-hectare field. Simulations were made to represent two common agricultural climate regimes: arid with sprinkler irrigation and humid. These climate regimes were constructed with actual climate and irrigation data. The results of these simulations demonstrate the magnitudes of potential changes in water budgets and sediment yields from lands as a result of landscape characteristics and agricultural practices adopted on them. These simulations showed that variations in landscape characteristics, such as slope and soil type, had appreciable effects on water budgets and sediment yields. As slopes increased, sediment yields increased in both the arid and

  14. Development of network communication function for digitalized neutron flux monitoring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kai; Zhang Liangju; Chen Xiaojun; Li Baoxiang

    2002-01-01

    It is essential for a digitalized Neutron Flux Monitoring Instrument to communicate with other parts of Instrumentation and Control System in a network environment, and it is fairly different from the case of traditional analogue nuclear instrumentation. How to satisfy all the requirements of different network structure and communication protocol, which might be adopted in different target nuclear power plant, is a key issue in the design and development of a digitalized neutron flux monitoring instrument. The author describes the overall communication scheme, mainly discusses the design idea and the requirements of the communication interfaces and the implementation of the RS-485 interface as an example of the digitalized neutron flux monitoring instrument, which is under development in the institute

  15. User-centered development and testing of a monitoring system that provides feedback regarding physical functioning to elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Joan Vermeulen,1 Jacques CL Neyens,1 Marieke D Spreeuwenberg,1 Erik van Rossum,1,2 Walther Sipers,3 Herbert Habets,3 David J Hewson,4 Luc P de Witte1,2 1School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Research Center for Technology in Care, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Heerlen, The Netherlands; 3Expertise Center for Elderly Care, Orbis Medical Center, Sittard, The Netherlands; 4Institute Charles Delaunay, Université de Technologie de Troyes, Troyes, France Purpose: To involve elderly people during the development of a mobile interface of a monitoring system that provides feedback to them regarding changes in physical functioning and to test the system in a pilot study. Methods and participants: The iterative user-centered development process consisted of the following phases: (1 selection of user representatives; (2 analysis of users and their context; (3 identification of user requirements; (4 development of the interface; and (5 evaluation of the interface in the lab. Subsequently, the monitoring and feedback system was tested in a pilot study by five patients who were recruited via a geriatric outpatient clinic. Participants used a bathroom scale to monitor weight and balance, and a mobile phone to monitor physical activity on a daily basis for six weeks. Personalized feedback was provided via the interface of the mobile phone. Usability was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 7 using a modified version of the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ; higher scores indicated better usability. Interviews were conducted to gain insight into the experiences of the participants with the system. Results: The developed interface uses colors, emoticons, and written and/or spoken text messages to provide daily feedback regarding (changes in weight, balance, and physical activity. The participants rated the usability of the monitoring and feedback system with a mean score of 5

  16. Green's function method with consideration of temperature dependent material properties for fatigue monitoring of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong-Hoi; Kwon, Jong-Jooh; Kim, Wanjae

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a method to consider temperature dependent material properties when using the Green's function method is proposed by using a numerical weight function approach. This is verified by using detailed finite element analyses for a pressurizer spray nozzle with various assumed thermal transient load cases. From the results, it is found that the temperature dependent material properties can significantly affect the maximum peak stresses and the proposed method can resolve this problem with the weight function approach. Finally, it is concluded that the temperature dependency of the material properties affects the maximum stress ranges for a fatigue evaluation. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this effect to monitor fatigue damage when using a Green's function method for the real operating conditions in a nuclear power plant

  17. 30 CFR 227.800 - How will MMS monitor a State's performance of delegated functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... visits and Office of the Inspector General, General Accounting Office, and MMS audits of your performance... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS monitor a State's performance of... THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.800 How will...

  18. Enhancing the functionality of reactor protection systems to provide diagnostic and monitoring information: The ISAT{sup TM} approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J A; Rowe, B J [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Jones, C D [Nuclear Electric Ltd., Kent (United Kingdom). Dungeness ` B` Power Station

    1997-12-31

    The ISAT{sup TM} architecture has been successfully implemented as the Single Channel Trip System (SCTS), part of the primary protection system of Nuclear Electric`s Dungeness `B` Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors. The system is the first computer-based protection system licensed on a UK civil nuclear reactor. The system provides protection against single channel faults resulting in high coolant gas outlet temperature. The SCTS was designed to output data at several points in the system to an Ethernet to allow checks to be made on the operation of parts of the protection system and the system as a whole. In order to monitor the performance of this shutdown system a PC based monitoring system was developed to take input as data from the Ethernet, check its integrity and then analyze the data to provide information of the state of the system and subsystems. The SCTS monitor was basically intended to alert the operator to any fault on the safety system and indicate its source, provide a diagnosis of the cause of any trip initiated by the safety system, and log the occurrences of these incidents for later inspection. The intention was also to provide accurate real-time information on the thermocouple readings and to decrease the effort required to maintain the safety system. This paper will describe briefly the development of the ISAT{sup TM} monitoring system: how its requirements were arrived at, and how the design, code and testing were carried out to ensure approval for this application. It will then go on to report how the ISAT{sup TM} monitor has performed during its time in service: how more functionality has been added over and above its original requirements. Features of additional monitors for the SCTS and other ISAT{sup TM} systems will also be described. (author). 2 refs, 5 figs.

  19. Learning from your mistakes: The functional value of spontaneous error monitoring in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Middleton

    2014-04-01

    Ex. 4.\t(T = umbrella “umbelella, umbrella”: Phonological error; DetCorr We used mixed effects logistic regression to assess whether the log odds of changing from error to correct was predicted by monitoring status of the error (DetCorr vs. NoDet; DetNoCorr vs. NoDet; whether the monitoring benefit interacted with direction of change (forward, backward; and whether effects varied by error type. Figure 1 (top shows that the proportion accuracy change was higher for DetCorr, relative to NoDet, consistent with a monitoring benefit. The difference in log odds was significant for semantic errors in both directions (forward: coeff. = -1.73; z= -7.78; p < .001; backward: coeff = -0.92; z= -3.60; p < .001, and for phonological errors in both directions (forward: coeff. = -0.74; z= -2.73; p=.006; backward : coeff. = -.76; z = -2.73; p = .006. The difference between DetNoCorr and NoDet was not significant in any condition. Figure 1 (bottom shows that for Semantic errors, there was a directional asymmetry favoring the Forward condition (interaction: coeff. = .79; z = 2.32; p = .02. Phonological errors, in contrast, produced comparable effects in Forward and Backward direction. The results demonstrated a benefit for errors that were detected and corrected. This monitoring benefit was present in both the forward and backward direction, supporting the Strength hypothesis. Of greatest interest, the monitoring benefit for Semantic errors was greater in the forward than backward direction, indicating a role for learning.

  20. Formation yields of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from the gas-phase OH radical-initiated reactions of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes as a function of NO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Noriko; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    2010-09-23

    Aromatic hydrocarbons comprise 20% of non-methane volatile organic compounds in urban areas and are transformed mainly by atmospheric chemical reactions with OH radicals during daytime. In this work we have measured the formation yields of glyoxal and methylglyoxal from the OH radical-initiated reactions of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes over the NO2 concentration range (0.2-10.3) × 1013 molecules cm(-3). For toluene, o-, m-, and p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, the yields showed a dependence on NO2, decreasing with increasing NO2 concentration and with no evidence for formation of glyoxal or methylglyoxal from the reactions of the OH-aromatic adducts with NO2. In contrast, for 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene the glyoxal and methylglyoxal formation yields were independent of the NO2 concentration within the experimental uncertainties. Extrapolations of our results to NO2 concentrations representative of the ambient atmosphere results in the following glyoxal and methylglyoxal yields, respectively: for toluene, 26.0 ± 2.2% and 21.5 ± 2.9%; for o-xylene, 12.7 ± 1.9% and 33.1 ± 6.1%; for m-xylene, 11.4 ± 0.7% and 51.5 ± 8.5%; for p-xylene, 38.9 ± 4.7% and 18.7 ± 2.2%; for 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 4.7 ± 2.4% and 15.1 ± 3.3%; for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 8.7 ± 1.6% and 27.2 ± 8.1%; and for 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, 58.1 ± 5.3% (methylglyoxal).

  1. Effectiveness of pacemaker tele-monitoring on quality of life, functional capacity, event detection and workload: The PONIENTE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Villegas, Antonio; Catalan-Matamoros, Daniel; Robles-Musso, Emilio; Peiro, Salvador

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the remote monitoring (RM) of older adults with pacemakers on health-related quality of life, functional capacity, feasibility, reliability and safety. The PONIENTE study is a controlled, non-randomized, non-blinded clinical trial, with data collection carried out during the pre-implant stage and after 12 months. Between October of 2012 and November of 2013, 82 patients were assigned to either a remote monitoring group (n = 30) or a conventional hospital monitoring (HM) group (n = 52). The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and the Duke Activity Status Index were used to measure health-related quality of life and functional capacity, respectively. Baseline characteristics and number of hospital visits were also analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the two study groups were similar for both the EQ-5D (RM 0.74, HM 0.67; P = 0.404) and the Duke Activity Status Index (RM 21.42, HM 19.95; P = 0.272). At the 12-month follow up, the EQ-5D utility score was improved for both groups (RM 0.91, HM 0.81; P = 0.154), unlike the EQ-5D Visual Analog Scale (P = 0.043). The Duke Activity Status Index score was similar to the baseline score. The number of in-hospital visits was 27% lower (3 vs 4; P pacemakers in older adults is an equivalent option to hospital monitoring, in terms of health-related quality of life and functional capacity. Furthermore, it allows for the early detection of clinical and pacemaker-related adverse events, and significantly reduces the number of in-hospital visits. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 1188-1195. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Data processing and critical function status display system in the nuclear power plant monitoring systems; Procesiranje podataka i prika zstanja kriticnih funkcija postrojenja u sistemima nadzora nuklrearne elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinjeri, Lj; Plackovic, R [SOUR Rade Koncar, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    The Critical Function Monitoring System is a data acquisition and display system designed for effective presentation of essential nuclear plant operational data enabling supervision of the safety status of the nuclear plant by the operational staff. In this article the system functional requirements have been analysed and in accordance with the results of this analysis approach to defininf the design basis for realisation of the Critical Function Monitoring System by 'RK' equipment has been briefly described. (author)

  3. Increasing the sensitivity for stem cell monitoring in system-function based magnetic particle imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Them, Kolja; Szwargulski, P; Knopp, Tobias; Salamon, J; Kaul, M G; Ittrich, H; Sequeira, S; Lange, C

    2016-01-01

    The use of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) has provided new possibilities in biophysics and biomedical imaging technologies. The magnetization dynamics of SPIONs, which can be influenced by the environment, are of central interest. In this work, different biological SPION environments are used to investigate three different calibration methods for stem cell monitoring in magnetic particle imaging. It is shown that calibrating using SPIONs immobilized via agarose gel or intracellular uptake results in superior stem cell image quality compared to mobile SPIONs in saline. This superior image quality enables more sensitive localization and identification of a significantly smaller number of magnetically labeled stem cells. The results are important for cell tracking and monitoring of future SPION based therapies such as hyperthermia based cancer therapies, targeted drug delivery, or tissue regeneration approaches where it is crucial to image a sufficiently small number of SPIONs interacting with biological matter. (paper)

  4. Remote sensing time series analysis for crop monitoring with the SPIRITS software: new functionalities and use examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eRembold

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring crop and natural vegetation conditions is highly relevant, particularly in the food insecure areas of the world. Data from remote sensing image time series at high temporal and medium to low spatial resolution can assist this monitoring as they provide key information about vegetation status in near real-time over large areas. The Software for the Processing and Interpretation of Remotely sensed Image Time Series (SPIRITS is a stand-alone flexible analysis environment created to facilitate the processing and analysis of large image time series and ultimately for providing clear information about vegetation status in various graphical formats to crop production analysts and decision makers. In this paper we present the latest functional developments of SPIRITS and we illustrate recent applications. The main new developments include: HDF5 importer, Image re-projection, additional options for temporal Smoothing and Periodicity conversion, computation of a rainfall-based probability index (Standardized Precipitation Index for drought detection and extension of the Graph composer functionalities.In particular,. The examples of operational analyses are taken from several recent agriculture and food security monitoring reports and bulletins. We conclude with considerations on future SPIRITS developments also in view of the data processing requirements imposed by the coming generation of remote sensing products at high spatial and temporal resolution, such as those provided by the Sentinel sensors of the European Copernicus programme.

  5. A novel method for monitoring functional lesion-specific recruitment of repair proteins in live cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodrick, Jordan; Gupta, Suhani; Khatkar, Pooja; Dave, Kalpana; Levashova, Darya; Choudhury, Sujata; Elias, Hadi; Saha, Tapas; Mueller, Susette; Roy, Rabindra

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method of monitoring lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo is described. • Recruitment of repair enzymes to abasic sites is monitored by co-localization. • Repair protein recruitment is consistent with known protein–protein relationships. • Cells demonstrated complete repair of abasic sites by 90 min. - Abstract: DNA–protein relationships have been studied by numerous methods, but a particular gap in methodology lies in the study of DNA adduct-specific interactions with proteins in vivo, which particularly affects the field of DNA repair. Using the repair of a well-characterized and ubiquitous adduct, the abasic (AP) site, as a model, we have developed a comprehensive method of monitoring DNA lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo over time. We utilized a surrogate system in which a Cy3-labeled plasmid containing a single AP-site was transfected into cells, and the interaction of the labeled DNA with BER enzymes, including APE1, Polβ, LIG1, and FEN1, was monitored by immunofluorescent staining of the enzymes by Alexafluor-488-conjugated secondary antibody. The recruitment of enzymes was characterized by quantification of Cy3-Alexafluor-488 co-localization. To validate the microscopy-based method, repair of the transfected AP-site DNA was also quantified at various time points post-transfection using a real time PCR-based method. Notably, the recruitment time kinetics for each enzyme were consistent with AP-site repair time kinetics. This microscopy-based methodology is reliable in detecting the recruitment of proteins to specific DNA substrates and can be extended to study other in vivo DNA–protein relationships in any DNA sequence and in the context of any DNA structure in transfectable proliferating or quiescent cells. The method may be applied to a variety of disciplines of nucleic acid transaction pathways, including repair, replication, transcription, and recombination

  6. A novel method for monitoring functional lesion-specific recruitment of repair proteins in live cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodrick, Jordan; Gupta, Suhani; Khatkar, Pooja; Dave, Kalpana; Levashova, Darya; Choudhury, Sujata; Elias, Hadi; Saha, Tapas; Mueller, Susette; Roy, Rabindra, E-mail: rr228@georgetown.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A method of monitoring lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo is described. • Recruitment of repair enzymes to abasic sites is monitored by co-localization. • Repair protein recruitment is consistent with known protein–protein relationships. • Cells demonstrated complete repair of abasic sites by 90 min. - Abstract: DNA–protein relationships have been studied by numerous methods, but a particular gap in methodology lies in the study of DNA adduct-specific interactions with proteins in vivo, which particularly affects the field of DNA repair. Using the repair of a well-characterized and ubiquitous adduct, the abasic (AP) site, as a model, we have developed a comprehensive method of monitoring DNA lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo over time. We utilized a surrogate system in which a Cy3-labeled plasmid containing a single AP-site was transfected into cells, and the interaction of the labeled DNA with BER enzymes, including APE1, Polβ, LIG1, and FEN1, was monitored by immunofluorescent staining of the enzymes by Alexafluor-488-conjugated secondary antibody. The recruitment of enzymes was characterized by quantification of Cy3-Alexafluor-488 co-localization. To validate the microscopy-based method, repair of the transfected AP-site DNA was also quantified at various time points post-transfection using a real time PCR-based method. Notably, the recruitment time kinetics for each enzyme were consistent with AP-site repair time kinetics. This microscopy-based methodology is reliable in detecting the recruitment of proteins to specific DNA substrates and can be extended to study other in vivo DNA–protein relationships in any DNA sequence and in the context of any DNA structure in transfectable proliferating or quiescent cells. The method may be applied to a variety of disciplines of nucleic acid transaction pathways, including repair, replication, transcription, and recombination.

  7. Strategy for continuous improvement in IC manufacturability, yield, and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Dean J.; Berry, Mark; Schani, Phil; Phillips, Michael; Steinberg, Joe; DePinto, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Continual improvements in yield, reliability and manufacturability measure a fab and ultimately result in Total Customer Satisfaction. A new organizational and technical methodology for continuous defect reduction has been established in a formal feedback loop, which relies on yield and reliability, failed bit map analysis, analytical tools, inline monitoring, cross functional teams and a defect engineering group. The strategy requires the fastest detection, identification and implementation of possible corrective actions. Feedback cycle time is minimized at all points to improve yield and reliability and reduce costs, essential for competitiveness in the memory business. Payoff was a 9.4X reduction in defectivity and a 6.2X improvement in reliability of 256 K fast SRAMs over 20 months.

  8. Soil cover patterns influence on the land environmental functions, agroecological quality, land-use and monitoring efficiency in the Central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Yashin, Ivan; Lukin, Sergey; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    current practice versions. Well-elaborated monitoring collaboration with the principal natural reserves in south-taiga and forest-steppe zones provides process-based interaction with long-term data on zonal climatic, landscape and soil features necessary to test the process, functional and evaluation models in the specific conditions of each bioclimatic zone. The dominated erosion and dehumification trends have been essentially activated for last 3-4 decades due to hu¬mus negative balance around 0.6-0.7 t ha-1year-1 and connected disaggregation with annual rate between 1 and 25 g/kg for aggregates 10-0.25 mm. "Standard" monitoring objects and regionally generalized data showed characteristic for Chernozems 2-2.5 % humus drop during this period and active processes of CO2 emission and humus eluvial-illuvial profile redistribution too. Forest-steppe Chernozems are usually characterized by higher stability than steppe ones. The ratio between erosive and biological losses in humus stock can be ten¬tatively estimated as fifty-fifty with essential variability within slope landscape. Both these processes have essential impacts on different sets of soil environmental and agroecological functions (including atmospheric air, surface and ground water quality, biodiversity and profitability) that we need to understand and predict. A drop of humus content below threshold values (for different soils between 1.5 and 6%) considerably reduces not only soil environmental regulation functions but also effectiveness of used fertilizers, crop yield quality and possibility of sustainable agricultural land-use. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Tver, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, Moscow, Kaluga, Kursk, Belgorod, Tambov, Voronezh and Saratov regions give us validation and ranging of the limiting factors of the elementary soil cover patterns current features and transformation processes, environmental functions and agroecological quality

  9. Thrombolytic therapeutic effect monitoring based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Wang, Pengbo; Li, Yaoxian; Gao, Yuan; Li, Ting

    2017-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is of serious mortality and morbidity, which often happens in inpatients and especially with the postoperative population [1]. The golden standard to diagnose DVT is venography, which relies on complicated imaging modalities requiring to be injected in a vein below the clot invasively and ionizing procedures that employing xray imaging to show where and how the DVT blocks. The near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is recently found to be an intriguing and potential method detecting DVT in clinics. It has been reported recently that employing NIRS to diagnose DVT. Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO), local extremities manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis, usually cause thrombosis and the reduction of distal blood flow. Thrombolytic therapy is to use exogenous activator to activate the dissolution system, which can dissolve intracoronary thrombus. Here we attempt to monitor the DVT and ASO patients during the whole procedure of thrombolytic treatment, then compare the data with those DVT and ASO patients did not take treatments and normal population. 8 DVT and 9 ASO patients and 12 normal subjects were recruited to take the measurements of concentration variation of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobins (Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]) by NIRS-based thrombosis monitor. Thereinto, 5 DVT and 6 ASO patients has taken the thrombolytic treatment, and the data for the periods before treatment, during treatment, and after treatment were extracted for analysis. We found that Δ[HbO2] fluctuates and even decreases in DVT and ASO patients. After the thrombolytic therapy, Δ[HbO2] increases about 45% and converge to the curves of normal subjects. And the Δ[Hb] emerges the similar trends, except for the rising trend in the beginning and the downtrend after thrombolytic therapy. The findings indicated NIRS has big potential in clinical monitoring of DVT and ASO patients and offering reliable and quantitative evaluation of thrombolytic therapy outcomes.

  10. Nuclear medicine in the monitoring of organ function and the detection of injury related to cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A.; Schoot, J.B. van der

    1993-01-01

    This article emphasizes the role of nuclear medicine in the monitoring of function to prevent or limit injury in organs in which toxicity related to cancer therapy may have implications for the survival and/or the quality of life of the patient. After a brief discussion of the advantages of nuclear medicine techniques in detecting organ injury, the effect of radiation therapy and chemotherapy on normal tissue is discussed, underlining the need to characterize adverse effects of cancer therapy in long-term survivors. The use of radionuclides to document organ injury and effects from cancer therapy in heart, digestive tract, kidneys, lungs major salivary glands skeleton and brain is then reviewed. In a short section the potential applicability of positron emission tomography in documenting organ toxicity during cancer therapy is discussed. Thanks to the various available radiopharmaceuticals, the ability of the tracers to document specific functional aspects, the improved methods for visualization and quantitation of organ injury and the possibilities of physiological or pharmacological intervention, nuclear medicine gives the clinician potent tools for the monitoring of organ function at risk during cancer therapy. The trend to intensify cancer treatment by combining various treatment modalities and the increasing chances of prolonged survival in a large number of patients call for effective integration of nuclear medicine methods into the recommended guidelines for grading organ injury in clinical oncology. (orig.)

  11. The value of early wireless esophageal pH monitoring in diagnosing functional heartburn in refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Baeg, Meonggi; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Jinsu; Cho, Yukyung; Park, Jaemyung; Lee, Inseok; Kim, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyuyong

    2013-10-01

    It is difficult to differentiate functional heartburn from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) failure. The aims of this study were to assess the role of early wireless esophageal pH monitoring in patients referred with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to identify differences in the clinical spectrum among GERD subtypes. We enrolled consecutive referred patients with suspected GERD. After endoscopy on the first visit, all underwent wireless esophageal pH monitoring when off the PPI. Two hundred thirty patients were enrolled. These patients were classified into a reflux esophagitis group (20, 8.7 %) and a normal endoscopic findings group (210, 91.3 %). Among the 210 patients in the normal endoscopic findings group, 63 (27.4 %) were diagnosed with pathological reflux, 35 (15.2 %) with hypersensitive esophagus, 87 (37.8 %) with normal acid exposure with negative symptom association, and 25 (10.9 %) with test failure. These groups did not differ in age, body mass index, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, symptom severity, quality of life, presence of atypical symptoms, overlap with irritable bowel syndrome, and the frequency of somatization, depression, and anxiety. PPI responses were evaluated in 135 patients. Fifty patients (37.0 %) were not responsive to the 4-week treatment; 26 (19.3 %) were diagnosed with refractory non-erosive gastroesophageal disease, and 24 (17.8 %) with functional heartburn. The demographics and clinical and psychological characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Demographic characteristics and symptom patterns alone cannot differentiate functional heartburn from various subtypes of GERD. Wireless esophageal pH monitoring should be considered for the initial evaluation of GERD in the tertiary referral setting.

  12. Monitoring renal function during biphosphonate treatment in patients with bone metastases - role of dynamic kidney scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavdarova, L.; Tzonevska, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Biphosphonates (BP) are very effective in treatment of bone metastatic disease. Their renal excretion defines one of the major side effects - nephrotoxicity. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a basic parameter for its early detection but clinical practice often uses only serum creatinine. Aim of our retrospective study is to assess the role of dynamic kidney scintigraphy (DKS) and the estimated during it GFR in BP-treated patients with bone metastatic disease. 61 patients (53 female, 8 male), aged 33-82, with biphosphonate-treated bone metastases from breast (n53), lung (n1) and prostate (n7) cancer were enrolled for the period 27.04.2012-14.04.2015. Overall 77 studies were made, in 13 patients more than one. GFR was assessed in 57 studies. Results were compared with serum creatinine. All patients with elevated creatinine showed low GFR and decreased renal function at DKS. With normal creatinine and decreased GFR: in 31 studies kidney function was reduced, in 14 function was normal but kidney scintigraphic appearance was disturbed- mostly as in diffuse parenchymal disease. In 5 studies GFR was normal and renal function decreased. In 3 studies both parameters were normal. Zoledronic acid was changed with denosumab in 2 patients because of worsened function and strongly reduced GFR, in one patient BP was stopped after DKS. In 3 patients the interval between BP was extended because of affected renal function. GFR is more sensitive than serum creatinine levels and changes in nephrographic curves. Dynamic kidney scintigraphy is a functional method directing clinical reaction to preserve renal function

  13. Graph of growth data - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis Graph of growth data Data ...detail Data name Graph of growth data DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945-003 Description of data contents The grap...h of chronological changes in root, coleoptile, the first leaf, and the second leaf. Data file File name: growth..._data_graph.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/agritogo-rice-phenome/LATEST/data/growth...e Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Graph of growth data -

  14. Mass yields in the reaction 235U(nsub(th),f) as a function of the kinetic energy and ion charge of the fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlfarth, H.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper measurements of mass- and ioncharge distributions of the lower mass 235 U(nsub(th),f)-fission products, performed with the 'Lohengrin' recoil spectrometer of the Institut Lane-Langevin at Grenoble, are reported. The uranium targets used led to an energy loss of the fission fragments of only 1 to 2 MeV, so their energy was well defined. The mass abundance have been measured for the following fragment energies: E = 83.6, 88.5, 93.4, 98.3, 103.1, 108.0, 112.0 MeV. The energy integrated mass distributions were compared with recent data collections of fission yields. For nearly all masses the abundancies agree well within the limits of error. So these maesurements can be used as an independent source of data. (orig./RW) [de

  15. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  16. EEG data during open heart surgery. Their automatic analysis related to anesthetic parameters and its use in peroperative monitoring of cerebral function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, A.J.R.; Pronk, R.A.F.

    1982-01-01

    It is generally agreed upon by experts that EEG monitoring of brain function during open heart surgery is of the utmost importance in preventing postoperative neurological and psychopathological consequences. Up to now, however, this monitoring has not been performed on a large scale: (1) it is a

  17. Integrated functional modeling method for NPP plant DiD risk monitor and its application for conventional PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Zhijian [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2014-08-15

    The development of a new risk monitor system is introduced in this paper, which can be applied not only to severe accident prevention in daily operation but also to serve as to mitigate the radiological hazard just after severe accident happens and long term management of post-severe accident consequences. The summary of the fundamental method is summarized on how to configure the Plant Defense in-Depth (Did) Risk Monitor by object-oriented software system based on functional modeling approach. Following the authors??preceding preliminary study for AP1000, the way of realizing the proposed method of configuring the plant Did risk monitor was investigated for a safety-enhanced Japanese PWR design to meet with the tight anti-severe accident requirements set by national regulation in Japan after Fukushima Daiichi accident. The result of this example practice of the presented preliminary study for Japanese PWR was for the level 4 of the Did in case of beyond design basis accident, that is, loss of all AC power + RCP seal LOCA, against the former case of AP1000 for level 3 Did in case of large LOCA.

