WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitor units required

  1. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to Subpart PPP of Part 63... Subpart PPP of Part 63—Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations—Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

  2. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring..., Subpt. GGG, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Inspection and Monitoring Requirements...(b)(7)63.1256(b)(8) Inspect wastewater tank for control equipment failures and improper...

  3. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 5 Table 5 to... all instances when monitoring data are not collected—PR. d,e If a base absorbent is used, report all pH values that are below the minimum operating values. If an acid absorbent is used, report all...

  4. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring... Operations, and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 11 Table 11 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Inspection... wastewater tank for control equipment failures and improper work practices Initially Semi-annually...

  5. 50 CFR 660.312 - Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel Monitoring System (VMS... West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.312 Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) requirements. (a) What is a VMS? A VMS consists of a NMFS OLE type-approved mobile transceiver unit that automatically...

  6. 40 CFR 433.12 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements. (a) In lieu of requiring monitoring for TTO, the permitting authority (or, in the case of... the permit limitation for total toxic organics (TTO), I certify that, to the best of my knowledge and... TTO standard, the industrial discharger need analyse for only those pollutants which would...

  7. Intelligent monitoring system for intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouira, Kaouther; Trabelsi, Abdelwahed

    2012-08-01

    We address in the present paper a medical monitoring system designed as a multi-agent based approach. Our system includes mainly numerous agents that act as correlated multi-agent sub-systems at the three layers of the whole monitoring infrastructure, to avoid non informative alarms and send effective alarms at time. The intelligence in the proposed monitoring system is provided by the use of time series technology. In fact, the capability of continuous learning of time series from the physiological variables allows the design of a system that monitors patients in real-time. Such system is a contrast to the classical threshold-based monitoring system actually present in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) which causes a huge number of irrelevant alarms.

  8. Performance, requirements and testing in individual monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julius, H.W.; Christensen, P.; Marshall, T.O.

    1990-01-01

    monitoring, and in particular of those related to the energy and angular dependences of the dosemeters. These data are important for the testing of the dosimetry systems. Finally testing programmes in individual monitoring are discussed and four categories of testing are proposed.......For implementation of the ICRP requirements in practical routine monitoring, a specification is needed with respect to specific performance criteria of the dosimetry system. This includes the dosemeters, and procedures for initial and on-going testing of the dosimetry systems to ensure...... that the specified criteria are continuously met. Methods are here specified for establishing performance criteria, and satisfying the ICRP overall accuracy requirements for individual monitoring. Furthermore, procedures are given for obtaining numerical values of the uncertainties connected with individual...

  9. A monitor unit "odometer" for measuring linac workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M D; Larkin, J J; Léger, P; Podgorsak, E B

    2001-12-01

    The annual linac workload is often required by regulatory agencies to assess compliance with license conditions. Summation of the monitor units produced by the machine is generally used for this purpose. Various methods of estimating this value have inherent inaccuracies. We have built an integrating Monitor Unit "odometer" that is able to automatically accumulate all MUs delivered by the linac and segregate the total by mode (photon or electron) and energy. The device has been used to record clinical linac MU workloads for 10 months, and was installed in a new dual-energy linac during the acceptance and commissioning process.

  10. 40 CFR 63.8 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standard(s) unless the Administrator— (i) Specifies or approves the use of minor changes in methodology for the specified monitoring requirements and procedures (see § 63.90(a) for definition); or (ii) Approves... (see § 63.90(a) for definition). (iii) Owners or operators with flares subject to § 63.11(b) are...

  11. Generating units performances: power system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourment, C.; Girard, N.; Lefebvre, H.

    1994-08-01

    The part of generating units within the power system is more than providing power and energy. Their performance are not only measured by their energy efficiency and availability. Namely, there is a strong interaction between the generating units and the power system. The units are essential components of the system: for a given load profile the frequency variation follows directly from the behaviour of the units and their ability to adapt their power output. In the same way, the voltage at the units terminals are the key points to which the voltage profile at each node of the network is linked through the active and especially the reactive power flows. Therefore, the customer will experience the frequency and voltage variations induced by the units behaviour. Moreover, in case of adverse conditions, if the units do not operate as well as expected or trip, a portion of the system, may be the whole system, may collapse. The limitation of the performance of a unit has two kinds of consequences. Firstly, it may result in an increased amount of not supplied energy or loss of load probability: for example if the primary reserve is not sufficient, a generator tripping may lead to an abnormal frequency deviation, and load may have to be shed to restore the balance. Secondly, the limitation of a unit performance results in an economic over-cost for the system: for instance, if not enough `cheap` units are able to load-following, other units with higher operating costs have to be started up. We would like to stress the interest for the operators and design teams of the units on the one hand, and the operators and design teams of the system on the other hand, of dialog and information exchange, in operation but also at the conception stage, in order to find a satisfactory compromise between the system requirements and the consequences for the generating units. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Review of FEWS NET biophysical monitoring requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, K W; Underwood, L W [Science Systems and Applications, Incorporated, 411 West Michigan Street, Poplarville, MS 39470 (United States); Brown, M E [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 614.4, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Verdin, J P [United States Geological Survey, National Integrated Drought Information System, NOAA/ESRL, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)], E-mail: kenton_ross@ssaihq.com, E-mail: molly.brown@nasa.gov, E-mail: verdin@usgs.gov, E-mail: lauren_underwood@ssaihq.com

    2009-04-15

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users; it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and, subsequently, to assess whether such data would be beneficial as FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard; that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand; and that rainfall and vegetation products are valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  13. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  14. Routine polysomnography in an epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew C L; Costello, Craig A; White, Elise J; Smit, Michelle; Carino, John; Strawhorn, Andrew; Jackson, Brianna; Kwan, Patrick; French, Christopher R; Yerra, S Raju; Tan, K Meng; O'Brien, Terence J; Goldin, Jeremy

    2013-08-01

    Up to 13% of patients with epilepsy have moderate or severe sleep-disordered breathing, in particular obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a disorder associated with reduced quality of life, worsened seizure control, and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Combining video-EEG monitoring with polysomnography (VPSG) provides the opportunity to diagnose clinically significant OSA as well as relate the occurrence of seizures and the epilepsy diagnosis to the presence and severity of sleep-disordered breathing. We have established routine VPSG in our inpatient video-EEG monitoring unit and present our findings in 87 patients. Clinically significant sleep-disordered breathing was diagnosed in 19 of 87 (22%) patients. Patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) had poorer sleep quality compared to patients with epilepsy and those with neither diagnosis, whereas the prevalence of clinically significant sleep-disordered breathing in patients with PNES (29%) did not differ significantly compared to patients with epilepsy (21%) and those with neither diagnosis (22%). The differences in sleep quality are not explained by differences in body mass index (BMI) or anti-epileptic drug (AED) effects.

  15. Monitoring hearing loss at United Airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J H; Harper, R

    1981-08-01

    The airlines are a highly diversified industry. Their major concerns are in the safe transportation of passengers and cargo with on time arrival and departure of its aircraft at various locations throughout the world. The challenge the airlines face is in the development and administration of an effective hearing conservation program that will produce valid audiometry at all of its logistic operations and yet be economically feasible and practical. The methods and techniques used by United Airlines to develop and administer an effective hearing conservation program are presented here. Guidelines employing the OSHA Noise Exposure Standard were incorporated in the program requirements as set forth by the medical department.

  16. Requirements of CLIC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Holzer, EB; Jonker, M; Mallows, S; Otto, T; Welsch, C

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) [1] is a proposed multi-TeV linear electron-positron collider being designed by a world-wide collaboration. It is based on a novel twobeam acceleration scheme in which two beams (drive and main beam) are placed in parallel to each other and energy is transferred from the drive beam to the main one. Beam losses on either of them can have catastrophic consequences for the machine, because of high intensity (drive beam) or high energy and small emittance (main beam). In the framework of machine protection, a Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system has to be put in place. This paper discusses the requirements for the beam loss system in terms of detector sensitivity, resolution, dynamic range and ability to distinguish losses originating from various sources. The two-beam module where the protection from beam losses is particularly challenging and important, is studied.

  17. 40 CFR 264.97 - General ground-water monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.97 General ground-water monitoring requirements. The owner or operator must comply with the following requirements for any ground-water monitoring... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General ground-water...

  18. 40 CFR 51.190 - Ambient air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient air quality monitoring... PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Ambient Air Quality Surveillance § 51.190 Ambient air quality monitoring requirements. The requirements for monitoring ambient...

  19. 40 CFR 413.03 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lieu of monitoring for TTO, the control authority may allow industrial users of POTWs to make the... for total toxic organics (TTO), I certify that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, no dumping of... or leak into the wastewater. (c) If monitoring is necessary to measure compliance with the...

  20. 40 CFR 63.564 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtained. For monitoring equipment purchased from a vendor, verification of the operational status of the... when the measured values (i.e., daily calibrations, multipoint calibrations, and performance audits... pressure device once each calendar year with a reference pressure monitor (traceable to National...

  1. 40 CFR 63.364 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... obtained. For monitoring equipment purchased from a vendor, verification of the operational status of the... operated. From 15-minute or shorter period temperature values, a data acquisition system for the... year with a reference temperature monitor (traceable to National Institute of Standards and...

  2. 50 CFR 648.9 - VMS vendor and unit requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VMS vendor and unit requirements. 648.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES General Provisions § 648.9 VMS vendor and unit requirements. (a) Approval. The type approval requirements for VMS MTUs and MCSPs for...

  3. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-03-23

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year.

  4. 40 CFR 63.828 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... product and packaging rotogravure or wide-web flexographic presses with intermittently-controllable work... emission monitors to measure total organic volatile matter concentration and volumetric gas flow rate...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1657 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compressed air supply for pulse-jet baghouses. (iv) An appropriate methodology for monitoring cleaning cycles... document “Fabric Filter Bag Leak Detection Guidance” (EPA-454/R-98-015). Other bag leak detection systems... baghouse for air leaks, torn or broken bags or filter media, or any other condition that may cause...

  7. 40 CFR 63.605 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rock dryer or phosphate rock calciner subject to the provisions of this subpart shall install... either the mass flow of phosphorus-bearing feed material to the dryer or calciner, or the mass flow of product from the dryer or calciner. The monitoring system shall have an accuracy of ±5 percent over...

  8. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring... VIII Administrator, the State submitted a revised Air Quality Monitoring State Implementation Plan....

  9. 40 CFR 146.68 - Testing and monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to provide other site specific data; (iii) Periodic monitoring of the ground water quality in the first aquifer overlying the injection zone; (iv) Periodic monitoring of the ground water quality in the... Applicable to Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 146.68 Testing and monitoring requirements....

  10. 40 CFR 146.13 - Operating, monitoring and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (iii) Periodic monitoring of the ground water quality in the first aquifer overlying the injection zone; (iv) Periodic monitoring of the ground water quality in the lowermost USDW; and (v) Any additional... Applicable to Class I Wells § 146.13 Operating, monitoring and reporting requirements. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 63.9631 - What are my monitoring requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) through (e) and monitor the daily average secondary voltage, daily average stack outlet temperature, and... maintain a bag leak detection system to monitor the relative change in particulate matter loadings... according to the requirements in paragraphs (a)(1) through (8) of this section. (1) Monitor the...

  12. 40 CFR 429.12 - Monitoring requirements. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring requirements. 429.12 Section 429.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES... requirements....

  13. Radiation monitoring in interventional cardiology: a requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, T.; Uruchurtu, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing of procedures using fluoroscopy in interventional cardiology procedures may increase medical and patients to levels of radiation that manifest in unintended outcomes. Such outcomes may include skin injury and cancer. The cardiologists and other staff members in interventional cardiology are usually working close to the area under examination and they receive the dose primarily from scattered radiation from the patient. Mexico does not have a formal policy for monitoring and recording the radiation dose delivered in hemodynamic establishments. Deterministic risk management can be improved by monitoring the radiation delivered from X-ray devices. The objective of this paper is to provide cardiologist, techniques, nurses, and all medical staff an information on DR levels, about X-ray risks and a simple a reliable method to control cumulative dose.

  14. 40 CFR 410.02 - Monitoring requirements. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Monitoring requirements. 410.02 Section 410.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 410.02 Monitoring requirements....

  15. Initial Survey Instructions for management unit water monitoring : level

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.08 management unit water monitoring (level) survey on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This survey is conducted weekly and is...

  16. 78 FR 55060 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Expanded Vessel Monitoring System Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... commercial fishing vessels are required to install and use a vessel monitoring system (VMS) that... pilot VMS program was implemented on January 1, 2004. The pilot program required vessels registered to Pacific Coast groundfish fishery limited entry permits to carry and use VMS transceiver units...

  17. Jaguar surveying and monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie

    2016-06-10

    Because of the jaguar’s (Panthera onca) endangered status under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 throughout its range (from Arizona in the north to Argentina in the south), jaguar individuals and populations are monitored to varying degrees throughout their range. Knowledge gained from monitoring jaguars is helpful for wildlife managers who are responsible for conserving this species. The University of Arizona (UA) has conducted a multiyear surveying and monitoring effort for jaguars and ocelots in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The purpose of this work was to establish an effective surveying and monitoring system for jaguars along the United States-Mexico border. Surveying and monitoring in this study focused on the United States side of the border, but the methods could also be used in Mexico. The intent was to develop and implement a surveying and monitoring system that would provide the greatest probability of recording jaguar presence in, and passage through, the border area.

  18. 40 CFR 63.751 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... design flow rate and organic concentration in the gas stream vented to the carbon adsorption system. The... requirements of part 60, appendix A, Method 21, sections 2, 3, 4.1, 4.2, and 4.4. The calibration gas shall either be representative of the compounds to be measured or shall be methane, and shall be at...

  19. 40 CFR 60.13 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be subject to the provisions of this section upon promulgation of performance specifications for... Performance Specification 1, appendix B, of this part before the performance test required under § 60.8 is... under § 60.8 or within 30 days thereafter in accordance with the applicable performance specification...

  20. Monitoring the injured brain in the intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of managing patients with acute brain injury in the intensive care unit is to minimise secondary injury by maintaining cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. The mechanisms of secondary injury are frequently triggered by secondary insults, which may be subtle and remain undetected by the usual systemic physiological monitoring. Continuous monitoring of the central nervous system in the intensive care unit can serve two functions. Firstly it will help early detection of these secondary cerebral insults so that appropriate interventions can be instituted. Secondly, it can help to monitor therapeutic interventions and provide online feedback. This review focuses on the monitoring of intracranial pressure, blood flow to the brain (Transcranial Doppler, cerebral oxygenation using the methods of jugular bulb oximetry, near infrared spectroscopy and implantable sensors, and the monitoring of function using electrophysiological techniques.

  1. Requirements to a Norwegian national automatic gamma monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Jensen, Per Hedemann; Nielsen, F.

    2005-01-01

    An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of thesystem in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate...

  2. 40 CFR 464.03 - Monitoring and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Monitoring and reporting requirements. (a) As an alternative to monitoring for TTO (total toxic organics), an... Grease standard shall be considered equivalent to complying with the TTO standard. Alternate Oil and Grease standards are provided as substitutes for the TTO standards provided in §§ 464.15, 464.16,...

  3. 50 CFR 216.185 - Requirements for monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA sonar) Sonar § 216.185 Requirements for monitoring. (a) In order to... sunset); (2) Use low frequency passive SURTASS sonar to listen for vocalizing marine mammals; and (3)...

  4. 40 CFR 141.625 - Conditions requiring increased monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditions requiring increased monitoring. 141.625 Section 141.625 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Requirements § 141.625 Conditions...

  5. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart JJJ...

  6. Required accuracy and dose thresholds in individual monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Griffith, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    to energy and angular dependencies of the dosemeter. In type testing of personal dosimetry systems, the estimated overall standard deviation of the dosimetry system is the main parameter to be tested. An important characteristic of a personal dosimetry system is its capability of measuring low doses......The paper follows the approach given in recent revisions of CEC and IAEA recommendations on requirements in individual monitoring for external radiations. The ICRP requirements on overall accuracy for individual monitoring, as given in ICRP Publication 35 (1982), form the basis...... for the specification of detailed accuracy requirements which are needed in practical routine monitoring. The ICRP overall accuracy requirement is defined as an allowable maximum uncertainty factor at the 95% confidence level for a single measurement of the relevant dose quantity, i.e. H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07). From...

  7. 42 CFR 412.25 - Excluded hospital units: Common requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital is transferred to the unit. (5) Meet applicable State licensure laws. (6) Have utilization review... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excluded hospital units: Common requirements. 412... HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Hospital...

  8. The extratemporal lobe epilepsies in the epilepsy monitoring unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Deepa; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit. PMID:24791090

  9. Requirements to a Norwegian National Automatic Gamma Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, F

    2005-04-01

    An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of the system in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gamma monitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over large distances using historical weather data; the minimum density is estimated from the requirement that a radioactive plume may not slip unnoticed in between stations of the monitoring network. The sensitivity of the gamma monitoring system is obtained from the condition that events that may require protective intervention measures should be detected by the system. Action levels for possible introduction of sheltering and precautionary foodstuff restrictions are derived in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate. For emergency situations where particulates contribute with only a small fraction of the total ambient dose equivalent rate from the plume, it is concluded that measurements of dose rate are sufficient to determine the need for sheltering; simple dose rate measurements however, are inadequate to determine the need for foodstuff restrictions and spectral measurements are required. (au)

  10. A high arctic experience of uniting research and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring is science keeping our thumb on the pulse of the environment to detect any changes of concern for societies. Basic science is the question-driven search for fundamental processes and mechanisms. Given the firm root of monitoring in human interests and needs, basic sciences have often been regarded as scientifically "purer"—particularly within university-based research communities. We argue that the dichotomy between "research" and "monitoring" is an artificial one, and that this artificial split clouds the definition of scientific goals and leads to suboptimal use of resources. We claim that the synergy between the two scientific approaches is well distilled by science conducted under extreme logistic constraints, when scientists are forced to take full advantage of both the data and the infrastructure available. In evidence of this view, we present our experiences from two decades of uniting research and monitoring at the remote research facility Zackenberg in High Arctic Greenland. For this site, we show how the combination of insights from monitoring with the mechanistic understanding obtained from basic research has yielded the most complete understanding of the system—to the benefit of all, and as an example to follow. We therefore urge scientists from across the continuum from monitoring to research to come together, to disregard old division lines, and to work together to expose a comprehensive picture of ecosystem change and its consequences.

  11. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  12. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design.

  13. Monitor unit calculations for breast or chest wall treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, P C; Ames, T; Howard-Ames, T; Kohut, H; Heleba, V; Krishnamoorthy, J

    1989-01-01

    Tangential breast fields always "flash" beyond the surface of the patient. Since the portion of the beam that is in air does not contribute scatter, external beam treatment planning computers that utilize stored beam data can lead to dose errors of up to 10%. These errors can be reduced by using an irregular field calculation program to adjust the monitor units to account for the loss of scatter.

  14. Hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit: a Brazilian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Suparregui; Rezende, Ederlon Alves de Carvalho; Mendes, Ciro Leite; Silva Jr., João Manoel; Sanches, Joel Lyra

    2014-01-01

    Objective In Brazil, there are no data on the preferences of intensivists regarding hemodynamic monitoring methods. The present study aimed to identify the methods used by national intensivists, the hemodynamic variables they consider important, the regional differences, the reasons for choosing a particular method, and the use of protocols and continued training. Methods National intensivists were invited to answer an electronic questionnaire during three intensive care events and later, through the Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira portal, between March and October 2009. Demographic data and aspects related to the respondent preferences regarding hemodynamic monitoring were researched. Results In total, 211 professionals answered the questionnaire. Private hospitals showed higher availability of resources for hemodynamic monitoring than did public institutions. The pulmonary artery catheter was considered the most trusted by 56.9% of the respondents, followed by echocardiograms, at 22.3%. Cardiac output was considered the most important variable. Other variables also considered relevant were mixed/central venous oxygen saturation, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, and right ventricular end-diastolic volume. Echocardiography was the most used method (64.5%), followed by pulmonary artery catheter (49.3%). Only half of respondents used treatment protocols, and 25% worked in continuing education programs in hemodynamic monitoring. Conclusion Hemodynamic monitoring has a greater availability in intensive care units of private institutions in Brazil. Echocardiography was the most used monitoring method, but the pulmonary artery catheter remains the most reliable. The implementation of treatment protocols and continuing education programs in hemodynamic monitoring in Brazil is still insufficient. PMID:25607264

  15. Brainstem Monitoring in the Neurocritical Care Unit: A Rationale for Real-Time, Automated Neurophysiological Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Bailes, Julian E; Hassan, Ahmed N; Sindelar, Brian; Patel, Vimal; Fino, John

    2017-02-01

    Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring. In this critical review, we discuss the ascending arousal system, brain herniation, and shortcomings of our current management including the neurological exam, intracranial pressure monitoring, and neuroimaging. We present a rationale for the development of nurse-friendly-continuous, automated, and alarmed-evoked potential monitoring, based upon the clinical and experimental literature, advances in the prognostication of cerebral anoxia, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

  16. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  17. 40 CFR 75.74 - Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... every five years and is also required if the flow monitor polynomial coefficients or K factor(s) are...-diluent monitoring system, each flow rate monitoring system, each moisture monitoring system and each... not apply, and, for flow rate monitoring systems, the required RATA load level(s) (or operating level...

  18. Engineering Runtime Requirements-Monitoring Systems Using MDA Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, James; Emmerich, Wolfgang

    The Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) technology toolset includes a language for describing the structure of meta-data, the MOF, and a language for describing consistency properties that data must exhibit, the OCL. Off-the-shelf tools can generate meta-data repositories and perform consistency checking over the data they contain. In this paper we describe how these tools can be used to implement runtime requirements monitoring of systems by modelling the required behaviour of the system, implementing a meta-data repository to collect system data, and consistency checking the repository to discover violations. We evaluate the approach by implementing a contract checker for the SLAng service-level agreement language, a language defined using a MOF meta-model, and integrating the checker into an Enterprise JavaBeans application. We discuss scalability issues resulting from immaturities in the applied technologies, leading to recommendations for their future development.

  19. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified

  20. Stochastic modeling to identify requirements for centralized monitoring of distributed wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, T; Maurer, M

    2012-01-01

    Distributed (decentralized) wastewater treatment can, in many situations, be a valuable alternative to a centralized sewer network and wastewater treatment plant. However, it is critical for its acceptance whether the same overall treatment performance can be achieved without on-site staff, and whether its performance can be measured. In this paper we argue and illustrate that the system performance depends not only on the design performance and reliability of the individual treatment units, but also significantly on the monitoring scheme, i.e. on the reliability of the process information. For this purpose, we present a simple model of a fleet of identical treatment units. Thereby, their performance depends on four stochastic variables: the reliability of the treatment unit, the respond time for the repair of failed units, the reliability of on-line sensors, and the frequency of routine inspections. The simulated scenarios show a significant difference between the true performance and the observations by the sensors and inspections. The results also illustrate the trade-off between investing in reactor and sensor technology and in human interventions in order to achieve a certain target performance. Modeling can quantify such effects and thereby support the identification of requirements for the centralized monitoring of distributed treatment units. The model approach is generic and can be extended and applied to various distributed wastewater treatment technologies and contexts.

  1. 40 CFR 468.03 - Monitoring and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring procedure for TTO, indirect dischargers may monitor for oil and grease and meet the alternate... alternate monitoring oil and grease standards shall be considered to meet the TTO standard....

  2. Required accuracy and dose thresholds in individual monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Griffith, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    this uncertainty factor, a value of 21% can be evaluated for the allowable maximum overall standard deviation for dose measurements at dose levels near the annual dose limits increasing to 45% for dose levels at the lower end of the dose range required to be monitored. A method is described for evaluating...... the overall standard deviation of the dosimetry system by combining random and systematic uncertainties in quadrature, and procedures are also given for determining each individual uncertainty connected to the dose measurement. In particular, attention is paid to the evaluation of the combined uncertainty due...... to energy and angular dependencies of the dosemeter. In type testing of personal dosimetry systems, the estimated overall standard deviation of the dosimetry system is the main parameter to be tested. An important characteristic of a personal dosimetry system is its capability of measuring low doses...

  3. 47 CFR 73.53 - Requirements for authorization of antenna monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for authorization of antenna... antenna monitors. (a) Antenna monitors shall be verified for compliance with the technical requirements in...) An antenna monitor shall meet the following specifications: (1) The monitor shall be designed...

  4. The importance of cardiac monitoring in the epilepsy monitoring unit: a case presentation of ictal asystole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Susan D; Aniles, Ejerzain; Sirven, Joseph; Drazkowski, Joseph F

    2012-09-01

    Ictal asystole may be a potent marker for epilepsy patients at high risk for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The use of inpatient long-term video-electroencephalographic (VEEG) monitoring coupled with simultaneous continuous cardiac telemetry is an important tool to detect ictal asystole as well as other significant ictal cardiac arrhythmias. In this paper a case of ictal asystole detected during VEEG is presented. Routine 12-lead EKG was normal upon admission. After antiepileptic medication was tapered, the patient had a typical complex partial seizure with oral automatisms at onset followed by secondary generalization. Ictal onset was noted in left temporal lobe with subsequent spread to the right temporal region. A 20 second period of asystole began just prior to the secondary generalization. During this admission the patient underwent a potentially life-saving pacemaker implantation. The use of cardiac telemetry and baseline EKG are suggested for patients admitted into epilepsy monitoring units as part of the standard epilepsy monitoring protocol.

  5. Salamander chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) in the United States—Developing research, monitoring, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieka; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2016-01-20

    The recently (2013) identified pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), poses a severe threat to the distribution and abundance of salamanders within the United States and Europe. Development of a response strategy for the potential, and likely, invasion of Bsal into the United States is crucial to protect global salamander biodiversity. A formal working group, led by Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins Science Center, and Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, was held at the USGS Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, Colorado, United States from June 23 to June 25, 2015, to identify crucial Bsal research and monitoring needs that could inform conservation and management strategies for salamanders in the United States. Key findings of the workshop included the following: (1) the introduction of Bsal into the United States is highly probable, if not inevitable, thus requiring development of immediate short-term and long-term intervention strategies to prevent Bsal establishment and biodiversity decline; (2) management actions targeted towards pathogen containment may be ineffective in reducing the long-term spread of Bsal throughout the United States; and (3) early detection of Bsal through surveillance at key amphibian import locations, among high-risk wild populations, and through analysis of archived samples is necessary for developing management responses. Top research priorities during the preinvasion stage included the following: (1) deployment of qualified diagnostic methods for Bsal and establishment of standardized laboratory practices, (2) assessment of susceptibility for amphibian hosts (including anurans), and (3) development and evaluation of short- and long-term pathogen intervention and management strategies. Several outcomes were achieved during the workshop, including development

  6. Satellite data acquisition requirements for monitoring of permafrost in polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Annett

    2015-04-01

    Requirements for space based monitoring of permafrost features had been already defined within the IGOS Cryosphere Theme Report at the start of the IPY in 2007 (IGOS, 2007). In 2012 the Polar Space Task Group (PSTG, http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/sat/pstg_en.php) has been established as the coordinating body of space agencies, in particular the Space Task Group (STG), for space -based observations of Polar Regions after the International Polar Year (IPY) and under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization's (WMO) Executive Council Panel of Experts on Polar Observations Research and Services (EC-PORS). The PSTG identified the need to review the requirements for permafrost monitoring and to update these requirements as necessary in 2013. Relevant surveys with focus on satellite data are already available from the ESA DUE Permafrost User requirements survey (2009), the United States National Research Council (2014) and the ESA - CliC - IPA - GTN -P workshop in February 2014. These reports have been reviewed and specific needs discussed within the community. Acquisition requirements for monitoring of especially terrain changes (incl. rock glaciers and coastal erosion) and lakes (extent, ice properties etc.) with respect to current satellite missions have been specified. Of special interest for these applications are SAR missions. Current acquisition strategies for space borne SAR data only partially cover polar permafrost regions and some of the longterm in-situ measurement sites. Many stations are located in the proximity to coastal areas and glaciers which to some extent may allow joint usage by different cryosphere applications but requirements may deviate. The results of the discussion are presented in this paper.

  7. A Next Generation Air Monitor: Combining Orion and ISS Requirements for a Common Major Constituent Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, David E.; Tissandier, Michael; Niu, William Hsein-Chi; Lewis, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor on-board the International Space Station. The analyzer has been an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) since the station went on-line. The Orion Air Monitor (OAM) was derived from the MCA and heavily optimized for reduced mass, lower power, faster water vapor response, and maintenance-free operation. The resulting OAM is approximately the size of the analyzer portion of the MCA, orbital-replacement unit 02 (ORU 02), while incorporating the functions of three other modules: Data Processing and Communication (ORU 01), Verification Gas Assembly (ORU 08), and Low Voltage Power Supply (ORU 04). The overlap in MCA and OAM requirements makes it possible to derive a common Air Monitor design that spans both applications while minimally impacting the weight and power limits imposed by the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Benefits to ISS include the retirement of ORUs 01, 04, and 08, reducing up-mass and eliminating EEE parts obsolescence issues through the extended ISS mission phases. Benefits to MPCV and future deployed habitats under the Constellation program include greater interchangeability across ECLSS subsystems. This paper discusses the results of the requirements development study, where a superset of ISS and Orion air monitoring requirements were distilled; evaluated against increases in OAM functionality, mass, and power; and traded-off where possible using simple operating mode modifications. A system architecture and preliminary design addressing the common requirements will be presented.

  8. Impact of shock requiring norepinephrine on the accuracy and reliability of subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Ulrike; Warszawska, Joanna; Kitzberger, Reinhard; Herkner, Harald; Metnitz, Philipp G H; Madl, Christian

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy on the accuracy and reliability of a subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in critically ill patients. A prospective, validation study of a medical intensive care unit at a university hospital was carried out. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed subcutaneously in 50 consecutive patients on intensive insulin therapy (IIT), who were assessed according to the a priori strata of circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy or not. A total of 736 pairs of sensor glucose (SG)/blood glucose (BG) values were analysed (502 without and 234 with norepinephrine therapy). For all values, repeated measures Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of 0.08 mmol/l (limits of agreement: -1.26 and 1.43 mmol/l). Circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy did not influence the relation of arterial BG with SG in a multivariable random effects linear regression analysis. The covariates norepinephrine dose, body mass index (BMI), glucose level and severity of illness also had no influence. Insulin titration grid analysis showed that 98.6% of the data points were in the acceptable treatment zone. No data were in the life-threatening zone. Circulatory shock requiring norepinephrine therapy, as well as other covariates, had no influence on the accuracy and reliability of the CGMS in critically ill patients.

  9. 50 CFR 660.14 - Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 98115-6349, phone: (206) 526-6133. (2) Activate the mobile transceiver unit, submit an activation report..., electrical power to the VMS mobile transceiver unit may be removed and transmissions may be discontinued...? A VMS consists of a NMFS OLE type-approved mobile transceiver unit that automatically determines...

  10. 40 CFR 141.87 - Monitoring requirements for water quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring requirements for water... § 141.87 Monitoring requirements for water quality parameters. All large water systems, and all small... representative of water quality and treatment conditions throughout the system. (d) Monitoring after State...

  11. 40 CFR 141.26 - Monitoring frequency and compliance requirements for radionuclides in community water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for radionuclides in community water systems. (a) Monitoring and compliance requirements for gross... source of water must begin to conduct initial monitoring for the new source within the first quarter... initial monitoring requirements, a community water system having only one entry point to the distribution...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1502 - Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal occupational dose. 20.1502 Section 20.1502 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Surveys and Monitoring § 20.1502 Conditions requiring individual monitoring of external and internal...

  13. 50 CFR 216.155 - Requirements for monitoring and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Systematic visual observations, by those individuals, described in paragraph (c) of this section, on pinniped... monitoring measures: (1) Visual Land-Based Monitoring. (i) Prior to each missile launch, an observer(s) will... subpart. (5) Both the 60-day and final reports will be subject to review and comment by the...

  14. Electroencephalographic Monitoring in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Abend, Nicholas S.; Chapman, Kevin E.; Gallentine, William B.; Goldstein, Joshua; Hyslop, Ann E.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Nash, Kendall B; Riviello, James J.; Hahn, Cecil D.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous EEG monitoring is used with increasing frequency in critically ill children to provide insight into brain function and to identify electrographic seizures. EEG monitoring use often impacts clinical management, most often by identifying electrographic seizures and status epilepticus. Most electrographic seizures have no clinical correlate, and thus would not be identified without EEG monitoring. There is increasing data that electrographic seizures and electrographic status epilepti...

  15. Acoustic monitoring systems tests at Indian Point Unit 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.; Rao, G.V.; Craig, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the results of a program to test acoustic monitoring systems on Indian Point Unit No. 1 under actual plant operating conditions, less the reactor core. The two types of systems evaluated were the monitoring of acoustic emissions generated by growing flaws and the monitoring of acoustic signals from leaks.

  16. 77 FR 36488 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Vessel Monitoring System Requirements Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... near real-time satellite-based position-fixing transmitters (``Vessel Monitoring System-VMS-units'') at... must transmit: (1) ``On/off reports'' to NMFS whenever the VMS unit is turned off while the vessel is in port, (2) ``activation reports'' to NMFS prior to the first use of a VMS unit, and (3)...

  17. Continuous 'Passive' flow-proportional monitoring of drainage using a new modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; de Jonge, Hubert

    2016-03-01

    In view of their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring of agricultural subsurface drain tile systems is important for adequate water quality management. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tile drains are expensive and labour intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective and simple method for monitoring loads from tile drains. The Flowcap is a modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit that can be attached to the outlet of tile drains. It is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads and flow-averaged concentrations. The MSW builds on a modern passive sampling technique that responds to hydraulic pressure and measures average concentrations over time (days to months) for various substances. Mounting the samplers in the MSW allowed a flow-proportional part of the drainage to be sampled. Laboratory testing yielded high linear correlation between the accumulated sampler flow, q total, and accumulated drainage flow, Q total (r (2) > 0.96). The slope of these correlations was used to calculate the total drainage discharge from the sampled volume, and therefore contaminant load. A calibration of the MSW under controlled laboratory condition was needed before interpretation of the monitoring results was possible. The MSW does not require a shed, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of contaminant loads via tile drains, which can improve contaminant transport models and yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality. Results from this type of monitoring can provide data for the evaluation and optimisation of best management practices in agriculture in order to produce the highest yield without water quality and recipient surface waters being compromised.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1452 - What are my monitoring requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... document, “Fabric Filter Bag Leak Detection Guidance,” EPA-454/R-98-015, September 1997. You may obtain a... mechanisms. (iii) Check the compressed air supply for pulse-jet baghouses each day. (iv) Monitor...

  19. Independent calculation of monitor units for VMAT and SPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin; Bush, Karl; Ding, Aiping; Xing, Lei, E-mail: lei@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Dose and monitor units (MUs) represent two important facets of a radiation therapy treatment. In current practice, verification of a treatment plan is commonly done in dose domain, in which a phantom measurement or forward dose calculation is performed to examine the dosimetric accuracy and the MU settings of a given treatment plan. While it is desirable to verify directly the MU settings, a computational framework for obtaining the MU values from a known dose distribution has yet to be developed. This work presents a strategy to calculate independently the MUs from a given dose distribution of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT). Methods: The dose at a point can be expressed as a sum of contributions from all the station points (or control points). This relationship forms the basis of the proposed MU verification technique. To proceed, the authors first obtain the matrix elements which characterize the dosimetric contribution of the involved station points by computing the doses at a series of voxels, typically on the prescription surface of the VMAT/SPORT treatment plan, with unit MU setting for all the station points. An in-house Monte Carlo (MC) software is used for the dose matrix calculation. The MUs of the station points are then derived by minimizing the least-squares difference between doses computed by the treatment planning system (TPS) and that of the MC for the selected set of voxels on the prescription surface. The technique is applied to 16 clinical cases with a variety of energies, disease sites, and TPS dose calculation algorithms. Results: For all plans except the lung cases with large tissue density inhomogeneity, the independently computed MUs agree with that of TPS to within 2.7% for all the station points. In the dose domain, no significant difference between the MC and Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) dose distribution is found in terms of isodose contours

  20. 77 FR 13977 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AH23 Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring... final rule titled, ``Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at... electronically in www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Procedure 3--Quality Assurance Requirements for...

  1. 77 FR 13997 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AH23 Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring... rule titled, ``Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary....regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Procedure 3--Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity...

  2. 77 FR 8160 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AH23 Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring...--Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources Docket, EPA.... Rules establishing quality assurance requirements impose no costs independent from national emission...

  3. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 141.88 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water. (a) Sample location, collection... water samples in accordance with the following requirements regarding sample location, number of samples... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring requirements for lead...

  4. 40 CFR 141.86 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 141.86 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water. (a) Sample site location. (1) By the... requirements of § 141.87(e)(2), that it has re-qualified for triennial monitoring. (vii) Any water system... requirements for lead (i.e., a “lead waiver”), the water system must provide certification and...

  5. Electroencephalographic monitoring in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Nicholas S; Chapman, Kevin E; Gallentine, William B; Goldstein, Joshua; Hyslop, Ann E; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Nash, Kendall B; Riviello, James J; Hahn, Cecil D

    2013-03-01

    Continuous electroencephalographic (CEEG) monitoring is used with increasing frequency in critically ill children to provide insight into brain function and to identify electrographic seizures. CEEG monitoring use often impacts clinical management, most often by identifying electrographic seizures and status epilepticus. Most electrographic seizures have no clinical correlate, and thus would not be identified without CEEG monitoring. There are increasing data showing that electrographic seizures and electrographic status epilepticus are associated with worse outcome. Seizure identification efficiency may be improved by further development of quantitative electroencephalography trends. This review describes the clinical impact of CEEG data, the epidemiology of electrographic seizures and status epilepticus, the impact of electrographic seizures on outcome, the utility of quantitative electroencephalographic trends for seizure identification, and practical considerations regarding CEEG monitoring.

  6. 40 CFR 63.773 - Inspection and monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Oil and Natural Gas Production.... Owners or operators that install and operate a flare in accordance with § 63.771(d)(1)(iii) are exempt... feasible point to the catalyst bed outlet. (C) For a flare, a heat sensing monitoring device equipped...

  7. 40 CFR 141.74 - Analytical and monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from Ozone Science & Engineering, Pergamon Press Ltd., Fairview Park, Elmsford, New York 10523. Copies... 21, 2003, available from Industrial Test Systems, Inc., 1875 Langston St., Rock Hill, SC 29730. Free... method for use with a continuous monitoring instrument provided the chemistry, accuracy, and...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1209 - What are the monitoring requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator to use CEMS for compliance monitoring for particulate matter, mercury, semivolatile metals, low... ensure compliance with the relevant standard on a continuous basis. (B) Mercury. You may petition the... that affect adsorption and establish limits on those parameters based on the carbon used in...

  9. 40 CFR 63.11583 - What are my monitoring requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... practices at all times. (b) Operate a control device parameter (such as pressure drop or water flow, as... pressure drop. (2) Installation of the bag leak detector, parameter monitoring device, or CPMS at a... alert operators of a leak in the control device filter material. If a bag leak detection system...

  10. 40 CFR 146.23 - Operating, monitoring, and reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)); and (5) Hydrocarbon storage and enhanced recovery may be monitored on a field or project basis rather... information may be included by reference. (2) Owners or operators of hydrocarbon storage and enhanced recovery... fluid disposal operations; (ii) Monthly for enhanced recovery operations; (iii) Daily during the...

  11. 50 CFR 216.255 - Requirements for monitoring and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section may include retention of marine mammals without the need for a separate scientific research permit... animals sighted. (4) Conduct shipboard monitoring to reduce impacts to protected species. Trained marine..., including the time of sighting and the direction of travel, into a marine animal tracking and...

  12. On the hazard rate process for imperfectly monitored multi-unit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)]. E-mail: anne.barros@utt.fr; Berenguer, C. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Grall, A. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a stochastic model to characterize the failure distribution of multi-unit systems when the current units state is imperfectly monitored. The definition of the hazard rate process existing with perfect monitoring is extended to the realistic case where the units failure time are not always detected (non-detection events). The so defined observed hazard rate process gives a better representation of the system behavior than the classical failure rate calculated without any information on the units state and than the hazard rate process based on perfect monitoring information. The quality of this representation is, however, conditioned by the monotony property of the process. This problem is mainly discussed and illustrated on a practical example (two parallel units). The results obtained motivate the use of the observed hazard rate process to characterize the stochastic behavior of the multi-unit systems and to optimize for example preventive maintenance policies.

  13. Predictive monitoring for respiratory decompensation leading to urgent unplanned intubation in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew T; Vergales, Brooke D; Paget-Brown, Alix O; Smoot, Terri J; Lake, Douglas E; Hudson, John L; Delos, John B; Kattwinkel, John; Moorman, J Randall

    2013-01-01

    Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and especially those born with very low birth weight (VLBW; endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are associated with increased morbidity, particularly in urgent unplanned cases. We tested the hypothesis that the systemic response associated with respiratory decompensation can be detected from physiological monitoring and that statistical models of bedside monitoring data can identify infants at increased risk of urgent unplanned intubation. We studied 287 VLBW infants consecutively admitted to our NICU and found 96 events in 51 patients, excluding intubations occurring within 12 h of a previous extubation. In order of importance in a multivariable statistical model, we found that the characteristics of reduced O(2) saturation, especially as heart rate was falling; increased heart rate correlation with respiratory rate; and the amount of apnea were all significant independent predictors. The predictive model, validated internally by bootstrap, had a receiver-operating characteristic area of 0.84 ± 0.04. We propose that predictive monitoring in the NICU for urgent unplanned intubation may improve outcomes by allowing clinicians to intervene noninvasively before intubation is required.

  14. Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

  15. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaa to... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAA to Part 60 Protection of Environment... Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) For the following continuous emission monitoring systems...

  16. 40 CFR 63.10897 - What are my monitoring requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection of each baghouse, you must visually inspect the system ductwork and baghouse units for leaks. You... the system ductwork for leaks. (ii) You must conduct inspections of the interior of the baghouse for... pressure is present on the rapper manifold. You must also visually inspect the system ductwork...

  17. 40 CFR 63.964 - Inspection and monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., cracked, or otherwise damaged seals or gaskets on closure devices; and broken or missing plugs, caps, or... gaskets on closure devices; and broken or missing hatches, access covers, caps, or other closure devices... operator shall repair the defect the next time the process or unit that is generating the...

  18. 40 CFR 63.946 - Inspection and monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; and broken or missing hatches, access covers, caps, or other closure devices. (2) The owner or..., access covers, caps, or other closure devices. (ii) The owner or operator must perform an initial..., the owner or operator shall repair the defect at the next time the process or unit that is...

  19. 50 CFR 218.105 - Requirements for monitoring and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Dead Marine Mammals. Navy personnel shall ensure that NMFS is notified immediately ((see Communication... electronic (preferably) or verbal report within fifteen calendar days after the completion of any Major... include the following information as summarized from non-major training exercises (unit-level...

  20. 47 CFR 11.52 - EAS code and Attention Signal Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EAS code and Attention Signal Monitoring... SYSTEM (EAS) Emergency Operations § 11.52 EAS code and Attention Signal Monitoring requirements. (a) EAS Participants must be capable of receiving the Attention Signal required by § 11.32(a)(9) and emergency...

  1. 40 CFR 63.2269 - What are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Composite Wood Products Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2269 What are my monitoring installation... moisture monitoring. For each furnish or veneer moisture meter, you must meet the requirements in... in the 25 to 35 percent (dry basis) moisture content range. For veneer redryers, use a...

