WorldWideScience

Sample records for monitor unit rate

  1. On the hazard rate process for imperfectly monitored multi-unit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)]. E-mail: anne.barros@utt.fr; Berenguer, C. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Grall, A. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a stochastic model to characterize the failure distribution of multi-unit systems when the current units state is imperfectly monitored. The definition of the hazard rate process existing with perfect monitoring is extended to the realistic case where the units failure time are not always detected (non-detection events). The so defined observed hazard rate process gives a better representation of the system behavior than the classical failure rate calculated without any information on the units state and than the hazard rate process based on perfect monitoring information. The quality of this representation is, however, conditioned by the monotony property of the process. This problem is mainly discussed and illustrated on a practical example (two parallel units). The results obtained motivate the use of the observed hazard rate process to characterize the stochastic behavior of the multi-unit systems and to optimize for example preventive maintenance policies.

  2. Heart rate monitoring on the stroke unit. What does heart beat tell about prognosis? An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stypmann Jörg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines recommend maintaining the heart rate (HR of acute stroke patients within physiological limits; data on the frequency and predictors of significant deviations from these limits are scarce. Methods Demographical data, stroke risk factors, NIH stroke scale score, lesion size and location, and ECG parameters were prospectively assessed in 256 patients with ischemic stroke. Patients were continuously monitored for at least 24 hours on a certified stroke unit. Tachycardia (HR ≥120 bpm and bradycardia (HR Results HR ≥120 bpm occurred in 39 patients (15%. Stroke severity (larger lesion size/higher NIHSS-score on admission, atrial fibrillation and HR on admission predicted its occurrence. HR Conclusions Significant tachycardia and bradycardia are frequent phenomena in acute stroke; however they do not independently predict clinical course or outcome. Continuous monitoring allows detecting rhythm disturbances in stroke patients and allows deciding whether urgent medical treatment is necessary.

  3. Heart Rate Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  4. Can we improve the early detection of atrial fibrillation in a stroke unit? Detection rate of a monitor with integrated detection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo-Manso, Juan Jose; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Fuentes, Blanca; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Sanz-Cuesta, Borja Enrique; Prefasi, Daniel; Juarez-Martin, Belén; Navarro-Parias, Azahara; Parrilla-Novo, Pilar; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2016-02-01

    It is unknown whether monitors that include atrial fibrillation recognition software (AF-RS) increase the rate of early atrial fibrillation (AF) detection in acute stroke. We aimed to evaluate the AF detection rate of an AF-RS monitor and compare it with standard monitoring. This was a retrospective, single-centre observational study conducted on consecutive patients with acute transient ischaemic attack or brain infarction attended in a stroke unit (SU) with six beds. Five beds had a standard monitor with a three-lead electrocardiogram (ECG)-tracing monitor that did not automatically detect AF, and one bed had a 12-lead ECG monitor with integrated AF-RS. All patients were monitored for at least 24 h and underwent a daily ECG during their stay in the SU. In case of unknown stroke aetiology, the patients underwent 24 h Holter monitoring. A total of 76 patients were included: 59 patients in the standard monitor group and 17 patients in the AF-RS monitor group. The mean age was 72.11 (±13.09) years, and 59.2% were men. A total of 20 new cases of AF were identified. The AF-RS monitor showed a higher rate of AF detection than the standard devices (57.1% vs 7.7%, p=0.031). The AF-RS monitor showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of 57.1%, 100%, 100% and 76.9%, respectively. For the standard monitors, these values were 7.7%, 100%, 100% and 79.3%, respectively. The monitor with AF-RS demonstrated a higher detection rate for AF than standard ECG monitoring in acute stroke patients in a SU. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  5. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  6. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  7. Collision Rate Monitors for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E; Burger, S; Byrd, J M; Chow, K; Dutriat, C; Jolliot, M; Lefèvre, T; Matis, H S; Monroy, M; Talanov, V; Turner, W C; Ratti, A; Renet, S

    2007-01-01

    Collision rate monitors are essential in bringing particle beams into collision and optimizing the performances of a collider. In the case of LHC the relative luminosity will be monitored by measuring the flux of small angle neutral particles produced in the collisions. Due to the very different luminosity levels at the four interaction regions (IR) of LHC two different types of monitors have been developed. At the high luminosity IR (ATLAS and CMS) fast ionization chambers will be installed while at the other two (ALICE and LHC-b) solid state polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors will be used. The ionization chambers are being developed by LBNL while the CdTe monitors are being developed by CERN and CEA-LETI.

  8. Impact of different leaf velocities and dose rates on the number of monitor units and the dose-volume-histograms using intensity modulated radiotherapy with sliding-window technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Clemens F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT using sliding window technique utilises a leaf sequencing algorithm, which takes some control system limitations like dose rates (DR and velocity of the leafs (LV into account. The effect of altering these limitations on the number of monitor units and radiation dose to the organs at risk (OAR were analysed. Methods IMRT plans for different LVs from 1.0 cm/sec to 10.0 cm/sec and different DRs from 100 MU/min to 600 MU/min for two patients with prostate cancer and two patients with squamous cell cancer of the scalp (SCCscalp were calculated using the same "optimal fluence map". For each field the number of monitor units, the dose volume histograms and the differences in the "actual fluence maps" of the fields were analysed. Results With increase of the DR and decrease of the LV the number of monitor units increased and consequentially the radiation dose given to the OAR. In particular the serial OARs of patients with SCCscalp, which are located outside the end position of the leafs and inside the open field, received an additional dose of a higher DR and lower LV is used. Conclusion For best protection of organs at risk, a low DR and high LV should be applied. But the consequence of a low DR is both a long treatment time and also that a LV of higher than 3.0 cm/sec is mechanically not applicable. Our recommendation for an optimisation of the discussed parameters is a leaf velocity of 2.5 cm/sec and a dose rate of 300–400 MU/min (prostate cancer and 100–200 MU/min (SCCscalp for best protection of organs at risk, short treatment time and number of monitor units.

  9. Credit Ratings and Bank Monitoring Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, L.I.; Roszbach, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use credit rating data from two Swedish banks to elicit evidence on these banks’ loan monitoring ability. We do so by comparing the ability of bank ratings to predict loan defaults relative to that of public ratings from the Swedish credit bureau. We test the banks’ abilility to for

  10. Intelligent monitoring system for intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouira, Kaouther; Trabelsi, Abdelwahed

    2012-08-01

    We address in the present paper a medical monitoring system designed as a multi-agent based approach. Our system includes mainly numerous agents that act as correlated multi-agent sub-systems at the three layers of the whole monitoring infrastructure, to avoid non informative alarms and send effective alarms at time. The intelligence in the proposed monitoring system is provided by the use of time series technology. In fact, the capability of continuous learning of time series from the physiological variables allows the design of a system that monitors patients in real-time. Such system is a contrast to the classical threshold-based monitoring system actually present in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) which causes a huge number of irrelevant alarms.

  11. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the process of checking the condition of your baby during labor and delivery by monitoring his or her heart rate with ... health care provider may decide to deliver the baby right away. In this case, the delivery of the baby is more likely to be ...

  12. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  13. FPGA Implementation of Heart Rate Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, D; Rakshit, M; Sahu, P K

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a system that calculates the heart rate from Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. After heart rate calculation, tachycardia, bradycardia or normal heart rate can easily be detected. ECG is a diagnosis tool routinely used to access the electrical activities and muscular function of the heart. Heart rate is calculated by detecting the R peaks from the ECG signal. To provide a portable and the continuous heart rate monitoring system for patients using ECG, needs a dedicated hardware. FPGA provides easy testability, allows faster implementation and verification option for implementing a new design. We have proposed a five-stage based methodology by using basic VHDL blocks like addition, multiplication and data conversion (real to the fixed point and vice-versa). Our proposed heart rate calculation (R-peak detection) method has been validated, using 48 first channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. It shows an accuracy of 99.84%, the sensitivity of 99.94% and the positive predictive value of 99.89%. Our proposed method outperforms other well-known methods in case of pathological ECG signals and successfully implemented in FPGA.

  14. Routine polysomnography in an epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew C L; Costello, Craig A; White, Elise J; Smit, Michelle; Carino, John; Strawhorn, Andrew; Jackson, Brianna; Kwan, Patrick; French, Christopher R; Yerra, S Raju; Tan, K Meng; O'Brien, Terence J; Goldin, Jeremy

    2013-08-01

    Up to 13% of patients with epilepsy have moderate or severe sleep-disordered breathing, in particular obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a disorder associated with reduced quality of life, worsened seizure control, and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Combining video-EEG monitoring with polysomnography (VPSG) provides the opportunity to diagnose clinically significant OSA as well as relate the occurrence of seizures and the epilepsy diagnosis to the presence and severity of sleep-disordered breathing. We have established routine VPSG in our inpatient video-EEG monitoring unit and present our findings in 87 patients. Clinically significant sleep-disordered breathing was diagnosed in 19 of 87 (22%) patients. Patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) had poorer sleep quality compared to patients with epilepsy and those with neither diagnosis, whereas the prevalence of clinically significant sleep-disordered breathing in patients with PNES (29%) did not differ significantly compared to patients with epilepsy (21%) and those with neither diagnosis (22%). The differences in sleep quality are not explained by differences in body mass index (BMI) or anti-epileptic drug (AED) effects.

  15. Bluetooth Heart Rate Monitors for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, R. E.; West, M. R.; Kalogera, K. L.; Hanson, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required for crewmembers during exercise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data are required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth heart rate monitors (BT HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health aboard the ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) were worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT HRM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the 2 data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. RESULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6% error), followed by CS4 (3.3% error), CS3 (6.4% error), and CS2 (9.2% error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, but unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to obtain the best quality data. CS2 will be

  16. Bluetooth Heart Rate Monitors For Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, R. E.; West, M. R.; Kalogera, K. L.; Hanson, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required for crewmembers during exercise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data are required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health aboard the ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) were worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_HRM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the 2 data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. RESULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6% error), followed by CS4 (3.3% error), CS3 (6.4% error), and CS2 (9.2% error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, but unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to obtain the best quality data. CS2 will be

  17. A Wearable Capacitive Sensor for Monitoring Human Respiratory Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Subrata Kumar; Kumagai, Shinya; Sasaki, Minoru

    2013-04-01

    Realizing an untethered, low-cost, and comfortably wearable respiratory rate sensor for long-term breathing monitoring application still remains a challenge. In this paper, a conductive-textile-based wearable respiratory rate sensing technique based on the capacitive sensing approach is proposed. The sensing unit consists of two conductive textile electrodes that can be easily fabricated, laminated, and integrated in garments. Respiration cycle is detected by measuring the capacitance of two electrodes placed on the inner anterior and posterior sides of a T-shirt at either the abdomen or chest position. A convenient wearable respiratory sensor setup with a capacitance-to-voltage converter has been devised. Respiratory rate as well as breathing mode can be accurately identified using the designed sensor. The sensor output provides significant information on respiratory flow. The effectiveness of the proposed system for different breathing patterns has been evaluated by experiments.

  18. Monitoring Error Rates In Illumina Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Leigh J.; Ma, Duanduan; Levine, Stuart S.

    2016-01-01

    Guaranteeing high-quality next-generation sequencing data in a rapidly changing environment is an ongoing challenge. The introduction of the Illumina NextSeq 500 and the depreciation of specific metrics from Illumina's Sequencing Analysis Viewer (SAV; Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) have made it more difficult to determine directly the baseline error rate of sequencing runs. To improve our ability to measure base quality, we have created an open-source tool to construct the Percent Perfect Reads (PPR) plot, previously provided by the Illumina sequencers. The PPR program is compatible with HiSeq 2000/2500, MiSeq, and NextSeq 500 instruments and provides an alternative to Illumina's quality value (Q) scores for determining run quality. Whereas Q scores are representative of run quality, they are often overestimated and are sourced from different look-up tables for each platform. The PPR’s unique capabilities as a cross-instrument comparison device, as a troubleshooting tool, and as a tool for monitoring instrument performance can provide an increase in clarity over SAV metrics that is often crucial for maintaining instrument health. These capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27672352

  19. 40 CFR 62.15275 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 62.15275 Section 62.15275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... August 30, 1999 Other Monitoring Requirements § 62.15275 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans...

  20. Initial Survey Instructions for management unit water monitoring : level

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.08 management unit water monitoring (level) survey on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This survey is conducted weekly and is...

  1. Jaguar surveying and monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie

    2016-06-10

    Because of the jaguar’s (Panthera onca) endangered status under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 throughout its range (from Arizona in the north to Argentina in the south), jaguar individuals and populations are monitored to varying degrees throughout their range. Knowledge gained from monitoring jaguars is helpful for wildlife managers who are responsible for conserving this species. The University of Arizona (UA) has conducted a multiyear surveying and monitoring effort for jaguars and ocelots in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The purpose of this work was to establish an effective surveying and monitoring system for jaguars along the United States-Mexico border. Surveying and monitoring in this study focused on the United States side of the border, but the methods could also be used in Mexico. The intent was to develop and implement a surveying and monitoring system that would provide the greatest probability of recording jaguar presence in, and passage through, the border area.

  2. Monitoring hearing loss at United Airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J H; Harper, R

    1981-08-01

    The airlines are a highly diversified industry. Their major concerns are in the safe transportation of passengers and cargo with on time arrival and departure of its aircraft at various locations throughout the world. The challenge the airlines face is in the development and administration of an effective hearing conservation program that will produce valid audiometry at all of its logistic operations and yet be economically feasible and practical. The methods and techniques used by United Airlines to develop and administer an effective hearing conservation program are presented here. Guidelines employing the OSHA Noise Exposure Standard were incorporated in the program requirements as set forth by the medical department.

  3. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  4. Monitoring the injured brain in the intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of managing patients with acute brain injury in the intensive care unit is to minimise secondary injury by maintaining cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. The mechanisms of secondary injury are frequently triggered by secondary insults, which may be subtle and remain undetected by the usual systemic physiological monitoring. Continuous monitoring of the central nervous system in the intensive care unit can serve two functions. Firstly it will help early detection of these secondary cerebral insults so that appropriate interventions can be instituted. Secondly, it can help to monitor therapeutic interventions and provide online feedback. This review focuses on the monitoring of intracranial pressure, blood flow to the brain (Transcranial Doppler, cerebral oxygenation using the methods of jugular bulb oximetry, near infrared spectroscopy and implantable sensors, and the monitoring of function using electrophysiological techniques.

  5. A maintenance policy for two-unit parallel systems based on imperfect monitoring information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Anne [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)]. E-mail: anne.barros@utt.fr; Berenguer, Christophe [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France); Grall, Antoine [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)

    2006-02-01

    In this paper a maintenance policy is optimised for a two-unit system with a parallel structure and stochastic dependences. Monitoring problems are taken into account in the optimisation scheme: the failure time of each unit can be not detected with a given probability. Conditions on the system parameters (unit failure rates) and on the non-detection probabilities must be verified to make the optimisation scheme valid. These conditions are clearly identified. Numerical experiments allow to show the relevance of taking into account monitoring problems in the maintenance model.

  6. Monitoring nocturnal heart rate with bed sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, M; Kortelainen, J M; Pärkkä, J; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S L; Bianchi, A M

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems". The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of the estimated Nocturnal Heart Rate (HR), recorded through a bed sensor, compared with the one obtained from standard electrocardiography (ECG). Twenty-eight sleep deprived patients were recorded for one night each through matrix of piezoelectric sensors, integrated into the mattress, through polysomnography (PSG) simultaneously. The two recording methods have been compared in terms of signal quality and differences in heart beat detection. On average, coverage of 92.7% of the total sleep time was obtained for the bed sensor, testifying the good quality of the recordings. The average beat-to-beat error of the inter-beat intervals was 1.06%. These results suggest a good overall signal quality, however, considering fast heart rates (HR > 100 bpm), performances were worse: in fact, the sensitivity in the heart beat detection was 28.4% while the false positive rate was 3.8% which means that a large amount of fast beats were not detected. The accuracy of the measurements made using the bed sensor has less than 10% of failure rate especially in periods with HR lower than 70 bpm. For fast heart beats the uncertainty increases. This can be explained by the change in morphology of the bed sensor signal in correspondence of a higher HR.

  7. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  8. A monitor unit "odometer" for measuring linac workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M D; Larkin, J J; Léger, P; Podgorsak, E B

    2001-12-01

    The annual linac workload is often required by regulatory agencies to assess compliance with license conditions. Summation of the monitor units produced by the machine is generally used for this purpose. Various methods of estimating this value have inherent inaccuracies. We have built an integrating Monitor Unit "odometer" that is able to automatically accumulate all MUs delivered by the linac and segregate the total by mode (photon or electron) and energy. The device has been used to record clinical linac MU workloads for 10 months, and was installed in a new dual-energy linac during the acceptance and commissioning process.

  9. The extratemporal lobe epilepsies in the epilepsy monitoring unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Deepa; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit. PMID:24791090

  10. 40 CFR 60.1330 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1330 Section 60.1330 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Requirements § 60.1330 How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet...

  11. Using photoplethysmography in heart rate monitoring of patients with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, Judith; Ungureanu, Constantin; Aarts, Ronald; Leijten, Frans; Arends, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate is a useful neurophysiological sign when monitoring seizures in patients with epilepsy. In an ambulatory setting, heart rate is measured with ECG involving electrodes on the skin. This method is uncomfortable which is burdensome for patients and is sensitive to motion artifacts, which dec

  12. Using photoplethysmography in heart rate monitoring of patients with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, Judith; Ungureanu, Constantin; Aarts, Ronald; Leijten, Frans; Arends, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate is a useful neurophysiological sign when monitoring seizures in patients with epilepsy. In an ambulatory setting, heart rate is measured with ECG involving electrodes on the skin. This method is uncomfortable which is burdensome for patients and is sensitive to motion artifacts, which

  13. ATLAS trigger operations: Monitoring with ``Xmon'' rate prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukerman, Andrew; Hong, Tae Min

    2017-01-01

    We present the operations and online monitoring with the ``Xmon'' rate prediction system for the trigger system at the ATLAS Experiment. A two-level trigger system reduces the LHC's bunch-crossing rate, 40 MHz at design capacity, to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz, while maintaining a high efficiency of selecting events of interest. The Xmon system uses the luminosity value to predict trigger rates that are, in turn, compared with incoming rates. The predictions rely on past runs to parameterize the luminosity dependency of the event rate for a trigger algorithm. Some examples are given to illustrate the performance of the tool during recent operations.

  14. Cuff inflation during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Skov-Madsen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Skov-Madsen, My Svensson, Jeppe Hagstrup ChristensenDepartment of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkIntroduction: Twenty four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a clinically validated procedure in evaluation of blood pressure (BP. We hypothesised that the discomfort during cuff inflation would increase the heart rate (HR measured with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring compared to a following HR measurement with a 24-h Holter monitor.Methods: The study population (n = 56 were recruited from the outpatient’s clinic at the Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital at Aalborg, Denmark. All the patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD. We compared HR measured with a 24-h Holter monitor with a following HR measured by a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring.Results: We found a highly significant correlation between the HR measured with the Holter monitor and HR measured with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (r = 0.77, p < 0.001. Using the Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference in HR was only 0.5 beat/min during 24 hours with acceptable limits of agreement for both high and low HR levels. Dividing the patients into groups according to betablocker treatment, body mass index, age, sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment, statins treatment, diuretic treatment, or calcium channel blocker treatment revealed similar results as described above.Conclusion: The results indicate that the discomfort induced by cuff inflation during 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring does not increase HR. Thus, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring may be a reliable measurement of the BP among people with CKD.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Holter monitoring, heart rate, chronic kidney disease, hypertension

  15. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  16. Monitoring corrosion rates and localised corrosion in low conductivity water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of low corrosion rates and localised corrosion in a media with low conductivity is a challenge. In municipal district heating, quality control may be improved by implementing on-line corrosion monitoring if a suitable technique can be identified to measure both uniform and localised...... corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (LPR, EIS, crevice corrosion current) as well as direct measurement techniques (high-sensitive electrical resistance, weight loss) have been applied in operating plants. Changes in the corrosion processes are best monitored in non-aggressive, low conductivity media...... with sensitive electrical resistance technique and crevice corrosion current measurements....

  17. A high arctic experience of uniting research and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring is science keeping our thumb on the pulse of the environment to detect any changes of concern for societies. Basic science is the question-driven search for fundamental processes and mechanisms. Given the firm root of monitoring in human interests and needs, basic sciences have often been regarded as scientifically "purer"—particularly within university-based research communities. We argue that the dichotomy between "research" and "monitoring" is an artificial one, and that this artificial split clouds the definition of scientific goals and leads to suboptimal use of resources. We claim that the synergy between the two scientific approaches is well distilled by science conducted under extreme logistic constraints, when scientists are forced to take full advantage of both the data and the infrastructure available. In evidence of this view, we present our experiences from two decades of uniting research and monitoring at the remote research facility Zackenberg in High Arctic Greenland. For this site, we show how the combination of insights from monitoring with the mechanistic understanding obtained from basic research has yielded the most complete understanding of the system—to the benefit of all, and as an example to follow. We therefore urge scientists from across the continuum from monitoring to research to come together, to disregard old division lines, and to work together to expose a comprehensive picture of ecosystem change and its consequences.

  18. Prescription drug monitoring programs in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Sausan El Burai; Mack, Karin

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Since the late 1990s, the number of opioid analgesic overdose deaths has quadrupled in the United States of America (from 4 030 deaths in 1999 to 16 651 in 2010). The objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the problem of prescription drug overdose in the United States and to discuss actions that could help reduce the problem, with particular attention to the characteristics of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). These programs consist of state-level databases that monitor controlled substances. The information compiled in the databases is at the disposal of authorized persons (e.g., physicians, pharmacists, and other health-care providers) and may be used only for professional purposes. Suppliers can use such information to prevent interaction with other drugs or therapeutic duplication, or to identify drug-search behavior. Law enforcement agencies can use these programs to identify improper drug prescription or dispensing patterns, or drug diversion. PMID:25563153

  19. Monitor unit calculations for breast or chest wall treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, P C; Ames, T; Howard-Ames, T; Kohut, H; Heleba, V; Krishnamoorthy, J

    1989-01-01

    Tangential breast fields always "flash" beyond the surface of the patient. Since the portion of the beam that is in air does not contribute scatter, external beam treatment planning computers that utilize stored beam data can lead to dose errors of up to 10%. These errors can be reduced by using an irregular field calculation program to adjust the monitor units to account for the loss of scatter.

  20. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Enabled Body Sensor Network for Self-Powered Human Heart-Rate Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiming; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoshi; Zhou, Zhihao; Meng, Keyu; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-26

    Heart-rate monitoring plays a critical role in personal healthcare management. A low-cost, noninvasive, and user-friendly heart-rate monitoring system is highly desirable. Here, a self-powered wireless body sensor network (BSN) system is developed for heart-rate monitoring via integration of a downy-structure-based triboelectric nanogenerator (D-TENG), a power management circuit, a heart-rate sensor, a signal processing unit, and Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission. By converting the inertia energy of human walking into electric power, a maximum power of 2.28 mW with total conversion efficiency of 57.9% was delivered at low operation frequency, which is capable of immediately and sustainably driving the highly integrated BSN system. The acquired heart-rate signal by the sensor would be processed in the signal process circuit, sent to an external device via the Bluetooth module, and displayed on a personal cell phone in a real-time manner. Moreover, by combining a TENG-based generator and a TENG-based sensor, an all-TENG-based wireless BSN system was developed, realizing continuous and self-powered heart-rate monitoring. This work presents a potential method for personal heart-rate monitoring, featured as being self-powered, cost-effective, noninvasive, and user-friendly.

  1. Hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit: a Brazilian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Suparregui; Rezende, Ederlon Alves de Carvalho; Mendes, Ciro Leite; Silva Jr., João Manoel; Sanches, Joel Lyra

    2014-01-01

    Objective In Brazil, there are no data on the preferences of intensivists regarding hemodynamic monitoring methods. The present study aimed to identify the methods used by national intensivists, the hemodynamic variables they consider important, the regional differences, the reasons for choosing a particular method, and the use of protocols and continued training. Methods National intensivists were invited to answer an electronic questionnaire during three intensive care events and later, through the Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira portal, between March and October 2009. Demographic data and aspects related to the respondent preferences regarding hemodynamic monitoring were researched. Results In total, 211 professionals answered the questionnaire. Private hospitals showed higher availability of resources for hemodynamic monitoring than did public institutions. The pulmonary artery catheter was considered the most trusted by 56.9% of the respondents, followed by echocardiograms, at 22.3%. Cardiac output was considered the most important variable. Other variables also considered relevant were mixed/central venous oxygen saturation, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, and right ventricular end-diastolic volume. Echocardiography was the most used method (64.5%), followed by pulmonary artery catheter (49.3%). Only half of respondents used treatment protocols, and 25% worked in continuing education programs in hemodynamic monitoring. Conclusion Hemodynamic monitoring has a greater availability in intensive care units of private institutions in Brazil. Echocardiography was the most used monitoring method, but the pulmonary artery catheter remains the most reliable. The implementation of treatment protocols and continuing education programs in hemodynamic monitoring in Brazil is still insufficient. PMID:25607264

  2. [THE REMOTE MONITORING OF ARTERIAL PRESSURE AND RATE OF HEARTBEATS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkovskii, A G; Kuptsov, S M; Berseneva, E A

    2015-01-01

    The article considers issues of necessity of development and implementation of remote monitoring of arterial blood pressure and rate of heartbeats as a mean of enhancing quality of medical care of patients. The main characteristics of development of specialized automated system as an integral component of the project is considered too.