  18. The Healthy Aging Brain Care (HABC Monitor: validation of the Patient Self-Report Version of the clinical tool designed to measure and monitor cognitive, functional, and psychological health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monahan PO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick O Monahan,1 Catherine A Alder,2–4 Babar A Khan,1–3 Timothy Stump,1 Malaz A Boustani1–4 1Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Regenstrief Institute Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Eskenazi Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: Primary care providers need an inexpensive, simple, user-friendly, easily standardized, sensitive to change, and widely available multidomain instrument to measure the cognitive, functional, and psychological symptoms of patients suffering from multiple chronic conditions. We previously validated the Caregiver Report Version of the Healthy Aging Brain Care Monitor (HABC Monitor for measuring and monitoring the severity of symptoms through caregiver reports. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Patient Self-Report Version of the HABC Monitor (Self-Report HABC Monitor.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Primary care clinics affiliated with a safety net urban health care system in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.Subjects: A total of 291 subjects aged ≥65 years with a mean age of 72.7 (standard deviation 6.2 years, 76% female, and 56% African Americans.Analysis: Psychometric validity and reliability of the Self-Report HABC Monitor.Results: Among 291 patients analyzed, the Self-Report HABC Monitor demonstrated excellent fit for the confirmatory factor analysis model (root mean square error of approximation =0.030, comparative fit index =0.974, weighted root mean square residual =0.837 and good internal consistency (0.78–0.92. Adequate convergent–divergent validity (differences between the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status test-based cognitive function impairment versus nonimpairment groups was demonstrated only when patients were removed from analysis if they had both cognitive function test impairment and suspiciously perfect self-report HABC Monitor cognitive floor

  19. SNM gamma-ray fingerprint monitor functional requirements and design specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Kane, W.R.

    1994-07-01

    A number of DOE facilities need to perform confirmatory inventory measurements on items of special nuclear material (SNM). The DOE Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) has tasked the Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division (SSN) of the Department of Advanced Technology at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray-spectroscopy-based instrument for performing confirmatory inventory measurements on such materials, a ''gamma-ray fingerprint monitor'' (GRFM). This document is a conceptual design for the SSN GRFM system. This conceptual design is based on previous experience with measurements of plutonium-bearing materials and comparison of gamma-ray spectrum features, not on actual tests of the procedures or hardware described. As a result, modifications may be necessary when actual prototype hardware and software are tested in realistic circumstances on actual materials of interest

  20. Engineered hybrid cardiac patches with multifunctional electronics for online monitoring and regulation of tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Engel, Leeya; Fleischer, Sharon; Malki, Maayan; Gal, Idan; Shapira, Assaf; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Dvir, Tal

    2016-06-01

    In cardiac tissue engineering approaches to treat myocardial infarction, cardiac cells are seeded within three-dimensional porous scaffolds to create functional cardiac patches. However, current cardiac patches do not allow for online monitoring and reporting of engineered-tissue performance, and do not interfere to deliver signals for patch activation or to enable its integration with the host. Here, we report an engineered cardiac patch that integrates cardiac cells with flexible, freestanding electronics and a 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The patch exhibited robust electronic properties, enabling the recording of cellular electrical activities and the on-demand provision of electrical stimulation for synchronizing cell contraction. We also show that electroactive polymers containing biological factors can be deposited on designated electrodes to release drugs in the patch microenvironment on demand. We expect that the integration of complex electronics within cardiac patches will eventually provide therapeutic control and regulation of cardiac function.

  1. Longitudinal Residential Ambient Monitoring: Correlating Sensor Data to Functional Health Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.; Kröse, B.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming popular in the field of ambient assisted living. In this paper we report our study on the relationship between a functional health metric and features derived from the sensor data. Sensor systems are installed in the houses of nine people who are also quarterly

  2. Functional near infrared spectroscopy of the sensory and motor brain regions with simultaneous kinematic and EMG monitoring during motor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Stanley, Christopher J; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-12-05

    There are several advantages that functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) presents in the study of the neural control of human movement. It is relatively flexible with respect to participant positioning and allows for some head movements during tasks. Additionally, it is inexpensive, light weight, and portable, with very few contraindications to its use. This presents a unique opportunity to study functional brain activity during motor tasks in individuals who are typically developing, as well as those with movement disorders, such as cerebral palsy. An additional consideration when studying movement disorders, however, is the quality of actual movements performed and the potential for additional, unintended movements. Therefore, concurrent monitoring of both blood flow changes in the brain and actual movements of the body during testing is required for appropriate interpretation of fNIRS results. Here, we show a protocol for the combination of fNIRS with muscle and kinematic monitoring during motor tasks. We explore gait, a unilateral multi-joint movement (cycling), and two unilateral single-joint movements (isolated ankle dorsiflexion, and isolated hand squeezing). The techniques presented can be useful in studying both typical and atypical motor control, and can be modified to investigate a broad range of tasks and scientific questions.

  3. INCUBATION YIELD AS A FUNCTION OF BROILER BREEDER AGE / RENDIMENTO DE INCUBAÇÃO EM FUNÇÃO DA IDADE DA MATRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The factors involved in poultry egg incubation include breeder hen age, which may influence both the external and internal quality of eggs. In this context, this study sought to determine incubation yield among eggs from breeder hens at three ages. A total of 1,728 eggs were obtained from Cobb broiler breeders at three ages (26 weeks, 32 weeks, and 53 weeks and incubated. At the end of the incubation process, eclosion, hatchability, the percentage of infertile eggs, the time of embryo mortality, and chick weight were all analyzed according to breeder hen age. Analysis of variance was applied to the results, and egg fertility was found to be associated with breeder age, since lower rates of eclosion were found in eggs from younger broiler breeders. Chick weight was also found to be influenced by breeder age, since eggs from older broiler breeders hatched into heavier chicks. However, neither mortality nor hatchability were found to be affected by breeder hen age.

  4. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  5. EMG monitoring during functional non-surgical therapy of Achilles tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüfner, Tobias; Wohifarth, Kai; Fink, Matthias; Thermann, H; Rollnik, Jens D

    2002-07-01

    After surgical therapy of Achilles tendon rupture, neuromuscular changes may persist, even one year after surgery. We were interested whether these changes are also evident following a non-surgical functional therapy (Variostabil therapy boot/Adidas). Twenty-one patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture were enrolled in the study (mean age 38.5 years, range 24 to 60; 18 men, three women) and followed-up clinically and with surface EMG of the gastrocnemius muscles after four, eight, 12 weeks, and one year after rupture. EMG differences between the affected and non-affected side could only be observed at baseline and after four weeks following Achilles tendon rupture. The results from our study show that EMG changes are not found following non-surgical functional therapy.

  6. Ambulatory monitoring of electrodermal and cardiac functioning in anxiety and worry

    OpenAIRE

    Doberenz, Sigrun

    2011-01-01

    Emotions are an integral part of the human experience and their interpretation can provide valuable but also misleading clues about oneself and other people’s state of mind. Negative emotional states can be perceived as uncomfortable and – when experienced chronically – can develop into anxiety and mood disorders. The more pervasive these disorders the more severely they affect and disable a person’s everyday functioning and often their sleep as well. According to Lang and colleagues (1998...

  7. Graph Theoretical Analysis of BOLD Functional Connectivity during Human Sleep without EEG Monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lv

    Full Text Available Functional brain networks of human have been revealed to have small-world properties by both analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI time series.In our study, by using graph theoretical analysis, we attempted to investigate the changes of paralimbic-limbic cortex between wake and sleep states. Ten healthy young people were recruited to our experiment. Data from 2 subjects were excluded for the reason that they had not fallen asleep during the experiment. For each subject, blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD images were acquired to analyze brain network, and peripheral pulse signals were obtained continuously to identify if the subject was in sleep periods. Results of fMRI showed that brain networks exhibited stronger small-world characteristics during sleep state as compared to wake state, which was in consistent with previous studies using EEG synchronization. Moreover, we observed that compared with wake state, paralimbic-limbic cortex had less connectivity with neocortical system and centrencephalic structure in sleep.In conclusion, this is the first study, to our knowledge, has observed that small-world properties of brain functional networks altered when human sleeps without EEG synchronization. Moreover, we speculate that paralimbic-limbic cortex organization owns an efficient defense mechanism responsible for suppressing the external environment interference when humans sleep, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the paralimbic-limbic cortex may be functionally disconnected from brain regions which directly mediate their interactions with the external environment. Our findings also provide a reasonable explanation why stable sleep exhibits homeostasis which is far less susceptible to outside world.

  8. Post Construction Green Infrastructure Performance Monitoring Parameters and Their Functional Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thewodros K. Geberemariam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drainage system infrastructures in most urbanized cities have reached or exceeded their design life cycle and are characterized by running with inadequate capacity. These highly degraded infrastructures are already overwhelmed and continued to impose a significant challenge to the quality of water and ecological systems. With predicted urban growth and climate change the situation is only going to get worse. As a result, municipalities are increasingly considering the concept of retrofitting existing stormwater drainage systems with green infrastructure practices as the first and an important step to reduce stormwater runoff volume and pollutant load inputs into combined sewer systems (CSO and wastewater facilities. Green infrastructure practices include an open green space that can absorb stormwater runoff, ranging from small-scale naturally existing pocket of lands, right-of-way bioswales, and trees planted along the sidewalk as well as large-scale public parks. Despite the growing municipalities’ interest to retrofit existing stormwater drainage systems with green infrastructure, few studies and relevant information are available on their performance and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, this paper aims to help professionals learn about and become familiar with green infrastructure, decrease implementation barriers, and provide guidance for monitoring green infrastructure using the combination of survey questionnaires, meta-narrative and systematic literature review techniques.

  9. Altered Functional Connectivity of Fronto-Cingulo-Striatal Circuits during Error Monitoring in Adolescents with a History of Childhood Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heledd Hart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment is associated with error hypersensitivity. We examined the effect of childhood abuse and abuse-by-gene (5-HTTLPR, MAOA interaction on functional brain connectivity during error processing in medication/drug-free adolescents. Functional connectivity was compared, using generalized psychophysiological interaction (gPPI analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data, between 22 age- and gender-matched medication-naïve and substance abuse-free adolescents exposed to severe childhood abuse and 27 healthy controls, while they performed an individually adjusted tracking stop-signal task, designed to elicit 50% inhibition failures. During inhibition failures, abused participants relative to healthy controls exhibited reduced connectivity between right and left putamen, bilateral caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and between right supplementary motor area (SMA and right inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Abuse-related connectivity abnormalities were associated with longer abuse duration. No group differences in connectivity were observed for successful inhibition. The findings suggest that childhood abuse is associated with decreased functional connectivity in fronto-cingulo-striatal networks during error processing. Furthermore that the severity of connectivity abnormalities increases with abuse duration. Reduced connectivity of error detection networks in maltreated individuals may be linked to constant monitoring of errors in order to avoid mistakes which, in abusive contexts, are often associated with harsh punishment.

  10. Scanning number and brightness yields absolute protein concentrations in live cells: a crucial parameter controlling functional bio-molecular interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Christina; Royer, Catherine A

    2018-02-01

    Biological function results from properly timed bio-molecular interactions that transduce external or internal signals, resulting in any number of cellular fates, including triggering of cell-state transitions (division, differentiation, transformation, apoptosis), metabolic homeostasis and adjustment to changing physical or nutritional environments, amongst many more. These bio-molecular interactions can be modulated by chemical modifications of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and other small molecules. They can result in bio-molecular transport from one cellular compartment to the other and often trigger specific enzyme activities involved in bio-molecular synthesis, modification or degradation. Clearly, a mechanistic understanding of any given high level biological function requires a quantitative characterization of the principal bio-molecular interactions involved and how these may change dynamically. Such information can be obtained using fluctation analysis, in particular scanning number and brightness, and used to build and test mechanistic models of the functional network to define which characteristics are the most important for its regulation.

  11. Toward a functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based monitoring of pain assessment for nonverbal patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Rojas, Raul; Huang, Xu; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Pain diagnosis for nonverbal patients represents a challenge in clinical settings. Neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), have shown promising results to assess neuronal function in response to nociception and pain. Recent studies suggest that neuroimaging in conjunction with machine learning models can be used to predict different cognitive tasks. The aim of this study is to expand previous studies by exploring the classification of fNIRS signals (oxyhaemoglobin) according to temperature level (cold and hot) and corresponding pain intensity (low and high) using machine learning models. Toward this aim, we used the quantitative sensory testing to determine pain threshold and pain tolerance to cold and heat in 18 healthy subjects (three females), mean age±standard deviation (31.9±5.5). The classification model is based on the bag-of-words approach, a histogram representation used in document classification based on the frequencies of extracted words and adapted for time series; two learning algorithms were used separately, K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). A comparison between two sets of fNIRS channels was also made in the classification task, all 24 channels and 8 channels from the somatosensory region defined as our region of interest (RoI). The results showed that K-NN obtained slightly better results (92.08%) than SVM (91.25%) using the 24 channels; however, the performance slightly dropped using only channels from the RoI with K-NN (91.53%) and SVM (90.83%). These results indicate potential applications of fNIRS in the development of a physiologically based diagnosis of human pain that would benefit vulnerable patients who cannot self-report pain.

  12. Vascular and lung function related to ultrafine and fine particles exposure assessed by personal and indoor monitoring: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Yulia; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Jensen, Ditte Marie

    2014-01-01

    -related effects. Methods: Associations between vascular and lung function, inflammation markers and exposure in terms of particle number concentration (PNC; d = 10-300 nm) were studied in a cross-sectional design with personal and home indoor monitoring in the Western Copenhagen Area, Denmark. During 48-h, PNC...... and PM2.5 were monitored in living rooms of 60 homes with 81 non-smoking subjects (30-75 years old), 59 of whom carried personal monitors both when at home and away from home. We measured lung function in terms of the FEV1/FVC ratio, microvascular function (MVF) and pulse amplitude by digital artery...... tonometry, blood pressure and biomarkers of inflammation including C-reactive protein, and leukocyte counts with subdivision in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in blood. Results: PNC from personal and stationary home monitoring showed weak correlation (r = 0.15, p = 0.24). Personal UFP...

  13. Evaluation of Fluorescent Analogs of Deoxycytidine for Monitoring DNA Transitions from Duplex to Functional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogini P. Bhavsar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Topological variants of single-strand DNA (ssDNA structures, referred to as “functional DNA,” have been detected in regulatory regions of many genes and are thought to affect gene expression. Two fluorescent analogs of deoxycytidine, Pyrrolo-dC (PdC and 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tC∘, can be incorporated into DNA. Here, we describe spectroscopic studies of both analogs to determine fluorescent properties that report on structural transitions from double-strand DNA (dsDNA to ssDNA, a common pathway in the transition to functional DNA structures. We obtained fluorescence-detected circular dichroism (FDCD spectra, steady-state fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence lifetimes of the fluorophores in DNA. Our results show that PdC is advantageous in fluorescence lifetime studies because of a distinct ~2 ns change between paired and unpaired bases. However, tC∘ is a better probe for FDCD experiments that report on the helical structure of DNA surrounding the fluorophore. Both fluorophores provide complementary data to measure DNA structural transitions.

  14. Pregnancy after Prosthetic Aortic Valve Replacement: How Do We Monitor Prosthetic Valvular Function during Pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Sahasrabudhe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. With modern medicine, many women after structural heart repair are deciding to experience pregnancy. There is a need for further study to identify normal echocardiographic parameters to better assess prosthetic valvular function in pregnancy. In addition, a multidisciplinary approach is essential in managing pregnant patients with complex cardiac conditions. Case. A 22-year-old nulliparous woman with an aortic valve replacement 18 months prior to her pregnancy presented to prenatal care at 20-week gestation. During her prenatal care, serial echocardiography showed a significant increase in the mean gradient across the prosthetic aortic valve. Multidisciplinary management and a serial echocardiography played an integral role in her care that resulted in a successful spontaneous vaginal delivery without complications. Conclusion. Further characterization of the normal echocardiographic parameters in pregnant patients with prosthetic valves is critical to optimize prenatal care for this patient population. This case report is novel in that serial echocardiograms were obtained throughout prenatal care, which showed significant changes across the prosthetic aortic valve. Teaching Points. (1 Further study is needed to identify normal echocardiographic parameters to best assess prosthetic valvular function in pregnancy. (2 Multidisciplinary management is encouraged to optimize prenatal care for women with prosthetic aortic valve replacements.

  15. Functional MRI for immediate monitoring stereotactic thalamotomy in a patient with essential tremor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Schaaf, Maike; Krug, Barbara; Lackner, Klaus; Maarouf, Mohammed; Hunsche, Stefan; Sturm, Volker; Lasek, Kathrin; Wedekind, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    The effect of stereotactic thalamotomy was assessed with pre- and postoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) under motor stimulation. A patient with unilateral essential tremor (ET) of the left arm underwent stereotactically guided thalamotomy of the right ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus (VIM). FMRI was done directly before and after surgery on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. The stimulation paradigm was maintainance of the affected arm in an extended position and hand clenching being performed in a block design manner. Statistical analysis was done with Brain Voyager 2000. After thalamotomy the tremor diminished completely. As a difference between the pre- and postoperative fMRI, a significant activation was found in the VIM contralateral to the activation site, adjacent to the inferior olivary nucleus contralateral to the activation site and in the dorsal cingulum. In conclusion, fMRI can detect the functional effect of thalamotomy for tremor treatment. Direct postoperative fMRI provides a sufficient method for estimating the effect of thalamotomy immediately after intervention. The importance of the intermediate thalamic nucleus and the olivary nucleus in tremor generation is supported by our findings. (orig.)

  16. Functions of mammalian Cdc7 kinase in initiation/monitoring of DNA replication and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Min; Yamada, Masayuki; Masai, Hisao

    2003-11-27

    Cdc7 kinase plays an essential role in firing of replication origins by phosphorylating components of the replication complexes. Cdc7 kinase has also been implicated in S phase checkpoint signaling downstream of the ATR and Chk1 kinases. Inactivation of Cdc7 in yeast results in arrest of cell growth with 1C DNA content after completion of the ongoing DNA replication. In contrast, conditional inactivation of Cdc7 in undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells leads to growth arrest with rapid cessation of DNA synthesis, suggesting requirement of Cdc7 functions for continuation of ongoing DNA synthesis. Furthermore, loss of Cdc7 function induces recombinational repair (nuclear Rad51 foci) and G2/M checkpoint responses (inhibition of Cdc2 kinase). Eventually, p53 becomes highly activated and the cells undergo massive p53-dependent apoptosis. Thus, defective origin activation in mammalian cells can generate DNA replication checkpoint signals. Efficient removal of those cells in which replication has been perturbed, through cell death, may be beneficial to maintain the highest level of genetic integrity in totipotent stem cells. Partial, rather than total, loss of Cdc7 kinase expression results in retarded growth at both cellular and whole body levels, with especially profound impairment of germ cell development.

  17. Functions of mammalian Cdc7 kinase in initiation/monitoring of DNA replication and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Min; Yamada, Masayuki; Masai, Hisao

    2003-01-01

    Cdc7 kinase plays an essential role in firing of replication origins by phosphorylating components of the replication complexes. Cdc7 kinase has also been implicated in S phase checkpoint signaling downstream of the ATR and Chk1 kinases. Inactivation of Cdc7 in yeast results in arrest of cell growth with 1C DNA content after completion of the ongoing DNA replication. In contrast, conditional inactivation of Cdc7 in undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells leads to growth arrest with rapid cessation of DNA synthesis, suggesting requirement of Cdc7 functions for continuation of ongoing DNA synthesis. Furthermore, loss of Cdc7 function induces recombinational repair (nuclear Rad51 foci) and G2/M checkpoint responses (inhibition of Cdc2 kinase). Eventually, p53 becomes highly activated and the cells undergo massive p53-dependent apoptosis. Thus, defective origin activation in mammalian cells can generate DNA replication checkpoint signals. Efficient removal of those cells in which replication has been perturbed, through cell death, may be beneficial to maintain the highest level of genetic integrity in totipotent stem cells. Partial, rather than total, loss of Cdc7 kinase expression results in retarded growth at both cellular and whole body levels, with especially profound impairment of germ cell development

  18. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  19. The crystal structure of full-length Sizzled from Xenopus laevis yields insights into Wnt-antagonistic function of secreted Frizzled-related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Qixin; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Junying; Xu, Fei; Liu, Jianmei; Liu, Heli

    2017-09-29

    The Wnt-signaling pathway is crucial to cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs) represent the largest family of secreted Wnt inhibitors. However, their function in antagonizing Wnt signaling has remained somewhat controversial. Here, we report the crystal structure of Sizzled from Xenopus laevis , the first full-length structure of an sFRP. Tethered by an inter-domain disulfide bond and a linker, the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD) and the C-terminal netrin-like domain (NTR) of Sizzled are arranged in a tandem fashion, with the NTR domain occluding the groove of CRD for Wnt accessibility. A Dual-Luciferase assay demonstrated that removing the NTR domain and replacing the CRD groove residues His-116 and His-118 with aromatic residues may significantly enhance antagonistic function of Sizzled in inhibiting Wnt3A signaling. Sizzled is a monomer in solution, and Sizzled CRD exhibited different packing in the crystal, suggesting that sFRPs do not have a conserved CRD dimerization mode. Distinct from the canonical NTR domain, the Sizzled NTR adopts a novel α/β folding with two perpendicular helices facing the central mixed β-sheet. The subgroup of human sFRP1/2/5 and Sizzled should have a similar NTR domain that features a highly positively charged region, opposite the NTR-CRD interface, suggesting that the NTR domain in human sFRPs, at least sFRP1/2/5, is unlikely to bind to Wnt but is likely involved in biphasic Wnt signaling modulation. In summary, the Sizzled structure provides the first insights into how the CRD and the NTR domains relate to each other for modulating Wnt-antagonistic function of sFRPs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  1. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  2. Identification of novel biomarkers to monitor β-cell function and enable early detection of type 2 diabetes risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstine J Belongie

    Full Text Available A decline in β-cell function is a prerequisite for the development of type 2 diabetes, yet the level of β-cell function in individuals at risk of the condition is rarely measured. This is due, in part, to the fact that current methods for assessing β-cell function are inaccurate, prone to error, labor-intensive, or affected by glucose-lowering therapy. The aim of the current study was to identify novel circulating biomarkers to monitor β-cell function and to identify individuals at high risk of developing β-cell dysfunction. In a nested case-control study from the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular disease (RISC cohort (n = 1157, proteomics and miRNA profiling were performed on fasting plasma samples from 43 individuals who progressed to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 43 controls who maintained normal glucose tolerance (NGT over three years. Groups were matched at baseline for age, gender, body mass index (BMI, insulin sensitivity (euglycemic clamp and β-cell glucose sensitivity (mathematical modeling. Proteomic profiling was performed using the SomaLogic platform (Colorado, USA; miRNA expression was performed using a modified RT-PCR protocol (Regulus Therapeutics, California, USA. Results showed differentially expressed proteins and miRNAs including some with known links to type 2 diabetes, such as adiponectin, but also novel biomarkers and pathways. In cross sectional analysis at year 3, the top differentially expressed biomarkers in people with IGT/ reduced β-cell glucose sensitivity were adiponectin, alpha1-antitrypsin (known to regulate adiponectin levels, endocan, miR-181a, miR-342, and miR-323. At baseline, adiponectin, cathepsin D and NCAM.L1 (proteins expressed by pancreatic β-cells were significantly lower in those that progressed to IGT. Many of the novel prognostic biomarker candidates were within the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT pathway: for example, Noggin, DLL4 and miR-181a. Further

  3. Tradeoffs between vigor and yield for crops grown under different management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic Milas, Anita; Keller Vincent, Robert; Romanko, Matthew; Feitl, Melina; Rupasinghe, Prabha

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing can provide an effective means for rapid and non-destructive monitoring of crop status and biochemistry. Monitoring pattern of traditional vigor algorithms generated from Landsat 8 OLI satellite data represents a robust method that can be widely used to differentiate the status of crops, as well as to monitor nutrient uptake functionality of differently treated seeds grown under different managements. This study considers 24 factorial parcels of winter wheat in 2013, corn in 2014, and soybeans in 2015, grown under four different types of agricultural management. The parcels are located at the Kellogg Biological Station, Long-Term Ecological Research site in the State of Michigan USA. At maturity, the organic crops exhibit significantly higher vigor and significantly lower yield than conventionally managed crops under different treatments. While organic crops invest in their metabolism at the expense of their yield, the conventional crops manage to increase their yield at the expense of their vigor. Landsat 8 OLI is capable of 1) differentiating the biochemical status of crops under different treatments at maturity, and 2) monitoring the tradeoff between crop yield and vigor that can be controlled by the seed treatments and proper conventional applications, with the ultimate goal of increasing food yield and food availability, and 3) distinguishing between organic and conventionally treated crops. Timing, quantity and types of herbicide applications have a great impact on early and pre-harvest vigor, maturity and yield of conventionally treated crops. Satellite monitoring using Landsat 8 is an optimal tool for coordinating agricultural applications, soil practices and genetic coding of the crop to produce higher yield as well as have early crop maturity, desirable in northern climates.

  4. Monitoring System for Evaluation of Operator Functional Status on Sea Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Varoneckas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the basic concept of a new developed web-based databank for an assessment of seafarers’ functional status during the sea missions. The Web system is based on client-server architecture and the international open source technologies including Apache web server, PHP scripts and MySQL database. The paper focuses on the aspects and first results of the initial practical realization of the web-based databank. The main operational advantage of the developed system is the capability to on-line handle up to a dozen users at the same time. The system includes administrative data and questionnaires. Electronic data entry saves the time and material resources.