  2. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... medicine or osteopathy responsible for the care of the inpatient, a nurse, social worker and, when... nurses, licensed practical nurses, and mental health workers to provide nursing care necessary under each... active treatment measures and engage in discharge planning, as follows: (1) Personnel. The unit must...

  3. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  4. Measured Test-Driven Development: Using Measures to Monitor and Control the Unit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dubinsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze Test Driven Development (TDD from cognitive and social perspectives. Based on our analysis, we suggest a technique for controlling and monitoring the TDD process by examining measures that relate to the size and complexity of both code and tests. We call this approach Measured TDD. The motivation for TDD arose from practitioners' tendency to rush into code production, skipping the required testing needed to manufacture quality products. The motivation for Measured TDD is based on difficulties encountered by practitioners in applying TDD. Specifically, with the need to frequently refactor the unit, after every few test and code steps have been performed. We found that the suggested technique enables developers to gain better control over the development process.

  5. Research on Network-based Integrated Condition Monitoring Unit for Rotating Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Xiao-peng; ZHANG Wen-rui; XI Shuan-min; JING Min-qing; YU Lie

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a network-based monitoring unit for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery is designed and implemented. With the technology of DSP( Digital signal processing), TCP/IP, and simultaneous acquisition, a mechanism of multi-process and inter-process communication, the integrating problem of signal acquisition, the data dynamic management and network-based configuration in the embedded condition monitoring system is solved. It offers the input function of monitoring information for network-based condition monitoring and a fault diagnosis system.

  6. 40 CFR 63.1429 - Process vent monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63... required and should be equipped with a continuous recorder. If an acid or base absorbent is used, a...

  7. 75 FR 43487 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Vessel Monitoring System Requirements in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... vessel monitoring system (VMS) units on their vessels when directed to do so by NOAA enforcement personnel. VMS units automatically send periodic reports on the position of the vessel. NOAA uses the..., VMS installation and annual maintenance are considered public burden. This request combines three...

  8. Groundwater Monitoring at the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2007-04-25

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive summary of the distribution and trends of volatile organic compound concentrations near USDOE’s Horn Rapids Landfill (HRL). This report focuses mainly on the TCE plume monitored in the top of the unconfined aquifer near the HRL, but also addresses potential breakdown products of TCE. TCE concentrations in deep portions of the unconfined aquifer and the underlying confined aquifer are discussed to show the vertical extent of contamination. This report incorporates TCE data from offsite wells at the AREVA facility south of the Hanford Site. Discussion of TCE in groundwater in the 300 Area is included to differentiate between contaminant plumes and their sources in the 300 Area and near the HRL. Chromium monitoring results from a specific well downgradient of the 1171 Building is also included.

  9. Hydrothermal monitoring data from the Cascade Range, northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Gelwick, Katrina D.; Randolph-Flagg, Noah G.; Crankshaw, Ilana M.; Lundstrom, Elizabeth A.; McCulloch, Callum L.; Murveit, Anna M.; Newman, Alice C.; Mariner, Robert H.; Bergfeld, D.; Tucker, Dave S.; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Mosbrucker, Adam; Evans, William C.

    2013-01-01

    This database serves as a repository for hydrothermal-monitoring data collected at 25 sites in the U.S. portion of the Cascade Range volcanic arc. These data are intended to quantify baseline hydrothermal variability at most (10 of 12) of the highest-risk volcanoes in the Cascades, as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS’) National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) report (Ewert and others, 2005).

  10. Automatic chemical monitoring in the composition of functions performed by the unit level control system in the new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, L. G.; Khrennikov, N. N.

    2014-08-01

    The article presents information on the state of regulatory framework and development of a subsystem for automated chemical monitoring of water chemistries in the primary and secondary coolant circuits used as part of the automatic process control system in new projects of VVER reactor-based nuclear power plant units. For the strategy of developing and putting in use the water chemistry-related part of the automated process control system within the standard AES-2006 nuclear power plant project to be implemented, it is necessary to develop regulatory documents dealing with certain requirements imposed on automatic water chemistry monitoring systems in accordance with the requirements of federal codes and regulations in the field of using atomic energy.

  11. 78 FR 16184 - Revision to Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... 98th percentile form averaged over three years and a level of 100 parts per billion (ppb), reflecting... 53 ppb. As part of the NAAQS rulemaking, the EPA promulgated revisions to requirements for minimum... groups and one citizen supporting the proposed revisions to the schedule for implementing near-road NO 2...

  12. 75 FR 81126 - Revisions to Lead Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Physicians for a Healthy Environment, Leslie and Jack Warden, WEACT for Environmental Justice and the Wasatch... requirements, the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), the Missouri Coalition for the Environment... provisions of the final lead NAAQS rule. See Missouri Coalition for the Environment, et al. v. EPA, (DC...

  13. Nitrogen emissions, deposition, and monitoring in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Richard Haeuber; Gail S. Tonnesen; Jill S. Baron; Susanne Grossman-Clarke; Diane Hope; Daniel A. Jaffe; Scott Copeland; Linda Geiser; Heather M. Rueth; James O. Sickman

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in the western United States ranges from 1 to 4 kilograms (kg) per hectare (ha) per year over much of the region to as high as 30 to 90 kg per ha per year downwind of major urban and agricultural areas. Primary N emissions sources are transportation, agriculture, and industry. Emissions of N as ammonia are about 50% as great as emissions of N as...

  14. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  15. Human Requirements of Flight. Aerospace Education III. Instructional Unit IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Arthur D.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "Human Requirements of Flight." It provides specific guidelines for teachers using the textbook. The guidelines for each chapter are organized according to objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points,…

  16. A maintenance policy for two-unit parallel systems based on imperfect monitoring information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Anne [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)]. E-mail: anne.barros@utt.fr; Berenguer, Christophe [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France); Grall, Antoine [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)

    2006-02-01

    In this paper a maintenance policy is optimised for a two-unit system with a parallel structure and stochastic dependences. Monitoring problems are taken into account in the optimisation scheme: the failure time of each unit can be not detected with a given probability. Conditions on the system parameters (unit failure rates) and on the non-detection probabilities must be verified to make the optimisation scheme valid. These conditions are clearly identified. Numerical experiments allow to show the relevance of taking into account monitoring problems in the maintenance model.

  17. Improved Power Quality Monitoring through Phasor Measurement Unit Data Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Marinelli, Mattia; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    the correct actions for operating the system. In future power systems more measuring sensors including phasor measurement units will be available distributed all over the power system. They can and should be utilized to increase the observability of the power system. In this paper the impact of photovoltaic....... The voltage unbalance factor (VUF) could be a ‘new’ observable for a particular power system condition. Information about the actual injected wind power for a certain grid area could be derived without knowing/measuring the real wind power injection....

  18. 10 CFR 35.647 - Additional technical requirements for mobile remote afterloader units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on the remote afterloader unit, on the control console, and in the facility; (3) Viewing and intercom... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional technical requirements for mobile remote... MATERIAL Photon Emitting Remote Afterloader Units, Teletherapy Units, and Gamma Stereotactic...

  19. Pervasive technology in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a prototype for newborns unobtrusive monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Oriana; Piccini, Luca; Parini, Sergio; Rullo, Alessia; Bagnoli, Franco; Marti, Patrizia; Andreoni, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Pervasive computing research is introducing new perspectives in a wide range of applications, including healthcare domain. In this study we explore the possibility to realize a prototype of a system for unobtrusive recording and monitoring of multiple biological parameters on premature newborns hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). It consists of three different units: a sensitized belt for Electrocardiogram (ECG) and chest dilatation monitoring, augmented with extrinsic transducers for temperature and respiratory activity measure, a device for signals pre-processing, sampling and transmission through Bluetooth(R) (BT) technology to a remote PC station and a software for data capture and post-processing. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring babies just discharged from the ward demonstrated the feasibility of the unobtrusive monitoring on this kind of subjects and open a new scenario for premature newborns monitoring and developmental cares practice in NICU.

  20. Comparison and Cost Analysis of Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Requirements versus Practice in Seven Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Crocker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country’s ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states, Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  1. Comparison and cost analysis of drinking water quality monitoring requirements versus practice in seven developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-07-18

    Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country's ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states), Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  2. Tactical Unit Data and Decision Requirements for Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    decision requirements useful in urban operations. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or...Building Function Verify mosque and identify possi- ble schools or meeting places Identify types of cinema (stage/theatre) or other similar nearby...Determine mosque and residen- tial floor plans Interior layout of cinema and high-rises Layout of power control facilities Improved Dismounted & Mounted

  3. 77 FR 8209 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AH23 Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring... standards as specified in federally enforceable regulations. The quality assurance requirements will be... standards to the quality assurance requirements in Appendix F of 40 CFR Part 60 in the ``Rules and...

  4. 77 FR 18709 - Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring Systems at Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AH23 Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity Monitoring... final rule. SUMMARY: The EPA published a direct final rule titled ``Quality Assurance Requirements for....regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Procedure 3--Quality Assurance Requirements for Continuous Opacity...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 51 - Minimum Emission Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements P Appendix P to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. P Appendix P to Part 51—Minimum Emission Monitoring Requirements 1.0 Purpose. This appendix P sets forth...

  6. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  7. The Evolutionary Biology of Ourselves Unit Requirements and Organizational Change in United States History

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, C; Lipo, Carl; Madsen, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that the distinction between so-called "simple" and "complex" societies can be expressed by an increase in the number of levels at which functional organization, interaction, and thus selection, operate. In spite of the obvious links between this suggestion and research into complex social organization amongst insects and other social animals, the levels of selection model has seen little use among anthropologists. We suggest that the primary reason for lack of research into the evolutionary causes of social complexity has been the lack of descriptive units with which we can examine phenotypic variation and heritability of social organization above the level of the organism. The goal of our paper, therefore, is to begin constructing descriptive units which map to meaningful models of multi-level selection. In order to demonstrate how these units are useful in a real dataset, we examine the functional changes involved in the United States economy over the last 100 years, a period of t...

  8. A far-view intensive care unit monitoring display enables faster triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görges, Matthias; Kück, Kai; Koch, Sven H; Agutter, Jim; Westenskow, Dwayne R

    2011-01-01

    Although nurses perform the majority of the clinical tasks in an intensive care unit, current patient monitors were not designed to support a nurse's workflow. Nurses constantly triage patients, deciding which patient is currently in the most need of care. To make this decision, nurses must observe the patient's vital signs and therapeutic device information from multiple sources. To obtain this information, they often have to enter the patient's room. This study addresses 3 hypotheses. Information provided by far-view monitoring displays (1) reduces the amount of time to determine which patient needs care first, (2) increases the accuracy of assigning priority to the right patient, and (3) reduces nurses mental workload. We developed 2 far-view displays to be read from a distance of 3 to 5 m without entering the patient's room. Both display vital signs, trends, alarms, infusion pump status, and therapy support indicators. To evaluate the displays, nurses were asked to use the displays to decide which of 2 patients required their attention first. They made 60 decisions: 20 with each far-view display and 20 decisions with a standard patient monitor next to an infusion pump. Sixteen nurses (median age of 27.5 years with 2.75 years of experience) participated in the study. Using the 2 far-view displays, nurses more accurately and rapidly identified stable patients and syringe pumps that were nearly empty. Median decision times were 11.3 and 12.4 seconds for the 2 far-view displays and 17.2 seconds for the control display. The 2 far-view displays reduced median decision-making times by 4.8 to 5.9 seconds, increased accuracy in assignment of priority in 2 of 7 patient conditions, and reduced nurses' frustration with the triaging task. In a clinical setting, the proposed far-view display might reduce nurses' mental workload and thereby increase patient safety.

  9. Range and modulation dependencies for proton beam dose per monitor unit calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Wen C.; Schreuder, Andries N.; Moyers, Michael F.; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.

    2009-01-01

    Calculations of dose per monitor unit (D∕MU) are required in addition to measurements to increase patient safety in the clinical practice of proton radiotherapy. As in conventional photon and electron therapy, the D∕MU depends on several factors. This study focused on obtaining range and modulation dependence factors used in D∕MU calculations for the double scattered proton beam line at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute. Three dependencies on range and one dependency on modulation were found. A carefully selected set of measurements was performed to discern these individual dependencies. Dependencies on range were due to: (1) the stopping power of the protons passing through the monitor chamber; (2) the reduction of proton fluence due to nuclear interactions within the patient; and (3) the variation of proton fluence passing through the monitor chamber due to different source-to-axis distances (SADs) for different beam ranges. Different SADs are produced by reconfigurations of beamline elements to provide different field sizes and ranges. The SAD effect on the D∕MU varies smoothly as the beam range is varied, except at the beam range for which the first scatterers are exchanged and relocated to accommodate low and high beam ranges. A geometry factor was devised to model the SAD variation effect on the D∕MU. The measured D∕MU variation as a function of range can be predicted within 1% using the three modeled dependencies on range. Investigation of modulated beams showed that an analytical formula can predict the D∕MU dependency as a function of modulation to within 1.5%. Special attention must be applied when measuring the D∕MU dependence on modulation to avoid interplay between range and SAD effects. PMID:19292004

  10. Range and modulation dependencies for proton beam dose per monitor unit calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi, Wen C.; Schreuder, Andries N.; Moyers, Michael F.; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E. [Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 and University Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida 32206 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); Proton Therapy, Inc., Colton, California 92324 (United States); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 and Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum, Universitaetsklinikum, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen (Germany); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Calculations of dose per monitor unit (D/MU) are required in addition to measurements to increase patient safety in the clinical practice of proton radiotherapy. As in conventional photon and electron therapy, the D/MU depends on several factors. This study focused on obtaining range and modulation dependence factors used in D/MU calculations for the double scattered proton beam line at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute. Three dependencies on range and one dependency on modulation were found. A carefully selected set of measurements was performed to discern these individual dependencies. Dependencies on range were due to: (1) the stopping power of the protons passing through the monitor chamber; (2) the reduction of proton fluence due to nuclear interactions within the patient; and (3) the variation of proton fluence passing through the monitor chamber due to different source-to-axis distances (SADs) for different beam ranges. Different SADs are produced by reconfigurations of beamline elements to provide different field sizes and ranges. The SAD effect on the D/MU varies smoothly as the beam range is varied, except at the beam range for which the first scatterers are exchanged and relocated to accommodate low and high beam ranges. A geometry factor was devised to model the SAD variation effect on the D/MU. The measured D/MU variation as a function of range can be predicted within 1% using the three modeled dependencies on range. Investigation of modulated beams showed that an analytical formula can predict the D/MU dependency as a function of modulation to within 1.5%. Special attention must be applied when measuring the D/MU dependence on modulation to avoid interplay between range and SAD effects.

  11. Ground Water Monitoring Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are just one aspect of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management strategy for protecting human health and the

  12. 40 CFR 98.44 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.44 Monitoring and QA/QC requirements. Follow the applicable quality assurance procedures for CO2 emissions in appendices B, D, and G to 40 CFR part 75....

  13. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D. [comps.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  14. Two cases of burns caused by misuse of coagulation unit and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolly, G

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of severe burns with monitoring apparatus are described. In a female patient of 45 years, a severe third degree burn occurred by misuse of coagulation apparatus (inversion of the poles of an older Bovie apparatus), in the presence of a non-floating ECG monitoring device. A high intensity current was established from the coagulation unit, via the earth plate under the buttocks, to the indifferent electrode placed on the chest, where burns occurred. In an 8 month female baby, having laparotomy for a neuroblastoma, a third degree burn of 5 cm diameter occurred with a non-floating ECG monitor. A twin-wired disposable earth plate was placed just beneath the indifferent ECG electrode on the leg. A burning current was established between the Bovie coagulation unit and the monitor.

  15. 41 CFR 109-42.1102-8 - United States Munitions List items which require demilitarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... List items which require demilitarization. 109-42.1102-8 Section 109-42.1102-8 Public Contracts and... Property § 109-42.1102-8 United States Munitions List items which require demilitarization. Heads of field organizations shall determine demilitarization requirements regarding combat material and military...

  16. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  17. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  18. Acoustic emission monitoring of hot functional testing: Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, P.H.; Dawson, J.F.; Friesel, M.A.; Harris, J.C.; Pappas, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of selected pressure boundary areas at TVA's Watts Bar, Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during hot functional preservice testing is described in this report. The report deals with background, methodology, and results. The work discussed here is a major milestone in a program supported by NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. The subject work demonstrated that anticipated problem areas can be overcome. Work is continuing toward AE monitoring during reactor operation.

  19. Analysis of free flap complications and utilization of intensive care unit monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Agustin; Ivatury, Sirinivas; Crane, Curtis N; Myers, John G; Wang, Howard T

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to determine the optimal time for intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring after free flap reconstruction based on the timing of surgical complications. We reviewed retrospectively 179 free flaps in 170 subjects during an 8-year period at University Hospital. Thirty-seven flaps were reoperated due to vascular (n = 16, 8.9%) and nonvascular complications (n = 21, 11.7%). Vascular complications presented earlier relative to nonvascular complications (10.8 versus 99.3 hours). The flap survival rate was 93.2% with a mean ICU length of stay of 6.2 days. The lack of standardized monitoring protocols can lead to overutilization of ICU. Sometimes, flap monitoring is not the limiting factor, as patients with other comorbidities necessitate longer ICU stays. However, our study suggests that close monitoring of flaps seems most critical during the first 24 to 48 hours, when most thrombotic complications occur and prompt identification and re-exploration is critical. Some thrombosis and most hematomas present within 72 hours, and thus close monitoring is still warranted. We suggest close monitoring of free flaps in the ICU or dedicated flap monitoring unit where nursing can check the flap on an every-1-to-2-hour basis for the first 72 hours postoperatively to assure optimal surveillance of any potential problems.

  20. 50 CFR 18.128 - What are the mitigation, monitoring, and reporting requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... require a monitor on the site of the activity or on board drill ships, drill rigs, aircraft, icebreakers... or require that the operator conduct activities after the female bears emerge from their dens. We... Alaska Regional Director (Attn: Marine Mammals Management Office) within 90 days after completion...

  1. Surveillance Monitoring Management for General Care Units: Strategy, Design, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Susan P; Taenzer, Andreas H; Karon, Nancy; Blike, George

    2016-07-01

    The growing number of monitoring devices, combined with suboptimal patient monitoring and alarm management strategies, has increased "alarm fatigue," which have led to serious consequences. Most reported alarm man- agement approaches have focused on the critical care setting. Since 2007 Dartmouth-Hitchcock (Lebanon, New Hamp- shire) has developed a generalizable and effective design, implementation, and performance evaluation approach to alarm systems for continuous monitoring in general care settings (that is, patient surveillance monitoring). In late 2007, a patient surveillance monitoring system was piloted on the basis of a structured design and implementation approach in a 36-bed orthopedics unit. Beginning in early 2009, it was expanded to cover more than 200 inpatient beds in all medicine and surgical units, except for psychiatry and labor and delivery. Improvements in clinical outcomes (reduction of unplanned transfers by 50% and reduction of rescue events by more than 60% in 2008) and approximately two alarms per patient per 12-hour nursing shift in the original pilot unit have been sustained across most D-H general care units in spite of increasing patient acuity and unit occupancy. Sample analysis of pager notifications indicates that more than 85% of all alarm conditions are resolved within 30 seconds and that more than 99% are resolved before escalation is triggered. The D-H surveillance monitoring system employs several important, generalizable features to manage alarms in a general care setting: alarm delays, static thresholds set appropriately for the prevalence of events in this setting, directed alarm annunciation, and policy-driven customization of thresholds to allow clinicians to respond to needs of individual patients. The systematic approach to design, implementation, and performance management has been key to the success of the system.

  2. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  3. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  4. An assessment of monitoring requirements and costs of 'Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum Ian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negotiations on a future climate policy framework addressing Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD are ongoing. Regardless of how such a framework will be designed, many technical solutions of estimating forest cover and forest carbon stock change exist to support policy in monitoring and accounting. These technologies typically combine remotely sensed data with ground-based inventories. In this article we assess the costs of monitoring REDD based on available technologies and requirements associated with key elements of REDD policy. Results We find that the design of a REDD policy framework (and specifically its rules can have a significant impact on monitoring costs. Costs may vary from 0.5 to 550 US$ per square kilometre depending on the required precision of carbon stock and area change detection. Moreover, they follow economies of scale, i.e. single country or project solutions will face relatively higher monitoring costs. Conclusion Although monitoring costs are relatively small compared to other cost items within a REDD system, they should be shared not only among countries but also among sectors, because an integrated monitoring system would have multiple benefits for non-REDD management. Overcoming initialization costs and unequal access to monitoring technologies is crucial for implementation of an integrated monitoring system, and demands for international cooperation.

  5. Evaluating and monitoring analgesia and sedation in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessler, Curtis N; Grap, Mary Jo; Ramsay, Michael Ae

    2008-01-01

    Management of analgesia and sedation in the intensive care unit requires evaluation and monitoring of key parameters in order to detect and quantify pain and agitation, and to quantify sedation. The routine use of subjective scales for pain, agitation, and sedation promotes more effective management, including patient-focused titration of medications to specific end-points. The need for frequent measurement reflects the dynamic nature of pain, agitation, and sedation, which change constantly in critically ill patients. Further, close monitoring promotes repeated evaluation of response to therapy, thus helping to avoid over-sedation and to eliminate pain and agitation. Pain assessment tools include self-report (often using a numeric pain scale) for communicative patients and pain scales that incorporate observed behaviors and physiologic measures for noncommunicative patients. Some of these tools have undergone validity testing but more work is needed. Sedation-agitation scales can be used to identify and quantify agitation, and to grade the depth of sedation. Some scales incorporate a step-wise assessment of response to increasingly noxious stimuli and a brief assessment of cognition to define levels of consciousness; these tools can often be quickly performed and easily recalled. Many of the sedation-agitation scales have been extensively tested for inter-rater reliability and validated against a variety of parameters. Objective measurement of indicators of consciousness and brain function, such as with processed electroencephalography signals, holds considerable promise, but has not achieved widespread implementation. Further clarification of the roles of these tools, particularly within the context of patient safety, is needed, as is further technology development to eliminate artifacts and investigation to demonstrate added value.

  6. Cardiac arrhythmias in stroke unit patients. Evaluation of the cardiac monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Menéndez, S; García-Santiago, R; Vega-Primo, A; González Nafría, N; Lara-Lezama, L B; Redondo-Robles, L; Montes-Montes, M; Riveira-Rodríguez, M C; Tejada-García, J

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are frequent in acute stroke. Stroke units are widely equipped with cardiac monitoring systems. Pre-existing heart diseases and heart-brain interactions may be implicated in causing cardiac arrhythmias in acute stroke. This article analyses cardiac arrhythmias detected in patients hospitalised in a stroke unit. Prospective observational study of consecutive patients admitted to a stroke unit with cardiac monitoring. We collected clinical data from patients and the characteristics of their cardiac arrhythmias over a 1-year period (2013). Time of arrhythmia onset, associated predisposing factors, and the therapeutic decisions made after detection of arrhythmia were examined. All patients underwent continuous cardiac monitoring during no less than 48hours. Of a total of 332 patients admitted, significant cardiac arrhythmias occurred in 98 patients (29.5%) during their stay in the stroke unit. Tachyarrhythmia (ventricular tachyarrhythmias, supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, complex ventricular ectopy) was present in 90 patients (27.1%); bradyarrhythmia was present in 13 patients (3.91%). Arrhythmias were independently associated with larger size of brain lesion and older age. In 10% of the patient total, therapeutic actions were taken after detection of significant cardiac arrhythmias. Most events occurred within the first 48hours after stroke unit admission. Systematic cardiac monitoring in patients with acute stroke is useful for detecting clinically relevant cardiac arrhythmias. Incidence of arrhythmia is higher in the first 48hours after stroke unit admission. Age and lesion size were predicted appearance of arrhythmias. Detection of cardiac arrhythmias in a stroke unit has important implications for treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Model of Delirium Care in the Acute Geriatric Setting: Geriatric Monitoring Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Mei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common and serious condition, which affects many of our older hospitalised patients. It is an indicator of severe underlying illness and requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment, associated with poor survival, functional outcomes with increased risk of institutionalisation following the delirium episode in the acute care setting. We describe a new model of delirium care in the acute care setting, titled Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU where the important concepts of delirium prevention and management are integrated. We hypothesize that patients with delirium admitted to the GMU would have better clinical outcomes with less need for physical and psychotropic restraints compared to usual care. Methods/Design GMU models after the Delirium Room with adoption of core interventions from Hospital Elder Life Program and use of evening bright light therapy to consolidate circadian rhythm and improve sleep in the elderly patients. The novelty of this approach lies in the amalgamation of these interventions in a multi-faceted approach in acute delirium management. GMU development thus consists of key considerations for room design and resource planning, program specific interventions and daily core interventions. Assessments undertaken include baseline demographics, comorbidity scoring, duration and severity of delirium, cognitive, functional measures at baseline, 6 months and 12 months later. Additionally we also analysed the pre and post-GMU implementation knowledge and attitude on delirium care among staff members in the geriatric wards (nurses, doctors and undertook satisfaction surveys for caregivers of patients treated in GMU. Discussion This study protocol describes the conceptualization and implementation of a specialized unit for delirium management. We hypothesize that such a model of care will not only result in better clinical outcomes for the elderly patient with delirium compared to usual geriatric care

  8. Requirements to micro-unmanned aircraft systems in civil protection and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer-Stabel, Peter; Hardt, Christopher [Univ. of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    Especially in application fields such as environmental monitoring or in the field of information and operations management with technical or natural disasters, increased demands on communication and sensor technology to micro unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are given. These are currently covered by the system manufacturers, however inadequately. The use case of wildlife monitoring with micro UAS comes with some special requirements and problems, addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  9. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-8 - United States Munitions List items which require demilitarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... List items which require demilitarization. 101-42.1102-8 Section 101-42.1102-8 Public Contracts and... States Munitions List items which require demilitarization. (a) General. The United States Munitions List is located in 22 CFR part 121. A system of demilitarization codes has been developed and...

  10. Status of Personal Health Requirement for Graduation at Institutions of Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dayna S.; Aydt Klein, Nicole; Kempland, Monica; Rose Oswalt, Sarah; Rexilius, Molly A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of higher education institutions in the United States that require a personal health course (PHC) for graduation and to describe the nature of such requirements. Participants: This study included a random sample of public and private institutions of higher education (IHE) with…

  11. Status of Personal Health Requirement for Graduation at Institutions of Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Dayna S.; Aydt Klein, Nicole; Kempland, Monica; Rose Oswalt, Sarah; Rexilius, Molly A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of higher education institutions in the United States that require a personal health course (PHC) for graduation and to describe the nature of such requirements. Participants: This study included a random sample of public and private institutions of higher education (IHE) with…

  12. Verification of monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT clinical radiotherapy: report of AAPM Task Group 114.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin L; Heaton, Robert; Fraser, Martin W; Goddu, S Murty; Kirby, Thomas H; Lam, Kwok Leung; Molineu, Andrea; Zhu, Timothy C

    2011-01-01

    The requirement of an independent verification of the monitor units (MU) or time calculated to deliver the prescribed dose to a patient has been a mainstay of radiation oncology quality assurance. The need for and value of such a verification was obvious when calculations were performed by hand using look-up tables, and the verification was achieved by a second person independently repeating the calculation. However, in a modern clinic using CT/MR/PET simulation, computerized 3D treatment planning, heterogeneity corrections, and complex calculation algorithms such as convolution/superposition and Monte Carlo, the purpose of and methodology for the MU verification have come into question. In addition, since the verification is often performed using a simpler geometrical model and calculation algorithm than the primary calculation, exact or almost exact agreement between the two can no longer be expected. Guidelines are needed to help the physicist set clinically reasonable action levels for agreement. This report addresses the following charges of the task group: (1) To re-evaluate the purpose and methods of the "independent second check" for monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT radiation treatment in light of the complexities of modern-day treatment planning. (2) To present recommendations on how to perform verification of monitor unit calculations in a modern clinic. (3) To provide recommendations on establishing action levels for agreement between primary calculations and verification, and to provide guidance in addressing discrepancies outside the action levels. These recommendations are to be used as guidelines only and shall not be interpreted as requirements.

  13. Nurse Competence on Physiologic Monitors Use: Toward Eliminating Alarm Fatigue in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh K; Vera, Ana G; Fonseca, Elma I; Reed, Charles C; Tarriela, Albert F; Berndt, Andrea E

    2017-01-01

    Studies on nurse competence on alarm management are a few and tend to be focused on limited skills. In response to Phase II of implementing the National Patient Safety Goal on clinical alarm systems safety, this study assessed nurses' perceived competence on physiologic monitors use in intensive care units (ICUs) and developed and validated a tool for this purpose. This descriptive study took place in a Magnet hospital in a Southwestern state of the U.S. A Nurse Competence on Philips Physiologic Monitors Use Survey was created and went through validation by 13 expert ICU nurses. The survey included 5 subscales with 59 rated items and two open-ended questions. Items on the first 4 subscales reflect most common tasks nurses perform using physiologic monitors. Items on the fifth subscale (advanced functions) reflect rarely used skills and were included to understand the scope of utilizing advanced physiologic monitors' features. Thirty nurses from 4 adult ICUs were invited to respond to the survey. Thirty nurses (100%) responded to the survey. The majority of nurses were from Neuro (47%) and Surgical Trauma (37%) ICUs. The data supported the high reliability and construct validity of the survey. At least one (3%) to 8 nurses (27%) reported lack of confidence on each item on the survey. On the first four subscales, 3% - 40% of the nurses reported they had never heard of or used 27 features/functions on the monitors. No relationships were found between subscales' scores and demographic characteristics (p > .05). Nurses asked for training on navigating the central-station monitor and troubleshooting alarms, and the use of unit-specific super users to tailor training to users' needs. This is the first study to create and test a list of competencies for physiologic monitors use. Rigorous, periodic and individualized training is essential for safe and appropriate use of physiologic monitors and to decrease alarm fatigue. Training should be comprehensive to include all

  14. Continuous stroke unit electrocardiographic monitoring versus 24-hour Holter electrocardiography for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Timolaos; Güntner, Janina; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Marquardt, Lars; Reichardt, Christine; Becker, Rüdiger; Reinhardt, Roland; Hepp, Thomas; Kirchhof, Paulus; Aleynichenko, Elena; Ringleb, Peter; Hacke, Werner; Veltkamp, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Cardioembolism in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pxAF) is a frequent cause of ischemic stroke. Sensitive detection of pxAF after stroke is crucial for adequate secondary stroke prevention; the optimal diagnostic modality to detect pxAF on stroke units is unknown. We compared 24-hour Holter electrocardiography (ECG) with continuous stroke unit ECG monitoring (CEM) for pxAF detection. Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were prospectively enrolled. After a 12-channel ECG on admission, all patients received 24-hour Holter ECG and CEM. Additionally, ECG monitoring data underwent automated analysis using dedicated software to identify pxAF. Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation or with atrial fibrillation on the admission ECG were excluded. Four hundred ninety-six patients (median age, 69 years; 61.5% male) fulfilled all inclusion criteria (ischemic stroke: 80.4%; transient ischemic attack: 19.6%). Median stroke unit stay lasted 88.8 hours (interquartile range, 65.0-122.0). ECG data for automated CEM analysis were available for a median time of 64.0 hours (43.0-89.8). Paroxysmal AF was documented in 41 of 496 patients (8.3%). Of these, Holter detected pxAF in 34.1%; CEM in 65.9%; and automated CEM in 92.7%. CEM and automated CEM detected significantly more patients with pxAF than Holter (PHolter ECG. The comparative usefulness of prolonged or repetitive Holter ECG recordings requires further evaluation.

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 58 - Quality Assurance Requirements for SLAMS, SPMs and PSD Air Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Appendix A to Part 58—Quality Assurance Requirements for SLAMS, SPMs and PSD Air Monitoring 1. General... specifies the minimum quality system requirements applicable to SLAMS air monitoring data and PSD data for... of the air being measured. Monitoring organizations must develop quality assurance project...

  16. An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K

    2003-07-07

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 of the ''Air Force Hydrazine Detector Characterization and Calibration Project''. A method for calibrating model MDA 7100 hydrazine detectors in the United States Air Force (AF) inventory has been developed. The calibration system consists of a Kintek 491 reference gas generation system, a humidifier/mixer system which combines the dry reference hydrazine gas with humidified diluent or carrier gas to generate the required humidified reference for calibrations, and a gas sampling interface. The Kintek reference gas generation system itself is periodically calibrated using an ORNL-constructed coulometric titration system to verify the hydrazine concentration of the sample atmosphere in the interface module. The Kintek reference gas is then used to calibrate the hydrazine monitors. Thus, coulometric titration is only used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek reference gas generation system, and is not required for hydrazine monitor calibrations. One advantage of using coulometric titration for verifying the concentration of the reference gas is that it is a primary standard (if used for simple solutions), thereby guaranteeing, in principle, that measurements will be traceable to SI units (i.e., to the mole). The effect of humidity of the reference gas was characterized by using the results of concentrations determined by coulometric titration to develop a humidity correction graph for the Kintek 491 reference gas generation system. Using this calibration method, calibration uncertainty has been reduced by 50% compared to the current method used to calibrate hydrazine monitors in the Air Force inventory and calibration time has also been reduced by more than 20%. Significant findings from studies documented in this report are the following: (1) The Kintek 491 reference gas generation system (generator, humidifier and interface module) can be used to calibrate hydrazine detectors. (2) The

  17. The experience of family members of ICU patients who require extensive monitoring: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claudia DiSabatino; Custard, Kristi

    2014-09-01

    A mixed methods study using family research with a phenomenological approach (n = 5 families) was conducted to explore family members' perceptions about the extensive monitoring technology used on their critically ill family member after cardiac surgery, as experienced when family members initially visited the patient in the cardiovascular intensive care unit. Five relevant themes emerged: overwhelmed by all of the machines; feelings of uncertainty; methods of coping; meaning of the numbers on the machines; and need for education.

  18. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) You...

  19. Design and accomplishment for the monitoring unit of the sup 6 sup 0 Co train freight inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Cong Peng

    2002-01-01

    The sup 6 sup 0 Co railway cargo inspection system has super automaticity. And the monitoring unit is an important part of the automatic control system. The author introduces the idea of designing the monitoring unit in detail and accomplishes a new-style unit which is different from the traditional one. The monitoring unit which is highly integrated, easy to be mounted and debugged and convenient to be operated and maintained has play an excellent role in the work of the whole inspection system

  20. Critical evaluation of factors required to terminate the postclosure monitoring period at solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlaz, M.A.; Rooker, A.P.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    requirements and regulatory activity that might be required to prepare regulators for the large number of requests to terminate postclosure monitoring expected over the next 20 years. An approach in which the frequency and extent of postclosure monitoring is reduced as warranted by site-specific data......Regulations governing the disposal of solid waste in landfills specify that they must be monitored for 30 years after closure unless this period is extended by the governing regulatory authority. Given the wide range of conditions under which refuse is buried, technical criteria, rather than...... water or groundwater. The acceptability of gaseous releases should be evaluated against criteria for odors, the potential for subsurface migration, and greenhouse gas and ozone precursor emissions. The approach presented here must be tested on a site-specific basis to identify additional data...

  1. Awareness during anaesthesia for surgery requiring evoked potential monitoring: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritish J Korula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evoked potential monitoring such as somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP or motor-evoked potential (MEP monitoring during surgical procedures in proximity to the spinal cord requires minimising the minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs below the anaesthetic concentrations normally required (1 MAC to prevent interference in amplitude and latency of evoked potentials. This could result in awareness. Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of awareness while administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics for these unique procedures. The secondary objective was to assess the adequacy of our anaesthetic technique from neurophysiologist′s perspective. Methods: In this prospective observational pilot study, 61 American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 patients undergoing spinal surgery for whom intraoperative evoked potential monitoring was performed were included; during the maintenance phase, 0.7-0.8 MAC of isoflurane was targeted. We evaluated the intraoperative depth of anaesthesia using a bispectral (BIS index monitor as well as the patients response to surgical stimulus (PRST scoring system. Post-operatively, a modified Bruce questionnaire was used to verify awareness. The adequacy of evoked potential readings was also assessed. Results: Of the 61 patients, no patient had explicit awareness. Intraoperatively, 19 of 61 patients had a BIS value of above sixty at least once, during surgery. There was no correlation with PRST scoring and BIS during surgery. Fifty-four out of 61 patient′s evoked potential readings were deemed ′good′ or ′fair′ for the conduct of electrophysiological monitoring. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates that administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics to facilitate evoked potential monitoring does not result in explicit awareness. However, larger studies are needed to verify this. The conduct of SSEP electrophysiological monitoring was satisfactory with the use of this

  2. 40 CFR 63.7188 - What are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Semiconductor Manufacturing Compliance Requirements § 63.7188 What are my monitoring installation, operation... emissions of your semiconductor process vent through a closed vent system to a control device, you must... evaluation procedure in § 63.7187(i) to demonstrate compliance, you must use the information from the...

  3. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) a 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62...

  4. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power......

  5. 40 CFR 63.996 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.996 General monitoring requirements for... cycle and the temperature of the carbon bed determined within 15 minutes of the completion of...

  6. 77 FR 59053 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements in the Bering Sea and... sampled, or carry one observer and use a motion-compensated scale to weigh Pacific cod before it is....S. groundfish fisheries of the exclusive economic zone off Alaska under the Fishery Management...

  7. Required sample size for monitoring stand dynamics in strict forest reserves: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Bart De Cuyper; Kris Vandekerkhove; Noel Lust

    2000-01-01

    Stand dynamics in European strict forest reserves are commonly monitored using inventory densities of 5 to 15 percent of the total surface. The assumption that these densities guarantee a representative image of certain parameters is critically analyzed in a case study for the parameters basal area and stem number. The required sample sizes for different accuracy and...

  8. 40 CFR 141.85 - Public education and supplemental monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public education and supplemental monitoring requirements. 141.85 Section 141.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... lead more than healthy adults. Lead is stored in the bones, and it can be released later in...

  9. IDENTIFICATION OF DOE'S POST-CLOSURE MONITORING NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The 2006 plan sets an ambitious agenda for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) and the remediation of sites contaminated by decades of nuclear weapons production activities. The plan's primary objective is to reduce overall clean up costs by first eliminating the environmental problems that are most expensive to control and safely maintain. In the context of the 2006 Plan, closure refers to the completion of area or facility specific cleanup projects. The cleanup levels are determined by the planned future use of the site or facility. Use restrictions are still undecided for most sites but are highly probable to exclude residential or agricultural activities. Most of the land will be remediated to ''industrial use'' levels with access restrictions and some areas will be closed-off through containment. Portions of the site will be reserved for waste disposal, either as a waste repository or the in-situ immobilization of contaminated soil and groundwater, and land use will be restricted to waste disposal only. The land used for waste disposal will require monitoring and maintenance activities after closure. Most of the land used for industrial use may also require such postclosure activities. The required postclosure monitoring and maintenance activities will be imposed by regulators and stakeholders. Regulators will not approve closure plans without clearly defined monitoring methods using approved technologies. Therefore, among all other more costly and labor-intensive closure-related activities, inadequate planning for monitoring and lack of appropriate monitoring technologies can prevent closure. The purpose of this project is to determine, document, and track the current and evolving postclosure monitoring requirements at DOE-EM sites. This information will aid CMST-CP in guiding its postclosure technology development and deployment efforts.

  10. Towards the formal specification of the requirements and design of a processor interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1993-01-01

    Work to formally specify the requirements and design of a Processor Interface Unit (PIU), a single-chip subsystem providing memory interface, bus interface, and additional support services for a commercial microprocessor within a fault-tolerant computer system, is described. This system, the Fault-Tolerant Embedded Processor (FTEP), is targeted towards applications in avionics and space requiring extremely high levels of mission reliability, extended maintenance free operation, or both. The approaches that were developed for modeling the PIU requirements and for composition of the PIU subcomponents at high levels of abstraction are described. These approaches were used to specify and verify a nontrivial subset of the PIU behavior. The PIU specification in Higher Order Logic (HOL) is documented in a companion NASA contractor report entitled 'Towards the Formal Specification of the Requirements and Design of a Processor Interfacs Unit - HOL Listings.' The subsequent verification approach and HOL listings are documented in NASA contractor report entitled 'Towards the Formal Verification of the Requirements and Design of a Processor Interface Unit' and NASA contractor report entitled 'Towards the Formal Verification of the Requirements and Design of a Processor Interface Unit - HOL Listings.'

  11. Monitoring of health care personnel employee and occupational health immunization program practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Ruth M; Sorrells, Nikka; Westhusing, Kelly; Wiemken, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have identified concerns with various elements of health care personnel immunization programs, including the handling and management of the vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess monitoring processes that support evaluation of the care of vaccines in health care settings. An 11-question survey instrument was developed for use in scripted telephone surveys. State health departments in all 50 states in the United States and the District of Columbia were the target audience for the surveys. Data from a total of 47 states were obtained and analyzed. No states reported an existing monitoring process for evaluation of health care personnel immunization programs in their states. Our assessment indicates that vaccine evaluation processes for health care facilities are rare to nonexistent in the United States. Identifying existing practice gaps and resultant opportunities for improvements may be an important safety initiative that protects patients and health care personnel.

  12. Dosimetric properties of a scanned beam microtron at low monitor unit settings: importance for conformal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, J L; Larsson, A; Lief, E P

    1996-03-01

    The dosimetric stability, linearity, dose rate dependence, and flatness of both photon and electron beams have been evaluated for a racetrack microtron at low monitor unit settings. For photons, the variation in dosimetric output about the mean is 3% at 20 cm, even at only 3 MU, in contrast with other scanned beam accelerators. Broad electron beams on the microtron are created by the superposition of the elementary beam pulses either directly from the scan magnets, or after their broadening through a scattering foil. The dosimetric instability both with and without the foil was less than 0.6% for both the 25- and 50-MeV electrons. Dose nonlinearity was microtron exhibits dosimetric properties which fulfill the recommendations of Task Groups 21 and 25. Based on the stability of the scanned beam at low monitor unit settings, the microtron can be used for 3-D conformal therapy with both photons and electrons.

  13. Effect of Acuros XB algorithm on monitor units for stereotactic body radiotherapy planning of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rao F; Villarreal-Barajas, Eduardo; Lau, Harold; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a curative regimen that uses hypofractionated radiation-absorbed dose to achieve a high degree of local control in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the presence of heterogeneities, the dose calculation for the lungs becomes challenging. We have evaluated the dosimetric effect of the recently introduced advanced dose-calculation algorithm, Acuros XB (AXB), for SBRT of NSCLC. A total of 97 patients with early-stage lung cancer who underwent SBRT at our cancer center during last 4 years were included. Initial clinical plans were created in Aria Eclipse version 8.9 or prior, using 6 to 10 fields with 6-MV beams, and dose was calculated using the anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) as implemented in Eclipse treatment planning system. The clinical plans were recalculated in Aria Eclipse 11.0.21 using both AAA and AXB algorithms. Both sets of plans were normalized to the same prescription point at the center of mass of the target. A secondary monitor unit (MU) calculation was performed using commercial program RadCalc for all of the fields. For the planning target volumes ranging from 19 to 375cm(3), a comparison of MUs was performed for both set of algorithms on field and plan basis. In total, variation of MUs for 677 treatment fields was investigated in terms of equivalent depth and the equivalent square of the field. Overall, MUs required by AXB to deliver the prescribed dose are on an average 2% higher than AAA. Using a 2-tailed paired t-test, the MUs from the 2 algorithms were found to be significantly different (p algorithms.