  3. Analysis of free flap complications and utilization of intensive care unit monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Agustin; Ivatury, Sirinivas; Crane, Curtis N; Myers, John G; Wang, Howard T

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to determine the optimal time for intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring after free flap reconstruction based on the timing of surgical complications. We reviewed retrospectively 179 free flaps in 170 subjects during an 8-year period at University Hospital. Thirty-seven flaps were reoperated due to vascular (n = 16, 8.9%) and nonvascular complications (n = 21, 11.7%). Vascular complications presented earlier relative to nonvascular complications (10.8 versus 99.3 hours). The flap survival rate was 93.2% with a mean ICU length of stay of 6.2 days. The lack of standardized monitoring protocols can lead to overutilization of ICU. Sometimes, flap monitoring is not the limiting factor, as patients with other comorbidities necessitate longer ICU stays. However, our study suggests that close monitoring of flaps seems most critical during the first 24 to 48 hours, when most thrombotic complications occur and prompt identification and re-exploration is critical. Some thrombosis and most hematomas present within 72 hours, and thus close monitoring is still warranted. We suggest close monitoring of free flaps in the ICU or dedicated flap monitoring unit where nursing can check the flap on an every-1-to-2-hour basis for the first 72 hours postoperatively to assure optimal surveillance of any potential problems.

  4. Brainstem Monitoring in the Neurocritical Care Unit: A Rationale for Real-Time, Automated Neurophysiological Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Bailes, Julian E; Hassan, Ahmed N; Sindelar, Brian; Patel, Vimal; Fino, John

    2017-02-01

    Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring. In this critical review, we discuss the ascending arousal system, brain herniation, and shortcomings of our current management including the neurological exam, intracranial pressure monitoring, and neuroimaging. We present a rationale for the development of nurse-friendly-continuous, automated, and alarmed-evoked potential monitoring, based upon the clinical and experimental literature, advances in the prognostication of cerebral anoxia, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

  5. Concurrent validity of the Armour39 heart rate monitor strap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Shawn D; Comstock, Brett A; Dupont, William H; Sterczala, Adam R; Looney, Dave P; Dombrowski, Dylan H; McDermott, Danielle M; Bryce, Alexander; Maladouangdock, Jesse; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Luk, Hui-Ying; Szivak, Tunde K; Hooper, David R; Kraemer, William J

    2014-03-01

    New technology offers potential advantages in physically demanding environments where convenience and comfort are important and accurate and reliable data collection is challenging. Nevertheless, it is important to validate the accuracy and reliability of such biological monitoring systems (BMS) before they are adopted. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the concurrent validity of a new heart rate monitor across a range of exercise intensities and with a large and diverse group of male subjects in a large cohort with diverse physical fitness characteristics. Seventy-five men (age, 23 ± 4 years; height, 181 ± 8 cm; body mass, 83 ± 12 kg; estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 3.16 ± 0.63 [L·min]) volunteered and completed a graded cycle ergometer exercise protocol while heart rate was continuously monitored before, during, and after exercise with the new device (Armour39) and the gold standard (electrocardiogram). The 2-minute stages included sitting, standing, and cycling with 35 W increments until volitional fatigue. The coefficient of determination between mean heart rate values at each stage was R = 0.99, whereas Pearson correlations (r) at each stage were ≥ 0.99. Heart rates during exercise were typically within 1 beat of each other. The Armour39 BMS, therefore, is an acceptable means for the valid and reliable determination of heart rate under various bodily positions and levels of exertion, including maximal exercise intensity.

  6. Heart-rate monitoring by air pressure and causal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naoki; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2011-06-01

    Among lots of vital signals, heart-rate (HR) is an important index for diagnose human's health condition. For instance, HR provides an early stage of cardiac disease, autonomic nerve behavior, and so forth. However, currently, HR is measured only in medical checkups and clinical diagnosis during the rested state by using electrocardiograph (ECG). Thus, some serious cardiac events in daily life could be lost. Therefore, a continuous HR monitoring during 24 hours is desired. Considering the use in daily life, the monitoring should be noninvasive and low intrusive. Thus, in this paper, an HR monitoring in sleep by using air pressure sensors is proposed. The HR monitoring is realized by employing the causal analysis among air pressure and HR. The causality is described by employing fuzzy logic. According to the experiment on 7 males at age 22-25 (23 on average), the correlation coefficient against ECG is 0.73-0.97 (0.85 on average). In addition, the cause-effect structure for HR monitoring is arranged by employing causal decomposition, and the arranged causality is applied to HR monitoring in a setting posture. According to the additional experiment on 6 males, the correlation coefficient is 0.66-0.86 (0.76 on average). Therefore, the proposed method is suggested to have enough accuracy and robustness for some daily use cases.

  7. HEART RATE DURING SLEEP: IMPLICATIONS FOR MONITORING TRAINING STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam R. Waldeck

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Resting heart rate has sometimes been used as a marker of training status. It is reasonable to assume that the relationship between heart rate and training status should be more evident during sleep when extraneous factors that may influence heart rate are reduced. Therefore the aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of monitoring heart rate during sleep when training status remained unchanged, to determine if this measurement had sufficient precision to be used as a marker of training status. The heart rate of ten female subjects was monitored for 24 hours on three occasions over three weeks whilst training status remained unchanged. Average, minimum and maximum heart rate during sleep was calculated. The average heart rate of the group during sleep was similar on each of the three tests (65 ± 9, 63 ± 6 and 67 ± 7 beats·min-1 respectively. The range in minimum heart rate variation during sleep for all subjects over the three testing sessions was from 0 to 10 beats·min-1 (mean = 5 ± 3 beats·min-1 and for maximum heart rate variation was 2 to 31 beats·min-1 (mean = 13 ± 9 beats·min-1. In summary it was found that on an individual basis the minimum heart rate during sleep varied by about 8 beats·min-1. This amount of intrinsic day-to-day variation needs to be considered when changes in heart rate that may occur with changes in training status are interpreted

  8. The relationship of motor unit size, firing rate and force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwit, R A; Stashuk, D; Tracy, B; McHugh, M; Brown, W F; Metter, E J

    1999-07-01

    Using a clinical electromyographic (EMG) protocol, motor units were sampled from the quadriceps femoris during isometric contractions at fixed force levels to examine how average motor unit size and firing rate relate to force generation. Mean firing rates (mFRs) and sizes (mean surface-detected motor unit action potential (mS-MUAP) area) of samples of active motor units were assessed at various force levels in 79 subjects. MS-MUAP size increased linearly with increased force generation, while mFR remained relatively constant up to 30% of a maximal force and increased appreciably only at higher force levels. A relationship was found between muscle force and mS-MUAP area (r2 = 0.67), mFR (r2 = 0.38), and the product of mS-MUAP area and mFR (mS-MUAP x mFR) (r2 = 0.70). The results support the hypothesis that motor units are recruited in an orderly manner during forceful contractions, and that in large muscles only at higher levels of contraction ( > 30% MVC) do mFRs increase appreciably. MS-MUAP and mFR can be assessed using clinical EMG techniques and they may provide a physiological basis for analyzing the role of motor units during muscle force generation.

  9. Etiology, extended-spectrum β-lactamase rates and antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative bacilli causing intra-abdominal infections in patients in general pediatric and pediatric intensive care units--global data from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends 2008 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal, Robert E; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Lob, Sibylle H; Hackel, Meredith A; Hawser, Stephen P; Hoban, Daryl J

    2013-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has been increasing for several years and is often higher in intensive care units (ICUs) than in other facilities. The spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in particular has profoundly impacted antimicrobial efficacy and usage. The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends has monitored the in vitro activity of ertapenem and several comparators against aerobic gram-negative bacteria from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) for many years. This report summarizes susceptibility levels and epidemiology for key IAI pathogens cultured from general pediatric medical wards and pediatric ICUs globally. 1248 gram-negative bacteria were collected from pediatric IAIs by 113 labs in 40 countries from 2008 to 2010. Susceptibility was determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution. Susceptibility rates (%S) were determined for species with ≥10 isolates. Sixty-two percent of isolates came from general pediatric wards and 38% from pediatric ICUs. The overall ESBL-positive rate was 11.0% for Escherichia coli and 38.9% for Klebsiella pneumoniae; the ESBL-positive rate for E. coli was twice as high in ICU as non-ICU. Most study drugs inhibited >90% of ESBL-negative isolates, but only the carbapenems inhibited >90% of ESBL-positive E. coli and only imipenem inhibited >90% of ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae. Amikacin, imipenem and ertapenem were the most active against gram-negative bacteria from pediatric IAIs, followed closely by the fluoroquinolones and cefepime. Other cephalosporins were often <90% active. ESBL rates were 38.9% for K. pneumoniae and 11.0% for E. coli. Therapy for pediatric IAIs should take into consideration local ESBL rates because only carbapenems inhibited most of these pathogens.

  10. Commercialization and Industrial Development for the Fetal Hear Rate Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorian, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The primary objectives for this task were to continue the development and testing of the NASA/ODU passive acoustic fetal heart rate monitor, with the goal of transferring the technology to the commercial sector. Areas of work included: 1. To assist in the development of a new hardware front end electronics box for the fetal heart rate monitor, so as to reduce the size of the electronics box, and also to provide for a "low-frequency" and "high-frequency" mode of operation. To make necessary changes in the operating software to support the two modes of operation. 2. To provide an option for a strip chart recording for the system, so that medical personnel could more easily make comparisons with ultra sound strip chart recordings. and 3. To help with continued testing of the system.

  11. Scientific Comparison of Different Online Heart Rate Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schönfelder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technical development focused on real-time heart rate monitoring instead of postexercise evaluation of recorded data. There are several systems on the market that allow direct and real-time monitoring of several individuals at the same time. The present study compared the systems of Polar, Acentas, Activio, and Suunto in a field test with twelve subjects regarding failure quota, operating distance, and ECG validity. Moreover, the installation and use of software and hardware were evaluated with a quality rating system. Chest belts were evaluated with a questionnaire, too. Overall the system of Acentas reached the best mark of all systems, but detailed results showed that every system has its advantages and disadvantages depending on using purpose, location, and weather. So this evaluation cannot recommend a single system but rather shows strength and weakness of all systems and additionally can be used for further system improvements.

  12. Pulse wave transit time for monitoring respiration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Ahlstrom, C; Lanne, T; Ask, P

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the beat-to-beat respiratory fluctuations in pulse wave transit time (PTT) and its subcomponents, the cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and the vessel transit time (VTT) in ten healthy subjects. The three transit times were found to fluctuate in pace with respiration. When applying a simple breath detecting algorithm, 88% of the breaths seen in a respiration air-flow reference could be detected correctly in PTT. Corresponding numbers for PEP and VTT were 76 and 81%, respectively. The performance during hypo- and hypertension was investigated by invoking blood pressure changes. In these situations, the error rates in breath detection were significantly higher. PTT can be derived from signals already present in most standard monitoring set-ups. The transit time technology thus has prospects to become an interesting alternative for respiration rate monitoring.

  13. A DESIGN OF PORTABLE HEART-RATE MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    ENGİN, Mehmet; DALBASTI, Tayfun; BILDIK, Saygın; KARIPÇIN, Turan; ENGIN, Erkan Zeki; CANER, Candan

    2012-01-01

    Telemedicine is producing a great impact in the monitoring of patients located in remote non-clinical environments such as homes, elder communities, gymnasiums, schools, remote military bases, ships, and rural area. A number of applications, ranging from data collection to chronic patient surveillance, and even to the control of therapeutic procedures, are being implemented in many parts of the world. As part of this growing trend, this paper explains the design of a portable heart-rate monit...

  14. Efficient Decoding of Partial Unit Memory Codes of Arbitrary Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter-Zeh, Antonia; Bossert, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Partial Unit Memory (PUM) codes are a special class of convolutional codes, which are often constructed by means of block codes. Decoding of PUM codes may take advantage of existing decoders for the block code. The Dettmar--Sorger algorithm is an efficient decoding algorithm for PUM codes, but allows only low code rates. The same restriction holds for several known PUM code constructions. In this paper, an arbitrary-rate construction, the analysis of its distance parameters and a generalized decoding algorithm for PUM codes of arbitrary rate are provided. The correctness of the algorithm is proven and it is shown that its complexity is cubic in the length.

  15. Increasing Vaccination Rates in a Pediatric Chronic Hemodialysis Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk for serious complications from vaccine-preventable childhood diseases. Despite this risk, vaccination rates remain low. The barriers to vaccination in the pediatric population on dialysis are multifactorial. The advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) is well poised to serve as a wellness champion for this chronic population. This article chronicles an APRN-led quality improvement project to increase vaccination rates to 100% in an outpatient pediatric population on hemodialysis. A quality improvement system was created to systematically review immunizations upon admission to the hemodialysis unit and annually thereafter. Over a two-year period, immunization rates improved significantly.

  16. A new monitor for routine thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate monitoring in k0 INAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster-Ammerlaan, M J J; Bacchi, M A; Bode, P; De Nadai Fernandes, E A

    2008-12-01

    The Zr-Au set for monitoring the thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate and the epithermal spectrum parameter alpha is not always practicable for routine application of INAA in well-thermalized facilities. An alternative set consisting of Cr, Au and Mo provides values for the thermal neutron fluence rate, f and alpha that are not significantly different from those found via the Zr-Au method and the Cd-covered Zr-method. The IRMM standard SMELS-II was analyzed using the (Au-Cr-Mo) monitor and a good agreement was obtained.

  17. Estimation of the patient monitor alarm rate for a quantitative analysis of new alarm settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waele, Stijn; Nielsen, Larry; Frassica, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In many critical care units, default patient monitor alarm settings are not fine-tuned to the vital signs of the patient population. As a consequence there are many alarms. A large fraction of the alarms are not clinically actionable, thus contributing to alarm fatigue. Recent attention to this phenomenon has resulted in attempts in many institutions to decrease the overall alarm load of clinicians by altering the trigger thresholds for monitored parameters. Typically, new alarm settings are defined based on clinical knowledge and patient population norms and tried empirically on new patients without quantitative knowledge about the potential impact of these new settings. We introduce alarm regeneration as a method to estimate the alarm rate of new alarm settings using recorded patient monitor data. This method enables evaluation of several alarm setting scenarios prior to using these settings in the clinical setting. An expression for the alarm rate variance is derived for the calculation of statistical confidence intervals on the results.

  18. Asymptotic failure rate of a continuously monitored system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grall, A. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: antoine.grall@utt.fr; Dieulle, L. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: laurence.dieulle@utt.fr; Berenguer, C. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.fr; Roussignol, M. [Laboratoire d' Analyse et de Mathematiques Appliquees, Universite de Marne la Vallee, 5 bd Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77454 Marne la Vallee, Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: michel.roussignol@univ-mlv.fr

    2006-02-01

    This paper deals with a perfectly continuously monitored system which gradually and stochastically deteriorates. The system is renewed by a delayed maintenance operation, which is triggered when the measured deterioration level exceeds an alarm threshold. A mathematical model is developed to study the asymptotic behavior of the reliability function. A procedure is proposed which allows us to identify the asymptotic failure rate of the maintained system. Numerical experiments illustrate the efficiency of the proposed procedure and emphasize the relevance of the asymptotic failure rate as an interesting indicator for the evaluation of the control-limit preventive replacement policy.

  19. Non-Contact Heart Rate Monitoring Using Lab Color Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hamidur; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin; Begum, Shahina

    2016-01-01

    Research progressing during the last decade focuses more on non-contact based systems to monitor Heart Rate (HR) which are simple, low-cost and comfortable to use. Most of the non-contact based systems are using RGB videos which is suitable for lab environment. However, it needs to progress considerably before they can be applied in real life applications. As luminance (light) has significance contribution on RGB videos HR monitoring using RGB videos are not efficient enough in real life applications in outdoor environment. This paper presents a HR monitoring method using Lab color facial video captured by a webcam of a laptop computer. Lab color space is device independent and HR can be extracted through facial skin color variation caused by blood circulation considering variable environmental light. Here, three different signal processing methods i.e., Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied on the color channels in video recordings and blood volume pulse (BVP) has been extracted from the facial regions. In this study, HR is subsequently quantified and compare with a reference measurement. The result shows that high degrees of accuracy have been achieved compared to the reference measurements. Thus, this technology has significant potential for advancing personal health care, telemedicine and many real life applications such as driver monitoring.

  20. Monitoring performance of the cameras under the high dose-rate gamma ray environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min

    2014-05-01

    CCD/CMOS cameras, loaded on a robot system, are generally used as the eye of the robot and monitoring unit. A major problem that arises when dealing with images provided by CCD/CMOS cameras under severe accident situations of a nuclear power plant is the presence of speckles owing to the high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. To use a CCD/CMOS camera as a monitoring unit in a high radiation area, the legibility of the camera image in such intense gamma-radiation fields should therefore be defined. In this paper, the authors describe the monitoring index as a figure of merit of the camera's legibleness under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation environment. From a low dose-rate (10 Gy h) to a high dose-rate (200 Gy h) level, the legible performances of the cameras owing to the speckles are evaluated. The numbers of speckles generated by gamma ray irradiation in the camera image are calculated by an image processing technique. The legibility of the sensor indicator (thermo/hygrometer) owing to the number of speckles is also presented.

  1. A new respiratory rate monitor: development and initial clinical experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hök, B; Wiklund, L; Henneberg, S

    1993-01-01

    different kinds of interference, including motion artefacts. The sensor is nonexpensive, rugged, simple to apply and inherently safe. An instrument with continuous display of respiratory rate, and an audiovisual apnea alarm has been designed and built. The complete system has been tested on patients during......The need for continuous, noninvasive, and reliable respiratory rate monitoring during recovery from general anesthesia has long been recognized. Alternative principles can be grouped into those detecting the respiratory effort, and those detecting the actual result, i.e. the respiratory gas flow...... recovery after general anesthesia. In 16 patients, the respiratory rate displayed by the instrument has been correlated against that visually observed. A good correlation was obtained. Minor discrepancies can be explained from the fact that visual observation corresponds to the respiratory effort, whereas...

  2. Unit stream power, minimum energy dissipation rate, and river engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih Ted Yang

    2010-01-01

    Unit stream power is the most important and dominant parameter for the determination of transport rate of sand,gravel, and hyper-concentrated sediment with wash load.Minimum energy dissipation rate theory, or its simplified minimum unit stream power and minimum stream power theories,can provide engineers the needed theoretical basis for river morphology and river engineering studies.The Generalized Sediment Transport model for Alluvial River Simulation computer mode series have been developed based on the above theories.The computer model series have been successfully applied in many countries.Examples will be used to illustrate the applications of the computer models to solving a wide range of river morphology and river engineering problems.

  3. Stable rates of neonatal sepsis in a tertiary neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Wei Ling; Kamlin, Camille O; Garland, Suzanne M; Jacobs, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    To describe the rate of early- and late-onset sepsis in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at the Royal Women's Hospital and to compare the rate of late-onset sepsis (LOS) with a published (2008) cohort from the same unit. The secondary aim was to examine clinicians' compliance with antibiotic guidelines. Infants born sepsis and compliance with antibiotic guidelines were applied. One hundred and seventy-two infants met the inclusion criteria, with 152 having blood culture evaluations for early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 58 having 109 evaluations for LOS. Definite EOS occurred in 1.3% with Escherichia coli isolated. The rate of definite LOS in 2011 of 22% was not significantly different than the 27% in 2008, with coagulase-negative staphylococcus the main isolate. Antibiotic continuation beyond 72 h in infants with negative blood cultures was the main reason for non-compliance with antibiotic guidelines. The rate of EOS is comparable with published reports and the rate of LOS has remained stable over a 3-year period. Discontinuation of antibiotics with negative septic markers and blood cultures at 48-72 h is encouraged. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Anomie and United States Suicide rates, 1973--1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boor, M

    1979-10-01

    Related annual variations in United States suicide rates between 1973 and 1976 to concomitant annual variations in expressions of anomie obtained on the 5-item Srole anomie scale by a representative sample of the United States population. Expressions of anomie increased significantly for persons in the age groups (15--24 and 25--34 year) that displayed increases in suicide rates, annual variations in endorsement of anomie statements were correlated significantly with the concomitant annual variations in the suicide rates of the 15--24 year age group, and there was a nonsignificant tendency toward this relationship in the other (25--34 year) age group with increasing suicide rates. However, expressions of anomie also increased significantly for persons in the older age groups that showed no increases in suicide rates. Thus, Durkheim's hypothesis was not supported among older persons as it was among younger persons. Previous studies suggest that measures of anomie that focus explicitly on perceptions of internal-external control may be related more closely to suicidal behavior (especially for older persons) than measures that focus on other components of anomie.

  5. Dosimetric properties of a scanned beam microtron at low monitor unit settings: importance for conformal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, J L; Larsson, A; Lief, E P

    1996-03-01

    The dosimetric stability, linearity, dose rate dependence, and flatness of both photon and electron beams have been evaluated for a racetrack microtron at low monitor unit settings. For photons, the variation in dosimetric output about the mean is 3% at 20 cm, even at only 3 MU, in contrast with other scanned beam accelerators. Broad electron beams on the microtron are created by the superposition of the elementary beam pulses either directly from the scan magnets, or after their broadening through a scattering foil. The dosimetric instability both with and without the foil was less than 0.6% for both the 25- and 50-MeV electrons. Dose nonlinearity was microtron exhibits dosimetric properties which fulfill the recommendations of Task Groups 21 and 25. Based on the stability of the scanned beam at low monitor unit settings, the microtron can be used for 3-D conformal therapy with both photons and electrons.

  6. Development and evaluation of an instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, F.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M. W.; Roe, D. K.

    1985-06-01

    A research program was carried out in which a new instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor (ACRM) was developed and evaluated, and equipment was constructed which will allow the use of many sensors in an economical way in outdoor exposures. In the first task, the ACRM was developed and tested in flow chambers in which relative humidity and gaseous and particulate pollutant levels can be controlled. Diurnal cycles and periods of rain were simulated. The effects of aerosols were studied. A computerized system was used for collection, storage, and analysis of the electrochemical data. In the second task, a relatively inexpensive electronics system for control of the ACRM and measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates was designed and built. In the third task, calibration of deterioration rates of various metallic and nonmetallic materials with the response of the ACRMs attached to these materials was carried out under controlled environmental conditions using the system developed in the second task. A Quality Assurance project plan was prepared with inputs from the Rockwell International Environmental Monitoring and Service Center and Quality Assurance System audits were performed.

  7. Nurse Competence on Physiologic Monitors Use: Toward Eliminating Alarm Fatigue in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh K; Vera, Ana G; Fonseca, Elma I; Reed, Charles C; Tarriela, Albert F; Berndt, Andrea E

    2017-01-01

    Studies on nurse competence on alarm management are a few and tend to be focused on limited skills. In response to Phase II of implementing the National Patient Safety Goal on clinical alarm systems safety, this study assessed nurses' perceived competence on physiologic monitors use in intensive care units (ICUs) and developed and validated a tool for this purpose. This descriptive study took place in a Magnet hospital in a Southwestern state of the U.S. A Nurse Competence on Philips Physiologic Monitors Use Survey was created and went through validation by 13 expert ICU nurses. The survey included 5 subscales with 59 rated items and two open-ended questions. Items on the first 4 subscales reflect most common tasks nurses perform using physiologic monitors. Items on the fifth subscale (advanced functions) reflect rarely used skills and were included to understand the scope of utilizing advanced physiologic monitors' features. Thirty nurses from 4 adult ICUs were invited to respond to the survey. Thirty nurses (100%) responded to the survey. The majority of nurses were from Neuro (47%) and Surgical Trauma (37%) ICUs. The data supported the high reliability and construct validity of the survey. At least one (3%) to 8 nurses (27%) reported lack of confidence on each item on the survey. On the first four subscales, 3% - 40% of the nurses reported they had never heard of or used 27 features/functions on the monitors. No relationships were found between subscales' scores and demographic characteristics (p > .05). Nurses asked for training on navigating the central-station monitor and troubleshooting alarms, and the use of unit-specific super users to tailor training to users' needs. This is the first study to create and test a list of competencies for physiologic monitors use. Rigorous, periodic and individualized training is essential for safe and appropriate use of physiologic monitors and to decrease alarm fatigue. Training should be comprehensive to include all

  8. Rate Predictions and Trigger/DAQ Resource Monitoring in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, D M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Since starting in 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has pro- duced collisions at an ever increasing rate. The ATLAS experiment successfully records the collision data with high eciency and excel- lent data quality. Events are selected using a three-level trigger system, where each level makes a more re ned selection. The level-1 trigger (L1) consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger which seeds two higher software based trigger levels. Over 300 triggers compose a trig- ger menu which selects physics signatures such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. Each trigger consumes computing resources of the ATLAS trigger system and oine storage. The LHC instantaneous luminosity conditions, desired physics goals of the collaboration, and the limits of the trigger infrastructure determine the composition of the ATLAS trigger menu. We describe a trigger monitoring frame- work for computing the costs of individual trigger algorithms such as data request rates and CPU consumption. This framework has been used...