  5. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: EIT Imaging to Monitor Human Salivary Gland Functionality: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, K; Karvat, A; Liu, J; Krishnan, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Clinically, there exists a need to develop a non-invasive technique for monitoring salivary activity. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a using the electrical conductivity information from Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to monitor salivary flow activity. Methods: To acquire EIT data, eight Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes were placed around the mandible of the subject. An EIT scan was obtained by injecting current at 50 KHz, 0.4 mA through each pair of electrodes and recording voltage across other electrode pairs. The functional conductivity image was obtained through reconstruction of the voltage data, using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Diffuse Optical Tomography Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) in Matlab. In using EIDORS, forward solution was obtained using a user-defined finite element model shape and inverse solution was obtained using one-step Gaussian solver. EIT scans of volunteer research team members were acquired for three different physiological states: pre-stimulation, stimulation and post-stimulation. For pre-stimulation phase, data were collected in intervals of 5 minutes for 15 minutes. The salivary glands were then stimulated in the subject using lemon and the data were collected immediately. Post-stimulation data were collected at 4 different timings after stimulation. Results: Variations were observed in the electrical conductivity patterns near parotid regions between the pre- and post-stimulation stages. The three images acquired during the 15 minute pre-stimulation phase showed no major changes in the conductivity. Immediately after stimulation, electrical conductivity increased near parotid regions and 15 minutes later slowly returned to pre-stimulation level. Conclusion: In the present study involving human subjects, the change in electrical conductivity pattern shown in the EIT images, acquired at different times with and without stimulation of salivary glands, appeared to be consistent with the change in salivary

  6. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: EIT Imaging to Monitor Human Salivary Gland Functionality: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, K; Karvat, A; Liu, J; Krishnan, K [BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, BC (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Clinically, there exists a need to develop a non-invasive technique for monitoring salivary activity. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of a using the electrical conductivity information from Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to monitor salivary flow activity. Methods: To acquire EIT data, eight Ag/AgCl ECG electrodes were placed around the mandible of the subject. An EIT scan was obtained by injecting current at 50 KHz, 0.4 mA through each pair of electrodes and recording voltage across other electrode pairs. The functional conductivity image was obtained through reconstruction of the voltage data, using Electrical Impedance Tomography and Diffuse Optical Tomography Reconstruction Software (EIDORS) in Matlab. In using EIDORS, forward solution was obtained using a user-defined finite element model shape and inverse solution was obtained using one-step Gaussian solver. EIT scans of volunteer research team members were acquired for three different physiological states: pre-stimulation, stimulation and post-stimulation. For pre-stimulation phase, data were collected in intervals of 5 minutes for 15 minutes. The salivary glands were then stimulated in the subject using lemon and the data were collected immediately. Post-stimulation data were collected at 4 different timings after stimulation. Results: Variations were observed in the electrical conductivity patterns near parotid regions between the pre- and post-stimulation stages. The three images acquired during the 15 minute pre-stimulation phase showed no major changes in the conductivity. Immediately after stimulation, electrical conductivity increased near parotid regions and 15 minutes later slowly returned to pre-stimulation level. Conclusion: In the present study involving human subjects, the change in electrical conductivity pattern shown in the EIT images, acquired at different times with and without stimulation of salivary glands, appeared to be consistent with the change in salivary

  7. Changes in the practice of environment monitoring at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Centre as a function of experience. Some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandin, M.

    1980-09-01

    From a few examples we have seen signs of a changed attitude towards the environment monitoring of nuclear plants affecting the choice of materials and the way in which they are used. Conversely the development of technology has played its own part during the same period, though it must be said in all honesty that for reasons of cost this development is not quite finished. The changes, whether voluntary or due to the pressure of local conditions, have converged in a general tendency to substitute a degree of 'interventionism' for a relatively passive observation which involves ensuring the respect of Public Health laws and checking that the local characteristics of the biosphere are not affected abnormally by the presence of the Nuclear Establishment. This radicalization 'tends generally to replace the measurement principle by that of detection, at least at the outset. On the technical side it is sometimes necessary to take strict physical measures, as for example in the case of campaigns to establish the radiological state of the locality or of supplementary investigations following an incident. It must be emphasized moreover that the special function of a Research Centre and a certain local caution in radioprotection matters have given the situation a meaning not necessarily transposable to the monitoring of a nuclear power station for example [fr

  8. Vena cava filters and thrombolytic therapeutic monitoring based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy for deep vein thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Liu, Weichao; Fang, Xiang; Zhao, Ke; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), happening in inpatients usually and especially with the postoperative population, is a serious disease characterized by an increased incidence. The venography is the golden standard to diagnose DVT. However, it involves invasive contrast agent injection and give patients physical and mental pressure. Functional nearinfrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has been reported recently to diagnose DVT. Thrombolytic therapy activates the dissolution system with an exogenous activator that dissolves coronary thrombosis. The vena cava filter is a medical filter used for the treatment of thrombosis and the prevention of pulmonary embolism. Here we attempt to use portable NIRS for the DVT monitoring in the whole process of vena cava filter implantation and thrombolytic treatment, and contrast the patients of untreated, vena cava filter implantation and thrombolytic treatment. 19 DVT patients and 12 normal subjects were recruited. Thereinto, 7 patients have taken vena cava filter implantation, and 6 patients have taken the thrombolytic treatment. It was found that deoxyhemoglobins (Δ[Hb]) fluctuates and even increases in DVT. After vena cava filter implantation, Δ[Hb] increases first, then decreases. However, it emerges the rising trend and converge to the curves of normal subjects in thrombolytic treatment. The oxyhemoglobins (Δ[HbO2]) emerges opposite trend in most paradigms. The findings reveal the potential of fNIRS for monitoring DVT and therapeutic effect evaluation of thrombolysis and vena cava filters.

  9. Eco-functional intensification by cereal-grain legume intercropping in organic farming systems for increased yields, reduced weeds and improved grain protein concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, Étienne-Pascal; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Intercropping, i.e., simultaneously growing two (or more) species in the same field for a significant period of time but without necessarily concomitant sowing or harvest, is a practice aimed at eco-functional intensification. This chapter integrates a comprehensive amount of original data from...... field experiments conducted since 2001 on spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops in experimental and farm contexts in France and Denmark, in an attempt to generalise the findings and draw up common guidelines. We have shown that intercrops appear to be a useful agronomic solution for organic......, structure and manuring strategies. Consequently, it should be emphasized that: (i) the species and varietal traits suited to intercropping and organic farming will make it necessary to reconsider the varietal selection criteria; (ii) further mechanistic understanding of the behaviour of intercropping...

  10. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: A systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, M.C.; Poerbodipoero, S.; Robben, S.; Daams, J.; van Hartingsveldt, M.; de Vos, R.; de Rooij, S.E.; Kröse, B.; Buurman, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently

  11. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: a systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Margriet C.; Poerbodipoero, Soemitro; Robben, Saskia; Daams, Joost; van Hartingsveldt, Margo; de Vos, Rien; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Kröse, Ben; Buurman, Bianca M.

    2013-01-01

    To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently at home.

  12. Excitation functions and yields of proton induced reactions at intermediate energies leading to important diagnostics radioisotopes of 52Fe, 77Br, 82Rb, 97Ru, 111In, 123I, 127Xe, 128Cs, 178Ta and 201Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rurarz, E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes investigations of the excitation functions of the proton induced reactions on 14 targets (Mn, Co, Br, Rb, 99 Tc, 113 Cd, 114 Cd, Cd, I, Cs, Ta, 206,207,208 Pb) leading directly or indirectly to the formation of radionuclides 52 Fe, 77 Br, 82 Rb, 97 Ru, 111 In, 123 I, 127 Xe, 128 Cs, 178 Ta and 201 Tl frequently used in diagnostic procedures of nuclear medicine. The measurements of the excitation functions were made over a wide proton energy range from the reaction threshold up to 100 MeV using the stacked foil (or pellet) technique. Small energy steps were used to allow for accurate determination of the structure of excitation functions. For 97 Ru, 111 In and 127 Xe formation with protons, new reaction channels and targets were used and data concerning this method are published for the first time. The data for 52 Fe, 77 Br, 82 Rb, 123 I, 128 Cs and 201 Tl obtained in the present work for the E p =70-100 MeV region are also published for the first time. The measured excitation functions for the formation of desired (and undesired) radionuclides (altogether 28 excitation functions) are compared with the theoretical ones calculated on the basis of a hybrid model of nuclear reactions in the form of the Overlaid Alice computer code. In order to determine the contribution of the competitive reaction channels to the purity of the produced, desired radionuclide, the excitation functions of the accompanying reactions were also calculated. The 122 calculated excitation functions for the possible contaminant are given in the present work. The comparison of experimental excitation functions with the results of model calculations showed satisfactory agreement, especially if one considers, that no parameter adjustment for individual reaction products was undertaken. From the measured excitation functions the production yields for 28 radionuclides mentioned above have been determined (author). 262 refs, 65 figs, 34 tabs

  13. Near-roadway monitoring of vehicle emissions as a function of mode of operation for light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dongqi; Zhai, Wenjuan; Xiang, Sheng; Hu, Zhice; Wei, Tongchuan; Noll, Kenneth E

    2017-11-01

    Determination of the effect of vehicle emissions on air quality near roadways is important because vehicles are a major source of air pollution. A near-roadway monitoring program was undertaken in Chicago between August 4 and October 30, 2014, to measure ultrafine particles, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, traffic volume and speed, and wind direction and speed. The objective of this study was to develop a method to relate short-term changes in traffic mode of operation to air quality near roadways using data averaged over 5-min intervals to provide a better understanding of the processes controlling air pollution concentrations near roadways. Three different types of data analysis are provided to demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained from a near-roadway sampling program based on 5-min measurements: (1) development of vehicle emission factors (EFs) for ultrafine particles as a function of vehicle mode of operation, (2) comparison of measured and modeled CO 2 concentrations, and (3) application of dispersion models to determine concentrations near roadways. EFs for ultrafine particles are developed that are a function of traffic volume and mode of operation (free flow and congestion) for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) under real-world conditions. Two air quality models-CALINE4 (California Line Source Dispersion Model, version 4) and AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model)-are used to predict the ultrafine particulate concentrations near roadways for comparison with measured concentrations. When using CALINE4 to predict air quality levels in the mixing cell, changes in surface roughness and stability class have no effect on the predicted concentrations. However, when using AERMOD to predict air quality in the mixing cell, changes in surface roughness have a significant impact on the predicted concentrations. The paper provides emission factors (EFs) that are a function of traffic volume and mode of

  14. HKHC Community Dashboard: design, development, and function of a Web-based performance monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bors, Philip A; Kemner, Allison; Fulton, John; Stachecki, Jessica; Brennan, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    As part of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC) national grant program, a technical assistance team designed the HKHC Community Dashboard, an online progress documentation and networking system. The Dashboard was central to HKHC's multimethod program evaluation and became a communication interface for grantees and technical assistance providers. The Dashboard was designed through an iterative process of identifying needs and priorities; designing the user experience, technical development, and usability testing; and applying visual design. The system was created with an open-source content management system and support for building an online community of users. The site developer trained technical assistance providers at the national program office and evaluators, who subsequently trained all 49 grantees. Evaluators provided support for Dashboard users and populated the site with the bulk of its uploaded tools and resource documents. The system tracked progress through an interactive work plan template, regular documentation by local staff and partners, and data coding and analysis by the evaluation team. Other features included the ability to broadcast information to Dashboard users via e-mail, event calendars, discussion forums, private messaging, a resource clearinghouse, a technical assistance diary, and real-time progress reports. The average number of Dashboard posts was 694 per grantee during the grant period. Technical assistance providers and grantees uploaded a total of 1304 resource documents. The Dashboard functions with the highest grantee satisfaction were its interfaces for sharing and progress documentation. A majority of Dashboard users (69%) indicated a preference for continued access to the Dashboard's uploaded resource documents. The Dashboard was a useful and innovative tool for participatory evaluation of a large national grant program. While progress documentation added some burden to local project staff

  15. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful postharvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (N)...

  16. Outpatient versus inpatient mixed meal tolerance and arginine stimulation testing yields comparable measures of variability for assessment of beta cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha S. Shankar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard practice to minimize variability in beta cell function (BCF measurement is to test in inpatient (IP settings. IP testing strains trial subjects, investigators, and budgets. Outpatient (OP testing may be a solution although there are few reports on OP BCF testing variability. We compared variability metrics between OP and IP from a standardized mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT and arginine stimulation test (AST in two separate type 2 diabetes (T2DM cohorts (OP, n = 20; IP n = 22 in test-retest design. MMTT variables included: insulin sensitivity (Si; beta cell responsivity (Φtot; and disposition index (DItot = Si* Φtot following 470 kCal meal. AST variables included: acute insulin response to arginine (AIRarg and during hyperglycemia (AIRargMAX. Results: Baseline characteristics were well-matched. Between and within subject variance for each parameter across cohorts, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC-a measure of reproducibility across parameters were generally comparable for OP to IP. Table summarizes the ICC results for each key parameter and cohort.Test/ParameterOutpatient (95% CIInpatient (95% CIMMTT: Si0.49(0,0.690.28(0,0.60MMTT: Φtot0.65(0.16,0.890.81(0.44,0.93MMTT: DI0.67(0,0.830.36(0,0.69AST: AIR Arg0.96(0.88,0.980.84(0.59,0.94AST: AIR Arg Max0.97(0.90,0.990.95(0.86,0.97AST: ISR0.93(0.77,0.970.93(0.82,0.96In conclusion, the variability (reproducibility of BCF measures from standardized MMTT and AST is comparable between OP and IP settings. These observations have significant implications for complexity and cost of metabolic studies.

  17. Produtividade de híbridos de milho em função da velocidade de semeadura Corn hibrids yield as a function of seeding speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson J. R. Mello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido na área experimental do Laboratório de Máquinas e Mecanização Agrícola da UNESP - Jaboticabal, em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico, em preparo convencional. Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento e os componentes de produção de dois híbridos de milho (DKB 390, simples e DKB 435, duplo em função de três velocidades do conjunto trator-semeadora-adubadora (5,4; 6,8 e 9,8 km h-1, totalizando seis tratamentos, com quatro repetições, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3. Os resultados evidenciaram que o aumento da velocidade do conjunto trator-semeadora-adubadora reduziu a produtividade de grãos para o híbrido simples e não interferiu na produtividade do híbrido duplo. Apenas na menor velocidade (5,4 km h-1, o híbrido simples apresentou maior produtividade de grãos, comparado com o híbrido duplo. O aumento da velocidade na operação de semeadura reduziu a percentagem de espaçamentos normais entre as sementes, independentemente do híbrido estudado.The present work was lead in the experimental area of the Laboratory of Machines and Agricultural Mechanization of the São Paulo State University, Jaboticabal, Brazil, in a soil classified as Haplustox, in conventional tillage. It had been evaluated the development and the components of production of two hybrids of corn (DKB 390, simple and DKB 435, double in function of three speeds of the set tractor-seeder-fertilizer (5.4; 6.8 and 9.8 km h-1, totalizing six treatments with four repetitions in a randomized block-type design, factorial 2 x 3. The results had evidenced that the increase of the speed of the tractor-seeder-fertilizer set, reduced the productivity of grains for the simple hybrid and did not interfered with the productivity of the double hybrid. But in the lower speed the simple hybrid presented greater productivity of grains when compared with the double hybrid. The increase of the speed in the operation of seeding

  18. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care: Perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning after 12 months of preventive monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara eLay; Barbara eLay; Thekla eDrack; Marco eBleiker; Silke eLengler; Christina eBlank; Wulf eRössler; Wulf eRössler; Wulf eRössler

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effects of a preventive monitoring program targeted to reduce compulsory re-hospitalization and perceived coercion in patients with severe mental disorder. We analyze patient outcomes in terms of perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning at 12 months. Methods: The program consists of individualized psycho-education, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring. In total, 238 psychiatr...

  19. Statistical modelling and deconvolution of yield meter data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøgersen, Frede Aakmann; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    Data for yield maps can be obtained from modern combine harvesters equipped with a differential global positioning system and a yield monitoring system. Due to delay and smoothing effects in the combine harvester the recorded yield data for a location represents a shifted weighted average of yiel...

  20. Real-time monitoring prefrontal activities during online video game playing by functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Lei; Long, Kehong; Gong, Hui; Lei, Hao

    2018-02-16

    A growing body of literature has suggested that video game playing can induce functional and structural plasticity of the brain. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. In this study, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to record prefrontal activities in 24 experienced game players when they played a massively multiplayer online battle arena video game, League of Legends (LOL), under naturalistic conditions. It was observed that game onset was associated with significant activations in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and concomitant deactivations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and frontal pole area (FPA). Game events, such as slaying an enemy and being slain by an enemy evoked region-specific time-locked hemodynamic/oxygenation responses in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It was proposed that the VLPFC activities during LOL playing are likely responses to visuo-motor task load of the game, while the DLPFC/FPA activities may be involved in the constant shifts of attentional states and allocation of cognitive resources required by game playing. The present study demonstrated that it is feasible to use fNIRS to monitor real-time prefrontal activity during online video game playing. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  2. Vibration monitoring of the primary piping system during the hot functional tests of the Muelheim-Kaerlich PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauernfeind, V.; Bloem, T.; Pache, W.; Diederich, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    During the hot functional tests of the Muelheim-Kaerlich plant, which was the first plant of its type, vibration measurements were made on the reactor pressure vessel and its internal parts and on the primary piping system and the main coolant pumps. This paper contains the results of the measurements taken on the pipes and the pumps with an interpretation of these measurements based on an analytical model of the primary system. The main aim of the measurement programs is to confirm that the components, which are of new structural design, are adequately dimensioned for the operational vibration loads during the service life of the reactor. In addition, the vibrational modes of the hot lines, the steam generators and the pumps with the adjacent cold lines were determined. These values were compared with the analytically calculated resonance frequencies and eigenforms. A good correspondence was found. In the course of these comparisons, information about the modelling of the supporting structures and the efficiency of the damping elements during normal operation was obtained. The vibration of the main coolant pumps was also continuously monitored. The pump surveillance system for each pump includes two non-contacting displacement sensors for measuring the kinetic shaft orbit, as well as velocity sensors for recording the vibrational velocity of the pump motor housing. During the continuous monitoring, it was checked whether the signal amplitudes remained within the allowable limits. In addition the frequency content of the signals was determined periodically. In this way deviations could be detected immediately and be explained by means of subsequent correlation analysis. Thus amplitude changes resulting from resonance effects were identified. (orig.)

  3. Generation of data base for on-line fatigue life monitoring of Indian nuclear power plant components: Part I - Generation of Green's functions for end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    Green's function technique is the heart of the on- line fatigue monitoring methodology. The plant transients are converted to stress and temperature response using this technique. To implement this methodology in a nuclear power plant, Green's functions are to be generated in advance. For structures of complex geometries, Green's functions are to be stored in a data base to convert on-line, the plant data to temperature/stress response, using a personal computer. End fitting, end shield, pressurizer, steam generator tube sheet are few such components of PHWR where fatigue monitoring is needed. In the present paper, Green's functions are generated for end fitting of a 235 MWe Indian PHWR using finite element method. End fitting has been analysed using both 3-D and 2-D (axisymmetric) finite element models. Temperature and stress Green's functions are generated at few critical locations using the code ABAQUS. (author). 10 refs., 11 figs

  4. The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis The rice growth image file...s Data detail Data name The rice growth image files DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945-004 Description of data contents The rice growth ima...ge files categorized based on file size. Data file File name: image files (director...y) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/agritogo-rice-phenome/LATEST/image...ite Policy | Contact Us The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ...

  5. The list of strains and growth conditions - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis The list of strains and growth... conditions Data detail Data name The list of strains and growth conditions DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945...-001 Description of data contents The list of strains and growth conditions for respective samples. Data fil...servation Intervals of imaging Intervals of imaging Growth data Graph of chronological changes in growth Ima...History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us The list of strains and growth conditions - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ...

  6. Development of computer-based function to estimate radioactive source term by coupling atmospheric model with monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiko, Furuno; Hideyuki, Kitabata

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The importance of computer-based decision support systems for local and regional scale accidents has been recognized by many countries with the experiences of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides at Chernobyl in 1986 in the former Soviet Union. The recent increase of nuclear power plants in the Asian region also necessitates an emergency response system for Japan to predict the long-range atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides due to overseas accident. On the basis of these backgrounds, WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is developed to forecast long-range atmospheric dispersions of radionuclides during nuclear emergency. Although the source condition is critical parameter for accurate prediction, it is rarely that the condition can be acquired in the early stage of overseas accident. Thus, we have been developing a computer-based function to estimate radioactive source term, e.g. the release point, time and amount, as a part of WSPEEDI. This function consists of atmospheric transport simulations and statistical analysis for the prediction and monitoring of air dose rates. Atmospheric transport simulations are carried out for the matrix of possible release points in Eastern Asia and possible release times. The simulation results of air dose rates are compared with monitoring data and the best fitted release condition is defined as source term. This paper describes the source term estimation method and the application to Eastern Asia. The latest version of WSPEEDI accommodates following two models: an atmospheric meteorological model MM5 and a particle random walk model GEARN. MM5 is a non-hydrostatic meteorological model developed by the Pennsylvania State University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). MM5 physically calculates more than 40 meteorological parameters with high resolution in time and space based an

  7. Utility, reliability, sensitivity and validity of an online test system designed to monitor changes in cognitive function in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Keith A; Brooker, Helen; Ballard, Clive; McCambridge, Laura; Stenton, Robert; Corbett, Anne

    2017-12-01

    The advent of long-term remotely conducted clinical trials requires assessments which can be administered online. This paper considers the utility, reliability, sensitivity and validity of an internet-based system for measuring changes in cognitive function which is being used in one such trial. The Platform for Research Online to investigate Genetics and Cognition in Ageing is a 10-year longitudinal and entirely remote study launched in November 2015. The CogTrack TM System is being used to monitor changes in important aspects of cognitive function using tests of attention, information processing and episodic memory. On study entry, the participants performed CogTrack TM up to three times over seven days, and these data are evaluated in this paper. During the first six months of the study, 14 531 individuals aged 50 to 94 years enrolled and performed the CogTrack TM System, 8627 of whom completed three test sessions. On the first administration, 99.4% of the study tasks were successfully completed. Repeated testing showed training/familiarisation effects on four of the ten measures which had largely stabilised by the third test session. The factor structure of the various measures was found to be robust. Evaluation of the influence of age identified clinically relevant declines over the age range of the population on one or more measures from all tasks. The results of these analyses identify CogTrack TM to be a practical and valid method to reliably, sensitively, remotely and repeatedly collect cognitive data from large samples of individuals aged 50 and over. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper. PMID:26230694

  9. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Molina-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors. Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  10. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C

    2015-07-29

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  11. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  12. Monitoring performance, pituitary-adrenal hormones and mood profiles : how to diagnose non-functional over-reaching in male elite junior soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmikli, Sandor L.; de Vries, Wouter R.; Brink, Michel S.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). Design A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field

  13. Medical application and clinical validation for reliable and trustworthy physiological monitoring using functional textile: experience from the HeartCycle and MyHeart project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiter, H.; Muehlsteff, J.; Sipila. A

    2012-01-01

    Functional textiles are seen as promising technology to enable healthcare services and medical care outside hospitals due to their ability to integrate textile-based sensing and monitoring technologies into the daily life. In the past much effort has been spent onto basicfunctional textile research

  14. Inconsistency in the Diagnosis of Functional Heartburn: Usefulness of Prolonged Wireless pH Monitoring in Patients With Proton Pump Inhibitor Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penagini, Roberto; Sweis, Rami; Mauro, Aurelio; Domingues, Gerson; Vales, Andres; Sifrim, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The diagnosis of functional heartburn is important for management, however it stands on fragile pH monitoring variables, ie, acid exposure time varies from day to day and symptoms are often few or absent. Aim of this study was to investigate consistency of the diagnosis of functional heartburn in subsequent days using prolonged wireless pH monitoring and its impact on patients’ outcome. Methods Fifty proton pump inhibitotor refractory patients (11 male, 48 years [range, 38–57 years]) with a diagnosis of functional heart-burn according to Rome III in the first 24 hours of wireless pH monitoring were reviewed. pH variables were analysed in the following 24-hour periods to determine if tracings were indicative of diagnosis of non-erosive reflux disease (either acid exposure time > 5% or normal acid exposure time and symptom index ≥ 50%). Outcome was assessed by review of hospital files and/or telephone interview. Results Fifteen out of 50 patients had a pathological acid exposure time after the first day of monitoring (10 in the second day and 5 in subsequent days), which changed their diagnosis from functional heartburn to non-erosive reflux disease. Fifty-four percent of non-erosive reflux disease vs 11% of functional heartburn patients (P heartburn patients (P heartburn at 24-hour pH-monitoring can be re-classified as non-erosive reflux disease after a more prolonged pH recording period. This observation has a positive impact on patients’ management. PMID:25843078

  15. Patient experiences with self-monitoring renal function after renal transplantation: results from a single-center prospective pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lint, C.L. van; Boog, P.J.M. van der; Wang, W.; Brinkman, W.P.; Rövekamp, T.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Rabelink, T.J.; Dijk, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: After a kidney transplantation, patients have to visit the hospital often to monitor for early signs of graft rejection. Self-monitoring of creatinine in addition to blood pressure at home could alleviate the burden of frequent outpatient visits, but only if patients are willing to

  16. Neural signatures of economic parameters during decision-making: a functional MRI (FMRI), electroencephalography (EEG) and autonomic monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Ludovico; Grisoli, Marina; Franceschetti, Silvana; Epifani, Francesca; Granvillano, Alice; Medford, Nick; Harrison, Neil A; Piacentini, Sylvie; Critchley, Hugo D

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive behaviour requires an ability to obtain rewards by choosing between different risky options. Financial gambles can be used to study effective decision-making experimentally, and to distinguish processes involved in choice option evaluation from outcome feedback and other contextual factors. Here, we used a paradigm where participants evaluated 'mixed' gambles, each presenting a potential gain and a potential loss and an associated variable outcome probability. We recorded neural responses using autonomic monitoring, electroencephalography (EEG) and functional neuroimaging (fMRI), and used a univariate, parametric design to test for correlations with the eleven economic parameters that varied across gambles, including expected value (EV) and amount magnitude. Consistent with behavioural economic theory, participants were risk-averse. Gamble evaluation generated detectable autonomic responses, but only weak correlations with outcome uncertainty were found, suggesting that peripheral autonomic feedback does not play a major role in this task. Long-latency stimulus-evoked EEG potentials were sensitive to expected gain and expected value, while alpha-band power reflected expected loss and amount magnitude, suggesting parallel representations of distinct economic qualities in cortical activation and central arousal. Neural correlates of expected value representation were localized using fMRI to ventromedial prefrontal cortex, while the processing of other economic parameters was associated with distinct patterns across lateral prefrontal, cingulate, insula and occipital cortices including default-mode network and early visual areas. These multimodal data provide complementary evidence for distributed substrates of choice evaluation across multiple, predominantly cortical, brain systems wherein distinct regions are preferentially attuned to specific economic features. Our findings extend biologically-plausible models of risky decision-making while providing

  17. High-resolution stable isotope monitoring reveals differential vegetation-soil water feedbacks among plant functional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, T. H. M.; Haberer, K.; Troch, P. A. A.; Gessler, A.; Weiler, M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the linked dynamics of rain water recharge to soils and its utilization by plants is critical for predicting the impact of climate and land use changes on the productivity of ecosystems and the hydrologic cycle. While plants require vast quantities of water from the soil to sustain growth and function, they exert important direct and indirect controls on the movement of water through the rooted soil horizons, thereby potentially affecting their own resource availability. However, the specific ecohydrological belowground processes associated with different plant types and their rooting systems have been difficult to quantify with traditional methods. Here, we report on the use of techniques for monitoring stable isotopes in soil and plant water pools that allow us to track water infiltration and root uptake dynamics non-destructively and in high resolution. The techniques were applied in controlled rain pulse experiments with distinct plant types (grass, deciduous trees, grapevine) that we let develop on an initially uniform soil for two years. Our results show that plant species and types differed widely in their plasticity and pattern of root uptake under variable water availability. Thereby, and through notably co-acting indirect effects related to differential root system traits and co-evolution of soil properties, the different plants induced contrasting hydrological dynamics in the soil they had inhabited for only a short period of time. Taken together, our data suggest that the studied soil-vegetation systems evolved a positive infiltration-uptake feedback in which hydrological flow pathways underlying different species diverged in a way that complemented their specific water utilization strategy. Such a feedback could present an indirect competitive mechanism by which plants improve their own water supply and modulate hydrological cycling at the land surface. The ability to directly measure this feedback using in situ isotope methodology

  18. Medical application and clinical validation for reliable and trustworthy physiological monitoring using functional textiles: experience from the HeartCycle and MyHeart project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Harald; Muehlsteff, Jens; Sipilä, Auli

    2011-01-01

    Functional textiles are seen as promising technology to enable healthcare services and medical care outside hospitals due to their ability to integrate textile-based sensing and monitoring technologies into the daily life. In the past much effort has been spent onto basic functional textile research already showing that reliable monitoring solutions can be realized. The challenge remains to find and develop suited medical application and to fulfil the boundary conditions for medical endorsement and exploitation. The HeartCycle vest described in this abstract will serve as an example for a functional textile carefully developed according to the requirements of a specific medical application, its clinical validation, the related certification aspects and the next improvement steps towards exploitation.