  14. [Mobile Health Units: An Analysis of Concepts and Implementation Requirements in Rural Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämel, K; Kutzner, J; Vorderwülbecke, J

    2015-12-22

    Background: Access to health services in rural regions represents a challenge. The development of care models that respond to health service shortages and pay particular attention to the increasing health care needs of the elderly is an important concern. A model that has been implemented in other countries is that of mobile health units. But until now, there is no overview of their possible objectives, functions and implementation requirements. Method: This paper is based on a literature analysis and an internet research on mobile health units in rural regions. Results: Mobile health units aim to avoid regional undersupply and address particularly vulnerable population groups. In the literature, mobile health units are described with a focus on specific illnesses, as well as those that provide comprehensive, partly multi-professional primary care that is close to patients' homes. The implementation of mobile health units is demanding; the key challenges are (a) alignment to the needs of the regional population, (b) user-oriented access and promotion of awareness and acceptance of mobile health units by the local population, and (c) network building within existing care structures to ensure continuity of care for patients. To fulfill these requirements, a community-oriented program development and implementation is important. Conclusions: Mobile health units could represent an interesting model for the provision of health care in rural regions in Germany. International experiences are an important starting point and should be taken into account for the further development of models in Germany.

  15. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

  16. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

  17. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  18. Monitor units are not predictive of neutron dose for high-energy IMRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälg Roger A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the substantial increase in beam-on time of high energy intensity-modulated radiotherapy (>10 MV techniques to deliver the same target dose compared to conventional treatment techniques, an increased dose of scatter radiation, including neutrons, is delivered to the patient. As a consequence, an increase in second malignancies may be expected in the future with the application of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. It is commonly assumed that the neutron dose equivalent scales with the number of monitor units. Methods Measurements of neutron dose equivalent were performed for an open and an intensity-modulated field at four positions: inside and outside of the treatment field at 0.2 cm and 15 cm depth, respectively. Results It was shown that the neutron dose equivalent, which a patient receives during an intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment, does not scale with the ratio of applied monitor units relative to an open field irradiation. Outside the treatment volume at larger depth 35% less neutron dose equivalent is delivered than expected. Conclusions The predicted increase of second cancer induction rates from intensity-modulated treatment techniques can be overestimated when the neutron dose is simply scaled with monitor units.

  19. Spread-out Bragg peak and monitor units calculation with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérault, J; Iborra, N; Serrano, B; Chauvel, P

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the dosimetric potential of the Monte Carlo code MCNPX applied to the protontherapy field. For series of clinical configurations a comparison between simulated and experimental data was carried out, using the proton beam line of the MEDICYC isochronous cyclotron installed in the Centre Antoine Lacassagne in Nice. The dosimetric quantities tested were depth-dose distributions, output factors, and monitor units. For each parameter, the simulation reproduced accurately the experiment, which attests the quality of the choices made both in the geometrical description and in the physics parameters for beam definition. These encouraging results enable us today to consider a simplification of quality control measurements in the future. Monitor Units calculation is planned to be carried out with preestablished Monte Carlo simulation data. The measurement, which was until now our main patient dose calibration system, will be progressively replaced by computation based on the MCNPX code. This determination of Monitor Units will be controlled by an independent semi-empirical calculation.

  20. Independent dose per monitor unit review of eight U.S.A. proton treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, M. F., E-mail: MFMoyers@roadrunner.com [Colton, California 92354 (United States); Ibbott, G. S.; Grant, R. L.; Summers, P. A.; Followill, D. S. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas – M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Compare the dose per monitor unit at different proton treatment facilities using three different dosimetry methods. Methods: Measurements of dose per monitor unit were performed by a single group at eight facilities using 11 test beams and up to six different clinical portal treatment sites. These measurements were compared to the facility reported dose per monitor unit values. Results: Agreement between the measured and reported doses was similar using any of the three dosimetry methods. Use of the ICRU 59 N{sub D,w} based method gave results approximately 3% higher than both the ICRU 59 N{sub X} and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N{sub D,w} based methods. Conclusions: Any single dosimetry method could be used for multi-institution trials with similar conformity between facilities. A multi-institutional trial could support facilities using both the ICRU 59 N{sub X} based and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N{sub D,w} based methods but use of the ICRU 59 N{sub D,w} based method should not be allowed simultaneously with the other two until the difference is resolved.

  1. Independent dose per monitor unit review of eight U.S.A. proton treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F; Ibbott, G S; Grant, R L; Summers, P A; Followill, D S

    2014-01-01

    Compare the dose per monitor unit at different proton treatment facilities using three different dosimetry methods. Measurements of dose per monitor unit were performed by a single group at eight facilities using 11 test beams and up to six different clinical portal treatment sites. These measurements were compared to the facility reported dose per monitor unit values. Agreement between the measured and reported doses was similar using any of the three dosimetry methods. Use of the ICRU 59 ND,w based method gave results approximately 3% higher than both the ICRU 59 NX and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) ND,w based methods. Any single dosimetry method could be used for multi-institution trials with similar conformity between facilities. A multi-institutional trial could support facilities using both the ICRU 59 NX based and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) ND,w based methods but use of the ICRU 59 ND,w based method should not be allowed simultaneously with the other two until the difference is resolved.

  2. Functions and requirements for Hanford single-shell tank leakage detection and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruse, J.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    1995-04-19

    This document provides the initial functions and requirements for leakage detection and monitoring applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site`s 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall mission of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineering principles are being applied to this effort. This document reflects the an initial step in the systems engineering approach to decompose the mission into primary functions and requirements. The document is considered approximately 30% complete relative to the effort required to produce a final version that can be used to support demonstration and/or procurement of technologies. The functions and requirements in this document apply to detection and monitoring of below ground leaks from SST containment boundaries and the resulting soil contamination. Leakage detection and monitoring is invoked in the TWRS Program in three fourth level functions: (1) Store Waste, (2) Retrieve Waste, and (3) Disposition Excess Facilities (as identified in DOE/RL-92-60 Rev. 1, Tank Waste Remediation System Functions and Requirements).

  3. Monitoring Solar-terrestrial Interaction at the United Nations Office at Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadimova, Sharafat; Haubold, Hans

    Earth's ionosphere reacts strongly to the intense X-ray and ultraviolet radiation released by the Sun during solar events. Stanford's Solar Center, Electrical Engineering Department developed inexpensive space weather monitors that scholars around the world can use to track changes to the Earth's ionosphere. Two versions of the monitors exist -a low-cost version named SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances) designed to detect solar flares; and a more sensitive version named AWESOME (Atmospheric Weather Electromagnetic System of Observation, Modeling, and Education) that provides both solar and nighttime research-quality data. Through the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI), such monitors have been deployed to high schools and universities in developing nations of the world for the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI, see http://www.stil.bas.bg/ISWI/). The monitors come preassem-bled, the hosts build their own antenna, and provide a computer to record the data and an internet connection to share their data with worldwide network of SIDs and AWESOMEs. These networks are advancing the understanding of the fundamental heliophysical processes that govern the Sun, Earth and heliosphere, particularly phenomena of space weather. Mon-itoring the fundamental processes responsible for solar-terrestrial coupling are vital to being able to understand the influence of the Sun on the near-Earth environment. A SID monitor is successfully operating at the United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV) and will be extended to an AWESOME shortly. This project will also be supported by the programme on global naviga-tion satellite systems (GNSS) applications, implemented through the International Committee on GNSS (ICG, see http://www.icgsecretariat.org).

  4. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

    2005-01-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  5. Solid Waste Management Units And Areas Of Concern Annual Long-Term Monitoring & Maintenance Report For Calendar Year 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Long-term controls were maintained at 21 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) in accordance with the requirements of the “Long-Term Monitoring and Maintenance Plan for SWMUs and AOCs Granted Corrective Action Complete with Controls” in Attachment M of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Operating Permit, which took effect February 26, 2015. Maintenance and controls at these SWMUs and AOCs are described and documented in this report. Conditions requiring maintenance or repair activities were not identified for any of the inspected SWMUs or AOCs. Based upon the inspections performed and site conditions observed, the administrative and physical institutional controls in place at the SWMUs and AOCs are effectively providing continued protection of human health and the environment. This report does not present monitoring and maintenance activities for SWMU 76, the Mixed Waste Landfill; those activities adhere to the approved MWL LTMM Plan, Section 4.8.1 requiring a separate annual report which will be submitted to the NMED by June 30, 2017.

  6. Towards the formal verification of the requirements and design of a processor interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1993-01-01

    The formal verification of the design and partial requirements for a Processor Interface Unit (PIU) using the Higher Order Logic (HOL) theorem-proving system is described. The processor interface unit is a single-chip subsystem within a fault-tolerant embedded system under development within the Boeing Defense and Space Group. It provides the opportunity to investigate the specification and verification of a real-world subsystem within a commercially-developed fault-tolerant computer. An overview of the PIU verification effort is given. The actual HOL listing from the verification effort are documented in a companion NASA contractor report entitled 'Towards the Formal Verification of the Requirements and Design of a Processor Interface Unit - HOL Listings' including the general-purpose HOL theories and definitions that support the PIU verification as well as tactics used in the proofs.

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... also examines state agency regulations concerning design, construction and labeling of modular... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units B... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and...

  8. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Requiring Neurological Intensive Care Unit Follow-up: Review with Nine Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlı Gamze Bülbül

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS is a rare but life-threatening clinical manifestation induced by neuroleptic medication. Although NMS is regarded as a psychiatric diagnosis, its treatment requires a systematic approach and thus intensive care follow-up. In this paper, we report nine cases with NMS followed up in our Neurology Intensive Care Unit over the last three years.

  9. Condition monitoring requirements for the development of a space nuclear propulsion module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    To facilitate the development of a space nuclear propulsion module for manned flights to Mars, requirements must be established early in the technology cycle. The long lead times for the acquisition of the engine system and nuclear test facilities demands that the engine system, size, performance, safety goals and condition monitoring philosophy be defined at the earliest possible time. These systems are highly complex and require a large multi-disciplinary systems engineering team to develop and track the requirements and to ensure that the as-built system reflects the intent of the mission. An effective methodology has been devised coupled with sophisticated computer tools to effectivly develop and interpret the functional requirements. These requirements can then be decomposed down to the specification level for implementation. This paper discusses the application of the methodology and the analyses to develop condition monitoring requirements under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center (LeRC) Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO).

  10. Linking requirements with capabilities for deforestation monitoring in the context of the UNFCCC-REDD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, Martin [GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Department of Earth Observation, Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena 07743 (Germany); Johns, Tracy [Joanneum Research, Institute for Energy Research, Graz 8010 (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    As the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change nears the end of a two-year period of evaluation of the issue of reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries, participating countries have agreed on the need to address this globally important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Negotiations on policy frameworks to monitor and reduce deforestation rely on an understanding of the scientific and technical capacity to support these efforts. Current UNFCCC programs to improve observation of land and forest cover change can provide valuable input to a future policy mechanism focusing on deforestation emissions from developing countries. Countries participating in the current debate have officially referenced the value of remote sensing tools and methods for deforestation monitoring, and have identified specific needs and goals related to their implementation. Based on these identified needs, this paper outlines recommendations for a monitoring framework that can be globally applied with sufficient levels of accuracy and certainty. This framework can serve as a starting point for monitoring programs, and can be modified in response to expected progress in establishing an international policy framework for reducing emissions from deforestation.

  11. Monitoring Conformance and Containment for Geological Carbon Storage: Can Technology Meet Policy and Public Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, D. C.; Osadetz, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Province of Alberta, Canada identified carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a key element of its 2008 Climate Change strategy. The target is a reduction in CO2 emissions of 139 Mt/year by 2050. To encourage uptake of CCS by industry, the province has provided partial funding to two demonstration scale projects, namely the Quest Project by Shell and partners (CCS), and the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line Project (pipeline and CO2-EOR). Important to commercial scale implementation of CCS will be the requirement to prove conformance and containment of the CO2 plume injected during the lifetime of the CCS project. This will be a challenge for monitoring programs. The Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) is developing a Field Research Station (FRS) to calibrate various monitoring technologies for CO2 detection thresholds at relatively shallow depths. The objective being assessed with the FRS is sensitivity for early detection of loss of containment from a deeper CO2 storage project. In this project, two injection wells will be drilled to sandstone reservoir targets at depths of 300 m and 700 m. Up to four observation wells will be drilled with monitoring instruments installed. Time-lapse surface and borehole monitoring surveys will be undertaken to evaluate the movement and fate of the CO2 plume. These will include seismic, microseismic, cross well, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, gravity, geodetic and geomechanical surveys. Initial baseline seismic data from the FRS will presented.

  12. Monitoring dental-unit-water-line output water by current in-office test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sham; Singhrao, Sim K; Bricknell, Matt; Pearce, Mark; Morton, L H Glyn; Ahmed, Waqar; Crean, St John

    2014-08-01

    The importance of monitoring contamination levels in the output water of dental-unit-water-lines (DUWLs) is essential as they are prone to developing biofilms that may contaminate water that is used to treat patients, with opportunistic pathogens such as species of Legionella, Pseudomonas and others. Dentists and practice staff are also at risk of being infected by means of cross-infection due to aerosols generated from DUWL water. The unit of measurement for the microbial contamination of water by aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria is the colony-forming unit per millilitre (cfu/ml) of water. The UK has its own guidelines set by the Department of Health for water discharged from DUWL to be between 100 and 200 cfu/ml of water. The benchmark or accepted standard laboratory test is by microbiological culture on R2A agar plates. However, this is costly and not convenient for routine testing in dental practices. A number of commercial indicator tests are used in dental surgeries, but they were not developed for the dental market and serve only to indicate gross levels of contamination when used outside of the manufacturer's recommended incubation period. The aim of this article is to briefly review the universal problem of DUWL contamination with microbial biofilms and to update dental professionals on the availability of currently available commercial in-office monitoring systems for aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria and to discuss their limitations for testing water samples in assuring compliance with recommended guidelines.

  13. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggest the deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. An important part of the DOE programs to develop new source technologies, in particular photovoltaic systems, is the experimental testing of complete or nearby complete power units. These experiments provide an opportunity to examine operational and integration issues which must be understood before widespread commercial deployment of these technologies can be achieved. Experiments may also be required to explicitly examine integration, operational, and control aspects of single and multiple new source technology power units within a utility system. An identification of utility information requirements, a review of planned experiments, and a preliminary determination of additional experimental needs and opportunities are presented. Other issues discussed include: (1) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on load duration curves and optimal generation mixes are considered; (2) the impacts of on-site photovoltaic units on utility production costs, with and without dedicated storage and with and without sellback, are analyzed; and (3) current utility rate structure experiments, rationales, policies, practices, and plans are reviewed.

  14. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units... my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam, you...

  15. Hydrogen Monitoring Requirements in the Global Technical Regulation on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Hartmann, Kevin; Bubar, Max; Post, Matthew; Boon-Brett, Lois; Weidner, Eveline; Moretto, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    The United Nations Global Technical Regulation (GTR) Number 13 (Global Technical Regulation on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles) is the defining document regulating safety requirements in hydrogen vehicles, and in particular fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). GTR Number 13 has been formally implemented and will serve as the basis for the national regulatory standards for FCEV safety in North America (Canada, United States), Japan, Korea, and the European Union. The GTR defines safety requirement for these vehicles, including specifications on the allowable hydrogen levels in vehicle enclosures during in-use and post-crash conditions and on the allowable hydrogen emissions levels in vehicle exhaust during certain modes of normal operation. However, in order to be incorporated into national regulations, that is, in order to be binding, methods to verify compliance to the specific requirements must exist. In a collaborative program, the Sensor Laboratories at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in the United States and the Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport in the Netherlands have been evaluating and developing analytical methods that can be used to verify compliance to the hydrogen release requirement as specified in the GTR.

  16. Clinical Trial of an Educational Program to Decrease Monitor Alarms in a Medical Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Arian; Collins-Brown, Sandra; Kirkland, Jasmine; Knapp, Meghan; Pressley, Jackie; Higgins, Melinda; McMurtry, James P

    2016-07-01

    Clinical research to identify effective interventions for decreasing nonactionable alarms has been limited. The objective of this study was to determine if a staff educational program on customizing alarm settings on bedside monitors decreased alarms in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). A preintervention, postintervention, nonequivalent group design was used to evaluate an educational program on alarm management in a convenience sample of MICU nurses. A 15-minute session was provided in a 1-week period. The outcome variable (number of alarms for low oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry [SpO2]) was determined from monitor log files adjusted by patient census. Data were collected for 15 days before and after the intervention. χ(2) analysis was used, with P less than .05 considered significant. After 1 week of education, low SpO2 alarms decreased from 502 to 306 alarms per patient monitored per day, a 39% reduction (P alarm settings to patients' clinical condition decreased common monitor alarms by 39%. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  17. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from -4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to -6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by -5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground.

  18. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from October 2008 through December 2009. It also represents the first year of the enhanced monitoring network and begins the new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  19. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from December 2009 through December 2010. It also represents the second year of the enhanced monitoring network and the 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  20. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the PSA during fiscal year 2009.

  1. Microbiological water quality requirements for salad irrigation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrel, S F; Knox, J W; Weatherhead, E K

    2006-08-01

    The growth in United Kingdom salad production is dependent on irrigation to maintain product quality. There are concerns that irrigation with poor-quality water could pose a disease risk. This article examines the key issues in the emerging debate on the microbiological quality of water used for salad irrigation in the United Kingdom. The links between irrigation water quality and foodborne disease, and the current international guidance on irrigation water quality, are firstly reviewed. The findings indicate that a number of recent food-poisoning outbreaks have been linked to the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and that unhygienic product handling is implicated as the principal source of contamination. There is also credible evidence that salads contaminated in the field, including by irrigation water, can pose a small disease risk at the point of sale. Although irrigation water-quality standards exist in various forms internationally, there is no nationally agreed on standard used in the United Kingdom. This paper then describes the results of a survey conducted in 2003 of United Kingdom irrigation practices that might influence the microbiological quality of salads. The survey showed that surface water is the principal irrigation water source, that overhead irrigation predominates, that the gap between the last irrigation and harvest may be < 24 h in many cases, and that current water-quality monitoring practices are generally very limited in scope. This paper concludes with a discussion of the issues emerging from the review and survey, including the need for improved water-quality monitoring, and the problems associated with establishing water-quality standards that could be either too strict or too lax.

  2. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Rule-Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 6 Table 6 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of Environment...—Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) For the following continuous...

  3. Improvement of a sensor unit for wrist blood pressure monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sangjun; Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Ayuzenara, Odgerel; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    A blood pressure sensor unit for ubiquitous healthcare monitoring was newly developed. The digital wrist band-type blood pressure devices for home are popular already in the market. It is useful for checking blood pressure level at home and control of hypertension. Especially, it is very essential home device to check the health condition of blood circulation disease. Nowadays many product types are available. But the measurement of blood pressure is not accurate enough compared with the mechanical type. It needs to be upgraded to assure the precise health data enough to use in the hospital. The structure, feature and output signal of capacitor type pressure sensors are analyzed. An improved design of capacitor sensor is suggested. It shows more precise health data after use on a wrist band type health unit. They can be applied for remote u-health medical service.

  4. Monitoring of bacterial contamination of dental unit water lines using adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, A; Tamaki, N; Yokota, K; Matsuyama, M; Kokeguchi, S

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial contamination of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) was evaluated using ATP bioluminescence analysis and a conventional culture method. Water samples (N=44) from DUWLs were investigated for heterotrophic bacteria by culture on R2A agar, which gave counts ranging from 1.4×10(3) to 2.7×10(5) cfu/mL. The ATP bioluminescence results for DUWL samples ranged from 6 to 1189 relative light units and could be obtained within 1min; these correlated well with the culture results (r=0.727-0.855). We conclude that the results of the ATP bioluminescence assay accurately reflect the results of conventional culture-based testing. This method is potentially useful for rapid and simple monitoring of DUWL bacterial contamination.

  5. A Greedy reassignment algorithm for the PBS minimum monitor unit constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuting; Kooy, Hanne; Craft, David; Depauw, Nicolas; Flanz, Jacob; Clasie, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) treatment plans are made of numerous unique spots of different weights. These weights are optimized by the treatment planning systems, and sometimes fall below the deliverable threshold set by the treatment delivery system. The purpose of this work is to investigate a Greedy reassignment algorithm to mitigate the effects of these low weight pencil beams. The algorithm is applied during post-processing to the optimized plan to generate deliverable plans for the treatment delivery system. The Greedy reassignment method developed in this work deletes the smallest weight spot in the entire field and reassigns its weight to its nearest neighbor(s) and repeats until all spots are above the minimum monitor unit (MU) constraint. Its performance was evaluated using plans collected from 190 patients (496 fields) treated at our facility. The Greedy reassignment method was compared against two other post-processing methods. The evaluation criteria was the γ-index pass rate that compares the pre-processed and post-processed dose distributions. A planning metric was developed to predict the impact of post-processing on treatment plans for various treatment planning, machine, and dose tolerance parameters. For fields with a pass rate of 90  ±  1% the planning metric has a standard deviation equal to 18% of the centroid value showing that the planning metric and γ-index pass rate are correlated for the Greedy reassignment algorithm. Using a 3rd order polynomial fit to the data, the Greedy reassignment method has 1.8 times better planning metric at 90% pass rate compared to other post-processing methods. As the planning metric and pass rate are correlated, the planning metric could provide an aid for implementing parameters during treatment planning, or even during facility design, in order to yield acceptable pass rates. More facilities are starting to implement PBS and some have spot sizes (one standard deviation) smaller than 5

  6. Sunsynchronous low Earth orbit spacecraft concepts and technology requirements for global change monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L. Bernard; Butterfield, Ansel J.; Taback, Israel; Garn, Paul A.; Burrowbridge, Donald R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Change Technology Initiative listing of instruments for operation in low Earth, sunsynchronous orbits contain 21 entries, of which 20 are carried aboard multi-instrument spacecraft. This list identifies the temporal requirements for repetition of measurements and also includes groups of instruments that make complementing measurements. Definitions for individual spacecraft follows the temporal and grouping requirements to establish constellations which will provide the measurement data. The definitions of constellations for multi-instrument spacecraft show two alternatives: a constellation of 10 spacecraft, each compatible with launch by a Delta booster; a constellation of 4 spacecraft, each requiring a Titan booster. Operating subsystems for the individual spacecraft can use modular concepts that are adaptations based upon current plans for improving the performance of the NASA-Goddard Multimission Modular units. The descriptions of the spacecraft and constellations begins with a compilation of instrument related requirements that define the principal system performance parameters and operating capabilities.

  7. Resolution requirements for monitor viewing of digital flat-panel detector radiographs: a contrast detail analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, Siegfried; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M.; Peer, Regina; Gassner, Eva; Steingruber, Iris; Jaschke, Werner [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2003-02-01

    With the introduction of digital flat-panel detector systems into clinical practice, the still unresolved question of resolution requirements for picture archiving communication system (PACS) workstation monitors has gained new momentum. This contrast detail analysis was thus performed to define the differences in observer performance in the detection of small low-contrast objects on clinical 1K and 2K monitor workstations. Images of the CDRAD 2.0 phantom were acquired at varying exposures on an indirect-type digital flat-panel detector. Three observers evaluated a total of 15 images each with respect to the threshold contrast for each detail size. The numbers of correctly identified objects were determined for all image subsets. No significant difference in the correct detection ratio was detected among the observers; however, the difference between the two types of workstations (1K vs 2K monitors) despite less than 3% was significant at a 95% confidence level. Slight but statistically significant differences exist in the detection of low-contrast nodular details visualized on 1K- and 2K-monitor workstations. Further work is needed to see if this result holds true also for comparison of clinical flat-panel detector images and may, for example, exert an influence on the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray readings. (orig.)

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continous Monitoring Systems for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continous Monitoring Systems for Metal... Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Continous Monitoring Systems for... CFR 60.102 a. Over 20,000 barrels per day fresh feed capacity Electrostatic precipitator Continuous...

  9. Another Look at the Draft Mil-Std-1540E Unit Random Vibration Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, E.; Peterson, A. J..; Davis, D.

    2012-07-01

    The draft Mil-Std-1540E has been updated to reflect lessons learned since its publication as an SMC Standard in 2008, [1], and an earlier Aerospace Corporation Technical Report released in 2006, [2]. This paper discusses the technical rationale supporting some of the unit random vibration test requirements to provide better insight into their derivation and application to programs. It is intended that these requirements be tailored for each program to reflect the customer risk profile. Several tailoring options are provided and a two phase test strategy is discussed to highlight its applicability to utilizing heritage hardware in new applications.

  10. Avionics system design for requirements for the United States Coast Guard HH-65A Dolphin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Aerospatiale Helicopter Corporation (AHC) was awarded a contract by the United States Coast Guard for a new Short Range Recovery (SRR) Helicopter on 14 June 1979. The award was based upon an overall evaluation of performance, cost, and technical suitability. In this last respect, the SRR helicopter was required to meet a wide variety of mission needs for which the integrated avionics system has a high importance. This paper illustrates the rationale for the avionics system requirements, the system architecture, its capabilities and reliability and its adaptability to a wide variety of military and commercial purposes.

  11. 78 FR 7411 - Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS); Certification of New VMS Unit for Use in Northeast Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC470 Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS); Certification of New VMS Unit for Use in Northeast Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of VMS unit...

  12. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2007-06-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU.'' The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Revision of this report is a deliverable in Technical Task Report SP-TTR-2006-00010, ''NaI Shield Box Testing.'' Gamma-ray monitors were developed to: {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be approximately fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.)

  13. Recommended methods for range-wide monitoring of prairie dogs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lyman L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Otis, David L.; Biggins, Dean E.; Stevens, Patricia D.; Koprowski, John L.; Ballard, Warren

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for conserving grassland, prairie scrub, and shrub-steppe ecosystems is maintaining prairie dog populations across the landscape. Of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as threatened, the Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) is a candidate for listing in a portion of its range, and the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) have each been petitioned for listing at least once in recent history. Although the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) determined listing is not warranted for either the black-tailed prairie dog or white-tailed prairie dog, the petitions and associated reviews demonstrated the need for the States to monitor and manage for self-sustaining populations. In response to these findings, a multi-State conservation effort was initiated for the nonlisted species which included the following proposed actions: (1) completing an assessment of each prairie dog species in each State, (2) developing a range-wide monitoring protocol for each species using a statistically valid sampling procedure that would allow comparable analyses across States, and (3) monitoring prairie dog status every 3-5 years depending upon the species. To date, each State has completed an assessment and currently is monitoring prairie dog status; however, for some species, the inconsistency in survey methodology has made it difficult to compare data year-to-year or State-to-State. At the Prairie Dog Conservation Team meeting held in November 2008, there was discussion regarding the use of different methods to survey prairie dogs. A recommendation from this meeting was to convene a panel in a workshop-type forum and have the panel review the different methods being used and provide recommendations for range-wide monitoring protocols for each species of prairie dog. Consequently, the Western

  14. [Monitoring infection at the intensive care unit--a multicenter pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, F; Wewalka, G; Rotter, M; Kilian, J; Hummel, E; Hartenauer, U; Gähler, R; Scherzer, E; Pauser, G

    1989-06-01

    During a period of 3 months an infection survey was carried out in 4 intensive care units (ICUs), 2 in Vienna, Austria, and one each in Ulm and Münster, Federal Republic of Germany, using a common protocol. A total of 329 patients was monitored prospectively. This pilot study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of parameters included in the monitoring form. It was attempted to characterize the patient populations of the four units. Mean duration of stay (1-12 days), mortality (8-26%), leading diagnosis upon admission, intubation rate (41-91%) and use of pulmonary artery catheter (12-35%) were distinctly different. The rate of patients admitted already with an infection was 9-43%, septicemia was diagnosed in up to 27% of the diseased. The rate of infection acquired in the unit was between 12 and 37%, the most frequent types were bronchopneumonia, septicemia and urinary tract infection. When septicemia patients were compared to non-septicemia patients who had been admitted for more than 3 days, it appeared that the latter stayed significantly shorter at the ICU and showed less frequently bronchopneumonia or urinary tract infection at the time of admission. Septicemia patients acquired more frequently additional infections like broncho-pneumonia or urinary tract infection while staying at the ICU. The median day of onset of septicemia was the fifth day and only in a quarter of cases diagnosis could be supported by a positive blood culture. The use of antibiotics in the 4 ICUs is compared and shows marked differences. Based upon experience with this type of infection survey a new modified protocol is introduced, which displays the time course of documented events.

  15. A Methodology for Protective Vibration Monitoring of Hydropower Units Based on the Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässelqvist, Mattias; Gustavsson, Rolf; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2013-07-01

    It is important to monitor the radial loads in hydropower units in order to protect the machine from harmful radial loads. Existing recommendations in the standards regarding the radial movements of the shaft and bearing housing in hydropower units, ISO-7919-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2005, "ISO 7919-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Rotating Shafts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland) and ISO-10816-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2000, "ISO 10816-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Non-Rotating Parts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland), have alarm levels based on statistical data and do not consider the mechanical properties of the machine. The synchronous speed of the unit determines the maximum recommended shaft displacement and housing acceleration, according to these standards. This paper presents a methodology for the alarm and trip levels based on the design criteria of the hydropower unit and the measured radial loads in the machine during operation. When a hydropower unit is designed, one of its design criteria is to withstand certain loads spectra without the occurrence of fatigue in the mechanical components. These calculated limits for fatigue are used to set limits for the maximum radial loads allowed in the machine before it shuts down in order to protect itself from damage due to high radial loads. Radial loads in hydropower units are caused by unbalance, shape deviations, dynamic flow properties in the turbine, etc. Standards exist for balancing and manufacturers (and power plant owners) have recommendations for maximum allowed shape deviations in generators. These standards and recommendations determine which loads, at a maximum, should be allowed before an alarm is sent that the machine needs maintenance. The radial

  16. Towards the formal verification of the requirements and design of a processor interface unit: HOL listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1993-01-01

    This technical report contains the Higher-Order Logic (HOL) listings of the partial verification of the requirements and design for a commercially developed processor interface unit (PIU). The PIU is an interface chip performing memory interface, bus interface, and additional support services for a commercial microprocessor within a fault tolerant computer system. This system, the Fault Tolerant Embedded Processor (FTEP), is targeted towards applications in avionics and space requiring extremely high levels of mission reliability, extended maintenance-free operation, or both. This report contains the actual HOL listings of the PIU verification as it currently exists. Section two of this report contains general-purpose HOL theories and definitions that support the PIU verification. These include arithmetic theories dealing with inequalities and associativity, and a collection of tactics used in the PIU proofs. Section three contains the HOL listings for the completed PIU design verification. Section 4 contains the HOL listings for the partial requirements verification of the P-Port.

  17. Low Cost Environmental Sensors for Spaceflight: NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buehler, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  18. Exploring measurement biases associated with esophageal Doppler monitoring in critically ill patients in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawicki Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Esophageal Doppler monitoring (EDM is utilized in numerous clinical settings. This study examines the relationship between pulmonary artery catheter (PAC and EDM-derived hemodynamic parameters, concentrating on gender- and age-related EDM measurement biases. Materials and Methods : Prospective study of EDM use in ventilated surgical ICU patients. Parameters examined included demographics, diagnosis, resuscitation endpoints, cardiac output (CO and stroke volume from both devices, number of personnel and time needed to place equipment, time to data acquisition, duration of use, complications of placement. Results : Fifteen patients (11 men, 4 women, mean age 47 years were included. Most common diagnoses included trauma (7/15 and sepsis (4/15. Insertion time and time to data acquisition were shorter for EDM than for PAC ( P < 0.001. The EDM required an average of 1.1 persons to place (2.4 for PAC, P =0.002. Mean EDM utilization time was 12.4 h. There was a fair CO correlation between EDM and PAC (r = 0.647, P < 0.001. Overall, the EDM underestimated CO relative to PAC (bias -1.42 ± 2.08, 95% CI: -5.58-2.74, with more underestimation in women (mean bias difference of -1.16, P < 0.001. No significant age-related measurement bias differences between PAC and EDM were noted. Significant reductions in lactate and norepinephrine requirement were noted following EDM monitoring periods. Conclusions : This study found that the EDM significantly underestimated cardiac output in women when compared to PAC. Clinicians should be aware of this measurement bias when making therapeutic decision based on EDM data. Significant reductions in lactate and norepinephrine requirement during EDM monitoring periods support the clinical usefulness of EDM technology.

  19. 40 CFR 60.1200 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1200 Section 60.1200 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1200 What are the operating practice...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1690 Section 60.1690 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1690 What...

  1. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

  2. [In-depth interviews and the Kano model to determine user requirements in a burns unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Revaldería, J; Holguín-Holgado, P; Lumbreras-Marín, E; Núñez-López, G

    To determine the healthcare requirements of patients in a Burns Unit, using qualitative techniques, such us in-depth personal interviews and Kano's methodology. Qualitative methodology using in-depth personal interviews (12 patients), Kano's conceptual model, and the SERVQHOS questionnaire (24 patients). All patients had been hospitalised in the last 12 months in the Burns Unit. Using Kano's methodology, service attributes were grouped by affinity diagrams, and classified as follows: must-be, attractive (unexpected, great satisfaction), and one-dimensional (linked to the degree of functionality of the service). The outcomes were compared with those obtained with SERVQHOS questionnaire. From the analysis of in-depth interviews, 11 requirements were obtained, referring to hotel aspects, information, need for closer staff relationship, and organisational aspects. The attributes classified as must-be were free television and automatic TV disconnection at midnight. Those classified as attractive were: individual room for more privacy, information about dressing change times in order to avoid anxiety, and additional staff for in-patients. The results were complementary to those obtained with the SERVQHOS questionnaire. In-depth personal interviews provide extra knowledge about patient requirements, complementing the information obtained with questionnaires. With this methodology, a more active patient participation is achieved and the companion's opinion is also taken into account. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Onno K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. Methods A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. Results A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range of 697 (559–840 per day. The median (interquartile range number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7, 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1, and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3, respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. Conclusions We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns.

  4. Application for verification of monitor units of the treatment planning system; Aplicacion para la verificacion de unidades monitor del sistema de planificacion de tratamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.

    2011-07-01

    Current estimates algorithms achieve acceptable degree of accuracy. However, operate on the basis of un intuitive models. It is therefore necessary to verify the calculation of monitor units of the treatment planning system (PTS) with those obtained by other independent formalisms. To this end, we have developed an application based on factorization formalism that automates the calculation of dose.

  5. Monitoring of Microscopic Filamentous Fungi in Indoor Air of Transplant Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holý, Ondřej; Matoušková, Ivanka; Kubátová, Alena; Hamal, Petr; Svobodová, Lucie; Jurásková, Eva; Raida, Luděk

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to control the microbial contamination of indoor air monitored monthly at the Transplant Unit of the University Hospital Olomouc from August 2010 to July 2011. The unit is equipped with a three-stage air filtration system with HEPA filters. The MAS-100 air sampler (Merck, GER) was used. Twenty locations were singled out for the purposes of collecting a total of 720 samplings of the indoor air. Swabs of the HVAC diffusers at the sampling locations were always carried out after the sampling of the indoor air. In total, 480 samples of the indoor air were taken for Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar. In 11 cases (2.29%) the cultivation verified the presence of microscopic filamentous fungi. Only two cases involved the sanitary facilities of a patient isolation box; the other positive findings were from the facilities. The most frequent established genus was Aspergillus spp. (4x), followed by Trichoderma spp. (2x) and Penicillium spp. (2x), Paecilomyces spp., Eurotium spp., and Chrysonilia spp. (1x each). In 2 cases the cultivation established sterile aerial mycelium, unfortunately no further identification was possible. A total of 726 swabs of HVAC diffusers were collected (2 positive-0.28%). The study results demonstrated the efficacy of the HVAC equipment. With the continuing increase in the number of severely immunocompromised patients, hospitals are faced with the growing problem of invasive aspergillosis and other opportunistic infections. Preventive monitoring of microbial air contaminants is of major importance for the control of invasive aspergillosis. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  6. An artificial intelligence tool to predict fluid requirement in the intensive care unit: a proof-of-concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Leo Anthony; Hinske, L Christian; Alterovitz, Gil; Szolovits, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The goal of personalised medicine in the intensive care unit (ICU) is to predict which diagnostic tests, monitoring interventions and treatments translate to improved outcomes given the variation between patients. Unfortunately, processes such as gene transcription and drug metabolism are dynamic in the critically ill; that is, information obtained during static non-diseased conditions may have limited applicability. We propose an alternative way of personalising medicine in the ICU on a real-time basis using information derived from the application of artificial intelligence on a high-resolution database. Calculation of maintenance fluid requirement at the height of systemic inflammatory response was selected to investigate the feasibility of this approach. Methods The Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) is a database of patients admitted to the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center ICU in Boston. Patients who were on vasopressors for more than six hours during the first 24 hours of admission were identified from the database. Demographic and physiological variables that might affect fluid requirement or reflect the intravascular volume during the first 24 hours in the ICU were extracted from the database. The outcome to be predicted is the total amount of fluid given during the second 24 hours in the ICU, including all the fluid boluses administered. Results We represented the variables by learning a Bayesian network from the underlying data. Using 10-fold cross-validation repeated 100 times, the accuracy of the model in predicting the outcome is 77.8%. The network generated has a threshold Bayes factor of seven representing the posterior probability of the model given the observed data. This Bayes factor translates into p < 0.05 assuming a Gaussian distribution of the variables. Conclusions Based on the model, the probability that a patient would require a certain range of fluid on day two can be predicted. In the

  7. An artificial intelligence tool to predict fluid requirement in the intensive care unit: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Leo Anthony; Hinske, L Christian; Alterovitz, Gil; Szolovits, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The goal of personalised medicine in the intensive care unit (ICU) is to predict which diagnostic tests, monitoring interventions and treatments translate to improved outcomes given the variation between patients. Unfortunately, processes such as gene transcription and drug metabolism are dynamic in the critically ill; that is, information obtained during static non-diseased conditions may have limited applicability. We propose an alternative way of personalising medicine in the ICU on a real-time basis using information derived from the application of artificial intelligence on a high-resolution database. Calculation of maintenance fluid requirement at the height of systemic inflammatory response was selected to investigate the feasibility of this approach. The Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) is a database of patients admitted to the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center ICU in Boston. Patients who were on vasopressors for more than six hours during the first 24 hours of admission were identified from the database. Demographic and physiological variables that might affect fluid requirement or reflect the intravascular volume during the first 24 hours in the ICU were extracted from the database. The outcome to be predicted is the total amount of fluid given during the second 24 hours in the ICU, including all the fluid boluses administered. We represented the variables by learning a Bayesian network from the underlying data. Using 10-fold cross-validation repeated 100 times, the accuracy of the model in predicting the outcome is 77.8%. The network generated has a threshold Bayes factor of seven representing the posterior probability of the model given the observed data. This Bayes factor translates into p < 0.05 assuming a Gaussian distribution of the variables. Based on the model, the probability that a patient would require a certain range of fluid on day two can be predicted. In the presence of a larger database, analysis

  8. Technical evaluation of RETS-required reports for Fort Calhoun Station Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magleby, E.H.; Young, T.E.

    1985-06-24

    A review of the reports required by federal regulations and the plant-specific Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications (RETS) for operations conducted during 1983 was performed. The periodic reports reviewed for Fort Calhoun Station Unit 1 were two Semiannual Reports for Technical Specification 5.9.4. The principal review guidelines were the plant's specific RETS, NUREG-0133, ''Preparation of Radiological Effluent Technical Specifications for Nuclear Power Plants'', and NRC Guidance on the Review of the Process Control Programs. The Licensee's submitted reports were found to be reasonably complete and consistent with the review guidelines. 4 refs.

  9. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 7 Table 7 to Subpart BBBB of Part 60 Protection of Environment...—Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) For the following pollutants Use the following span values for CEMS Use the following performance specifications in appendix B of this part for...

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ffff of... - Model Rule-Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 4 Table 4 to Subpart FFFF of Part 60 Protection of Environment...—Model Rule—Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) As stated in § 60.3039, you... CEMS Use the following performance specifications (P.S.) in appendix B of this part for your CEMS...

  11. The mini mobile environmental monitoring unit: a novel bio-assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolok, Alan S; Miller, Jeffrey T; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bio-assessment tool, the mini-mobile environmental monitoring unit (MMU). The MMU is a portable, lightweight, energy-efficient, miniaturized laboratory that provides a low-flow system for on-site exposure of aquatic animals to local receiving waters in a protected, controllable environment. Prototypes of the MMU were tested twice in week-long studies conducted during the summers of 2008 and 2009, and in a 12-day study in 2010. In 2008, fathead minnows and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed downstream from the Hastings, Nebraska wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), a waterway known to contain estrogenic contaminants in biologically active concentrations. In 2009, minnows and POCIS were deployed downstream, upstream and within the Grand Island, Nebraska WWTP, a site where the estrogenic contaminants had been detected, but were found at levels below those necessary to directly impact fish. In 2010, an advanced prototype was tested at the Sauk Center, Minnesota WWTP to compare its performance with that of traditional fish exposure methods including caged fish and static-renewal laboratory testing of effluent. Results from the prototype illustrate the capabilities of the MMU and offer an inexpensive monitoring tool to integrate the effects of pollutant sources with temporally varying composition and concentration.

  12. Investment in epilepsy monitoring units improves epilepsy care—experience in a regional neuroscience centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinty, RN

    2017-08-01

    An evaluation of the clinical yield of inpatient long-term video-EEG (vEEG) in a new epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) was undertaken, with findings compared to the centre’s prior method of bedside vEEG recording in a standard neurology ward, as reported in 2004. A retrospective analysis of neurophysiology reports for all adults who underwent elective vEEG monitoring in the EMU at Cork University Hospital between January 2015 and July 2016 was conducted. Of 115 vEEG studies in the EMU, 100 (87.0%) were deemed diagnostically conclusive, 14 (12.2%) failed to catch any clinical events and showed normal EEG throughout, and one (0.9%) captured spells of unclear clinical significance—the corresponding figures reported in 2004 for bedside vEEGs were 21.3%, 77% and 1.6%, respectively. The EMU offers a more effective method of recording inpatient vEEG, which aids decision-making and improves clinical outcomes. Some evidence-based measures which could further enhance diagnostic yield are discussed.

  13. 77 FR 39959 - Draft Guidance To Implement Requirements for the Treatment of Air Quality Monitoring Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Air Quality Monitoring Data Influenced by Exceptional Events AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... for the Treatment of Air Quality Monitoring Data Influenced by Exceptional Events and associated... Treatment of Air Quality Monitoring Data Influenced by Exceptional Events and associated attachments and...