  9. Double electrolyte sensor for monitoring hydrogen permeation rate in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaihua College, Huaihua 418008 (China); Yu, G., E-mail: yuganghnu@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ou, A.L.; Hu, L.; Xu, W.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Designed an amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes. {yields} Explained the principle of determining hydrogen permeation rate. {yields} Verified good stability, reproducibility and correctness of the developed sensor. {yields} Field on-line monitoring the susceptivity of hydrogen induced cracks. - Abstract: An amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes composed of a gelatiniform electrolyte and KOH solution has been developed to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen atoms in steel equipment owing to hydrogen corrosion. The gelatiniform electrolyte was made of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS), carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2 mol dm{sup -3} KOH solution. The results show that the gelatiniform electrolyte containing 50 wt.% polymers has suitable viscosity and high electrical conductivity. The consistent permeation curves were detected by the sensor of the double electrolyte and single liquid KOH electrolyte, respectively. The developed sensor has good stability and reproducibility at room temperature.

  10. Bluetooth(Registered Trademark) Heart Rate Monitors for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; West, Michael R.; Kalogera, Kent L.; Hanson, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required during exercise for crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data is required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth® heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health on board ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) was worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_RHM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the two data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. REULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6%error), followed by CS4 (3.3%error), CS3 (6.4%error), and CS2 (9.2%error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to get the best quality data. CS2 will be used in an

  11. Infrared imaging based hyperventilation monitoring through respiration rate estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anushree; Routray, Aurobinda; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Shit, Suprosanna

    2016-07-01

    A change in the skin temperature is used as an indicator of physical illness which can be detected through infrared thermography. Thermograms or thermal images can be used as an effective diagnostic tool for monitoring and diagnosis of various diseases. This paper describes an infrared thermography based approach for detecting hyperventilation caused due to stress and anxiety in human beings by computing their respiration rates. The work employs computer vision techniques for tracking the region of interest from thermal video to compute the breath rate. Experiments have been performed on 30 subjects. Corner feature extraction using Minimum Eigenvalue (Shi-Tomasi) algorithm and registration using Kanade Lucas-Tomasi algorithm has been used here. Thermal signature around the extracted region is detected and subsequently filtered through a band pass filter to compute the respiration profile of an individual. If the respiration profile shows unusual pattern and exceeds the threshold we conclude that the person is stressed and tending to hyperventilate. Results obtained are compared with standard contact based methods which have shown significant correlations. It is envisaged that the thermal image based approach not only will help in detecting hyperventilation but can assist in regular stress monitoring as it is non-invasive method.

  12. Monitor units are not predictive of neutron dose for high-energy IMRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälg Roger A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the substantial increase in beam-on time of high energy intensity-modulated radiotherapy (>10 MV techniques to deliver the same target dose compared to conventional treatment techniques, an increased dose of scatter radiation, including neutrons, is delivered to the patient. As a consequence, an increase in second malignancies may be expected in the future with the application of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. It is commonly assumed that the neutron dose equivalent scales with the number of monitor units. Methods Measurements of neutron dose equivalent were performed for an open and an intensity-modulated field at four positions: inside and outside of the treatment field at 0.2 cm and 15 cm depth, respectively. Results It was shown that the neutron dose equivalent, which a patient receives during an intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment, does not scale with the ratio of applied monitor units relative to an open field irradiation. Outside the treatment volume at larger depth 35% less neutron dose equivalent is delivered than expected. Conclusions The predicted increase of second cancer induction rates from intensity-modulated treatment techniques can be overestimated when the neutron dose is simply scaled with monitor units.

  13. The importance of cardiac monitoring in the epilepsy monitoring unit: a case presentation of ictal asystole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Susan D; Aniles, Ejerzain; Sirven, Joseph; Drazkowski, Joseph F

    2012-09-01

    Ictal asystole may be a potent marker for epilepsy patients at high risk for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). The use of inpatient long-term video-electroencephalographic (VEEG) monitoring coupled with simultaneous continuous cardiac telemetry is an important tool to detect ictal asystole as well as other significant ictal cardiac arrhythmias. In this paper a case of ictal asystole detected during VEEG is presented. Routine 12-lead EKG was normal upon admission. After antiepileptic medication was tapered, the patient had a typical complex partial seizure with oral automatisms at onset followed by secondary generalization. Ictal onset was noted in left temporal lobe with subsequent spread to the right temporal region. A 20 second period of asystole began just prior to the secondary generalization. During this admission the patient underwent a potentially life-saving pacemaker implantation. The use of cardiac telemetry and baseline EKG are suggested for patients admitted into epilepsy monitoring units as part of the standard epilepsy monitoring protocol.

  14. Assessment of error rates in acoustic monitoring with the R package monitoR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan; Hafner, Sasha D.; Donovan, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population-scale reactions to climate change and land-use change may require monitoring many sites for many years, a process that is suited for an automated system. We developed and tested monitoR, an R package for long-term, multi-taxa acoustic monitoring programs. We tested monitoR with two northeastern songbird species: black-throated green warbler (Setophaga virens) and ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla). We compared detection results from monitoR in 52 10-minute surveys recorded at 10 sites in Vermont and New York, USA to a subset of songs identified by a human that were of a single song type and had visually identifiable spectrograms (e.g. a signal:noise ratio of at least 10 dB: 166 out of 439 total songs for black-throated green warbler, 502 out of 990 total songs for ovenbird). monitoR’s automated detection process uses a ‘score cutoff’, which is the minimum match needed for an unknown event to be considered a detection and results in a true positive, true negative, false positive or false negative detection. At the chosen score cut-offs, monitoR correctly identified presence for black-throated green warbler and ovenbird in 64% and 72% of the 52 surveys using binary point matching, respectively, and 73% and 72% of the 52 surveys using spectrogram cross-correlation, respectively. Of individual songs, 72% of black-throated green warbler songs and 62% of ovenbird songs were identified by binary point matching. Spectrogram cross-correlation identified 83% of black-throated green warbler songs and 66% of ovenbird songs. False positive rates were  for song event detection.

  15. Ultrasound transducer positioning aid for fetal heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelmann, Paul; Kolen, Alex; Schmitt, Lars; Vullings, Rik; van Assen, Hans; Mischi, Massimo; Demi, Libertario; van Laar, Judith; Bergmans, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fetal heart rate (fHR) monitoring is usually performed by Doppler ultrasound (US) techniques. For reliable fHR measurements it is required that the fetal heart is located within the US beam. In clinical practice, clinicians palpate the maternal abdomen to identify the fetal presentation and then the US transducer is fixated on the maternal abdomen where the best fHR signal can be obtained. Finding the optimal transducer position is done by listening to the strength of the Doppler audio output and relying on a signal quality indicator of the cardiotocographic (CTG) measurement system. Due to displacement of the US transducer or displacement of the fetal heart out of the US beam, the fHR signal may be lost. Therefore, it is often necessary that the obstetrician repeats the tedious procedure of US transducer positioning to avoid long periods of fHR signal loss. An intuitive US transducer positioning aid would be highly desirable to increase the work flow for the clinical staff. In this paper, the possibility to determine the fetal heart location with respect to the transducer by exploiting the received signal power in the transducer elements is shown. A commercially available US transducer used for fHR monitoring is connected to an US open platform, which allows individual driving of the elements and raw US data acquisition. Based on the power of the received Doppler signals in the transducer elements, the fetal heart location can be estimated. A beating fetal heart setup was designed and realized for validation. The experimental results show the feasibility of estimating the fetal heart location with the proposed method. This can be used to support clinicians in finding the optimal transducer position for fHR monitoring more easily.

  16. Heart rate variability monitoring and assessment system on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massagram, Wansuree; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Macchiarulo, Luca; Chen, Mingqi

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system on a chip for heart rate variability monitoring and assessment. The system design applies digital techniques to measure RR intervals from ECG signals, then categorizes and stores HRV measures in an internal memory. The system has been tested for functionality, synthesized and laid out in a 0.5 μm CMOS technology in a 3x3 mm2chip with less than 1.5 μW power dissipation. The chip detects all R peaks with millisecond accuracy after the initial 2 seconds of data, and stores up to 2 minutes of continuous ECG data and up to 4 minutes of HRV histogram. Compact size, low cost, and low power consumption make this chip suitable for employment in modern implantable and portable devices.

  17. Acoustic method respiratory rate monitoring is useful in patients under intravenous anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Shigeki; Sugiyama, Kazuna

    2017-02-01

    Respiratory depression can occur during intravenous general anesthesia without tracheal intubation. A new acoustic method for respiratory rate monitoring, RRa(®) (Masimo Corp., Tokyo, Japan), has been reported to show good reliability in post-anesthesia care and emergency units. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of the acoustic method for measurement of respiratory rate during intravenous general anesthesia, as compared with capnography. Patients with dental anxiety undergoing dental treatment under intravenous anesthesia without tracheal intubation were enrolled in this study. Respiratory rate was recorded every 30 s using the acoustic method and capnography, and detectability of respiratory rate was investigated for both methods. This study used a cohort study design. In 1953 recorded respiratory rate data points, the number of detected points by the acoustic method (1884, 96.5 %) was significantly higher than that by capnography (1682, 86.1 %) (P < 0.0001). In the intraoperative period, there was a significant difference in the LOA (95 % limits of agreement of correlation between difference and average of the two methods)/ULLOA (under the lower limit of agreement) in terms of use or non-use of a dental air turbine (P < 0.0001). In comparison between capnography, the acoustic method is useful for continuous monitoring of respiratory rate in spontaneously breathing subjects undergoing dental procedures under intravenous general anesthesia. However, the acoustic method might not accurately detect in cases in with dental air turbine.

  18. Predictive monitoring for respiratory decompensation leading to urgent unplanned intubation in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew T; Vergales, Brooke D; Paget-Brown, Alix O; Smoot, Terri J; Lake, Douglas E; Hudson, John L; Delos, John B; Kattwinkel, John; Moorman, J Randall

    2013-01-01

    Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and especially those born with very low birth weight (VLBW; endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are associated with increased morbidity, particularly in urgent unplanned cases. We tested the hypothesis that the systemic response associated with respiratory decompensation can be detected from physiological monitoring and that statistical models of bedside monitoring data can identify infants at increased risk of urgent unplanned intubation. We studied 287 VLBW infants consecutively admitted to our NICU and found 96 events in 51 patients, excluding intubations occurring within 12 h of a previous extubation. In order of importance in a multivariable statistical model, we found that the characteristics of reduced O(2) saturation, especially as heart rate was falling; increased heart rate correlation with respiratory rate; and the amount of apnea were all significant independent predictors. The predictive model, validated internally by bootstrap, had a receiver-operating characteristic area of 0.84 ± 0.04. We propose that predictive monitoring in the NICU for urgent unplanned intubation may improve outcomes by allowing clinicians to intervene noninvasively before intubation is required.

  19. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  20. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... other used corrosion monitoring methods in the project are described elsewhere (3) and (4). For future district heating corrosion monitoring the by-pass unit can be recommended for permanent installation and the two methods high sensitive ER-technique (Metricorr) and the LOCOR-Cell„§ (FORCE Technology...

  1. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... other used corrosion monitoring methods in the project are described elsewhere (3) and (4). For future district heating corrosion monitoring the by-pass unit can be recommended for permanent installation and the two methods high sensitive ER-technique (Metricorr) and the LOCOR-Cell„§ (FORCE Technology...

  2. Electroencephalographic Monitoring in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Abend, Nicholas S.; Chapman, Kevin E.; Gallentine, William B.; Goldstein, Joshua; Hyslop, Ann E.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Nash, Kendall B; Riviello, James J.; Hahn, Cecil D.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous EEG monitoring is used with increasing frequency in critically ill children to provide insight into brain function and to identify electrographic seizures. EEG monitoring use often impacts clinical management, most often by identifying electrographic seizures and status epilepticus. Most electrographic seizures have no clinical correlate, and thus would not be identified without EEG monitoring. There is increasing data that electrographic seizures and electrographic status epilepti...

  3. Acoustic monitoring systems tests at Indian Point Unit 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.; Rao, G.V.; Craig, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the results of a program to test acoustic monitoring systems on Indian Point Unit No. 1 under actual plant operating conditions, less the reactor core. The two types of systems evaluated were the monitoring of acoustic emissions generated by growing flaws and the monitoring of acoustic signals from leaks.

  4. [Monitoring infection at the intensive care unit--a multicenter pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, F; Wewalka, G; Rotter, M; Kilian, J; Hummel, E; Hartenauer, U; Gähler, R; Scherzer, E; Pauser, G

    1989-06-01

    During a period of 3 months an infection survey was carried out in 4 intensive care units (ICUs), 2 in Vienna, Austria, and one each in Ulm and Münster, Federal Republic of Germany, using a common protocol. A total of 329 patients was monitored prospectively. This pilot study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of parameters included in the monitoring form. It was attempted to characterize the patient populations of the four units. Mean duration of stay (1-12 days), mortality (8-26%), leading diagnosis upon admission, intubation rate (41-91%) and use of pulmonary artery catheter (12-35%) were distinctly different. The rate of patients admitted already with an infection was 9-43%, septicemia was diagnosed in up to 27% of the diseased. The rate of infection acquired in the unit was between 12 and 37%, the most frequent types were bronchopneumonia, septicemia and urinary tract infection. When septicemia patients were compared to non-septicemia patients who had been admitted for more than 3 days, it appeared that the latter stayed significantly shorter at the ICU and showed less frequently bronchopneumonia or urinary tract infection at the time of admission. Septicemia patients acquired more frequently additional infections like broncho-pneumonia or urinary tract infection while staying at the ICU. The median day of onset of septicemia was the fifth day and only in a quarter of cases diagnosis could be supported by a positive blood culture. The use of antibiotics in the 4 ICUs is compared and shows marked differences. Based upon experience with this type of infection survey a new modified protocol is introduced, which displays the time course of documented events.

  5. Independent calculation of monitor units for VMAT and SPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin; Bush, Karl; Ding, Aiping; Xing, Lei, E-mail: lei@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Dose and monitor units (MUs) represent two important facets of a radiation therapy treatment. In current practice, verification of a treatment plan is commonly done in dose domain, in which a phantom measurement or forward dose calculation is performed to examine the dosimetric accuracy and the MU settings of a given treatment plan. While it is desirable to verify directly the MU settings, a computational framework for obtaining the MU values from a known dose distribution has yet to be developed. This work presents a strategy to calculate independently the MUs from a given dose distribution of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT). Methods: The dose at a point can be expressed as a sum of contributions from all the station points (or control points). This relationship forms the basis of the proposed MU verification technique. To proceed, the authors first obtain the matrix elements which characterize the dosimetric contribution of the involved station points by computing the doses at a series of voxels, typically on the prescription surface of the VMAT/SPORT treatment plan, with unit MU setting for all the station points. An in-house Monte Carlo (MC) software is used for the dose matrix calculation. The MUs of the station points are then derived by minimizing the least-squares difference between doses computed by the treatment planning system (TPS) and that of the MC for the selected set of voxels on the prescription surface. The technique is applied to 16 clinical cases with a variety of energies, disease sites, and TPS dose calculation algorithms. Results: For all plans except the lung cases with large tissue density inhomogeneity, the independently computed MUs agree with that of TPS to within 2.7% for all the station points. In the dose domain, no significant difference between the MC and Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) dose distribution is found in terms of isodose contours

  6. OLAM: A wearable, non-contact sensor for continuous heart-rate and activity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Ryan K; Goska, Benjamin J; Hagen, Tory M; Chi, Mike Y; Cauwenberghs, G; Chiang, Patrick Y

    2011-01-01

    A wearable, multi-modal sensor is presented that can non-invasively monitor a patient's activity level and heart function concurrently for more than a week. The 4 in(2) sensor incorporates both a non-contact heartrate sensor and a 5-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU), allowing simultaneous heart, respiration, and movement monitoring without requiring physical contact with the skin [1]. Hence, this Oregon State University Life and Activity Monitor (OLAM) provides the unique opportunity to combine motion data with heart-rate information, enabling assessment of actual physical activity beyond conventional movement sensors. OLAM also provides a unique platform for non-contact sensing, enabling the filtering of movement artifacts generated by the non-contact capacitive interface, using the IMU data as a movement noise channel. Intended to be used in clinical trials for weeks at a time with no physician intervention, the OLAM allows continuous non-invasive monitoring of patients, providing the opportunity for long-term observation into a patient's physical activity and subtle longitudinal changes.

  7. Onboard monitoring of fatigue damage rates in the hull girder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2011-01-01

    Most new advanced ships have extensive data collection systems to be used for continuous monitoring of engine and hull performance, for voyage performance evaluation etc. Such systems could be expanded to include also procedures for stress monitoring and for decision support, where the most...

  8. Comparison of rate assessment between resting heart rate and 24-hour Holter monitoring in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisukwattana, Akanis; Krittayaphong, Rungroj

    2012-02-01

    Target heart rate in rate control strategy has been proposed by the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study. There is limited data on the correlation of measured heart rate at rest and during Holter monitoring. To evaluate the proportion of achieved target heart rate between resting heart rate measuring and 24-hour Holter monitoring in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who receive rate control strategy. Patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who archived target resting heart rate under rate control strategy at Siriraj Hospital and who underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring were studied to evaluate the correlation between two methods of heart rate control. 47 patients were enrolled. Underlying cardiac conditions were as follows: hypertensive heart disease 44.7%, valvular heart disease 25%, coronary artery disease 17% and dilated cardiomyopathy 12.8%. There were 10 patients (21.3%) whose achieving target resting heart rate was not correlated with 24-hour Holter monitoring. Three patients (6.4%) underwent permanent pacemaker implantation due to sick sinus syndrome (SSS) or tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. In chronic atrial fibrillation patients that receive rate control strategy, evaluation of only resting heart rate might not be enough for long-term evaluation and treatment and 24-hour monitoring may be an additional helpful test in order to more precisely adjust medication for long-term treatment and detection of SSS.

  9. Electroencephalographic monitoring in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Nicholas S; Chapman, Kevin E; Gallentine, William B; Goldstein, Joshua; Hyslop, Ann E; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Nash, Kendall B; Riviello, James J; Hahn, Cecil D

    2013-03-01

    Continuous electroencephalographic (CEEG) monitoring is used with increasing frequency in critically ill children to provide insight into brain function and to identify electrographic seizures. CEEG monitoring use often impacts clinical management, most often by identifying electrographic seizures and status epilepticus. Most electrographic seizures have no clinical correlate, and thus would not be identified without CEEG monitoring. There are increasing data showing that electrographic seizures and electrographic status epilepticus are associated with worse outcome. Seizure identification efficiency may be improved by further development of quantitative electroencephalography trends. This review describes the clinical impact of CEEG data, the epidemiology of electrographic seizures and status epilepticus, the impact of electrographic seizures on outcome, the utility of quantitative electroencephalographic trends for seizure identification, and practical considerations regarding CEEG monitoring.

  10. Variable Accuracy of Wearable Heart Rate Monitors during Aerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen; Etiwy, Muhammad; Wang, Robert; Blackburn, Gordon; Phelan, Dermot; Gillinov, A Marc; Houghtaling, Penny; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Desai, Milind Y

    2017-08-01

    Athletes and members of the public increasingly rely on wearable HR monitors to guide physical activity and training. The accuracy of newer, optically based monitors is unconfirmed. We sought to assess the accuracy of five optically based HR monitors during various types of aerobic exercise. Fifty healthy adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 38 ± 12 yr, 54% female) completed exercise protocols on a treadmill, a stationary bicycle, and an elliptical trainer (±arm movement). Each participant underwent HR monitoring with an electrocardiogaphic chest strap monitor (Polar H7), forearm monitor (Scosche Rhythm+), and two randomly assigned wrist-worn HR monitors (Apple Watch, Fitbit Blaze, Garmin Forerunner 235, and TomTom Spark Cardio), one on each wrist. For each exercise type, HR was recorded at rest, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity. Agreement between HR measurements was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (rc). Across all exercise conditions, the chest strap monitor (Polar H7) had the best agreement with ECG (rc = 0.996) followed by the Apple Watch (rc = 0.92), the TomTom Spark (rc = 0.83), and the Garmin Forerunner (rc = 0.81). Scosche Rhythm+ and Fitbit Blaze were less accurate (rc = 0.75 and rc = 0.67, respectively). On treadmill, all devices performed well (rc = 0.88-0.93) except the Fitbit Blaze (rc = 0.76). While bicycling, only the Garmin, Apple Watch, and Scosche Rhythm+ had acceptable agreement (rc > 0.80). On the elliptical trainer without arm levers, only the Apple Watch was accurate (rc = 0.94). None of the devices was accurate during elliptical trainer use with arm levers (all rc exercise type and is greatest on the treadmill and lowest on elliptical trainer. Electrode-containing chest monitors should be used when accurate HR measurement is imperative.

  11. E-bra with nanosensors, smart electronics and smart phone communication network for heart rate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Oh, Sechang; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Rai, Pratyush; Kegley, Lauren

    2011-04-01

    Heart related ailments have been a major cause for deaths in both men and women in United States. Since 1985, more women than men have died due to cardiac or cardiovascular ailments for reasons that are not well understood as yet. Lack of a deterministic understanding of this phenomenon makes continuous real time monitoring of cardiovascular health the best approach for both early detection of pathophysiological changes and events indicative of chronic cardiovascular diseases in women. This approach requires sensor systems to be seamlessly mounted on day to day clothing for women. With this application in focus, this paper describes a e-bra platform for sensors towards heart rate monitoring. The sensors, nanomaterial or textile based dry electrodes, capture the heart activity signals in form Electrocardiograph (ECG) and relay it to a compact textile mountable amplifier-wireless transmitter module for relay to a smart phone. The ECG signal, acquired on the smart phone, can be transmitted to the cyber space for post processing. As an example, the paper discusses the heart rate estimation and heart rate variability. The data flow from sensor to smart phone to server (cyber infrastructure) has been discussed. The cyber infrastructure based signal post processing offers an opportunity for automated emergency response that can be initiated from the server or the smartphone itself. Detailed protocols for both the scenarios have been presented and their relevance to the present emergency healthcare response system has been discussed.

  12. Religiosity and teen birth rate in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Strayhorn Joseph M; Strayhorn Jillian C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The children of teen mothers have been reported to have higher rates of several unfavorable mental health outcomes. Past research suggests several possible mechanisms for an association between religiosity and teen birth rate in communities. Methods The present study compiled publicly accessible data on birth rates, conservative religious beliefs, income, and abortion rates in the U.S., aggregated at the state level. Data on teen birth rates and abortion originated from th...

  13. Research on Network-based Integrated Condition Monitoring Unit for Rotating Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Xiao-peng; ZHANG Wen-rui; XI Shuan-min; JING Min-qing; YU Lie

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a network-based monitoring unit for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery is designed and implemented. With the technology of DSP( Digital signal processing), TCP/IP, and simultaneous acquisition, a mechanism of multi-process and inter-process communication, the integrating problem of signal acquisition, the data dynamic management and network-based configuration in the embedded condition monitoring system is solved. It offers the input function of monitoring information for network-based condition monitoring and a fault diagnosis system.

  14. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-03-23

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year.

  15. Groundwater Monitoring at the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2007-04-25

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive summary of the distribution and trends of volatile organic compound concentrations near USDOE’s Horn Rapids Landfill (HRL). This report focuses mainly on the TCE plume monitored in the top of the unconfined aquifer near the HRL, but also addresses potential breakdown products of TCE. TCE concentrations in deep portions of the unconfined aquifer and the underlying confined aquifer are discussed to show the vertical extent of contamination. This report incorporates TCE data from offsite wells at the AREVA facility south of the Hanford Site. Discussion of TCE in groundwater in the 300 Area is included to differentiate between contaminant plumes and their sources in the 300 Area and near the HRL. Chromium monitoring results from a specific well downgradient of the 1171 Building is also included.

  16. Hydrothermal monitoring data from the Cascade Range, northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Gelwick, Katrina D.; Randolph-Flagg, Noah G.; Crankshaw, Ilana M.; Lundstrom, Elizabeth A.; McCulloch, Callum L.; Murveit, Anna M.; Newman, Alice C.; Mariner, Robert H.; Bergfeld, D.; Tucker, Dave S.; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Mosbrucker, Adam; Evans, William C.

    2013-01-01

    This database serves as a repository for hydrothermal-monitoring data collected at 25 sites in the U.S. portion of the Cascade Range volcanic arc. These data are intended to quantify baseline hydrothermal variability at most (10 of 12) of the highest-risk volcanoes in the Cascades, as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS’) National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) report (Ewert and others, 2005).

  17. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  18. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline A Boatin

    Full Text Available We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5% successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0 on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96. Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively, useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively, and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively. In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of

  19. Nitrogen emissions, deposition, and monitoring in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark E. Fenn; Richard Haeuber; Gail S. Tonnesen; Jill S. Baron; Susanne Grossman-Clarke; Diane Hope; Daniel A. Jaffe; Scott Copeland; Linda Geiser; Heather M. Rueth; James O. Sickman

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition in the western United States ranges from 1 to 4 kilograms (kg) per hectare (ha) per year over much of the region to as high as 30 to 90 kg per ha per year downwind of major urban and agricultural areas. Primary N emissions sources are transportation, agriculture, and industry. Emissions of N as ammonia are about 50% as great as emissions of N as...