  19. Microencapsulation of β-Carotene Based on Casein/Guar Gum Blend Using Zeta Potential-Yield Stress Phenomenon: an Approach to Enhance Photo-stability and Retention of Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Deepika; Jain, Ashay; Ghoshal, Gargi; Shivhare, U S; Katare, O P

    2017-07-01

    β-Carotene, abundant majorly in carrot, pink guava yams, spinach, kale, sweet potato, and palm oil, is an important nutrient for human health due to its scavenging action upon reactive free radicals wherever produced in the body. Inclusion of liposoluble β-carotene in foods and food ingredients is a challenging aspect due to its labile nature and low absorption from natural sources. This fact has led to the application of encapsulation of β-carotene to improve stability and bioavailability. The present work was aimed to fabricate microcapsules (MCs) of β-carotene oily dispersion using the complex coacervation technique with casein (CA) and guar gum (GG) blend. The ratio of CA:GG was found to be 1:0.5 (w/v) when optimized on the basis of zeta potential-yield stress phenomenon. These possessed a higher percentage yield (71.34 ± 0.55%), lower particle size (176.47 ± 4.65 μm), higher encapsulation efficiency (65.95 ± 5.33%), and in general, a uniform surface morphology was observed with particles showing optimized release behavior. Prepared MCs manifested effective and controlled release (up to 98%) following zero-order kinetics which was adequately explained by the Korseymer-Peppas model. The stability of the freeze-dried MCs was established in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (SGF, SIF) for 8 h. Antioxidant activity of the MCs was studied and revealed the retention of the functional architecture of β-carotene in freeze-dried MCs. Minimal photolytic degradation upon encapsulation of β-carotene addressed the challenge regarding photo-stability of β-carotene as confirmed via mass spectroscopy.

  20. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  1. Real-Time Monitoring of Neutron Capture Cross Section in the IPR-R1 TRIGA Research Reactor as a Fuel Temperature Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, D.A.P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, CNEN, General Severiano Street, 90, 22290-901, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mesquita, A.Z.; Souza, R.M.G.P. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, CNEN/CDTN, Av. Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Martinez, A.S. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, COPPE/UFRJ, Av. Horacio Macedo, 2030, Bloco G, 21941- 914, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear reactor operators have to monitor the behaviour of different nuclear and design parameters that vary in time to ensure the operating safety of the reactor. In recent years several operating parameters for the IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor were monitored and indicated in real-time by the data acquisition system developed for the reactor, with all the data being stored in a hard disk in the data acquisition computer, to build in this way a database. The goal of this work is to insert in the set of parameters already collected the neutron capture cross sections for the fuel, from the power and temperature numbers obtained in real-time. The experimental data was obtained by using a fuel element instrumented with temperature sensors, located in the core of the IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor at the CDTN - Centre for Development of Nuclear. This information is useful for the continuous monitoring of the reaction rate in neutron capture. For that, a new analytical formulation is used for the Doppler broadening function proposed by Palma and Martinez which is free from special functions in its functional form and with easy computing implementation. The results obtained were satisfactory from the standpoint of accuracy in comparison with the numerical reference method and indicate that it is possible to carry out real-time monitoring of the neutron capture cross section in the fuel. (author)

  2. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  3. The relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in monitoring and evaluating Community-based Rehabilitation (CBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Rosamond H; Dune, Tinashe; Lukersmith, Sue; Hartley, Sally; Kuipers, Pim; Gargett, Alexandra; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to CBR monitoring and evaluation by investigating the relationship between the ICF and information in published CBR monitoring and evaluation reports. A three-stage literature search and analysis method was employed. Studies were identified via online database searches for peer-reviewed journal articles, and hand-searching of CBR network resources, NGO websites and specific journals. From each study "information items" were extracted; extraction consistency among authors was established. Finally, the resulting information items were coded to ICF domains and categories, with consensus on coding being achieved. Thirty-six articles relating to monitoring and evaluating CBR were selected for analysis. Approximately one third of the 2495 information items identified in these articles (788 or 32%) related to concepts of functioning, disability and environment, and could be coded to the ICF. These information items were spread across the entire ICF classification with a concentration on Activities and Participation (49% of the 788 information items) and Environmental Factors (42%). The ICF is a relevant and potentially useful framework and classification, providing building blocks for the systematic recording of information pertaining to functioning and disability, for CBR monitoring and evaluation. Implications for Rehabilitation The application of the ICF, as one of the building blocks for CBR monitoring and evaluation, is a constructive step towards an evidence-base on the efficacy and outcomes of CBR programs. The ICF can be used to provide the infrastructure for functioning and disability information to inform service practitioners and enable national and international comparisons.

  4. PREOVULATORY FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT IN HIGH YIELDING COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Tomášek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the development of preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows. The treatment by supergestran and oestrophan was used to synchronize the estrous cycle. Ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. The linear increase of preovulatory follicles was observed in pregnant (P < 0,001 and non-pregnant (P < 0,001 cows during 8 days before ovulation. In conclusion, preovulatory follicles in pregnant and non-pregnant high yielding cows developed similarly.

  5. 3D Modelling and monitoring of denervated muscle under Functional Electrical Stimulation treatment and associated bone structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gargiulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel clinical rehabilitation method for patients who have permanent and non recoverable muscle denervation in the legs was developed in the frame of the European Project RISE. The technique is based on FES and the project results shows, in these severely disabled patients, restoration of muscle tissue and function. This study propose novel methods based on image processing technique and medical modelling to monitor growth in denervated muscle treated with FES. Geometrical and structural changes in muscle and bone are studied and modelled. Secondary effects on the bone mineral density produced by the stimulation treatment and due the elicited muscle contraction are also investigated. The restoration process in DDM is an important object of discussion since there isn’t yet a complete understanding of the mechanisms regulating growth in denervated muscle. This study approaches the problem from a macroscopic point of view, developing 3-dimensional models of the whole stimulated muscles and following changes in volume, geometry and density very accurately. The method is based on the acquisition of high resolution Spiral CT scans from patients who have long-term flaccid paraplegia and the use of special image processing tools allowing tissue discriminations and muscle segmentation. Three patients were measured at different points of time during 4 years of electrical stimulation treatment. In this study is quantitatively demonstrated the influences of FES treatment on the different quadriceps bellies. The rectus femoris muscle is positioned in the middle of the quadriceps and responds (in general better to stimulation. In a patient with abundant adipose tissue surrounding the quadriceps, rectus femoris almost doubled the volume during the FES treatment while in the other bellies the changes measured were minimal. The analysis of the density shows clearly a restoration of the muscular structure in the growing muscle. The remarkable increase of

  6. A quality assessment of the MARS crop yield forecasting system for the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marijn; Bareuth, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Timely information on crop production forecasts can become of increasing importance as commodity markets are more and more interconnected. Impacts across large crop production areas due to (e.g.) extreme weather and pest outbreaks can create ripple effects that may affect food prices and availability elsewhere. The MARS Unit (Monitoring Agricultural ResourceS), DG Joint Research Centre, European Commission, has been providing forecasts of European crop production levels since 1993. The operational crop production forecasting is carried out with the MARS Crop Yield Forecasting System (M-CYFS). The M-CYFS is used to monitor crop growth development, evaluate short-term effects of anomalous meteorological events, and provide monthly forecasts of crop yield at national and European Union level. The crop production forecasts are published in the so-called MARS bulletins. Forecasting crop yield over large areas in the operational context requires quality benchmarks. Here we present an analysis of the accuracy and skill of past crop yield forecasts of the main crops (e.g. soft wheat, grain maize), throughout the growing season, and specifically for the final forecast before harvest. Two simple benchmarks to assess the skill of the forecasts were defined as comparing the forecasts to 1) a forecast equal to the average yield and 2) a forecast using a linear trend established through the crop yield time-series. These reveal a variability in performance as a function of crop and Member State. In terms of production, the yield forecasts of 67% of the EU-28 soft wheat production and 80% of the EU-28 maize production have been forecast superior to both benchmarks during the 1993-2013 period. In a changing and increasingly variable climate crop yield forecasts can become increasingly valuable - provided they are used wisely. We end our presentation by discussing research activities that could contribute to this goal.

  7. Concept for creating program-technical complex of safety monitoring with system of safety parameters presentation functions on the basis of routine WWER-1000 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaev, V.G.; Tarasov, M. V.; Povarov, P.V.

    2005-01-01

    Prerequisites of creating the software-hardware complex for reactor safety monitoring on the Volgodonsk NPP are analyzed and generalized. The concept of this complex is based on functions of the safety parameters presentation system. It will serve as an interface between operator and technological process and give to operator a possibility to estimate quickly the state of the safety of the nuclear power unit. The complex will be created on the basis of routine reactor monitoring and control systems intended for the WWER-1000 reactor. In addition to existing soft- and hard-wares for reactor monitoring and for analysis of technological archive, it is proposed to create and connect in parallel the new software-hardware complex which ensures calculation and presentation of generalized factors of reactor safety [ru

  8. Intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation for preservation of facial nerve function in patients with large acoustic neuroma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bai-yun; TIAN Yong-ji; LIU Wen; LIU Shu-ling; QIAO Hui; ZHANG Jun-ting; JIA Gui-jun

    2007-01-01

    Background Although various monitoring techniques have been used routinely in the treatment of the lesions in the skull base, iatrogenic facial paresis or paralysis remains a significant clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation on preservation of facial nerve function.Method From January to November 2005, 19 patients with large acoustic neuroma were treated using intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation (TCEMEP) for preservation of facial nerve function. The relationship between the decrease of MEP amplitude after tumor removal and the postoperative function of the facial nerve was analyzed.Results MEP amplitude decreased more than 75% in 11 patients, of which 6 presented significant facial paralysis (H-B grade 3), and 5 had mild facial paralysis (H-B grade 2). In the other 8 patients, whose MEP amplitude decreased less than 75%, 1 experienced significant facial paralysis, 5 had mild facial paralysis, and 2 were normal.Conclusions Intraoperative TCEMEP can be used to predict postoperative function of the facial nerve. The decreased MEP amplitude above 75 % is an alarm point for possible severe facial paralysis.

  9. Rendimento do processamento de linhagens de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus em função do peso corporal Process yield of tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus strains in function of body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Bruno dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os rendimentos do processamento de linhagens de tilápias em função dos pesos de abate, um experimento foi conduzido no setor de piscicultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras, M.G. - Brasil. Foram utilizados 93 peixes da linhagem Chitralada e 78 da Supreme, pesando entre 150 e 790 g. Os peixes foram cultivados em dois tanques de alvenaria de 40 m², sendo alimentados com ração comercial fornecida de acordo com a biomassa e a temperatura da água. A temperatura e o oxigênio da água foram tomados diariamente, no início do dia e no final da tarde, e o pH aferido semanalmente. Com o crescimento dos animais, amostras aleatórias foram tomadas. Nas amostragens, os peixes foram abatidos após terem passado por um jejum de 24 horas e insensibilização por choque térmico. Em seguida, foram pesados e dissecados. A análise de regressão indicou que em pesos mais elevados, a linhagem Chitralada apresenta maior porcentagem de cabeça e rendimento de pele. A linhagem Supreme apresentou maior peso de carcaça, filé e resíduos, sendo mais expressivos em pesos superiores a 500 g e menor valor à maturidade para a % de vísceras. Conclui-se que as duas linhagens possuem crescimento das partes componentes proporcional ao aumento do peso corporal, e este aumento não altera o rendimento desses constituintes. A linhagem Supreme apresentou maiores rendimentos de carcaça e filé do que a Chitralada, sendo a mais indicada para a produção e comercialização de filés mais pesados.With the objective of evaluating the yield processing of tilapia strains in function of body weight, an experiment was carried out at the Fish Culture of the Animal Sciences Department, Federal University of Lavras, M.G. - Brazil. A total 93 fish of the Chitralada strain and 78 of the Supreme strain, weighting between 150 and 790 g were used. The fish were cultivated in two tanks of 40 m², fed with commercial ration supplied according to the biomass

  10. Produtividade da cultura da melancia em função de fontes e doses de potássio Yield of watermelon fruits as a function of sources and doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em propriedades rurais próximas à cidade de Borborema - SP, nos períodos de outubro a dezembro de 2001 e de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de melancia (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai, híbrido Tide, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo utilizadas as fontes: cloreto KCl, nitrato (KNO3 e sulfato de potássio (K2SO4 e as doses: 50; 100; 200 e 300 kg de K2O ha-1. Foram avaliados o peso médio de fruto, o número de frutos e produção por planta e produtividade. O maior número de frutos por planta estimado foi obtido nas doses de 190 e 300 kg K2O ha-1, respectivamente, nas fontes KNO3 e KCl. Não houve diferença significativa entre as doses para K2SO4. Para o peso médio de fruto, houve diferença significativa entre as fontes apenas no cultivo de fevereiro a abril de 2002, quando o KCl proporcionou maior peso. A maior produção por planta foi obtida com K2SO4, seguido por KNO3 e KCl. Entretanto, as doses de potássio para as máximas produtividades foram de 132, 193 e 205 kg K2O ha-1, respectivamente, para as fontes K2SO4, KNO3 e KCl. O plantio de outubro a dezembro de 2001 proporcionou maior peso médio, produção de frutos por planta e produtividade, ao passo que o maior número de frutos por planta foi obtido no cultivo de fevereiro a abril de 2002.Two field experiments were conducted in Borborema, State of São Paulo, from periods of October to December of the 2001 and February to April of 2002, with the objective of evaluate the yield of watermelon (Tide hybrid (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai in function of sources and doses of potassium. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with three replications, in a 3 x 4 factorial scheme, being evaluated sources: potassium chloride, nitrate and

  11. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Importance of Monitoring Survivors' Experiences of Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Murayama, Shiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Okamura, Jun; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among Japanese long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Subjects comprised 185 adolescent and young adult (AYA) CCSs who completed anonymous self-report questionnaires. Attending physicians also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. Mean age of survivors was approximately 8 years at diagnosis and 23 years at participation. Multiple regression analysis showed that family functioning, satisfaction with social support, being female, and interactions between family functioning and gender and age at the time of diagnosis were associated with PTSS among survivors. This study revealed family functioning as the most predictive factor of PTSS among AYA CCSs in Japan. Even when the survivor may have unchangeable risk factors, family functioning can potentially moderate the effects on PTSS. Thus, it is crucial for health professionals to carefully monitor and attend to survivors' experiences of family functioning to mitigate PTSS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. [Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging-guided functional neuronavigation plus intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring for microsurgical resection of lesions involving hand motor area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xing-lu; Chen, Zhi-juan; Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Zeng-guang; Yu, Qing; Yue, Shu-yuan; Zhang, Jian-ning

    2013-01-15

    To explore the methods and applications of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI)-guided functional neuronavigation plus intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) for microsurgical resection of lesions involving hand motor area. A total of 16 patients with brain lesions adjacent to hand motor area were recruited from January 2011 to April 2012. All of them underwent neuronavigator-assisted microsurgery. Also IONM was conducted to further map hand motor area and epileptogenic focus. High-field iMRI was employed to update the anatomical and functional imaging date and verify the extent of lesion resection. Brain shifting during the functional neuronavigation was corrected by iMRI in 5 patients. Finally, total lesion resection was achieved in 13 cases and subtotal resection in 3 cases. At Months 3-12 post-operation, hand motor function improved (n = 10) or remained unchanged (n = 6). None of them had persistent neurological deficit. The postoperative seizure improvement achieved Enge II level or above in 9 cases of brain lesions complicated with secondary epilepsy. Intraoperative MRI, functional neuronavigation and neurophysiological monitoring technique are complementary in microsurgery of brain lesions involving hand motor area. Combined use of these techniques can obtain precise location of lesions and hand motor functional structures and allow a maximum resection of lesion and minimization of postoperative neurological deficits.

  13. Yield stress of alumina-zirconia suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, V.; Pradip; Malghan, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    The yield stress of concentrated suspensions of alumina, zirconia, and mixed alumina-zirconia powders was measured by the vane technique as a function of solids loading, relative amounts of alumina and zirconia, and pH. At the isoelectric point (IEP), the yield stress varied as the fourth power of the solids loading. The relative ratio of alumina and zirconia particles was important in determining the yield stress of the suspension at the IEP. The yield stress of single and mixed suspensions showed a marked variation with pH. The maximum value occurred at or near the IEP of the suspension. The effect of electrical double-layer forces on the yield stress can be described on the basis of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. A normalized yield stress--that is, the ratio of the yield stress at a given pH to the yield stress at the IEP predicted by this model--showed good correlation with experimental data

  14. Status of fission yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeck, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described

  15. Incorporation of plasma-functionalized carbon nanostructures in composite laminates for interlaminar reinforcement and delamination crack monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, O. G.; Pedrazzoli, D.; Kovtun, D.; Qian, X.; Manas-Zloczower, I.

    2018-01-01

    A new approach employing carbon nanostructure (CNS) buckypapers (BP) was used to prepare glass fiber/epoxy composite materials with enhanced resistance to delamination along with damage monitoring capability. The CNS-BP was subjected to plasma treatment to improve its wettability by epoxy and to promote stronger interfacial bonding. An increase up to 20% in interlaminar fracture toughness in mode I and mode II was observed in composite laminates incorporating CNS BP. Morphological analysis of the fracture surfaces indicated that failure in the conductive CNS layer provided a more effective energy dissipation mechanism, resulting in interlaminar fracture toughness increase. Moreover, fracture of the conductive CNS layer enabled damage monitoring of the composite by electrical resistance measurements upon delamination. The proposed approach provides multifunctional ply interphases, allowing to couple damage monitoring with interlaminar reinforcement of composite laminates.

  16. In-season monitoring of hip and groin strength, health and function in elite youth soccer: Implementing an early detection and management strategy over two consecutive seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Welvaert, Marijke; Pizzari, Tania

    2018-03-14

    The primary purpose of this study was to describe an early detection and management strategy when monitoring in-season hip and groin strength, health and function in soccer. Secondly to compare pre-season to in-season test results. Longitudinal cohort study. Twenty-seven elite male youth soccer players (age: 15.07±0.73years) volunteered to participate in the study. Monitoring tests included: adductor strength, adductor/abductor strength ratio and hip and groin outcome scores (HAGOS). Data were recorded at pre-season and at 22 monthly intervals in-season. Thresholds for alerts to initiate further investigations were defined as any of the following: adductor strength reductions >15%, adductor/abductor strength ratio time-point one (ptime-loss were classified minimal or mild. In-season monitoring aimed at early detection and management of hip and groin strength, health and function appears promising. Hip and groin strength, health and function improved quickly from pre-season to in-season in a high-risk population for ongoing hip and groin problems. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  17. Functions of PTB in monitoring of environmental radioactivity; Die Aufgaben der PTB bei der Ueberwachung der Umweltradioaktivitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wershofen, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Umweltradioaktivitaet; Arnold, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). FB Radioaktivitaet

    2006-12-15

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IMIS measuring system for monitoring of environmental radioactivity and of emissions from nuclear power stations was founded in Germany, with the intention of preventing nuclear accidents or disasters and for early measuring and evaluation of their radiological effects. It works on behalf of the BMU (Federal Minister of the Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety), on the basis of the 1986 StrVG (Act for preventive radiation protection). IMIS is an extensive national measuring system for monitoring or radioactivity throughout Germany and in all relevant environmental media. (orig.)

  18. Yielding and flow of sheared colloidal glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petekidis, G; Vlassopoulos, D; Pusey, P N

    2004-01-01

    We have studied some of the rheological properties of suspensions of hard-sphere colloids with particular reference to behaviour near the concentration of the glass transition. First we monitored the strain on the samples during and after a transient step stress. We find that, at all values of applied step stress, colloidal glasses show a rapid, apparently elastic, recovery of strain after the stress is removed. This recovery is found even in samples which have flowed significantly during stressing. We attribute this behaviour to 'cage elasticity', the recovery of the stress-induced distorted environment of any particle to a more isotropic state when the stress is removed. Second, we monitored the stress as the strain rate dot γ of flowing samples was slowly decreased. Suspensions which are glassy at rest show a stress which becomes independent of dot γ as dot γ →0. This limiting stress can be interpreted as the yield stress of the glass and agrees well both with the yield stress deduced from the step stress and recovery measurements and that predicted by a recent mode coupling theory of sheared suspensions. Thus, the behaviours under steady shearing and transient step stress both support the idea that colloidal glasses have a finite yield stress. We note however that the samples do exhibit a slow accumulation of strain due to creep at stresses below the yield stress

  19. Global evaluation of a semiempirical model for yield anomalies and application to within-season yield forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Bernhard; Gornott, Christoph; Wechsung, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Quantifying the influence of weather on yield variability is decisive for agricultural management under current and future climate anomalies. We extended an existing semiempirical modeling scheme that allows for such quantification. Yield anomalies, measured as interannual differences, were modeled for maize, soybeans, and wheat in the United States and 32 other main producer countries. We used two yield data sets, one derived from reported yields and the other from a global yield data set deduced from remote sensing. We assessed the capacity of the model to forecast yields within the growing season. In the United States, our model can explain at least two-thirds (63%-81%) of observed yield anomalies. Its out-of-sample performance (34%-55%) suggests a robust yield projection capacity when applied to unknown weather. Out-of-sample performance is lower when using remote sensing-derived yield data. The share of weather-driven yield fluctuation varies spatially, and estimated coefficients agree with expectations. Globally, the explained variance in yield anomalies based on the remote sensing data set is similar to the United States (71%-84%). But the out-of-sample performance is lower (15%-42%). The performance discrepancy is likely due to shortcomings of the remote sensing yield data as it diminishes when using reported yield anomalies instead. Our model allows for robust forecasting of yields up to 2 months before harvest for several main producer countries. An additional experiment suggests moderate yield losses under mean warming, assuming no major changes in temperature extremes. We conclude that our model can detect weather influences on yield anomalies and project yields with unknown weather. It requires only monthly input data and has a low computational demand. Its within-season yield forecasting capacity provides a basis for practical applications like local adaptation planning. Our study underlines high-quality yield monitoring and statistics as critical

  20. [Functional mapping using subdural electrodes combined with monitoring during awake craniotomy enabled preservation of function and extensive resection of a glioma adjacent to the parietal lobe language sites: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, Kento; Saito, Taiichi; Nitta, Masayuki; Tamura, Manabu; Maruyama, Takashi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Surgical resection of gliomas located in the dominant parietal lobe is difficult because this lesion is surrounded by multiple functional areas. Although functional mapping during awake craniotomy is very useful for resection of gliomas adjacent to eloquent areas, the limited time available makes it difficult to sufficiently evaluate multiple functions, such as language, calculative ability, distinction of right and left sides, and finger recognition. Here, we report a case of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, which was successfully treated with a combination of functional mapping using subdural electrodes and monitoring under awake craniotomy for glioma. A 32-year-old man presented with generalized seizure. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a non-enhanced tumor in the left angular and supramarginal gyri. In addition, the tumor showed high accumulation on 11C-methionine positron emission tomography(PET)(tumor/normal brain tissue ratio=3.20). Preparatory mapping using subdural electrodes showed absence of brain function on the tumor lesion. Surgical removal was performed using cortical mapping during awake craniotomy with an updated navigation system using intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). The tumor was resected until aphasia was detected by functional monitoring, and the extent of tumor resection was 93%. The patient showed transient transcortical aphasia and Gerstmann's syndrome after surgery but eventually recovered. The pathological diagnosis was anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and the patient was administered chemo-radiotherapy. The patient has been progression free for more than 2 years. The combination of subdural electrode mapping and monitoring during awake craniotomy is useful in order to achieve preservation of function and extensive resection for gliomas in the dominant parietal lobe.

  1. Progress Monitoring Change in Children's Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Functioning: Advancing the State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Julie Sarno; Evans, Steven W.

    2018-01-01

    The studies in this special series examine the effectiveness of direct behavior ratings (DBRs) for use as a progress monitoring tool. In this article, we comment on the findings of the studies in the context of the broader school-based assessment movement and discuss areas for future inquiry within this line of research.

  2. Télémonitorage des grandes fonctions physiologiques chez les primates vigiles Remote monitoring of physiologic functions in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Germain

    2011-02-01

    animal, are now commercially available. They allow detailed monitoring of physiological parameters of the cardiovascular, nervous, musculoskeletal, metabolic, respiratory and reproductive systems in nonhuman primates entirely free of their movements. They are widely used in pharmacology and toxicology studies. Others devices still at the experimental state, also include the combination of telemetric recordings of pressure, muscle biopotentials, nerve biopotentials or temperature, with audio and video signals that can themselves be transferred by telemetry. The development of future systems will probably focus on the increasing need for characterizing highly mobile individuals or groups of animals in complex environments using the least invasive methods. These systems should help characterizing the trends of certain physiological states (ethophysiological studies, field studies or pathophysiologic states (pathology, pharmacology quickly enough to alert the observers so that they can apply feedback corrective actions when necessary. Whole domains of major physiological functions such as metabolic and hormonal regulations cannot yet be explored directly by telemetry. More advanced concepts such as hormonal or metabolic biosensors are being validated in the laboratory and could become accessible to telemetric acquisition in the future.

  3. Respiratory function monitoring using a real-time three-dimensional fiber-optic shaping sensing scheme based upon fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, Thomas; Bhamber, Ranjeet; Lloyd, Glynn; Miller, Martin R.; Dixon, Andrew; Webb, David; Ania Castañón, Juan Diego; Bennion, Ian

    2012-11-01

    An array of in-line curvature sensors on a garment is used to monitor the thoracic and abdominal movements of a human during respiration. The results are used to obtain volumetric changes of the human torso in agreement with a spirometer used simultaneously at the mouth. The array of 40 in-line fiber Bragg gratings is used to produce 20 curvature sensors at different locations, each sensor consisting of two fiber Bragg gratings. The 20 curvature sensors and adjoining fiber are encapsulated into a low-temperature-cured synthetic silicone. The sensors are wavelength interrogated by a commercially available system from Moog Insensys, and the wavelength changes are calibrated to recover curvature. A three-dimensional algorithm is used to generate shape changes during respiration that allow the measurement of absolute volume changes at various sections of the torso. It is shown that the sensing scheme yields a volumetric error of 6%. Comparing the volume data obtained from the spirometer with the volume estimated with the synchronous data from the shape-sensing array yielded a correlation value 0.86 with a Pearson's correlation coefficient p<0.01.