  14. Long-term dust climatology in the western United States reconstructed from routine aerosol ground monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Tong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an observation-based dust identification approach and applies it to reconstruct long-term dust climatology in the western United States. Long-term dust climatology is important for quantifying the effects of atmospheric aerosols on regional and global climate. Although many routine aerosol monitoring networks exist, it is often difficult to obtain dust records from these networks, because these monitors are either deployed far away from dust active regions (most likely collocated with dense population or contaminated by anthropogenic sources and other natural sources, such as wildfires and vegetation detritus. Here we propose an approach to identify local dust events relying solely on aerosol mass and composition from general-purpose aerosol measurements. Through analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol observations during satellite-detected dust episodes, we select five indicators to be used to identify local dust records: (1 high PM10 concentrations; (2 low PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3 higher concentrations and percentage of crustal elements; (4 lower percentage of anthropogenic pollutants; and (5 low enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements. After establishing these identification criteria, we conduct hierarchical cluster analysis for all validated aerosol measurement data over 68 IMPROVE sites in the western United States. A total of 182 local dust events were identified over 30 of the 68 locations from 2000 to 2007. These locations are either close to the four US Deserts, namely the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert, and the Chihuahuan Desert, or in the high wind power region (Colorado. During the eight-year study period, the total number of dust events displays an interesting four-year activity cycle (one in 2000–2003 and the other in 2004–2007. The years of 2003, 2002 and 2007 are the three most active dust periods, with 46, 31 and 24

  15. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... other used corrosion monitoring methods in the project are described elsewhere (3) and (4). For future district heating corrosion monitoring the by-pass unit can be recommended for permanent installation and the two methods high sensitive ER-technique (Metricorr) and the LOCOR-Cell„§ (FORCE Technology...

  16. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... other used corrosion monitoring methods in the project are described elsewhere (3) and (4). For future district heating corrosion monitoring the by-pass unit can be recommended for permanent installation and the two methods high sensitive ER-technique (Metricorr) and the LOCOR-Cell„§ (FORCE Technology...

  17. Patients with hematological disorders requiring admission to medical intensive care unit: Characteristics, survival and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash H

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This retrospective chart review assessed the characteristics and outcome of patients with hematological disorders who required admission to medical intensive care unit over a 4 year period (January 1998 to December 2001. Results: There were a total of 104 patients, 67 (64% male, 37 (36% female subjects, with a mean age of 36.3 ± 15.3 years (range 10 to 65 years. The mean duration from hospital admission to ICU transfer was 11 days. Sixty-nine (66% had malignant and 35 (34% had non-malignant conditions. Respiratory distress was the commonest reason for ICU admission 58 (56%. The other indications were hemodynamic instability 38 (36%, low sensorium 22 (21%, following cardio-pulmonary arrest 12 (11.5% and generalized tonic-clonic seizures 5 (5%. Forty-three (42% patients had absolute neutophil count (ANC less than 500, 48 (47.5% had platelet count < 20000. The mean duration of ICU stay was 4 days (range < 24 hours to 28 days. Sixty-nine (66% patients required mechanical ventilation, 61 (59% required hemodynamic support. Pneumonia or sepsis was diagnosed in 71 (68%. Twenty-five (24% survived ICU stay and 20 (19% survived to hospital discharge. ICU admission following cardio-pulmonary arrest, advanced malignancy, requirement of mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support, ANC count < 500 and platelet count < 20000 were the predictors of adverse outcome. Associated organ dysfunction further increases the mortality.

  18. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Helder Onno K; van Goudoever Johannes B; Hop Wim C J; Brug Johannes; Kornelisse René F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to d...

  19. Ozone monitoring in the UK (United Kingdom): A review of 1978/8. Data from monitoring sites operated by Warren Spring Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, J.S.; Broughton, G.F.; Dando, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    A new national air-quality monitoring network has been established for the Department of the Environment. Its purpose is to determine rural baseline concentrations of ozone and other pollutants throughout the United Kingdom. The report describes the background to the establishment of the network, together with its present structure and instrumentation. A series of data analyses are presented and discussed, with the intention of providing a broad and preliminary overview of ozone observations at WSL-operated monitoring sites throughout the first full year of network operation. Average and peak levels of ozone during 1987/8 are quantified, seasonal and diurnal variations are determined, and high pollution periods are examined.

  20. Baseline and Postremediation Monitoring Program Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements to present the plan for baseline and postremediation monitoring as part of the selected remedy. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the requirements to monitor for soil and terrestrial biota in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain; sediment, surface water, and aquatic biota in LEFPC; wetland restoration in the LEFPC floodplain; and human use of shallow groundwater wells in the LEFPC floodplain for drinking water. This document describes the monitoring program that will ensure that actions taken under Phases I and II of the LEFPC remedial action are protective of human health and the environment.

  1. The strategy for improving water-quality monitoring in the United States; final report of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality; technical appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) prepared this report in collaboration with representatives of all levels of government and the private sector. The report recommends a strategy for nationwide water-quality monitoring and technical monitoring improvements to support sound water-quality decisionmaking. The strategy is intended to achieve a better return on public and private investments in monitoring, environmental protection, and natural resources management. It is also designed to expand the base of information useful to a variety of users at multiple geographic scales. Institutional and technical changes are needed to improve water-quality monitoring and to meet the full range of monitoring requirements. Monitoring must be incorporated as a critical element of program planning, implementation, and evaluation. The strategy includes recommendations in many key elements, such as the development of goal-oriented monitoring and indicators, institutional collaboration, and methods comparability. Initial actions have been taken to implement the strategy. Several Federal agencies have jointly purchased and shared remotely sensed land-cover information needed for water assessment. Major agency data systems are using common data-element names and reference tables that will ensure easy sharing of data. A number of States have held meetings with collectors of water information to initiate statewide monitoring strategies. New monitoring guidance has been developed for Federal water-quality grants to States. Many State offices have changed monitoring programs to place emphasis on priority watersheds and to improve assessment of water quality. As the competition increases for adequate supplies of clean water, concerns about public health and the environment escalate, and more demands are placed on the water information infrastructure. To meet these demands, the collaborative approach has already produced benefits, which will continue to grow as

  2. Towards the formal specification of the requirements and design of a processor interface unit: HOL listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1993-01-01

    This technical report contains the HOL listings of the specification of the design and major portions of the requirements for a commercially developed processor interface unit (or PIU). The PIU is an interface chip performing memory interface, bus interface, and additional support services for a commercial microprocessor within a fault-tolerant computer system. This system, the Fault-Tolerant Embedded Processor (FTEP), is targeted towards applications in avionics and space requiring extremely high levels of mission reliability, extended maintenance-free operation, or both. This report contains the actual HOL listings of the PIU specification as it currently exists. Section two of this report contains general-purpose HOL theories that support the PIU specification. These theories include definitions for the hardware components used in the PIU, our implementation of bit words, and our implementation of temporal logic. Section three contains the HOL listings for the PIU design specification. Aside from the PIU internal bus (I-Bus), this specification is complete. Section four contains the HOL listings for a major portion of the PIU requirements specification. Specifically, it contains most of the definition for the PIU behavior associated with memory accesses initiated by the local processor.

  3. Drinking water public right-to-know requirements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blette, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency implements a national drinking-water program under the authority of the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act. Amendments to the Act in 1996 added new provisions to enhance consumer understanding of drinking-water issues. Notification requirements associated with annual consumer confidence reports, source water assessments and state compliance reports are intended to enhance the public's knowledge of the quality of their drinking water. Water utilities are also subject to public notification requirements to provide more timely information to consumers in response to violations of health standards. These right-to-know requirements are intended to build the public's confidence, but communicating with consumers can be challenging for both utility managers and government leaders. This paper discusses the need for timely communication, the challenge of providing information when there is uncertainty in the science and the importance of preparing to respond to critical incidents. Because surveys have shown that other members of the community may have better access to consumers or are more trusted, it is important for water utilities to establish relationships with the media and the local public health community.

  4. Methods, units and quality requirements for the analysis of haemoglobin A1c in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Ilkka; Penttilä, Karri; Holm, Päivi; Laitinen, Harri; Ranta, Päivi; Törrönen, Jukka; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2016-06-26

    The formation of glycohemoglobin, especially the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) fraction, occurs when glucose becomes coupled with the amino acid valine in the β-chain of Hb; this reaction is dependent on the plasma concentration of glucose. Since the early 1970s it has been known that diabetics display higher values OF HbA1C because they have elevated blood glucose concentrations. Thus HbA1c has acquired a very important role in the treatment and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. After the introduction of the first quantitative measurement OF HbA1C, numerous methods for glycohemoglobin have been introduced with different assay principles: From a simple mini-column technique to the very accurate automated high-pressure chromatography and lastly to many automated immunochemical or enzymatic assays. In early days, the results of the quality control reports for HbA1c varied extensively between laboratories, therefore in United States and Canada working groups (WG) of the Diabetes Controls and Complications Trial (DCCT) were set up to standardize the HbA1c assays against the DCCT/National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program reference method based on liquid chromatography. In the 1990s, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) appointed a new WG to plan a reference preparation and method for the HBA1c measurement. When the reference procedures were established, in 2004 IFCC recommended that all manufacturers for equipment used in HbA1c assays should calibrate their methods to their proposals. This led to an improvement in the coefficient of variation (CV%) associated with the assay. In this review, we describe the glycation of Hb, methods, standardization of the HbA1c assays, analytical problems, problems with the units in which HbA1c values are expressed, reference values, quality control aspects, target requirements for HbA1c, and the relationship of the plasma glucose values to HbA1c concentrations. We also note that the acceptance

  5. Flow cytometry quality requirements for monitoring of minimal disease in plasma cell myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldaker, Teri A; Wallace, Paul K; Barnett, David

    2016-01-01

    Current therapeutic approaches for plasma cell myeloma (PCM) attain an overall survival of more than 6 years for the majority of newly diagnosed patients. However, PFS and OS are the only accepted FDA clinical endpoints for demonstrating drug efficacy before they can be become frontline therapeutic options. There is, however, recognition that the increasing gap between drug development and approval for mainstream therapeutic use needs to be shortened. As such regulatory bodies such as the FDA are now considering whether biomarker response evaluation, as in measurement of minimal residual disease (MRD) as assessed by flow cytometry (FC), can provide an early, robust prediction of survival and therefore improve the drug approval process. Recently, FC MRD using a standardized eight-color antibody methodology has been shown to have a minimum sensitivity of 0.01% and an upper sensitivity of 0.001%. To ensure that all laboratories using this approach achieve the same levels of sensitivity it is crucially important to have standardized quality management procedures in place. This manuscript accompanies those published in this special issue and describes the minimum that is required for validating and quality monitoring of this highly specific test to ensure any laboratory, irrespective of location, will achieve the expected quality standards required. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  6. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-09-21

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  7. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Eusebio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy, it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable.

  8. Electronic Nose Testing Procedure for the Definition of Minimum Performance Requirements for Environmental Odor Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena

    2016-01-01

    Despite initial enthusiasm towards electronic noses and their possible application in different fields, and quite a lot of promising results, several criticalities emerge from most published research studies, and, as a matter of fact, the diffusion of electronic noses in real-life applications is still very limited. In general, a first step towards large-scale-diffusion of an analysis method, is standardization. The aim of this paper is describing the experimental procedure adopted in order to evaluate electronic nose performances, with the final purpose of establishing minimum performance requirements, which is considered to be a first crucial step towards standardization of the specific case of electronic nose application for environmental odor monitoring at receptors. Based on the experimental results of the performance testing of a commercialized electronic nose type with respect to three criteria (i.e., response invariability to variable atmospheric conditions, instrumental detection limit, and odor classification accuracy), it was possible to hypothesize a logic that could be adopted for the definition of minimum performance requirements, according to the idea that these are technologically achievable. PMID:27657086

  9. NAFTA Guidance Document on Data Requirements for Tolerances on Imported Commodities in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide detailed guidance on data requirements that meet the North American Free Trade Agreement standards for the establishment of pesticide import tolerances or maximum residue levels in Canada and the United States.

  10. Admitting acute ischemic stroke patients to a stroke care monitoring unit versus a conventional stroke unit : a randomized pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, Geert; Elting, Jan Willem; Langedijk, Marc; Maurits, Natasha M; De Keyser, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pathophysiological considerations and observational studies indicate that elevated body temperature, hypoxia, hypotension, and cardiac arrhythmias in the acute phase of ischemic stroke may aggravate brain damage and worsen outcome. METHODS: Both units were organized with the

  11. Admitting acute ischemic stroke patients to a stroke care monitoring unit versus a conventional stroke unit : a randomized pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, Geert; Elting, Jan Willem; Langedijk, Marc; Maurits, Natasha M; De Keyser, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pathophysiological considerations and observational studies indicate that elevated body temperature, hypoxia, hypotension, and cardiac arrhythmias in the acute phase of ischemic stroke may aggravate brain damage and worsen outcome. METHODS: Both units were organized with the

  12. Analyzing the characteristics of 6 MV photon beam at low monitor unit settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the characteristics of a low monitor unit (MU setting is essential, particularly for intensity-modulated techniques. Intensity modulation can be achieved through intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT. There is possibility for low MUs in the segments of IMRT and VMAT plans. The minimum MU/segment must be set by the physicist in the treatment planning system at the time of commissioning. In this study, the characteristics such as dose linearity, stability, flatness, and symmetry of 6 MV photon beam of a Synergy linear accelerator at low MU settings were investigated for different dose rates. The measurements were performed for Synergy linear accelerator using a slab phantom with a FC65-G chamber and Profiler 2. The MU linearity was studied for 1–100 MU using a field size of 10 cm ×10 cm. The linearity error for 1 MU was 4.2%. Flatness of the beam was deteriorated in 1 MU condition. The beam stability and symmetry was well within the specification. Using this study, we conclude that the treatment delivered with <3 MU may result in uncertainty in dose delivery. To ensure the correct dose delivery with less uncertainty, it is recommended to use ≥3 MU as the minimum MU per segment in IMRT and VMAT plans.

  13. [Predictive variables for mental retardation in a Pediatric Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. Neuropsychological assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sala, A; Palacio-Navarro, A; Donaire, A; García, G; Colomé, R; Boix, C; Sans, A; Campistol, J; Sanmartí, F X

    2010-03-03

    We sought to describe the epidemiological and clinical data from our patients in the Pediatric Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (PEMU) of the Sant Joan de Deu Hospital of Barcelona, and determine the variables of risk for mental retardation. A retrospective review of PEMU reports and hospital discharge summaries from March 2005 to December 2008 was conducted. The data from patients with intelligence quotient (IQ) estimated, older than 3 years of age and with epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) activity was analyzed in 158 patients (8.8 +/- 5.2 years; 55.1% boys). Of those pediatric patients, 63 had IQ less than 70 and 47 an IQ greater than or equal to 70. Intractable epilepsy was present in all of them. The percentage of the patients with mental retardation is significantly higher in patients with onset of epilepsy before 24 months (68.3%) than patients with later onset (27.7%). Onset of seizures, EEG findings and epilepsy etiology are significant risk factors for mental retardation. Early age at seizure, multifocal epilepsy and cryptogenic etiology are factors of worse prognosis to normal development of cognitive functions in pediatric intractable epilepsy.

  14. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  15. The influence of impression management scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Catherine L; Kirlin, Kristin A; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Locke, Dona E C

    2012-12-01

    The Somatic Complaints scale (SOM) and Conversion subscale (SOM-C) of the Personality Assessment Inventory perform best in classifying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES); however, the impact of positive impression management (PIM) and negative impression management (NIM) scales on SOM and SOM-C classification has not been examined. We studied 187 patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with confirmed PNES or ES. On SOM, the best cut score was 72.5 T when PIM was elevated and 69.5 T when there was no bias. On SOM-C, when PIM was elevated, the best cut score was 67.5 T and 76.5 T when there was no bias. Negative impression management elevations (n=9) were too infrequent to analyze separately. Despite similarities in classification accuracy, there were differences in sensitivity and specificity with and without PIM, impacting positive and negative predictive values. The presence of PIM bias generally increases positive predictive power of SOM and SOM-C but decreases negative predictive power.

  16. Total monitor units influence on plan quality parameters in volumetric modulated arc therapy for breast case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancosu, P; Reggiori, G; Alongi, F; Cozzi, L; Fogliata, A; Lobefalo, F; Navarria, P; Stravato, A; Tomatis, S; Scorsetti, M

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the correlation between total monitor units (MU), dosimetric findings, and pre-treatment quality assurance for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RapidArc (RA). Ten patients with breast cancer were considered. Dose prescriptions were: 48 Gy and 40.5 Gy in 15 fractions to, respectively, PTV(Boost) and PTVWholeBreast. A reference plan was optimized and four more plans using the "MU Objective", a tool for total MU controlling, were prepared imposing ± 20 and ± 50% total MU for inducing different complexities. Plan objectives were: D95% > 95% for both PTVs, and D2% Plans were evaluated in terms of technical parameters, dosimetric plan objectives findings and pre-treatment quality assurance (QA). Concerning PTVs, there were no significant differences for target coverage (D95%); mean doses for ipsilateral lung and controlateral breast, and V18 Gy for heart decreased with MUs increasing, reaching a plateau with reference plan. Body volume receiving low dose (V5-10 Gy) was minimized for reference plans. All plans had GAI (3 mm, 3%) > 95%. The data suggest that the best plan is the reference one, where the "MU Objective" tool was not used during optimisation. Nevertheless, it is advisable to use the "MU Objective" tool for re-planning when low GAI is found to increase its value. In this case, attention should be paid to OARs dose limits, since their values may be increased. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

  18. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  19. Continuous ‘Passive’ flow-proportional monitoring of drainage using a new modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen;

    2016-01-01

    In view of their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring of agricultural subsurface drain tile systems is important for adequate water quality management. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tile drains are expensive and labour...... information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.Results from this type of monitoring can provide data for the evaluation and optimisation of best management practices in agriculture in order to produce the highest yield without water quality and recipient surface...... intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective and simple method for monitoring loads from tile drains. The Flowcap is a modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit that canbe attached to the outlet of tile drains. It is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads and flowaveraged...

  20. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-09

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations.

  1. Electroencephalographic Patterns Recorded by Continuous EEG Monitoring in Patients with Change of Consciousness in the Neurological Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindağ, Ebru; Okudan, Zeynep Vildan; Tavukçu Özkan, Sedef; Krespi, Yakup; Baykan, Betül

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to examine the frequency of various electrographic patterns including periodic discharges (PD), repetitive spike waves (RSW), rhythmic delta activities (RDA), nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in continuous EEG monitoring (cEEG) of the critically ill patients with change of consciousness and the presence of specific clinical and laboratory findings associated with these important patterns in this study. Patients with changes of consciousness in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU) were consecutively monitored with cEEG during 2 years. Their clinical, electrophysiological, radiological and laboratory findings were evaluated retrospectively. This sample consisted of 57 (25 men) patients with a mean age of 68.2 years. Mean duration of cEEG monitoring was 2532.6 minutes. The most common electrographic patterns were PD (33%) and NCS-NCSE (26.3%). The presence of NCS-NCSE was significantly associated with PD (57.9%, p<0.001). PD and NCS-NCSE were the mostly seen in patients with acute stroke and hypoxic encephalopathy. Duration of monitoring was significantly longer in the group with PD and NCS-NCSE (p:0.004, p:0.014). Detection of any electrographic pattern in EEG before monitoring was associated with the presence of any pattern in cEEG (59.3%, p<0.0001). Convulsive or nonconvulsive seizure during monitoring was common in patients with electrographic patterns (p<0.0001). 66.7% of NCS-NCSE was seen within the first 12 hours and 26.7% was seen within the 12-24 hours of the monitoring. Detection of any electrographic pattern in EEG before monitoring was associated with the presence of any important pattern in cEEG monitoring. This association suggest that at least 24 hours-monitoring of these patients could be useful for the diagnosis of clinical and/or electrographic seizures.

  2. Strategies for Monitoring Outcomes in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Claire; Tookey, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK) through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than 5 in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) exposure and more than 5000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short- and long-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART) Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms, but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the "flagging" of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals, including those relating to consent and confidentiality, are also discussed.

  3. Strategies for monitoring outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eThorne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than five in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART exposure and more than 5,000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short and longer-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the flagging of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals including those relating to consent and confidentiality are also discussed.

  4. Monitoring the status of forests and rangelands in the Western United States using ecosystem performance anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigge, Matthew B.; Wylie, Bruce; Gu, Yingxin; Belnap, Jayne; Phuyal, Khem P.; Tieszen, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The effects of land management and disturbance on ecosystem performance (i.e. biomass production) are often confounded by those of weather and site potential. The current study overcomes this issue by calculating the difference between actual and expected ecosystem performance (EEP) to generate ecosystem performance anomalies (EPA). This study aims to delineate and quantify average EPA from 2000–2009 within the Greater Platte and Upper Colorado River Basins, USA. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images averaged over the growing season (GSN) served as a proxy of actual ecosystem performance. Yearly EEP was determined with rule-based piecewise regression tree models of abiotic data (climate, soils, elevation, etc.), independently created for each land cover. EPA were calculated as the residuals of the EEP to GSN relationship, and characterized as normal performing, underperforming, and overperforming at the 90% confidence level. Validation revealed that EPA values were related to biomass production (R2 = 0.56, P = 0.02) and likely to the proportion of biomass removed by livestock in the Nebraska Sandhills. Overall, 60.6% of the study area was (normal) performing near its EEP, 3.0% was severely underperforming, 5.0% was highly overperforming, and the remainder was slightly underperforming or overperforming. Generally, disturbances such as fires, floods, and insect damage, in addition to high grazing intensity, result in a negative EPA. Conversely, mature stands and appropriate management often result in positive EPA values. This method provides information critical to land managers to evaluate the appropriateness of previous management practices and restoration efforts and quantify disturbance impacts. Results are at a scale sufficient for many of the large management units of the region and for locating areas needing further investigation. Applications of EPA data to monitoring invasive species

  5. Independent verification of monitor unit calculation for radiation treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Li-Xin; Huang, Shao-Min; Sun, Wen-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Deng, Xiao-Wu

    2010-02-01

    To ensure the accuracy of dose calculation for radiation treatment plans is an important part of quality assurance (QA) procedures for radiotherapy. This study evaluated the Monitor Units (MU) calculation accuracy of a third-party QA software and a 3-dimensional treatment planning system (3D TPS), to investigate the feasibility and reliability of independent verification for radiation treatment planning. Test plans in a homogenous phantom were designed with 3-D TPS, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Report No. 430, including open, blocked, wedge, and multileaf collimator (MLC) fields. Test plans were delivered and measured in the phantom. The delivered doses were input to the QA software and the independent calculated MUs were compared with delivery. All test plans were verified with independent calculation and phantom measurements separately, and the differences of the two kinds of verification were then compared. The deviation of the independent calculation to the measurements was (0.1 +/- 0.9)%, the biggest difference fell onto the plans that used block and wedge fields (2.0%). The mean MU difference between the TPS and the QA software was (0.6 +/- 1.0)%, ranging from -0.8% to 2.8%. The deviation in dose of the TPS calculation compared to the measurements was (-0.2 +/- 1.7)%, ranging from -3.9% to 2.9%. MU accuracy of the third-party QA software is clinically acceptable. Similar results were achieved with the independent calculations and the phantom measurements for all test plans. The tested independent calculation software can be used as an efficient tool for TPS plan verification.

  6. 37 CFR 7.11 - Requirements for international application originating from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PURSUANT TO THE PROTOCOL RELATING TO THE MADRID AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE INTERNATIONAL REGISTRATION OF... national of the United States; has a domicile in the United States; or has a real and effective...

  7. Design of a microprocessor-based Control, Interface and Monitoring (CIM unit for turbine engine controls research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaat, J. C.; Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    High speed minicomputers were used in the past to implement advanced digital control algorithms for turbine engines. These minicomputers are typically large and expensive. It is desirable for a number of reasons to use microprocessor-based systems for future controls research. They are relatively compact, inexpensive, and are representative of the hardware that would be used for actual engine-mounted controls. The Control, Interface, and Monitoring Unit (CIM) contains a microprocessor-based controls computer, necessary interface hardware and a system to monitor while it is running an engine. It is presently being used to evaluate an advanced turbofan engine control algorithm.

  8. Wireless sensor network for helicopter rotor blade vibration monitoring: Requirements definition and technological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Das, Kallol; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Havinga, Paul; Basu, Biswajit

    2013-01-01

    The main rotor accounts for the largest vibration source for a helicopter fuselage and its components. However, accurate blade monitoring has been limited due to the practical restrictions on instrumenting rotating blades. The use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for real time vibration monitoring

  9. 40 CFR 63.11527 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (b)(1) of this section. (4) When operating a CPMS, if the 3-hour average pressure drop or scrubber.... Manufacturer's specifications for pressure drop and liquid flow rate will be used to determine normal... filters—(1) Visual monitoring. You must conduct visual monitoring of the monovent or fabric filter...

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 of Subpart Aaaa to... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 4 Table 4 of Subpart AAAA to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Monitoring Systems (CEMS) For the following pollutants Use the following span values for your CEMS Use the following performance specifications in appendix B of this part for your CEMS If needed to meet...

  11. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2006-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report provides the results and inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 Waste Management Division U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This report includes an analysis and summary of the site inpsections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at Corrective Action Unit 110, for the annual period July 2005 thrugh June 2006.

  12. The role of neuropsychology on an epilepsy monitoring unit: a peek behind the "do not disturb" sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlin, Kristin A; Locke, Dona E C

    2014-09-01

    Neuropsychological services are considered an essential component of specialized epilepsy centers. In such a multidisciplinary setting, neuropsychologists interact regularly with other professionals involved in epilepsy patients' care. For these other professionals, this article provides an overview of the background of neuropsychologists, the services they provide, and how their findings contribute to the evaluation of the epilepsy patient. Two case examples are included to illustrate how neuropsychological evaluations are employed in the epilepsy monitoring unit setting.

  13. Clinical implementation of an electron monitor unit dosimetry system based on task group 71 report and a commercial calculation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many clinics still use monitor unit (MU calculations for electron treatment planning and/or quality assurance (QA. This work (1 investigates the clinical implementation of a dosimetry system including a modified American Association of Physicists in Medicine-task group-71 (TG-71-based electron MU calculation protocol (modified TG-71 electron [mTG-71E] and an independent commercial calculation program and (2 provides the practice recommendations for clinical usage. Following the recently published TG-71 guidance, an organized mTG-71E databook was developed to facilitate data access and subsequent MU computation according to our clinical need. A recently released commercial secondary calculation program - Mobius3D (version 1.5.1 Electron Quick Calc (EQC (Mobius Medical System, LP, Houston, TX, USA, with inherent pencil beam algorithm and independent beam data, was used to corroborate the calculation results. For various setups, the calculation consistency and accuracy of mTG-71E and EQC were validated by their cross-comparison and the ion chamber measurements in a solid water phantom. Our results show good agreement between mTG-71E and EQC calculations, with average 2% difference. Both mTG-71E and EQC calculations match with measurements within 3%. In general, these differences increase with decreased cutout size, increased extended source to surface distance, and lower energy. It is feasible to use TG71 and Mobius3D clinically as primary and secondary electron MU calculations or vice versa. We recommend a practice that only requires patient-specific measurements in rare cases when mTG-71E and EQC calculations differ by 5% or more.

  14. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, John P., E-mail: john.gibbons@marybird.com [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States); Antolak, John A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Followill, David S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Lam, Kwok L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Roback, Donald M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Centers of North Carolina, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Reid, Mark [Department of Medical Physics, Fletcher-Allen Health Care, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Khan, Faiz M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D{sub 0}{sup ′}, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D{sub 0}{sup ′} ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of d{sub m}, with D{sub 0}{sup ′} = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  15. Monitor unit calculations for external photon and electron beams: Report of the AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group No. 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John P; Antolak, John A; Followill, David S; Huq, M Saiful; Klein, Eric E; Lam, Kwok L; Palta, Jatinder R; Roback, Donald M; Reid, Mark; Khan, Faiz M

    2014-03-01

    A protocol is presented for the calculation of monitor units (MU) for photon and electron beams, delivered with and without beam modifiers, for constant source-surface distance (SSD) and source-axis distance (SAD) setups. This protocol was written by Task Group 71 of the Therapy Physics Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and has been formally approved by the AAPM for clinical use. The protocol defines the nomenclature for the dosimetric quantities used in these calculations, along with instructions for their determination and measurement. Calculations are made using the dose per MU under normalization conditions, D'0, that is determined for each user's photon and electron beams. For electron beams, the depth of normalization is taken to be the depth of maximum dose along the central axis for the same field incident on a water phantom at the same SSD, where D'0 = 1 cGy/MU. For photon beams, this task group recommends that a normalization depth of 10 cm be selected, where an energy-dependent D'0 ≤ 1 cGy/MU is required. This recommendation differs from the more common approach of a normalization depth of dm, with D'0 = 1 cGy/MU, although both systems are acceptable within the current protocol. For photon beams, the formalism includes the use of blocked fields, physical or dynamic wedges, and (static) multileaf collimation. No formalism is provided for intensity modulated radiation therapy calculations, although some general considerations and a review of current calculation techniques are included. For electron beams, the formalism provides for calculations at the standard and extended SSDs using either an effective SSD or an air-gap correction factor. Example tables and problems are included to illustrate the basic concepts within the presented formalism.

  16. SU-E-T-31: Alternative VMAT Technique Reduces Total Monitor Units for Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happersett, L; Mechalakos, J; Kuo, L; Zhang, P; Rimner, A [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate an alternative approach to VMAT optimization for hypofractionation lung treatment which increases average aperture opening and results in lower total Monitor Units (MU) without significantly sacrificing plan quality. Methods: Benchmark Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (bVMAT) plans were generated for 10 lung Stereotactic Body radiotherapy (SBRT) cases using Eclipse Version 11.0.42 (Varian Medical Systems) without a maximum MU constraint. Prescriptions ranged from 40 to 54Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. AAA dose calculation and PRO fluence based optimization was utilized. Two comparison VMAT plans were generated for each case, one that forced an initial “open” mlc aperture conformal to the tumor as a starting condition (oVMAT) with similar optimization parameters and arc geometries, and one that repeated the bVMAT optimization but added a maximum MU constraint (muVMAT). All plans used two arcs with lengths between 168 to 230 degrees. PTV D 95% and Dmean, lung V20 Gy, chest wall V30 Gy, average aperture opening and MU's were compared. Statistical significance was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Average PTV D(95), PTV mean and lung V20Gy over all plans was 99.2 ± 1.7%, 103.3 ± 0.6% and 7.8 ± 2.4% respectively. The average chest wall V30Gy was 61 ± 61 cc and ranged between 0 to 166 cc. There were no significant differences between the three techniques for the dosimetric quantities. MUs were reduced by 11 ±11% (p<0.01) and 25 ± 5% (p<0.01) and the average aperture size was increased by 13.7 ± 14% (p=0.02) and 35.8 ± 10% (p<0.01) with muVMAT and oVMAT, respectively, compared to bVMAT. Conclusion: oVMAT and muVMAT techniques were both able to increase average aperture size and reduce total MU compared to the benchmark VMAT plan, but the magnitude of the changes observed for oVMAT was larger.

  17. Effects of minimum monitor unit threshold on spot scanning proton plan quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michelle; Beltran, Chris; Mayo, Charles S; Herman, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of the minimum monitor unit (MU) on the quality of clinical treatment plans for scanned proton therapy. Delivery system characteristics limit the minimum number of protons that can be delivered per spot, resulting in a min-MU limit. Plan quality can be impacted by the min-MU limit. Two sites were used to investigate the impact of min-MU on treatment plans: pediatric brain tumor at a depth of 5-10 cm; a head and neck tumor at a depth of 1-20 cm. Three-field, intensity modulated spot scanning proton plans were created for each site with the following parameter variations: min-MU limit range of 0.0000-0.0060; and spot spacing range of 2-8 mm. Comparisons were based on target homogeneity and normal tissue sparing. For the pediatric brain, two versions of the treatment planning system were also compared to judge the effects of the min-MU limit based on when it is accounted for in the optimization process (Eclipse v.10 and v.13, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The increase of the min-MU limit with a fixed spot spacing decreases plan quality both in homogeneous target coverage and in the avoidance of critical structures. Both head and neck and pediatric brain plans show a 20% increase in relative dose for the hot spot in the CTV and 10% increase in key critical structures when comparing min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0060 with a fixed spot spacing of 4 mm. The DVHs of CTVs show min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0010 produce similar plan quality and quality decreases as the min-MU limit increases beyond 0.0020. As spot spacing approaches 8 mm, degradation in plan quality is observed when no min-MU limit is imposed. Given a fixed spot spacing of ≤4 mm, plan quality decreases as min-MU increased beyond 0.0020. The effect of min-MU needs to be taken into consideration while planning proton therapy treatments.

  18. Quality and safety in adult epilepsy monitoring units: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Natalie; Macrodimitris, Sophie; Wiebe, Samuel; Lukmanji, Sara; Jetté, Nathalie

    2016-11-01

    The epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) is a valuable resource for optimizing management of persons with epilepsy, but may place patients at risk for adverse events due to withdrawal of treatment and induction of symptoms. The purpose of this study was to synthesize data on the safety and quality of care in EMUs to inform the development of quality indicators for EMUs. A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting and Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search strategy, which included broad search terms and synonyms pertaining to the EMU, was run in six medical databases and included conference proceedings. Data abstracted included patient and EMU demographics and quality and safety variables. Study quality was evaluated using a modified 15-item Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. Descriptive statistics and meta-analyses were used to describe and synthesize the evidence. The search yielded 7,601 references, of which 604 were reviewed in full text. One-hundred thirty-five studies were included. The quality and safety data came from 181,823 patients and reported on 34 different quality and safety variables. Included studies commonly reported the number of patients (108 studies; median number patients, 171.5), age (49 studies; mean age 35.7 years old), and the reason for admission (34 studies). The most common quality and safety data reported were the utility of the EMU admission (38 studies). Thirty-three studies (24.4%) reported on adverse events, and yielded a pooled proportion of adverse events of 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5-9%). The mean quality score was 73.3% (standard deviation [SD] 17.2). This study demonstrates that there is a great deal of variation in the reporting of quality and safety measures and in the quality and safety in EMUs. Study quality also varied considerably from one study to the next. These findings highlight the need to develop

  19. 40 CFR 98.344 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section, you may use total gaseous organic concentration analyzers and calculate the methane... composition monitor determines CH4 concentration on a dry basis, moisture content. (1) ASME...

  20. 50 CFR 18.118 - What are the mitigation, monitoring, and reporting requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... active seismic-source vessels and/or exploratory drilling operations. No more than four simultaneous... area. Monitors will act as an early detection system in regard to proximate bear activity to...

  1. 40 CFR 257.24 - Detection monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal Units Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 257.24 Detection monitoring program. (a) Detection monitoring is required at facilities identified in § 257.5(a) at all ground-water monitoring wells... unit to the ground water. In determining alternative parameters, the Director shall consider...

  2. 40 CFR 258.54 - Detection monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.54 Detection monitoring program. (a) Detection monitoring is required at MSWLF units at all ground-water monitoring wells... from the MSWLF unit to the ground water. In determining alternative parameters, the Director...

  3. Annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-09-01

    This report presents the data collected during field activities and quarterly soil-gas sampling activities conducted from May 9, 2005, through May 20, 2006, at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329, Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill; Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-44-01, Fuel Spill. The CAU is located at the DRA, which is located approximately two miles southwest of Mercury, Nevada, as shown in Figure 1-1. Field activities were conducted in accordance with the revised sampling approach outlined in the Addendum to the Closure Report (CR) for CAU 329 (NNSA/NSO, 2005) to support data collection requirements. The previous annual monitoring program for CAU 329 was initiated in August 2000 using soil-gas samples collected from three specific intervals at the DRA-0 and DRA-3 monitoring wells. Results of four sampling events from 2000 through 2003 indicated there is uncertainty in the approach to establish a rate of natural attenuation as specified in ''Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 1999). As a result, the Addendum to the CR (NNSA/NSO, 2005) was completed to address this uncertainty by modifying the previous approach. A risk evaluation was added to the scope of the project to determine if the residual concentration of the hazardous constituents of JP4 pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment and if a corrective action was required at the site, because the current quarterly monitoring program is not expected to yield a rate constant that could be used effectively to determine a biodegradation rate for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in less than the initial five years outlined in the CR. Additionally, remediation to the Tier 1 action level for TPH is not practical or technically feasible due to the depth of contamination.

  4. Report on public health actions and vaccination strategies to monitor measles epidemic in Local Health Unit A in Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Spadea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: between May 2010 and october 2011 the unit of Preventive Medicine for the developmental ages of district IV, Health unit aSL rM/a, received 136 measles case notifications from the unit of Epidemiology and Prophylaxis of Infectious diseases.
    Methods: in accordance with the infectious diseases monitoring protocol, we introduced a series of preventive measures, such as monitoring subjects in contact with measles-infected patients, recommend- ing the administration of two Measles Mumps and rubella (MMr doses four weeks apart, and informing paediatricians, families and school teachers about the measles epidemic.
    Results: all the activities above led to an increased number of MMr doses administered and a significant improvement of measles immunization coverage among residents of the district IV health unit of rome. concerning MMr 1, in a sample cohort consisting of children ≤24 months, the immunization coverage increased from 77% on the 31/12/09 to 88% on the 31/12/11. Instead, for MMr 2, in a cohort of children ≤6 years, the same ratio improved from 51% on the 31/12/09 to 65% on the 31/12/11.
    Discussion: the results indicate a material increase in the immunization coverage once our public health actions and vaccination strategies had been implemented among young residents of district IV aSL rM/a...

  5. Monitoring of Persons with Risk for Exposure to Ebola Virus Disease - United States, November 3, 2014-March 8, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Fisher, Emily; Vagi, Sara; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Prudent, Natasha; Dott, Mary; Daley, Randolph; Avchen, Rachel Nonkin

    2015-07-03

    On October 27, 2014, CDC released guidance for monitoring and movement of persons with potential Ebola virus disease (Ebola) exposure in the United States. For persons with possible exposure to Ebola, this guidance recommended risk categorization, daily monitoring during the 21-day incubation period, and, for persons in selected risk categories, movement restrictions. The purpose of the guidance was to delineate methods for early identification of symptoms among persons at potential risk for Ebola so that they could be isolated, tested, and if necessary, treated to improve their chance of survival and reduce transmission. Within 7 days, all 50 states and two local jurisdictions (New York City [NYC] and the District of Columbia [DC]) had implemented the guidelines. During November 3, 2014-March 8, 2015, a total of 10,344 persons were monitored for up to 21 days with >99% complete monitoring. This public health response demonstrated the ability of state, territorial, and local health agencies to rapidly implement systems to effectively monitor thousands of persons over a sustained period.

  6. Resolution requirements for monitor viewing of digital flat-panel detector radiographs: a contrast detail analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Siegfried; Steingruber, Iris; Gassner, Eva; Peer, Regina; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M.

    2002-05-01

    Since the introduction of digital flat panel detectors into clinical routine the discussion on monitor specifications for primary soft copy reading has gained new impetus. Major concerns exist for viewing of tiny opacities such as pulmonary nodules. In this study CDRAD phantom images were acquired on a caesium iodid/amorphous silicon detector at varying exposure levels. Images were read three times by three observers on a clinical 1K and 2K monitor workstation. All typical workstation functions such as magnification and window/level setting were applied during image reading. Correct detection ratios were calculated according to the CDRAD evaluation manual. Observer ratings were highest for high dose exposure and 2K monitor reading. No significant difference was detected in the correct detection ratio of observers. However, the difference between the two types of workstations (1K versus 2K monitors) despite less than 3% was significant at a 95% confidence level. This is in good accordance with recently published clinical studies. However, further clinical work will be needed to strengthen this laboratory based impression. Given these subtle differences in low contrast detail detection on 1K and 2K clinical PACS workstation we should probably rethink the recommendations of various national boards for the use of 2K monitors.

  7. Riparian Monitoring of Wadeable Streams Protocol for the Park Units in the Northern Colorado Plateau Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A quick reviewed survey protocol framework developed by the National Park Service (NPS) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for riparian monitoring of wadeable streams...

  8. Continuous EEG monitoring in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    André-Obadia, N; Parain, D; Szurhaj, W

    2015-03-01

    Continuous EEG monitoring in the ICU is different from planned EEG due to the rather urgent nature of the indications, explaining the fact that recording is started in certain cases by the clinical team in charge of the patient's care. Close collaboration between neurophysiology teams and intensive care teams is essential. Continuous EEG monitoring can be facilitated by quantified analysis systems. This kind of analysis is based on certain signal characteristics, such as amplitude or frequency content, but raw EEG data should always be interpreted if possible, since artefacts can sometimes impair quantified EEG analysis. It is preferable to work within a tele-EEG network, so that the neurophysiologist has the possibility to give an interpretation on call. Continuous EEG monitoring is thus useful in the diagnosis of non-convulsive epileptic seizures or purely electrical discharges and in the monitoring of status epilepticus when consciousness disorders persist after initial treatment. A number of other indications are currently under evaluation.

  9. 26 CFR 1.6038-2 - Information returns required of United States persons with respect to annual accounting periods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information returns required of United States... 31, 1962. 1.6038-2 Section 1.6038-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... tangible property other than stock in trade; (C) Sales and purchases of patents, inventions, models,...

  10. 76 FR 28303 - Requiring Residents Who Live Outside the United States To File Petitions According to Form...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ..., innovation, or the ability of United States-based companies to compete with foreign-based companies in... flexibility analysis is not required. This procedural rule will impact only individuals, not small entities as..., of $100 million or more in any one year, and it will not significantly or uniquely affect small...

  11. 22 CFR 99.2 - Reporting requirements for adoption cases involving children emigrating from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting requirements for adoption cases involving children emigrating from the United States. 99.2 Section 99.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... Convention case, or in a non-Convention case, the reporting provider is the agency, person, public...

  12. 22 CFR 228.13 - Special source rules requiring procurement from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... must be procured in the United States if the domestic price is less than parity, unless the commodity... buses, motorcycles, scooters, motorized bicycles and utility vehicles. Excluded from this definition are...

  13. Shadow Radiation Shield Required Thickness Estimation for Space Nuclear Power Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodina, E. V.; Martishin, V. M.; Ivanovsky, V. A.; Prasolova, N. O.

    The paper concerns theoretical possibility of visiting orbital transport vehicles based on nuclear power unit and electric propulsion system on the Earth's orbit by astronauts to maintain work with payload from the perspective of radiation safety. There has been done estimation of possible time of the crew's staying in the area of payload of orbital transport vehicles for different reactor powers, which is a consistent part of nuclear power unit.

  14. Portable air quality sensor unit for participatory monitoring: an end-to-end VESNA-AQ based prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucnik, Matevz; Robinson, Johanna; Smolnikar, Miha; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Mohorcic, Mihael

    2015-04-01

    Key words: portable air quality sensor, CITI-SENSE, participatory monitoring, VESNA-AQ The emergence of low-cost easy to use portable air quality sensors units is opening new possibilities for individuals to assess their exposure to air pollutants at specific place and time, and share this information through the Internet connection. Such portable sensors units are being used in an ongoing citizen science project called CITI-SENSE, which enables citizens to measure and share the data. The project aims through creating citizens observatories' to empower citizens to contribute to and participate in environmental governance, enabling them to support and influence community and societal priorities as well as associated decision making. An air quality measurement system based on VESNA sensor platform was primarily designed within the project for the use as portable sensor unit in selected pilot cities (Belgrade, Ljubljana and Vienna) for monitoring outdoor exposure to pollutants. However, functionally the same unit with different set of sensors could be used for example as an indoor platform. The version designed for the pilot studies was equipped with the following sensors: NO2, O3, CO, temperature, relative humidity, pressure and accelerometer. The personal sensor unit is battery powered and housed in a plastic box. The VESNA-based air quality (AQ) monitoring system comprises the VESNA-AQ portable sensor unit, a smartphone app and the remote server. Personal sensor unit supports wireless connection to an Android smartphone via built-in Wi-Fi. The smartphone in turn serves also as the communication gateway towards the remote server using any of available data connections. Besides the gateway functionality the role of smartphone is to enrich data coming from the personal sensor unit with the GPS location, timestamps and user defined context. This, together with an accelerometer, enables the user to better estimate ones exposure in relation to physical activities, time

  15. 77 FR 35925 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Monitoring and Enforcement Requirements in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... conveyor belt in the factory before any sorting or processing was done. As described below, the operations... give an estimate of catch for unsampled sets. The current sampling methodologies produce accurate catch... current observer sampling station inspection and approval regulations or processes. Under both monitoring...