  20. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  1. Executive Information System Modelling to Monitor Indonesian Criminal Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Bernadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Similar to any other governments, Indonesia government has the role of protecting the security of its citizens via the established police unit. However, the executive unit is often unable to provide response in timely manner due to the huge data size. For the reason, an executive information system (EIS is established in order to provide necessary information to leverage the decision making process. This work intends to establish and evaluate the executive information system and its support to facilitate the efforts to fight crimes in Indonesia territory. The EIS prototype is established and is evaluated on the basis of the six information system success factors where the required data are collected by means of questionnaire. The results suggest that the factors of system quality, information quality, easy-of-use, user satisfaction, and individual and organization impacts are very significant.

  2. Improved Power Quality Monitoring through Phasor Measurement Unit Data Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, Michael; Marinelli, Mattia; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    the correct actions for operating the system. In future power systems more measuring sensors including phasor measurement units will be available distributed all over the power system. They can and should be utilized to increase the observability of the power system. In this paper the impact of photovoltaic....... The voltage unbalance factor (VUF) could be a ‘new’ observable for a particular power system condition. Information about the actual injected wind power for a certain grid area could be derived without knowing/measuring the real wind power injection....

  3. Imaging method for monitoring delivery of high dose rate brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisenberger, Andrew G; Majewski, Stanislaw

    2012-10-23

    A method for in-situ monitoring both the balloon/cavity and the radioactive source in brachytherapy treatment utilizing using at least one pair of miniature gamma cameras to acquire separate images of: 1) the radioactive source as it is moved in the tumor volume during brachytherapy; and 2) a relatively low intensity radiation source produced by either an injected radiopharmaceutical rendering cancerous tissue visible or from a radioactive solution filling a balloon surgically implanted into the cavity formed by the surgical resection of a tumor.

  4. Religiosity and teen birth rate in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strayhorn Joseph M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The children of teen mothers have been reported to have higher rates of several unfavorable mental health outcomes. Past research suggests several possible mechanisms for an association between religiosity and teen birth rate in communities. Methods The present study compiled publicly accessible data on birth rates, conservative religious beliefs, income, and abortion rates in the U.S., aggregated at the state level. Data on teen birth rates and abortion originated from the Center for Disease Control; on income, from the U.S. Bureau of the Census, and on religious beliefs, from the U.S. Religious Landscape Survey carried out by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. We computed correlations and partial correlations. Results Increased religiosity in residents of states in the U.S. strongly predicted a higher teen birth rate, with r = 0.73 (p Conclusion With data aggregated at the state level, conservative religious beliefs strongly predict U.S. teen birth rates, in a relationship that does not appear to be the result of confounding by income or abortion rates. One possible explanation for this relationship is that teens in more religious communities may be less likely to use contraception.

  5. Pervasive technology in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a prototype for newborns unobtrusive monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Oriana; Piccini, Luca; Parini, Sergio; Rullo, Alessia; Bagnoli, Franco; Marti, Patrizia; Andreoni, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Pervasive computing research is introducing new perspectives in a wide range of applications, including healthcare domain. In this study we explore the possibility to realize a prototype of a system for unobtrusive recording and monitoring of multiple biological parameters on premature newborns hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). It consists of three different units: a sensitized belt for Electrocardiogram (ECG) and chest dilatation monitoring, augmented with extrinsic transducers for temperature and respiratory activity measure, a device for signals pre-processing, sampling and transmission through Bluetooth(R) (BT) technology to a remote PC station and a software for data capture and post-processing. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring babies just discharged from the ward demonstrated the feasibility of the unobtrusive monitoring on this kind of subjects and open a new scenario for premature newborns monitoring and developmental cares practice in NICU.

  6. Variations in breastfeeding rates for very preterm infants between regions and neonatal units in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonet, Mercedes; Blondel, Béatrice; Agostino, Rocco

    2011-01-01

    To compare breastfeeding rates at discharge for very preterm infants between European regions and neonatal units, and to identify characteristics associated with breast feeding using multilevel models....

  7. Lessons from the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth; Birnbaum, Burton H.

    Learning about the relationship between heart rate and physical activity is an important aspect of fitness education. Use of a heart rate monitor (HRM) helps a student to understand how stretching and large muscle movements gradually increase the heart rate and blood flow, and enables students to measure their exercise heart rates and set goals…

  8. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  9. Patient Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate Monitoring With an Alert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... Blood pressure and pulse rate are two of the vital signs of humans and it is ... even from their homes and transfer the readings into the computer ... benefits from Omron's 'IntelliSense' .... (the port number assigned to the smart.

  10. HIV Transmission Rates in the United States, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrave, David R; Hall, H Irene; Prejean, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    National HIV incidence for a given year x [I(x)] equals prevalence [P(x)] times the transmission rate [T(x)]. Or, simply rearranging the terms, T(x) = [I(x)/P(x)]*100 (where T(x) is the number of HIV transmissions per 100 persons living with HIV in a given year). The transmission rate is an underutilized measure of the speed at which the epidemic is spreading. Here, we utilize recently updated information about HIV incidence and prevalence in the U.S. to estimate the national HIV transmission rate for 2006 through 2008, and present a novel method to express the level of uncertainty in these estimates. Transmission rate estimates for 2006 through 2008 are as follows (respectively): 4.39 (4.01 to 4.73); 4.90 (4.49 to 5.28); and 4.06 (3.70 to 4.38). Although there are methodological challenges inherent in making these estimates, they do give some indications that the U.S. HIV transmission rate is at a historically low level.

  11. An economic order quantity model with ramp type demand rate, constant deterioration rate and unit production cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an order level inventory system for deteriorating items with demand rate as a ramp type function of time. The finite production rate is proportional to the demand rate and the deterioration rate is independent of time. The unit production cost is inversely proportional to the demand rate. The model with no shortages case is discussed considering that: (a the demand rate is stabilized after the production stopping time and (b the demand is stabilized before the production stopping time. Optimal costs are determined for two different cases.

  12. Low Cost Heart Rate Monitor Using Led-Led Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahrous Ragib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A high sensitivity, low power and low cost sensor has been developed for photoplethysmography (PPG measurement. The PPG principle was applied to follow the dilatation and contraction of skin blood vessels during the cardiac cycle. A standard light emitting diodes (LEDs has been used as a light emitter and detector, and in order to reduce the space, cost and power, the classical analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs replaced by the pulse-based signal conversion techniques. A general purpose microcontroller has been used for the implementation of measurement protocol. The proposed approach leads to better spectral sensitivity, increased resolution, reduction in cost, dimensions and power consumption. The basic sensing configuration presented is capable of detecting the PPG signal from a finger or toe, and it is very simple to extract the heart rate and heart rate variability from such a signal.

  13. A new monitor for routine thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate monitoring in k{sub 0} INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J. [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.j.koster-ammerlaan@tudelft.nl; Bacchi, M.A. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo 13400-970, Piracicaba (Brazil); Bode, P. [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands); Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo 13400-970, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The Zr-Au set for monitoring the thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate and the epithermal spectrum parameter {alpha} is not always practicable for routine application of INAA in well-thermalized facilities. An alternative set consisting of Cr, Au and Mo provides values for the thermal neutron fluence rate, f and {alpha} that are not significantly different from those found via the Zr-Au method and the Cd-covered Zr-method. The IRMM standard SMELS-II was analyzed using the (Au-Cr-Mo) monitor and a good agreement was obtained.

  14. A new respiratory rate monitor: development and initial clinical experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hök, B; Wiklund, L; Henneberg, S

    1993-01-01

    different kinds of interference, including motion artefacts. The sensor is nonexpensive, rugged, simple to apply and inherently safe. An instrument with continuous display of respiratory rate, and an audiovisual apnea alarm has been designed and built. The complete system has been tested on patients during...... and apnea. Such events may in some patients be as frequent as one incident per hour. One case of 'Ondine's curse' provided clear evidence that pulse oximetry has a low sensitivity to respiratory disorders....

  15. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  16. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D. [comps.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  17. Two cases of burns caused by misuse of coagulation unit and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolly, G

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of severe burns with monitoring apparatus are described. In a female patient of 45 years, a severe third degree burn occurred by misuse of coagulation apparatus (inversion of the poles of an older Bovie apparatus), in the presence of a non-floating ECG monitoring device. A high intensity current was established from the coagulation unit, via the earth plate under the buttocks, to the indifferent electrode placed on the chest, where burns occurred. In an 8 month female baby, having laparotomy for a neuroblastoma, a third degree burn of 5 cm diameter occurred with a non-floating ECG monitor. A twin-wired disposable earth plate was placed just beneath the indifferent ECG electrode on the leg. A burning current was established between the Bovie coagulation unit and the monitor.

  18. Different Cooling Rate Dependences of Different Microstructure Units in Aluminium Glass by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-Song; ZHU Zhen-Gang; XIA Jun-Chao; SUN De-Yan

    2000-01-01

    Constant-pressure molecular dynamics simulation and the pair analysis technique have been performed to study the microstructural evolution of aluminium during rapid solidification. The microstructure characteristics of icosahedral ordering increase with decrease of the cooling rate, whereas the microstructure unit characteristics of hcp crystalline structure decrease. There are two kinds of microstructure units which are similar to those in the fcc crystal containing interstitialcies. These two kinds of microscopic units are nearly independent of the cooling rate. The microscopic structural unit characteristics of fcc crystalline structure do not depend on the cooling rate either. These results may help us understand the microstructure of glass and its stability.

  19. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If...

  20. Pricing Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrager, D.F.; Pelsser, A.

    2004-01-01

    We derive general pricing formulas for Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance under stochastic interest rates. Our main contribution focusses on the effect of stochastic interest rates. First, we show the effect of stochastic interest rates can be interpreted as, what is

  1. An Application of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide to Prison Suicide Rates in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2005-01-01

    E. Durkheim (1897) suggested that the societal rate of suicide might be explained by societal factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The current study examined male prison suicide rates and suicide rates for men in the total population in the United States and found that variables based on Durkheim's theory of suicide explained…

  2. The Effect of Domestic and Economic Stress on Suicide Rates in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Antoon A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed rates of birth, divorce, marriage, and unemployment in Canada and United States in comparison to rates of suicide from 1950 to 1985. Found no association between marriage and suicide in Canada, in U.S. marriage had protective effect. Divorce rates were associated positively and birth rates associated negatively with suicide in both…

  3. An Application of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide to Prison Suicide Rates in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2005-01-01

    E. Durkheim (1897) suggested that the societal rate of suicide might be explained by societal factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The current study examined male prison suicide rates and suicide rates for men in the total population in the United States and found that variables based on Durkheim's theory of suicide explained…

  4. Pricing Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrager, D.F.; Pelsser, A.

    2004-01-01

    We derive general pricing formulas for Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance under stochastic interest rates. Our main contribution focusses on the effect of stochastic interest rates. First, we show the effect of stochastic interest rates can be interpreted as, what is

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  6. Acoustic emission monitoring of hot functional testing: Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, P.H.; Dawson, J.F.; Friesel, M.A.; Harris, J.C.; Pappas, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of selected pressure boundary areas at TVA's Watts Bar, Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during hot functional preservice testing is described in this report. The report deals with background, methodology, and results. The work discussed here is a major milestone in a program supported by NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. The subject work demonstrated that anticipated problem areas can be overcome. Work is continuing toward AE monitoring during reactor operation.

  7. Dispersion Monitoring techniques in High Bit-rate Optical Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Xin-zhu; YU Chong-xiu; ZHANG Qi; WANG Xu

    2004-01-01

    For the efficient dynamic dispersion compensation, it is essential to monitor the dispersion accurately. The existing main dispersion monitoring techniques in high bit- rate optical communication systems are presented as well as their operating principles and research progress. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are analyzed and discussed.

  8. Accuracy of a Wrist-Worn Wearable Device for Monitoring Heart Rates in Hospital Inpatients: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Ryan R; Boyd, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Background As the sensing capabilities of wearable devices improve, there is increasing interest in their application in medical settings. Capabilities such as heart rate monitoring may be useful in hospitalized patients as a means of enhancing routine monitoring or as part of an early warning system to detect clinical deterioration. Objective To evaluate the accuracy of heart rate monitoring by a personal fitness tracker (PFT) among hospital inpatients. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study of 50 stable patients in the intensive care unit who each completed 24 hours of heart rate monitoring using a wrist-worn PFT. Accuracy of heart rate recordings was compared with gold standard measurements derived from continuous electrocardiographic (cECG) monitoring. The accuracy of heart rates measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2.R) was also measured as a positive control. Results On a per-patient basis, PFT-derived heart rate values were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring (average bias of −1.14 beats per minute [bpm], with limits of agreement of 24 bpm). By comparison, Spo2.R recordings produced more accurate values (average bias of +0.15 bpm, limits of agreement of 13 bpm, P<.001 as compared with PFT). Personal fitness tracker device performance was significantly better in patients in sinus rhythm than in those who were not (average bias −0.99 bpm vs −5.02 bpm, P=.02). Conclusions Personal fitness tracker–derived heart rates were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring in real-world testing and not as accurate as Spo2.R-derived heart rates. Performance was worse among patients who were not in sinus rhythm. Further clinical evaluation is indicated to see if PFTs can augment early warning systems in hospitals. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02527408; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02527408 (Archived by WebCite at  http://www.webcitation.org/6kOFez3on) PMID:27651304

  9. Wrist Pulse Rate Monitor Using Self-Injection-Locked Radar Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To achieve sensitivity, comfort, and durability in vital sign monitoring, this study explores the use of radar technologies in wearable devices. The study first detected the respiratory rates and heart rates of a subject at a one-meter distance using a self-injection-locked (SIL radar and a conventional continuous-wave (CW radar to compare the sensitivity versus power consumption between the two radars. Then, a pulse rate monitor was constructed based on a bistatic SIL radar architecture. This monitor uses an active antenna that is composed of a SIL oscillator (SILO and a patch antenna. When attached to a band worn on the subject’s wrist, the active antenna can monitor the pulse on the subject’s wrist by modulating the SILO with the associated Doppler signal. Subsequently, the SILO’s output signal is received and demodulated by a remote frequency discriminator to obtain the pulse rate information.

  10. Experimental study on new monitoring method of radon release rate from uranium tailings

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Jin; HanYaozHao; He Wen Xing; Zhang Biao

    2002-01-01

    Two new monitoring methods of radon release rate from uranium tailings are introduced. They are the active carbon absorption and gamma energy spectrum method. The instrument and sampler of active carbon absorption is presented with the manufacture, function, performance and calibration, the conditional test of the method and its measuring contrast to that of local static method. One-year continuous in-site monitoring of radon release rate of uranium tailings was done. The annual change regularity of radon release rate from uranium tailings was observed. The optimum season and condition of monitoring the annual average radon release rate are summarized. The parameter monitoring, calculating method and experimentation of gamma energy spectrum method is discussed

  11. Wrist Pulse Rate Monitor Using Self-Injection-Locked Radar Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Kang; Tang, Mu-Cyun; Su, Sheng-Chao; Horng, Tzyy-Sheng

    2016-10-26

    To achieve sensitivity, comfort, and durability in vital sign monitoring, this study explores the use of radar technologies in wearable devices. The study first detected the respiratory rates and heart rates of a subject at a one-meter distance using a self-injection-locked (SIL) radar and a conventional continuous-wave (CW) radar to compare the sensitivity versus power consumption between the two radars. Then, a pulse rate monitor was constructed based on a bistatic SIL radar architecture. This monitor uses an active antenna that is composed of a SIL oscillator (SILO) and a patch antenna. When attached to a band worn on the subject's wrist, the active antenna can monitor the pulse on the subject's wrist by modulating the SILO with the associated Doppler signal. Subsequently, the SILO's output signal is received and demodulated by a remote frequency discriminator to obtain the pulse rate information.

  12. Surveillance Monitoring Management for General Care Units: Strategy, Design, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Susan P; Taenzer, Andreas H; Karon, Nancy; Blike, George

    2016-07-01

    The growing number of monitoring devices, combined with suboptimal patient monitoring and alarm management strategies, has increased "alarm fatigue," which have led to serious consequences. Most reported alarm man- agement approaches have focused on the critical care setting. Since 2007 Dartmouth-Hitchcock (Lebanon, New Hamp- shire) has developed a generalizable and effective design, implementation, and performance evaluation approach to alarm systems for continuous monitoring in general care settings (that is, patient surveillance monitoring). In late 2007, a patient surveillance monitoring system was piloted on the basis of a structured design and implementation approach in a 36-bed orthopedics unit. Beginning in early 2009, it was expanded to cover more than 200 inpatient beds in all medicine and surgical units, except for psychiatry and labor and delivery. Improvements in clinical outcomes (reduction of unplanned transfers by 50% and reduction of rescue events by more than 60% in 2008) and approximately two alarms per patient per 12-hour nursing shift in the original pilot unit have been sustained across most D-H general care units in spite of increasing patient acuity and unit occupancy. Sample analysis of pager notifications indicates that more than 85% of all alarm conditions are resolved within 30 seconds and that more than 99% are resolved before escalation is triggered. The D-H surveillance monitoring system employs several important, generalizable features to manage alarms in a general care setting: alarm delays, static thresholds set appropriately for the prevalence of events in this setting, directed alarm annunciation, and policy-driven customization of thresholds to allow clinicians to respond to needs of individual patients. The systematic approach to design, implementation, and performance management has been key to the success of the system.

  13. A Greedy reassignment algorithm for the PBS minimum monitor unit constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuting; Kooy, Hanne; Craft, David; Depauw, Nicolas; Flanz, Jacob; Clasie, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) treatment plans are made of numerous unique spots of different weights. These weights are optimized by the treatment planning systems, and sometimes fall below the deliverable threshold set by the treatment delivery system. The purpose of this work is to investigate a Greedy reassignment algorithm to mitigate the effects of these low weight pencil beams. The algorithm is applied during post-processing to the optimized plan to generate deliverable plans for the treatment delivery system. The Greedy reassignment method developed in this work deletes the smallest weight spot in the entire field and reassigns its weight to its nearest neighbor(s) and repeats until all spots are above the minimum monitor unit (MU) constraint. Its performance was evaluated using plans collected from 190 patients (496 fields) treated at our facility. The Greedy reassignment method was compared against two other post-processing methods. The evaluation criteria was the γ-index pass rate that compares the pre-processed and post-processed dose distributions. A planning metric was developed to predict the impact of post-processing on treatment plans for various treatment planning, machine, and dose tolerance parameters. For fields with a pass rate of 90  ±  1% the planning metric has a standard deviation equal to 18% of the centroid value showing that the planning metric and γ-index pass rate are correlated for the Greedy reassignment algorithm. Using a 3rd order polynomial fit to the data, the Greedy reassignment method has 1.8 times better planning metric at 90% pass rate compared to other post-processing methods. As the planning metric and pass rate are correlated, the planning metric could provide an aid for implementing parameters during treatment planning, or even during facility design, in order to yield acceptable pass rates. More facilities are starting to implement PBS and some have spot sizes (one standard deviation) smaller than 5

  14. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  15. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: Implications for monitoring training : Implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four

  16. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: Implications for monitoring training : Implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four sub

  17. Cardiac arrhythmias in stroke unit patients. Evaluation of the cardiac monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Menéndez, S; García-Santiago, R; Vega-Primo, A; González Nafría, N; Lara-Lezama, L B; Redondo-Robles, L; Montes-Montes, M; Riveira-Rodríguez, M C; Tejada-García, J

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are frequent in acute stroke. Stroke units are widely equipped with cardiac monitoring systems. Pre-existing heart diseases and heart-brain interactions may be implicated in causing cardiac arrhythmias in acute stroke. This article analyses cardiac arrhythmias detected in patients hospitalised in a stroke unit. Prospective observational study of consecutive patients admitted to a stroke unit with cardiac monitoring. We collected clinical data from patients and the characteristics of their cardiac arrhythmias over a 1-year period (2013). Time of arrhythmia onset, associated predisposing factors, and the therapeutic decisions made after detection of arrhythmia were examined. All patients underwent continuous cardiac monitoring during no less than 48hours. Of a total of 332 patients admitted, significant cardiac arrhythmias occurred in 98 patients (29.5%) during their stay in the stroke unit. Tachyarrhythmia (ventricular tachyarrhythmias, supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, complex ventricular ectopy) was present in 90 patients (27.1%); bradyarrhythmia was present in 13 patients (3.91%). Arrhythmias were independently associated with larger size of brain lesion and older age. In 10% of the patient total, therapeutic actions were taken after detection of significant cardiac arrhythmias. Most events occurred within the first 48hours after stroke unit admission. Systematic cardiac monitoring in patients with acute stroke is useful for detecting clinically relevant cardiac arrhythmias. Incidence of arrhythmia is higher in the first 48hours after stroke unit admission. Age and lesion size were predicted appearance of arrhythmias. Detection of cardiac arrhythmias in a stroke unit has important implications for treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementation of Data Drive Heart Rate and Respiratory Rate parameters on a Pediatric Acute Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Veena; Poole, Sarah; Kipps, Alaina; Palma, Jonathan; Platchek, Terry; Pageler, Natalie; Longhurst, Christopher; Sharek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hospital physiologic monitor alarms are not clinically actionable and contribute to alarm fatigue. In 2014, The Joint Commission declared alarm safety as a National Patient Safety Goal and urged prompt action by hospitals to mitigate the issue [1]. It has been demonstrated that vital signs in hospitalized children are quite different from currently accepted reference ranges [2]. Implementation of data-driven, age stratified vital sign parameters (Table 1) for alarms in this patient population could reduce alarm frequency.

  19. Design of heart rate monitor based on piezoelectric sensor using an Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Veni; Muninggar, Jodelin; Shanti. N. A, Made R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Reading of result heart rate using an acoustic stethoscope needs a particular skill, quiet environment, and hearing sensitivity. This project had the purpose design of a user-friendly automatic heart rate monitor and especially in a noisy area which to eliminate problems and incorrect reading of result. The liquid crystal display shows a heart rate as a result of measurements. The design of the heart rate monitor has two main parts; the signal recorder that a piezoelectric sensor, a filter, and an amplifier as recorder. The second parts was Arduino microcontroller with reinforced. Besides, three supporting buttons provided as the manual switches, the ‘on’, the ‘start’, and ‘reset’ buttons. The values acquired from the heart rate monitor indicate that those were on the Vernier BPS-BTA value range. The measurement error factor of the heart rate monitor then compared to the Vernier BPS-BTA test device was 3.15%. Besides, the value of statistical independent-test indicates that there is no significant difference (P = 0.971) between the heart rate monitor device and the Vernier BPS-BTA. In conclusion, this device was ready to be used because it has almost the same accuracy with the standart device.

  20. Analyzing the characteristics of 6 MV photon beam at low monitor unit settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the characteristics of a low monitor unit (MU setting is essential, particularly for intensity-modulated techniques. Intensity modulation can be achieved through intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT. There is possibility for low MUs in the segments of IMRT and VMAT plans. The minimum MU/segment must be set by the physicist in the treatment planning system at the time of commissioning. In this study, the characteristics such as dose linearity, stability, flatness, and symmetry of 6 MV photon beam of a Synergy linear accelerator at low MU settings were investigated for different dose rates. The measurements were performed for Synergy linear accelerator using a slab phantom with a FC65-G chamber and Profiler 2. The MU linearity was studied for 1–100 MU using a field size of 10 cm ×10 cm. The linearity error for 1 MU was 4.2%. Flatness of the beam was deteriorated in 1 MU condition. The beam stability and symmetry was well within the specification. Using this study, we conclude that the treatment delivered with <3 MU may result in uncertainty in dose delivery. To ensure the correct dose delivery with less uncertainty, it is recommended to use ≥3 MU as the minimum MU per segment in IMRT and VMAT plans.

  1. Wireless sensor and data transmission needs and technologies for patient monitoring in the operating room and intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksuniemi, M; Sorvoja, H; Alasaarela, E; Myllyla, R

    2005-01-01

    In the intensive care unit, or during anesthesia, patients are attached to monitors by cables. These cables obstruct nursing staff and hinder the patients from moving freely in the hospital. However, rapidly developing wireless technologies are expected to solve these problems. To this end, this study revealed problem areas in current patient monitoring and established the most important medical parameters to monitor. In addition, usable wireless techniques for short-range data transmission were explored and currently employed wireless applications in the hospital environment were studied. The most important parameters measured of the patient include blood pressures, electrocardiography, respiration rate, heart rate and temperature. Currently used wireless techniques in hospitals are based on the WMTS and WLAN standards. There are no viable solutions for short-range data transmission from patient sensors to patient monitors, but potentially usable techniques in the future are based on the WPAN standards. These techniques include Bluetooth, ZigBee and UWB. Other suitable techniques might be based on capacitive or inductive coupling. The establishing of wireless techniques depends on ensuring the reliability of data transmission, eliminating disturbance by other wireless devices, ensuring patient data security and patient safety, and lowering the power consumption and price.

  2. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  3. Unobtrusive monitoring of heart rate using a cost-effective speckle-based SI-POF remote sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, P. J.; Montero, D. S.; Tapetado, A.; Vázquez, C.