  4. Analysis and detection of functional outliers in water quality parameters from different automated monitoring stations in the Nalón river basin (Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro Di Blasi, J I; Martínez Torres, J; García Nieto, P J; Alonso Fernández, J R; Díaz Muñiz, C; Taboada, J

    2015-01-01

    The purposes and intent of the authorities in establishing water quality standards are to provide enhancement of water quality and prevention of pollution to protect the public health or welfare in accordance with the public interest for drinking water supplies, conservation of fish, wildlife and other beneficial aquatic life, and agricultural, industrial, recreational, and other reasonable and necessary uses as well as to maintain and improve the biological integrity of the waters. In this way, water quality controls involve a large number of variables and observations, often subject to some outliers. An outlier is an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data or that appears to deviate markedly from other members of the sample in which it occurs. An interesting analysis is to find those observations that produce measurements that are different from the pattern established in the sample. Therefore, identification of atypical observations is an important concern in water quality monitoring and a difficult task because of the multivariate nature of water quality data. Our study provides a new method for detecting outliers in water quality monitoring parameters, using turbidity, conductivity and ammonium ion as indicator variables. Until now, methods were based on considering the different parameters as a vector whose components were their concentration values. This innovative approach lies in considering water quality monitoring over time as continuous curves instead of discrete points, that is to say, the dataset of the problem are considered as a time-dependent function and not as a set of discrete values in different time instants. This new methodology, which is based on the concept of functional depth, was applied to the detection of outliers in water quality monitoring samples in the Nalón river basin with success. Results of this study were discussed here in terms of origin, causes, etc. Finally, the conclusions as well as advantages of

  5. Development of web monitoring radiation area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hoon Jin; Lee, Jun Hee; Namkoong, Phil; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lee, Su Hong; Lee, Gun Bae

    2005-01-01

    Recently the increasing number of radioisotope industry and nuclear facility have ever raised the possibility of radiation safety accident. As such a result, radioisotope companies and nuclear facility operators have become to be much interested in radiation area monitoring for efficient radiation protection. At present, almost of the radiation area monitors which are imported products are outdated in aspect of their functions. Diversification of the monitoring work is urgently demanding additional functions to be added. Thus we have developed new-type digital area monitor which enables remote web monitoring with image and radiation dose rate value at distant places through using internet, the latest IT technology, and radiation measurement technology

  6. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining soil fertility is one of the major problems causing yield reduction of barley ... (VC) with inorganic NP on growth, yield and yield components of food barley. ... The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with ...

  7. Monitoring natural phytoplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraguchi, L.; Jakobsen, H. H.; Lundholm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    The phytoplankton community can vary within hours (physiology) to years (climatic and anthropogenic responses), and monitoring at different timescales is relevant for understanding community functioning and assessing changes. However, standard techniques used in monitoring programmes are time...

  8. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  9. A low-power and miniaturized electrocardiograph data collection system with smart textile electrodes for monitoring of cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ming; Xiao, Xueliang; Chen, Xin; Lin, Haoming; Wu, Wanqing; Chen, Siping

    2016-12-01

    With the increasing aging population as well as health concerns, chronic heart disease has become the focus of public attention. A comfortable, low-powered, and wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) system for continuously monitoring the elderly's ECG signals over several hours is important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. Traditional ECG monitoring apparatus is often inconvenient to carry, has many electrodes to attach to the chest, and has a high-power consumption. There is also a challenge to design an electrocardiograph that satisfies requirements such as comfort, confinement, and compactness. Based on these considerations, this study presents a biosensor acquisition system for wearable, ubiquitous healthcare applications using three textile electrodes and a recording circuit specialized for ECG monitoring. In addition, several methods were adopted to reduce the power consumption of the device. The proposed system is composed of three parts: (1) an ECG analog front end (AFE), (2) digital signal processing and micro-control circuits, and (3) system software. Digital filter methods were used to eliminate the baseline wander, skin contact noise, and other interfering signals. A comparative study was conducted using this system to observe its performance with two commercial Holter monitors. The experimental results demonstrated that the total power consumption of this proposed system in a full round of ECG acquisition was only 29.74 mW. In addition, this low-power system performed well and stably measured the heart rate with an accuracy of 98.55 %. It can also contain a real-time dynamic display with organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) and wirelessly transmit information via a Bluetooth 4.0 module.

  10. Rice yield estimation with multi-temporal Radarsat-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Farn; Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Cheng-Ru

    2015-04-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in Taiwan. Monitoring rice crop yield is thus crucial for agronomic planners to formulate successful strategies to address national food security and rice grain export issues. However, there is a real challenge for this monitoring purpose because the size of rice fields in Taiwan was generally small and fragmented, and the cropping calendar was also different from region to region. Thus, satellite-based estimation of rice crop yield requires the data that have sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions. This study aimed to develop models to estimate rice crop yield from multi-temporal Radarsat-2 data (5 m resolution). Data processing were carried out for the first rice cropping season from February to July in 2014 in the western part of Taiwan, consisting of four main steps: (1) constructing time-series backscattering coefficient data, (2) spatiotemporal noise filtering of the time-series data, (3) establishment of crop yield models using the time-series backscattering coefficients and in-situ measured yield data, and (4) model validation using field data and government's yield statistics. The results indicated that backscattering behavior varied from region to region due to changes in cultural practices and cropping calendars. The highest correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.8) was obtained at the ripening period. The robustness of the established models was evaluated by comparisons between the estimated yields and in-situ measured yield data showed satisfactory results, with the root mean squared error (RMSE) smaller than 10%. Such results were reaffirmed by the correlation analysis between the estimated yields and government's rice yield statistics (R2 > 0.8). This study demonstrates advantages of using multi-temporal Radarsat-2 backscattering data for estimating rice crop yields in Taiwan prior to the harvesting period, and thus the methods were proposed for rice yield monitoring in other regions.

  11. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is recommended in the clinical management of children with a solitary functioning kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westland, R.; Schreuder, M.F.; Lof, D.F. van der; Vermeulen, A.; Meer, I.M. van der; Bokenkamp, A.; Wijk, J.A. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with a solitary functioning kidney are at increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Hypertension may be an early indicator of renal dysfunction in these patients. We determined blood pressure (BP) profiles of children with a solitary functioning kidney by using

  12. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  13. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Cognitive Control Functions of Performance Monitoring and Conflict Processing: An Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Primosch, Mark; Leyton, Marco; Steffensen, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Studies using medications and psychiatric populations implicate dopamine in cognitive control and performance monitoring processes. However, side effects associated with medication or studying psychiatric groups may confound the relationship between dopamine and cognitive control. To circumvent such possibilities, we utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design wherein participants were administered a nutritionally-balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) and an amino acid mixture deficient in the dopamine precursors tyrosine (TYR) and phenylalanine (PHE) on two separate occasions. Order of sessions was randomly assigned. Cognitive control and performance monitoring were assessed using response times (RT), error rates, the N450, an event-related potential (ERP) index of conflict monitoring, the conflict slow potential (conflict SP), an ERP index of conflict resolution, and the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe), ERPs associated with performance monitoring. Participants were twelve males who completed a Stroop color-word task while ERPs were collected four hours following acute PHE and TYR depletion (APTD) or balanced (BAL) mixture ingestion in two separate sessions. N450 and conflict SP ERP amplitudes significantly differentiated congruent from incongruent trials, but did not differ as a function of APTD or BAL mixture ingestion. Similarly, ERN and Pe amplitudes showed significant differences between error and correct trials that were not different between APTD and BAL conditions. Findings indicate that acute dopamine precursor depletion does not significantly alter cognitive control and performance monitoring ERPs. Current results do not preclude the role of dopamine in these processes, but suggest that multiple methods for dopamine-related hypothesis testing are needed.

  14. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Cognitive Control Functions of Performance Monitoring and Conflict Processing: An Event-Related Potential (ERP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Larson

    Full Text Available Studies using medications and psychiatric populations implicate dopamine in cognitive control and performance monitoring processes. However, side effects associated with medication or studying psychiatric groups may confound the relationship between dopamine and cognitive control. To circumvent such possibilities, we utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects design wherein participants were administered a nutritionally-balanced amino acid mixture (BAL and an amino acid mixture deficient in the dopamine precursors tyrosine (TYR and phenylalanine (PHE on two separate occasions. Order of sessions was randomly assigned. Cognitive control and performance monitoring were assessed using response times (RT, error rates, the N450, an event-related potential (ERP index of conflict monitoring, the conflict slow potential (conflict SP, an ERP index of conflict resolution, and the error-related negativity (ERN and error positivity (Pe, ERPs associated with performance monitoring. Participants were twelve males who completed a Stroop color-word task while ERPs were collected four hours following acute PHE and TYR depletion (APTD or balanced (BAL mixture ingestion in two separate sessions. N450 and conflict SP ERP amplitudes significantly differentiated congruent from incongruent trials, but did not differ as a function of APTD or BAL mixture ingestion. Similarly, ERN and Pe amplitudes showed significant differences between error and correct trials that were not different between APTD and BAL conditions. Findings indicate that acute dopamine precursor depletion does not significantly alter cognitive control and performance monitoring ERPs. Current results do not preclude the role of dopamine in these processes, but suggest that multiple methods for dopamine-related hypothesis testing are needed.

  15. License - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s Database Last updated : 2011/11/08 You may use this database in compliance with the terms and conditions o...f the license described below. The license specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database an...d the requirements you must follow in using this database. The license for this database... is specified in the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database..., please be sure attribute this database as follows: The Rice Growth Monitoring for the Phenotypic Fu

  16. Antroduodenal manometry: 24-hour ambulatory monitoring versus short-term stationary manometry in patients with functional dyspepsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebbink, R. J.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Akkermans, L. M.; Smout, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the interdigestive and postprandial antroduodenal motility patterns of patients with functional dyspepsia using prolonged ambulatory antroduodenal manometry and to compare these findings with conventional stationary manometry. METHODS: Prolonged ambulatory and short-term

  17. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in. Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers. Zhenxian Gao, Zhanliang Shi, Aimin Zhang and Jinkao Guo. J. Genet. 94, 35–42. Table 1. Functional markers for high-yield or water-saving genes in wheat and ...

  18. Functional near infrared spectroscopy of the sensory and motor brain regions with simultaneous kinematic and EMG monitoring during motor tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; de Campos, Ana Carolina; Stanley, Christopher J; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    There are several advantages that functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) presents in the study of the neural control of human movement. It is relatively flexible with respect to participant positioning and allows for some head movements during tasks. Additionally, it is inexpensive, light weight, and portable, with very few contraindications to its use. This presents a unique opportunity to study functional brain activity during motor tasks in individuals who are typically developing, ...

  19. Electrochemical signature of the grafting of diazonium salts: A probing parameter for monitoring the electro-addressed functionalization of devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Floch, Fabien [LETI/DIHS/LCMS, CEA-Grenoble 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Simonato, Jean-Pierre [LITEN/DTNM/LCH, CEA-Grenoble 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Bidan, Gerard [INAC/DIR, CEA-Grenoble 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: gerard.bidan@cea.fr

    2009-04-15

    The reciprocal influence of the phenylsubstituents and diazonium groups allows to monitor the diazonium reactivity and to electrochemically detect the grafting reaction. Extended understanding concerning the grafting of para substituted tetrafluoroborate aryl diazonium salts p-(R-Ph-N{sub 2}{sup +}, BF{sub 4}{sup -}) was obtained by studying comparatively four compounds (R = NO{sub 2}, NEt{sub 2}, NHPh, NPh{sub 2}) by electrochemistry. For R = NEt{sub 2}, the grafted molecules showed no reversible electroactivity whereas for the aminophenyl substituents, the first oxidation process induced chemical modification of the deposited layers before being totally reversible. The compound with electron withdrawing group (NO{sub 2}) was the only one able to create spontaneous covalent bounding with the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). We observed that the substituent directly acts upon the diazonium reactivity. This effect can be directly monitored through the potential onset value of the diazonium reduction. In addition, the elimination of the diazonium group during electrografting induces a cathodic shift of the electroactivity of the aminodiphenyl and aminotriphenyl groups covalently attached onto the carbon electrode surface. The shift between these electrochemical values may be considered as a signature of the grafting reaction.

  20. Oxygen sensor nanoparticles for monitoring bacterial growth and characterization of dose–response functions in microfluidic screenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jialan; Köhler, J. Michael; Nagl, Stefan; Kothe, Erika

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a microfluidic droplet-based system for non-invasive, simultaneous optical monitoring of oxygen during bacterial cultivation in nL-sized droplets using ∼350 nm nanobeads made from polystyrene and doped with the NIR-emitting oxygen probe platinum (II) 5, 10, 15, 20-meso-tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin (PtTPTBP). Data were readout by a two-channel micro flow-through fluorimeter and a two-channel micro flow-through photometer. The time-resolved miniaturized optical multi endpoint detection was applied to simultaneously sense dissolved oxygen, cellular autofluorescence, and cell density in nL-sized segments. Two bacterial strains were studied that are resistant to heavy metal ions, viz. Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 and Psychrobacillus psychrodurans UrPLO1. The study has two main features in that it demonstrates (a) the possibility to monitor the changes in oxygen partial pressure during metabolic activity of different bacterial cultures inside droplets, and (b) the efficiency of droplet-based microfluidic techniques along with multi-parameter optical sensing for highly resolved microtoxicological screenings in aquatic systems. (author)

  1. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  2. Model based monitoring functions for safer and more efficient operation of remotely operated plants; Modellbaserade oevervakningsfunktioner foer saekrare och effektivare drift av fjaerrstyrda anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, Thomas; Raaberg, Martin [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The increasing demands on profitability lead to an increase in the demands on production units. These demands include an increase in production capacity, in efficiency and a decrease in production costs. To accommodate these demands the tendency is to connect several production units to control and monitor them in one central control room. This generates a huge demand on the operators. They should understand a large amount of different plants. They should understand how the plants act in several operation points and in addition understand how they operate together. This results in the fact that the monitoring and maintenance personnel are not able to have full knowledge about the processes in all these plants. The implementation of a simple device oriented, model based monitoring function will help the personnel in the decision making in process related issues. This report describes methods to easily include process knowledge in the I-C-system. Emanating from known physical facts about the functionality of the devices and use them to combine process values into functions that will describe the status of the device alarms can be created. These alarms are activated if the functionality deviates from the normal operating procedure in specific ways. The primary target group is the plant owners of district heating plants, but the process industry in general is faced with the same problems. The work includes three parts; an investigative part, a compiling part and a describing part. The investigative part involves investigating theories, the normal level of instrumentation and discussions with operators to confirm the alarms and the appropriate actions. The compiling part involves to in the best way mace use of the normal level of instrumentation to achieve the operator's goals with respect to valid alarms. These goals are attained through adapting the existing theory in the area. The describing part includes the presentation of the equations and relations involved

  3. Satellite-based assessment of grassland yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.; Siegmund, R.; Wagner, M.; Hartmann, S.

    2015-04-01

    Cutting date and frequency are important parameters determining grassland yields in addition to the effects of weather, soil conditions, plant composition and fertilisation. Because accurate and area-wide data of grassland yields are currently not available, cutting frequency can be used to estimate yields. In this project, a method to detect cutting dates via surface changes in radar images is developed. The combination of this method with a grassland yield model will result in more reliable and regional-wide numbers of grassland yields. For the test-phase of the monitoring project, a study area situated southeast of Munich, Germany, was chosen due to its high density of managed grassland. For determining grassland cutting robust amplitude change detection techniques are used evaluating radar amplitude or backscatter statistics before and after the cutting event. CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A data were analysed. All detected cuts were verified according to in-situ measurements recorded in a GIS database. Although the SAR systems had various acquisition geometries, the amount of detected grassland cut was quite similar. Of 154 tested grassland plots, covering in total 436 ha, 116 and 111 cuts were detected using CosmoSkyMed and Sentinel-1A radar data, respectively. Further improvement of radar data processes as well as additional analyses with higher sample number and wider land surface coverage will follow for optimisation of the method and for validation and generalisation of the results of this feasibility study. The automation of this method will than allow for an area-wide and cost efficient cutting date detection service improving grassland yield models.

  4. Functional integration of grafted neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons monitored by optogenetics in an in vitro Parkinson model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Jan; Parish, Clare L; Sørensen, Andreas T

    2011-01-01

    Intrastriatal grafts of stem cell-derived dopamine (DA) neurons induce behavioral recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), but how they functionally integrate in host neural circuitries is poorly understood. Here, Wnt5a-overexpressing neural stem cells derived from embryonic ventral...... of post-synaptic currents, and functional expression of DA D₂ autoreceptors. These properties resembled those recorded from identical cells in acute slices of intrastriatal grafts in the 6-hydroxy-DA-induced mouse PD model and from DA neurons in intact substantia nigra. Optogenetic activation...... using optogenetics that ectopically grafted stem cell-derived DA neurons become functionally integrated in the DA-denervated striatum. Further optogenetic dissection of the synaptic wiring between grafted and host neurons will be crucial to clarify the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying...

  5. Use of wave intensity analysis of carotid arteries in identifying and monitoring left ventricular systolic function dynamics in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Rongqin; Qian, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Chengxi; Hao, Baoshun; Huang, Zeping; Wu, Tao

    2014-03-01

    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) of the carotid artery was conducted to determine the changes that occur in left ventricular systolic function after administration of doxorubicin in rabbits. Each randomly selected rabbit was subject to routine ultrasound, WIA of the carotid artery, cardiac catheterization and pathologic examination every week and was followed for 16 wk. The first positive peak (WI1) of the carotid artery revealed that left ventricular systolic dysfunction occurred earlier than conventional indexes of heart function. WI1 was highly, positively correlated with the maximum rate of rise in left ventricular pressure in cardiac catheterization (r = 0.94, p function, and the result is highly consistent with cardiac catheterization findings and the apoptosis index of myocardial cells. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel method for in-situ monitoring of local voltage, temperature and humidity distributions in fuel cells using flexible multi-functional micro sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Ping

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, micro voltage, temperature and humidity sensors were fabricated and integrated for the first time on a stainless steel foil using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). These flexible multi-functional micro sensors have the advantages of high temperature resistance, flexibility, smallness, high sensitivity and precision of location. They were embedded in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and used to simultaneously measure variations in the inner voltage, temperature and humidity. The accuracy and reproducibility of the calibrated results obtained using the proposed micro sensors is excellent. The experimental results indicate that, at high current density and 100%RH or 75%RH, the relative humidity midstream and downstream saturates due to severe flooding. The performance of the PEM fuel cell can be stabilized using home-made flexible multi-functional micro sensors by the in-situ monitoring of local voltage, temperature and humidity distributions within it.

  7. A Novel Method for In-Situ Monitoring of Local Voltage, Temperature and Humidity Distributions in Fuel Cells Using Flexible Multi-Functional Micro Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, micro voltage, temperature and humidity sensors were fabricated and integrated for the first time on a stainless steel foil using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS. These flexible multi-functional micro sensors have the advantages of high temperature resistance, flexibility, smallness, high sensitivity and precision of location. They were embedded in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC and used to simultaneously measure variations in the inner voltage, temperature and humidity. The accuracy and reproducibility of the calibrated results obtained using the proposed micro sensors is excellent. The experimental results indicate that, at high current density and 100%RH or 75%RH, the relative humidity midstream and downstream saturates due to severe flooding. The performance of the PEM fuel cell can be stabilized using home-made flexible multi-functional micro sensors by the in-situ monitoring of local voltage, temperature and humidity distributions within it.

  8. A Novel Method for In-Situ Monitoring of Local Voltage, Temperature and Humidity Distributions in Fuel Cells Using Flexible Multi-Functional Micro Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Ping

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, micro voltage, temperature and humidity sensors were fabricated and integrated for the first time on a stainless steel foil using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). These flexible multi-functional micro sensors have the advantages of high temperature resistance, flexibility, smallness, high sensitivity and precision of location. They were embedded in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and used to simultaneously measure variations in the inner voltage, temperature and humidity. The accuracy and reproducibility of the calibrated results obtained using the proposed micro sensors is excellent. The experimental results indicate that, at high current density and 100%RH or 75%RH, the relative humidity midstream and downstream saturates due to severe flooding. The performance of the PEM fuel cell can be stabilized using home-made flexible multi-functional micro sensors by the in-situ monitoring of local voltage, temperature and humidity distributions within it. PMID:22319361

  9. Alizarin Complexone Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: A Smart System Integrating Glucose-Responsive Double-Drugs Release and Real-Time Monitoring Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhen; He, Dinggeng; Cai, Linli; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Yang, Xue; Li, Liling; Li, Siqi; Su, Xiaoya

    2016-04-06

    The outstanding progress of nanoparticles-based delivery systems capable of releasing hypoglycemic drugs in response to glucose has dramatically changed the outlook of diabetes management. However, the developed glucose-responsive systems have not offered real-time monitoring capabilities for accurate quantifying hypoglycemic drugs released. In this study, we present a multifunctional delivery system that integrates both delivery and monitoring issues using glucose-triggered competitive binding scheme on alizarin complexone (ALC) functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). In this system, ALC is modified on the surface of MSN as the signal reporter. Gluconated insulin (G-Ins) is then introduced onto MSN-ALC via benzene-1,4-diboronic acid (BA) mediated esterification reaction, where G-Ins not only blocks drugs inside the mesopores but also works as a hypoglycemic drug. In the absence of glucose, the sandwich-type boronate ester structure formed by BA binding to the diols of ALC and G-Ins remains intact, resulting in an fluorescence emission peak at 570 nm and blockage of pores. Following a competitive binding, the presence of glucose cause the dissociation of boronate ester between ALC and BA, which lead to the pores opening and disappearance of fluorescence. As proof of concept, rosiglitazone maleate (RSM), an insulin-sensitizing agent, was doped into the MSN to form a multifunctional MSN (RSM@MSN-ALC-BA-Ins), integrating with double-drugs loading, glucose-responsive performance, and real-time monitoring capability. It has been demonstrated that the glucose-responsive release behaviors of insulin and RSM in buffer or in human serum can be quantified in real-time through evaluating the changes of fluorescence signal. We believe that this developed multifunctional system can shed light on the invention of a new generation of smart nanoformulations for optical diagnosis, individualized treatment, and noninvasive monitoring of diabetes management.

  10. Influence of antihypertensive therapy on cerebral perfusion in patients with metabolic syndrome: relationship with cognitive function and 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Nataliya Y; Chernov, Vladimir I; Efimova, Irina Y; Lishmanov, Yuri B

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow, cognitive function, and parameters of 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring in patients with metabolic syndrome before and after combination antihypertensive therapy. The study involved 54 patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) investigated by brain single-photon emission computed tomography, 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and after 24 weeks of combination antihypertensive therapy. Patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly poorer regional cerebral blood flow compared with control group: by 7% (P = 0.003) in right anterior parietal cortex, by 6% (P = 0.028) in left anterior parietal cortex, by 8% (P = 0.007) in right superior frontal lobe, and by 10% (P = 0.00002) and 7% (P = 0.006) in right and left temporal brain regions, correspondingly. The results of neuropsychological testing showed 11% decrease in mentation (P = 0.002), and 19% (P = 0.011) and 20% (P = 0.009) decrease in immediate verbal and visual memory in patients with MetS as compared with control group. Relationships between the indices of ABPM, cerebral perfusion, and cognitive function were found. Data showed an improvement of regional cerebral blood flow, ABPM parameters, and indicators of cognitive functions after 6 months of antihypertensive therapy in patients with MetS. The study showed the presence of diffuse disturbances in cerebral perfusion is associated with cognitive disorders in patients with metabolic syndrome. Combination antihypertensive treatment exerts beneficial effects on the 24-h blood pressure profile, increases cerebral blood flow, and improves cognitive function in patients with MetS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Monitoring renal function in children with Fabry disease: comparisons of measured and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tøndel, Camilla; Ramaswami, Uma; Aakre, Kristin Moberg; Wijburg, Frits; Bouwman, Machtelt; Svarstad, Einar

    2010-01-01

    Studies on renal function in children with Fabry disease have mainly been done using estimated creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The aim of this study was to compare estimated creatinine-based GFR (eGFR) with measured GFR (mGFR) in children with Fabry disease and normal renal

  12. Patient experiences with self-monitoring renal function after renal transplantation: results from a single-center prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lint CL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Céline L van Lint,1 Paul JM van der Boog,1 Wenxin Wang,2,3 Willem-Paul Brinkman,2 Ton JM Rövekamp,3 Mark A Neerincx,2 Ton J Rabelink,1 Sandra van Dijk1,4 1Department of Nephrology, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC, Leiden, 2Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 3Department of Technology in Healthcare, Prevention and Health, Dutch Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO, Leiden, 4Department of Health, Medical and Neuropsychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands Background: After a kidney transplantation, patients have to visit the hospital often to monitor for early signs of graft rejection. Self-monitoring of creatinine in addition to blood pressure at home could alleviate the burden of frequent outpatient visits, but only if patients are willing to self-monitor and if they adhere to the self-monitoring measurement regimen. A prospective pilot study was conducted to assess patients’ experiences and satisfaction.Materials and methods: For 3 months after transplantation, 30 patients registered self-measured creatinine and blood pressure values in an online record to which their physician had access to. Patients completed a questionnaire at baseline and follow-up to assess satisfaction, attitude, self-efficacy regarding self-monitoring, worries, and physician support. Adherence was studied by comparing the number of registered with the number of requested measurements.Results: Patients were highly motivated to self-monitor kidney function, and reported high levels of general satisfaction. Level of satisfaction was positively related to perceived support from physicians (P<0.01, level of self-efficacy (P<0.01, and amount of trust in the accuracy of the creatinine meter (P<0.01. The use of both the creatinine and blood pressure meter was considered pleasant and useful, despite the level of trust in the

  13. Monitoring performance, pituitary-adrenal hormones and mood profiles: how to diagnose non-functional over-reaching in male elite junior soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sándor L; de Vries, Wouter R; Brink, Michel S; Backx, Frank Jg

    2012-11-01

    To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field test to detect the performance changes. Players with a performance decrease lasting at least 1 month were compared with control players without a performance decrease on mood scores and pre-exercise and postexercise levels of stress hormones. Sporting field and sports medical laboratory. Ninety-four young elite soccer players were monitored during the 2006-2008 seasons. Twenty-one players were invited to the laboratory, seven of whom showed a significant performance decrease. Performance change over time, scores on the profile of mood states and premaximal and postmaximal exercise serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol. Players with a performance decrease showed psychological and hormonal changes typical of the non-functional state of over-reaching. Scores were higher on depression and anger, whereas the resting GH levels and ACTH levels after maximal exercise were reduced. ACTH and GH were capable of classifying all but one player correctly as either NFOR or control. Performance-related criteria in field tests are capable of identifying players with worsened mood and adaptations of the endocrine system that fit the definition of NFOR. Performance, mood and hormone levels may therefore be considered as valid instruments to diagnose NFOR in young elite soccer players.