  16. Use of models to support the monitoring requirements in the water framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Højberg, A.L.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Geer, F. van; Jørgensen, L.F.; Zsuffa, I.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) poses many new challenges to European water managers. Monitoring programmes play a key role to assess the status and identify possible trends in the environmental conditions of river basins; to gain new knowledge on water processes and to

  17. 40 CFR 63.9804 - What are my monitoring system installation, operation, and maintenance requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., oxidation, and galvanic corrosion. (c) For each pressure CPMS that is used to monitor the pressure drop... where it is easily recognized by plant operating personnel. (6) For positive pressure fabric filter... pressure or induced air fabric filters, the bag leak detector must be installed downstream of the...

  18. New Approach to Purging Monitoring Wells: Lower Flow Rates Reduce Required Purging Volumes and Sample Turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is generally accepted that monitoring wells must be purged to access formation water to obtain “representative” ground water quality samples. Historically anywhere from 3 to 5 well casing volumes have been removed prior to sample collection to evacuate the standing well water...

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Eeee of... - Requirements for Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 3 Table 3 to Subpart EEEE of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Systems (CEMS) As stated in § 60.2940, you must comply with the following: For the followingpollutants Use the following span values for your CEMS Use the following performance specifications (P.S.)...

  20. Use of models to support the monitoring requirements in the water framework directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Højberg, A.L.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Geer, F. van; Jørgensen, L.F.; Zsuffa, I.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) poses many new challenges to European water managers. Monitoring programmes play a key role to assess the status and identify possible trends in the environmental conditions of river basins; to gain new knowledge on water processes and to asse

  1. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ggg of... - Monitoring Requirements for Control Devices a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a diversion was detected at any time during each hour. 2. Valves sealed closed with car-seal or lock... heater fuel Temperature monitoring device... cycle(s) 1. For each regeneration cycle, record the total regeneration stream mass or volumetric...

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Mmm of... - Monitoring Requirements for Control Devices a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 2. Valves sealed closed with car-seal or lock-and-key configuration 2. Monthly inspections of sealed... the primary fuel Temperature monitoring device installed in firebox b Combustion temperature Every 15... volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle(s) 1. For each regeneration cycle, record the...

  3. Swim Test Requirements at Four-Year Universities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Frank; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Surveys of 331 four-year universities nationwide examined swim test requirements and reasons for administering or not administering swim tests. Responses from 331 returned questionnaires indicated that 5% of the schools had swim test requirements, though 25% had them previously. Lack of a physical education requirement was the most commonly cited…

  4. Financial impact of nursing professionals staff required in an Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Thamiris Ricci de; Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Castilho, Valéria; Chaves, Lucieli Dias Pedreschi; Laus, Ana Maria

    2016-11-21

    to calculate the cost of the average time of nursing care spent and required by patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the financial expense for the right dimension of staff of nursing professionals. a descriptive, quantitative research, using the case study method, developed in adult ICU patients. We used the workload index - Nursing Activities Score; the average care time spent and required and the amount of professionals required were calculated using equations and from these data, and from the salary composition of professionals and contractual monthly time values, calculated the cost of direct labor of nursing. the monthly cost of the average quantity of available professionals was US$ 35,763.12, corresponding to 29.6 professionals, and the required staff for 24 hours of care is 42.2 nurses, with a monthly cost of US$ 50,995.44. the numerical gap of nursing professionals was 30% and the monthly financial expense for adaptation of the structure is US$ 15,232.32, which corresponds to an increase of 42.59% in the amounts currently paid by the institution. calcular o custo do tempo médio de assistência de enfermagem despendido e requerido pelos pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) e o dispêndio financeiro para adequação do quadro de profissionais de enfermagem. pesquisa descritiva, quantitativa, na modalidade de estudo de caso, desenvolvida na UTI de pacientes adultos. Utilizou-se o índice de carga de trabalho - Nursing Activities Score; o tempo médio de assistência despendido, requerido e o quantitativo de profissionais requerido foram calculados por meio de equações e, a partir desses dados, e de valores da composição salarial dos profissionais e tempo mensal contratual, calculou-se o custo da mão de obra direta de enfermagem. o custo mensal do quantitativo médio de profissionais disponível foi de US$ 35.763,12, correspondendo a 29,6 profissionais, e o requerido para 24 horas de cuidado é de 42,2 profissionais de

  5. Environmental Monitoring Report - United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Facilities, Calendar Year 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Each year since 1972, a report has been prepared on the environmental monitoring activities for the DOE facilities in oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the previous calendar year. previously, the individual facilities published quarterly and annual progress reports that contained some environmental monitoring data. The environmental monitoring program for 1984 includes sampling and analysis of air, water from surface streams, groundwater, creek sediment, biota, and soil for both radioactive and nonradioactive (including hazardous) materials. Special environmental studies that have been conducted in the Oak Ridge area are included in this report, primarily as abstracts or brief summaries. The annual report for 1984 on environmental monitoring and surveillance of the Oak Ridge community by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is included as an appendix. A brief description of the topography and climate of the Oak Ridge area and a short description of the three DOE facilities are provided below to enhance the reader's understanding of the direction and contents of the environmental monitoring program for Oak Ridge.

  6. Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

  7. Performance monitoring of a multi-unit solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuch, P.D.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Solar Calorimetry Lab.

    1994-12-01

    A solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system was installed on an existing multi-family apartment building in 1991. Energy monitoring hardware was installed in 1992. It was a preheat system that was retrofitted upstream of existing hot water tanks located in the building. Monitoring of the system continued for eight months. As a result of this monitoring, average daily values could be made available for each month, as well as values of incident solar radiation, outdoor temperature, hot water use, total system energy, auxiliary energy, solar energy delivered to the load, energy loss from the recirculation loop and pump run time. Performance results indicated that the system performed at a level close to simulated values, but that system performance during the summer period was severely reduced due to low hot water usage. 5 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  9. 40 CFR 141.563 - What follow-up action is my system required to take based on continuous turbidity monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combined filter effluent (CFE) for systems with 2 filters that monitor CFE in lieu of individual filters... consecutive recordings 15 minutes apart at the same filter (or CFE for systems with 2 filters that monitor CFE... as specified in paragraph (c) of this section was required. Systems with 2 filters that monitor CFE...

  10. Wireless Monitoring in Intensive Care Units by a 3D-Printed System with Embedded Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Basilotta, Flavia; Riario, Stefano; Stradolini, Francesca; Taurino, Irene; Demarchi, Danilo; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The design, realization, and preliminary test of a portable wireless system for measuring key metabolites (e.g., glucose, lactate, calcium, potassium, etc..) in intensive cure monitoring is presented. The system is composed by a 3D-Printed case, which includes the fluidic system that drives the monitored human fluids on top of the sensing devices. The case fully integrates a hardware platform on PCB that connects the biosensors to the read-out frontend and to a Bluetooth® module for the data ...

  11. Auditing of Monitoring and Respiratory Support Equipment in a Level III-C Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bergon-Sendin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Random safety audits (RSAs are a safety tool but have not been widely used in hospitals. Objectives. To determine the frequency of proper use of equipment safety mechanisms in relation to monitoring and mechanical ventilation by performing RSAs. The study also determined whether factors related to the patient, time period, or characteristics of the area of admission influenced how the device safety systems were used. Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted in a level III-C Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU during 2012. 87 days were randomly selected. Appropriate overall use was defined when all evaluated variables were correctly programmed in the audited device. Results. A total of 383 monitor and ventilator audits were performed. The Kappa coefficient of interobserver agreement was 0.93. The rate of appropriate overall use of the monitors and respiratory support equipment was 33.68%. Significant differences were found with improved usage during weekends, OR 1.85 (1.12–3.06, p=0.01, and during the late shift (3 pm to 10 pm, OR 1.59 (1.03–2.4, p=0.03. Conclusions. Equipment safety systems of monitors and ventilators are not properly used. To improve patient safety, we should identify which alarms are really needed and where the difficulties lie for the correct alarm programming.

  12. Wireless sensor and data transmission needs and technologies for patient monitoring in the operating room and intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksuniemi, M; Sorvoja, H; Alasaarela, E; Myllyla, R

    2005-01-01

    In the intensive care unit, or during anesthesia, patients are attached to monitors by cables. These cables obstruct nursing staff and hinder the patients from moving freely in the hospital. However, rapidly developing wireless technologies are expected to solve these problems. To this end, this study revealed problem areas in current patient monitoring and established the most important medical parameters to monitor. In addition, usable wireless techniques for short-range data transmission were explored and currently employed wireless applications in the hospital environment were studied. The most important parameters measured of the patient include blood pressures, electrocardiography, respiration rate, heart rate and temperature. Currently used wireless techniques in hospitals are based on the WMTS and WLAN standards. There are no viable solutions for short-range data transmission from patient sensors to patient monitors, but potentially usable techniques in the future are based on the WPAN standards. These techniques include Bluetooth, ZigBee and UWB. Other suitable techniques might be based on capacitive or inductive coupling. The establishing of wireless techniques depends on ensuring the reliability of data transmission, eliminating disturbance by other wireless devices, ensuring patient data security and patient safety, and lowering the power consumption and price.

  13. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart G of... - Monitoring Requirements for Treatment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and/or Table 9 compound(s) from wastewater treated in a properly operated biological treatment unit... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater Pt... recorder. (ii) Wastewater feed mass flow rate; and Continuously Liquid flow meter installed at...

  14. 50 CFR 404.5 - Requirements for a vessel monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A... when voyaging within the Monument. An operating VMS includes an operating mobile transmitting unit on... operable. (e) Access to position data. As a condition of authorized access to the Monument, a vessel owner...

  15. 40 CFR 63.11440 - What are the monitoring requirements for new and existing sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system ductwork and control equipment for leaks and inspect the interior of the control equipment (if... past 12 months. (ii) For each baghouse, you must visually inspect the system ductwork and baghouse unit... weekly visual inspections of the system ductwork and control equipment for leaks. (C) You must...

  16. 50 CFR 300.116 - Requirements for a vessel monitoring system for U.S. vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for AMLR must ensure that such vessel has a NMFS-approved, operating VMS on board when on any fishing trip involving the harvesting of AMLR. An operating VMS includes an operating mobile transmitting unit...-approved communication service provider. (b) Installing and activating the VMS. Only a VMS that has...

  17. [Children's medically complex diseases unit. A model required in all our hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent Alcalá, Francisco José; García Fernández de Villalta, Marta; Escosa García, Luis; Rodríguez Alonso, Aroa; Albajara Velasco, Luis Adolfo

    2017-05-09

    The increase in survival of children with severe diseases has led to the rise of children with chronic diseases, sometimes with lifelong disabilities. In 2008, a unit for the specific care of medically complex children (MCC) was created in Hospital La Paz. To describe the work and care activities of this Unit. Patients and methods An analysis was performed on all discharge reports of the Unit between January 2014 and July 2016. The MCC Unit has 6 beds and daily outpatient clinic. A total of 1,027 patients have been treated since the creation of the unit, with 243 from 2014. The median age was 24.2 months (IQ: 10.21-84.25). The large majority (92.59%) have multiple diseases, the most frequent chronic conditions observed were neurological (76.95%), gastrointestinal (63.78%), and respiratory diseases (61.72%). More than two-thirds (69.54%) of MCC are dependent on technology, 53.49% on respiratory support, and 35.80% on nutritional support. Hospital admission rates have increased annually. There have been 403 admissions since 2014, of which 8.93% were re-admissions within 30 days of hospital discharge. The median stay during 2014-2016 was 6 days (IQ: 3-14). The occupancy rate has been above 100% for this period. Currently, 210 patients remain on follow-up (86.42%), and 11 children (4.53%) were discharged to their referral hospitals. The mortality rate is 9.05% (22 deaths). The main condition of these 22 patients was neurological (9 patients). Infectious diseases were the leading cause of death. MCC should be treated in specialized units in tertiary or high-level hospitals. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Heart rate monitoring on the stroke unit. What does heart beat tell about prognosis? An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stypmann Jörg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines recommend maintaining the heart rate (HR of acute stroke patients within physiological limits; data on the frequency and predictors of significant deviations from these limits are scarce. Methods Demographical data, stroke risk factors, NIH stroke scale score, lesion size and location, and ECG parameters were prospectively assessed in 256 patients with ischemic stroke. Patients were continuously monitored for at least 24 hours on a certified stroke unit. Tachycardia (HR ≥120 bpm and bradycardia (HR Results HR ≥120 bpm occurred in 39 patients (15%. Stroke severity (larger lesion size/higher NIHSS-score on admission, atrial fibrillation and HR on admission predicted its occurrence. HR Conclusions Significant tachycardia and bradycardia are frequent phenomena in acute stroke; however they do not independently predict clinical course or outcome. Continuous monitoring allows detecting rhythm disturbances in stroke patients and allows deciding whether urgent medical treatment is necessary.

  19. 40 CFR 98.164 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements in § 98.3(i) of this part. (2) Determine the carbon content and the molecular weight annually of... analysis is required to determine the carbon content and molecular weight of the fuel and feedstock. (3... methods to determine the carbon content for all fuels and feedstocks, and molecular weight of...

  20. Improved Inventory Models for the United States Coast Guard Requirements Determination Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Trepp present two versions of 5-24 a multi-item, supply availability safety level model.9 They used the Method of Lagrange Multipliers to solve for ki...the safety-level factor for item i. The Presutti and Trepp models address units backordered. To convert their unit models to requisition models, that...requisition size. R sE-Tnw MODELING In their paper, Presutti and Trepp also gave two ve.sions of a multi-item, response-time, safety-level model

  1. Haemodynamic Monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit: Results from a Web-Based Swiss Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Siegenthaler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this survey was to describe, in a situation of growing availability of monitoring devices and parameters, the practices in haemodynamic monitoring at the bedside. Methods. We conducted a Web-based survey in Swiss adult ICUs (2009-2010. The questionnaire explored the kind of monitoring used and how the fluid management was addressed. Results. Our survey included 71% of Swiss ICUs. Echocardiography (95%, pulmonary artery catheter (PAC: 85%, and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD (82% were the most commonly used. TPTD and PAC were frequently both available, although TPTD was the preferred technique. Echocardiography was widely available (95% but seems to be rarely performed by intensivists themselves. Guidelines for the management of fluid infusion were available in 45% of ICUs. For the prediction of fluid responsiveness, intensivists rely preferentially on dynamic indices or echocardiographic parameters, but static parameters, such as central venous pressure or pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, were still used. Conclusions. In most Swiss ICUs, multiple haemodynamic monitoring devices are available, although TPTD is most commonly used. Despite the usefulness of echocardiography and its large availability, it is not widely performed by Swiss intensivists themselves. Regarding fluid management, several parameters are used without a clear consensus for the optimal method.

  2. Interest of Monitoring Diaphragmatic Electrical Activity in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ducharme-Crevier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi is a new minimally invasive bedside technology that was developed for the neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA mode of ventilation. In addition to its role in NAVA ventilation, this technology provides the clinician with previously unavailable and essential information on diaphragm activity. In this paper, we review the clinical interests of EAdi in the pediatric intensive care setting. Firstly, the monitoring of EAdi allows the clinician to tailor the ventilatory settings on an individual basis, avoiding frequent overassistance leading potentially to diaphragmatic atrophy. Increased inspiratory EAdi levels can also suggest insufficient support, while a strong tonic activity may reflect the patient efforts to increase its lung volume. EAdi monitoring also allows detection of patient-ventilator asynchrony. It can play a role in evaluation of extubation readiness. Finally, EAdi monitoring provides the clinician with better understanding of the ventilatory capacity of patients with acute neuromuscular disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical impact of these potential benefits.

  3. Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: beta scientific and management scientific aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, P.M.H.; van Putten, M.J.A.M.; Jarm, T.; Kramar, P.; Zupanic, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to various technological advances, it is now possible to continuously monitor critically ill patients using EEG, including the extraction of various quantitative features. In this study, several beta scientific and management scientific aspects of the implementation and use of cEEg on the ICU wi

  4. Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: beta scientific and management scientific aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, P.M.H.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Jarm, T.; Kramar, P.; Zupanic, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to various technological advances, it is now possible to continuously monitor critically ill patients using EEG, including the extraction of various quantitative features. In this study, several beta scientific and management scientific aspects of the implementation and use of cEEg on the ICU

  5. Monitoring and Assessment Science to Support Decision-Making by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, M.; Akhtar-Schuster, M.; Cherlet, M.; Martius, C.; Sommer, S.; Thomas, R.; Vogt, J.

    2009-12-01

    The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is a global treaty that emerged from the Rio Earth Summit and formally took force in 1996. It has now been ratified by 193 countries (known as Parties to the Convention). Yet the UNCCD has gained only modest support from donors, largely due to questions about the science base underlying its target issue (desertification) resulting in ambiguous definitions and quantification of the problem. The UNCCD recognizes the need to reform itself and commissioned a scientific conference in Buenos Aires, Argentina in September 2009 to discuss ways to improve the scientific underpinning of monitoring and assessment (M&A) of desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD). Previous attempts by the UNCCD on M&A focused largely on a search for a common, simple, universal set of indicators that could be reported by country Parties to the Convention Secretariat, which would collate them into a global report. However experience found that no single set of indicators is satisfactory to all countries, because DLDD depends strongly on the local environmental and human/social context. Three preparatory Working Groups analyzed the issue of DLDD M&A and recommended the following. Parties should recognize that M&A methods must integrate human-environment parameters to capture the complexity of DLDD phenomena as defined in the Convention’s text. Traditional tendencies had been to isolate biophysical from social and economic parameters, leading to unrealistic conclusions. Parties should take advantage of a much wider range of analytical techniques than just the coarse-scale indicators that had been their main focus to date. Powerful but underutilized techniques include integrated assessment models, remote sensing, geographic information systems and mapping, participatory stakeholder assessment, hierarchical aggregation of related data, knowledge management and many others. Multiple methods could provide validation checks

  6. 76 FR 30204 - Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... the actions and decisions contained in the Responsibility Matrix of the safeguards contingency plan... program, to include a security organization, which will have as its objective to provide high assurance...., reactor vessel, piping systems, and building structures) for DNPS Unit 1 is in a form that does not pose a...

  7. 76 FR 68203 - Mechanisms of Compliance with United States Citizenship Requirements for the Ownership of Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this proposed rule, call or email Mr. Douglas Cameron, United States Coast Guard, National Vessel Documentation Center; telephone 304-271-2506, email Douglas.G.Cameron... difficult, for instance by restricting sale of their stock to U.S. citizens, or using a transfer agent to...

  8. 77 FR 70452 - Mechanisms of Compliance With United States Citizenship Requirements for the Ownership of Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Cameron, United States Coast Guard, National Vessel Documentation Center; telephone 304-271-2506, email Douglas.G.Cameron@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing the docket, call Renee V. Wright, Program... transfer agent to administer a dual stock certificate system. Of course, any U.S. corporation that is...

  9. Arctic Alaska and Icebreaking: An Assessment of Future Requirements for the United States Coast Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    North American settlement; Nathaniel Palmer discovered the antarctic continent’s Palmer Peninsula while sealing in 1820. In 1838 Lieutenant Charles Wilkes...REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS 1. Bloomfield, Howard V. L., The Comoact History of the United States Coast Guard, pp. 171-82, 279, Hawthorne Books

  10. Design and implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: a United States example: understanding the limitations of using compliance-monitoring data to assess the water quality of a large river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980s it was determined that existing ambient and compliance-monitoring data could not satisfactorily evaluate the results of hundreds of billions of dollars spent for water-pollution abatement in the United States. At the request of the US Congress, a new programme, the National Water-Quality Assessment, was designed and implemented by government agency, the US Geological Survey (USGS). The Assessment has reported status and trends in surface- and ground-water quality at national, regional, and local scales since 1991. The legislative basis for US monitoring and data-sharing policies are identified as well as the successive phases of the design and implementation of the USGS Assessment. Application to the Danube Basin is suggested. Much of the water-quality monitoring conducted in the United States is designed to comply with Federal and State laws mandated primarily by the Clean Water Act of 1987 and the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986. Monitoring programs generally focus on rivers upstream and downstream of point-source discharges and at water-supply intakes. Few data are available for aquifer systems, and chemical analyses are often limited to those constituents required by law. In most cases, the majority of the available chemical and streamflow data have provided the information necessary to meet the objectives of the compliance-monitoring programs, but do not necessarily provide the information requires for basin-wide assessments of the water quality at the local, regional, or national scale.

  11. Power Control and Monitoring Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the MAP Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The specific heater control requirements for the thermal vacuum and thermal balance testing of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland are described. The testing was conducted in the 10m wide x 18.3m high Space Environment Simulator (SES) Thermal Vacuum Facility. The MAP thermal testing required accurate quantification of spacecraft and fixture power levels while minimizing heater electrical emissions. The special requirements of the MAP test necessitated construction of five (5) new heater racks.

  12. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of the previous years, with tritium detected only in well HC-4. The tritium concentration in groundwater from well HC-4 remains far below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant level of 20,000 picocuries per liter. Concentrations of total uranium and gross alpha were also detected during this monitoring period, with uranium accounting for nearly all the gross alpha activity. The total uranium concentrations obtained from this monitoring period were consistent with previous results and reflect a slightly elevated natural uranium concentration, consistent with the mineralized geologic terrain. Isotopic ratios of uranium also indicate a natural source of uranium in groundwater, as opposed to a nuclear-test-related source. Water level trends obtained from the 2012 water level data were consistent with those of previous years. The corrective action strategy for the PSA is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the current monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. While water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an

  13. Franchise Values, Regulatory Monitoring, and Capital Requirements in Optimal Bank Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that financial deregulation is likely to make standard prudential regulatory instruments less effective in curbing excessive risk-taking incentives among banks. This has interesting implications for optimal bank regulation. When there is an increase in competition......, the optimal capital requirement should increase, whereas regulatory auditing should decrease. In contrast, when there is an increase in gambling yields, auditing should always increase, whereas the optimal capital requirement may increase or decrease....

  14. Predicting business unit performance using employee surveys: Monitoring HRM-related changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, F.C. van de; Paauwe, J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Organisations are increasingly using strategy tools such as workforce scorecards to keep track of human resource management related change processes that have been implemented and the effects of these on business unit performance. However, in this area, the challenge of finding appropriate

  15. CHIPS: Monitoring Colonias along the United States-Mexico border in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. The expansion of colonias in the United States-Mexico border region can be traced to the rapid growth associated with the Mexican Border Industrial Program during the 1960s. This rapid population growth created a lack of affordable housing, causing new migrants in the United States to purchase rural homestead lots through a contract-for-deed program from land developers. Because of the need to keep prices affordable and the absence of effective land-use controls, these homesteads expanded into rural subdivisions, commonly called colonias, without proper infrastructure. Colonias have been identified in the four U.S. border states, with Texas having designated the majority, which numbered over 1,400 colonias in 2001. Because the region is binationally interconnected economically, politically, and socially, the phenomenon of colonias in the United States is a transborder issue.

  16. Downhole Microseismic Monitoring at a Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Site, Farnsworth Unit, Ochiltree County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A.; Balch, R. S.; van Wijk, J.

    2015-12-01

    Farnsworth Oil Field in North Texas hosts an ongoing carbon capture, utilization, and storage project. This study is focused on passive seismic monitoring at the carbon injection site to measure, locate, and catalog any induced seismic events. A Geometrics Geode system is being utilized for continuous recording of the passive seismic downhole bore array in a monitoring well. The array consists of 3-component dual Geospace OMNI-2400 15Hz geophones with a vertical spacing of 30.5m. Downhole temperature and pressure are also monitored. Seismic data is recorded continuously and is produced at a rate of over 900GB per month, which must be archived and reviewed. A Short Term Average/Long Term Average (STA/LTA) algorithm was evaluated for its ability to search for events, including identification and quantification of any false positive events. It was determined that the algorithm was not appropriate for event detection with the background level of noise at the field site and for the recording equipment as configured. Alternatives are being investigated. The final intended outcome of the passive seismic monitoring is to mine the continuous database and develop a catalog of microseismic events/locations and to determine if there is any relationship to CO2 injection in the field. Identifying the location of any microseismic events will allow for correlation with carbon injection locations and previously characterized geological and structural features such as faults and paleoslopes. Additionally, the borehole array has recorded over 1200 active sources with three sweeps at each source location that were acquired during a nearby 3D VSP. These data were evaluated for their usability and location within an effective radius of the array and were stacked to improve signal-noise ratio and are used to calibrate a full field velocity model to enhance event location accuracy. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  17. EcoNum, a research unit devoted to marine environment monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Batigny, Antoine; Georges, Nadège; Fullgrabe, Lovina; Suvarov, Paul; Gobert, Sylvie; Lepoint, Gilles; Borges, Alberto; Champenois, Willy; Franck, Fabrice; Roberty, Stéphane; Lejeune, Pierre; Abadie, Arnaud; Leduc, Michèle; Boissery, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of coastal environments remains a research domain of great interest and concern. Coastal ecosystems are threatened by natural and human-induced stressors and are, as transitional environments, particularly sensitive to disturbances. EcoNum first research thematic revolves around hermatypic corals, calcifying organisms, and their adaptation potentials to environmental changes including by using original and patented chemostats. The studied organisms are grown and maintained i...

  18. [Gastric mucosa tonometry in routine monitoring in the surgical intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, G; Uhlig, T; Götschl, A; Schmucker, P; Rothhammer, A

    1998-06-01

    Monitoring tissue oxygenation in the splanchnic region could be helpful for critically ill patients. In this study the postoperative course of gastric mucosal CO2 (prCO2) in 40 patients is shown. Following approval of the ethics committee, 24 patients schedulded for surgery with an expected large fluid turnover and 16 multiple injured patients were monitored with a gas tonometry device in addition to standard monitoring (ECG, pulse oximetry, capnometry, CVP, arterial pressure). Normoventilated patients with prCO2 > 50 for more than 30 minutes were treated with fluid therapy, followed by catecholamine therapy, followed by transfusion (fig. 1). All patients were admitted to the SICU post-operatively. The variation of prCO2-values was greater in multiple injured patients. Their prCO2-values began in a lower range compared to patients with scheduled operation, became higher at the end of the first SICU-day and remained higher thereafter. They had a higher fluid turnover and needed more catecholamines. Multiple injured patients with an arterio-intestinal CO2-Difference (CO2-Gap) > 10 had a higher ISS-Score, were longer mechanically ventilated, had a longer SICU-stay and a higher incidence of complications in comparison to patients with aCO2-Gap 10 could be predictive for a more severe course in intensive care patients.

  19. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Correction Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Project Shoal Area in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The corrective action strategy is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. Although water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized to the agreement of both the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  20. Noninvasive near-infrared blood glucose monitoring using a calibration model built by a numerical simulation method: Trial application to patients in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Katsuhiko; Oota, Tomohiro; Tsurugi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Takehiro; Arimoto, Hidenobu; Hayakawa, Mineji; Tamura, Mamoru; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Yamada, Yukio

    2006-12-01

    We have applied a new methodology for noninvasive continuous blood glucose monitoring, proposed in our previous paper, to patients in ICU (intensive care unit), where strict controls of blood glucose levels are required. The new methodology can build calibration models essentially from numerical simulation, while the conventional methodology requires pre-experiments such as sugar tolerance tests, which are impossible to perform on ICU patients in most cases. The in vivo experiments in this study consisted of two stages, the first stage conducted on healthy subjects as preliminary experiments, and the second stage on ICU patients. The prediction performance of the first stage was obtained as a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.71 and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 28.7 mg/dL. Of the 323 total data, 71.5% were in the A zone, 28.5% were in the B zone, and none were in the C, D, and E zones for the Clarke error-grid analysis. The prediction performance of the second stage was obtained as an r of 0.97 and SEP of 27.2 mg/dL. Of the 304 total data, 80.3% were in the A zone, 19.7% were in the B zone, and none were in the C, D, and E zones. These prediction results suggest that the new methodology has the potential to realize a noninvasive blood glucose monitoring system using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in ICUs. Although the total performance of the present monitoring system has not yet reached a satisfactory level as a stand-alone system, it can be developed as a complementary system to the conventional one used in ICUs for routine blood glucose management, which checks the blood glucose levels of patients every few hours.

  1. Beneficial Effects of Implementing Stroke Protocols Require Establishment of a Geographically Distinct Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Naveed; Kamran, Saadat; Singh, Rajvir; Cameron, Peter; D'Souza, Atlantic; Imam, Yahya; Bourke, Paula; Joseph, Sujatha; Khan, Rabia; Santos, Mark; Deleu, Dirk; El-Zouki, Abdel; Abou-Samra, Abdul; Butt, Adeel A; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2015-12-01

    Usefulness of multidisciplinary stroke units in acute stroke patients is well established. There is extensive western literature on usefulness of stroke units in outcome, but limited evidence from the rest of the world. We aim to evaluate the impact of establishing a stroke unit on outcome in patients presenting to a tertiary care facility. This is a retrospective study of 1003 patients with acute stroke admitted to Hamad General Hospital, Qatar, between January 2014 and February 2015. Patients directly admitted to intensive care unit (132) were excluded. We compared outcomes of pre- and poststroke ward (SW) establishment and in SW patients versus those of general medical wards. Before the establishment of the SW, 175 patients were admitted to the hospital. From April 2014 to February 2015, 696 patients were admitted (SW, 545; medical ward, 151). There was a significant reduction in length of stay from 14.7±27.7 to 6.2±20.2 days (P=0.0001) and incidence of complications (23.6% versus 6.4%, P=0.0001) after implementation of stroke-specific protocols. Prognosis at discharge (modified Rankin Scale 0-2 in 56.0% versus 70.4%, P=0.001) and at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale 0-2 in 70.6% versus 95.0%, P=0.001) also significantly improved. Compared with medical ward patients, outcome was significantly better in SW patients with fewer complications (10.9% versus 5.0%, P=0.013) and shorter length of stay (8.9±30.7 versus 5.4±16.1 days, P=0.05). Establishing a distinct SW is essential for achieving full benefits of stroke protocols implementation. SW patients have significantly fewer complications and better prognosis when compared with patients in medical wards. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Organizational Analysis of Energy Manpower Requirements in the United States Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    culture whereby all personnel are stewards committed to sustainable energy management practices, and who value the efficient use of clean and...variable Calculus 14 -0) 3 Alte rtUt.te Courae Undergraduate Enclosure (4 1 -- -- ---- -- - -- -- ---- - ----------- ---- 60 --- Required

  3. Army Materiel Requirements to Support the Continental United States Military Mobilization Base Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Level of Organization AMC ............... Army Materiel Command AMOPS ............. Army Mobilization and Operations Planning System AMPC ...Military Personnel Center ( AMPC ) uses an automated mobilization manpower (MOB MAN) requirements data manipulator system to prepare time- phased

  4. Revision Of Career Marksmanship Training Requirements For The United States Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Shooting for sport , as a competitor or as a hunter, has different requirements for training and a different conceptual outcome. The unique aspect of...recruiting process to ensure that the recruits sent to the two basic training depots possess the mental and physical fortitude required to earn the...marksmanship training is to provide the individual with the mental and physical ability to operate the weapon under any environmental circumstances to achieve

  5. Global positioning system measurements over a strain monitoring network in the eastern two-thirds of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strange, W.E.

    1991-09-01

    A 45-station geodetic network was established in 1987 using global positioning system (GPS) technology to provide a means of monitoring strain and deformation in the central and eastern United States. Reduction of the initial epoch data showed that accuracies of 1 to 3 cm can be achieved for horizontal position, provided sufficient observations are available and there are four or more fiducial stations whose positions are known a priori, for example from Very Long Baseline Interferometry measurements. Accuracies obtained provide the ability to determine strain at the 1:10{sup 7} to 1:10{sup 8} level. Vertical positions are less accurate because of problems in modeling refraction and are determined at the 5 to 7 cm level. It is planned to remeasure this network at regular intervals in the coming years to place bounds on the strain occurring in the central and eastern United States. This network is also expected to serve as a reference network for more detailed monitoring networks in areas of high risk such as the New Madrid area. Future measurements are expected to provide more accurate results because of increased numbers of GPS satellites available and improved computation software. The improved software will also allow future upgrading of the accuracy of the 1987 observations. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Synthesis of marine ecosystem monitoring activities for the United States Virgin Islands: 1990-2009

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The ecological integrity of coral reef ecosystems in the U.S. Caribbean is widely considered to have deteriorated in the last three decades due to a range of threats and stressors from both human and non-human processes Rothenberger 2008, Wilkinson 2008). In response to the threats to Caribbean coral reef ecosystems and other regions around the world, the United States Government authorized the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 to: (1) preserve, sustain, and restore the condition of coral r...

  7. SNM gamma-ray fingerprint monitor functional requirements and design specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Kane, W.R.

    1994-07-01

    A number of DOE facilities need to perform confirmatory inventory measurements on items of special nuclear material (SNM). The DOE Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) has tasked the Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division (SSN) of the Department of Advanced Technology at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray-spectroscopy-based instrument for performing confirmatory inventory measurements on such materials, a ``gamma-ray fingerprint monitor`` (GRFM). This document is a conceptual design for the SSN GRFM system. This conceptual design is based on previous experience with measurements of plutonium-bearing materials and comparison of gamma-ray spectrum features, not on actual tests of the procedures or hardware described. As a result, modifications may be necessary when actual prototype hardware and software are tested in realistic circumstances on actual materials of interest.

  8. Measurement of the dosimetric parameters for low monitor units in step-and-shoot IMRT delivered by Siemens Artiste linear accelerators; Medida de los parametros dosimetricos para bajo numero de unidades monitor en IMRT segmentada estatica administrada por aceleradores lineales Siemens Artiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, C.; Lopez Fernandez, A.; Saez Beltran, M.; Martin Martin, G.; Alonso Iracheta, L.

    2012-07-01

    Absorbed dose linearity and beam stability, both for low monitor units, are important factors for ensuring planned dose delivery in step-and-shoot IMRT. For Siemens Artiste linear accelerators, under IMRT stable irradiation conditions and for a single segment of 20 cm x 20 cm field size, the linearity of the absorbed dose with the monitor units, field flatness and symmetry have been measured for the range between 1 and 10 monitor units. We have found that absorbed dose linearity with monitor units is within 2% down to 2 monitor units and it is about 9% for 1 monitor unit. Flatness and symmetry values show variations within 1% down to 2 monitor units and increase by 9% for lower values. Using our monitor unit distribution per segment in IMRT we estimate that the uncertainty in absorbed dose for a whole treatment due to these factors is less than 1% (k= 3). (Author) 13 refs.

  9. Design of an Integrated Sensor Platform for Vital Sign Monitoring of Newborn Infants at Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring and advances in medical treatments have resulted in a significant increase of survival rate in critically ill infants admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The quality of life and long-term health prospects of the neonates depend increasingly on the reliability and comfort of the monitoring systems. In this paper, we present the design work of a smart jacket for vital sign monitoring of neonates at a NICU. The design represents a unique integration of sensor technology, user focus and design aspects. Textile sensors, a reflectance pulse oximeter and a wearable temperature sensor were proposed to be embedded into the smart jacket. Location of the sensor, materials and appearance were designed to optimize the functionality, patient comfort and the possibilities for aesthetic features. Prototypes were built for demonstrating the design concept and experimental results were obtained from tests on premature babies at the NICU of M�xima Medical Centre (MMC in Veldhoven, the Netherlands.

  10. Evaluating an Enhanced Vegetation Condition Index (VCI Based on VIUPD for Drought Monitoring in the Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhe Jiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a complex hazard, and it has an impact on agricultural, ecological, and socio-economic systems. The vegetation condition index (VCI, which is derived from remote-sensing data, has been widely used for drought monitoring. However, VCI based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI does not perform well in certain circumstances. In this study, we examined the utility of the vegetation index based on the universal pattern decomposition method (VIUPD based VCI for drought monitoring in various climate divisions across the continental United States (CONUS. We compared the VIUPD-derived VCI with the NDVI-derived VCI in various climate divisions and during different sub-periods of the growing season. It was also compared with other remote-sensing-based drought indices, such as the temperature condition index (TCI, precipitation condition index (PCI and the soil moisture condition index (SMCI. The VIUPD-derived VCI had stronger correlations with long-term in situ drought indices, such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and the standardized precipitation index (SPI-3, SPI-6, SPI-9, and SPI-12 than did the NDVI-derived VCI, and other indices, such as TCI, PCI and SMCI. The VIUPD has considerable potential for drought monitoring. As VIUPD can make use of the information from all the observation bands, the VIUPD-derived VCI can be regarded as an enhanced VCI.

  11. 40 CFR 63.8600 - What are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Clay Ceramics Manufacturing Testing and Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.8600 What are my....5 inch of water or a transducer with a minimum measurement sensitivity of 1 percent of the pressure... Filter Bag Leak Detection Guidance,” (EPA-454/R-98-015, September 1997). This document is available...

  12. 40 CFR 63.7331 - What are the installation, operation, and maintenance requirements for my monitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pushing emissions, you must install, operate, and maintain CPMS to measure and record the pressure drop... the pressure drop across each multicyclone during each push according to the requirements in... a manner consistent with the guidance document, “Fabric Filter Bag Leak Detection Guidance”...

  13. 40 CFR 63.11092 - What testing and monitoring requirements must I meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Should the Administrator deem the prior test data unacceptable, the facility is still required to meet... suction line, with the measurements displayed on a gauge that can be visually observed. Each carbon bed... valve sequencing, cycle time, gasoline flow, purge air flow, and operating temperatures....

  14. 40 CFR 98.34 - Monitoring and QA/QC requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The carbon content and, if applicable, molecular weight of the fuels shall be determined according to... the carbon content and molecular weight of the fuel is required if the necessary equipment is in place... a particular type of fuel, sampling and analysis for carbon content and molecular weight...

  15. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume II. Final report, Appendix A: selected DSG technologies and their general control requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. The purpose of this survey and identification of DSG technologies is to present an understanding of the special characteristics of each of these technologies in sufficient detail so that the physical principles of their operation and the internal control of each technology are evident. In this way, a better appreciation can be obtained of the monitoring and control requirements for these DSGs from a remote distribution dispatch center. A consistent approach is being sought for both hardware and software which will handle the monitoring and control necessary to integrate a number of different DSG technologies into a common distribution dispatch network. From this study it appears that the control of each of the DSG technologies is compatible with a supervisory control method of operation that lends itself to remote control from a distribution dispatch center.

  16. Intermittent auscultation versus continuous fetal monitoring: exploring factors that influence birthing unit nurses' fetal surveillance practice using theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patey, Andrea M; Curran, Janet A; Sprague, Ann E; Francis, Jill J; Driedger, S Michelle; Légaré, France; Lemyre, Louise; Pomey, Marie-Pascale A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-09-25

    Intermittent Auscultation (IA) is the recommended method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. However, the majority of women receive continuous electronic monitoring. We used the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to explore the views of Birthing Unit nurses about using IA as their primary method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed a convenience sample of birthing unit nurses throughout Ontario, Canada to elicit their views about fetal surveillance. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were content analysed using the TDF and themes were framed as belief statements. Domains potentially key to changing fetal surveillance behaviour and informing intervention design were identified by noting the frequencies of beliefs, content, and their reported influence on the use of IA. We interviewed 12 birthing unit nurses. Seven of the 12 TDF domains were perceived to be key to changing birthing unit nurses' behaviour The nurses reported that competing tasks, time constraints and the necessity to multitask often limit their ability to perform IA (domains Beliefs about capabilities; Environmental context and resources). Some nurses noted the decision to use IA was something that they consciously thought about with every patient while others stated it their default decision as long as there were no risk factors (Memory, attention and decision processes, Nature of behaviour). They identified positive consequences (e.g. avoid unnecessary interventions, mother-centered care) and negative consequences of using IA (e.g. legal concerns) and reported that the negative consequences can often outweigh positive consequences (Beliefs about consequences). Some reported that hospital policies and varying support from care teams inhibited their use of IA (Social influences), and that support from the entire team and hospital management would likely increase their use (Social

  17. Randomized trial of automated, electronic monitoring to facilitate early detection of sepsis in the intensive care unit*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael H; Weavind, Lisa; Wheeler, Arthur P; Martin, Jason B; Gowda, Supriya Srinivasa; Semler, Matthew W; Hayes, Rachel M; Albert, Daniel W; Deane, Norment B; Nian, Hui; Mathe, Janos L; Nadas, Andras; Sztipanovits, Janos; Miller, Anne; Bernard, Gordon R; Rice, Todd W

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether automated identification with physician notification of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in medical intensive care unit patients expedites early administration of new antibiotics or improvement of other patient outcomes in patients with sepsis. : A prospective randomized, controlled, single center study. Medical intensive care unit of an academic, tertiary care medical center. Four hundred forty-two consecutive patients admitted over a 4-month period who met modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria in a medical intensive care unit. Patients were randomized to monitoring by an electronic "Listening Application" to detect modified (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) criteria vs. usual care. The listening application notified physicians in real time when modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria were detected, but did not provide management recommendations. The median time to new antibiotics was similar between the intervention and usual care groups when comparing among all patients (6.0 hr vs. 6.1 hr, p = .95), patients with sepsis (5.3 hr vs. 5.1 hr; p = .90), patients on antibiotics at enrollment (5.2 hr vs. 7.0 hr, p = .27), or patients not on antibiotics at enrollment (5.2 hr vs. 5.1 hr, p = .85). The amount of fluid administered following detection of modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria was similar between groups whether comparing all patients or only patients who were hypotensive at enrollment. Other clinical outcomes including intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, and mortality were not shown to be different between patients in the intervention and control groups. Realtime alerts of modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria to physicians in one tertiary care medical intensive care unit were feasible and safe but did not influence measured therapeutic interventions for sepsis or significantly alter clinical outcomes.

  18. North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) anuran detection data from the eastern and central United States (1994-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Tasha M.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Weir, Linda A.

    2017-01-01

    The North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) was a collaborative citizen science effort between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and 26 Partners (state agencies, universities, and nonprofits) for monitoring calling amphibian populations over much of the eastern and central United States. Initiated in 1997 in response to needs set forth by the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force in 1994 regarding increased anecdotal observations of global amphibian declines, NAAMP was designed to provide scientifically and statistically defensible, long-term distribution and trends data for calling amphibian populations at the state and regional level in the United States. The USGS discontinued coordination of the program at the conclusion of the 2015 field season. Modeled after the USGS Breeding Bird Survey, NAAMP used a network of random and state-requested non-random roadside routes with listening stops near wetlands to collect frog and toad occupancy and environmental data in predominantly unprotected lands. Data collection and verification under a unified protocol began in 2001 and continued through 2015 with the addition of observer assessment scores in 2006. The USGS utilized verified 2001-2015 data from random routes to produce occupancy trend reports for anuran species of the Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest regions and states of the United States. This dataset includes all raw, verified NAAMP data from 1997 through 2015 and also raw, verified data from Partner States that precede the program (1994-1996). Data preceding 2001 followed variations of the unified protocol. Please refer to metadata for additional information regarding protocol and a list of the represented states and see the Species.csv file for the list of 58 represented species.