    2017-03-01

    A novel speckle-based sensing technique for cost-effective heart-rate monitoring is demonstrated. This technique detects periodical changes in the spatial distribution of energy on the speckle pattern at the output of a Step-Index Polymer Optical Fiber (SI-POF) lead by using a low-cost webcam. The scheme operates in reflective configuration thus performing a centralized interrogation unit scheme. The prototype has been integrated into a mattress and its functionality has been tested with 5 different patients lying on the mattress in different positions without direct contact with the fiber sensing lead.

  4. Unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on a fiber specklegram sensor and a single-board computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Alessandro B.; Frizera, Anselmo; Cotrina, Anibal; Ribeiro, Moisés. R. N.; Segatto, Marcelo E. V.; Pontes, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a portable and unobtrusive heart rate monitor based on fiber specklegram sensors. The proposed module uses the Raspberry Pi module to perform the image acquisition and the fiber specklegram sensor, which is based on multimode plastic optical fibers. The heart rate is obtained by welch power spectral density estimate and the heart beats are identified by means of a threshold analysis.

  5. An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K

    2003-07-07

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 of the ''Air Force Hydrazine Detector Characterization and Calibration Project''. A method for calibrating model MDA 7100 hydrazine detectors in the United States Air Force (AF) inventory has been developed. The calibration system consists of a Kintek 491 reference gas generation system, a humidifier/mixer system which combines the dry reference hydrazine gas with humidified diluent or carrier gas to generate the required humidified reference for calibrations, and a gas sampling interface. The Kintek reference gas generation system itself is periodically calibrated using an ORNL-constructed coulometric titration system to verify the hydrazine concentration of the sample atmosphere in the interface module. The Kintek reference gas is then used to calibrate the hydrazine monitors. Thus, coulometric titration is only used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek reference gas generation system, and is not required for hydrazine monitor calibrations. One advantage of using coulometric titration for verifying the concentration of the reference gas is that it is a primary standard (if used for simple solutions), thereby guaranteeing, in principle, that measurements will be traceable to SI units (i.e., to the mole). The effect of humidity of the reference gas was characterized by using the results of concentrations determined by coulometric titration to develop a humidity correction graph for the Kintek 491 reference gas generation system. Using this calibration method, calibration uncertainty has been reduced by 50% compared to the current method used to calibrate hydrazine monitors in the Air Force inventory and calibration time has also been reduced by more than 20%. Significant findings from studies documented in this report are the following: (1) The Kintek 491 reference gas generation system (generator, humidifier and interface module) can be used to calibrate hydrazine detectors. (2) The

  6. Disturbances of motor unit rate modulation are prevalent in muscles of spastic-paretic stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, C J; Heckman, C J; Powers, R K; Rymer, W Z; Suresh, N L

    2014-05-01

    Stroke survivors often exhibit abnormally low motor unit firing rates during voluntary muscle activation. Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor unit firing rates in the spastic-paretic biceps brachii muscle of stroke survivors. To achieve this objective, we recorded the incidence and duration of impaired lower- and higher-threshold motor unit firing rate modulation in spastic-paretic, contralateral, and healthy control muscle during increases in isometric force generated by the elbow flexor muscles. Impaired firing was considered to have occurred when firing rate became constant (i.e., saturated), despite increasing force. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the lower-threshold unit was longer for spastic-paretic (3.9 ± 2.2 s) than for contralateral (1.4 ± 0.9 s; P modulation in the higher-threshold unit was also longer for the spastic-paretic (1.7 ± 1.6 s) than contralateral (0.3 ± 0.3 s; P = 0.007) and control (0.1 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.009) muscles. This impaired firing rate of the lower-threshold unit arose, despite an increase in the overall descending command, as shown by the recruitment of the higher-threshold unit during the time that the lower-threshold unit was saturating, and by the continuous increase in averages of the rectified EMG of the biceps brachii muscle throughout the rising phase of the contraction. These results suggest that impairments in firing rate modulation are prevalent in motor units of spastic-paretic muscle, even when the overall descending command to the muscle is increasing.

  7. NCHS - Birth Rates for Unmarried Women by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes birth rates for unmarried women by age group, race, and Hispanic origin in the United States since 1970. National data on births by Hispanics...

  8. NCHS - Teen Birth Rates for Females by Age Group, Race, and Hispanic Origin: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes teen birth rates for females by age group, race, and Hispanic origin in the United States since 1960. National data on births by Hispanic...

  9. Motor unit recruitment patterns 2: the influence of myoelectric intensity and muscle fascicle strain rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2008-06-01

    To effectively meet the force requirements of a given movement an appropriate number and combination of motor units must be recruited between and within muscles. Orderly recruitment of motor units has been shown to occur in a wide range of skeletal muscles, however, alternative strategies do occur. Faster motor units are better suited to developing force rapidly, and produce higher mechanical power with greater efficiency at faster shortening strain rates than slower motor units. As the frequency content of the myoelectric signal is related to the fibre type of the active motor units, we hypothesised that, in addition to an association between myoelectric frequency and intensity, there would be a significant association between muscle fascicle shortening strain rate and myoelectric frequency content. Myoelectric and sonomicrometric data were collected from the three ankle extensor muscles of the rat hind limb during walking and running. Myoelectric signals were analysed using wavelet transformation and principal component analysis to give a measure of the signal frequency content. Sonomicrometric signals were analysed to give measures of muscle fascicle strain and strain rate. The relationship between myoelectric frequency and both intensity and muscle fascicle strain rate was found to change across the time course of a stride, with differences also occurring in the strength of the associations between and within muscles. In addition to the orderly recruitment of motor units, a mechanical strategy of motor unit recruitment was therefore identified. Motor unit recruitment is therefore a multifactorial phenomenon, which is more complex than typically thought.

  10. Comparison of the Content,Uniformity of Dosage Units and Dissolution Rate of Triphasic Oral Contraceptives from Two Pharmaceutical Factories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan LIU; Ying LI; Jian-Ping LIU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the content,uniformity of dosage units and dissolution rate of triphasic oral contraceptives from two pharmaceutical factories A and B.Methods A High Performance Liquid Chromatography(HPLC)method for the simultaneous determination of levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol was used.The content of levonorgestrel(LNG)was monitored by an UV detector at 247 nm,while ethinylestradiol(EE)was monitored by fluorescence detector with the excitation of 285 nm and emission wavelengths of 310 nm.The dissolution test was performed using the paddle method.Results The content of levonorgestrel(LNG)and ethinylestradiol(EE)in product A was within 100.5%-122.4% while product B within 120.6%-140.9%.The uniformity value of dosage units of tablets from two factories was more than 15.The dissolution rate of tables from two factories was more than 60% within 60 min.Conclusion Only the content of product A was in the ±25% range of label claim.The uniformity of two products was not up to standard.The dissolution rate of the tablets from two products met the requirement of ChP2005.

  11. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to Subpart PPP of Part 63... Subpart PPP of Part 63—Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations—Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

  12. Design and accomplishment for the monitoring unit of the sup 6 sup 0 Co train freight inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Cong Peng

    2002-01-01

    The sup 6 sup 0 Co railway cargo inspection system has super automaticity. And the monitoring unit is an important part of the automatic control system. The author introduces the idea of designing the monitoring unit in detail and accomplishes a new-style unit which is different from the traditional one. The monitoring unit which is highly integrated, easy to be mounted and debugged and convenient to be operated and maintained has play an excellent role in the work of the whole inspection system

  13. Auditing of Monitoring and Respiratory Support Equipment in a Level III-C Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bergon-Sendin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Random safety audits (RSAs are a safety tool but have not been widely used in hospitals. Objectives. To determine the frequency of proper use of equipment safety mechanisms in relation to monitoring and mechanical ventilation by performing RSAs. The study also determined whether factors related to the patient, time period, or characteristics of the area of admission influenced how the device safety systems were used. Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted in a level III-C Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU during 2012. 87 days were randomly selected. Appropriate overall use was defined when all evaluated variables were correctly programmed in the audited device. Results. A total of 383 monitor and ventilator audits were performed. The Kappa coefficient of interobserver agreement was 0.93. The rate of appropriate overall use of the monitors and respiratory support equipment was 33.68%. Significant differences were found with improved usage during weekends, OR 1.85 (1.12–3.06, p=0.01, and during the late shift (3 pm to 10 pm, OR 1.59 (1.03–2.4, p=0.03. Conclusions. Equipment safety systems of monitors and ventilators are not properly used. To improve patient safety, we should identify which alarms are really needed and where the difficulties lie for the correct alarm programming.

  14. Unit-Specific Rates of Hand Hygiene Opportunities in an Acute-Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Angela; Conway, Laurie J; Moore, Christine; McCreight, Liz; Ragan, Kelsey; So, Jannice; Borgundvaag, Emily; Larocque, Mike; Coleman, Brenda L; McGeer, Allison

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the frequency of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) in multiple units of an acute-care hospital. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING The adult intensive care unit (ICU), medical and surgical step-down units, medical and surgical units, and the postpartum mother-baby unit (MBU) of an academic acute-care hospital during May-August 2013, May-July 2014, and June-August 2015. PARTICIPANTS Healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS HHOs were recorded using direct observation in 1-hour intervals following Public Health Ontario guidelines. The frequency and distribution of HHOs per patient hour were determined for each unit according to time of day, indication, and profession. RESULTS In total, 3,422 HHOs were identified during 586 hours of observation. The mean numbers of HHOs per patient hour in the ICU were similar to those in the medical and surgical step-down units during the day and night, which were higher than the rates observed in medical and surgical units and the MBU. The rate of HHOs during the night significantly decreased compared with day (P92% of HHOs on medical and surgical units, compared to 67% of HHOs on the MBU. CONCLUSIONS Assessment of hand hygiene compliance using product utilization data requires knowledge of the appropriate opportunities for hand hygiene. We have provided a detailed characterization of these estimates across a wide range of inpatient settings as well as an examination of temporal variations in HHOs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:411-416.

  15. Feasibility of long-distance heart rate monitoring using transmittance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelard, Robert; Scharfenberger, Christian; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Pfisterer, Kaylen J.; Lin, Bill S.; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Photoplethysmography (PPG) devices are widely used for monitoring cardiovascular function. However, these devices require skin contact, which restricts their use to at-rest short-term monitoring. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) has been recently proposed as a non-contact monitoring alternative by measuring blood pulse signals across a spatial region of interest. Existing systems operate in reflectance mode, many of which are limited to short-distance monitoring and are prone to temporal changes in ambient illumination. This paper is the first study to investigate the feasibility of long-distance non-contact cardiovascular monitoring at the supermeter level using transmittance PPGI. For this purpose, a novel PPGI system was designed at the hardware and software level. Temporally coded illumination (TCI) is proposed for ambient correction, and a signal processing pipeline is proposed for PPGI signal extraction. Experimental results show that the processing steps yielded a substantially more pulsatile PPGI signal than the raw acquired signal, resulting in statistically significant increases in correlation to ground-truth PPG in both short- and long-distance monitoring. The results support the hypothesis that long-distance heart rate monitoring is feasible using transmittance PPGI, allowing for new possibilities of monitoring cardiovascular function in a non-contact manner.

  16. Monitoring of health care personnel employee and occupational health immunization program practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Ruth M; Sorrells, Nikka; Westhusing, Kelly; Wiemken, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have identified concerns with various elements of health care personnel immunization programs, including the handling and management of the vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess monitoring processes that support evaluation of the care of vaccines in health care settings. An 11-question survey instrument was developed for use in scripted telephone surveys. State health departments in all 50 states in the United States and the District of Columbia were the target audience for the surveys. Data from a total of 47 states were obtained and analyzed. No states reported an existing monitoring process for evaluation of health care personnel immunization programs in their states. Our assessment indicates that vaccine evaluation processes for health care facilities are rare to nonexistent in the United States. Identifying existing practice gaps and resultant opportunities for improvements may be an important safety initiative that protects patients and health care personnel.

  17. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified

  18. Prevalence rates of infection in intensive care units of a tertiary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toufen Junior Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence rates of infections among intensive care unit patients, the predominant infecting organisms, and their resistance patterns. To identify the related factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection and mortality rates. DESIGN: A 1-day point-prevalence study. SETTING:A total of 19 intensive care units at the Hospital das Clínicas - University of São Paulo, School of Medicine (HC-FMUSP, a teaching and tertiary hospital, were eligible to participate in the study. PATIENTS: All patients over 16 years old occupying an intensive care unit bed over a 24-hour period. The 19 intensive care unit s provided 126 patient case reports. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of infection, antimicrobial use, microbiological isolates resistance patterns, potential related factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection, and death rates. RESULTS: A total of 126 patients were studied. Eighty-seven patients (69% received antimicrobials on the day of study, 72 (57% for treatment, and 15 (12% for prophylaxis. Community-acquired infection occurred in 15 patients (20.8%, non- intensive care unit nosocomial infection in 24 (33.3%, and intensive care unit-acquired infection in 22 patients (30.6%. Eleven patients (15.3% had no defined type. The most frequently reported infections were respiratory (58.5%. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Enterobacteriaceae (33.8%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.4%, and Staphylococcus aureus (16.9%; [100% resistant to methicillin]. Multivariate regression analysis revealed 3 risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired infection: age > 60 years (p = 0.007, use of a nasogastric tube (p = 0.017, and postoperative status (p = 0.017. At the end of 4 weeks, overall mortality was 28.8%. Patients with infection had a mortality rate of 34.7%. There was no difference between mortality rates for infected and noninfected patients (p=0.088. CONCLUSION: The rate of nosocomial infection is high in intensive care

  19. Salamander chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) in the United States—Developing research, monitoring, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieka; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2016-01-20

    The recently (2013) identified pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), poses a severe threat to the distribution and abundance of salamanders within the United States and Europe. Development of a response strategy for the potential, and likely, invasion of Bsal into the United States is crucial to protect global salamander biodiversity. A formal working group, led by Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins Science Center, and Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, was held at the USGS Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, Colorado, United States from June 23 to June 25, 2015, to identify crucial Bsal research and monitoring needs that could inform conservation and management strategies for salamanders in the United States. Key findings of the workshop included the following: (1) the introduction of Bsal into the United States is highly probable, if not inevitable, thus requiring development of immediate short-term and long-term intervention strategies to prevent Bsal establishment and biodiversity decline; (2) management actions targeted towards pathogen containment may be ineffective in reducing the long-term spread of Bsal throughout the United States; and (3) early detection of Bsal through surveillance at key amphibian import locations, among high-risk wild populations, and through analysis of archived samples is necessary for developing management responses. Top research priorities during the preinvasion stage included the following: (1) deployment of qualified diagnostic methods for Bsal and establishment of standardized laboratory practices, (2) assessment of susceptibility for amphibian hosts (including anurans), and (3) development and evaluation of short- and long-term pathogen intervention and management strategies. Several outcomes were achieved during the workshop, including development

  20. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Nathan L. Stephenson; John C. Byrne; Lori D. Daniels; Jerry F. Franklin; Peter Z. Fule; Mark E. Harmon; Andrew J. Larson; Jeremy M. Smith; Alan H. Taylor; Thomas T. Veblen

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29...

  1. A Bayesian analysis of the unit root in real exchange rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Schotman (Peter); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a posterior odds analysis of the hypothesis of a unit root in real exchange rates. From a Bayesian viewpoint the random walk hypothesis for real exchange rates is a posteriori as probable as a stationary AR(1) process for four out of eight time series investigated. The French

  2. Monitoring athletic training status using the maximal rate of heart rate increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenger, Clint R; Thomson, Rebecca L; Howe, Peter R C; Karavirta, Laura; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    Reductions in maximal rate of heart rate increase (rHRI) correlate with performance reductions when training load is increased. This study evaluated whether rHRI tracked performance changes across a range of training states. Prospective intervention. rHRI was assessed during five min of cycling at 100W (rHRIcyc) and running at 8km/h (rHRIrun) in 13 male triathletes following two weeks of light-training (LT), two weeks of heavy-training (HT) and a two-day recovery period (RP). A five min cycling time-trial assessed performance and peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Performance likely decreased following HT (Effect size±90% confidence interval=-0.18±0.09), then very likely increased following RP (0.32±0.14). rHRIcyc very likely decreased (-0.48±0.24), and rHRIrun possibly decreased (-0.33±0.48), following HT. Changes in both measures were unclear following RP. Steady-state HR was almost certainly lower (-0.81±0.31) during rHRIcyc than rHRIrun. A large correlation was found between reductions in performance and rHRIrun (r±90%; CI=0.65±0.34) from LT to HT, but was unclear for rHRIcyc. Trivial within-subject correlations were found between rHRI and performance, but the strength of relationship between rHRIrun and performance was largely associated with V˙O2peak following LT (r=-0.58±0.38). Performance reductions were most sensitively tracked by rHRIrun following HT. This may be due to rHRIrun being assessed at a higher intensity than rHRIcyc, inferred from a higher steady-state HR and supported by a stronger within-subject relationship between rHRIrun and performance in individuals with a lower V˙O2peak, in whom the same exercise intensity would represent a greater physiological stress. rHRI assessed at relatively high exercise intensities may better track performance changes. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

  4. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

  5. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  6. Spread-out Bragg peak and monitor units calculation with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérault, J; Iborra, N; Serrano, B; Chauvel, P

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the dosimetric potential of the Monte Carlo code MCNPX applied to the protontherapy field. For series of clinical configurations a comparison between simulated and experimental data was carried out, using the proton beam line of the MEDICYC isochronous cyclotron installed in the Centre Antoine Lacassagne in Nice. The dosimetric quantities tested were depth-dose distributions, output factors, and monitor units. For each parameter, the simulation reproduced accurately the experiment, which attests the quality of the choices made both in the geometrical description and in the physics parameters for beam definition. These encouraging results enable us today to consider a simplification of quality control measurements in the future. Monitor Units calculation is planned to be carried out with preestablished Monte Carlo simulation data. The measurement, which was until now our main patient dose calibration system, will be progressively replaced by computation based on the MCNPX code. This determination of Monitor Units will be controlled by an independent semi-empirical calculation.

  7. Independent dose per monitor unit review of eight U.S.A. proton treatment facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, M. F., E-mail: MFMoyers@roadrunner.com [Colton, California 92354 (United States); Ibbott, G. S.; Grant, R. L.; Summers, P. A.; Followill, D. S. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas – M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Compare the dose per monitor unit at different proton treatment facilities using three different dosimetry methods. Methods: Measurements of dose per monitor unit were performed by a single group at eight facilities using 11 test beams and up to six different clinical portal treatment sites. These measurements were compared to the facility reported dose per monitor unit values. Results: Agreement between the measured and reported doses was similar using any of the three dosimetry methods. Use of the ICRU 59 N{sub D,w} based method gave results approximately 3% higher than both the ICRU 59 N{sub X} and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N{sub D,w} based methods. Conclusions: Any single dosimetry method could be used for multi-institution trials with similar conformity between facilities. A multi-institutional trial could support facilities using both the ICRU 59 N{sub X} based and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N{sub D,w} based methods but use of the ICRU 59 N{sub D,w} based method should not be allowed simultaneously with the other two until the difference is resolved.

  8. Independent dose per monitor unit review of eight U.S.A. proton treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F; Ibbott, G S; Grant, R L; Summers, P A; Followill, D S

    2014-01-01

    Compare the dose per monitor unit at different proton treatment facilities using three different dosimetry methods. Measurements of dose per monitor unit were performed by a single group at eight facilities using 11 test beams and up to six different clinical portal treatment sites. These measurements were compared to the facility reported dose per monitor unit values. Agreement between the measured and reported doses was similar using any of the three dosimetry methods. Use of the ICRU 59 ND,w based method gave results approximately 3% higher than both the ICRU 59 NX and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) ND,w based methods. Any single dosimetry method could be used for multi-institution trials with similar conformity between facilities. A multi-institutional trial could support facilities using both the ICRU 59 NX based and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) ND,w based methods but use of the ICRU 59 ND,w based method should not be allowed simultaneously with the other two until the difference is resolved.

  9. Monitoring Solar-terrestrial Interaction at the United Nations Office at Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadimova, Sharafat; Haubold, Hans

    Earth's ionosphere reacts strongly to the intense X-ray and ultraviolet radiation released by the Sun during solar events. Stanford's Solar Center, Electrical Engineering Department developed inexpensive space weather monitors that scholars around the world can use to track changes to the Earth's ionosphere. Two versions of the monitors exist -a low-cost version named SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances) designed to detect solar flares; and a more sensitive version named AWESOME (Atmospheric Weather Electromagnetic System of Observation, Modeling, and Education) that provides both solar and nighttime research-quality data. Through the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI), such monitors have been deployed to high schools and universities in developing nations of the world for the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI, see http://www.stil.bas.bg/ISWI/). The monitors come preassem-bled, the hosts build their own antenna, and provide a computer to record the data and an internet connection to share their data with worldwide network of SIDs and AWESOMEs. These networks are advancing the understanding of the fundamental heliophysical processes that govern the Sun, Earth and heliosphere, particularly phenomena of space weather. Mon-itoring the fundamental processes responsible for solar-terrestrial coupling are vital to being able to understand the influence of the Sun on the near-Earth environment. A SID monitor is successfully operating at the United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV) and will be extended to an AWESOME shortly. This project will also be supported by the programme on global naviga-tion satellite systems (GNSS) applications, implemented through the International Committee on GNSS (ICG, see http://www.icgsecretariat.org).

  10. Do additional inputs change maximal voluntary motor unit firing rates after spinal cord injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K

    2012-01-01

    Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary drive and other concurrent inputs compared with an MVC alone. Motor unit firing rates, force, and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) were compared across 2 contractions: (a) MVC alone and (b) MVC combined with another input (combination contraction). Other inputs (conditions) included vibration, heat, or cold applied to the anterior surface of the forearm, electrical stimulation delivered to the anterior surface of the middle finger, a muscle spasm, or a voluntary contraction of the contralateral thenar muscles against resistance. The maximal firing frequency (n = 68 units), force, and electromyographic activity (n = 92 contraction pairs) were all significantly higher during the combined contractions compared with MVCs alone. There was a 3-way interaction between contraction, condition, and subject for maximal motor unit firing rates, force, and EMG. Thus, combined contraction responses were different for conditions across subjects. Some conditions (eg, a muscle spasm) resulted in more effective and more frequent responses (increases in unit firing frequency, force, EMG in >50% contractions) than others. Recruitment of new units also occurred in combined contractions. Motoneurons are still responsive to additional afferent inputs from various sources when rate modulation from voluntary drive is limited by SCI. Individuals with SCI may be able to combine inputs to control functional tasks they cannot perform with voluntary drive alone.

  11. Analysis of Real-Time Monitoring Technology andDynamic Rating method of Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 刘聪

    2015-01-01

    Transmission line dynamic rating method as an important part of the inteligent transmission technical system can effectively solve the problem of insufficient power supply capacity of transmission lines. In this paper,the overal scheme of the dynamic rating method is briefly ilustrated. Next,transmission lines real-time monitoring technology and transmission line dynamic rating method are described respectively. Finaly,the influence of external factors on carrying capacity of transmission lines is analysed. Numerical results show that the proposed dynamic rating method is very effective.

  12. Calculating the rate of exothermic energy release for catalytic converter efficiency monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepburn, J.S.; Meitzler, A.H. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports on the development of a new methodology for OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitoring. Temperature measurements taken from the center of the catalyst substrate or near the exterior surface of the catalyst brick were used in conjunction with macroscopic energy balances to calculate the instantaneous rate of exothermic energy generation within the catalyst. The total calculated rate of exothermic energy release over the FTP test cycle was within 10% of the actual or theoretical value and provided a good indicator of catalyst light-off for a variety of aged catalytic converters. Normalization of the rate of exothermic energy release in the front section of the converter by the mass flow rate of air inducted through the engine was found to provide a simple yet practical means of monitoring the converter under both FTP and varying types of road driving.

  13. Optical fiber head for monitoring of heart rate and blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kacper; Baranowska, Agata; Zmojda, Jacek; Kochanowicz, Marcin; Dorosz, Dominik

    2016-09-01

    In this article we presented possibility of heart rate and blood oxygenation measurements by classic displacement optical fiber sensor in reflection mode. Based on numerical analysis of sensor head characteristics the optimal construction was developed. Three LED diodes at the wavelengths of 530nm (green), 650nm (red) and 850nm (infrared) were used for determine heart rate and saturation of blood during "in vivo" measurements. Developed sensor head allows noninvasive and continuously monitoring of blood parameters.

  14. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger, this enables detailed monitoring of the system and allows for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special `Enhanced Bias' event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  15. MOTOR UNIT FIRING RATES DURING SPASMS IN THENAR MUSCLES OF SPINAL CORD INJURED SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eZijdewind

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury. Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical spinal cord injury. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG, surface EMG, and force were recorded during thenar muscle spasms that occurred spontaneously or that were triggered by movement of a shoulder or leg. Most spasms were submaximal (mean: 39%, SD: 33 of the force evoked by median nerve stimulation at 50 Hz with strong relationships between EMG and force (R2>0.69. Unit recruitment occurred over a wide force range (0.2-103% of 50 Hz force. Significant unit rate modulation occurred during spasms (frequency at 25% maximal force: 8.8 Hz, 3.3 SD; at maximal force: 16.1 Hz, 4.1 SD. Mean recruitment frequency (7.1 Hz, 3.2 SD was significantly higher than derecruitment frequency (5.4 Hz, 2.4 SD. Coactive unit pairs that fired for more than 4 s showed high (R2>0.7, n=4 or low (R2:0.3-0.7, n=12 rate-rate correlations, and derecruitment reversals (21 pairs, 29%. Later recruited units had higher or lower maximal firing rates than lower threshold units. These discrepant data show that coactive motoneurons are driven by both common inputs and by synaptic inputs from different sources during muscle spasms. Further, thenar motoneurons can still fire at high rates in response to various peripheral inputs after spinal cord injury, supporting the idea that low maximal voluntary firing rates and forces in thenar muscles result from reduced descending drive.