  14. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care: Perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning after 12 months of preventive monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eLay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate effects of a preventive monitoring program targeted to reduce compulsory re-hospitalization and perceived coercion in patients with severe mental disorder. We analyze patient outcomes in terms of perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning at 12 months. Methods: The program consists of individualized psycho-education, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring. In total, 238 psychiatric inpatients who had had compulsory admission(s during the past 24 months were included in the trial. T1-assessment 12 months after baseline was achieved for 182 patients. Results: Study participants reported lower levels of perceived coercion, negative pressures and process exclusion, a higher level of optimism, and a lesser degree of distress due to symptoms, interpersonal relations and social role functioning (significant time effects. However, improvements were not confined to the intervention group, but seen also in the TAU group (no significant group or interaction effects. Altered perceptions were linked to older age, shorter illness duration, female sex, non-psychotic disorder, and compulsory hospitalization not due to risk of harm to others. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that changes in the subjective perspective were fuelled primarily by participation in this study, rather than by having received the specific intervention. The study contributes to a better understanding of the interaction between 'objective' measures (compulsory readmissions and patients’ perceptions and highlights the need for treatment approaches promoting empowerment in individuals with a history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalizations.

  15. The Role of Left Hemispheric Structures for Emotional Processing as a Monitor of Bodily Reaction and Felt Chill - a Case-Control Functional Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunkina, Viktoria; Holtz, Katharina; Klepzig, Kai; Neubert, Jörg; Horn, Ulrike; Domin, Martin; Hamm, Alfons O; Lotze, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The particular function of the left anterior human insula on emotional arousal has been illustrated with several case studies. Only after left hemispheric insula lesions, patients lose their pleasure in habits such as listening to joyful music. In functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI) activation in the left anterior insula has been associated with both processing of emotional valence and arousal. Tight interactions with different areas of the prefrontal cortex are involved in bodily response monitoring and cognitive appraisal of a given stimulus. Therefore, a large left hemispheric lesion including the left insula should impair the bodily response of chill experience (objective chill response) but leave the cognitive aspects of chill processing (subjective chill response) unaffected. Methods: We investigated a patient (MC) with a complete left hemispheric media cerebral artery stroke, testing fMRI representation of pleasant (music) and unpleasant (harsh sounds) chill response. Results: Although chill response to both pleasant and unpleasant rated sounds was confirmed verbally at passages also rated as chilling by healthy participants, skin conductance response was almost absent in MC. For a healthy control (HC) objective and subjective chill response was positively associated. Bilateral prefrontal fMRI-response to chill stimuli was sustained in MC whereas insula activation restricted to the right hemisphere. Diffusion imaging together with lesion maps revealed that left lateral tracts were completely damaged but medial prefrontal structures were intact. Conclusion: With this case study we demonstrate how bodily response and cognitive appraisal are differentially participating in the internal monitor of chill response.

  16. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  17. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Estimate of expected genetic advance in seed yield plant-1 ranged between. 25.90-48.40%. ..... values in fruit and seed yield characters have been reported in culinary melon, ... and Khund, A. 2004. Extent of heterosis and heritability in some.

  18. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial budget analysis also indicates that applications of 46 kg. N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 are ..... (1994) indicated that where the grain yield response is negative, yield reduction is primarily caused by a .... An Economic Training. Manual.

  19. On yield gaps and yield gains in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gou, Fang; Yin, Wen; Hong, Yu; Werf, van der Wopke; Chai, Qiang; Heerink, Nico; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat-maize relay intercropping has been widely used by farmers in northwest China, and based on field experiments agronomists report it has a higher productivity than sole crops. However, the yields from farmers’ fields have not been investigated yet. Yield gap analysis provides a framework to

  20. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... peasant farmers in Nigeria. With the increased ... did not significantly (p=0.05) increase the fruit yield nor the seed yield. Key words: NPK fertilizer, Fruit ..... SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, ...

  1. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  2. Particle debonding using different yield criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Kuroda, Mitsutoshi

    2004-01-01

    Effects of plastic anisotropy in relation to debonding of rigid inclusions embedded in an elastic-viscoplastic metal are studied. Full finite strain analyses are carried out for plane cells assuming plane stress or plane strain. The overall stress strain response is calculated, when the cell......-matrix debonding. Keeping all material parameters fixed, the material response of the plane strain cell is considerably affected, due to debonding at a much reduced overall plastic strain compared to the corresponding plane stress cell. (C) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved....... extent and shape of the particular yield function considered. The required overall straining of the cell for debonding initiation is related to the extent of the yield surfaces, since a high yield stress promotes debonding. Additionally, the maximum overall stress level for the cell is lower for the Hill...

  3. Heliospheric Modulation Strength During The Neutron Monitor Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Alanko, K.; Mursula, K.; Kovaltsov, G. A.

    Using a stochastic simulation of a one-dimensional heliosphere we calculate galactic cosmic ray spectra at the Earth's orbit for different values of the heliospheric mod- ulation strength. Convoluting these spectra with the specific yield function of a neu- tron monitor, we obtain the expected neutron monitor count rates for different values of the modulation strength. Finally, inverting this relation, we calculate the modula- tion strength using the actually recorded neutron monitor count rates. We present the reconstructed annual heliospheric modulation strengths for the neutron monitor era (1953­2000) using several neutron monitors from different latitudes, covering a large range of geomagnetic rigidity cutoffs from polar to equatorial regions. The estimated modulation strengths are shown to be in good agreement with the corresponding esti- mates reported earlier for some years.

  4. Aspects of optimization of the means and methods for monitoring of the Kozloduy NPP personnel functional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandov, E.; Popandreeva, A.; Dincheva, E.

    1993-01-01

    Equipment and methods for testing and evaluation of the physiological and psychological condition of the nuclear power plant operators are the subject of the paper. Reaction-meter, mnemoperceptioscope and the apparatus 'Sredets' have been developed and used in order to test the sensory-motor reactions, the short-term memory and the operation-related memory according to a list of test completion periods and number of mistakes. The strain on the nuclear reactor operators has been found to be greater than that of the personnel in dozens of other professions tested by the same methods. For sustaining the operators efficiency it is considered necessary to develop and implement: 1) fast screening method and equipment for an initial functional condition testing on application for important jobs; 2) methods for current recovery evaluation in connection to the working shift; 3) methods and instruments for a fast incidental functional condition control of the operating personnel. (R.Ts.)

  5. Dynamics of tropomyosin in muscle fibers as monitored by saturation transfer EPR of bi-functional probe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni F Rayes

    Full Text Available The dynamics of four regions of tropomyosin was assessed using saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance in the muscle fiber. In order to fully immobilize the spin probe on the surface of tropomyosin, a bi-functional spin label was attached to i,i+4 positions via cysteine mutagenesis. The dynamics of bi-functionally labeled tropomyosin mutants decreased by three orders of magnitude when reconstituted into "ghost muscle fibers". The rates of motion varied along the length of tropomyosin with the C-terminus position 268/272 being one order of magnitude slower then N-terminal domain or the center of the molecule. Introduction of troponin decreases the dynamics of all four sites in the muscle fiber, but there was no significant effect upon addition of calcium or myosin subfragment-1.

  6. Genetic algorithm based input selection for a neural network function approximator with applications to SSME health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Charles C.; Dhawan, Atam P.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A genetic algorithm is used to select the inputs to a neural network function approximator. In the application considered, modeling critical parameters of the space shuttle main engine (SSME), the functional relationship between measured parameters is unknown and complex. Furthermore, the number of possible input parameters is quite large. Many approaches have been used for input selection, but they are either subjective or do not consider the complex multivariate relationships between parameters. Due to the optimization and space searching capabilities of genetic algorithms they were employed to systematize the input selection process. The results suggest that the genetic algorithm can generate parameter lists of high quality without the explicit use of problem domain knowledge. Suggestions for improving the performance of the input selection process are also provided.

  7. Four hour creatinine clearance is better than plasma creatinine for monitoring renal function in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, John W; Frampton, Christopher M; Walker, Robert J; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Endre, Zolt?n H

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is based on an increase in plasma creatinine, which is a slowly changing surrogate of decreased glomerular filtration rate. We investigated whether serial creatinine clearance, a direct measure of the glomerular filtration rate, provided more timely and accurate information on renal function than serial plasma creatinine in critically ill patients. Methods Serial plasma creatinine and 4-hour creatinine clearance were measured 12-hourly for 24 h...

  8. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 ...

  9. Functional integration of grafted neural stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons monitored by optogenetics in an in vitro Parkinson model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tønnesen

    Full Text Available Intrastriatal grafts of stem cell-derived dopamine (DA neurons induce behavioral recovery in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD, but how they functionally integrate in host neural circuitries is poorly understood. Here, Wnt5a-overexpressing neural stem cells derived from embryonic ventral mesencephalon of tyrosine hydroxylase-GFP transgenic mice were expanded as neurospheres and transplanted into organotypic cultures of wild type mouse striatum. Differentiated GFP-labeled DA neurons in the grafts exhibited mature neuronal properties, including spontaneous firing of action potentials, presence of post-synaptic currents, and functional expression of DA D₂ autoreceptors. These properties resembled those recorded from identical cells in acute slices of intrastriatal grafts in the 6-hydroxy-DA-induced mouse PD model and from DA neurons in intact substantia nigra. Optogenetic activation or inhibition of grafted cells and host neurons using channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 and halorhodopsin (NpHR, respectively, revealed complex, bi-directional synaptic interactions between grafted cells and host neurons and extensive synaptic connectivity within the graft. Our data demonstrate for the first time using optogenetics that ectopically grafted stem cell-derived DA neurons become functionally integrated in the DA-denervated striatum. Further optogenetic dissection of the synaptic wiring between grafted and host neurons will be crucial to clarify the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavioral recovery as well as adverse effects following stem cell-based DA cell replacement strategies in PD.

  10. The added value of impedance-pH monitoring to Rome III criteria in distinguishing functional heartburn from non-erosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savarino, Edoardo; Marabotto, Elisa; Zentilin, Patrizia; Frazzoni, Marzio; Sammito, Giorgio; Bonfanti, Daria; Sconfienza, Luca; Assandri, Lorenzo; Gemignani, Lorenzo; Malesci, Alberto; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2011-07-01

    Functional heartburn is defined by Rome III criteria as an endoscopy-negative condition with normal oesophageal acid exposure time, negative symptom association to acid reflux and unsatisfactory response to proton pump inhibitors. These criteria underestimated the role of non-acid reflux. To assess the contribution of impedance-pH with symptom association probability (SAP) analysis in identifying endoscopy-negative patients with reflux disease and separating them from functional heartburn. Consecutive endoscopy-negative patients treated with proton pump inhibitors (n=219) undergoing impedance-pH monitoring off-therapy were analysed. Distal acid exposure time, reflux episodes, SAP and symptomatic response to proton pump inhibitors were measured. Based on impedance-pH/SAP, 67 (31%) patients were pH+/SAP+, 6 (2%) pH+/SAP-, 83 (38%) hypersensitive oesophagus and 63 (29%) functional heartburn. According to pH-metry alone/response to proton pump inhibitors, 62 (28%) were pH+/SAP+, 11 (5%) pH+/SAP-, 61 (28%) hypersensitive oesophagus and 85 (39%) functional heartburn. In the normal-acid exposure population the contribution of impedance-pH/SAP compared to pH-metry alone/response to proton pump inhibitors in identifying patients with reflux disease and functional heartburn resulted to be 10%. In patients with abnormal-acid exposure, the contribution of impedance-pH/SAP increased by 3%. Comparing impedance-pH testing with pH-metry alone plus the response to proton pump inhibitor therapy demonstrated that the latter ones cause underestimation of reflux disease patients and overestimation of functional heartburn patients. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  12. Model-based optimal monitoring as a design tool for thermal management functions; Modellbasierte Optimalsteuerung als Auslegungswerkzeug fuer Thermomanagementfunktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelt, Christian; Kaeppner, Christoph [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Increasing vehicle and environmental sensoring leads to further improvement of situational control strategies. In case of optimal control, the energy efficiency of the entire vehicle can benefit. However, a truly optimal control often results from a hardware demanding real-time optimization process, which typically cannot be provided by vehicle control units. This article describes a method to support the process of parameter application and function development in the field of thermal management. A heat storage prototype system is used to demonstrate a model based optimal control for a fuel efficient heat flow into the transmission and the combustion engine. Instead of designing an evitable optimal control function and fitting its parameters with a series of vehicle tests, a physically based thermal drivetrain model is used. Due to the model's highly multiple real-time capability, the global optimal dynamic programming method generates a control trajectory depending on the defined environmental conditions. Simpler control patterns are then developed by analyzing these trajectories and by identifying their cause of action. The resulting control strategy is tested by measuring the fuel saving potential on a roller test bench. (orig.)

  13. FUNCTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR RUSSIAN PULSATING MONITOR DEPLOYMENT IN THE GUNITE AND ASSOCIATED TANKS AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas Albert

    1999-01-01

    This document provides functions and requirements to support deployment of pulsating mixer pump technology in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite and Associated Tanks to mobilize and mix the settled sludge and solids in these tanks. In FY 1998 pulsating mixer pump technology, a jet mixer powered by a reciprocating air supply, was selected for FY 1999 deployment in one of the GAAT tanks to mobilize settled solids. Pulsating mixer pump technology was identified in FY 1996 during technical exchanges between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Retrieval and Closure program, the DOE Environmental Management International Programs, and delegates from Russia as a promising technology that could be implemented in the US. The pulsating mixer pump technology, provided by the Russian Integrated Mining Chemical Company, was tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to observe its ability to mobilize settled solids. Based on the results of this demonstration, ORNL and DOE staff determined that a modified pulsating mixer pump would meet project needs for bulk mobilization of Gunite tank sludge prior to deployment of other retrieval systems. The deployment of this device is expected to significantly reduce the costs of operation and maintenance of more expensive retrieval systems. The functions and requirements presented here were developed by evaluating the results and recommendations that resulted from the pulsating mixer pump demonstration at PNNL, and by coupling this with the remediation needs identified by staff at ORNL involved with the remediation of the Gunite and Associated Tanks

  14. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 MHz high-frequency array ultrasound imaging system. Phantom studies show that the Doppler flow mode of the dual mode is capable of measuring the flow velocity from 0.1 to 15 cm s−1 with high accuracy (p-value = 0.974 > 0.05). In the in vivo study of zebrafish, both TD and Doppler flow signals were simultaneously obtained from the zebrafish heart for the first time, and the synchronized valve motions with the blood flow signals were identified. In the longitudinal study on the zebrafish heart regeneration, the parameters for diagnosing the diastolic dysfunction, for example, E/Em < 10, E/A < 0.14 for wild-type zebrafish, were measured, and the type of diastolic dysfunction caused by the amputation was found to be similar to the restrictive filling. The diastolic function was fully recovered within four weeks post-amputation. PMID:25505135

  15. Influence of surface topography on the sputtering yields of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jisheng; Wang Zhenxia; Tao Zhenlan; Zhang Jiping

    1992-01-01

    The sputtering yields of silver have been measured as a function of the fluence of incident Ar + ions (27 keV) using the collector technique and RBS analysis. The irradiated surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the sputtering yields of surfaces with topography are enhanced relative to smooth surfaces of silver, but the extent of the enhancement depends on the irradiation dose. The experimental results can be explained assuming that the surface topography and sputtering yield are a function of incident angle. It is obvious that the surface topography is an important factor to influence the sputtering yield. The term ''apparent sputtering yield'' has specifically been used when referring to the experimental sputtering yield of a surface with topography, to emphasize the difference with a smooth surface. (orig.)

  16. Functional imaging to monitor vascular and metabolic response in canine head and neck tumors during fractionated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rødal, Jan; Rusten, Espen; Søvik, Åste; Skogmo, Hege Kippenes; Malinen, Eirik

    2013-10-01

    Radiotherapy causes alterations in tumor biology, and non-invasive early assessment of such alterations may become useful for identifying treatment resistant disease. The purpose of the current work is to assess changes in vascular and metabolic features derived from functional imaging of canine head and neck tumors during fractionated radiotherapy. Material and methods. Three dogs with spontaneous head and neck tumors received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Contrast-enhanced cone beam computed tomography (CE-CBCT) at the treatment unit was performed at five treatment fractions. Dynamic (18)FDG-PET (D-PET) was performed prior to the start of radiotherapy, at mid-treatment and at 3-12 weeks after the completion of treatment. Tumor contrast enhancement in the CE-CBCT images was used as a surrogate for tumor vasculature. Vascular and metabolic tumor parameters were further obtained from the D-PET images. Changes in these tumor parameters were assessed, with emphasis on intra-tumoral distributions. Results. For all three patients, metabolic imaging parameters obtained from D-PET decreased from the pre- to the inter-therapy session. Correspondingly, for two of three patients, vascular imaging parameters obtained from both CE-CBCT and D-PET increased. Only one of the tumors showed a clear metabolic response after therapy. No systematic changes in the intra-tumor heterogeneity in the imaging parameters were found. Conclusion. Changes in vascular and metabolic parameters could be detected by the current functional imaging methods. Vascular tumor features from CE-CBCT and D-PET corresponded well. CE-CBCT is a potential method for easy response assessment when the patient is at the treatment unit.

  17. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Gan et al., 2003). Nitrogen increases yield by influencing a variety of agronomic and quality parameters. In general, there was an increase in plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant in soybean (Manral and Saxena, ...

  18. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. ... since some combine harvester heads are unable to pick ..... as effected by population density and plant distribution.

  19. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  20. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for monitoring future liver remnant function after portal vein embolization and extended hemihepatectomy: A prospective trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisel, Dominik; Raabe, Philip; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Luedemann, Lutz [Essen University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Essen (Germany); Malinowski, Maciej; Stockmann, Martin; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate changes in liver function after right portal vein embolization (PVE) and extended right hemihepatectomy using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-DTPA-enhanced (Gd-EOB-DTPA) MRI. In this prospective trial, 37 patients undergoing PVE were examined before and 14 and 28 days after PVE and 10 days after extended hemihepatectomy using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. Lobar volume, kinetic growth rate (KGR), relative enhancement (RE) as well as hepatocellular uptake index (HUI) and fat signal fraction (FSF) were calculated for each lobe. RE of the left liver lobe (LLL) was steadily increasing after PVE and decreased to 0.48 ± 0.19 10 days after surgery, which is significantly lower than 14 days and 28 days post PVE (P < 0.05). KGR was 14.06 ± 9.82%/week for the period from PVE to 14 days after PVE. HUI of the LLL increased steadily after PVE and was significantly higher at both 14 and 28 days after PVE compared to pre PVE (P < 0.05). HUI of the residual liver after surgery was lower than before. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may be used to monitor the functional increase in the FLR after PVE and to depict the intraoperative liver injury leading to a decrease in liver remnant function. (orig.)

  1. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for monitoring future liver remnant function after portal vein embolization and extended hemihepatectomy: A prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Dominik; Raabe, Philip; Lüdemann, Lutz; Malinowski, Maciej; Stockmann, Martin; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate changes in liver function after right portal vein embolization (PVE) and extended right hemihepatectomy using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-DTPA-enhanced (Gd-EOB-DTPA) MRI. In this prospective trial, 37 patients undergoing PVE were examined before and 14 and 28 days after PVE and 10 days after extended hemihepatectomy using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. Lobar volume, kinetic growth rate (KGR), relative enhancement (RE) as well as hepatocellular uptake index (HUI) and fat signal fraction (FSF) were calculated for each lobe. RE of the left liver lobe (LLL) was steadily increasing after PVE and decreased to 0.48 ± 0.19 10 days after surgery, which is significantly lower than 14 days and 28 days post PVE (P DTPA-enhanced MRI may be used to monitor the functional increase in the FLR after PVE and to depict the intraoperative liver injury leading to a decrease in liver remnant function. • The most significant FLR volume increase happens within the first 14 days. • No MRI parameter was able to predict the success of FLR growth. • Our data suggest an early resection about 14 days after PVE. • Routine Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI might be suitable to replace ICG-test.

  2. The use of fed batch approaches to maximise yields in bacterial fermentation and protein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    A fermentation facility for the scale up of bacterial and yeast fermentations has been set up at the University of Queensland under the auspices of the ARC Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics. A major application is the production of recombinant proteins for determination of tertiary structures by X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance. For this purpose, large amounts of protein arc needed and the yield from a single fermentation run is crucial to success within constrained laboratory budgets. To achieve maximal yields we are optimising fed batch approaches in bacterial fermentation. Fed batch offers many advantages over batch cultures. Coupled with the ability to monitor online the internal conditions of the fermentation including pH and dissolved oxygen and stirrer cascading functions it is possible to ensure that the nutritional environment of the microorganism is optimised for its growth and or for optimal protein expression. The poster will describe some of our experience in setting up fed batch fermentations and successful applications of fed batches to increasing protein yield. It will also outline services that are available to academic groups outside the University of Queensland For structure determination and functional studies, the production of radiolabelled proteins can also be an advantage. We will describe initial experiments aimed at coupling the principles of fed batch fermentation to the introduction of carbon or nitrogen isotopes into the recombinant protein

  3. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  4. Analysis of the static yield stress for giant electrorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngwook P.; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Seo, Yongsok

    2017-08-01

    Cheng et al. (2010)'s experimental results for the static yield stress of giant electrorheological (GER) fluids over the full range of electric field strengths were reanalyzed by applying Seo's scaling function which could include both the polarization and the conductivity models. The Seo's scaling function could correctly fit the yield stress behavior of GER suspensions behavior after if a proper normalization of the yield stress data was taken which collapse them onto a single curve. The model predictions were also contrasted with recently proposed Choi et al.'s scaling function to rouse the attention for a proper consideration of the GER fluid mechanisms.

  5. Sewage Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  6. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Yield Gap Analysis using Boundary Line Method in Gorgan and Aliabad Katul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nehbandani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increasing the production of crops has been a necessity to reach food security for growing population. Since "expanding acreage" is almost impossible, "increasing the yield per unit of area", is the only possible option. Closing the gap between actual yield and potential yield (yield gap is one of the important methods to increase yield per unit of area. It is necessary to increase yield to primarily identify the factors that contributing in the yield gap in each area. Recognizing potentials as well as the impact of each limiting factor on yield individually, plays an important role in determining the alternative management strategies to achieve maximum performance. Therefore, the present study was conducted in Gorgan and Aliabad Katul county for simultaneous recognition of best management practices, percentage of the affected fields, estimation of soybean yield potential and gaps using boundary line analysis. Material and Methods To quantify the production and estimation of soybean yield gap in Gorgan and Aliabad Katul, Farm management information of 224 soybean farms in the years 2010, 2011, 2013 and 2014 were collected. This information was collected through continuous farm monitoring during the growing season as along with face to face interviews with the farmers. Farms were selected by consulting with agricultural service centers expert in Gorgan and Aliabad districts. Based on the available information at the service centers, only farms , which is different in terms of acreage, cultural practices and harvesting operations were selected. In this study, by plotting the distribution of the yield obtained in each field as the dependent variable against the independent variables (crop management activities, using SAS software and an appropriate function was fitted on the upper edge of the data distribution. Results and Discussion The results showed that the average yield on the farms surveyed was 3507 Kg.ha-1 and by improving crop

  7. Vibration monitoring of the primary piping systems during the hot functional tests of the Mulheim-Karlich PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauernfeind, V.; Bloem, T.; Pache, W.; Diederich, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    During the hot functional tests of the Muelheim--Kaerlich first-of-a-kind plant, vibration measurements were made on the reactor pressure vessel and its' internals and on the primary piping system and main coolant pumps. This paper contains results of the measurements taken on the pipes and the pumps with an interpretation of these measurements based on an analytical model of the primary system. The main aim of the measurement program is to confirm that the components, which are of new design, are adequately dimensioned for the operational vibration loads during the service life of the reactor. In addition, the vibrational modes of the hot lines, the steam generators and the pumps with the adjacent cold lines were determined. These values were compared with the analytically calculated resonance frequencies and eigenforms. Good agreement was found. In the course of these comparisons, information on the modelling of the supporting structures and the efficiency of the damping elements during normal operation was obtained

  8. Sokolow-Lyon voltage is suitable for monitoring improvement in cardiac function and prognosis of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Kenji; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Okumura, Takahiro; Hiraiwa, Hiroaki; Aoki, Soichiro; Ichii, Takeo; Sugiura, Yuki; Kitagawa, Katsuhide; Kondo, Toru; Watanabe, Naoki; Kano, Naoaki; Furusawa, Kenji; Sawamura, Akinori; Morimoto, Ryota; Bando, Yasuko; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2017-09-01

    The clinical significance of electrocardiogram in the assessment of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of recording serial changes in Sokolow-Lyon voltage (∆%QRS-voltage) in one year to estimate left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) and predict a prognosis of IDCM patients under tailored medical therapy. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with mild symptoms (52.1 ± 13 years old; 69% men; NYHA I/II/III/IV; 33/29/6/0) underwent electrocardiography and echocardiography at baseline and 12 month follow-up (follow-up period: 3.9 years). LVRR was observed in 30 patients (44.1%). The ∆%QRS-voltage was significantly lower in the LVRR group (LVRR; -26.9%, non-LVRR: -9.2%, p voltage correlated with ∆%LV end-diastolic diameter (r = .634, p voltage group (voltage is associated with improvement in cardiac function and favorable prognosis in IDCM patients on medical therapy, suggesting that this index is a feasible marker for response to treatment of IDCM. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. MoS2/Pt nanocomposite-functionalized microneedle for real-time monitoring of hydrogen peroxide release from living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin-Xiu; Tang, Li-Na; Yang, Fan; Liang, Feng-Xia; Wang, Hua; Li, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2017-11-06

    This work describes the adaptive use of a conventional stainless steel acupuncture needle as the electrode substrate for construction of a molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) and platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) layer-modified microneedle sensor for real-time monitoring of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) release from living cells. To construct the nanocomposite-functionalized microneedle, the needle surface was first coated with a gold film by ion sputtering to enhance the conductivity. Subsequently, an electrochemical deposition method was successfully employed to deposit MoS 2 nanosheet and Pt nanoparticles on the needle tip as the sensing interface. Electrochemical study demonstrated that the MoS 2 /PtNPs nanocomposite-modified needle exhibited excellent catalytic performance and low over-potential toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 . Not only did the microneedle achieve a wide linear range from 1 to 100 μmol L -1 with a limit of detection down to 0.686 μmol L -1 , but it also realized the highly specific detection of H 2 O 2 . Owing to these remarkable analytical advantages, the prepared microneedle was applied to determine H 2 O 2 release from living cells with satisfactory results. The MoS 2 /PtNPs nanocomposite-functionalized microneedle sensor is simple and affordable, and can serve as a promising electrochemical nonenzymatic sensing platform. Moreover, this superfine needle sensor shows great potential for real-time monitoring of reactive oxygen species in vivo with minimal damage.