  19. Quality Assurance in Breast Health Care and Requirement for Accreditation in Specialized Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Sertaç Ata; Güllüoğlu, Bahadır M

    2014-07-01

    Breast health is a subject of increasing importance. The statistical increase in the frequency of breast cancer and the consequent increase in death rate increase the importance of quality of services to be provided for breast health. For these reasons, the minimum standards and optimum quality metrics of breast care provided to the community are determined. The quality parameters for breast care service include the results, the structure and the operation of services. Within this group, the results of breast health services are determined according to clinical results, patient satisfaction and financial condition. The structure of quality services should include interdisciplinary meetings, written standards for specific procedures and the existence of standardized reporting systems. Establishing breast centers that adopt integrated multidisciplinary working principles and their cost-effective maintenance are important in terms of operation of breast health services. The importance of using a "reviewing/auditing" procedure that checks if all of these functions existing in the health system are carried out at the desired level and an "accreditation" system indicating that the working breast units/centers provide minimum quality adequacy in all aspects, is undeniable. Currently, the accreditation system for breast centers is being used in the European Union and the United States for the last 5-10 years. This system is thought to provide standardization in breast care services, and is accepted as one of the important factors that resulted in reduction in mortality associated with breast cancer.

  20. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

  1. Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2011-05-13

    Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

  2. Radial artery applanation tonometry for continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitoring in the cardiac intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langwieser, Nicolas; Prechtl, Luisa; Meidert, Agnes S; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Bradaric, Christian; Ibrahim, Tareq; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Schmid, Roland M; Wagner, Julia Y; Saugel, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    Hemodynamic monitoring plays a pivotal role in the treatment of patients in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). The innovative radial artery applanation tonometry technology allows for continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure (AP) measurement. By closing the gap between continuous invasive AP monitoring (arterial catheter) and intermittent noninvasive AP monitoring (oscillometry) this technology might improve CICU patient monitoring. We therefore aimed to evaluate the measurement performance of radial artery applanation tonometry in comparison with a radial arterial catheter in CICU patients. In this prospective method comparison study, we simultaneously recorded AP noninvasively with radial artery applanation tonometry (T-line 200 pro device; Tensys Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) and invasively with an arterial catheter (criterion standard) in 30 patients treated in the CICU of a German university hospital. We statistically analyzed 7,304 averaged 10-beat epochs of measurements of mean AP, systolic AP, and diastolic AP by using Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements. Our study revealed a mean difference ± standard deviation (95% limits of agreement; percentage error) between radial artery applanation tonometry and the criterion standard method (radial arterial catheter) of +2 ± 6 mmHg (-10 to +14 mmHg; 17%) for mean AP, -6 ± 11 mmHg (-28 to +15 mmHg; 20%) for systolic AP, and +4 ± 7 mmHg (-9 to +17 mmHg; 23%) for diastolic AP. In CICU patients, continuous noninvasive measurement of AP using radial artery applanation tonometry is feasible. The technology showed reasonable accuracy and precision in comparison with radial arterial catheter-derived AP values.

  3. Comparison of aerosol optical depth of UV-B monitoring and research program (UVMRP), AERONET and MODIS over continental united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hongzhao; Chen, Maosi; Davis, John; Gao, Wei

    2013-06-01

    The concern about the role of aerosols as to their effect in the Earth-Atmosphere system requires observation at multiple temporal and spatial scales. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS) is the main aerosol optical depth (AOD) monitoring satellite instrument, and its accuracy and uncertainty need to be validated against ground based measurements routinely. The comparison between two ground AOD measurement programs, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ultraviolet-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program, confirms the consistency between them. The intercomparison between the MODIS AOD, the AERONET AOD, and the UVMRP AOD suggests that the UVMRP AOD measurements are suited to be an alternative ground-based validation source for satellite AOD products. The experiments show that the spatial-temporal dependency between the MODIS AOD and the UVMRP AOD is positive in the sense that the MODIS AOD compare more favorably with the UVMRP AOD as the spatial and temporal intervals are increased. However, the analysis shows that the optimal spatial interval for all time windows is defined by an angular subtense of around 1° to 1.25°, while the optimal time window is around 423 to 483 minutes at most spatial intervals. The spatial-temporal approach around 1.25° & 423 minutes shows better agreement than the prevalent strategy of 0.25° & 60 minutes found in other similar investigations.

  4. Requirement for safety monitoring for approved multiple sclerosis therapies: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommer, P S; Zettl, U K; Kieseier, B; Hartung, H-P; Menge, T; Frohman, E; Greenberg, B M; Hemmer, B; Stüve, O

    2014-03-01

    During the last two decades, treatment options for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have broadened tremendously. All agents that are currently approved for clinical use have potential side effects, and a careful risk-benefit evaluation is part of a decision algorithm to identify the optimal treatment choice for an individual patient. Whereas glatiramer acetate and interferon beta preparations have been used in MS for decades and have a proven safety record, more recently approved drugs appear to be more effective, but potential risks might be more severe. The potential complications of some novel therapies might not even have been identified to their full extent. This review is aimed at the clinical neurologist in that it offers insights into potential adverse events of each of the approved MS therapeutics: interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, natalizumab, fingolimod and teriflunomide, as well as recently approved therapeutics such as dimethyl fumarate and alemtuzumab. It also provides recommendations for monitoring the different drugs during therapy in order to avoid common side effects.

  5. CHIPS: A New Way to Monitor Colonias Along the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Humberson, Delbert G.

    2007-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for colonias and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Offices of the Texas Attorney General, Secretary of State, and the Texas Water Development Board has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report generator can be tailored to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. For example, a congressman could use CHIPS to list colonias with wastewater issues in a specific county, whereas a health researcher could list all colonias without clinical access. To help cities along the United States-Mexico border manage issues related to colonias growth, CHIPS will become publicly available in an Internet-enabled GIS as part of a cooperative study between the USGS, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica.

  6. Implantation and monitoring of a novel telemetry unit in the Syrian golden hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Jennifer; Bermeo-Blanco, Oscar A; Gibson, Neil; Bogie, Heather; Grenwis, Jessica; Vela, Eric M

    2012-06-01

    Radiotelemetry allows for real-time remote monitoring of biological parameters in freely moving laboratory animals. The HD-X11 transmitter is a novel telemetry device that enables simultaneous collection of body temperature, activity, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and other biopotentials in small animal models. Previously, researchers could only collect either blood pressure or ECG parameters; prioritizing the signal of most interest or increasing the number of animals on study to capture both signals at one time. This new device eliminates the need for separate animal groups for assorted measurements and allows for a more complete cardiovascular assessment. Evaluation of the transmitter from both surgical and data collection perspectives indicates that the HD-X11 transmitter can be a useful tool to researchers in a wide range of scientific and medical fields.

  7. Atmospheric Ammonia and Particulate Inorganic Nitrogen Monitoring in the United States - A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyawasam, T.

    2016-12-01

    Due to emission by disproportionately high livestock numbers and increased nitrogen fertilization, Ammonia (NH3) has come to play an increasingly important role in the global biogeochemical cycle of reactive nitrogen as well as in secondary aerosol formation and climate. Because of the public health problems it causes and the effects on the atmosphere, monitoring the global distribution of NH3 sources becomes crucial. Accurate measurements of atmospheric NH3 via ground level sensors and satellites are fundamentally essential for meteorological forecasting, hazard warning and various other applications. Since the NH3 retrieval quality is affected by meteorological properties, such as the vertical temperature, water vapor profiles, surface temperatures, and emissivity, which are used to model the atmosphere, even though satellite systems has the capability of monitoring environmental variables with high temporal and spatial coverages, they lack precision at or near ground level. Due to cost of implementation and technical maintenance constraints, daily global coverage of accurate NH3 in situ measurements from ground based sensors is also often limited in spatial representation. In research related to climate and atmospheric physics, the advances in sensor technology have led to the use of automated sensors in a variety of climate and atmospheric data analysis applications. The extant research is expanding further but lacks a framework to consider the current and future trends, gaps, challenges and opportunities. This research will attempt to provide insight into key capabilities of the current and potential future approaches and will present a framework to better understand NH3 research with the use of in - situ as well as remote sensors in detecting NH3 in the ambient atmosphere.

  8. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.

    2013-06-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  9. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  10. Some assembly required: constructing the elementary units of store-operated Ca2+ entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minnie M; Luik, Riina M; Lewis, Richard S

    2007-08-01

    The means by which Ca(2+) store depletion evokes the opening of store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs) in the plasma membrane of excitable and non-excitable cells has been a longstanding mystery. Indirect evidence has supported local interactions between the ER and SOCs as well as long-range interactions mediated through a diffusible activator. The recent molecular identification of the ER Ca(2+) sensor (STIM1) and a subunit of the CRAC channel (Orai1), a prototypic SOC, has now made it possible to visualize directly the sequence of events that links store depletion to CRAC channel opening. Following store depletion, STIM1 moves from locations throughout the ER to accumulate in ER subregions positioned within 10-25nm of the plasma membrane. Simultaneously, Orai1 gathers at discrete sites in the plasma membrane directly opposite STIM1, resulting in local CRAC channel activation. These new studies define the elementary units of store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and reveal an unprecedented mechanism for channel activation in which the stimulus brings a channel and its activator/sensor together for interaction across apposed membrane compartments. We discuss the implications of this choreographic mechanism with regard to Ca(2+) dynamics, specificity of Ca(2+) signaling, and the existence of a specialized ER subset dedicated to the control of the CRAC channel.

  11. Integrated Use Of MERIS And Other EO Data For Water Quality And Red Tide Monitoring Along United Arab Emirates Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriola, G.; Avgikou, V.; Manunta, P.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal zones host a large percentage of global population and economical and productive activities and are in need of a constant monitoring. The C-wams project is focused at implementing a suite EO services targeting two growing sectors: Waste Water Treatment and Desalination plants. The coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) hosts some of the largest desalination plants in the world and their operation can affect and be affected by the status of the WQ near the coast: the local phenomenon known as Red Tide caused increasing damages in the last 4 years. Some actors are involved in this respect in the Persian gulf, among them the Environment Agency of Abu Dhabi (EAD). In UAE an historical study-case is being performed aimed at identifying Red Tide events using MERIS images, integrating them with other medium and higher resolution data. The present work describes its scenario and the preliminary results obtained.

  12. Microorganisms in Confined Habitats: Microbial Monitoring and Control of Intensive Care Units, Operating Rooms, Cleanrooms and the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maximilian; Mahnert, Alexander; Koskinen, Kaisa; Pausan, Manuela R; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Krause, Robert; Perras, Alexandra K; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Berg, Gabriele; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS) are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room), product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms), or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 - and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g., microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic) resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  13. Microorganisms in confined habitats: Microbial monitoring and control of intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room, product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms, or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 – and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g. microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  14. A Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit for Long-Term Monitoring in the Dependency Care Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Català

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human movement analysis is a field of wide interest since it enables the assessment of a large variety of variables related to quality of life. Human movement can be accurately evaluated through Inertial Measurement Units (IMU, which are wearable and comfortable devices with long battery life. The IMU’s movement signals might be, on the one hand, stored in a digital support, in which an analysis is performed a posteriori. On the other hand, the signal analysis might take place in the same IMU at the same time as the signal acquisition through online classifiers. The new sensor system presented in this paper is designed for both collecting movement signals and analyzing them in real-time. This system is a flexible platform useful for collecting data via a triaxial accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer, with the possibility to incorporate other information sources in real-time. A µSD card can store all inertial data and a Bluetooth module is able to send information to other external devices and receive data from other sources. The system presented is being used in the real-time detection and analysis of Parkinson’s disease symptoms, in gait analysis, and in a fall detection system.

  15. A Technical Evaluation of Wireless Connectivity from Patient Monitors to an Anesthesia Information Management System During Intensive Care Unit Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpao, Allan F; Galvez, Jorge A; England, W Randall; Wartman, Elicia C; Scott, James H; Hamid, Michael M; Rehman, Mohamed A; Epstein, Richard H

    2016-02-01

    Surgical procedures performed at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia were documented using paper anesthesia records in contrast to the operating rooms, where an anesthesia information management system (AIMS) was used for all cases. This was largely because of logistical problems related to connecting cables between the bedside monitors and our portable AIMS workstations. We implemented an AIMS for documentation in the NICU using wireless adapters to transmit data from bedside monitoring equipment to a portable AIMS workstation. Testing of the wireless AIMS during simulation in the presence of an electrosurgical generator showed no evidence of interference with data transmission. Thirty NICU surgical procedures were documented via the wireless AIMS. Two wireless cases exhibited brief periods of data loss; one case had an extended data gap because of adapter power failure. In comparison, in a control group of 30 surgical cases in which wired connections were used, there were no data gaps. The wireless AIMS provided a simple, unobtrusive, portable alternative to paper records for documenting anesthesia records during NICU bedside procedures.

  16. Can we improve the early detection of atrial fibrillation in a stroke unit? Detection rate of a monitor with integrated detection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo-Manso, Juan Jose; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Fuentes, Blanca; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Sanz-Cuesta, Borja Enrique; Prefasi, Daniel; Juarez-Martin, Belén; Navarro-Parias, Azahara; Parrilla-Novo, Pilar; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2016-02-01

    It is unknown whether monitors that include atrial fibrillation recognition software (AF-RS) increase the rate of early atrial fibrillation (AF) detection in acute stroke. We aimed to evaluate the AF detection rate of an AF-RS monitor and compare it with standard monitoring. This was a retrospective, single-centre observational study conducted on consecutive patients with acute transient ischaemic attack or brain infarction attended in a stroke unit (SU) with six beds. Five beds had a standard monitor with a three-lead electrocardiogram (ECG)-tracing monitor that did not automatically detect AF, and one bed had a 12-lead ECG monitor with integrated AF-RS. All patients were monitored for at least 24 h and underwent a daily ECG during their stay in the SU. In case of unknown stroke aetiology, the patients underwent 24 h Holter monitoring. A total of 76 patients were included: 59 patients in the standard monitor group and 17 patients in the AF-RS monitor group. The mean age was 72.11 (±13.09) years, and 59.2% were men. A total of 20 new cases of AF were identified. The AF-RS monitor showed a higher rate of AF detection than the standard devices (57.1% vs 7.7%, p=0.031). The AF-RS monitor showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of 57.1%, 100%, 100% and 76.9%, respectively. For the standard monitors, these values were 7.7%, 100%, 100% and 79.3%, respectively. The monitor with AF-RS demonstrated a higher detection rate for AF than standard ECG monitoring in acute stroke patients in a SU. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  17. 40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Summary of Applicable Requirements for Reference and Equivalent Methods for Air Monitoring of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reference and Equivalent Methods for Air Monitoring of Criteria Pollutants A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part...) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS General Provisions Pt. 53, Subpt. A, Table A-1 Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 53—Summary of Applicable Requirements for Reference and...

  18. A double-risk monitoring and movement restriction policy for Ebola entry screening at airports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Yu, Ge; Jokela, Janet A

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides an alternative policy for Ebola entry screening at airports in the United States. This alternative policy considers a social contact tracing (SCT) risk level, in addition to the current health risk level used by the CDC. The performances of both policies are compared based on the scenarios that occur and the expected cost associated with implementing such policies. Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify conditions under which one policy dominates the other policy. This analysis takes into account that the alternative policy requires additional data collection, which is balanced by a more cost-effective allocation of resources.

  19. Gravity Monitoring of Ground-Water Storage Change in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winester, D.; Pool, D. R.; Schmerge, D. L.; Hoffmann, J. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Repeat measurements of absolute gravity have been made since 1998 to estimate changes in ground-water mass as part of ground-water budget estimates in arid and semiarid regions of the Southwestern United States. The absolute acceleration of gravity is measured twice each year at 16 stations to an accuracy of about plus or minus 2 microGal, or about 5 cm of water. Observations are normally done for the purpose of providing gravity control for relative gravity surveys of networks of stations across wider areas. Other data incorporated into the ground-water budget estimates include precipitation, water levels, moisture content in the unsaturated zone, surface water runoff, and ellipsoid heights using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Gravity and water-level changes are correlated for stations measured in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province near Tucson, Phoenix, Casa Grande, and Sierra Vista, Arizona. Decreasing gravity and water levels in the Tucson area since the summer of 1998 are likely related to predominant drought conditions and decreases in ground-water storage following above average winter precipitation and recharge during the El Nino of 1998. Increases in gravity at stations in the upper and middle Verde Valley Watershed in central Arizona since the fall of 2000 do not correlate well with declining streamflows and water levels and may be caused by temporary increases in soil moisture following wet winters. There have been no significant observed gravity changes at two stations in the El Paso, Texas, area since the initial observations during the summer of 2003, even though ground-water pumping in the area has been heavy.

  20. Application of synthetic aperture radar interferometry for mine subsidence monitoring in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wempen, Jessica Michelle

    Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR), a satellite-based remote sensing technique, is a practical method for measuring deformation of the earth's surface. In this investigation, the application of DInSAR for monitoring mine subsidence was evaluated for active underground mining regions in the Green River Basin in southwest Wyoming and the Wasatch Plateau in central Utah. Interferograms were generated using X-band (3-cm wavelength) Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the TerraSAR-X mission and L-band (24-cm wavelength) Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite. In general, the DInSAR data have high spatial and temporal resolutions and show gradual, progressive subsidence. In the Green River Basin, displacements were estimated using both L-band and X-band data. In the Wasatch Plateau, displacements were only estimated using L-band data; areas affected by subsidence are identifiable in the X-band data, but precisely quantifying subsidence magnitudes is difficult as a result of significant phase noise. In the Green River Basin, the maximum subsidence magnitude was 150 cm over 690 days, estimated using L-band DInSAR. In the Wasatch Plateau, the maximum subsidence magnitude was 180 cm over 414 days. In both regions, as a result of low coherence in the areas with large displacements, the maximum displacements may be underestimated by tens of centimeters. Additionally, relationships between surface deformations measured by DInSAR and mining-induced seismicity (MIS) in the Green River Basin and the Wasatch Plateau were explored. Both regions exhibit large magnitude, relatively rapid subsidence, but the characteristics (rates and magnitudes) of MIS in the Wasatch Plateau study region and the Green River Basin are significantly different. In the Wasatch Plateau study region, surface displacements tend to precede seismicity, event rates tend to be high, and event magnitudes tend to be relatively low. In the Green River

  1. Prioritization of constituents for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Zogorski, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2,541 constituents were evaluated and prioritized for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States. This prioritization was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in preparation for the upcoming third decade (Cycle 3; 2013–23) of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report provides the methods used to prioritize the constituents and the results of that prioritization. Constituents were prioritized by the NAWQA National Target Analyte Strategy (NTAS) work group on the basis of available information on physical and chemical properties, observed or predicted environmental occurrence and fate, and observed or anticipated adverse effects on human health or aquatic life. Constituents were evaluated within constituent groups that were determined on the basis of physical or chemical properties or on uses or sources. Some constituents were evaluated within more than one constituent group. Although comparable objectives were used in the prioritization of constituents within the different constituent groups, differences in the availability of information accessed for each constituent group led to the development of separate prioritization approaches adapted to each constituent group to make best use of available resources. Constituents were assigned to one of three prioritization tiers: Tier 1, those having the highest priority for inclusion in ambient monitoring of water or sediment on a national or regional scale (including NAWQA Cycle 3 monitoring) on the basis of their likelihood of environmental occurrence in ambient water or sediment, or likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; Tier 2, those having intermediate priority for monitoring on the basis of their lower likelihood of environmental occurrence or lower likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; and Tier 3, those having low or no priority for monitoring on the basis of evidence of nonoccurrence or lack of

  2. Monitoring conterminous United States (CONUS) land cover change with Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M.C.; Egorov, Alexey; Potapov, P.V.; Stehman, S.V.; Tyukavina, A.; Turubanova, S.A.; Roy, David P.; Goetz, S.J.; Loveland, T.R.; Ju, J.; Kommareddy, A.; Kovalskyy, Valeriy; Forsyth, C.; Bents, T.

    2014-01-01

    Forest cover loss and bare ground gain from 2006 to 2010 for the conterminous United States (CONUS) were quantified at a 30 m spatial resolution using Web-Enabled Landsat Data available from the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) (http://landsat.usgs.gov/WELD.php). The approach related multi-temporal WELD metrics and expert-derived training data for forest cover loss and bare ground gain through a decision tree classification algorithm. Forest cover loss was reported at state and ecoregional scales, and the identification of core forests' absent of change was made and verified using LiDAR data from the GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimetry System) instrument. Bare ground gain correlated with population change for large metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) outside of desert or semi-desert environments. GoogleEarth™ time-series images were used to validate the products. Mapped forest cover loss totaled 53,084 km2 and was found to be depicted conservatively, with a user's accuracy of 78% and a producer's accuracy of 68%. Excluding errors of adjacency, user's and producer's accuracies rose to 93% and 89%, respectively. Mapped bare ground gain equaled 5974 km2 and nearly matched the estimated area from the reference (GoogleEarth™) classification; however, user's (42%) and producer's (49%) accuracies were much less than those of the forest cover loss product. Excluding errors of adjacency, user's and producer's accuracies rose to 62% and 75%, respectively. Compared to recent 2001–2006 USGS National Land Cover Database validation data for forest loss (82% and 30% for respective user's and producer's accuracies) and urban gain (72% and 18% for respective user's and producer's accuracies), results using a single CONUS-scale model with WELD data are promising and point to the potential for national-scale operational mapping of key land cover transitions. However, validation results highlighted limitations, some of which can be addressed by

  3. Monitoring of resistivity and IP: The Syscal Monitoring Unit (SMU), a new system dedicated for remote control of the Syscal Pro resistivimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gance, Julien; Leite, Orlando; Texier, Benoît; Bernard, Jean; Truffert, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    All matter, gas, fluids and energy transfer at soil/atmosphere interface govern soil, rock and life evolution in the critical zone. Near surface electrical resistivity and chargeability modifications with time are distinguishable and process related enough for bringing to geoscientist relevant clue within this highly studied zone. Such non-invasive measurements are directly sensitive to a wide range of remarkable parameters (soil water content, temperature, soil water conductivity, clay content, etc.). In order to increase physical, chemical and biological processes understanding, resistivity and IP monitoring remain the less costly and the more powerful method among others. Indeed, these methods are the most suitable to image 2D/3D and 4D processes in an automated way. Whether such geophysical survey are for academic knowledge, waste landfill leakage or landslide monitoring purpose, it has to be done during medium to long period of time (from days to years). Nevertheless, operators don't need to be on site all the survey long. So, equipment manufacturers had to propose them suitable solutions for their needs. Syscal Pro resistivimeter is well adapted to observe the critical zone down to 100 m depth with its 10 channels and 250 watts. Its high speed recording (up to 1000 records/min) ability is also suited to apprehend expected kinetics of studied phenomena. In this context, IRIS Instruments developed a dedicated remote unit able to remote control Syscal Pro resistivimeter. It allows to change acquisition parameters (sequences), to check the main constant (battery levels, internal temperature) and to alert in case of any recording troubles. Data can be sent directly to FTP or SSH server or by mail for an easy and constant access to the data. Alert functionalities sent by mail in case of low battery or too many outliers present in the data are welcome to check the dimensioning of the energy source and for easily maintaining the long-term acquisition necessary for

  4. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Analysis as Predictor of Islet Yield and Insulin Requirements in Autologous Islet Transplantation After Complete Pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, George Ivanov; Cercone, Renee; Tiwari, Mukesh; Rilo, Horacio L. R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the pretransplant continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data of 45 patients that underwent total pancreatectomy followed by autologous islet transplantation (AIT) at the University of Arizona Medical Center. Traditional and novel metrics of CGM time series were correlated to the total islet count (TIC), islet equivalents (IEQs), and weight-normalized IEQs (IEQ/kg). In a subset cohort (n = 26) we analyzed the relationship among the infused number of islets, the CGM indicators, and the first recorded insulin requirement after the procedure. We conclude that receiving a high islet yield is sufficient yet not necessary to achieve low or null insulin requirements within the first 50 days after surgery. Furthermore, CGM inertia and CGM length of curve (2 novel CGM indicators) are shown to be correlated to islet yield, and the CGMs normalized area (Ao) and time ratio above hyperglycemic level (To) are strongly correlated to insulin requirement. A screening test based on To is shown to have 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity discriminating insulin independence upon discharge. PMID:25190081

  5. Nurses’ Perceptions of Critical Issues Requiring Consideration in the Development of Guidelines for Professional Registered Nurse Staffing for Perinatal Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey; Wilson, Jane; Ruhl, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To solicit input from registered nurse members of the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) on critical considerations for review and revision of existing nurse staffing guidelines. Design Thematic analysis of responses to a cross-sectional on-line survey question: “Please give the staffing task force your input on what they should consider in the development of recommendations for staffing of perinatal units.” Participants N = 884 AWHONN members. Main Outcome Measure Descriptions of staffing concerns that should be considered when evaluating and revising existing perinatal nurse staffing guidelines. Results Consistent themes identified included the need for revision of nurse staffing guidelines due to requirements for safe care, increases in patient acuity and complexity, invisibility of the fetus and newborn as separate and distinct patients, difficulties in providing comprehensive care during labor and for mother-baby couplets under current conditions, challenges in staffing small volume units, and the negative effect of inadequate staffing on nurse satisfaction and retention. Conclusion Participants overwhelmingly indicated current nurse staffing guidelines were inadequate to meet the needs of contemporary perinatal clinical practice and required revision based on significant changes that had occurred since 1983 when the original staffing guidelines were published. PMID:22690743

  6. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-01

    This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2007. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover was observed during the last quarterly inspection in December 2006. This crack was filled with bentonite as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007 and will be monitored during subsequent annual inspections. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showing signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. New DOE Office of Legacy Management signs with updated emergency phone numbers were installed as part of this annual inspection, no issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. A vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas was conducted as part of the annual inspection in May 2007. The vegetation survey indicated that revegetation continues to be successful, although stressed due to the area's prevailing drought conditions. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and to identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action to maintain a viable

  7. Monitoring the natural attenuation of petroleum in ground water at the former naval complex, Operable Unit A, Adak Island, Alaska, May and June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Simonds, F.W.; Defawe, Rose

    2005-01-01

    During May and June 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring wells and collected data to characterize the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for remediating petroleum-contaminated ground water at Operable Unit A of the former Naval complex on Adak Island, Alaska. In addition, the evidence for petroleum biodegradation in ground water was evaluated at selected petroleum sites, plans for future natural attenuation monitoring were suggested for the selected petroleum sites, and the natural attenuation monitoring strategy for the Downtown area of Adak Island was reviewed and refinements were suggested. U.S. Geological Survey personnel measured water levels and collected ground-water samples from about 100 temporary boreholes and 50 monitoring wells. Most samples were analyzed on-site for concentrations of selected petroleum compounds and natural attenuation parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, and carbon dioxide. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the data on-site, selected new monitoring well locations, and installed, developed, and sampled 10 monitoring wells. The review and suggestions for the natural attenuation monitoring strategy focused on how to better achieve monitoring objectives specified in the Record of Decision for Adak Island petroleum sites. To achieve the monitoring objective of verifying that natural attenuation is occurring, the monitoring plans for each monitored natural attenuation site need to include sampling of at least one strategically placed well at the downgradient margin of the contaminant plume margin, preferably where contaminant concentrations are detectable but less than the cleanup level. Collection of natural attenuation parameter data and sampling background wells is no longer needed to achieve the monitoring objective of demonstrating the occurrence of natural attenuation. To achieve the objective of monitoring locations where chemical concentrations exceed specified cleanup levels, at least

  8. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report (PCIMR) provides the results of inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110, Area 3 WMD [Waste Management Division] U-3ax/bl Crater. This PCIMR includes an analysis and summary of the site inspections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 110, for the annual period July 2005 through June 2006. Site inspections of the cover were performed quarterly to identify any significant changes to the site requiring action. The overall condition of the cover, cover vegetation, perimeter fence, and UR warning signs was good. Settling was observed that exceeded the action level as specified in Section VILB.7 of the Hazardous Waste Permit Number NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 2000). This permit states that cracks or settling greater than 15 centimeters (6 inches) deep that extend 1.0 meter (m) (3 feet [ft]) or more on the cover will be evaluated and repaired within 60 days of detection. Along the east edge of the cover (repaired previously in August 2003, December 2003, May 2004, October 2004), an area of settling was observed during the December 2005 inspection to again be above the action level, and required repair. This area and two other areas of settling on the cover that were first observed during the December 2005 inspection were repaired in February 2006. The semiannual subsidence surveys were done in September 2005 and March 2006. No significant subsidence was observed in the survey data. Monument 5 shows the greatest amount of subsidence (-0.015 m [-0.05 ft] compared to the baseline survey of 2000). This amount is negligible and near the resolution of the survey instruments; it does not indicate that subsidence is occurring on the cover. Soil moisture results obtained to date indicate that the CAU 110 cover is performing as expected. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) data indicated an increase in soil moisture (1

  9. 40 CFR 63.1564 - What are my requirements for metal HAP emissions from catalytic cracking units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentration in the catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator flue gas as measured by Method 29 in appendix... emissions from catalytic cracking units? 63.1564 Section 63.1564 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Catalytic Cracking...

  10. Estimating occupancy dynamics for large-scale monitoring networks: amphibian breeding occupancy across protected areas in the northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.W.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Regional monitoring strategies frequently employ a nested sampling design where a finite set of study areas from throughout a region are selected within which intensive sub-sampling occurs. This sampling protocol naturally lends itself to a hierarchical analysis to account for dependence among sub-samples. Implementing such an analysis within a classic likelihood framework is computationally prohibitive with species occurrence data when accounting for detection probabilities. Bayesian methods offer an alternative framework to make this analysis feasible. We demonstrate a general approach for estimating occupancy when data come from a nested sampling design. Using data from a regional monitoring program of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in vernal pools, we analyzed data using static and dynamic occupancy frameworks. We analyzed observations from 2004-2013collected within 14 protected areas located throughout the northeast United States . We use the data set to estimate trends in occupancy at both the regional and individual protected area level. We show that occupancy at the regional level was relatively stable for both species. Much more variation occurred within individual study areas, with some populations declining and some increasing for both species. We found some evidence for a latitudinal gradient in trends among protected areas. However, support for this pattern is overestimated when the hierarchical nature of the data collection is not controlled for in the analysis. For both species, occupancy appeared to be declining in the most southern areas, while occupancy was stable or increasing in more northern areas. These results shed light on the range-level population status of these pond-breeding amphibians and our approach provides a framework that can be used to examine drivers of change including among-year and among-site variation in occurrence dynamics, while properly accounting for nested structure of

  11. 40 CFR 75.81 - Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cubic meter (µg/scm); and (2) A flow monitoring system; and (3) A continuous moisture monitoring system... Hg concentration monitoring system (as defined in § 72.2 of this chapter) or a sorbent trap monitoring system (as defined in § 72.2 of this chapter), to measure the mass concentration of total...

  12. Crop Monitoring Based on SPOT-5 Take-5 and Sentinel-1A Data for the Estimation of Crop Water Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Navarro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical and microwave images have been combined for land cover monitoring in different agriculture scenarios, providing useful information on qualitative and quantitative land cover changes. This study aims to assess the complementarity and interoperability of optical (SPOT-5 Take-5 and synthetic aperture radar (SAR (Sentinel-1A data for crop parameter (basal crop coefficient (Kcb values and the length of the crop’s development stages retrieval and crop type classification, with a focus on crop water requirements, for an irrigation perimeter in Angola. SPOT-5 Take-5 images are used as a proxy of Sentinel-2 data to evaluate the potential of their enhanced temporal resolution for agricultural applications. In situ data are also used to complement the Earth O=observation (EO data. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and dual (VV + VH polarization backscattering time series are used to compute the Kcb curve for four crop types (maize, soybean, bean and pasture and to estimate the length of each phenological growth stage. The Kcb values are then used to compute the crop’s evapotranspiration and to subsequently estimate the crop irrigation requirements based on a soil water balance model. A significant R2 correlation between NDVI and backscatter time series was observed for all crops, demonstrating that optical data can be replaced by microwave data in the presence of cloud cover. However, it was not possible to properly identify each stage of the crop cycle due to the lack of EO data for the complete growing season.

  13. Comparison of aerosol optical depth of UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP), AERONET and MODIS over continental United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongzhao TANG; Maosi CHEN; John DAVIS; Wei GAO

    2013-01-01

    The concern about the role of aerosols as to their effect in the Earth-Atmosphere system requires observation at multiple temporal and spatial scales.The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS) is the main aerosol optical depth (AOD)monitoring satellite instrument,and its accuracy and uncertainty need to be validated against ground based measurements routinely.The comparison between two ground AOD measurement programs,the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Ultraviolet-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program,confirms the consistency between them.The intercomparison between the MODIS AOD,the AERONET AOD,and the UVMRP AOD suggests that the UVMRP AOD measurements are suited to be an alternative ground-based validation source for satellite AOD products.The experiments show that the spatial-temporal dependency between the MODIS AOD and the UVMRP AOD is positive in the sense that the MODIS AOD compare more favorably with the UVMRP AOD as the spatial and temporal intervals are increased.However,the analysis shows that the optimal spatial interval for all time windows is defined by an angular subtense of around 1° to 1.25°,while the optimal time window is around 423 to 483 minutes at most spatial intervals.The spatial-temporal approach around 1.25° & 423 minutes shows better agreement than the prevalent strategy of 0.25° & 60 minutes found in other similar investigations.Research Program (UVMRP),Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET),Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiameters (MODIS),validation,spatial-temporal approach

  14. Applications of the monitor of loose parts in the cycle 6 of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 power plant; Aplicaciones del monitor de partes sueltas en el ciclo 6 de la Unidad 2 de la central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleros, G.; Mendez, A.; Gomez, R.A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Veracruz (Mexico); Castillo, R.; Bravo, J.M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: gcm9acpp@cfe.gob.mx

    2004-07-01

    The monitor of loose parts (Loose Parts Monitoring System) installed in the Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde Central is a tool to detect strange objects or parts loose in the system of refrigeration of the reactor that could be impacted in the walls of the recirculation knots or in the internal of the reactor. In this work two applications are shown carried out with the Monitor of Loose Parts, determining the characteristics of the stable nominal conditions, those which when changing, they are used to diagnose during the Cycle 6 of the Unit 2, failures in the components of the the recirculation circuits or to identify mechanical vibrations of the recirculation knots induced by a flow of recirculation bistable associated to operative conditions of the reactor. (Author)

  15. RCRA Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Report for CAU 91: Area 3 U-3fi Waste Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, for the Period October 1999-October 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. F. Emer

    2001-02-01

    This annual Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the U-3fi Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Unit, located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, during the October 1999 to October 2000 period. Inspections of the U-3fi Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the concrete pad, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. The objective of the neutron-logging program is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along the 128-meter (m) (420-feet [ft]) ER3-3 monitoring well and detect changes that maybe indicative of moisture movement in the regulated interval extending between 73 to 82 m (240 to 270 ft) or to detect changes that maybe indicative of subsidence within the disposal unit itself. Physical inspections of the closure were completed in March and September 2000 and indicated that the site is in good condition with no significant findings noted. The directional survey which is required to be completed every five years was run in the ER3-3 casing to determine if subsidence was occurring in the U-3fi emplacement borehole. Small changes were noted which are attributed to initial settling of the sand pack stemming. No evidence of subsidence within the emplacement borehole was observed. The subsidence survey for the October 1999 to October 2000 monitoring period indicated an increase in elevation of 0.244 centimeters (cm) (0.008 ft) compared to the previous year, July 1999. All changes in subsidence survey data taken to date are so small as to be at the survey instrument resolution level and it is not clear if they represent subsidence or measurement error. There is no clear evidence for any subsidence of the monument. Soil moisture monitoring results indicate dry stable conditions

  16. Design of a computer software for calculation of required barrier against radiation at the diagnostic x-ray units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Rahimi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Instalation of protective barrier against diagnostic x-ray is generally done based on the recommendations of NCRP49. There are analytic methods for designing protective barriers howerer, they lack sufficient efficiency and considering the NCRP49 reports, designing mechanical protective barrier in order to protect the initial x-ray radiation and absorption of the ray quality of such radiation is different.Therefore, the protective barrier for each radiation is measured separately. In this study, a computer software was designed to calculate the needed barrier with high accuracy.Materials and methods: Calculation of required protective barrier particularly when two or more generators are in use at diagnostic x-ray units and or installed diagnostic equipments do not have proper room space and the limitations for other clanges in parameters which are time- consuming and impossible to be manually calculated. For proper determination of thichness of the protective barrier, relevant information about curves of radiation weakness, dose limit etc should be entered. This program was done in windows and designed in such a way that the operator works easily, flexibility of the program is acceptable and its accuracy and sensitivity is high.Results : Results of this program indicate that, in most cases, in x-ray units required protective barrier was not used. Meanwhile sometimes shielding is more than what required which lacks technical standards and cost effectiveness. When the application index is contrasting zero, thichness of NCRP49 calculation is about 20% less than the calculated rate done by the method of this study. When the applied index is equal to zero (that is the only situation where the second barrier is considered, thickness of requined barrier is about 15% less than the lead barrier and concrete barrier calculated in this project is 8% less than that calculated by McGuire method.Conclusion : In this study proper

  17. Instrument-independent flux units for laser Doppler perfusion monitoring assessed in a multi-device study on the renal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, AL; Steenbergen, W; Morales, F; Graaff, R; de Jong, ED; Elstrodt, JM; de Mul, FFM; Rakhorst, G

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of instrument-independent perfusion units for laser Doppler flowmetry, a comparison was performed of two commercial fiberoptic laser Doppler perfusion monitors measuring the same flux situation for two different types of probes. In vivo measurements were performed on t

  18. On the use of statistics and kriging to the monitoring of hydro generating units at Hydro-Quebec; Application de la statistique et du krigeage a la surveillance de groupes hydroelectriques a Hydro-Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, F.

    1996-12-31

    Optimizing the preventing monitoring of a water current power generator requires a good statistical representation. But the unit working rate is always one of the three most interesting ones, which results in poor statistical data for any other working rate. Kriging has been used, in a simplified and efficient way that takes into account for each state the preceding state and the following one (dual kriging). In addition, a novel approach for computing the standard deviation of a distribution is described, as well as a method for estimating the bias on the interpolation used to calculate the latter`s range of validity. (D.L.) 32 refs.

  19. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance Across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-01-01

    This case study shows the promise of computing current season forest disturbance detection products at regional to CONUS scales. Use of the eMODIS expedited product enabled a NRT CONUS forest disturbance detection product, a requirement for an eventual, operational forest threat EWS. The 2009 classification product from this study can be used to quantify the areal extent of forest disturbance across CONUS, although a quantitative accuracy assessment still needs to be completed. However, the results would not include disturbances that occurred after July 27, such as the Station Fire. While not shown here, the project also produced maximum NDVI products for the June 10-July 27 period of each year of the 2000-2009 time frame. These products could be applied to compute forest change products on an annual basis. GIS could then be used to assess disturbance persistence. Such follow-on work could lead to attribution of year in which a disturbance occurred. These products (e.g., Figures 6 and 7) may also be useful for assessing forest change associated with climate change, such as carbon losses from bark beetle-induced forest mortality in the Western United States. Other MODIS phenological products are being assessed for aiding forest monitoring needs of the EWS, including cumulative NDVI products (Figure 10).

  20. Determination of monitor unit check tolerances based on a comparison with measurement and treatment planning system data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Helen [Medical Physics Department, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Richmond, Neil, E-mail: neil.richmond@stees.nhs.uk [Medical Physics Department, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Burke, Kevin; Walker, Chris [Medical Physics Department, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT: This work describes the experimental validation of treatment planning system monitor unit (MU) calculations against measurement for a range of scenarios. This, together with a comparison of treatment planning system MUs and an independent MU check method, allows the derivation of confidence intervals for the check process. Data were collected for open and 60° motorized wedge fields using an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 and 8 MV using homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. Masterplan (Version 4.0) pencil-beam and collapsed cone algorithms were used for the primary MU calculations with full inhomogeneity correction. Results show that both algorithms agree with measurement to acceptable tolerance levels in the majority of the cases studied. The confidence interval for the pencil-beam algorithm MU against an independent check was determined as + 1.6% to −3.4%. This is modified to + 2.3% to −2.5% when data collected with low-density heterogeneities are removed as this algorithm is not used clinically for these cases. The corresponding interval for the collapsed cone algorithm was + 1.2% to −4.3%, indicating that an offset tolerance for the independent check is appropriate. Analysis of clinical conformal treatment plan data generated using the pencil-beam algorithm (1393 beams) returned 93% of beams within the independent check tolerance. Similarly, using the collapsed cone algorithm as the primary MU calculation, 77% (of 1434 beams) were within the confidence interval.

  1. Determination of monitor unit check tolerances based on a comparison with measurement and treatment planning system data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Helen; Richmond, Neil; Burke, Kevin; Walker, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the experimental validation of treatment planning system monitor unit (MU) calculations against measurement for a range of scenarios. This, together with a comparison of treatment planning system MUs and an independent MU check method, allows the derivation of confidence intervals for the check process. Data were collected for open and 60° motorized wedge fields using an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 and 8MV using homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. Masterplan (Version 4.0) pencil-beam and collapsed cone algorithms were used for the primary MU calculations with full inhomogeneity correction. Results show that both algorithms agree with measurement to acceptable tolerance levels in the majority of the cases studied. The confidence interval for the pencil-beam algorithm MU against an independent check was determined as + 1.6% to -3.4%. This is modified to + 2.3% to -2.5% when data collected with low-density heterogeneities are removed as this algorithm is not used clinically for these cases. The corresponding interval for the collapsed cone algorithm was + 1.2% to -4.3%, indicating that an offset tolerance for the independent check is appropriate. Analysis of clinical conformal treatment plan data generated using the pencil-beam algorithm (1393 beams) returned 93% of beams within the independent check tolerance. Similarly, using the collapsed cone algorithm as the primary MU calculation, 77% (of 1434 beams) were within the confidence interval.

  2. 40 CFR 60.1810 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1810 Section 60.1810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam, you must install, calibrate...

  3. 40 CFR Table 31 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stack; this monitor must include an oxygen monitor for correcting the data for excess oxygen; or ii... hourly average concentration of SO2 (dry basis) at zero percent excess air for each exhaust stack. This system must include an oxygen monitor for correcting the data for excess air. b. 300 ppmv of...

  4. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 98, Frenchman Flat, Underground Test Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for Calendar Year 2016 (January 2016–December 2016), Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnham, Irene [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98: Frenchman Flat on the Nevada National Security Site was the location of 10 underground nuclear tests. CAU 98 underwent a series of investigations and actions in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order to assess contamination of groundwater by radionuclides from the tests. A Closure Report completed that process in 2016 and called for long-term monitoring, use restrictions (URs), and institutional controls to protect the public and environment from potential exposure to contaminated groundwater. Three types of monitoring are performed for CAU 98: water quality, water level, and institutional control. These are evaluated to determine whether the UR boundaries remain protective of human health and the environment, and to ensure that the regulatory boundary objectives are being met. Additionally, monitoring data are used to evaluate consistency with the groundwater flow and contaminant transport models because the contaminant boundaries (CBs) calculated with the models are the primary basis of the UR boundaries. In summary, the monitoring results from 2016 indicate the regulatory controls on the closure of CAU 98 remain effective in protection of human health and the environment. Recommendations resulting from this first year of monitoring activities include formally incorporating wells UE-5 PW-1, UE-5 PW-2, and UE-5 PW-3 into the groundwater-level monitoring network given their strategic location in the basin; and early development of a basis for trigger levels for the groundwater-level monitoring given the observed trends. Additionally, it is recommended to improve the Real Estate/Operations Permit process for capturing information important for evaluating the impact of activities on groundwater resources, and to shift the reporting requirement for this annual report from the second quarter of the federal fiscal year (end of March) to the second quarter of the calendar year (end of June).