  16. Income distribution, turnover speed and profit rate in Japan, Chile, Netherlands and United States

    OpenAIRE

    Maito, Esteban Ezequiel

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the valorization process in Chile, Japan, Netherlands and United States, estimating advanced constant and variable capital, turnover speed, capital composition and profit rate on total advanced capital. Furthermore, it analyzes the role of turnover speed in the valorization process. In core countries, turnover speed of capital tends to be higher due to a larger development of productive forces. Thus, in Netherlands, United States and Japan there is higher labor share, repr...

  17. Money and Interest Rates in the United States during the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Peter F. Basile; John Landon-Lane; Hugh Rockoff

    2010-01-01

    This paper reexamines the debate over whether the United States fell into a liquidity trap in the 1930s. We first review the literature on the liquidity trap focusing on Keynes's discussion of "absolute liquidity preference" and the division that soon emerged between Keynes, who believed that a liquidity trap had not been reached, and the American Keynesians who believed that the United States had fallen into a liquidity trap. We then explore several interest rates that have been neglected in...

  18. Reduced firing rates of high threshold motor units in response to eccentric overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Tom G; Pahar, Madhu; Chesham, Ross; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2017-01-01

    Acute responses of motor units were investigated during submaximal voluntary isometric tasks following eccentric overload (EO) and constant load (CL) knee extension resistance exercise. Ten healthy resistance-trained participants performed four experimental test sessions separated by 5 days over a 20 day period. Two sessions involved constant load and the other two used eccentric overload. EO and CL used both sessions for different target knee eccentric extension phases; one at 2 sec and the other at 4 sec. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and isometric trapezoid efforts for 10 sec at 70% MVC were completed before and after each intervention and decomposed electromyography was used to measure motor unit firing rate. The firing rate of later recruited, high-threshold motor units declined following the 2-sec EO but was maintained following 2sec CL (P units were maintained for both loading types following 4-sec extension phases. MVC and rate of force development where maintained following both EO and CL and 2 and 4 sec phases. This study demonstrates a slower firing rate of high-threshold motor units following fast eccentric overload while MVC was maintained. This suggests that there was a neuromuscular stimulus without cost to the force-generating capacity of the knee extensors. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. A real-time phoneme counting algorithm and application for speech rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson, Vered; Aharonson, Eran; Raichlin-Levi, Katia; Sotzianu, Aviv; Amir, Ofer; Ovadia-Blechman, Zehava

    2017-03-01

    Adults who stutter can learn to control and improve their speech fluency by modifying their speaking rate. Existing speech therapy technologies can assist this practice by monitoring speaking rate and providing feedback to the patient, but cannot provide an accurate, quantitative measurement of speaking rate. Moreover, most technologies are too complex and costly to be used for home practice. We developed an algorithm and a smartphone application that monitor a patient's speaking rate in real time and provide user-friendly feedback to both patient and therapist. Our speaking rate computation is performed by a phoneme counting algorithm which implements spectral transition measure extraction to estimate phoneme boundaries. The algorithm is implemented in real time in a mobile application that presents its results in a user-friendly interface. The application incorporates two modes: one provides the patient with visual feedback of his/her speech rate for self-practice and another provides the speech therapist with recordings, speech rate analysis and tools to manage the patient's practice. The algorithm's phoneme counting accuracy was validated on ten healthy subjects who read a paragraph at slow, normal and fast paces, and was compared to manual counting of speech experts. Test-retest and intra-counter reliability were assessed. Preliminary results indicate differences of -4% to 11% between automatic and human phoneme counting. Differences were largest for slow speech. The application can thus provide reliable, user-friendly, real-time feedback for speaking rate control practice.

  20. Do State-Based Policies Have an Impact on Teen Birth Rates and Teen Abortion Rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrette, Marianne; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-10-01

    The United States has one of the highest teen birth rates among developed countries. Interstate birth rates and abortion rates vary widely, as do policies on abortion and sex education. The objective of our study is to assess whether US state-level policies regarding abortion and sexual education are associated with different teen birth and teen abortion rates. We carried out a state-level (N = 51 [50 states plus the District of Columbia]) retrospective observational cross-sectional study, using data imported from the National Vital Statistics System. State policies were obtained from the Guttmacher Institute. We used descriptive statistics and regression analysis to study the association of different state policies with teen birth and teen abortion rates. The state-level mean birth rates, when stratifying between policies protective and nonprotective of teen births, were not statistically different-for sex education policies, 39.8 of 1000 vs 45.1 of 1000 (P = .2187); for mandatory parents' consent to abortion 45 of 1000, vs 38 of 1000 when the minor could consent (P = .0721); and for deterrents to abortion, 45.4 of 1000 vs 37.4 of 1000 (P = .0448). Political affiliation (35.1 of 1000 vs 49.6 of 1000, P abortion rates were, however, associated with restrictive abortion policies, specifically lower in states with financial barriers, deterrents to abortion, and requirement for parental consent. While teen birth rates do not appear to be influenced by state-level sex education policies, state-level policies that restrict abortion appear to be associated with lower state teen abortion rates. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Derivation of Plastic Work Rate Done per Unit Volume for Mean Yield Criterion and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewen ZHAO; Yingjie XIE; Xiaowen WANG; Xianghua LIU

    2005-01-01

    In Haigh Westergaard stress space linear combination of twin shear stress and Tresca yield functions is called the mean yield (MY) criterion. The mathematical relationship of the criterion and its plastic work rate done per unit volume were derived. A generalized worked example of slab forging was analyzed by the criterion and its corresponding plastic work rate done per unit volume. Then, the precision of the solution was compared with those by Mises and Twin shear stress yield criterions, respectively. It turned out that the calculated results by MY criterion were in good agreement with those by Mises criterion.

  2. Trigger monitoring and rate predictions using Enhanced Bias data from the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A data-driven method for performing offline rate and CPU usage predictions for any algorithmic selection in the ATLAS High Level Trigger at the Large Hadron Collider is described. To assure statistical sensitivity in the most relevant kinematic regions, a mix of events is selected by the Level 1 trigger system that emphasises higher energies and object multiplicities. This sample, referred to as `enhanced bias', is constructed in such a way that the selection bias is removable with event weights. The use of enhanced bias data to calculate the rates of HLT trigger chains along with complex combinations such as group rates, the total rate and unique rates is described, along with methods for performing extrapolations of rates to different instantaneous luminosities and for performing predictions of trigger CPU usage. The process by which ATLAS collects and processes monitoring data in the High Level Trigger is outlined, this allows for CPU and readout system resource utilisation within the trigger to be studied...

  3. ATLAS trigger operations: Monitoring with “Xmon” rate prediction system

    CERN Document Server

    Aukerman, Andrew Todd; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the operations and online monitoring with the “Xmon” rate prediction system for the trigger system at the ATLAS Experiment. A two-level trigger system reduces the LHC’s bunch-crossing rate, 40 MHz at design capacity, to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz, while maintaining a high efficiency of selecting events of interest. The Xmon system uses the luminosity value to predict trigger rates that are, in turn, compared with incoming rates. The predictions rely on past runs to parameterize the luminosity dependency of the event rate for a trigger algorithm. Some examples are given to illustrate the performance of the tool during recent operations.

  4. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring from Phonocardiograph Signal Using Repetition Frequency of Heart Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a passive, harmless, and low-cost diagnosis tool, fetal heart rate (FHR monitoring based on fetal phonocardiography (fPCG signal is alternative to ultrasonographic cardiotocography. Previous fPCG-based methods commonly relied on the time difference of detected heart sound bursts. However, the performance is unavoidable to degrade due to missed heart sounds in very low signal-to-noise ratio environments. This paper proposes a FHR monitoring method using repetition frequency of heart sounds. The proposed method can track time-varying heart rate without both heart sound burst identification and denoising. The average accuracy rate comparison to benchmark is 88.3% as the SNR ranges from −4.4 dB to −26.7 dB.

  5. Monitoring dental-unit-water-line output water by current in-office test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sham; Singhrao, Sim K; Bricknell, Matt; Pearce, Mark; Morton, L H Glyn; Ahmed, Waqar; Crean, St John

    2014-08-01

    The importance of monitoring contamination levels in the output water of dental-unit-water-lines (DUWLs) is essential as they are prone to developing biofilms that may contaminate water that is used to treat patients, with opportunistic pathogens such as species of Legionella, Pseudomonas and others. Dentists and practice staff are also at risk of being infected by means of cross-infection due to aerosols generated from DUWL water. The unit of measurement for the microbial contamination of water by aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria is the colony-forming unit per millilitre (cfu/ml) of water. The UK has its own guidelines set by the Department of Health for water discharged from DUWL to be between 100 and 200 cfu/ml of water. The benchmark or accepted standard laboratory test is by microbiological culture on R2A agar plates. However, this is costly and not convenient for routine testing in dental practices. A number of commercial indicator tests are used in dental surgeries, but they were not developed for the dental market and serve only to indicate gross levels of contamination when used outside of the manufacturer's recommended incubation period. The aim of this article is to briefly review the universal problem of DUWL contamination with microbial biofilms and to update dental professionals on the availability of currently available commercial in-office monitoring systems for aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria and to discuss their limitations for testing water samples in assuring compliance with recommended guidelines.

  6. Design of an Integrated Sensor Platform for Vital Sign Monitoring of Newborn Infants at Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring and advances in medical treatments have resulted in a significant increase of survival rate in critically ill infants admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The quality of life and long-term health prospects of the neonates depend increasingly on the reliability and comfort of the monitoring systems. In this paper, we present the design work of a smart jacket for vital sign monitoring of neonates at a NICU. The design represents a unique integration of sensor technology, user focus and design aspects. Textile sensors, a reflectance pulse oximeter and a wearable temperature sensor were proposed to be embedded into the smart jacket. Location of the sensor, materials and appearance were designed to optimize the functionality, patient comfort and the possibilities for aesthetic features. Prototypes were built for demonstrating the design concept and experimental results were obtained from tests on premature babies at the NICU of M�xima Medical Centre (MMC in Veldhoven, the Netherlands.

  7. Firing rate modulation of human motor units in different muscles during isometric contraction with various forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, K; Narusawa, M

    1996-05-06

    To examine the factors affecting the control of human motor units, rate coding strategies of the motor units were investigated in upper limb and intrinsic hand muscles during voluntary isometric contraction of steady force levels up to 80% of maximal voluntary contraction. Numerous spike trains from single motor units were recorded from the m. first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the m. biceps brachii (BB) of eight human subjects by means of tungsten micro-electrodes, and the mean firing rate (MFR) was calculated for each subject and inter-individual comparisons made. The MFRs of the FDI were larger than that of the BB at the higher force level, and substantial differences were not found between these muscles at the lower force level. The slope of the linear regression line of MFRs vs. exerted forces for the FDI was more than twice that for the BB. Therefore, isometric force control of the FDI depends more on the rate coding strategy. The difference in rate coding between the FDI and BB motor units may be determined by factors other than muscle fiber composition, because both muscles are known to possess a similar composition of fiber types. Possible mechanisms underlying these characteristics of rate coding strategy are considered in this report.

  8. Monitoring, modeling, and management: why base avian management on vital rates and how should it be done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. DeSante; M. Philip Nott; Danielle R. Kaschube

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that effective management of landbirds should be based on assessing and monitoring their vital rates (primary demographic parameters) as well as population trends. This is because environmental stressors and management actions affect vital rates directly and usually without time lags, and because monitoring vital rates provides a) information on...

  9. Design and Implementation of a Smart Sensor for Respiratory Rate Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte Luis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, development and implementation of a smart sensor to monitor the respiratory rate. This sensor is aimed at overcoming the drawbacks of other systems currently available in market, namely, devices that are costly, uncomfortable, difficult-to-install, provide low detection sensitivity, and little-to-null patient-to-patient calibration. The device is based on capacitive sensing by means of an LC oscillator. Experimental results show that the sensor meets the necessary requirements, making feasible the proposed monitoring system with the technology used.

  10. Continuous 'Passive' flow-proportional monitoring of drainage using a new modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; de Jonge, Hubert

    2016-03-01

    In view of their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring of agricultural subsurface drain tile systems is important for adequate water quality management. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tile drains are expensive and labour intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective and simple method for monitoring loads from tile drains. The Flowcap is a modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit that can be attached to the outlet of tile drains. It is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads and flow-averaged concentrations. The MSW builds on a modern passive sampling technique that responds to hydraulic pressure and measures average concentrations over time (days to months) for various substances. Mounting the samplers in the MSW allowed a flow-proportional part of the drainage to be sampled. Laboratory testing yielded high linear correlation between the accumulated sampler flow, q total, and accumulated drainage flow, Q total (r (2) > 0.96). The slope of these correlations was used to calculate the total drainage discharge from the sampled volume, and therefore contaminant load. A calibration of the MSW under controlled laboratory condition was needed before interpretation of the monitoring results was possible. The MSW does not require a shed, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of contaminant loads via tile drains, which can improve contaminant transport models and yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality. Results from this type of monitoring can provide data for the evaluation and optimisation of best management practices in agriculture in order to produce the highest yield without water quality and recipient surface waters being compromised.

  11. Monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in bioventing processes using in situ respiration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Byun, I G; Kim, Y O; Hwang, I S; Park, T J

    2006-01-01

    An in situ measuring system of respiration rate was applied for monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in a bioventing process for bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. Two laboratory-scale soil columns were packed with 5 kg of soil that was artificially contaminated by diesel fuel as final TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) concentration of 8,000 mg/kg soil. Nutrient was added to make a relative concentration of C:N:P = 100:10:1. One soil column was operated with continuous venting mode, and the other one with intermittent (6 h venting/6 h rest) venting mode. On-line O2 and CO2 gas measuring system was applied to measure O2 utilisation and CO2 production during biodegradation of diesel for 5 months. Biodegradation rate of TPH was calculated from respiration rate measured by the on-line gas measuring system. There were no apparent differences between calculated biodegradation rates from two columns with different venting modes. The variation of biodegradation rates corresponded well with trend of the remaining TPH concentrations comparing other biodegradation indicators, such as C17/pristane and C18/phytane ratio, dehydrogenase activity, and the ratio of hydrocarbon utilising bacteria to total heterotrophic bacteria. These results suggested that the on-line measuring system of respiration rate would be applied to monitoring biodegradation rate and to determine the potential applicability of bioventing process for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.

  12. Smartphone applications (apps) for heart rate measurement in children: comparison with electrocardiography monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chi-Lin; Fu, Yun-Ching; Lin, Ming-Chih; Chan, Sheng-Ching; Hwang, Betau; Jan, Sheng-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Heart rate (HR) measurement is essential for children with abnormal heart beats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HR measurement by smartphone applications (apps) could be a feasible alternative to an electrocardiography (ECG) monitor. A total of 40 children, median age of 4.3 years, were studied. Using four free smartphone apps, pulse rates were measured at the finger (or toe) and earlobe, and compared with baseline HRs measured by ECG monitors. Significant correlations between measured pulse rates and baseline HRs were found. Both correlation and accuracy rate were higher in the earlobe group than the finger/toe group. When HR was app (median of 65 vs 76%). The accuracy rates in the finger/toe group were significantly lower than those in the earlobe group for all apps when HR was ≥ 120 bpm (27 vs 65%). There were differences among apps in their abilities to measure pulse rates. Taking children's pulse rate from the earlobe would be more accurate, especially for tachycardia. However, we do not recommend that smartphone apps should not be used for routine medical use or used as the sole form of HR measurement because the results of their accuracy are not good enough.

  13. Clinical Trial of an Educational Program to Decrease Monitor Alarms in a Medical Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, Arian; Collins-Brown, Sandra; Kirkland, Jasmine; Knapp, Meghan; Pressley, Jackie; Higgins, Melinda; McMurtry, James P

    2016-07-01

    Clinical research to identify effective interventions for decreasing nonactionable alarms has been limited. The objective of this study was to determine if a staff educational program on customizing alarm settings on bedside monitors decreased alarms in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). A preintervention, postintervention, nonequivalent group design was used to evaluate an educational program on alarm management in a convenience sample of MICU nurses. A 15-minute session was provided in a 1-week period. The outcome variable (number of alarms for low oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry [SpO2]) was determined from monitor log files adjusted by patient census. Data were collected for 15 days before and after the intervention. χ(2) analysis was used, with P less than .05 considered significant. After 1 week of education, low SpO2 alarms decreased from 502 to 306 alarms per patient monitored per day, a 39% reduction (P alarm settings to patients' clinical condition decreased common monitor alarms by 39%. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing

    2016-01-01

    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from -4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to -6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by -5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground.

  15. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from October 2008 through December 2009. It also represents the first year of the enhanced monitoring network and begins the new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  16. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from December 2009 through December 2010. It also represents the second year of the enhanced monitoring network and the 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  17. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the PSA during fiscal year 2009.

  18. Comparison of methods for estimating motor unit firing rate time series from firing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lukai; Bonato, Paolo; Clancy, Edward A

    2016-12-01

    The central nervous system regulates recruitment and firing of motor units to modulate muscle tension. Estimation of the firing rate time series is typically performed by decomposing the electromyogram (EMG) into its constituent firing times, then lowpass filtering a constituent train of impulses. Little research has examined the performance of different estimation methods, particularly in the inevitable presence of decomposition errors. The study of electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroneurogram (ENG) firing rate time series presents a similar problem, and has applied novel simulation models and firing rate estimators. Herein, we adapted an ENG/ECG simulation model to generate realistic EMG firing times derived from known rates, and assessed various firing rate time series estimation methods. ENG/ECG-inspired rate estimation worked exceptionally well when EMG decomposition errors were absent, but degraded unacceptably with decomposition error rates of ⩾1%. Typical EMG decomposition error rates-even after expert manual review-are 3-5%. At realistic decomposition error rates, more traditional EMG smoothing approaches performed best, when optimal smoothing window durations were selected. This optimal window was often longer than the 400ms duration that is commonly used in the literature. The optimal duration decreased as the modulation frequency of firing rate increased, average firing rate increased and decomposition errors decreased. Examples of these rate estimation methods on physiologic data are also provided, demonstrating their influence on measures computed from the firing rate estimate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High Rates of Tuberculosis and Opportunities for Prevention among International Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jeffrey M; Reves, Randall R; Belknap, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    Foreign-born persons traveling on a student visa are not currently screened for tuberculosis on entry into the United States, despite residing in the United States for up to several years. To characterize the risk of tuberculosis in international students entering the United States and to identify strategies for early diagnosis and prevention in this population. Data were collected in 18 tuberculosis control jurisdictions in the United States. A cohort of 1,268 foreign-born patients of known visa status, diagnosed with active tuberculosis between 2004 and 2007, was used for analysis. Incidence rates were estimated on the basis of immigration data from study jurisdictions. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 46 student residents, providing an annual estimate of 308 cases nationally. The estimated tuberculosis case rate in student residents was 48.1 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 35.6-64.8), more than twice that of the general foreign-born population. Students identified by tuberculosis screening programs were more likely to be diagnosed within 6 months of U.S. arrival (75 vs. 6%; P students, 71% were diagnosed more than 1 year after U.S. arrival and only 6% were previously treated for latent tuberculosis infection. The tuberculosis case rate in foreign-born students is significantly higher than in other foreign-born individuals. Screening this group after arrival to the United States is an effective strategy for earlier diagnosis of active tuberculosis.

  20. Setting maximum emission rates from ozone emitting consumer appliances in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Glenn; Shaughnessy, Richard; Shu, Shi

    2011-02-01

    A Monte Carlo analysis of indoor ozone levels in four cities was applied to provide guidance to regulatory agencies on setting maximum ozone emission rates from consumer appliances. Measured distributions of air exchange rates, ozone decay rates and outdoor ozone levels at monitoring stations were combined with a steady-state indoor air quality model resulting in emission rate distributions (mg h -1) as a function of % of building hours protected from exceeding a target maximum indoor concentration of 20 ppb. Whole-year, summer and winter results for Elizabeth, NJ, Houston, TX, Windsor, ON, and Los Angeles, CA exhibited strong regional differences, primarily due to differences in air exchange rates. Infiltration of ambient ozone at higher average air exchange rates significantly reduces allowable emission rates, even though air exchange also dilutes emissions from appliances. For Houston, TX and Windsor, ON, which have lower average residential air exchange rates, emission rates ranged from -1.1 to 2.3 mg h -1 for scenarios that protect 80% or more of building hours from experiencing ozone concentrations greater than 20 ppb in summer. For Los Angeles, CA and Elizabeth, NJ, with higher air exchange rates, only negative emission rates were allowable to provide the same level of protection. For the 80th percentile residence, we estimate that an 8-h average limit concentration of 20 ppb would be exceeded, even in the absence of an indoor ozone source, 40 or more days per year in any of the cities analyzed. The negative emission rates emerging from the analysis suggest that only a zero-emission rate standard is prudent for Los Angeles, Elizabeth, NJ and other regions with higher summertime air exchange rates. For regions such as Houston with lower summertime air exchange rates, the higher emission rates would likely increase occupant exposure to the undesirable products of ozone reactions, thus reinforcing the need for zero-emission rate standard.

  1. Assessment of heart rate variability in breath holding children by 24 hour Holter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Osman; Ciftel, Murat; Ozturk, Kezban; Kilic, Omer; Kahveci, Hasan; Laloğlu, Fuat; Ceylan, Ozben

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism in children with breath holding may be generalised autonomic dysregulation. Thus, we performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate variability analyses using 24-hour Holter monitoring to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children with breath-holding spells. We performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate analyses using 24-hour Holter monitors to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children during a breath-holding spell. Our study group consisted of 68 children with breath-holding spells - 56 cyanotic type and 12 pallid type - and 39 healthy controls. Clinical and heart rate variability results were compared between each spell type - cyanotic or pallid - and the control group; significant differences (p50 ms, and square root of the mean of the sum of squares of the differences between adjacent NN intervals values were found between the pallid and cyanotic groups. Holter monitoring for 24 hours and heart rate variability parameters, particularly in children with pallid spells, are crucial for evaluation of cardiac rhythm changes.

  2. Monitoring the natural attenuation of petroleum in ground water at the former naval complex, Operable Unit A, Adak Island, Alaska, May and June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Simonds, F.W.; Defawe, Rose

    2005-01-01

    During May and June 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring wells and collected data to characterize the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for remediating petroleum-contaminated ground water at Operable Unit A of the former Naval complex on Adak Island, Alaska. In addition, the evidence for petroleum biodegradation in ground water was evaluated at selected petroleum sites, plans for future natural attenuation monitoring were suggested for the selected petroleum sites, and the natural attenuation monitoring strategy for the Downtown area of Adak Island was reviewed and refinements were suggested. U.S. Geological Survey personnel measured water levels and collected ground-water samples from about 100 temporary boreholes and 50 monitoring wells. Most samples were analyzed on-site for concentrations of selected petroleum compounds and natural attenuation parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, and carbon dioxide. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the data on-site, selected new monitoring well locations, and installed, developed, and sampled 10 monitoring wells. The review and suggestions for the natural attenuation monitoring strategy focused on how to better achieve monitoring objectives specified in the Record of Decision for Adak Island petroleum sites. To achieve the monitoring objective of verifying that natural attenuation is occurring, the monitoring plans for each monitored natural attenuation site need to include sampling of at least one strategically placed well at the downgradient margin of the contaminant plume margin, preferably where contaminant concentrations are detectable but less than the cleanup level. Collection of natural attenuation parameter data and sampling background wells is no longer needed to achieve the monitoring objective of demonstrating the occurrence of natural attenuation. To achieve the objective of monitoring locations where chemical concentrations exceed specified cleanup levels, at least

  3. Reliability assessment of a hospital quality measure based on rates of adverse outcomes on nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggs, Vincent S

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to develop methods for assessing the reliability of scores on a widely disseminated hospital quality measure based on nursing unit fall rates. Poisson regression interactive multilevel modeling was adapted to account for clustering of units within hospitals. Three signal-noise reliability measures were computed. Squared correlations between the hospital score and true hospital fall rate averaged 0.52 ± 0.18 for total falls (0.68 ± 0.18 for injurious falls). Reliabilities on the other two measures averaged at least 0.70 but varied widely across hospitals. Parametric bootstrap data reflecting within-unit noise in falls were generated to evaluate percentile-ranked hospital scores as estimators of true hospital fall rate ranks. Spearman correlations between bootstrap hospital scores and true fall rates averaged 0.81 ± 0.01 (0.79 ± 0.01). Bias was negligible, but ranked hospital scores were imprecise, varying across bootstrap samples with average SD 11.8 (14.9) percentiles. Across bootstrap samples, hospital-measure scores fell in the same decile as the true fall rate in about 30% of cases. Findings underscore the importance of thoroughly assessing reliability of quality measurements before deciding how they will be used. Both the hospital measure and the reliability methods described can be adapted to other contexts involving clustered rates of adverse patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Early results on wrist based heart rate monitoring using mechanical transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxi, Dilpreet; Penders, Julien; van Hoof, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring has been a significant topic of interest in the areas of healthcare, sports and gaming. Compared to locations such as the neck, ear, or chest, the wrist is a convenient measurement point, as the measurement technology can be integrated into a wristwatch. However, key technical challenges exist, namely a small physiological SNR and large disturbances due to motion artifact. This paper reports early results on a packaging concept to monitor the heartrate during rest and motion using off-the-shelf piezoelectric PVDF film sensors. Evaluation has shown good results at rest and unsatisfactory results during motion. Results from this investigation will nonetheless be used as input for the development of a wrist-based heartrate monitor which could function during activities such as running, walking or typing on a keyboard.