  10. Four hour creatinine clearance is better than plasma creatinine for monitoring renal function in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is based on an increase in plasma creatinine, which is a slowly changing surrogate of decreased glomerular filtration rate. We investigated whether serial creatinine clearance, a direct measure of the glomerular filtration rate, provided more timely and accurate information on renal function than serial plasma creatinine in critically ill patients. Methods Serial plasma creatinine and 4-hour creatinine clearance were measured 12-hourly for 24 hours and then daily in 484 patients. AKI was defined either as > 50% increase in plasma creatinine from baseline, or > 33.3% decrease in creatinine clearance. The diagnostic and predictive performance of the two AKI definitions were compared. Results Creatinine clearance decrease diagnosed AKI in 24% of those not diagnosed by plasma creatinine increase on entry. These patients entered the ICU sooner after insult than those diagnosed with AKI by plasma creatinine elevation (P = 0.0041). Mortality and dialysis requirement increased with the change in creatinine clearance-acute kidney injury severity class (P = 0.0021). Amongst patients with plasma creatinine creatinine clearance improved the prediction of AKI considerably (Net Reclassification Improvement 83%, Integrated Discrimination Improvement 0.29). On-entry, creatinine clearance associated with AKI severity and duration (P 33.3% decrease in creatinine clearance over the first 12 hours was associated with a 2.0-fold increased relative risk of dialysis or death. Conclusions Repeated 4-hour creatinine clearance measurements in critically ill patients allow earlier detection of AKI, as well as progression and recovery compared to plasma creatinine. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012606000032550. PMID:22713519

  11. Use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor cortical plasticity induced by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Stowe, Ann; Hodics, Timea; Alexandrakis, George

    2013-03-01

    Electrical stimulation of the human cortex in conjunction with physical rehabilitation has been a valuable approach in facilitating the plasticity of the injured brain. One such method is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) which is a non-invasive method to elicit neural stimulation by delivering current through electrodes placed on the scalp. In order to better understand the effects tDCS has on cortical plasticity, neuroimaging techniques have been used pre and post tDCS stimulation. Recently, neuroimaging methods have discovered changes in resting state cortical hemodynamics after the application of tDCS on human subjects. However, analysis of the cortical hemodynamic activity for a physical task during and post tDCS stimulation has not been studied to our knowledge. A viable and sensitive neuroimaging method to map changes in cortical hemodynamics during activation is functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In this study, the cortical activity during an event-related, left wrist curl task was mapped with fNIRS before, during, and after tDCS stimulation on eight healthy adults. Along with the fNIRS optodes, two electrodes were placed over the sensorimotor hand areas of both brain hemispheres to apply tDCS. Changes were found in both resting state cortical connectivity and cortical activation patterns that occurred during and after tDCS. Additionally, changes to surface electromyography (sEMG) measurements of the wrist flexor and extensor of both arms during the wrist curl movement, acquired concurrently with fNIRS, were analyzed and related to the transient cortical plastic changes induced by tDCS.

  12. Occupational monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, G.-M.A.A.

    1988-10-01

    After to give the principal aim of a monitoring program it gives the philosophy in force in our country and the new one, international. It shows the different monitoring types and the classification related to their functions. The functions are deal with, separately, for workplace and individual monitoring. It shows, also, that the individual monitoring can be used to assess the workplace conditions. It discusses the models that can be introduced to assess the quantities used in the results interpretation from the quantities used in the measurements. It gives an example. Finally it discusses the supplementary functions of monitoring as such reassessment of monitoring programs, selection of the controlled areas and the extent form of medical supervision. (author) [pt

  13. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

  14. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  15. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantz M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  16. Recovery of microbial community structure and functioning after wildfire in semi-arid environments: optimising methods for monitoring and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Martini, Dylan; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2015-04-01

    Introduction In semi-arid areas such as northern Western Australia, wildfires are a natural part of the environment and many ecosystems in these landscapes have evolved and developed a strong relationship with fire. Soil microbial communities play a crucial role in ecosystem processes by regulating the cycling of nutrients via decomposition, mineralization, and immobilization processes. Thus, the structure (e.g. soil microbial biomass) and functioning (e.g. soil microbial activity) of microbial communities, as well as their changes after ecosystem disturbance, can be useful indicators of soil quality and health recovery. In this research, we assess the impacts of fire on soil microbial communities and their recovery in a biodiverse semi-arid environment of Western Australia (Pilbara region). New methods for determining soil microbial respiration as an indicator of microbial activity and soil health are also tested. Methodology Soil samples were collected from 10 similar ecosystems in the Pilbara with analogous native vegetation, but differing levels of post-fire disturbance (i.e. 3 months, 1 year, 5, 7 and 14 years after wildfire). Soil microbial activity was measured with the Solvita test which determines soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst of a dry soil after it is moistened. Soils were dried and re-wetted and a CO2 probe was inserted before incubation at constant conditions of 25°C during 24 h. Measurements were taken with a digital mini spectrometer. Microbial (bacteria and fungi) biomass and community composition were measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Results Immediately after the fire (i.e. 3 months), soil microbial activity and microbial biomass are similar to 14 years 'undisturbed' levels (53.18±3.68 ppm CO2-CO and 14.07±0.65 mg kg-1, respectively). However, after the first year post-fire, with larger plant productivity, microbial biomass and microbial activity increase rapidly, peaking after 5

  17. Structure-function relations in oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex. Fluorescence and infrared approaches to monitor oxomalonate and Na(+ binding effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Granjon

    tryptophan environment of the carboxyltransferase subunit, whereas Na(+ alters the tryptophan environment of the beta subunit, consistent with the function of these subunits within the enzyme complex. Formation of a complex between OAD and its substrates elicits structural changes in the alpha-helical as well as beta-strand secondary structure elements.

  18. Yield and net income of unripe corn in function of the hilling dates / Produção e renda líquida de milho verde em função da época de amontoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diovany Doffinger Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Agromen 2029 unripe corn was studied without and with hilling on 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 and 14-28-42 days after sowing (DAS. Those eight treatments were arranged in a randomized experimental block design, with four replications. The highest heights of plant (176.9 cm and of first ear (83.9 cm were from those with no hilling (SA and the smallest ones (162.4 and 72.9 cm, respectively were from those with hilling on 28 DAS. The greatest yield of ears (56,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (47,000 ears ha-1. The greatest yield of non commercial ears (15,000 ears ha-1 was obtained from 14-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments and the smallest one was from SA (7,000 ears ha-1. Yield of commercial ears varied from 38,000 ears ha-1, on 28 DAS treatment to 41,000 ears ha-1, on 14, 42, 28-42 and 14-28-42 DAS treatments. Costs of yield varied from R$ 1,315.90 ha-1, in SA treatment, to R$ 1,774.17 ha-1, with hilling on 14-28-42 DAS. The greatest net income was R$ 2,684.10 ha-1 with no hilling and the smallest was R$ 2,166.81 ha-1 with hilling on 14-42 DAS. In the conditions that the experiment was carried out it was concluded that the cultivation with no hilling is recommended because it showed the smallest yield cost and the greatest net income.Foi estudado o milho-verde Agromen 2029, sem amontoa e com amontoa aos 14; 28; 42; 14-28; 14-42; 28-42 e 14-28-42 dias após a semeadura-DAS. Os oito tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento experimental blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As maiores alturas da planta (176,9 cm e da primeira espiga (83,9 cm foram encontradas no tratamento sem amontoa e as menores (162,4 e 72,9 cm, respectivamente no tratamento com amontoa aos 28 DAS. A maior produção total de espigas (56.000 espigas ha-1 foi obtida no tratamento 14-28-42 DAS e a menor foi no sem amontoa (47.000 espigas ha-1. A maior produção de espigas não comerciais (15.000 espigas ha-1

  19. Using Low Resolution Satellite Imagery for Yield Prediction and Yield Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rojas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Low resolution satellite imagery has been extensively used for crop monitoring and yield forecasting for over 30 years and plays an important role in a growing number of operational systems. The combination of their high temporal frequency with their extended geographical coverage generally associated with low costs per area unit makes these images a convenient choice at both national and regional scales. Several qualitative and quantitative approaches can be clearly distinguished, going from the use of low resolution satellite imagery as the main predictor of final crop yield to complex crop growth models where remote sensing-derived indicators play different roles, depending on the nature of the model and on the availability of data measured on the ground. Vegetation performance anomaly detection with low resolution images continues to be a fundamental component of early warning and drought monitoring systems at the regional scale. For applications at more detailed scales, the limitations created by the mixed nature of low resolution pixels are being progressively reduced by the higher resolution offered by new sensors, while the continuity of existing systems remains crucial for ensuring the availability of long time series as needed by the majority of the yield prediction methods used today.

  20. Bulk yields of nucleosynthesis from massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are made of the absolute yields of abundant nuclei synthesized in observed stars. The compositions of nine helium stars of mass 3 or =10M/sub sun/ is estimated. A variety of choices for the initial mass function (IMF) are used to calculate the yield per stellar generation. For standard choices of the (IMF) the absolute and relative yields of 12 C, 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg, the Si to Ca group, and the iron group agree with solar system values, to the accuracy of the calculations. The relative yields are surprisingly insensitive to the slope of the IMF. In a second approach, using standard estimates (Ostriker, Richstone, and Thuan) for the current rate of stellar death, I find the present rate of nucleosynthesis in the solar neighborhood to be about 10%of the average rate over galactic history. This result is consistent with many standard models of galactic evolution (for example, the Schmidt model in which star formation goes as gas density squared). It appears that if the star formation rate is high enough to produce the stars we see around us, then the nucleosynthesis rate is large enough to produce the processed nuclei (except 4 He) seen in those stars. The typical nucleosynthesis source is massive (Mapprox. =30 M/sub sun/); the death rate of such stars is a small fraction (3-10%) of recent estimates of the total rate of supernovae

  1. Internal Electrostatic Discharge Monitor - IESDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wousik; Goebel, Dan M.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses an innovation designed to effectively monitor dielectric charging in spacecraft components to measure the potential for discharge in order to prevent damage from internal electrostatic discharge (IESD). High-energy electrons penetrate the structural materials and shielding of a spacecraft and then stop inside dielectrics and keep accumulating. Those deposited charges generate an electric field. If the electric field becomes higher than the breakdown threshold (approx. =2 x 10(exp 5) V/cm), discharge occurs. This monitor measures potentials as a function of dielectric depth. Differentiation of potential with respect to the depth yields electric field. Direct measurement of the depth profile of the potential in a dielectric makes real-time electronic field evaluation possible without simulations. The IESDM has been designed to emulate a multi-layer circuit board, to insert very thin metallic layers between the dielectric layers. The conductors serve as diagnostic monitoring locations to measure the deposited electron-charge and the charge dynamics. Measurement of the time-dependent potential of the metal layers provides information on the amount of charge deposited in the dielectrics and the movement of that charge with time (dynamics).

  2. Anchor effects in decision making can be reduced by the interaction between goal monitoring and the level of the decision maker's executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, Johannes; Wegmann, Elisa; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2012-11-01

    Models of decision making postulate that interactions between contextual conditions and characteristics of the decision maker determine decision-making performance. We tested this assumption by using a possible positive contextual influence (goals) and a possible negative contextual influence (anchor) in a risky decision-making task (Game of Dice Task, GDT). In this task, making advantageous choices is well known to be closely related to a specific decision maker variable: the individual level of executive functions. One hundred subjects played the GDT in one of four conditions: with self-set goal for final balance (n = 25), with presentation of an anchor (a fictitious Top 10 list, showing high gains of other participants; n = 25), with anchor and goal definition (n = 25), and with neither anchor nor goal setting (n = 25). Subjects in the conditions with anchor made more risky decisions irrespective of the negative feedback, but this anchor effect was influenced by goal monitoring and moderated by the level of the subjects' executive functions. The findings imply that impacts of situational influences on decision making as they frequently occur in real life depend upon the individual's cognitive abilities. Anchor effects can be overcome by subjects with good cognitive abilities.

  3. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  4. Effect of Substrate on Biogas Yield | Adamu | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biogas technology converts biological matter or biological waste (substrate) into energy and simultaneously helps to improve the quality of life and the environment. The effect of substrate on biogas yield was studied by using different substrate in laboratory scale experiment using water displacement method to monitor the ...

  5. Absolute quantum yield measurements for the formation of oxygen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The dynamics of formation of oxygen atoms after UV photoexcitation of .... The SO2 pressure in the cell was typically 30–55 mTorr (monitored by an MKS .... With this value the quantum yield for O(3P) formation could be calculated to.

  6. Part 6: Forest monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this part the results of forest monitoring on Hungarian and Slovak territory are presented. The two countries examine the growth and the health conditions of trees in similar ways. The monitoring sites in the Slovak and Hungarian territories, included in the joint monitoring, are shown on figure. The Slovak Party has already evaluated the wood yield data for 1996, the weekly girth growth observations in 1996 were not performed yet. So far on the Hungarian side only the weekly girth growth data are available for the year 1996, the wood yield data for 1996 are being processed. In the evaluation of Hungarian side only the results obtained for the period from 1992 to 1995 were analysed. Moreover, on the Slovak side an evaluation of the health conditions of trees based on aerial was carried out. The Hungarian party did not carried out such a survey, therefore the evaluation is based only on field (on-the-spot) observations

  7. Crop yield response to water stress imposed at different growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mahmood Shah, M.; Wisal, M.

    1995-01-01

    Potato requires sufficient soil moisture and fertilization to produce high yields but the present water resoures are limited compared to the cultivable land, field experiments were conduced from 1991 to 1995 to study relationship between yield and crop water use as a function of water stress imposed at different growth stages. The irrigation treatments involved application of full and stress watering s selectively at four growth stages : Establishment , Flowering Tuber formation and ripening. In full watering, full water requirements of the crop were met, i.e., ET sub a = ET sub m whereas in stress watering about half the amount of full watering was applied, i.e., ET sub a < ET sub m. Changes in moisture content of the soil pre files after irrigation were monitored with the help of neutron moisture probe in order to compute ET sub a by the water balance method. The results obtained showed that the tuber yield was produced by full watering ( T 1) and the lowest by continuous stress watering (T 2). A plot of relative yield against relative evapotranspiration deficit revealed that ripening was the lest sensitive whereas early development followed by flowering the most sensitive growth stage to water stress. The crop water use efficiencies were generally higher in the treatments where a combination of normal and stress watering was applied compared to where all - normal watering s were applied. The traditional irrigation practice resulted in wasteful water application with relatively lower yields, hence the results from this project will have high value for the farming community to get this higher yields with scarce water resources. The studies with labelled fertilizer showed that planting and earthing - up were equally important growth stages of potato for applying fertilizer for its efficient utilization. 3 figs; 25 tabs; 12 refs (Author)

  8. InfoDROUGHT: Technical reliability assessment using crop yield data at the Spanish-national level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Sergio; Garcia-León, David; Hunink, Johannes E.

    2017-04-01

    Drought monitoring (DM) is a key component of risk-centered drought preparedness plans and drought policies. InfoDROUGHT (www.infosequia.es) is a a site- and user-tailored and fully-integrated DM system which combines functionalities for: a) the operational satellite-based weekly-1km tracking of severity and spatial extent of drought impacts, b) the interactive and faster query and delivery of drought information through a web-mapping service. InfoDROUGHT has a flexible and modular structure. The calibration (threshold definitions) and validation of the system is performed by combining expert knowledge and auxiliary impact assessments and datasets. Different technical solutions (basic or advanced versions) or deployment options (open-standard or restricted-authenticated) can be purchased by end-users and customers according to their needs. In this analysis, the technical reliability of InfoDROUGHT and its performance for detecting drought impacts on agriculture has been evaluated in the 2003-2014 period by exploring and quantifying the relationships among the drought severity indices reported by InfoDROUGHT and the annual yield anomalies observed for different rainfed crops (maize, wheat, barley) at Spain. We hypothesize a positive relationship between the crop anomalies and the drought severity level detected by InfoDROUGHT. Annual yield anomalies were computed at the province administrative level as the difference between the annual yield reported by the Spanish Annual Survey of Crop Acreages and Yields (ESYRCE database) and the mean annual yield estimated during the study period. Yield anomalies were finally compared against drought greenness-based and thermal-based drought indices (VCI and TCI, respectively) to check the coherence of the outputs and the hypothesis stated. InfoDROUGHT has been partly funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competiveness through a Torres-Quevedo grant, and by the H2020-EU project "Bridging the Gap for Innovations in

  9. Excitation functions and yields for cyclotron production of radiorhenium via deuteron irradiation. {sup nat}W(d,xn){sup 181,182,(A+B),183,184(m+g),186g}Re nuclear reactions and tests on the production of {sup 186g}Re using enriched {sup 186}W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manenti, Simone; Persico, Elisa; Bonardi, Mauro L.; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia [LASA, Univ. degli Studi di Milano, Segrate (Italy); INFN Milano (Italy); Abbas, Kamel; Holzwarth, Uwe; Simonelli, Federica [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, IHCP, JRC-Ispra, Ispra (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    Excitation functions, thin- and thick-target yields for the {sup 181-186g}Re and {sup 187}W radionuclides were measured by the activation stacked-foil technique on natural tungsten foils for deuteron energies up to 18.0 MeV. These cross sections were validated by comparing the experimental results for thick-target yields with those calculated by integration of the thin-target yields. It was found that the maximum {sup 186g}Re content by irradiation of natural tungsten is about 55%, a higher value compared with the one found for proton beam, but not sufficient to use natural tungsten for medical purposes yet. Thus, in order to have a higher specific activity A{sub S} of {sup 186g}Re, the use of enriched {sup 186}W target is necessary. Therefore the irradiation of a thick target of enriched {sup 186}W by accelerated deuterons was studied and the results for the production of {sup 186g}Re were compared with those obtained from the irradiation of the same target by accelerated protons. It was found that the deuteron irradiation is preferable for three reasons: larger yield, less contamination by tantalum radioisotopes and smaller required amount of the target, which simplify the separation of the {sup 186g}Re from the target itself.

  10. Bi-functional Au/FeS (Au/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) composite for in situ SERS monitoring and degradation of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Shuzhen; Cai, Qian; Lu, Kailing; Liao, Fan, E-mail: fliao@suda.edu.cn; Shao, Mingwang, E-mail: mwshao@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University (China)

    2016-01-15

    The bi-functional Au/FeS (Au/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) composite was fabricated by in situ reducing Au nanoparticles onto the surface of FeS (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The as-prepared FeS possessed a multi-structure composed of plenty of nanoplates, which were coated by Au nanoparticles with an average size of ∼47.5 nm. While the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} showed a thin hexagonal sheet containing Au nanoparticles on its surface with an average size of ∼79.0 nm. Both the as-prepared Au/FeS and Au/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites exhibited excellent SERS performance, capable of enhancing the Raman signals of R6G molecules with the enhancement factor up to 1.81 × 10{sup 6} and 7.60 × 10{sup 4}, respectively. Moreover, Au/FeS (Au/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) composite also has been verified to have intrinsic peroxidase-like activity, which could decompose H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into hydroxyl radicals and then degrade organic pollutants into small molecules. Therefore, SERS can be used to real-time and in situ monitoring the degradation process of R6G molecules, employing the Au/FeS (Au/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) composite both as SERS substrate and catalyst. Graphical abstract: SERS was used to real-time and in situ monitoring the degradation of R6G, employing the Au/FeS and Au/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites both as SERS substrates and catalysts.

  11. HER2 copy number of circulating tumour DNA functions as a biomarker to predict and monitor trastuzumab efficacy in advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixing; Li, Beifang; Liu, Zhentao; Gong, Jifang; Shao, Lin; Ren, Jun; Niu, Yunyun; Bo, Shiping; Li, Zhongwu; Lai, Yumei; Lu, Sijia; Gao, Jing; Shen, Lin

    2018-01-01

    HER2 status is significant to trastuzumab therapy; however, it is difficult to determine HER2 status accurately with few pieces of biopsies from advanced gastric cancer (AGC) due to highly heterogeneity and invasive behaviour, which will be investigated in this study. Fifty-six patients with AGC were included in this study. Primary tumour tissues and matched plasmas before medication from 36 patients were retrospectively collected, and the other 20 patients with primary tumour tissues and paired plasmas were prospectively collected. HER2 expression and amplification in 56 tumour tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and dual in situ hybridisation (DISH), and HER2 copy number in 135 circulating tumour DNAs (ctDNAs) was judged by next-generation sequencing. For tumour tissues, HER2 amplification by DISH was most commonly found in patients with HER2 score 3+by IHC. For plasmas, HER2 amplification defined as HER2 copy number >2.22 was identified in 26 of 56 patients. There was a high concordance of HER2 amplification between ctDNA and tumour tissues, suggesting that ctDNA could function as an alternative to screen HER2-targeted population. Moreover, the changes of HER2 copy number in ctDNA could efficiently monitor trastuzumab efficacy, the power of which was superior to commonly used markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA199, suggesting its potential role in clinical practice. ctDNA for HER2 analysis was strongly recommended to serve as a surrogate to screen trastuzumab-suitable population and monitor trastuzumab efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ambulatory 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring and high resolution endoscopy distinguish patients with non-erosive reflux disease from those with functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chuanlian; Du, Quanlin; Li, Changqing; Zhang, Linlu; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zuo, Fang; Zhang, Yanmin; Li, Fang; Xie, Guofeng; Li, Yanqing

    2017-01-01

    To assess the contribution of 24-h esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) monitoring and high resolution endoscopy (HRE) with i-scan imaging in differentiating non erosive reflux disease (NERD) from functional heartburn (FH). This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with heartburn from the Endoscopy Unit. NERD patients and FH patients were defined by 24-h MII-pH monitoring and white light endoscopy. Minimal mucosal changes were assessed by HRE with i-scan imaging. Total of 156 consecutive patients with heartburn but without esophageal mucosal erosions were studied. Forty-eight of these subjects had NERD, with increased acid exposure time (AET) and positive SAP and/or SI. Eighteen had FH with normal AET and negative SAP and SI. When compared to FH patients and healthy controls, NERD patients had significantly increased number of total acid reflux episodes, as well as increased number of weakly acidic reflux episodes (p<0.01). The rate of proximal reflux episodes in NERD patients was higher than that of FH patients and healthy controls (p<0.01). Irregular or blurring of the Z-line (58.3%) and white mucosal turbidity (47.9%) were the most common endoscopic findings of minimal mucosal changes observed in this study. NERD patients had more prevalent minimal changes than FH patients and the controls (87.5%vs. 66.6%vs. 61.9%; p = 0.004) with sensitivity of 87.5%. Histopathological evaluation showed that NERD patients had significantly higher average scores of intercellular spaces dilation (2.82±0.9 vs. 1.2±0.6, p = 0.005) and papillae elongation (2.65±1.0 vs. 1.5±0.8, p = 0.014), but not for basal cell proliferation (1.6±1.3 vs. 1.0±0.9, p = 0.070). The histological scores of the NERD patients were 7.1±1.2, which were higher than those of FH patients (3.4±1.0, p = 0.004). Minimal mucosal changes could be useful markers to support clinical diagnosis of NERD. Combination of 24-h MII-pH monitoring and i-scan high resolution endoscopy

  13. Ambulatory 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring and high resolution endoscopy distinguish patients with non-erosive reflux disease from those with functional heartburn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlian Chu

    Full Text Available To assess the contribution of 24-h esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH monitoring and high resolution endoscopy (HRE with i-scan imaging in differentiating non erosive reflux disease (NERD from functional heartburn (FH.This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with heartburn from the Endoscopy Unit. NERD patients and FH patients were defined by 24-h MII-pH monitoring and white light endoscopy. Minimal mucosal changes were assessed by HRE with i-scan imaging.Total of 156 consecutive patients with heartburn but without esophageal mucosal erosions were studied. Forty-eight of these subjects had NERD, with increased acid exposure time (AET and positive SAP and/or SI. Eighteen had FH with normal AET and negative SAP and SI. When compared to FH patients and healthy controls, NERD patients had significantly increased number of total acid reflux episodes, as well as increased number of weakly acidic reflux episodes (p<0.01. The rate of proximal reflux episodes in NERD patients was higher than that of FH patients and healthy controls (p<0.01. Irregular or blurring of the Z-line (58.3% and white mucosal turbidity (47.9% were the most common endoscopic findings of minimal mucosal changes observed in this study. NERD patients had more prevalent minimal changes than FH patients and the controls (87.5%vs. 66.6%vs. 61.9%; p = 0.004 with sensitivity of 87.5%. Histopathological evaluation showed that NERD patients had significantly higher average scores of intercellular spaces dilation (2.82±0.9 vs. 1.2±0.6, p = 0.005 and papillae elongation (2.65±1.0 vs. 1.5±0.8, p = 0.014, but not for basal cell proliferation (1.6±1.3 vs. 1.0±0.9, p = 0.070. The histological scores of the NERD patients were 7.1±1.2, which were higher than those of FH patients (3.4±1.0, p = 0.004.Minimal mucosal changes could be useful markers to support clinical diagnosis of NERD. Combination of 24-h MII-pH monitoring and i-scan high resolution

  14. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes of Five Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0087, and TIS 2532.OP.1.13) were evaluated for yield and agronomic performance in Imo State University Farm, Owerri. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. The planting density was 33,000 ...

  15. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ranged from 0 to -13% indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The mean squares due to GCA for days to maturity, ear diameter, member of kernels per row, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were significant, indicating the importance of additive genetic variance in controlling these traits.

  16. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at ... November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split ... Simple correlation coefficient ® of different crop parameters and grain yield ... The husk bran and germ are rich sources of ..... heat in 2009/2010 dry season at Fadam a ...

  17. Status of fission yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Yield and fruit quality of papaya as function of types and levels of Biofertilizers / Produtividade e qualidade de frutos do mamoeiro em função de tipos e doses de biofertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márkilla Zunete Beckmann-Cavalcante

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizers are organic products usually obtained from an anaerobic process, evaluated mainly as phytoprotectors for agriculture, although they can improve fruit production. By this way, a field experiment was carried out in Remígio County, Paraiba State, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of two bovine biofertilizers on yield, medium mass and quality of papaya fruits (Carica papaya L., ‘Baixinho de Santa Amália’ cultivar. Treatments were distributed in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications and 15 plants in each parcel, in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement, with two biofertilizers: simple (water and fresh bovine manure and supermagro (water, fresh bovine manure, macro and micronutrients and a protein mix, applied in soil under liquid form at five volumes, as follows: 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; e 2.0 L cave-1. There was no statistical difference between biofertilizers for fruit mass, yield and external and internal fruit quality variables, while between volumes differences were registered for both biofertilizers. The results, except for fruit firmness, registered positive effects of the biofertilizers on ‘Baixinho de Santa Amália’ papaya cultivar in relation to yield and physical and chemical fruit quality.Os biofertilizantes são produtos orgânicos geralmente obtidos via anaerobiose, estudados, principalmente, como fitoprotetores para a agricultura, mas que podem também incrementar a produção das plantas. Nesse sentido, um experimento de campo foi desenvolvido, no período de maio/2003 a agosto/2004, no município de Remígio-Pb, para avaliar os efeitos de dois biofertilizantes bovinos sobre a massa média, produtividade e a qualidade externa e interna dos frutos do mamoeiro Havaí (Carica papaya L. cultivar ‘Baixinho de Santa Amália’. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em blocos casualizados com três repetições e 15 plantas por parcela, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5,sendo dois biofertilizantes: puro (água e esterco

  19. Measurement of activity yields for 12C(#betta#, n)11C, 14N(#betta#, n)13N, and 16O(#betta#, n)15O reactions as a function of electron beam energy and angle from the electron beam using thick target produced bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piltingsrud, H.V.