  5. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 7 Table 7 to... Liquid flow rate or pressure drop; and pH of scrubber effluent, if an acid or base absorbent is used Minimum flow rate or pressure drop; and maximum pH if an acid absorbent is used, or minimum pH if a...

  6. ZFP36L2 is required for self-renewal of early burst-forming unit erythroid progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingbo; Prak, Lina; Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Thiru, Prathapan; Flygare, Johan; Lim, Bing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2013-07-04

    Stem cells and progenitors in many lineages undergo self-renewing divisions, but the extracellular and intracellular proteins that regulate this process are largely unknown. Glucocorticoids stimulate red blood cell formation by promoting self-renewal of early burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) progenitors. Here we show that the RNA-binding protein ZFP36L2 is a transcriptional target of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in BFU-Es and is required for BFU-E self-renewal. ZFP36L2 is normally downregulated during erythroid differentiation from the BFU-E stage, but its expression is maintained by all tested GR agonists that stimulate BFU-E self-renewal, and the GR binds to several potential enhancer regions of ZFP36L2. Knockdown of ZFP36L2 in cultured BFU-E cells did not affect the rate of cell division but disrupted glucocorticoid-induced BFU-E self-renewal, and knockdown of ZFP36L2 in transplanted erythroid progenitors prevented expansion of erythroid lineage progenitors normally seen following induction of anaemia by phenylhydrazine treatment. ZFP36L2 preferentially binds to messenger RNAs that are induced or maintained at high expression levels during terminal erythroid differentiation and negatively regulates their expression levels. ZFP36L2 therefore functions as part of a molecular switch promoting BFU-E self-renewal and a subsequent increase in the total numbers of colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) progenitors and erythroid cells that are generated.

  7. Validation of a new software version for monitoring of the core of the Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde power plant with ARTS; Validacion de una nueva version del software para monitoreo del nucleo de la Unidad 2 de la Central Laguna Verde con ARTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleros, G.; Riestra, M.; Ibanez, C.; Lopez, X.; Vargas, A.; Mendez, A.; Gomez, R. [CFE, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: gcm9acpp@cfe.gob.mx

    2005-07-01

    In this work it is intended a methodology to validate a new version of the software used for monitoring the reactor core, which requires of the evaluation of the thermal limits settled down in the Operation Technical Specifications, for the Unit 2 of Laguna Verde with ARTS (improvements to the APRMs, Rod Block Monitor and Technical specifications). According to the proposed methodology, those are shown differences found in the thermal limits determined with the new versions and previous of the core monitoring software. Author)

  8. Physical rehabilitation of patients in the intensive care unit requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a small case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Rod A; Skrzat, Julie; Reddy, Dereddi Raja S; Zanni, Jennifer M; Fan, Eddy; Stephens, R Scott; Needham, Dale M

    2013-02-01

    Neuromuscular weakness and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting complications experienced by intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. There is growing evidence that implementing rehabilitation therapy shortly after ICU admission improves physical function and reduces health care utilization. Recently, there is increasing interest and utilization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to support patients with severe respiratory failure. Patients receiving ECMO are at great risk for significant physical impairments and pose unique challenges for delivering rehabilitation therapy. Consequently, there is a need for innovative examples of safely and feasibly delivering active rehabilitation to these patients. This case report describes 3 patients with respiratory failure requiring ECMO who received physical rehabilitation to illustrate and discuss relevant feasibility and safety issues. In case 1, sedation and femoral cannulation limited rehabilitation therapy while on ECMO. In the 2 subsequent cases, minimizing sedation and utilizing a single bicaval dual lumen ECMO cannula placed in the internal jugular vein allowed patients to be alert and participate in active physical therapy while on ECMO, illustrating feasible rehabilitation techniques for these patients. Although greater experience is needed to more fully evaluate the safety of rehabilitation on ECMO, these initial cases are encouraging. We recommend systematically and prospectively tracking safety events and patient outcomes during rehabilitation on ECMO to provide greater evidence in this area.

  9. Outcome of Recipients of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants Who Require Intensive Care Unit Support: A Single Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Becerra, Samantha; Labastida-Mercado, Nancy; Rosales-Padrón, Jaime; García-Chavez, Jessica; Soto-Vega, Elena; Rivadeneyra-Espinoza, Liliana; León-Peña, Andres A; Fernández-Lara, Danitza; Dominguez-Cid, Monica; Anthon-Méndez, Javier; Arizpe-Bravo, Daniel; Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2015-01-01

    Admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a patient who has been grafted with hematopoietic stem cells is a serious event, but the role of the ICU in this setting remains controversial. Data were analyzed from patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation at the Centro de Hematología y Medicina Interna de Puebla, México, between May 1993 and October 2014. In total, 339 patients were grafted: 150 autografts and 189 allografts; 68 of the grafted patients (20%) were admitted to the ICU after transplantation: 27% of the allografted and 11% of the autografted patients (p = 0.2). Two of 17 autografted patients (12%) and 5 of 51 allografted patients (10%) survived. All patients who required insertion of an endotracheal tube died, whereas 7 of 11 patients without invasive mechanical ventilation survived (p = 0.001). Only 10% of the grafted patients survived their stay in the ICU; this figure is lower than those reported from other centers and may reflect several facts, varying from the quality of the ICU support to ICU admission criteria to the initial management of all the grafts in an outpatient setting, which could somehow delay the arrival of patients to the hospital. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. 40 CFR 63.3968 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Monitoring failures that are caused in part by poor maintenance or careless operation are not malfunctions... install a device to monitor pressure drop across the zeolite wheel or rotary carbon bed. The pressure... signal simulations or via relative accuracy testing. (v) Conduct an accuracy audit every quarter and...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4168 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... monitor pressure drop across the zeolite wheel or rotary carbon bed. The pressure monitoring device must... pressure sensor(s) in or as close to a position that provides a representative measurement of the pressure...

  12. Estimation of water requirement per unit carbon fixed by Eucalyptus camaldulensis in semi-arid land of Western Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Kojima; Y. Tanaka; S. Katoh; K. Tahara; N. Takahashi; K, Yamada

    2002-01-01

    Afforestation in arid land is a promising method for carbon fixation, but the effective utili-zation of water is highly important and required. Thus, the evaluation of the amount of water perunit carbon fixed with the tree growth is required to minimize the amount of water supplied to theplants. In this research, a tree is regarded as a carbon fixation reactor with inflows of water andnutrients from roots, and CO2 as the carbon source from leaves with outflow of water vapor fromleaves and accumulation in the tree itself. In the process of photosynthesis and respiration nutri-tional elements are dissolved in water flow in trees. They do not flow out by these reactions, butare accumulated in trees. Thus, we have treated the behaviour of nutrients as a marker to evaluatethe water/carbon ratio. Assuming that nutrient concentration is constant in sap, and the differences in the ratios ofnutrient to carbon in living trees and dead (i.e. litter fall, etc.) are negiected, the ratio of the usedwater to fixed carbon is given as the ratio of nutrient to carbon in the tree body divided by the ratioof nutrient to water in sap. However, some nutrients are translocated and concentrated within thetree and some may be discarded through litter fall. Thus it is important to examine which nutrientelement is the most suitable as the tracer. In this paper, the results of the above method applied to Eucalyptus camaldulensis in semi-arid land of Western Australia are shown. The value of water requirement per unit carbon fixationdetermined from potassium balance is between 421 kg-H2O/kg-C for mature trees and 285kg-H2O/k9-C for young trees, while the values from calcium balance are much larger than these.The cause of the discrepancy between these values is discussed based on the measured elementconcentrations in sap and trees and the plant physiology. Finally, the actual average value throughthe life of a tree is suggested to fall between the two values.

  13. 40 CFR 75.11 - Specific provisions for monitoring SO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... common stack. (c) Unit with no location for a flow monitor meeting siting requirements. Where no location... a flow monitor in either the stack or the ducts serving an affected unit or installation of a flow monitor in either the stack or ducts is demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Administrator to...

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart G of... - Process Vents-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements For Maintaining a TRE Index...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Reporting Requirements For Maintaining a TRE Index Value >1.0 and. â¤4.0 4 Table 4 to Subpart G of... for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for... TRE Index Value >1.0 and. ≤4.0 Final recovery device Parameters to be monitored a Recordkeeping...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4237 - What are the monitoring requirements if I am an owner or operator of an emergency stationary SI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the monitoring requirements if I am an owner or operator of an emergency stationary SI internal combustion engine? 60.4237 Section 60.4237 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW...

  16. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  17. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 112: AREA 23 HAZARDOUS WASTE TRENCHES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA; FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 2003 - SEPTEMBER 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 112, Area 23 Hazardous Waste Trenches, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) unit located in Area 23 of the NTS. This annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report provides the results of inspections and monitoring for CAU 112. This report includes a summary and analysis of the site inspections, repair and maintenance, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 112 for the current monitoring period, October 2003 through September 2004. Inspections of the CAU 112 RCRA unit were performed quarterly to identify any significant physical changes to the site that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit. The overall condition of the covers and facility was good, and no significant findings were observed. The annual subsidence survey of the elevation markers was conducted on August 23, 2004, and the results indicated that no cover subsidence4 has occurred at any of the markers. The elevations of the markers have been consistent for the past 11 years. The total precipitation for the current reporting period, october 2003 to September 2004, was 14.0 centimeters (cm) (5.5 inches [in]) (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Air Resources Laboratory, Special Operations and Research Division, 2004). This is slightly below the average rainfall of 14.7 cm (5.79 in) over the same period from 1972 to 2004. Post-closure monitoring verifies that the CAU 112 trench covers are performing properly and that no water is infiltrating into or out of the waste trenches. Sail moisture measurements are obtained in the soil directly beneath the trenches and compared to baseline conditions for the first year of post-closure monitoring, which began in october 1993. neutron logging was performed twice during this monitoring period along 30 neutron access tubes to obtain soil moisture data and detect any changes that may indicate moisture movement

  18. Continuous glucose monitoring system in the operating room and intensive care unit: any difference according to measurement sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Joo-Eun; Park, Yang-Hyo; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-02-01

    Given the benefit of glucose control in the perioperative period, we evaluated the accuracy and performance of the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) depending on different measurement sites in the operating room (OR) and in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients over 18 years of age scheduled for elective surgery and ICU admission were enrolled prospectively. Two CGMS sensors were inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the proximal lateral thigh and the lateral abdomen. The rate of successful measurements from thigh and abdomen in the OR and in the ICU were calculated separately. Each CGMS values were compared with the time-matched arterial blood glucose measurements. CGMS values from both measurement sites were also compared. A total of 22 patients undergoing cardiac surgeries were studied. The rate of successful measurements was higher in the ICU (73.2 %) than in the OR (66.0 %) (P = 0.01); however, that from thigh (72.9 %) and from abdomen (58.7 %) showed statistically significant difference only in the OR (P = 0.04). The Pearson correlation coefficient of thigh and abdomen versus arterial values was 0.67 and 0.60, respectively (P < 0.001). In Clarke error grid analysis, 94.6 % (89.3 % in the OR and 96.1 % in the ICU) of values from thigh fell into clinically acceptable zones compared to 93.7 % (89.0 % in the OR and 95.4 % in the ICU) from abdomen. There were no statistically significant differences in the accuracy according to measurement sites. The CGMS showed high measurement failure rate, especially in the OR. In the OR, the rate of successful measurement was higher from thigh than from abdomen. The CGMS showed low accuracy compared to arterial reference values. Nevertheless, there was no difference in the accuracy of the CGMS between two measurement sites. Perioperative performance of the CGMS still needs to be improved considering relatively low successful measurement rates.

  19. Remote computer monitors corrosion protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, A.

    Effective corrosion protection with electrochemical methods requires some method of routine monitoring that provides reliable data that is free of human error. A test installation of a remote computer control monitoring system for electrochemical corrosion protection is described. The unit can handle up to six channel inputs. Each channel comprises 3 analog signals and 1 digital. The operation of the system is discussed.

  20. Estimating energy requirements in hospitalised underweight and obese patients requiring nutritional support: a survey of dietetic practice in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judges, D; Knight, A; Graham, E; Goff, L M

    2012-03-01

    Many methods are available to determine energy requirements, however, all have limitations, particularly when used for the obese. The aim of this survey was to investigate current practice in the estimation of energy requirements in an underweight and obese hospitalised patient in a large cohort of UK dietitians. A cross-sectional anonymous online survey of UK registered dietitians was performed. A total of 672 responses were received. Underweight patient: prediction equations with adjustment for metabolic stress and physical activity were most commonly used (90%). The median estimated energy requirement was 2079 kcals/day. The estimated energy requirement using calorie per kilogram method was significantly lower compared with equations (Prequirements was found (PNutrition support dietitians used a lower stress factor compared with non-nutrition support dietitians (P=0.016). Method used to estimate the energy requirements was associated with years in clinical practice and place of work (Prequirements was found, particularly in the obese patient group. In an age of rapidly increasing rates of obesity a professional consensus of treatment of this patient group is needed.

  1. A DOE contractor`s perspective of environmental monitoring requirements at a low-level waste facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferns, T.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., ID (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Environmental monitoring at a low-level waste disposal facility (LLWDF) should, (1) demonstrate compliance with environmental laws; (2) detect any spatial or temporal environmental changes; and (3) provide information on the potential or actual exposure of humans and/or the environment to disposed waste and/or waste by-products. Under the DOE Order system the LLWDF site manager has more freedom of implementation for a monitoring program than either the semi-prescriptive NRC, or the prescriptive EPA hazardous waste programs. This paper will attempt to compare and contrast environmental monitoring under the different systems (DOE, NRC, and EPA), and determine if the DOE might benefit from a more prescriptive system.

  2. Amikacin Dosing and Monitoring in Spinal Cord Injury Patients: Variation in Clinical Practice Between Spinal Injury Units and Differences in Experts' Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to determine the current practice on amikacin dosing and monitoring in spinal cord injury patients from spinal cord physicians and experts. Physicians from spinal units and clinical pharmacologists were asked to provide protocol for dosing and monitoring of amikacin therapy in spinal cord injury patients. In a spinal unit in Poland, amikacin is administered usually 0.5 g twice daily. A once-daily regimen of amikacin is never used and amikacin concentrations are not determined. In Belgium, Southport (U.K., Spain, and the VA McGuire Medical Center (Richmond, Virginia, amikacin is given once daily. Whereas peak and trough concentrations are determined in Belgium, only trough concentration is measured in Southport. In both these spinal units, modification of the dose is not routinely done with a nomogram. In Spain and the VA McGuire Medical Center, monitoring of serum amikacin concentration is not done unless a patient has renal impairment. In contrast, the dose/interval of amikacin is adjusted according to pharmacokinetic parameters at the Edward Hines VA Hospital (Hines, Illinois, where amikacin is administered q24h or q48h, depending on creatinine clearance. Spinal cord physicians from Denmark, Germany, and the Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation (West Orange, New Jersey state that they do not use amikacin in spinal injury patients. An expert from Canada does not recommend determining serum concentrations of amikacin, but emphasizes the value of monitoring ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Experts from New Zealand recommend amikacin in conventional twice- or thrice-daily dosing because of the theoretical increased risk of neuromuscular blockade and apnea with larger daily doses in spinal cord injury patients. On the contrary, experts from Greece, Israel, and the U.S. recommend once-daily dosing and determining amikacin pharmacokinetic parameters for each patient. As there is considerable variation in clinical

  3. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 110: AREA 3 WMD U-3AX/BL CRATER, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA FOR THE PERIOD JULY 2004 - JUNE 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring report provides the results of inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110, Area 3 Waste Management Division (WMD) U-3ax/bl Crater. This report includes an analysis and summary of the site inspections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 110, for the annual period July 2004 through June 2005. Site inspections of the cover were performed quarterly to identify any significant changes to the site requiring action. The overall condition of the cover, cover vegetation, perimeter fence, and use restriction warning signs was good. Settling was observed that exceeded the action level as specified in Section VII.B.7 of the Hazardous Waste Permit Number NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 2000). This permit states that cracks or settling greater than 15 centimeters (cm) (6 inches [in]) deep that extend 1.0 meter (m) (3 feet [ft]) or more on the cover will be evaluated and repaired within 60 days of detection.

  4. 40 CFR 63.4568 - What are the requirements for continuous parameter monitoring system installation, operation, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... caused in part by poor maintenance or careless operation are not malfunctions. Any period for which the... install a device to monitor pressure drop across the zeolite wheel or rotary carbon bed. The pressure... simulations or via relative accuracy testing. (v) Conduct an accuracy audit every quarter and after every...

  5. Department of Labor Needs to Give CETA Prime Sponsors More Guidance and Assistance for Implementing Monitoring Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-03

    minimun the IMUs’ yearly monitoring plan must include 15 areas of emphasis. (See enc. I.) The letter recommended a minimum of one comprehensive...Financial management 8. Allowance payment system 9. Participant wages and benefits 10. Client tracking system 11. Complaint/grievance procedure * 12

  6. Validation of limited sampling models (LSM) for estimating AUC in therapeutic drug monitoring - is a separate validation group required?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Limited sampling models (LSM) for estimating AUC in therapeutic drug monitoring are usually validated in a separate group of patients, according to published guidelines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validation of LSM by comparing independent validation with cross-validation us

  7. Annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, with Errata Sheet, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the data collected during field activities and quarterly soil-gas sampling activities conducted from May 9, 2005, through May 20, 2006, at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329, Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill; Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-44-01, Fuel Spill. The CAU is located at the DRA, which is located approximately two miles southwest of Mercury, Nevada. A risk evaluation was added to the scope of the project to determine if the residual concentration of the hazardous constituents of JP4 pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment and if a corrective action was required at the site, because the current quarterly monitoring program is not expected to yield a rate constant that could be used effectively to determine a biodegradation rate for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in less than the initial five years outlined in the CR. Additionally, remediation to the Tier 1 action level for TPH is not practical or technically feasible due to the depth of contamination. Field activities were conducted under the Addendum to the CR to collect sufficient data to determine the rate of biodegradation for TPH contamination at CAU 329 to support closure requirements. Reconstruction of the monitoring system at the site and quarterly soil-gas sampling were conducted to collect the required data. Because existing Wells DRA-0 and DRA-3 were determined to be insufficient to provide adequate data, soil-gas monitoring Wells DRA-10 and DRA-11 were installed. Two soil-gas sampling events were conducted to establish a baseline for the site, and subsequent quarterly sampling was conducted as part of the quarterly soil-gas sampling program. In addition, soil samples were collected during well drilling activities so comparisons might be made between the initial soil contamination levels in 2000 and the concentrations present at the time of the well installation.

  8. Implementation of a Portable Personal EKG Signal Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chang, Ching-Su; Chen, Yung-Fu; Lee, Cheng

    This research develops a portable personal EKG signal monitoring system to help patients monitor their EKG signals instantly to avoid the occurrence of tragedies. This system is built with two main units: signal pro-cessing unit and monitoring and evaluation unit. The first unit consists of EKG signal sensor, signal amplifier, digitalization circuit, and related control circuits. The second unit is a software tool developed on an embedded Linux platform (called CSA). Experimental result indicates that the proposed system has the practical potential for users in health monitoring. It is demonstrated to be more convenient and with greater portability than the conventional PC-based EKG signal monitoring systems. Furthermore, all the application units embedded in the system are built with open source codes, no licensed fee is required for operating systems and authorized applications. Thus, the building cost is much lower than the traditional systems.

  9. SafeLand guidelines for landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Europe - Design and required technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, S.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide monitoring means the comparison of landslide characteristics like areal extent, speed of movement, surface topography and soil humidity from different periods in order to assess landslide activity. An ultimate "universal" methodology for this purpose does not exist; every technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. End-users should carefully consider each one to select the methodologies that represent the best compromise between pros and cons, and are best suited for their needs. Besides monitoring technology, there are many factors governing the choice of an Early Warning System (EWS). A people-centred EWS necessarily comprises five key elements: (1) knowledge of the risks; (2) identification, monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; (3) operational centre; (4) communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and (5) local capabilities to respond to the warnings received. The expression "end-to-end warning system" is also used to emphasize that EWSs need to span all steps from hazard detection through to community response. The aim of the present work is to provide guidelines for establishing the different components for landslide EWSs. One of the main deliverables of the EC-FP7 SafeLand project addresses the technical and practical issues related to monitoring and early warning for landslides, and identifies the best technologies available in the context of both hazard assessment and design of EWSs. This deliverable targets the end-users and aims to facilitate the decision process by providing guidelines. For the purpose of sharing the globally accumulated expertise, a screening study was done on 14 EWSs from 8 different countries. On these bases, the report presents a synoptic view of existing monitoring methodologies and early-warning strategies and their applicability for different landslide types, scales and risk management steps. Several comprehensive checklists and toolboxes are also included to support informed

  10. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-04-01

    This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

  11. Monitoring And Controlling Hydroponic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-monitoring and -controlling apparatus maintains slight suction required on nutrient solution in apparatus described in "Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit" (KSC-11375), while overcoming gravity effects on operation of system on Earth. Suction helps to hold solution in tubular membrane.

  12. Comparison between In-house developed and Diamond commercial software for patient specific independent monitor unit calculation and verification with heterogeneity corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan; Jeevanandam, Prakash; Murugan, Lavanya

    2016-02-01

    The study was aimed to compare two different monitor unit (MU) or dose verification software in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using modified Clarkson's integration technique for 6 MV photons beams. In-house Excel Spreadsheet based monitor unit verification calculation (MUVC) program and PTW's DIAMOND secondary check software (SCS), version-6 were used as a secondary check to verify the monitor unit (MU) or dose calculated by treatment planning system (TPS). In this study 180 patients were grouped into 61 head and neck, 39 thorax and 80 pelvic sites. Verification plans are created using PTW OCTAVIUS-4D phantom and also measured using 729 detector chamber and array with isocentre as the suitable point of measurement for each field. In the analysis of 154 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU, using heterogeneity corrections, In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS showed good agreement TPS. The overall percentage average deviations for all sites were (-0.93% + 1.59%) and (1.37% + 2.72%) for In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS respectively. For 26 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region below -350 HU showed higher variations for both In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS. It can be concluded that for patient specific quality assurance (QA), the In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS can be used as a simple and fast accompanying to measurement based verification for plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU.

  13. Monitoring of physical health parameters for inpatients on a child and adolescent mental health unit receiving regular antipsychotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Nida; Saeed, Shoaib; Drewek, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Physical health monitoring of patients receiving antipsychotics is vital. Overall it is estimated that individuals suffering with conditions like schizophrenia have a 20% shorter life expectancy than the average population, moreover antipsychotic use has been linked to a number of conditions including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.[1-4] The severity of possible adverse effects to antipsychotics in adults has raised awareness of the importance of monitoring physical health in this population. However, there is little literature available as to the adverse effects of these medications in the child and adolescent community, which make physical health monitoring in this predominantly antipsychotic naïve population even more important. An expert group meeting in the UK has laid down recommendations in regards to screening and management of adult patients receiving antipsychotics, however no specific guidelines have been put in place for the child and adolescent age group.[5] The aim of this audit was to establish whether in-patients receiving antipsychotics had the following investigations pre-treatment and 12 weeks after treatment initiation: body mass index, hip-waist circumference, blood pressure, ECG, urea and electrolytes, full blood count, lipid profile, random glucose level, liver function test, and prolactin. This is in addition to a pre-treatment VTE risk assessment. These standards were derived from local trust guidelines, NICE guidelines on schizophrenia [6] and The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines.[7] We retrospectively reviewed 39 electronic case notes in total, of which 24 cases were post intervention. Intervention included the use of a prompting tool. This tool was filed in the physical health files of all patients receiving antipsychotics which was intended as a reminder to doctors regarding their patient's need for physical health monitoring. Professionals involved in the monitoring of such parameters were educated in the importance and

  14. Education and training requirements for a practicing civil engineer to qualify for registration in Australasia and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The making a qualified and competent engineer requires education, practical training, and a professional assessment. Obtaining a professional registration is an indication of competence and willingness to shoulder the legal and social responsibilities required to be an engineer. It also gives the general public the sense of confidence for engineering works designed and constructed by engineers. The requirements and procedure of registration can be stipulated in law, and/or controlled by profe...

  15. Corrections to traditional methods of verifying tangential-breast 3D monitor-unit calculations: use of an equivalent triangle to estimate effective fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Karl L; Kirsner, Steven M; Erice, Rolly C

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative method for correctly estimating the effective field size of tangential-breast fields. The method uses an "equivalent triangle" to verify intact breast tangential field monitor-unit settings calculated by a 3D planning system to within 2%. The effects on verification calculations of loss of full scatter due to beam oblique incidence, proximity to field boundaries, and reduced scattering volumes are handled properly. The methodology is validated by comparing calculations performed by the 3D planning system with the respective verification estimates. The accuracy of this technique is established for dose calculations both with and without heterogeneity corrections.

  16. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - BACTERIA_MONITORING_EPA_IN: Bacteria Monitoring Stations and Data Summaries in Indiana, Derived from EPA BASINS 3 (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1:45,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BACTERIA_MONITORING_EPA_IN is a point shapefile developed by the USEPA BASINS 3.0 program and edited by Bernardin, Lochmueller and Associates. Joinable tables must...

  17. Clinical and behavioral characteristics of adults receiving medical care for HIV infection --- Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Janet M; McNaghten, A D; Frazier, Emma L; Skarbinski, Jacek; Huang, Ping; Heffelfinger, James D

    2011-09-02

    As of December 31, 2008, an estimated 663,084 persons were living with a diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the 40 U.S. states that have had confidential name-based HIV infection reporting since at least January 2006. Although HIV surveillance programs in the United States collect information about persons who have received a diagnosis of HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), supplemental surveillance projects are needed to collect information about care-seeking behaviors, health-care use, and other behaviors among persons living with HIV. Data on the clinical and behavioral characteristics of persons receiving medical care for HIV infection are critical to reduce HIV-related morbidity and mortality and for program planning to allocate services and resources, guide prevention planning, assess unmet medical and ancillary service needs, and help develop intervention programs and health policies at the local, state, and national levels. Data were collected during June 2007-September 2008 for patients who received medical care in 2007 (sampled from January 1-April 30). The Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) is an ongoing, multisite supplemental surveillance project that assesses behaviors, clinical characteristics, and quality of care of HIV-infected persons who are receiving medical care. Participants must be aged ≥ 18 years and have received medical care at sampled facilities that provide HIV medical care within participating MMP project areas. Self-reported behavioral and selected clinical data are collected using an in-person interview. A total of 26 project areas in 19 states and Puerto Rico were funded to collect data during the 2007 MMP data collection cycle. The results from the 2007 MMP cycle indicated that among 3,643 participants, a total of 3,040 (84%) had some form of health insurance or coverage during the 12 months before the interview; of these, 45% reported having Medicaid, 37% reported having private

  18. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope Units of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-09-21

    The Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM) was created by presidential proclamation in 2000. It is located along the Columbia River in south central Washington and consists of five distinct units. The McGee Ranch-Riverlands and the North Slope units are addressed in this report. North Slope refers to two of the HRNM units: the Saddle Mountain Unit and the Wahluke Slope Unit. The Saddle Mountain and Wahluke Slope Units are located north of the Columbia River, while the McGee Ranch-Riverlands Unit is located south of the Columbia River and north and west of Washington State Highway 24. To fulfill internal U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, the DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Authorized limits for residual radioactive contamination were developed based on the DOE annual exposure limit to the public (100 mrem) using future potential land-use scenarios. The DOE Office of Environmental Management approved these authorized limits on March 1, 2004. Historical soil monitoring conducted on and around the HRNM indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the authorized limits (Fritz et al. 2003). However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope units were below the authorized limits. Sixty-seven soil samples were collected from the McGee Ranch-Riverlands and North Slope units. A software package (Visual Sample Plan) was used to plan the collection to assure an adequate number of samples were collected. The number of samples necessary to decide with a high level of confidence (99%) that the soil concentrations of radionuclides on the North Slope and McGee Ranch-Riverlands units did not exceed the

  19. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for passengers.... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew...

  20. Child Care: State Efforts To Enforce Safety and Health Requirements. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnoni, Cynthia M.

    Although states must certify that they have requirements to protect the health and safety of children in child care in order to receive Child Care and Development Block Grant funds, neither the scope nor stringency of these requirements has been stipulated. At the request of Congressional members, this report identifies the most critical…

  1. Transfusion requirements in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding: a study in a Blood Unit at a referral hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garrido

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1. To study transfusion requirements in the Department of Gastroenterology of a Tertiary Referral Hospital, and their evolution over the last seven years. 2. To analyze risk factors associated with greater erythrocyte transfusion requirements. Patients and methods: erythrocyte transfusion requirements were compared for patients admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology at Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Seville, from 1999 to 2005. Clinical data of interest have been analyzed in order to determine factors associated with greater transfusion requirements. Results: 1,611 patients with a mean age of 60.45 years (59.7-61.2 were included in this study; 76.41% were males. Gastric ulcers were the cause of bleeding in 18.4% of cases (with 69% requiring transfusions; duodenal ulcers caused 22.2% of cases (with 52.9% requiring transfusions, and portal hypertension caused 33.6% of cases (with 90.2% requiring transfusions. Upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding of unknown origin requires transfusions in 88.9 and 96.2% of cases, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that clinical presentations such as hematemesis (odds ratio = 3.12, hematochezia (odds ratio = 33.17, gastrointestinal hemorrhage of unknown origin (odds ratio = 6.57, and hemorrhage as a result of portal hypertension (odds ratio = 3.43 were associated with greater transfusion requirements for erythrocyte concentrates. No significant differences were observed between the percentages of patients who received transfusions from 1999 to 2005. Conclusions: 1. No differences have been observed between the percentages of patients who received transfusions over the last seven years at our Department of Gastroenterology. 2. Patients presenting with hematemesis or hematochezia, in addition to those with bleeding of unknown origin or from portal hypertension, are prone to have greater transfusion requirements.

  2. Long-Term Outdoor Reliability Assessment of a Wireless Unit for Air-Quality Monitoring Based on Nanostructured Films Integrated on Micromachined Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Decarli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated and tested in long-term field operating conditions a wireless unit for outdoor air quality monitoring. The unit is equipped with two multiparametric sensors, one miniaturized thermo-hygrometer, front-end analogical and digital electronics, and an IEEE 802.15.4 based module for wireless data transmission. Micromachined platforms were functionalized with nanoporous metal-oxides to obtain multiparametric sensors, hosting gas-sensitive, anemometric and temperature transducers. Nanoporous metal-oxide layer was directly deposited on gas sensing regions of micromachined platform batches by hard-mask patterned supersonic cluster beam deposition. An outdoor, roadside experiment was arranged in downtown Milan (Italy, where one wireless sensing unit was continuously operated side by side with standard gas chromatographic instrumentation for air quality measurements. By means of a router PC, data from sensing unit and other instrumentation were collected, merged, and sent to a remote data storage server, through an UMTS device. The whole-system robustness as well as sensor dataset characteristics were continuously characterized over a run-time period of 18 months.

  3. Long-term outdoor reliability assessment of a wireless unit for air-quality monitoring based on nanostructured films integrated on micromachined platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccardi, Matteo; Decarli, Massimiliano; Lorenzelli, Leandro; Milani, Paolo; Mettala, Petteri; Orava, Risto; Barborini, Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    We have fabricated and tested in long-term field operating conditions a wireless unit for outdoor air quality monitoring. The unit is equipped with two multiparametric sensors, one miniaturized thermo-hygrometer, front-end analogical and digital electronics, and an IEEE 802.15.4 based module for wireless data transmission. Micromachined platforms were functionalized with nanoporous metal-oxides to obtain multiparametric sensors, hosting gas-sensitive, anemometric and temperature transducers. Nanoporous metal-oxide layer was directly deposited on gas sensing regions of micromachined platform batches by hard-mask patterned supersonic cluster beam deposition. An outdoor, roadside experiment was arranged in downtown Milan (Italy), where one wireless sensing unit was continuously operated side by side with standard gas chromatographic instrumentation for air quality measurements. By means of a router PC, data from sensing unit and other instrumentation were collected, merged, and sent to a remote data storage server, through an UMTS device. The whole-system robustness as well as sensor dataset characteristics were continuously characterized over a run-time period of 18 months.

  4. 42 CFR 495.316 - State monitoring and reporting regarding activities required to receive an incentive payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Provider adoption, implementation, or upgrade of certified EHR technology activities and payments; and (2... upgraded certified EHR technology. (ii) Aggregated data tables representing the provider adoption... STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to...

  5. Hematologic, Hepatic, Renal and Lipid Laboratory Monitoring Following Initiation of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in the United States, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Napravnik, Sonia; Ryscavage, Patrick; Eron, Joseph J.; Koletar, Susan L.; Moore, Richard D.; Zinski, Anne; Cole, Stephen R.; Hunt, Peter; Crane, Heidi M.; Kahn, James; Mathews, W. Christopher; Mayer, Kenneth; Taiwo, Babafemi

    2013-01-01

    We assessed laboratory monitoring following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation among 3,678 patients in a large US multi-site clinical cohort, censoring participants at last clinic visit, cART change, or three years. Median days (interquartile range) to first hematologic, hepatic, renal and lipid tests were 30 (18–53), 31 (19–56), 33 (20–59) and 350 (96–1106), respectively. At one year, approximately 80% received more than two hematologic, hepatic, and renal tests consistent with guidelines. However, only 40% received one or more lipid tests. Monitoring was more frequent in specific subgroups, likely reflecting better clinic attendance or clinician perception of higher susceptibility to toxicities. PMID:23446495

  6. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-09-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent site is located in the southeastern portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 27, 2002. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1997). A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report (DOE/NV, 1999), samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 (DOE/NV, 2000) and 2001 (DOE/NV, 2001) revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, data results from 2000 and later were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2002 consisted of the following: (1) Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2). (2) Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay [CEA] and Standard Nutrient Panel [SNP]). (3) Site inspection to evaluate the condition of the fencing and signs. (4) Preparation and submittal of the Post-Closure Monitoring Report.

  7. Testing patients during seizures: A European consensus procedure developed by a joint taskforce of the ILAE - Commission on European Affairs and the European Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Neufeld, Miri; Diehl, Beate; Dobesberger, Judith; Trinka, Eugen; Mameniskiene, Ruta; Rheims, Sylvain; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Craiu, Dana; Pressler, Ronit; Krysl, David; Lebedinsky, Angelina; Tassi, Laura; Rubboli, Guido; Ryvlin, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    There is currently no international consensus procedure for performing comprehensive periictal testing of patients in the epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs). Our primary goal was to develop a standardized procedure for managing and testing patients during and after seizures in EMUs. The secondary goal was to assess whether it could be implemented in clinical practice (feasibility). A taskforce was appointed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE)-Commission on European Affairs and the European Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Association, to develop a standardized ictal testing battery (ITB) based on expert opinion and experience with various local testing protocols. ITB contains a comprehensive set of 10 items that evidence the clinically relevant semiologic features, and it is adaptive to the dynamics of the individual seizures. The feasibility of the ITB was prospectively evaluated on 250 seizures from 152 consecutive patients in 10 centers. ITB was successfully implemented in clinical practice in all 10 participating centers and was considered feasible in 93% of the tested seizures. ITB was not feasible for testing seizures of very short duration.

  8. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    bentonite during the first quarter of 2006 and monitored during subsequent inspections. The cover vegetation was healthy and well established. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The inspections at UC-3 indicated that the sites are in excellent condition. All monuments and signs showed no displacement, damage, or removal. A small erosion gully from spring rain runoff was observed during the June inspection, but it did not grow to an actionable level during 2005. No other issues or concerns were identified. Inspections performed at UC-4 Mud Pit C cover revealed that erosion rills were formed during March and September exposing the geosynthetic clay liner. Both erosion rills were repaired within 90 days of reporting. Sparse vegetation is present on the cover. The overall condition of the monuments, fence, and gate are in good condition. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other four UC-4 locations. Subsidence surveys were conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C in March and September of 2005. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. The June vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas indicated that the revegetation has been very successful. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action in order to maintain a viable vegetative cover on the site. Vegetation surveys should be conducted only as required. Precipitation during 2005 was above average, with an annual rainfall total of 21.79 centimeters (8.58 inches). Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 CMP cover is performing as designed, with evapotranspiration effectively removing water from the cover. It is recommended to continue

  9. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    focused on sex trafficking . In recent years, there has been a pronounced shift to- wards labor trafficking . Legal guest workers are at risk of being...allegations of Trafficking in Persons (TIP)5. In 2002, the United States adopted a zero tolerance TIP policy regarding U.S. government employees and... trafficking and improving security and risk control through local engagement. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of government-led re

  10. Bispectral index monitoring in the management of sedation in an intensive care unit patient with locked-in syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Sadeq A; Blosser, Sandralee A; Cherry, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Locked-in syndrome is an extremely rare neurological state caused by injury of the ventral pons. The syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia and anarthria with concomitant preservation of cortical function. When a reversible underlying pathological abnormality is identified and managed aggressively, meaningful recovery is possible. Because patients retain consciousness throughout their illness, a dependable method for titrating sedation may improve their quality of life. The case presented suggests that bispectral index monitoring may be a cost-effective and reliable method for managing sedation in patients with locked-in syndrome.

  11. Monitoring storm tide and flooding from Hurricane Sandy along the Atlantic coast of the United States, October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Brian E.; Wicklein, Shaun M.; Reiser, Robert G.; Busciolano, Ronald J.; Morrison, Jonathan; Verdi, Richard J.; Painter, Jaime A.; Frantz, Eric R.; Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a temporary monitoring network of water-level and barometric pressure sensors at 224 locations along the Atlantic coast from Virginia to Maine to continuously record the timing, areal extent, and magnitude of hurricane storm tide and coastal flooding generated by Hurricane Sandy. These records were greatly supplemented by an extensive post-flood high-water mark (HWM) flagging and surveying campaign from November to December 2012 involving more than 950 HWMs. Both efforts were undertaken as part of a coordinated federal emergency response as outlined by the Stafford Act under a directed mission assignment by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  12. Comparing the monitoring of patients transferred from a critical care unit to hospital wards at after-hours with day transfers: an exploratory, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sally D; Coster, Samantha; Norman, Ian

    2014-12-01

    To investigate possible factors related to patient monitoring to explain the higher mortality rates associated with after-hours transfers compared with daytime transfers from critical care units to the wards. International research suggests that patients transferred from critical care units after-hours have a higher mortality rate than transfers during daytime, although the reasons remain unknown. A prospective exploratory study. Twenty-nine patients transferred from a UK critical care unit to a ward within the same hospital after-hours for 10 weeks beginning April 2009 were compared with 29 transfers during daytime hours matched on potentially confounding characteristics. UK Critical Care Unit transfer guidelines have remained unchanged since data collection. Outcomes were as follows: (i) frequency of nursing observations; (ii) time periods from transfer to first medical review; (iii) time period from transfer to first clinical observations; (iv) frequency of transfer to an inappropriate ward; (v) delayed transfers from Critical Care Unit to ward. Using Wilcoxon's Rank test (two tail) to compare paired data from the matched groups, observations were recorded significantly less frequently within the first 12 hours for after-hours transfers. Time from transfer to first clinical observations was significantly longer for after-hour transfer patients. The delay from when the patient was ready for ward care and actual transfer was also longer for the after-hours transfer group. Surveillance differences, including time to the first set of observations and frequency of observations in the first 12 hours, are potential factors that may explain the differential mortality associated with after-hours transfers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 32 × 32 silicon electro-optic switch with built-in monitors and balanced-status units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lei; Tang, Weijie; Chu, Tao

    2017-02-01

    To construct large-scale silicon electro-optical switches for optical interconnections, we developed a method using a limited number of power monitors inserted at certain positions to detect and determine the optimum operating points of all switch units to eliminate non-uniform effects arising from fabrication errors. We also introduced an optical phase bias to one phase-shifter arm of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI)-type switch unit to balance the two operation statuses of a silicon electro-optical switch during push–pull operation. With these methods, a 32 × 32 MZI-based silicon electro-optical switch was successfully fabricated with 180-nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) process technology, which is the largest scale silicon electro-optical switch to the best of our knowledge. At a wavelength of 1520 nm, the on-chip insertion losses were 12.9 to 16.5 dB, and the crosstalk ranged from ‑17.9 to ‑24.8 dB when all units were set to the ‘Cross’ status. The losses were 14.4 to 18.5 dB, and the crosstalk ranged from ‑15.1 to ‑19.0 dB when all units were in the ‘Bar’ status. The total power consumptions of the 32 × 32 switch were 247.4 and 542.3 mW when all units were set to the ‘Cross’ and ‘Bar’ statuses, respectively.

  14. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... choose to use this option? If the option to use a NOX CEMS is chosen: (a) Each NOX diluent CEMS must be..., Procedure 1 in appendix F to this part is not required. Alternatively, a NOX diluent CEMS that is installed... subpart. The relative accuracy test audit (RATA) of the CEMS shall be performed on a lb/MMBtu basis....

  15. A monomer is the minimum functional unit required for channel and ATPase activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjeesingh, M; Li, C; Kogan, I; Wang, Y; Huan, L J; Bear, C E

    2001-09-04

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) normally functions as a phosphorylation-regulated chloride channel on the apical surface of epithelial cells, and lack of this function is the primary cause for the fatal disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Previous studies showed that purified, reconstituted CFTR can function as a chloride channel and, further, that its intrinsic ATPase activity is required to regulate opening and closing of the channel gate. However, these previous studies did not identify the quaternary structure required to mediate conduction and catalysis. Our present studies show that CFTR molecules may self-associate in CHO and Sf9 membranes, as complexes close to the predicted size of CFTR dimers can be captured by chemical cross-linking reagents and detected using nondissociative PAGE. However, CFTR function does not require a multimeric complex for function as we determined that purified, reconstituted CFTR monomers are sufficient to mediate regulated chloride conduction and ATPase activity.

  16. Requirements and Implementation Feasibility for a CubeSat Thermal Infrared Imaging System to Monitor the Structure of Volcanic Ash Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, D.; Carroll, R.; Webley, P.; Hawkins, J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland caused the cancellation of approximately 108,000 flights over an 8-day period, disrupted air traffic worldwide, and cost the airline industry more than $400 million per day. The inconvenience and economic impact of this and similar events, such as Puyehue-Cordon-Caulle in 2011, have heightened the interest in developing improved satellite remote sensing techniques for monitoring volcanic plumes and drifting clouds. For aviation safety, the operational/research community has started to move towards classifying the concentrations within volcanic plumes and clouds. Additionally, volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models are often used for forecasting ash cloud locations and they require knowledge of the structure of the erupting column to improve their ash simulations and also downwind 3-D maps of the ash cloud to calibrate/validate their modeling output. Existing remote sensing satellites utilize a brightness temperature method with thermal infrared (TIR) measurements from 10 - 12 μm to determine mass loading of volcanic ash along a single line of sight, but they have infrequent revisit times and they cannot resolve the three-dimensional structure of the ash clouds. A cluster of CubeSats dedicated to the monitoring of volcanic ash and plumes could provide both more frequent updates and the multi-aspect images needed to resolve the density structure of volcanic ash clouds and plumes. In this presentation, we discuss the feasibility and requirements for a CubeSat TIR imaging system and the associated on-board image processing that would be required to monitor the structure of volcanic ash clouds from Low Earth Orbit.