  5. Non-contact and noise tolerant heart rate monitoring using microwave doppler sensor and range imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunag, Daichi; Izumi, Shintaro; Okuno, Keisuke; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a non-contact and noise-tolerant heart beat monitoring system. The proposed system comprises a microwave Doppler sensor and range imagery using Microsoft Kinect™. The possible application of the proposed system is a driver health monitoring. We introduce the sensor fusion approach to minimize the heart beat detection error. The proposed algorithm can subtract a body motion artifact from Doppler sensor output using time-frequency analysis. The body motion artifact is a crucially important problem for biosignal monitoring using microwave Doppler sensor. The body motion speed is obtainable from range imagery, which has 5-mm resolution at 30-cm distance. Measurement results show that the success rate of the heart beat detection is improved about 75% on average when the Doppler wave is degraded by the body motion artifact.

  6. Improvement of a sensor unit for wrist blood pressure monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sangjun; Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Ayuzenara, Odgerel; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    A blood pressure sensor unit for ubiquitous healthcare monitoring was newly developed. The digital wrist band-type blood pressure devices for home are popular already in the market. It is useful for checking blood pressure level at home and control of hypertension. Especially, it is very essential home device to check the health condition of blood circulation disease. Nowadays many product types are available. But the measurement of blood pressure is not accurate enough compared with the mechanical type. It needs to be upgraded to assure the precise health data enough to use in the hospital. The structure, feature and output signal of capacitor type pressure sensors are analyzed. An improved design of capacitor sensor is suggested. It shows more precise health data after use on a wrist band type health unit. They can be applied for remote u-health medical service.

  7. Monitoring of bacterial contamination of dental unit water lines using adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, A; Tamaki, N; Yokota, K; Matsuyama, M; Kokeguchi, S

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial contamination of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) was evaluated using ATP bioluminescence analysis and a conventional culture method. Water samples (N=44) from DUWLs were investigated for heterotrophic bacteria by culture on R2A agar, which gave counts ranging from 1.4×10(3) to 2.7×10(5) cfu/mL. The ATP bioluminescence results for DUWL samples ranged from 6 to 1189 relative light units and could be obtained within 1min; these correlated well with the culture results (r=0.727-0.855). We conclude that the results of the ATP bioluminescence assay accurately reflect the results of conventional culture-based testing. This method is potentially useful for rapid and simple monitoring of DUWL bacterial contamination.

  8. Motor unit discharge rate in dynamic movements of the aging soleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, Jouni; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, Janne

    2014-01-01

    % in concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions. Soleus intramuscular EMG was recorded with bipolar fine-wire electrodes and decomposed to individual trains of motor unit discharges. In ISO the MUDR increased with each force level from 40 to 100% MVC. In dynamic contractions the descriptive analysis showed......Aging is related to a variety of changes at the muscular level. It seems that the age-related changes in motor unit activation are muscle- and intensity dependent. The purpose of this study was to examine the motor unit discharge rate (MUDR) in both isometric and dynamic contractions of the aging...... a higher MUDR in CON compared to ISO or ECC. The difficulties of recording single motor units in dynamic contractions, especially in the elderly is discussed....

  9. Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Chã, Carolina; Falla, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effects of strength and endurance training on motor unit discharge rate variability and force steadiness of knee extensor muscles. Thirty sedentary healthy men (age, 26.0±3.8yrs) were randomly assigned to strength training, endurance training or a control group. Conventional endurance and strength training was performed 3days per week, over a period of 6weeks. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), time to task failure (at 30% MVC), coefficient of variation (CoV) of force and of the discharges rates of motor units from the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis were determined as subjects performed 20% and 30% MVC knee extension contractions before and after training. CoV of motor unit discharges rates was significantly reduced for both muscles following strength training (Pstrength training intervention only (PStrength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability and enhances force steadiness of the knee extensors. These results provide new insights into the neuromuscular adaptations that occur with different training methods.

  10. Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-05

    Diana Khuu discusses Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010.  Created: 1/5/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/7/2015.

  11. Motor unit firing rates during spasms in thenar muscles of spinal cord injured subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Bakels, Robert; Thomas, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms) commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical SCI

  12. Sensor fusion methods for reducing false alarms in heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Gabriel; Brusamarello, Valner

    2016-12-01

    Automatic patient monitoring is an essential resource in hospitals for good health care management. While alarms caused by abnormal physiological conditions are important for the delivery of fast treatment, they can be also a source of unnecessary noise because of false alarms caused by electromagnetic interference or motion artifacts. One significant source of false alarms is related to heart rate, which is triggered when the heart rhythm of the patient is too fast or too slow. In this work, the fusion of different physiological sensors is explored in order to create a robust heart rate estimation. A set of algorithms using heart rate variability index, Bayesian inference, neural networks, fuzzy logic and majority voting is proposed to fuse the information from the electrocardiogram, arterial blood pressure and photoplethysmogram. Three kinds of information are extracted from each source, namely, heart rate variability, the heart rate difference between sensors and the spectral analysis of low and high noise of each sensor. This information is used as input to the algorithms. Twenty recordings selected from the MIMIC database were used to validate the system. The results showed that neural networks fusion had the best false alarm reduction of 92.5 %, while the Bayesian technique had a reduction of 84.3 %, fuzzy logic 80.6 %, majority voter 72.5 % and the heart rate variability index 67.5 %. Therefore, the proposed algorithms showed good performance and could be useful in bedside monitors.

  13. The relationship between antimicrobial consumption and the rates of resistance of Klebsiela pneumoniae in respiratory unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xin-yun; ZHUO Chao; XIAO Xiang-lin; YUAN Jin-Ping; YANG Ling

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the consumption of antibacterial agents and resistance rate of Klebsiela pneumoniae(KP)in the hospital respiratory unit for 3 consecutive years in 2005-2007. Methods The total antibacterial consumption expressed as defined DDDs/100BD, as well as resistance rate of total KP and producing ESBLs KP were collected, and their correlation was analyzed. Results The rate of resistance of KP to cefoperazone/sulbactam, Cefepime, Imipenem, Moxifloxacin was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime, Moxifloxacin, Amikacin respectively;A significant positive association was observed between the rate of resistance of KP to Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Ceftriaxone and the consumption of Imipenem; The rate of resistance of KP to Piperacillin, Cefotaxime, Ciprofloxacin was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Levofloxacin. ESBLs producing bacilli of KP were detected in 44 of 75 isolates (58.7%), The rate of resistance of producing ES-BLs KP to Piperacillin/Tazobactarn, Ceftriaxone was significantly positively associated with the consumption of Imipenem, Ceftazidime; A significant positive association was observed between the rate of resistance of producing ESBLs KP to Piperacillin, Imipenem and the consumption of Moxifloxacin. There was no significant correlation in other drugs. Conclusions A relationship existed between antimicrobial consumption and rates of resistance of KP in the hospital respiratory unit. We must use antibiotics carefully and with reason to control and lessen the drug resistance of bacterial.

  14. 36 CFR 223.64 - Appraisal on a lump-sum value or rate per unit of measure basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or rate per unit of measure basis. 223.64 Section 223.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.64 Appraisal on a lump-sum value or rate per unit of measure basis. Timber may be appraised and sold at a lump-sum value or at a rate per unit of measure which rate may be...

  15. Prediction of Erosion Rate at Several Land Units in Upper Watershed of Batang Mangau, West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrizal Saidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of erosion in a watershed is very important for the purpose of determining whether a watershed has been degraded and damaged or not, so it is useful for the planning of the future for the watershed areas so as to achieve sustainable land use and environmentally friendly.Study of erosion prediction and mapping erosion hazard rate (TBE, and determine the rate of erosion that can be tolerated in a variety of land units, and determining alternative land use followed by the appropriate conservation measures in order to suppress erosion as small as possible or equal to Etol (tolerable erosion has conducted research on upstream Mangau Padang Pariaman and Agam districts. The study lasted in September 2011 until January 2012. The experiment was conducted using the survey method. Secondary data obtained from statistical data, maps and the results of previous researches. The results showed that the greatest erosion occurs in people's gardens land units with steep slopes (KrF, with a percentage of 62% slope and slope length of 45 m. While the smallest erosion occurs in wetland units with a gentle slope (SWB, the percentage of 7% slope and slope length of 28 m. Land units experiencing mild erosion rate is 37.80%, of the total study area. Then the land units suffered heavy erosion rate is as much as 20.81%, and further land experiencing very severe erosion hazard level is sebayak 37.86% of the total study area. Actual erosion rate greater than can be tolerated erosion found 4 unit of land is the garden of the people with a rather steep slope (KrD, mixed garden with a rather steep slope (KcD, and their fields with steep slopes (KrF. Furthermore, there are 8 land unit value erosion rate is less than the erosion rates that can be tolerated so that the use of the land does not need changing. Alternative use of land for every land units that have greater erosion speed of the tolerable erosion is the land units of protected forest with steep slopes (Hl

  16. Properties of human motor units after prolonged activity at a constant firing rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K V B; Edwards, S C; Van Tongeren, C; Bawa, P

    2004-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine if there are changes in the intrinsic properties of spinal motoneurons after prolonged submaximal contractions. To do this, we assessed whether or not the synaptic drive to motoneurons needs to increase in order to maintain a constant firing rate of a motor unit. Recruitment of new units and an increase in total electromyographic (EMG) activity of the muscle of interest were taken as estimates of an increase in synaptic drive. Subjects were asked to maintain a constant firing rate of a clearly identifiable (targeted) motor unit from the first dorsal interosseous muscle for approximately 10 min, while surface EMG and force were recorded simultaneously. For the 60 units studied, the duration of the constant-firing-rate period ranged from 73 to 1,140 s (448 +/- 227 s; mean +/- SD). There was a significant increase ( t-test, prate suggesting an increase in the net excitatory input to the motoneuron pool. Changes occurring simultaneously in other parameters, namely, variability in interspike interval, magnitude of force fluctuations, the duration of motor unit action potentials, and the median power frequency of surface EMG were also computed. The firing rates of 16 concurrently firing motoneurons, not controlled by the subject, remained constant. The key finding of this study is that after prolonged activity, a motoneuron requires a stronger excitatory input to maintain its firing rate. Additional results are indicative of significant changes in the characteristics of the synaptic inputs, changes at the neuromuscular junction (both pre- and postsynaptic regions) and the sarcolemma.

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continous Monitoring Systems for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continous Monitoring Systems for Metal... Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Continous Monitoring Systems for... CFR 60.102 a. Over 20,000 barrels per day fresh feed capacity Electrostatic precipitator Continuous...

  18. The use of routine outcome monitoring in child semi-residential psychiatry: predicting parents’ completion rates

    OpenAIRE

    Lamers, A.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.; Siebelink, B.; Blaauw, T.; Vermeiren, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parents’ perspectives on their children’s treatment process and outcomes are valuable to treatment development and improvement. Participants’ engagement in Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) has, however, been difficult and may particularly be so in specialized settings, such as semi-residential psychiatry. In this paper, the use of a web-based ROM system implemented in a child semi-residential psychiatric setting is described and predictors associated with low completion rates of qu...

  19. UNIT-RATE COMPLEX ORTHOGONAL SPACE-TIME BLOCK CODE CONCATENATED WITH TURBO CODING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Space-Time Block (STB) code has been an effective transmit diversity technique for combating fading due to its orthogonal design, simple decoding and high diversity gains. In this paper, a unit-rate complex orthogonal STB code for multiple antennas in Time Division Duplex (TDD) mode is proposed. Meanwhile, Turbo Coding (TC) is employed to improve the performance of proposed STB code further by utilizing its good ability to combat the burst error of fading channel. Compared with full-diversity multiple antennas STB codes, the proposed code can implement unit rate and partial diversity; and it has much smaller computational complexity under the same system throughput. Moreover, the application of TC can effectively make up for the performance loss due to partial diversity. Simulation results show that on the condition of same system throughput and concatenation of TC, the proposed code has lower Bit Error Rate (BER) than those full-diversity codes.

  20. Deduction of plastic work rate per unit volume for unified yield criterion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-wen; LI Jing; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2009-01-01

    A unified linear expression of plastic work rate per unit volume is deduced from the unified linear yield criterion and the associated flow rule. The expression is suitable for various linear yield loci in the error triangle between Tresca's and twin shear stress yield loci on the π-plane. It exhibits generalization in which the different value of criterion parameter b corresponds to a specific linear formula of plastic work rate per unit volume. Finally, with the unified linear expression of plastic work rate and upper-bound parallel velocity field the strip forging without bulge is successfully analyzed and an analytical result is also obtained. The comparison with traditional solutions shows that when b=1/(1+(√3)) the result is the same as the upper bound result by Mises' yield criterion, and it also is identical to that by slab method with m=1, σ0=0.

  1. 78 FR 7411 - Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS); Certification of New VMS Unit for Use in Northeast Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC470 Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS); Certification of New VMS Unit for Use in Northeast Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of VMS unit...

  2. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2007-06-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU.'' The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Revision of this report is a deliverable in Technical Task Report SP-TTR-2006-00010, ''NaI Shield Box Testing.'' Gamma-ray monitors were developed to: {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, {lg_bullet} Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be approximately fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.)

  3. Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

  4. Recommended methods for range-wide monitoring of prairie dogs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lyman L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Otis, David L.; Biggins, Dean E.; Stevens, Patricia D.; Koprowski, John L.; Ballard, Warren

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for conserving grassland, prairie scrub, and shrub-steppe ecosystems is maintaining prairie dog populations across the landscape. Of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as threatened, the Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) is a candidate for listing in a portion of its range, and the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) have each been petitioned for listing at least once in recent history. Although the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) determined listing is not warranted for either the black-tailed prairie dog or white-tailed prairie dog, the petitions and associated reviews demonstrated the need for the States to monitor and manage for self-sustaining populations. In response to these findings, a multi-State conservation effort was initiated for the nonlisted species which included the following proposed actions: (1) completing an assessment of each prairie dog species in each State, (2) developing a range-wide monitoring protocol for each species using a statistically valid sampling procedure that would allow comparable analyses across States, and (3) monitoring prairie dog status every 3-5 years depending upon the species. To date, each State has completed an assessment and currently is monitoring prairie dog status; however, for some species, the inconsistency in survey methodology has made it difficult to compare data year-to-year or State-to-State. At the Prairie Dog Conservation Team meeting held in November 2008, there was discussion regarding the use of different methods to survey prairie dogs. A recommendation from this meeting was to convene a panel in a workshop-type forum and have the panel review the different methods being used and provide recommendations for range-wide monitoring protocols for each species of prairie dog. Consequently, the Western

  5. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...

  6. Methods for monitoring corals and crustose coralline algae to quantify in-situ calcification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jennifer M.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Hickey, T. Don

    2013-01-01

    The potential effect of global climate change on calcifying marine organisms, such as scleractinian (reef-building) corals, is becoming increasingly evident. Understanding the process of coral calcification and establishing baseline calcification rates are necessary to detect future changes in growth resulting from climate change or other stressors. Here we describe the methods used to establish a network of calcification-monitoring stations along the outer Florida Keys Reef Tract in 2009. In addition to detailing the initial setup and periodic monitoring of calcification stations, we discuss the utility and success of our design and offer suggestions for future deployments. Stations were designed such that whole coral colonies were securely attached to fixed apparati (n = 10 at each site) on the seafloor but also could be easily removed and reattached as needed for periodic weighing. Corals were weighed every 6 months, using the buoyant weight technique, to determine calcification rates in situ. Sites were visited in May and November to obtain winter and summer rates, respectively, and identify seasonal patterns in calcification. Calcification rates of the crustose coralline algal community also were measured by affixing commercially available plastic tiles, deployed vertically, at each station. Colonization by invertebrates and fleshy algae on the tiles was low, indicating relative specificity for the crustose coralline algal community. We also describe a new, nonlethal technique for sampling the corals, used following the completion of the monitoring period, in which two slabs were obtained from the center of each colony. Sampled corals were reattached to the seafloor, and most corals had completely recovered within 6 months. The station design and sampling methods described herein provide an effective approach to assessing coral and crustose coralline algal calcification rates across time and space, offering the ability to quantify the potential effects of

  7. Monitoring of Heart and Breathing Rates Using Dual Cameras on a Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunyoung; Kong, Youngsun; Reyes, Bersain; Reljin, Natasa; Chon, Ki H

    2016-01-01

    Some smartphones have the capability to process video streams from both the front- and rear-facing cameras simultaneously. This paper proposes a new monitoring method for simultaneous estimation of heart and breathing rates using dual cameras of a smartphone. The proposed approach estimates heart rates using a rear-facing camera, while at the same time breathing rates are estimated using a non-contact front-facing camera. For heart rate estimation, a simple application protocol is used to analyze the varying color signals of a fingertip placed in contact with the rear camera. The breathing rate is estimated from non-contact video recordings from both chest and abdominal motions. Reference breathing rates were measured by a respiration belt placed around the chest and abdomen of a subject; reference heart rates (HR) were determined using the standard electrocardiogram. An automated selection of either the chest or abdominal video signal was determined by choosing the signal with a greater autocorrelation value. The breathing rate was then determined by selecting the dominant peak in the power spectrum. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methods, data were collected from 11 healthy subjects. The breathing ranges spanned both low and high frequencies (6-60 breaths/min), and the results show that the average median errors from the reflectance imaging on the chest and the abdominal walls based on choosing the maximum spectral peak were 1.43% and 1.62%, respectively. Similarly, HR estimates were also found to be accurate.

  8. Reliability of a rating procedure to monitor industry self-regulation codes governing alcohol advertising content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Xuan, Ziming; Proctor, Dwayne

    2008-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop reliable procedures to monitor the content of alcohol advertisements broadcast on television and in other media, and to detect violations of the content guidelines of the alcohol industry's self-regulation codes. A set of rating-scale items was developed to measure the content guidelines of the 1997 version of the U.S. Beer Institute Code. Six focus groups were conducted with 60 college students to evaluate the face validity of the items and the feasibility of the procedure. A test-retest reliability study was then conducted with 74 participants, who rated five alcohol advertisements on two occasions separated by 1 week. Average correlations across all advertisements using three reliability statistics (r, rho, and kappa) were almost all statistically significant and the kappas were good for most items, which indicated high test-retest agreement. We also found high interrater reliabilities (intraclass correlations) among raters for item-level and guideline-level violations, indicating that regardless of the specific item, raters were consistent in their general evaluations of the advertisements. Naïve (untrained) raters can provide consistent (reliable) ratings of the main content guidelines proposed in the U.S. Beer Institute Code. The rating procedure may have future applications for monitoring compliance with industry self-regulation codes and for conducting research on the ways in which alcohol advertisements are perceived by young adults and other vulnerable populations.

  9. Monitoring Fetal Heart Rate during Pregnancy: Contributions from Advanced Signal Processing and Wearable Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Maria G.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring. PMID:24639886

  10. Monitoring fetal heart rate during pregnancy: contributions from advanced signal processing and wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Maria G; Fanelli, Andrea; Magenes, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring.

  11. Monitoring Fetal Heart Rate during Pregnancy: Contributions from Advanced Signal Processing and Wearable Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Signorini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring.

  12. A Methodology for Protective Vibration Monitoring of Hydropower Units Based on the Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässelqvist, Mattias; Gustavsson, Rolf; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2013-07-01

    It is important to monitor the radial loads in hydropower units in order to protect the machine from harmful radial loads. Existing recommendations in the standards regarding the radial movements of the shaft and bearing housing in hydropower units, ISO-7919-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2005, "ISO 7919-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Rotating Shafts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland) and ISO-10816-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2000, "ISO 10816-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Non-Rotating Parts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland), have alarm levels based on statistical data and do not consider the mechanical properties of the machine. The synchronous speed of the unit determines the maximum recommended shaft displacement and housing acceleration, according to these standards. This paper presents a methodology for the alarm and trip levels based on the design criteria of the hydropower unit and the measured radial loads in the machine during operation. When a hydropower unit is designed, one of its design criteria is to withstand certain loads spectra without the occurrence of fatigue in the mechanical components. These calculated limits for fatigue are used to set limits for the maximum radial loads allowed in the machine before it shuts down in order to protect itself from damage due to high radial loads. Radial loads in hydropower units are caused by unbalance, shape deviations, dynamic flow properties in the turbine, etc. Standards exist for balancing and manufacturers (and power plant owners) have recommendations for maximum allowed shape deviations in generators. These standards and recommendations determine which loads, at a maximum, should be allowed before an alarm is sent that the machine needs maintenance. The radial

  13. Identifying Rates of Emigration in the United States Using Administrative Earnings Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Schwabish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes a new strategy to estimate emigration rates among US immigrants by inferring the probability of emigration using longitudinal administrative earnings data. Two groups of emigrants are evaluated separately: those who emigrate from the United States and those who leave both the United States and the Social Security system. About 1.0 to 1.5 percent of the foreign-born population emigrate from the USA every year, and between about 0.8 and 1.2 percent of foreign-born workers emigrate from the Social Security system. Regression analysis suggests that immigrants with lower earnings are more likely to emigrate and that the likelihood of emigrating from the United States increases with age, but is unchanged for those leaving the US Social Security system.

  14. Evaluation of a strapless heart rate monitor during simulated flight tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Fu, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Pilots are under high task demands during flight. Monitoring pilot's physiological status is very important in the evaluation of pilot's workload and flight safety. Recently, physiological status monitor (PSM) has been embedded into a watch that can be used without a conventional chest strap. This makes it possible to unobtrusively monitor, log and transmit pilot's physiological measurements such as heart rate (HR) during flight tasks. The purpose of this study is to validate HR recorded by a strapless heart rate watch against criterion ECG-derived HR. Ten commercial pilots (mean ± SD : age: 39.1 ± 7.8 years; total flight hours 7173.2 ± 5270.9 hr) performed three routinely trained flight tasks in a full flight simulator: wind shear go-around (WG), takeoff and climb (TC), and hydraulic failure (HF). For all tasks combined (overall) and for each task, differences between the heart rate watch measurements and the criterion data were small (mean difference [95% CI]: overall: -0.71 beats/min [-0.85, -0.57]; WG: -0.90 beats/min [-1.15, -0.65]; TC: -0.69 beats/min [-0.98, -0.40]; HF: -0.61 beats/min [-0.80, -0.42]). There were high correlations between the heart rate watch measurements and the ECG-derived HR for all tasks (r ≥ 0.97, SEE simulated flight tasks and could be a useful tool for pilot workload evaluation.

  15. Total elbow arthroplasty in the United States: evaluation of cost, patient demographics, and complication rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA is utilized in the treatment of rheumatoid and post-traumatic elbow arthritis. TEA is a relatively low volume surgery in comparison to other types of arthroplasty and therefore little is known about current surgical utilization, patient demographics and complication rates in the United States. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the current practice trends and associated inpatient complications of TEA at academic centers in the United States. We queried the University Health Systems Consortium administrative database from 2007 to 2011 for patients who underwent an elective TEA. A descriptive analysis of demographics was performed which included patient age, sex, race, and insurance status. We also evaluated the following patient clinical benchmarks: hospital length of stay (LOS, hospital direct cost, inhospital mortality, complications, and 30-day readmission rates. Our cohort consisted of 3146 adult patients (36.5% male and 63.5% female with an average age of 58 years who underwent a total elbow arthroplasty (159 academic medical centers in the United States. The racial demographics included 2334 (74% Caucasian, 285 (9% black, 236 (7.5% Hispanic, 16 (0.5% Asian, and 283 (9% other patients. The mean LOS was 4.2±5 days and the mean total direct cost for the hospital was 16,300±4000 US Dollars per case. The overall inpatient complication rate was 3.1% and included mortality <1%, DVT (0.8%, re-operation (0.5%, and infection (0.4%. The 30-day readmission rate was 4.4%. TEA is a relatively uncommon surgery in comparison to other forms of arthroplasty but is associated with low in-patient and 30-day perioperative complication rate. Additionally, the 30-day readmission rate and overall hospital costs are comparable to the traditional total hip and knee arthroplasty surgeries.

  16. Verification of Sulfate Attack Penetration Rates for Saltstone Disposal Unit Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-12

    Recent Special Analysis modeling of Saltstone Disposal Units consider sulfate attack on concrete and utilize degradation rates estimated from Cementitious Barriers Partnership software simulations. This study provides an independent verification of those simulation results using an alternative analysis method and an independent characterization data source. The sulfate penetration depths estimated herein are similar to the best-estimate values in SRNL-STI-2013-00118 Rev. 2 and well below the nominal values subsequently used to define Saltstone Special Analysis base cases.