    1983-01-01

    The calculation of activity yields from practical photonuclear target systems designed to produce short-lived positron emitting radionuclides for nuclear medicine purposes requires certain basic information. These include a knowledge of the photon source (bremsstrahlung energy spectrum and intensity as a function of angle from the electron beam) and the #betta#, n activation cross section of the secondary target element. A lack of adequate information concerning these parameters motivated the present study in which activity yields for the reactions 12 C(#betta#, n) 11 C, 14 N(#betta#, n) 13 N, and 16 O(#betta#, n) 15 O were measured as a function of energy of and angle from the electron beam between 16 and 30 MeV and 0 0 and 30.5 0 , respectively. The data indicate highly complex relationships between the activity yield and the experimental variables. Also indicated are possible applications of the data to indicate the energy of an electron beam producing a given bremsstrahlung field in which activation measurements are made

  20. ZNJPrice/Earnings Ratio Model through Dividend Yield and Required Yield Above Expected Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Price/earnings ratio is the most popular and most widespread evaluation model used to assess relative capital asset value on financial markets. In functional terms, company earnings in the very long term can be described with high significance. Empirically, it is visible from long-term statistics that the demanded (required yield on capital markets has certain regularity. Thus, investors first require a yield above the stable inflation rate and then a dividend yield and a capital increase caused by the growth of earnings that influence the price, with the assumption that the P/E ratio is stable. By combining the Gordon model for current dividend value, the model of market capitalization of earnings (price/earnings ratio and bearing in mind the influence of the general price levels on company earnings, it is possible to adjust the price/earnings ratio by deriving a function of the required yield on capital markets measured by a market index through dividend yield and inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The S&P 500 index for example, has in the last 100 years grown by exactly the inflation rate above the stable inflation rate increased by profit growth. The comparison of two series of price/earnings ratios, a modelled one and an average 7-year ratio, shows a notable correlation in the movement of two series of variables, with a three year deviation. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that three years of the expected inflation level, dividend yield and profit growth rate of the market index are discounted in the current market prices. The conclusion is that, at the present time, the relationship between the adjusted average price/earnings ratio and its effect on the market index on one hand and the modelled price/earnings ratio on the other can clearly show the expected dynamics and course in the following period.

  1. Blood and Milk Contents of Triiodothyronine (T3) and Cortisol in Lactating Buffaloes and Changes in Milk Yield and Composition as a Function of Lactation Number and Ambient Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.M. Al-Saied.; Ibrahim, M.Kh.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of lactation number and ambient temperature on T 3 and cortisol levels in milk and blood and milk composition of lactating Water buffaloes was the objective of this study. Two experiment were carried out on 72 animals in two periods through 1994. The first one was carried out on 36 animals during February, where the average of ambient temperature was 17.5 degree while the second was conducted on another 36 animals during July where the average of ambient temperature was 37.1 degree. In both two periods, the animals were classified according to lactation number into 6 equal groups from the 1 st to the 6 Th lactation number. The data showed that milk yield and T-3 either in milk or in blood besides milk fat, protein and lactose were significantly lower in july than in february. Whereas the opposite trend was noted for cortisol levels either in milk or in blood. Concerning the effect of lactation lactation number, it was observed that milk and blood T 3 , mil and blood cortisol, milk fat, protein and lactose were affected significantly by lactation number

  2. Heavy ion irradiation of crystalline water ice. Cosmic ray amorphisation cross-section and sputtering yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartois, E.; Augé, B.; Boduch, P.; Brunetto, R.; Chabot, M.; Domaracka, A.; Ding, J. J.; Kamalou, O.; Lv, X. Y.; Rothard, H.; da Silveira, E. F.; Thomas, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Under cosmic irradiation, the interstellar water ice mantles evolve towards a compact amorphous state. Crystalline ice amorphisation was previously monitored mainly in the keV to hundreds of keV ion energies. Aims: We experimentally investigate heavy ion irradiation amorphisation of crystalline ice, at high energies closer to true cosmic rays, and explore the water-ice sputtering yield. Methods: We irradiated thin crystalline ice films with MeV to GeV swift ion beams, produced at the GANIL accelerator. The ice infrared spectral evolution as a function of fluence is monitored with in-situ infrared spectroscopy (induced amorphisation of the initial crystalline state into a compact amorphous phase). Results: The crystalline ice amorphisation cross-section is measured in the high electronic stopping-power range for different temperatures. At large fluence, the ice sputtering is measured on the infrared spectra, and the fitted sputtering-yield dependence, combined with previous measurements, is quadratic over three decades of electronic stopping power. Conclusions: The final state of cosmic ray irradiation for porous amorphous and crystalline ice, as monitored by infrared spectroscopy, is the same, but with a large difference in cross-section, hence in time scale in an astrophysical context. The cosmic ray water-ice sputtering rates compete with the UV photodesorption yields reported in the literature. The prevalence of direct cosmic ray sputtering over cosmic-ray induced photons photodesorption may be particularly true for ices strongly bonded to the ice mantles surfaces, such as hydrogen-bonded ice structures or more generally the so-called polar ices. Experiments performed at the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) Caen, France. Part of this work has been financed by the French INSU-CNRS programme "Physique et Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire" (PCMI) and the ANR IGLIAS.

  3. Functional MRI in schizophrenia. Diagnostics and therapy monitoring of cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients by functional MRI; Funktionelle MRT bei Schizophreniepatienten. Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring kognitiver Defizite schizophrener Patienten mittels funktioneller MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Sachs, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Wien (Austria)

    2010-02-15

    Cognitive impairments are core psychopathological components of the symptomatic of schizophrenic patients. These dysfunctions are generally related to attention, executive functions and memory. This report provides information on the importance of using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the different subtypes of cognitive dysfunctions. Furthermore, it describes the typical differences in the activation of individual brain regions between schizophrenic patients and healthy control persons. This information should be helpful in identifying the deficit profile of each patient and create an individual therapy plan. (orig.) [German] Kognitive Defizite sind ein zentraler Bestandteil der Symptomatik schizophrener Patienten. Diese Defizite betreffen v. a. die Aufmerksamkeit, exekutive Funktionen sowie das Gedaechtnis. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt den Stellenwert der funktionellen Magnetresonanztomographie (fMRT) in Hinblick auf Diagnostik und Therapiemonitoring der unterschiedlichen kognitiven Teilbereiche auf. Darueber hinaus werden die Unterschiede in Bezug auf die Aktivierung der einzelnen Gehirnareale zwischen schizophrenen Patienten und gesunden Kontrollpersonen dargestellt. Diese Informationen sollen helfen, in der Praxis ein Profil der kognitiven Leistungsreduktionen sowie ein darauf angepasstes Therapiekonzept zu erstellen. (orig.)

  4. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  5. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  6. Radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.Eh.; B'yuli, D.K.; Karmikel, Dzh.Kh.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation monitoring of personnel, used medical ionizing radiation source, are given. The necessity to carry out radiation monitoring of situation at medical personnel's positions and personnel dosimetry is marked. It is convenient to subdivide radiation monitoring into 3 types: usual, surgical and special. Usual monitoring is connected with current work; surgical monitoring is carried out to receive information during a concrete operation; special monitoring is used to detect possible deviation from standard conditions of work or when suspecting them

  7. Area monitoring intelligent system - SIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoem, P.; Hisas, F.; Gelardi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The area monitoring intelligent system (SIMA) is an equipment to be used in radioprotection. SIMA has the function of monitoring the radiation levels of determined areas of the installations where radioactive materials are handled. (Author) [es

  8. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  9. Produção da figueira submetida a diferentes épocas de poda e irrigação The yield of fig trees as a function of pruning time and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Leonel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes épocas de poda, correspondentes aos meses de julho, agosto, setembro e outubro dos anos de 2004/05 e 2005/06, com e sem o uso de irrigação, em figueira 'Roxo de Valinhos', no município de Botucatu-SP. Para atingir tal objetivo, adotou-se o delineamento experimental em parcelas subdivididas, com 5 repetições em blocos, onde as parcelas corresponderam aos tratamentos com e sem irrigação, e as subparcelas foram constituídas pelas podas realizadas nos quatro meses do ano. Foram avaliadas características de produção e alguns atributos de qualidade, que serviram para indicar a necessidade do uso de irrigação. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que, na avaliação do desdobramento da interação entre épocas de poda e irrigação complementar, o mês de agosto, com o uso de irrigação complementar, foi o mais favorável para a realização da poda da figueira, proporcionando as maiores produções médias verificadas no ensaio, tanto no ciclo agrícola de 2004/05 (3.513,8 g planta-1, quanto em 2005/06 (4.110,7 g planta-1. Em condições não-irrigadas, não houve diferença estatística entre os meses de julho, agosto e setembro de 2004/05 e entre julho e agosto de 2005/06.The research had the purpose to determine the effects of pruning time in July, August, September and October of 2004/05 and 2005/06, with and without irrigation, in the fig trees 'Roxo de Valinhos', located in Botucatu/SP/Brazil. The experimental design was in split plots with 5 replications at random in lines, where the plots consisted in the treatments with and without irrigation and the subplots were composed of the pruning accomplished in the four months of the year. It was evaluated the yield and fruits quality. These characteristics could be used to evaluate the irrigation necessity. The August month with irrigation was the best time to the fig trees pruning, enhancing the yield (3.513,8 g plant-1 in 2004

  10. Monitoring the referral system through benchmarking in rural Niger: an evaluation of the functional relation between health centres and the district hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyé Hamidou

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study is to establish a benchmark for referral rates in rural Niger so as to allow interpretation of routine referral data to assess the performance of the referral system in Niger. Methods Strict and controlled application of existing clinical decision trees in a sample of rural health centres allowed the estimation of the corresponding need for and characteristics of curative referrals in rural Niger. Compliance of referral was monitored as well. Need was matched against actual referral in 11 rural districts. The referral patterns were registered so as to get an idea on the types of pathology referred. Results The referral rate benchmark was set at 2.5 % of patients consulting at the health centre for curative reasons. Niger's rural districts have a referral rate of less than half this benchmark. Acceptability of referrals is low for the population and is adding to the deficient referral system in Niger. Mortality because of under-referral is highest among young children. Conclusion Referral patterns show that the present programme approach to deliver health care leaves a large amount of unmet need for which only comprehensive first and second line health services can provide a proper answer. On the other hand, the benchmark suggests that well functioning health centres can take care of the vast majority of problems patients present with.

  11. Serum progesterone levels for diagnosing pregnancy and monitoring corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages in hormonally-treated heat synchronized female damascus goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakawi, M.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on female damascus goats the breeding season to diagnose pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating and to monitor the corpora lutea function during different reproductive stages by measuring serum progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay. A total of 75 intact female damascus goats were divided into 3 equal groups, S, P and C. females in group S were fitted with sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) for 14 days and injected, at the sponge withdrawal, with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). Females in group P were injected twice with prostaglandin F 2a at 11 day intervals. Females in group C (control) received no treatment. The results indicated that the accuracy of positive pregnancy on days 21-22 and 40-44 was 90.5% and 94.4%, respectively, and it was 100% for detecting non-pregnancy. There was no significant difference(p>0.05)among the 3 groups in serum progesterone level between days 21-22 and 40-44 after mating. Whereas, there were significant(p -1 at matinf, during pregnancy and at kidding. The triplet carrying goats had a significantly(p -1 , respectively. While, there was no significant difference in serum progesterone levels between the single and twin-carrying goats

  12. MRS [monitored retrievable storage] systems study Task G report: The role and functions of surface storage of radioactive material in the federal waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Woodruff, M.G.; Altenhofen, M.K.; MacKay, C.A.

    1989-04-01

    This is one of nine studies undertaken by contractors to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), to provide a technical basis for re-evaluating the role of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The study investigates the functions that could be performed by surface storage of radioactive material within the federal radioactive waste management system, including enabling acceptance of spent fuel from utility owners, scheduling of waste-preparation processes within the system, enhancement of system operating reliability, and conditioning the thermal (decay heat) characteristics of spent fuel emplaced in a repository. The analysis focuses particularly on the effects of storage capacity and DOE acceptance schedule on power reactors. Figures of merit developed include the storage capacity [in metric tons of uranium (MTU)] required to be added beyond currently estimated maximum spent fuel storage capacities and its associated cost, and the number of years that spent fuel pools would remain open after last discharge (in pool-years) and the cost of this period of operation. 27 refs., 36 figs., 18 tabs

  13. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  14. Sputtering yield calculation for binary target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez, J.J.; Rodriguez-Vidal, M.; Valles-Abarca, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The generalization for binary targets, of the ideas proposed by Sigmund for monoatomic targets, leads to a set of coupled intergrodifferential equations for the sputtering functions. After moment decomposition, the final formulae are obtained by the standard method based on the Laplace Transform, where the inverse transform is made with the aid of asymptotic expansions in the limit of very high projectile energy as compared to the surface binding energy. The possible loss of stoichiometry for binary targets is analyzed. Comparison of computed values of sputtering yield for normal incidence, with experimental results shows good agreement. (author)

  15. Soybean yield and quality a function oflime and gypsum applications Produção e qualidade da soja em função do calagem e aplicação de gesso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fávero Caires

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of lime and gypsum applications on the quality of soybeans grown under no-till (NT are not well defined yet. A field trial established in 1998 on a dystrophic clayey Rhodic Hapludox, at Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, evaluated grain yield and soybean quality based on oil, protein and nutrient content, after lime and gypsum applications under NT, in a randomized complete block design (n = 3, split-plot experiment. In the main plots, the treatments with dolomitic lime were: control (no lime, split application of lime on the surface (three yearly applications of 1.5 Mg ha¹, surface lime (4.5 Mg ha¹, and incorporated lime (4.5 Mg ha¹. Subplots received four different rates of gypsum: 0, 3, 6, and 9 Mg ha-1. The soybean crop was evaluated in the agricultural years of 20022003 and 20032004. After 58 months, the correction of acidity through surface liming, with full or split rates, was more pronounced in the top layer (00.05 m and there was greater reaction at the depths of 0.050.10 and 0.100.20 m when lime was incorporated. Surface or incorporated liming had no effect on grain yield, soybean oil and protein content. Gypsum improved chemical subsoil conditions, raising pH (0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 as well as Ca2+ and S-SO4(2- contents; it also caused exchangeable Mg2+ leaching in the soil profile. The application of gypsum did not affect grain yield, yet it improved soybean quality through an increase in protein and S contents, in 20032004, and in grain P, K and Ca, in the two cropping years. The use of gypsum in NT soybeans can be especially important for fields of seeds production.Os efeitos da aplicação de calcário e gesso na qualidade da soja cultivada em plantio direto não são muito conhecidos. O experimento foi instalado em 1998 em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico textura argilosa, em Ponta Grossa (PR, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de soja e a concentração de óleo, proteína e nutrientes nos grãos, após a aplica

  16. Modelling crop yield in Iberia under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Páscoa, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia

    2017-04-01

    The improved assessment of the cereal yield and crop loss under drought conditions are essential to meet the increasing economy demands. The growing frequency and severity of the extreme drought conditions in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) has been likely responsible for negative impacts on agriculture, namely on crop yield losses. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of vegetation activity and a reliable estimation of drought impacts is crucial to contribute for the agricultural drought management and development of suitable information tools. This works aims to assess the influence of drought conditions in agricultural yields over the IP, considering cereal yields from mainly rainfed agriculture for the provinces with higher productivity. The main target is to develop a strategy to model drought risk on agriculture for wheat yield at a province level. In order to achieve this goal a combined assessment was made using a drought indicator (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index, SPEI) to evaluate drought conditions together with a widely used vegetation index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) to monitor vegetation activity. A correlation analysis between detrended wheat yield and SPEI was performed in order to assess the vegetation response to each time scale of drought occurrence and also identify the moment of the vegetative cycle when the crop yields are more vulnerable to drought conditions. The time scales and months of SPEI, together with the months of NDVI, better related with wheat yield were chosen to perform a multivariate regression analysis to simulate crop yield. Model results are satisfactory and highlighted the usefulness of such analysis in the framework of developing a drought risk model for crop yields. In terms of an operational point of view, the results aim to contribute to an improved understanding of crop yield management under dry conditions, particularly adding substantial information on the advantages of combining

  17. The impact on post-operative shoulder function of intraoperative nerve monitoring of cranial nerve XI during modified radical neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanišnik, Boštjan; Žitnik, Lidija; Levart, Primož; Žargi, Miha; Rodi, Zoran

    2016-12-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of the cranial nerve XI (CN XI) may decrease shoulder disability following modified radical neck dissection. Prospective study was designed comparing results of Constant Shoulder Score (CSS), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and EMG score of the trapezius muscle (mT) before and after surgery. One side of the neck was monitored during surgery with intraoperative nerve monitor. EMG scores of the mT 6 months postoperatively were statistically better on monitored as compared to the non-monitored side of the neck (p = 0.041), while the differences of the CSS and SPADI were not statistically significant. Patients with better EMG scores of the mT at 6 weeks recuperated better and with smaller decrease of the CSS. Intraoperative monitoring is beneficial at the beginning of the surgeon's learning curve and in the process of familiarizing with anatomical variation of the CN XI.

  18. Diagnostic yield of 24-hour esophageal manometry in non-cardiac chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, M; Herregods, T V K; Oors, J M; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2016-08-01

    In the past, ambulatory 24-h manometry has been shown useful for the evaluation of patients with non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). With the diagnostic improvements brought by pH-impedance monitoring and high-resolution manometry (HRM), the contribution of ambulatory 24-h manometry to the diagnosis of esophageal hypertensive disorders has become uncertain. Our aim was to assess the additional diagnostic yield of ambulatory manometry to HRM and ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring in this patient population. All patients underwent 24-h ambulatory pressure-pH-impedance monitoring and HRM. Patients had retrosternal pain as a predominant symptom and no explanation after cardiologic and digestive endoscopic evaluations. Diagnostic measurements were analyzed by two independent physicians. Fifty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria; 37.3% of the patients had their symptoms explained by abnormalities on pH-impedance monitoring and 6.8% by ambulatory manometry. Functional chest pain was diagnosed in 52.5% of the patients. High-resolution manometry, using the Chicago Classification v3.0 criteria alone, did not identify any of the four patients with esophageal spasm on ambulatory manometry. However, taking into account other abnormalities, such as simultaneous (rapid) or repetitive contractions, HRM had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98.2% for the diagnosis of esophageal spasm. In the work-up of NCCP, ambulatory 24-h manometry has a low additional diagnostic yield. However, it remains the best technique to identify esophageal spasm as the cause of symptoms. This is particularly useful when an unequivocal diagnosis is needed before treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are quantified, yield gaps evaluated by crop experts, current yield progress by breeding estimated, and different yield projections compared. Results show decreasing yield growth for wheat and rice, but ...

  20. Modular remote radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Fabio; Farias, Marcos S.; Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Oliveira, Mauro V.

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Remote Radiation Monitor (MRRM) is a novel radiation monitor suitable for monitoring environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is a portable compact-size low-power microprocessor-based electronic device which provides its monitoring data to other electronic systems, physically distant from it, by means of an electronic communication channel, which can be wired or wireless according to the requirements of each application. Besides its low-power highly-integrated circuit design, the Modular Remote Radiation Monitor is presented in a modular architecture, which promotes full compliance to the technical requirements of different applications while minimizing cost, size and power consumption. Its communication capability also supports the implementation of a network of multiple radiation monitors connected to a supervisory system, capable of remotely controlling each monitor independently as well as visualizing the radiation levels from all monitors. A prototype of the MRRM, functionally equivalent to the MRA-7027 radiation monitor, was implemented and connected to a wired MODBUS network of MRA-7027 monitors, responsible for monitoring ionizing radiation inside Argonauta reactor room at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. Based on the highly positive experimental results obtained, further design is currently underway in order to produce a consumer version of the MRRM. (author)

  1. Nut crop yield records show that budbreak-based chilling requirements may not reflect yield decline chill thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Katherine S.; Dose, Volker; Da Silva, David; Brown, Patrick H.; DeJong, Theodore M.

    2015-06-01

    Warming winters due to climate change may critically affect temperate tree species. Insufficiently cold winters are thought to result in fewer viable flower buds and the subsequent development of fewer fruits or nuts, decreasing the yield of an orchard or fecundity of a species. The best existing approximation for a threshold of sufficient cold accumulation, the "chilling requirement" of a species or variety, has been quantified by manipulating or modeling the conditions that result in dormant bud breaking. However, the physiological processes that affect budbreak are not the same as those that determine yield. This study sought to test whether budbreak-based chilling thresholds can reasonably approximate the thresholds that affect yield, particularly regarding the potential impacts of climate change on temperate tree crop yields. County-wide yield records for almond ( Prunus dulcis), pistachio ( Pistacia vera), and walnut ( Juglans regia) in the Central Valley of California were compared with 50 years of weather records. Bayesian nonparametric function estimation was used to model yield potentials at varying amounts of chill accumulation. In almonds, average yields occurred when chill accumulation was close to the budbreak-based chilling requirement. However, in the other two crops, pistachios and walnuts, the best previous estimate of the budbreak-based chilling requirements was 19-32 % higher than the chilling accumulations associated with average or above average yields. This research indicates that physiological processes beyond requirements for budbreak should be considered when estimating chill accumulation thresholds of yield decline and potential impacts of climate change.

  2. Produção do algodoeiro em função da salinidade e tratamento de sementes com regulador de crescimento Cotton yield as a function of salinity and seeds treatment with growth regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação e sementes tratadas com regulador de crescimento na produção do algodoeiro. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente ao acaso, arranjados em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (S1-0,5; S2-2,0; S3-3,5; S4-5,0 e S5-6,5 dS m-1 em sementes tratadas e não tratadas com regulador de crescimento. As variáveis avaliadas foram: produção de algodão em caroço, produção de sementes e de fibra, peso de 100 sementes e porcentagem de fibra. Não houve interação entre os níveis de salinidades e as sementes tratadas com regulador de crescimento. Os parâmetros produtivos do algodoeiro são reduzidos com uso de água de salinidade a partir de 3,5 dS m-1, independente das sementes serem tratadas com regulador de crescimento. As características agronômicas: peso de 100 sementes, porcentagem de fibra e produção de algodão em caroço não são influenciadas pelo cloreto de mepiquat. O tratamento das sementes com regulador de crescimento não afeta o efeito adverso da salinidade.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different salinity levels of irrigation water and seed treated with growth regulator on the yield of cotton. It was used an entirely statistical randomized design, in a factorial scheme 5 x 2, with four replications. The treatments resulted from the combination of four salinity levels of irrigation water (S1-0.5; S2-2.0; S3-3.5; S4-5.0 and S5-6.5 dS m-1 in treated and untreated seeds with growth regulator. The variables were: production of cotton, seed and fiber, 100 seed weight and percentage of fiber. There was not interaction between salinity levels and seed treated. The parameters of cotton production are reduced with the use of water salinity from 3.5 dS m-1

  3. Estimativa da produtividade do milho em função da disponibilidade hídrica em Guarapuava, PR, Brasil Corn yield as a function of water availability in Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Wagner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se estimar o potencial médio de produção da cultura do milho em função das variações da disponibilidade hídrica considerando-se a realização da semeadura em diferentes momentos dentro do período recomendado para o município de Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná. Os estudos foram realizados com base na série ininterrupta de dados climáticos do período de 1984 a 2007. A duração do ciclo da cultura foi calculada pelo acúmulo de soma térmica e a disponibilidade de água avaliada pelo balanço hídrico da cultura, ponderando-se a distribuição da precipitação pluvial e a evapotranspiração da cultura. A probabilidade de redução de produtividade de grãos por deficiência hídrica foi estimada considerando-se a porcentagem de redução de produção de grãos a partir da ocorrência de deficiência hídrica nos diferentes estádios do ciclo de desenvolvimento no campo. Verificou-se que a cultura do milho é afetada pela distribuição da disponibilidade hídrica ao longo do ciclo, sendo que a maior probabilidade de perdas de produção por deficiência hídrica ocorre no estádio da antese-fecundação. As semeaduras mais tardias no período recomendado tendem a ocasionar menores riscos de obtenção de produtividade de grãos abaixo da média regional.This study aimed to estimate the average potential of production of the corn crop in consequence of the variation of the water availability and the planting performed at different dates within the recommended period for Guarapuava, Paraná State, Brazil. The study was conducted considering uninterrupted series of climate data for the period from 1984 to 2007. The duration of the crop cycle was calculated by the accumulation of the thermal sum and the availability of water evaluated by the water balance of the crop considering the distribution of the precipitation and the evapotranspiration of the crop. The probability of reduction of the grain yield due to

  4. Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2016-03-15

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for 〈u v w〉 axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at (http://www.sandia.gov/pcnsc/departments/iba/ibatable.html).

  5. Brca1/p53 deficient mouse breast tumor hemodynamics during hyperoxic respiratory challenge monitored by a novel wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Eva Y. H. P.; Tromberg, Bruce; Cerussi, Albert; Choi, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Current imaging modalities allow precise visualization of tumors but do not enable quantitative characterization of the tumor metabolic state. Such quantitative information would enhance our understanding of tumor progression and response to treatment, and to our overall understanding of tumor biology. To address this problem, we have developed a wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) instrument which combines two optical imaging modalities, spatially modulated imaging (MI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI). Our current WiFI imaging protocol consists of multispectral imaging in the near infrared (650-980 nm) spectrum, over a wide (7 cm × 5 cm) field of view. Using MI, the spatially-resolved reflectance of sinusoidal patterns projected onto the tissue is assessed, and optical properties of the tissue are estimated using a Monte Carlo model. From the spatial maps of local absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, tissue composition information is extracted in the form of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, and percentage of lipid and water. Using LSI, the reflectance of a 785 nm laser speckle pattern on the tissue is acquired and analyzed to compute maps of blood perfusion in the tissue. Tissue metabolism state is estimated from the values of blood perfusion, volume and oxygenation state. We currently are employing the WiFI instrument to study tumor development in a BRCA1/p53 deficient mice breast tumor model. The animals are monitored with WiFI during hyperoxic respiratory challenge. At present, four tumors have been measured with WiFI, and preliminary data suggest that tumor metabolic changes during hyperoxic respiratory challenge can be determined.

  6. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna Krystyna; Rö thig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Ziegler, Maren; Kremb, Stephan Georg; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29–33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2–4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region.

  7. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Ziegler, Maren; Kremb, Stephan G; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29-33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2-4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region.

  8. Y