  17. 26 CFR 1.924(d)-1 - Requirement that economic processes take place outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... contract may be any oral or written agreement which constitutes a contract at law. The person performing... elements necessary to complete a sale, such as making an offer or accepting an offer. A requirements contract is considered an open offer to be accepted from time to time when the customer submits an...

  18. Manpower Projections, Recruitment Needs and Training Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots in the United States 1968-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Robert Marchand

    This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…

  19. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  20. Beam-pumping unit production breakdown automatic monitoring system design%游梁式抽油机生产故障自动监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广友; 邵惠生; 董超群

    2014-01-01

    为了实时准确监测游梁式抽油机的生产运行状态,及时对停井及停电等故障进行排查和处理,研发了一套适用于油田生产现场的油井生产故障自动监测系统。系统采用接近开关检测曲柄销的运动状态,采用ACDC模块检测抽油机的供电状态,应用GSM网络将报警信息远传至上位机系统,通过页面开发和网络发布,实现了油井生产运行状态的在线实时监测。现场应用表面,系统停电报警响应时间小于20 s,停井报警响应时间小于60 s,且无误报漏报情况发生,满足现场实时性与准确性要求。%In order to monitor the beam-pumping unit production status accurately and process the breakdown or power failure in time, a production breakdown monitoring system for the beam-pumping unit is researched and developed. The proximity switch is adopted to detect the state of motion of the crank pin. The ACDC module is used to detect the state of power supply. The alarm information is transmitted to the upper computer by GSM network. The pages are developed and published. The online real-time monitoring of running status of the beam-pumping unit is realized. The application result shows that the response time of power failure is less than 20s, the response time of breakdown is less than 60s, and the system meets the real-time and accuracy requirements.

  1. Surveillance and monitoring of white-tailed deer for chronic wasting disease in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tyler S.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Walter, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects both wild and captive cervid populations. In the past 45 y, CWD has spread from northern Colorado to all bordering states, as well as the midwestern United States (Midwest) and northeastern United States (Northeast), Canada, and South Korea. Because CWD is a relatively new issue for wildlife management agencies in the Northeast, we surveyed a representative (e.g., cervid biologist, wildlife veterinarian) from 14 states to gain a better understanding of state-specific surveillance measures. Between 2002 and 2012, New York (37,093) and Pennsylvania (35,324) tested the greatest number of harvested white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus in the Northeast. Additionally, the 14 states surveyed have tested 121,730 harvested deer, or approximately 15,216/y, since CWD was first detected in 2005. The most common tissues used by agencies in the Northeast for testing were retropharyngeal lymph nodes, which have been determined to be the most reliable in detecting CWD in cervids. Understanding CWD surveillance efforts at a regional scale can help to provide guidance for the development of new surveillance plans or the improvement of existing ones. Furthermore, collaborations among state and regional agencies in the Northeast may attempt to identify deficiencies in surveillance by state or subregion.

  2. Development of an Exhaled Breath Monitoring System with Semiconductive Gas Sensors, a Gas Condenser Unit, and Gas Chromatograph Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Itoh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath exhaled by patients with lung cancer, healthy controls, and patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery for resection of cancer were analyzed by gas condenser-equipped gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS for development of an exhaled breath monitoring prototype system involving metal oxide gas sensors, a gas condenser, and gas chromatography columns. The gas condenser-GC/MS analysis identified concentrations of 56 VOCs in the breath exhaled by the test population of 136 volunteers (107 patients with lung cancer and 29 controls, and selected four target VOCs, nonanal, acetoin, acetic acid, and propanoic acid, for use with the condenser, GC, and sensor-type prototype system. The prototype system analyzed exhaled breath samples from 101 volunteers (74 patients with lung cancer and 27 controls. The prototype system exhibited a level of performance similar to that of the gas condenser-GC/MS system for breath analysis.

  3. Development of an Exhaled Breath Monitoring System with Semiconductive Gas Sensors, a Gas Condenser Unit, and Gas Chromatograph Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshio; Miwa, Toshio; Tsuruta, Akihiro; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Izu, Noriya; Shin, Woosuck; Park, Jangchul; Hida, Toyoaki; Eda, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-10

    Various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath exhaled by patients with lung cancer, healthy controls, and patients with lung cancer who underwent surgery for resection of cancer were analyzed by gas condenser-equipped gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for development of an exhaled breath monitoring prototype system involving metal oxide gas sensors, a gas condenser, and gas chromatography columns. The gas condenser-GC/MS analysis identified concentrations of 56 VOCs in the breath exhaled by the test population of 136 volunteers (107 patients with lung cancer and 29 controls), and selected four target VOCs, nonanal, acetoin, acetic acid, and propanoic acid, for use with the condenser, GC, and sensor-type prototype system. The prototype system analyzed exhaled breath samples from 101 volunteers (74 patients with lung cancer and 27 controls). The prototype system exhibited a level of performance similar to that of the gas condenser-GC/MS system for breath analysis.

  4. Remote sensing in precision farming: real-time monitoring of water and fertilizer requirements of agricultural crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Arkadi; Ben Asher, Jiftah; Kopeika, Norman S.

    2016-10-01

    The advancements in remote sensing in combination with sensor technology (both passive and active) enable growers to analyze an entire crop field as well as its local features. In particular, changes of actual evapo-transpiration (ET) as a function of water availability can be measured remotely with infrared radiometers. Detection of crop water stress and ET and combining it with the soil water flow model enable rational irrigation timing and application amounts. Nutrient deficiency, and in particular nitrogen deficiency, causes substantial crop losses. This deficiency needs to be identified immediately. A faster the detection and correction, a lesser the damage to the crop yield. In the present work, to retrieve ET a novel deterministic approach was used which is based on the remote sensing data. The algorithm can automatically provide timely valuable information on plant and soil water status, which can improve the management of irrigated crops. The solution is capable of bridging between Penman-Monteith ET model and Richards soil water flow model. This bridging can serve as a preliminary tool for expert irrigation system. To support decisions regarding fertilizers the greenness of plant canopies is assessed and quantified by using the spectral reflectance sensors and digital color imaging. Fertilization management can be provided on the basis of sampling and monitoring of crop nitrogen conditions using RS technique and translating measured N concentration in crop to kg/ha N application in the field.

  5. Around-the-clock ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is required to properly diagnose resistant hypertension and assess associated vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Ríos, María T; Fernández, José R; Mojón, Artemio; Smolensky, Michael H

    2014-07-01

    Diagnosis of resistant hypertension (RH) is currently based upon awake-time office blood pressure (BP). An increasing number of studies have documented abnormally elevated sleep-time BP in most RH patients, indicating that diagnosis of true RH cannot be determined solely by comparison of office BP with either patient awake-time BP self-measurements or awake-BP mean from ambulatory monitoring (ABPM), as is customary in the published literature. Moreover, the ABPM-determined sleep-time BP mean is an independent and stronger predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk than either daytime office/ABPM-derived awake or 24-hour means. Results of the recently completed MAPEC (Monitorización Ambulatoria para Predicción de Eventos Cardiovasculares) prospective outcomes study, which included a large cohort of RH patients, established that time of treatment relative to circadian rhythms constituted a critically important yet often neglected variable with respect to BP control. The study found that bedtime versus morning ingestion of the full dose of ≥1 BP-lowering medications resulted in both better therapeutic normalization of sleep-time BP and reduced CVD morbidity and mortality, including in RH patients. Accordingly, ABPM is highly recommended to properly diagnose and manage true RH, with a bedtime hypertension medication regimen as the therapeutic scheme of choice.

  6. FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS ON THE BUDGETS OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL UNITS IN THE CONTEXT OF DEFAULT ON ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONEL STEFAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the audit/control missions, there were registered inaccurate situations which concern the correct registration of financial and exceptional operation revenues and expenditures, based on documents attesting their way and content. Thus, in the relation between the local budget of the administrative-territorial unit and two trading companies of local interest, with regard to the granting of subventions to the two companies, there were identified certain value discrepancies between the amounts approved by the local budget, in less and those provided in the budgets of the entities under discussion. The discrepancies of the budgets mentioned above had direct consequences on the reality of financial statements of the respective partners, on their budgets and on the fiscal regimes of the local subordination entities.

  7. Planning intensive care unit design using computer simulation modeling: optimizing integration of clinical, operational, and architectural requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼHara, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Nurses have increasingly been regarded as critical members of the planning team as architects recognize their knowledge and value. But the nurses' role as knowledge experts can be expanded to leading efforts to integrate the clinical, operational, and architectural expertise through simulation modeling. Simulation modeling allows for the optimal merge of multifactorial data to understand the current state of the intensive care unit and predict future states. Nurses can champion the simulation modeling process and reap the benefits of a cost-effective way to test new designs, processes, staffing models, and future programming trends prior to implementation. Simulation modeling is an evidence-based planning approach, a standard, for integrating the sciences with real client data, to offer solutions for improving patient care.

  8. Growth Factor Independence-1 (Gfi1) Is Required for Pancreatic Acinar Unit Formation and Centroacinar Cell Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Xiaoling; Nyeng, Pia; Xiao, Fan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The genetic specification of the compartmentalized pancreatic acinar/centroacinar unit is poorly understood. Growth factor independence-1 (Gfi1) is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor that regulates hematopoietic stem cell maintenance, pre-T-cell differentiation, formation...... of pancreatic acinar cells as well as the centroacinar cells (CACs) in Gfi1(-/-) mice when compared with wild-type littermates. Pancreatic endocrine differentiation, islet architecture, and function were unaffected. Organ domain patterning and the formation of ductal cells occurred normally during the murine...... of granulocytes, inner ear hair cells, and the development of secretory cell types in the intestine. As GFI1/Gfi1 is expressed in human and rodent pancreas, we characterized the potential function of Gfi1 in mouse pancreatic development. METHODS: Gfi1 knockout mice were analyzed at histological and molecular...

  9. Congenital Heart Disease Requiring Maintenance of Ductus Arteriosus in Critically Ill Newborns Admitted at A Tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucerea Manuela

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital heart diseases (CHD have been reported to be responsible for 30 to 50% of infant mortality caused by congenital disabilities. In critical cases, survival of newborns with CHD depends on the patency of the ductus arteriosus (PDA, for maintaining the systemic or pulmonary circulation. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and side effects of PGE (prostaglandin E administration in newborns with critical congenital heart disease requiring maintenance of the ductus arteriosus.

  10. Active and Reserve Unit Costs: DOD Report to Congress Generally Addressed the Statutory Requirements but Lacks Detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, Section 1080A, issued in January 2012, states that such reductions must be balanced with...preparation for future challenges and protection of the broad range of U.S. national security interests. One key to achieving this balance is determining the...addressed the statutory requirements, we used a scorecard methodology in which two analysts independently assessed the extent to which the report’s

  11. Monitoring the inputs required to extend and sustain hygiene promotion: findings from the GLAAS 2013/2014 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Leslie D; Gore, Fiona M; Andre, Nathalie; Cairncross, Sandy; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2016-08-01

    There are significant gaps in information about the inputs required to effectively extend and sustain hygiene promotion activities to improve people's health outcomes through water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We sought to analyse current country and global trends in the use of key inputs required for effective and sustainable implementation of hygiene promotion to help guide hygiene promotion policy and decision-making after 2015. Data collected in response to the GLAAS 2013/2014 survey from 93 countries of 94 were included, and responses were analysed for 12 questions assessing the inputs and enabling environment for hygiene promotion under four thematic areas. Data were included and analysed from 20 External Support Agencies (ESA) of 23 collected through self-administered surveys. Firstly, the data showed a large variation in the way in which hygiene promotion is defined and what constitutes key activities in this area. Secondly, challenges to implement hygiene promotion are considerable: include poor implementation of policies and plans, weak coordination mechanisms, human resource limitations and a lack of available hygiene promotion budget data. Despite the proven benefits of hand washing with soap, a critical hygiene-related factor in minimising infection, GLAAS 2013/2014 survey data showed that hygiene promotion remains a neglected component of WASH. Additional research to identify the context-specific strategies and inputs required to enhance the effectiveness of hygiene promotion at scale are needed. Improved data collection methods are also necessary to advance the availability and reliability of hygiene-specific information. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. FUNCTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR RUSSIAN PULSATING MONITOR DEPLOYMENT IN THE GUNITE AND ASSOCIATED TANKS AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Albert

    1999-01-01

    This document provides functions and requirements to support deployment of pulsating mixer pump technology in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite and Associated Tanks to mobilize and mix the settled sludge and solids in these tanks. In FY 1998 pulsating mixer pump technology, a jet mixer powered by a reciprocating air supply, was selected for FY 1999 deployment in one of the GAAT tanks to mobilize settled solids. Pulsating mixer pump technology was identified in FY 1996 during technical exchanges between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Retrieval and Closure program, the DOE Environmental Management International Programs, and delegates from Russia as a promising technology that could be implemented in the US. The pulsating mixer pump technology, provided by the Russian Integrated Mining Chemical Company, was tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to observe its ability to mobilize settled solids. Based on the results of this demonstration, ORNL and DOE staff determined that a modified pulsating mixer pump would meet project needs for bulk mobilization of Gunite tank sludge prior to deployment of other retrieval systems. The deployment of this device is expected to significantly reduce the costs of operation and maintenance of more expensive retrieval systems. The functions and requirements presented here were developed by evaluating the results and recommendations that resulted from the pulsating mixer pump demonstration at PNNL, and by coupling this with the remediation needs identified by staff at ORNL involved with the remediation of the Gunite and Associated Tanks.

  13. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults in the United Arab Emirates: Clinical Features and Factors Related to Insulin-Requirement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Maddaloni

    Full Text Available To describe and to characterize clinical features of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA compared to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the UAE.In this cross-sectional study a dataset including 18,101 subjects with adult-onset (>30 years diabetes was accessed. 17,072 subjects fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data about anthropometrics, demographics, autoantibodies to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GADA and to Islet Antigen 2 (anti-IA2, HbA1c, cholesterol and blood pressure were extracted. LADA was diagnosed according to GADA and/or anti-IA2 positivity and time to insulin therapy.437 (2.6% patients were identified as LADA and 34 (0.2% as classical type 1 diabetes in adults. Mean age at diagnosis, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and HbA1c significantly differed between, LADA, type 2 and type 1 diabetes, LADA showing halfway features between type 2 and type 1 diabetes. A decreasing trend for age at diagnosis and waist circumference was found among LADA subjects when subdivided by positivity for anti-IA2, GADA or for both antibodies (p=0.013 and p=0.011 for trend, respectively. There was a gradual downward trend in autoantibody titre in LADA subjects requiring insulin within the first year from diagnosis to subjects not requiring insulin after 10 years of follow-up (p<0.001.This is the first study describing the clinical features of LADA in the UAE, which appear to be different from both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we showed that the clinical phenotype of LADA is dependent on different patterns of antibody positivity, influencing the time to insulin requirement.

  14. Wind energy in the United States and materials required for the land-based wind turbine industry from 2010 through 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The generation of electricity in the United States from wind-powered turbines is increasing. An understanding of the sources and abundance of raw materials required by the wind turbine industry and the many uses for these materials is necessary to assess the effect of this industry's growth on future demand for selected raw materials relative to the historical demand for these materials. The U.S. Geological Survey developed estimates of future requirements for raw (and some recycled) materials based on the assumption that wind energy will supply 20 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States by 2030. Economic, environmental, political, and technological considerations and trends reported for 2009 were used as a baseline. Estimates for the quantity of materials in typical "current generation" and "next generation" wind turbines were developed. In addition, estimates for the annual and total material requirements were developed based on the growth necessary for wind energy when converted in a wind powerplant to generate 20 percent of the U.S. supply of electricity by 2030. The results of the study suggest that achieving the market goal of 20 percent by 2030 would require an average annual consumption of about 6.8 million metric tons of concrete, 1.5 million metric tons of steel, 310,000 metric tons of cast iron, 40,000 metric tons of copper, and 380 metric tons of the rare-earth element neodymium. With the exception of neodymium, these material requirements represent less than 3 percent of the U.S. apparent consumption for 2008. Recycled material could supply about 3 percent of the total steel required for wind turbine production from 2010 through 2030, 4 percent of the aluminum required, and 3 percent of the copper required. The data suggest that, with the possible exception of rare-earth elements, there should not be a shortage of the principal materials required for electricity generation from wind energy. There may, however, be selective

  15. Using Vessel Monitoring System Data to Identify and Characterize Trips Made by Fishing Vessels in the United States North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Alan C.

    2016-01-01

    Time spent fishing is the effort metric often studied in fisheries but it may under-represent the effort actually expended by fishers. Entire fishing trips, from the time vessels leave port until they return, may prove more useful for examining trends in fleet dynamics, fisher behavior, and fishing costs. However, such trip information is often difficult to resolve. We identified ~30,000 trips made by vessels that targeted walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) in the Eastern Bering Sea from 2008–2014 by using vessel monitoring system (VMS) and landings data. We compared estimated trip durations to observer data, which were available for approximately half of trips. Total days at sea were estimated with 5 million VMS records (timestamps and vessel locations), this study was as much about understanding and managing data errors as it was about characterizing trips. Missing VMS records were pervasive and they strongly influenced our approach. To understand implications of missing data on inference, we simulated removal of VMS records from trips. Removal of records straightened (i.e., shortened) vessel trajectories, and travel distances were underestimated, on average, by 1.5–13.4% per trip. Despite this bias, VMS proved robust for trip characterization and for improved quality control of human-recorded data. Our scrutiny of human-reported and VMS data advanced our understanding of the potential utility and challenges facing VMS users globally. PMID:27788174

  16. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area, surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in June 2009. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. Three new fractures were identified in the soil cover and were filled with bentonite chips during the inspection. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showed signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations

  17. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2001-08-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning site is located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (Figure 1). This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 23, 2001. Because of questionable representativeness and precision of the results, the site was resampled on June 12, 2001. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the December 1997 Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1997). If after six years the rate of degradation appears to be so slow that the greatest concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) present at the site would not decay within 30 years of the site closure, the site will be reevaluated with consideration to enriching the impacted soil at the site to enhance the degradation process. A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report, samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in TPH concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, the data results from 2000 were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2001 consisted of the following: Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2); Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay

  18. The ED-inpatient dashboard: Uniting emergency and inpatient clinicians to improve the efficiency and quality of care for patients requiring emergency admission to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staib, Andrew; Sullivan, Clair; Jones, Matt; Griffin, Bronwyn; Bell, Anthony; Scott, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Patients who require emergency admission to hospital require complex care that can be fragmented, occurring in the ED, across the ED-inpatient interface (EDii) and subsequently, in their destination inpatient ward. Our hospital had poor process efficiency with slow transit times for patients requiring emergency care. ED clinicians alone were able to improve the processes and length of stay for the patients discharged directly from the ED. However, improving the efficiency of care for patients requiring emergency admission to true inpatient wards required collaboration with reluctant inpatient clinicians. The inpatient teams were uninterested in improving time-based measures of care in isolation, but they were motivated by improving patient outcomes. We developed a dashboard showing process measures such as 4 h rule compliance rate coupled with clinically important outcome measures such as inpatient mortality. The EDii dashboard helped unite both ED and inpatient teams in clinical redesign to improve both efficiencies of care and patient outcomes. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspections conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2011 and July 2012. The annual post-closure site inspections included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspections conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new fractures or extension of existing fractures were observed and no issues with the fence or gate were identified. The vegetation on the cover continues to look healthy, but the biennial vegetation survey conducted during the 2012 inspection indicated that the total foliar cover was slightly higher in 2009 than in 2012. This may be indicative of a decrease in precipitation observed during the 2-year monitoring period. The precipitation totaled 9.9 inches from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011, and 5 inches from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. This decrease in precipitation is also evident in the soil moisture data obtained from the time domain reflectometry sensors. Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 cover is performing as designed, and evapotranspiration is effectively removing water from the cover.

  20. Radial artery applanation tonometry for continuous non-invasive arterial pressure monitoring in intensive care unit patients: comparison with invasively assessed radial arterial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidert, A S; Huber, W; Müller, J N; Schöfthaler, M; Hapfelmeier, A; Langwieser, N; Wagner, J Y; Eyer, F; Schmid, R M; Saugel, B

    2014-03-01

    Radial artery applanation tonometry technology can be used for continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial pressure (AP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate this AP monitoring technology in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in comparison with invasive AP monitoring using a radial arterial catheter. In 24 ICU patients (German university hospital), AP values were simultaneously recorded on a beat-to-beat basis using radial artery applanation tonometry (T-Line system; Tensys Medical, San Diego, CA, USA) and a radial arterial catheter (contralateral arm). The primary endpoint of the study was to investigate the accuracy and precision of the non-invasively assessed AP measurements with the Bland-Altman method based on averaged 10 beat AP epochs (n=2993 10 beat epochs). For mean AP (MAP), systolic AP (SAP), and diastolic AP (DAP), we observed a bias (±standard deviation of the bias; 95% limits of agreement; percentage error) of +2 mm Hg (±6; -11 to +15 mm Hg; 15%), -3 mm Hg (±15; -33 to +27 mm Hg; 23%), and +5 mm Hg (±7; -9 to +19 mm Hg; 22%), respectively. In ICU patients, MAP and DAP measurements obtained using radial artery applanation tonometry show clinically acceptable agreement with invasive AP determination with a radial arterial catheter. While the radial artery applanation tonometry technology also allows SAP measurements with high accuracy, its precision for SAP measurements needs to be further improved.

  1. Establishing Bedding Requirements during Transport and Monitoring Skin Temperature during Cold and Mild Seasons after Transport for Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad aim of this study was to determine whether bedding level in the transport trailer influenced pig performance and welfare. Specifically, the objective was to define the bedding requirements of pigs during transportation in commercial settings during cold and mild weather. Animals (n = 112,078 pigs on 572 trailers used were raised in commercial finishing sites and transported in trailers to commercial processing plants. Dead on arrival (DOA, non-ambulatory (NA, and total dead and down (D&D data were collected and skin surface temperatures of the pigs were measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected during winter (Experiment 1 and fall/spring (Experiment 2. Total D&D percent showed no interaction between bedding level and outside air temperature in any experiments. Average skin surface temperature during unloading increased with outside air temperature linearly in both experiments (P < 0.01. In conclusion, over-use of bedding may be economically inefficient. Pig skin surface temperature could be a useful measure of pig welfare during or after transport.

  2. Bed Unit Disinfection Machine with Real-time Monitoring and Control Functions of Ozone Concentration%可实时监控臭氧浓度的床单位消毒机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨震; 杨树欣; 高磊; 陈爱华; 詹宁波; 田林怀

    2014-01-01

    目的:研制一种床单位臭氧消毒机,提高床单位的杀菌效果。方法设计一种能实时在线检测臭氧浓度的检测系统,并通过89C51单片机控制供给臭氧发生器的电压,实现整个臭氧生产过程的闭环控制。结果消毒机具备臭氧浓度的实时监测和控制功能,使床罩内臭氧浓度保持最佳杀菌效果。结论该床单位臭氧消毒机利用臭氧熏蒸消毒,对多种细菌繁殖体和真菌都有较好的杀灭作用,对床单位实际消毒效果能达到规范的要求。%Objective To improve sterilization effect of bed unit by studying a bed unit ozone disinfection machine. Methods Having the voltage supplied to ozone generator by 89C51 chip, a measurement and control system is designed which could detect the ozone concentration in real-time online, and achieve closed-loop control of the ozone production process. Results With the real-time monitoring and control functions of the ozone concentration, this disinfection machine could keep ozone concentration of bedspread in the best sterilization effect. Conclusion The bed unit ozone disinfection machine has a better effect on killing multiplication bacteria and fungi by ozone fumigation, and achieves speciifcation requirements.

  3. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species - little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus, tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, Indiana myotis (M. sodalis, and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis - in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999-2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11% in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38% in P. subflavus, 30% (±26% in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18% in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and

  4. Using search query surveillance to monitor tax avoidance and smoking cessation following the United States' 2009 "SCHIP" cigarette tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Ribisl, Kurt; Brownstein, John S

    2011-03-16

    Smokers can use the web to continue or quit their habit. Online vendors sell reduced or tax-free cigarettes lowering smoking costs, while health advocates use the web to promote cessation. We examined how smokers' tax avoidance and smoking cessation Internet search queries were motivated by the United States' (US) 2009 State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) federal cigarette excise tax increase and two other state specific tax increases. Google keyword searches among residents in a taxed geography (US or US state) were compared to an untaxed geography (Canada) for two years around each tax increase. Search data were normalized to a relative search volume (RSV) scale, where the highest search proportion was labeled 100 with lesser proportions scaled by how they relatively compared to the highest proportion. Changes in RSV were estimated by comparing means during and after the tax increase to means before the tax increase, across taxed and untaxed geographies. The SCHIP tax was associated with an 11.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 5.7 to 17.9; ptax levels in Canada during the months after the tax. Tax avoidance searches increased 27.9% (95%CI, 15.9 to 39.9; ptax compared to Canada, respectively, suggesting avoidance is the more pronounced and durable response. Trends were similar for state-specific tax increases but suggest strong interactive processes across taxes. When the SCHIP tax followed Florida's tax, versus not, it promoted more cessation and avoidance searches. Efforts to combat tax avoidance and increase cessation may be enhanced by using interventions targeted and tailored to smokers' searches. Search query surveillance is a valuable real-time, free and public method, that may be generalized to other behavioral, biological, informational or psychological outcomes manifested online.

  5. Requirements for an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) for Improved Regional Weather Prediction and Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral infrared atmospheric sounders (e.g., the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on Met Op) provide highly accurate temperature and water vapor profiles in the lower to upper troposphere. These systems are vital operational components of our National Weather Prediction system and the AIRS has demonstrated over 6 hrs of forecast improvement on the 5 day operational forecast. Despite the success in the mid troposphere to lower stratosphere, a reduction in sensitivity and accuracy has been seen in these systems in the boundary layer over land. In this paper we demonstrate the potential improvement associated with higher spatial resolution (1 km vs currently 13.5 km) on the accuracy of boundary layer products with an added consequence of higher yield of cloud free scenes. This latter feature is related to the number of samples that can be assimilated and has also shown to have a significant impact on improving forecast accuracy. We also present a set of frequencies and resolutions that will improve vertical resolution of temperature and water vapor and trace gas species throughout the atmosphere. Development of an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) with these improvements will improve weather forecast at the regional scale and of tropical storms and hurricanes. Improvements are also expected in the accuracy of the water vapor and cloud properties products, enhancing process studies and providing a better match to the resolution of future climate models. The improvements of technology required for the ALS are consistent with the current state of technology as demonstrated in NASA Instrument Incubator Program and NOAA's Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) formulation phase development programs.

  6. Requirements for an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) for improved regional weather prediction and monitoring of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Susskind, Joel

    2008-12-01

    Hyperspectral infrared atmospheric sounders (e.g. the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on MetOp) provide highly accurate temperature and water vapor profiles in the lower to upper troposphere. These systems are vital operational components of our National Weather Prediction system and the AIRS has demonstrated over 6 hrs of forecast improvement on the 5 day operational forecast1. Despite the success in the mid troposphere to lower stratosphere, a reduction in sensitivity and accuracy has been seen in these systems in the boundary layer over land. In this paper we demonstrate the potential improvement associated with higher spatial resolution (1km vs currently 13.5 km) on the accuracy of boundary layer products with an added consequence of higher yield of cloud free scenes. This latter feature is related to the number of samples that can be assimilated and has also shown to have a significant impact on improving forecast accuracy. We also present a set of frequencies and resolutions that will improve vertical resolution of temperature and water vapor and trace gas species throughout the atmosphere. Development of an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) with these improvements will improve weather forecast at the regional scale and of tropical storms and hurricanes. Improvements are also expected in the accuracy of the water vapor and cloud properties products, enhancing process studies and providing a better match to the resolution of future climate models. The improvements of technology required for the ALS are consistent with the current state of technology as demonstrated in NASA Instrument Incubator Program and NOAA's Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) formulation phase development programs.

  7. Monitoring madness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-01-15

    High quality continuous emission monitoring capability can be as essential as high quality emission control equipment. Future mercury monitoring and control requirements add to the justification for better CEMS. The article discusses two prominent mercury measurement methods - the cold vapour atomic absorptive spectrometer (CVAAs) and the atomic absorptive spectrometer (AFS). It stresses the importance of maintaining a CEMS. 1 photo.

  8. Performance characterization of siemens primus linear accelerator under small monitor unit and small segments for the implementation of step-and-shoot intensitymodulated radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT needs careful understanding of the accelerator start-up characteristic to ensure accurate and precise delivery of radiation dose to patient. The dosimetric characteristic of a Siemens Primus linear accelerator (LA which delivers 6 and 18 MV x-rays at the dose rate of 300 and 500 monitor unit (MU per minutes (min respectively was studied under the condition of small MU ranging from 1 to 100. Dose monitor linearity was studied at different dose calibration parameter (D1_C0 by measuring ionization at 10 cm depth in a solid water phantom using a 0.6 cc ionization chamber. Monitor unit stability was studied from different intensity modulated (IM groups comprising various combinations of MU per field and number of fields. Stability of beam flatness and symmetry was investigated under normal and IMRT mode for 20x20 cm2 field under small MU using a 2D Profiler kept isocentrically at 5 cm depth. Inter segment response was investigated form 1 to 10 MU by measuring the dose per MU from various IM groups, each consisting of four segments with inter-segment separation of 2 cm. In the range 1-4 MU, the dose linearity error was more than 5% (max -32% at 1 MU for 6 MV x-rays at factory calibrated D1_C0 value of 6000. The dose linearity error was reduced to -10.95% at 1 MU, within -3% for 2 and 3 MU and ±1% for MU ≥4 when the D1_C0 was subsequently tuned at 4500. For 18 MV x-rays, the dose linearity error at factory calibrated D1_C0 value of 4400 was within ±1% for MU ≥ 3 with maximum of -13.5 observed at 1 MU. For both the beam energies and MU/field ≥ 4, the stability of monitor unit tested for different IM groups was within ±1% of the dose from the normal treatment field. This variation increases to -2.6% for 6 MV and -2.7% for 18 MV x-rays for 2 MU/field. No significant variation was observed in the stability of beam profile measured from normal and IMRT mode. The beam flatness

  9. Using search query surveillance to monitor tax avoidance and smoking cessation following the United States' 2009 "SCHIP" cigarette tax increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Ayers

    Full Text Available Smokers can use the web to continue or quit their habit. Online vendors sell reduced or tax-free cigarettes lowering smoking costs, while health advocates use the web to promote cessation. We examined how smokers' tax avoidance and smoking cessation Internet search queries were motivated by the United States' (US 2009 State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP federal cigarette excise tax increase and two other state specific tax increases. Google keyword searches among residents in a taxed geography (US or US state were compared to an untaxed geography (Canada for two years around each tax increase. Search data were normalized to a relative search volume (RSV scale, where the highest search proportion was labeled 100 with lesser proportions scaled by how they relatively compared to the highest proportion. Changes in RSV were estimated by comparing means during and after the tax increase to means before the tax increase, across taxed and untaxed geographies. The SCHIP tax was associated with an 11.8% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 5.7 to 17.9; p<.001 immediate increase in cessation searches; however, searches quickly abated and approximated differences from pre-tax levels in Canada during the months after the tax. Tax avoidance searches increased 27.9% (95%CI, 15.9 to 39.9; p<.001 and 5.3% (95%CI, 3.6 to 7.1; p<.001 during and in the months after the tax compared to Canada, respectively, suggesting avoidance is the more pronounced and durable response. Trends were similar for state-specific tax increases but suggest strong interactive processes across taxes. When the SCHIP tax followed Florida's tax, versus not, it promoted more cessation and avoidance searches. Efforts to combat tax avoidance and increase cessation may be enhanced by using interventions targeted and tailored to smokers' searches. Search query surveillance is a valuable real-time, free and public method, that may be generalized to other behavioral, biological

  10. Associations between statewide prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) requirement and physician patterns of prescribing opioid analgesics for patients with non-cancer chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Wang, Zhi; Boyd, Carol; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Buu, Anne

    2018-01-01

    State-level prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) have been implemented in most states. PDMPs enable registered prescribers to obtain real-time information on patients' prescription history to reduce non-medical use of controlled drugs. This study examined whether PDMP implementation and different levels of PDMP requirements were associated with physicians' patterns of prescribing opioid analgesics for patients with non-cancer chronic pain. This is a secondary analysis study using cross-sectional national data. Patients with non-cancer chronic pain from the 2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were included (weighted N=81,018,131; unweighted N=3295). Heckman two-step selection procedure employing two logistic regressions was used to explore the associations between PDMP requirements and physicians' prescribing behaviors, controlling for physician characteristics, patient characteristics, physician-healthcare system interaction, and physician-patient relationship, guided by the Eisenberg's model of physician decision making. State PDMP implementation status and requirement levels were not associated with physician opioid prescribing for non-cancer chronic pain treatment (p's ranged 0.30-0.32). Patients with Medicare coverage were more likely to be prescribed opioid analgesics than those with private health insurance (OR=1.55, prequirements and enforcement for prescribers and related stakeholders. Future studies also are needed to identify characteristics contributing to PDMP effectiveness in reducing non-medical use of prescription opioids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Insights into the problem of alarm fatigue with physiologic monitor devices: a comprehensive observational study of consecutive intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Barbara J; Harris, Patricia; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K; Mammone, Tina; Schindler, Daniel; Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Ding, Quan; Hu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Physiologic monitors are plagued with alarms that create a cacophony of sounds and visual alerts causing "alarm fatigue" which creates an unsafe patient environment because a life-threatening event may be missed in this milieu of sensory overload. Using a state-of-the-art technology acquisition infrastructure, all monitor data including 7 ECG leads, all pressure, SpO(2), and respiration waveforms as well as user settings and alarms were stored on 461 adults treated in intensive care units. Using a well-defined alarm annotation protocol, nurse scientists with 95% inter-rater reliability annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms. A total of 2,558,760 unique alarms occurred in the 31-day study period: arrhythmia, 1,154,201; parameter, 612,927; technical, 791,632. There were 381,560 audible alarms for an audible alarm burden of 187/bed/day. 88.8% of the 12,671 annotated arrhythmia alarms were false positives. Conditions causing excessive alarms included inappropriate alarm settings, persistent atrial fibrillation, and non-actionable events such as PVC's and brief spikes in ST segments. Low amplitude QRS complexes in some, but not all available ECG leads caused undercounting and false arrhythmia alarms. Wide QRS complexes due to bundle branch block or ventricular pacemaker rhythm caused false alarms. 93% of the 168 true ventricular tachycardia alarms were not sustained long enough to warrant treatment. The excessive number of physiologic monitor alarms is a complex interplay of inappropriate user settings, patient conditions, and algorithm deficiencies. Device solutions should focus on use of all available ECG leads to identify non-artifact leads and leads with adequate QRS amplitude. Devices should provide prompts to aide in more appropriate tailoring of alarm settings to individual patients. Atrial fibrillation alarms should be limited to new onset and termination of the arrhythmia and delays for ST-segment and other parameter alarms should be configurable. Because computer

  12. Insights into the problem of alarm fatigue with physiologic monitor devices: a comprehensive observational study of consecutive intensive care unit patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J Drew

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physiologic monitors are plagued with alarms that create a cacophony of sounds and visual alerts causing "alarm fatigue" which creates an unsafe patient environment because a life-threatening event may be missed in this milieu of sensory overload. Using a state-of-the-art technology acquisition infrastructure, all monitor data including 7 ECG leads, all pressure, SpO(2, and respiration waveforms as well as user settings and alarms were stored on 461 adults treated in intensive care units. Using a well-defined alarm annotation protocol, nurse scientists with 95% inter-rater reliability annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms. RESULTS: A total of 2,558,760 unique alarms occurred in the 31-day study period: arrhythmia, 1,154,201; parameter, 612,927; technical, 791,632. There were 381,560 audible alarms for an audible alarm burden of 187/bed/day. 88.8% of the 12,671 annotated arrhythmia alarms were false positives. Conditions causing excessive alarms included inappropriate alarm settings, persistent atrial fibrillation, and non-actionable events such as PVC's and brief spikes in ST segments. Low amplitude QRS complexes in some, but not all available ECG leads caused undercounting and false arrhythmia alarms. Wide QRS complexes due to bundle branch block or ventricular pacemaker rhythm caused false alarms. 93% of the 168 true ventricular tachycardia alarms were not sustained long enough to warrant treatment. DISCUSSION: The excessive number of physiologic monitor alarms is a complex interplay of inappropriate user settings, patient conditions, and algorithm deficiencies. Device solutions should focus on use of all available ECG leads to identify non-artifact leads and leads with adequate QRS amplitude. Devices should provide prompts to aide in more appropriate tailoring of alarm settings to individual patients. Atrial fibrillation alarms should be limited to new onset and termination of the arrhythmia and delays for ST-segment and other parameter

  13. POST-CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 91: AREA 3 U3fi INJECTION WELL, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA FOR THE PERIOD NOVEMBER 2003 - OCTOBER 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-01-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary of inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 91: Area 3 U-3fi Injection Well, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This report covers the annual period November 2003 through October 2004. Site inspections of CAU 91 are performed every six months to identify any significant changes that could impact the proper operation of the waste disposal unit. Inspection results for the current period indicate that the overall condition of the concrete pad, perimeter fence, and warning signs is good.

  14. 40 CFR Table 32 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units Not Subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recovery unit: Option 1 (Elect NSPS). Measure SO2 concentration (for an oxidation or reduction system... HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units Not Subject to the New Source Performance Standards for...: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU, Table 32...

  15. High-resolution monitoring of stormwater quality in an urbanising catchment in the United Kingdom during the 2013/2014 winter storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, S. J.; Hutchins, M. G.; Kjeldsen, T. R.; Miller, J. D.; Bussi, G.; Loewenthal, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are widely recognised as a key source of contaminants entering our freshwater systems, yet in spite of this, our understanding of stormwater quality dynamics remains limited. The development of in-situ, high-resolution monitoring equipment has revolutionised our capability to capture flow and water quality data at a sub-hourly resolution, enabling us to potentially enhance our understanding of hydrochemical variations from contrasting landscapes during storm events. During the winter of 2013/2014, the United Kingdom experienced a succession of intense storm events, where the south of the country experienced 200% of the average rainfall, resulting in widespread flooding across the Thames basin. We applied high-frequency (15 minute resolution) water quality monitoring across ten contrasting subcatchments (including rural, urban and mixed land-use catchments), seeking to classify the disparity in water quality conditions both within- and between events. Rural catchments increasingly behave like "urban" catchments as soils wet up and become increasingly responsive to subsequent events, however water quality response during the winter months remains limited. By contrast, increasingly urban catchments yield greater contaminant loads during events, and pre-event baseline chemistry highlights a resupply source in dense urban catchments. Wastewater treatment plants were shown to dominate baseline chemistry during low-flow events but also yield a considerable impact on stormwater outputs during peak-flow events, as hydraulic push results in the outflow of untreated solid wastes into the river system. Results are discussed in the context of water quality policy; urban growth scenarios and BMP for stormwater runoff in contrasting landscapes.

  16. Monitoramento de fungos anemófilos e de leveduras em unidade hospitalar Monitoring of airborne fungus and yeast species in a hospital unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nelson Martins-Diniz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Monitorar e caracterizar fungos anemófilos e leveduras de fontes bióticas e abióticas de uma unidade hospitalar. MÉTODOS: As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente e em dois períodos, do centro cirúrgico e unidades de terapia intensiva adulto e neonatal em hospital de Araraquara, Estado de São Paulo. Para coleta de fungos anemófilos foi utilizado amostrador tipo Andersen de simples estágio. A pesquisa de leveduras foi feita das mãos e de orofaringe de profissionais de saúde, bem como de superfícies de leitos e de maçanetas das áreas críticas. RESULTADOS: Foram recuperados do centro cirúrgico 32 gêneros de fungos anemófilos e 31 das unidades de terapia intensiva. Os gêneros mais freqüentemente isolados foram Cladophialophora spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Chrysosporium spp. e Aspergillus spp. Durante o período de estudo, houve reforma e implantação de uma unidade dentro do hospital, que coincidiu com o aumento na contagem de colônias de Cladophialophora spp., Aspergillus spp. e Fusarium spp. Leveduras foram encontradas em 39,4% dos profissionais de saúde (16,7% das amostras dos espaços interdigitais, 12,1% do leito subungueal e 10,6% da orofaringe e, em 44% das amostras do mobiliário, com predomínio do gênero Candida (C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis e C. lusitaniae seguido por Trichosporon spp. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se número relativamente elevado de fungos anemófilos (potencialmente patogênicos em áreas especiais e níveis expressivos de leveduras em fontes bióticas e abióticas. O monitoramento microbiológico ambiental deve ser realizado, principalmente em salas especiais com pacientes imunocomprometidos, sujeitos à exposição de patógenos do meio ambiente, assim como, advindos de profissionais de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To monitor and characterize airborne filamentous fungi and yeasts from abiotic and biotic sources within a hospital unit. METHODS: Collections were carried out on

  17. 40 CFR 96.170 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems required to monitor NOX emission rate, NOX concentration, stack gas moisture content, stack gas...) For the owner or operator of a CAIR NOX unit for which construction of a new stack or flue or... first, after the date on which emissions first exit to the atmosphere through the new stack or flue...

  18. 40 CFR 96.270 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... systems required to monitor SO2 concentration, stack gas moisture content, stack gas flow rate, CO2 or O2... SO2 unit for which construction of a new stack or flue or installation of add-on SO2 emission controls... emissions first exit to the atmosphere through the new stack or flue or add-on SO2 emissions controls....

  19. Improvement of in-hospital telemetry monitoring in coronary care units: an intervention study for achieving optimal electrode placement and attachment, hygiene and delivery of critical information to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Trond R; Fålun, Nina; Norekvål, Tone M

    2014-12-01

    In-hospital telemetry monitoring is important for diagnosis and treatment of patients at risk of developing life-threatening arrhythmias. It is widely used in critical and non-critical care wards. Nurses are responsible for correct electrode placement, thus ensuring optimal quality of the monitoring. The aims of this study were to determine whether a complex educational intervention improves (a) optimal electrode placement, (b) hygiene, and (c) delivery of critical information to patients (reason for monitoring, limitations in cellular phone use, and not to leave the ward without informing a member of staff). A prospective interventional study design was used, with data collection occurring over two six-week periods: before implementation of the intervention (n=201) and after the intervention (n=165). Standard abstraction forms were used to obtain data on patients' clinical characteristics, and 10 variables related to electrode placement and attachment, hygiene and delivery of critical information. At pre-intervention registration, 26% of the electrodes were misplaced. Twelve per cent of the patients received information about limiting their cellular phone use while monitored, 70% were informed of the purpose of monitoring, and 71% used a protective cover for their unit. Post-intervention, outcome measures for the three variables improved significantly: use of protective cover (p<0.001), information about the purpose of monitoring (p=0.005) and information about limitations in cellular phone use (p=0.003). Nonetheless, 23% of the electrodes were still misplaced. The study highlights the need for better, continued education for in-hospital telemetry monitoring in coronary care units, and other units that monitor patients with telemetry. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013.

  20. Monitoring environmental quality at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert V. O' Neill; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; K. Bruce Jones; Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Paul M. Schwartz; Iris A. Goodman; Barbara L. Jackson; William S. Baillargeon

    1997-01-01

    Over the past century, technological advances have greatly improved the standard of living in the United States. But these same advances have caused sweeping environmental changes, often unforeseen and potentially irreparable. Ethical stewardship of the environment requires that society monitor and assess environmental changes at the national scale with a view toward...