  17. Teen Birth Rates for Urban and Rural Areas in the United States, 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Rossen, Lauren M; Branum, Amy M

    2016-11-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System •Birth rates for teenagers aged 15-19 declined in urban and rural counties from 2007 through 2015, with the largest declines in large urban counties and the smallest declines in rural counties. •From 2007 through 2015, the teen birth rate was lowest in large urban counties and highest in rural counties. •Declines in teen birth rates in all urban counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest in Arizona, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Colorado, with 17 states experiencing a decline of 50% or more. •Declines in teen birth rates in all rural counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest (50% or more) in Colorado and Connecticut. •In 2015, teen birth rates were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic females. Teen birth rates have demonstrated an unprecedented decline in the United States since 2007 (1). Declines occurred in all states and among all major racial and Hispanic-origin groups, yet disparities by both geography and demographic characteristics persist (2,3). Although teen birth rates and related declines have been described by state, patterns by urban-rural location have not yet been examined. This report describes trends in teen birth rates in urban (metropolitan) and rural (nonmetropolitan) areas in the United States overall and by state from 2007 through 2015 and by race and Hispanic origin for 2015. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  18. Statistical characterization of Strong and Mid Solar Flares and Sun EUV rate monitoring with GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Moreno, Enric; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Garcia-Rigo, Alberto; Beniguel, Yannick; Orus-Perez, Raul; Prieto-Cerdeira, Roberto; Schlueter, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The global network of permanent Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers has become an useful and affordable way of monitoring the Solar EUV flux rate, especially -for the time being- in the context of Major and Mid geoeffective intensity Solar Flares (M. Hernandez-Pajares et al., Space Weather, doi:10.1029/2012SW000826, 2012). In fact the maturity of this technique (GNSS Solar FLAre Indicator, GSFLAI) has allowed to incorporate it in operational real-time (RT) conditions, thanks to the availability of global GNSS datastreams from the RT International GNSS Network (M. Caissy et al, GPS World, June 1, 2012), and performed in the context of the MONITOR and MONITOR2 ESA-funded projects (Y. Beniguel et al., NAVITEC Proc., 978-1-4673-2011-5 IEEE, 2012). The main goal of this presentation is to summarize a detailed recent study of the statistical properties of Solar Flares (E. Monte and M. Hernandez-Pajares, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2014JA020206, 2014) by considering the GNSS proxy of EUV rate (GSFLAI parameter) computed independently each 30 seconds during the whole last solar cycle. An statistical model has been characterized that explains the empirical results such as (a) the persistence and presence of bursts of solar flares and (b) their long tail peak values of the solar flux variation, which can be characterized by: (1) A fractional Brownian model for the long-term dependence, and (2), a power law distribution for the time series extreme values. Finally, an update of the Solar Flares' occurrence during the recent months of Solar Activity, gathered in RT within MONITOR2 project, will close the paper.

  19. [Monitor of ECG signal and heart rate using a mobile phone with Bluetooth communication protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Luna, Brayans; Dávila-García, Rodrigo; Salgado-Rodríguez, Paola; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Infante-Vázquez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    To develop a portable signal monitoring equipment for electrocardiography (ECG) and heart rate (HR), communicated with a mobile phone using the Bluetooth (BT) communication protocol for display of the signal on screen. A monitoring system was designed in which the electronic section performs the ECG signal acquisition, as well as amplification, filtering, analog to digital conversion and transmission of the ECG and HR using BT. Two programs were developed for the system. The first one calculates HR through QRS identification and sends the ECG signals and HR to the mobile, and the second program is an application to acquire and display them on the mobile screen. We developed a portable electronic system powered by a 9 volt battery, with amplification and bandwidth meeting the international standards for ECG monitoring. The QRS complex identification was performed using the second derivative algorithm, while the programs allow sending and receiving information from the ECG and HR via BT, and viewing it on the mobile screen. The monitoring is feasible within distances of 15 m and it has been tested in various mobiles telephones of brands Nokia®, Sony Ericsson® and Samsung®. This system shows an alternative for mobile monitoring using BT and Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) programming. It allows the register of the ECG trace and HR, and it can be implemented in different phones. Copyright © 2011 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Application for verification of monitor units of the treatment planning system; Aplicacion para la verificacion de unidades monitor del sistema de planificacion de tratamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.

    2011-07-01

    Current estimates algorithms achieve acceptable degree of accuracy. However, operate on the basis of un intuitive models. It is therefore necessary to verify the calculation of monitor units of the treatment planning system (PTS) with those obtained by other independent formalisms. To this end, we have developed an application based on factorization formalism that automates the calculation of dose.

  1. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  2. Measured Test-Driven Development: Using Measures to Monitor and Control the Unit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dubinsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze Test Driven Development (TDD from cognitive and social perspectives. Based on our analysis, we suggest a technique for controlling and monitoring the TDD process by examining measures that relate to the size and complexity of both code and tests. We call this approach Measured TDD. The motivation for TDD arose from practitioners' tendency to rush into code production, skipping the required testing needed to manufacture quality products. The motivation for Measured TDD is based on difficulties encountered by practitioners in applying TDD. Specifically, with the need to frequently refactor the unit, after every few test and code steps have been performed. We found that the suggested technique enables developers to gain better control over the development process.

  3. Monitoring of Microscopic Filamentous Fungi in Indoor Air of Transplant Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holý, Ondřej; Matoušková, Ivanka; Kubátová, Alena; Hamal, Petr; Svobodová, Lucie; Jurásková, Eva; Raida, Luděk

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to control the microbial contamination of indoor air monitored monthly at the Transplant Unit of the University Hospital Olomouc from August 2010 to July 2011. The unit is equipped with a three-stage air filtration system with HEPA filters. The MAS-100 air sampler (Merck, GER) was used. Twenty locations were singled out for the purposes of collecting a total of 720 samplings of the indoor air. Swabs of the HVAC diffusers at the sampling locations were always carried out after the sampling of the indoor air. In total, 480 samples of the indoor air were taken for Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar. In 11 cases (2.29%) the cultivation verified the presence of microscopic filamentous fungi. Only two cases involved the sanitary facilities of a patient isolation box; the other positive findings were from the facilities. The most frequent established genus was Aspergillus spp. (4x), followed by Trichoderma spp. (2x) and Penicillium spp. (2x), Paecilomyces spp., Eurotium spp., and Chrysonilia spp. (1x each). In 2 cases the cultivation established sterile aerial mycelium, unfortunately no further identification was possible. A total of 726 swabs of HVAC diffusers were collected (2 positive-0.28%). The study results demonstrated the efficacy of the HVAC equipment. With the continuing increase in the number of severely immunocompromised patients, hospitals are faced with the growing problem of invasive aspergillosis and other opportunistic infections. Preventive monitoring of microbial air contaminants is of major importance for the control of invasive aspergillosis. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  4. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Correction Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Project Shoal Area in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The corrective action strategy is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. Although water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized to the agreement of both the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  5. A flux monitoring method for easy and accurate flow rate measurement in pressure-driven flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Ybert, Christophe; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-03-07

    We propose a low-cost and versatile method to measure flow rate in microfluidic channels under pressure-driven flows, thereby providing a simple characterization of the hydrodynamic permeability of the system. The technique is inspired by the current monitoring method usually employed to characterize electro-osmotic flows, and makes use of the measurement of the time-dependent electric resistance inside the channel associated with a moving salt front. We have successfully tested the method in a micrometer-size channel, as well as in a complex microfluidic channel with a varying cross-section, demonstrating its ability in detecting internal shape variations.

  6. Heart Rate monitoring during physical exercise using wrist-type photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Amirhosein Khas; Moradi, Parsa; Malihi, Mahan; Karimi, Sajjad; Shamsollahi, Mohammad B

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring using wrist-type using photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals during subjects' intensive exercises is a challenging problem, since signals are strongly affected by motion artifacts caused by unexpected movements. This paper presents a method that uses both time and frequency characteristics of signals; using sparse signal reconstruction for high-resolution spectrum estimation. Experimental results on type data sets recorded from 12 subjects during fast running at peak speed of 15 km/hour. The results have a performance with the average absolute error being 1.80 beat per minute.

  7. On-line corrosion monitoring in geothermal district heating systems. I. General corrosion rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, S.; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    General corrosion rates in the geothermal district heating systems in Iceland are generally low, of the magnitude 1 mu m/y. The reason is high pH (9.5), low-conductivity (200 mu m/y) and negligible dissolved oxygen. The geothermal hot water is either used directly from source or to heat up cold...... ground water. The fluid naturally contains sulphide, which helps keeping the fluid oxygen-free but complicates the electrochemical environment. In this research on-line techniques for corrosion monitoring were tested and evaluated in this medium. Electrochemical methods worked well as long as frequency...

  8. The mini mobile environmental monitoring unit: a novel bio-assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolok, Alan S; Miller, Jeffrey T; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bio-assessment tool, the mini-mobile environmental monitoring unit (MMU). The MMU is a portable, lightweight, energy-efficient, miniaturized laboratory that provides a low-flow system for on-site exposure of aquatic animals to local receiving waters in a protected, controllable environment. Prototypes of the MMU were tested twice in week-long studies conducted during the summers of 2008 and 2009, and in a 12-day study in 2010. In 2008, fathead minnows and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed downstream from the Hastings, Nebraska wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), a waterway known to contain estrogenic contaminants in biologically active concentrations. In 2009, minnows and POCIS were deployed downstream, upstream and within the Grand Island, Nebraska WWTP, a site where the estrogenic contaminants had been detected, but were found at levels below those necessary to directly impact fish. In 2010, an advanced prototype was tested at the Sauk Center, Minnesota WWTP to compare its performance with that of traditional fish exposure methods including caged fish and static-renewal laboratory testing of effluent. Results from the prototype illustrate the capabilities of the MMU and offer an inexpensive monitoring tool to integrate the effects of pollutant sources with temporally varying composition and concentration.

  9. Investment in epilepsy monitoring units improves epilepsy care—experience in a regional neuroscience centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinty, RN

    2017-08-01

    An evaluation of the clinical yield of inpatient long-term video-EEG (vEEG) in a new epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) was undertaken, with findings compared to the centre’s prior method of bedside vEEG recording in a standard neurology ward, as reported in 2004. A retrospective analysis of neurophysiology reports for all adults who underwent elective vEEG monitoring in the EMU at Cork University Hospital between January 2015 and July 2016 was conducted. Of 115 vEEG studies in the EMU, 100 (87.0%) were deemed diagnostically conclusive, 14 (12.2%) failed to catch any clinical events and showed normal EEG throughout, and one (0.9%) captured spells of unclear clinical significance—the corresponding figures reported in 2004 for bedside vEEGs were 21.3%, 77% and 1.6%, respectively. The EMU offers a more effective method of recording inpatient vEEG, which aids decision-making and improves clinical outcomes. Some evidence-based measures which could further enhance diagnostic yield are discussed.

  10. A New Approach for the Determination of Dose Rate and Radioactivity for Detected Gamma Nuclides Using an Environmental Radiation Monitor Based on an NaI(Tl) Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Kim, Chang-Jong; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Wanno; Chang, Hyon-Sock; Chung, Kun Ho

    2017-10-01

    To expand the application of dose rate spectroscopy to the environment, the method using an environmental radiation monitor (ERM) based on a 3' × 3' NaI(Tl) detector was used to perform real-time monitoring of the dose rate and radioactivity for detected gamma nuclides in the ground around an ERM. Full-energy absorption peaks in the energy spectrum for dose rate were first identified to calculate the individual dose rates of Bi, Ac, Tl, and K distributed in the ground through interference correction because of the finite energy resolution of the NaI(Tl) detector used in an ERM. The radioactivity of the four natural radionuclides was then calculated from the in situ calibration factor-that is, the dose rate per unit curie-of the used ERM for the geometry of the ground in infinite half-space, which was theoretically estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. By an intercomparison using a portable HPGe and samples taken from the ground around an ERM, this method to calculate the dose rate and radioactivity of four nuclides using an ERM was experimentally verified and finally applied to remotely monitor them in real-time in the area in which the ERM had been installed.

  11. A far-view intensive care unit monitoring display enables faster triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görges, Matthias; Kück, Kai; Koch, Sven H; Agutter, Jim; Westenskow, Dwayne R

    2011-01-01

    Although nurses perform the majority of the clinical tasks in an intensive care unit, current patient monitors were not designed to support a nurse's workflow. Nurses constantly triage patients, deciding which patient is currently in the most need of care. To make this decision, nurses must observe the patient's vital signs and therapeutic device information from multiple sources. To obtain this information, they often have to enter the patient's room. This study addresses 3 hypotheses. Information provided by far-view monitoring displays (1) reduces the amount of time to determine which patient needs care first, (2) increases the accuracy of assigning priority to the right patient, and (3) reduces nurses mental workload. We developed 2 far-view displays to be read from a distance of 3 to 5 m without entering the patient's room. Both display vital signs, trends, alarms, infusion pump status, and therapy support indicators. To evaluate the displays, nurses were asked to use the displays to decide which of 2 patients required their attention first. They made 60 decisions: 20 with each far-view display and 20 decisions with a standard patient monitor next to an infusion pump. Sixteen nurses (median age of 27.5 years with 2.75 years of experience) participated in the study. Using the 2 far-view displays, nurses more accurately and rapidly identified stable patients and syringe pumps that were nearly empty. Median decision times were 11.3 and 12.4 seconds for the 2 far-view displays and 17.2 seconds for the control display. The 2 far-view displays reduced median decision-making times by 4.8 to 5.9 seconds, increased accuracy in assignment of priority in 2 of 7 patient conditions, and reduced nurses' frustration with the triaging task. In a clinical setting, the proposed far-view display might reduce nurses' mental workload and thereby increase patient safety.

  12. Range and modulation dependencies for proton beam dose per monitor unit calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Wen C.; Schreuder, Andries N.; Moyers, Michael F.; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.

    2009-01-01

    Calculations of dose per monitor unit (D∕MU) are required in addition to measurements to increase patient safety in the clinical practice of proton radiotherapy. As in conventional photon and electron therapy, the D∕MU depends on several factors. This study focused on obtaining range and modulation dependence factors used in D∕MU calculations for the double scattered proton beam line at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute. Three dependencies on range and one dependency on modulation were found. A carefully selected set of measurements was performed to discern these individual dependencies. Dependencies on range were due to: (1) the stopping power of the protons passing through the monitor chamber; (2) the reduction of proton fluence due to nuclear interactions within the patient; and (3) the variation of proton fluence passing through the monitor chamber due to different source-to-axis distances (SADs) for different beam ranges. Different SADs are produced by reconfigurations of beamline elements to provide different field sizes and ranges. The SAD effect on the D∕MU varies smoothly as the beam range is varied, except at the beam range for which the first scatterers are exchanged and relocated to accommodate low and high beam ranges. A geometry factor was devised to model the SAD variation effect on the D∕MU. The measured D∕MU variation as a function of range can be predicted within 1% using the three modeled dependencies on range. Investigation of modulated beams showed that an analytical formula can predict the D∕MU dependency as a function of modulation to within 1.5%. Special attention must be applied when measuring the D∕MU dependence on modulation to avoid interplay between range and SAD effects. PMID:19292004

  13. Range and modulation dependencies for proton beam dose per monitor unit calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsi, Wen C.; Schreuder, Andries N.; Moyers, Michael F.; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E. [Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 and University Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida 32206 (United States); ProCure Treatment Centers, Inc., Bloomington, Indiana 47404 (United States); Proton Therapy, Inc., Colton, California 92324 (United States); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 and Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum, Universitaetsklinikum, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen (Germany); Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Calculations of dose per monitor unit (D/MU) are required in addition to measurements to increase patient safety in the clinical practice of proton radiotherapy. As in conventional photon and electron therapy, the D/MU depends on several factors. This study focused on obtaining range and modulation dependence factors used in D/MU calculations for the double scattered proton beam line at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute. Three dependencies on range and one dependency on modulation were found. A carefully selected set of measurements was performed to discern these individual dependencies. Dependencies on range were due to: (1) the stopping power of the protons passing through the monitor chamber; (2) the reduction of proton fluence due to nuclear interactions within the patient; and (3) the variation of proton fluence passing through the monitor chamber due to different source-to-axis distances (SADs) for different beam ranges. Different SADs are produced by reconfigurations of beamline elements to provide different field sizes and ranges. The SAD effect on the D/MU varies smoothly as the beam range is varied, except at the beam range for which the first scatterers are exchanged and relocated to accommodate low and high beam ranges. A geometry factor was devised to model the SAD variation effect on the D/MU. The measured D/MU variation as a function of range can be predicted within 1% using the three modeled dependencies on range. Investigation of modulated beams showed that an analytical formula can predict the D/MU dependency as a function of modulation to within 1.5%. Special attention must be applied when measuring the D/MU dependence on modulation to avoid interplay between range and SAD effects.

  14. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of the previous years, with tritium detected only in well HC-4. The tritium concentration in groundwater from well HC-4 remains far below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant level of 20,000 picocuries per liter. Concentrations of total uranium and gross alpha were also detected during this monitoring period, with uranium accounting for nearly all the gross alpha activity. The total uranium concentrations obtained from this monitoring period were consistent with previous results and reflect a slightly elevated natural uranium concentration, consistent with the mineralized geologic terrain. Isotopic ratios of uranium also indicate a natural source of uranium in groundwater, as opposed to a nuclear-test-related source. Water level trends obtained from the 2012 water level data were consistent with those of previous years. The corrective action strategy for the PSA is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the current monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. While water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an

  15. Cardiovascular risk rate in hypertensive patients attended in primary health care units: the influence of pharmaceutical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Yuri Milen Firmino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular complications are relevant due to their frequency and severity on the hypertension scenario. Studies refer Pharmaceutical Care (PC as capable of decreasing cardiovascular risk rate (%CVR on hypertensive patients. This study aimed to investigate, through a randomized clinical assay, the influence of PC service on the %CVR of hypertensive patients assisted in a health primary care unit from Fortaleza-Ceará. Two study groups were formed: i. Intervention Group (IG, which received orientation about taking medicines, actions aiming to prevent/solve medicine interactions and adverse effects and non-pharmacological interventions for 9 months and, ii. Control Group (CG, which received traditional assistance of the unit and was monitored during the same period. It was observed a statistically significant reduction on %CVR (10.76 to 7.86; p=0.04 and systolic blood pressure levels (SBP (137.69 to 131.54; p<0.01 in the IG, while, in the CG, there was no significant alteration. 151 Drug Related Problem (DRP were identified and it was realized 124 pharmaceutical interventions, with 89.2% of them resulting on solution/prevention of the problem. Our findings indicated that the inclusion of the PC service in the hypertensive health assistance was more effective at the %CVR and the SBP reduction in comparison to the traditional assistance offered.

  16. Downhole Microseismic Monitoring at a Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Site, Farnsworth Unit, Ochiltree County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A.; Balch, R. S.; van Wijk, J.

    2015-12-01

    Farnsworth Oil Field in North Texas hosts an ongoing carbon capture, utilization, and storage project. This study is focused on passive seismic monitoring at the carbon injection site to measure, locate, and catalog any induced seismic events. A Geometrics Geode system is being utilized for continuous recording of the passive seismic downhole bore array in a monitoring well. The array consists of 3-component dual Geospace OMNI-2400 15Hz geophones with a vertical spacing of 30.5m. Downhole temperature and pressure are also monitored. Seismic data is recorded continuously and is produced at a rate of over 900GB per month, which must be archived and reviewed. A Short Term Average/Long Term Average (STA/LTA) algorithm was evaluated for its ability to search for events, including identification and quantification of any false positive events. It was determined that the algorithm was not appropriate for event detection with the background level of noise at the field site and for the recording equipment as configured. Alternatives are being investigated. The final intended outcome of the passive seismic monitoring is to mine the continuous database and develop a catalog of microseismic events/locations and to determine if there is any relationship to CO2 injection in the field. Identifying the location of any microseismic events will allow for correlation with carbon injection locations and previously characterized geological and structural features such as faults and paleoslopes. Additionally, the borehole array has recorded over 1200 active sources with three sweeps at each source location that were acquired during a nearby 3D VSP. These data were evaluated for their usability and location within an effective radius of the array and were stacked to improve signal-noise ratio and are used to calibrate a full field velocity model to enhance event location accuracy. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  17. 77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered using certificates of quota eligibility. DATES..., the United States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the...

  18. Monitoring and identification of sepsis development through a composite measure of heart rate variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bravi

    Full Text Available Tracking the physiological conditions of a patient developing infection is of utmost importance to provide optimal care at an early stage. This work presents a procedure to integrate multiple measures of heart rate variability into a unique measure for the tracking of sepsis development. An early warning system is used to illustrate its potential clinical value. The study involved 17 adults (age median 51 (interquartile range 46-62 who experienced a period of neutropenia following chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplant; 14 developed sepsis, and 3 did not. A comprehensive panel (N = 92 of variability measures was calculated for 5 min-windows throughout the period of monitoring (12 ± 4 days. Variability measures underwent filtering and two steps of data reduction with the objective of enhancing the information related to the greatest degree of change. The proposed composite measure was capable of tracking the development of sepsis in 12 out of 14 patients. Simulating a real-time monitoring setting, the sum of the energy over the very low frequency range of the composite measure was used to classify the probability of developing sepsis. The composite revealed information about the onset of sepsis about 60 hours (median value before of sepsis diagnosis. In a real monitoring setting this quicker detection time would be associated to increased efficacy in the treatment of sepsis, therefore highlighting the potential clinical utility of a composite measure of variability.

  19. Ultrasonic monitoring of erosion/corrosion thinning rates in industrial piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Farhang; Salehi, Farzaneh; Safavi, Vahid; Mokhtari, Arman; Sinclair, Anthony N

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring pipe wall erosion/corrosion thinning rates is an important issue in petrochemical and power generation industries. In this paper, two signal processing techniques are utilized for estimating the thinning rate based on ultrasonic pipe wall thickness data collected over a short period of time. The first is a combination of cross-correlation and polynomial curve fitting and the second is a model-based estimation (MBE) scheme. These techniques are applied to data collected from an accelerated thinning rate apparatus and both show that they are capable of estimating the thinning rates quickly in short time periods with good accuracy. In laboratory applications, thinning rates as low as 10 μm/year were measured within 15 days with an uncertainty of ±1.5 μm/year by both techniques. Although the MBE technique can yield marginally better accuracy, the greater stability and computational speed of the cross-correlation technique make it the preferred choice for industrial use.

  20. Long-term dust climatology in the western United States reconstructed from routine aerosol ground monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Tong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an observation-based dust identification approach and applies it to reconstruct long-term dust climatology in the western United States. Long-term dust climatology is important for quantifying the effects of atmospheric aerosols on regional and global climate. Although many routine aerosol monitoring networks exist, it is often difficult to obtain dust records from these networks, because these monitors are either deployed far away from dust active regions (most likely collocated with dense population or contaminated by anthropogenic sources and other natural sources, such as wildfires and vegetation detritus. Here we propose an approach to identify local dust events relying solely on aerosol mass and composition from general-purpose aerosol measurements. Through analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol observations during satellite-detected dust episodes, we select five indicators to be used to identify local dust records: (1 high PM10 concentrations; (2 low PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3 higher concentrations and percentage of crustal elements; (4 lower percentage of anthropogenic pollutants; and (5 low enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements. After establishing these identification criteria, we conduct hierarchical cluster analysis for all validated aerosol measurement data over 68 IMPROVE sites in the western United States. A total of 182 local dust events were identified over 30 of the 68 locations from 2000 to 2007. These locations are either close to the four US Deserts, namely the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert, and the Chihuahuan Desert, or in the high wind power region (Colorado. During the eight-year study period, the total number of dust events displays an interesting four-year activity cycle (one in 2000–2003 and the other in 2004–2007. The years of 2003, 2002 and 2007 are the three most active dust periods, with 46, 31 and 24

  1. Evaluation of the Recovery Rate of Different Swabs for Microbial Environmental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverde, Marcel; Willrodt, Julian; Staerk, Alexandra

    Contact plates, dipslides, and swabs are used for the microbiological monitoring of surfaces in controlled environments such as pharmaceutical clean rooms. In the present study, three different swab types using two different methods (direct streaking on agar versus elution followed by membrane filtration) were evaluated. In a first study, representative surfaces in pharmaceutical clean rooms were artificially inoculated using three different environmental strains (in vitro study). In a second study, a naturally inoculated floor was swabbed with the same three swab types, again using the two different recovery methods (in situ study). With the in vitro study, clear differences were found between the three swab types as well as between the two recovery methods. In addition, recovery rate of the swab type was dependent on the recovery method (interactive effect). One swab type showed a higher recovery rate with direct streaking on agar, while the other swab type showed better results using the elution/membrane filtration method. This difference can be explained by the fact that both swabs were each developed for their specific application. The type of surface also had a highly significant effect on the recovery rates. Recovery on stainless steel was better than for the other surfaces, while lexan had the lowest recovery rate. From the three different strains applied in the in vitro study, Micrococcus luteus had significantly higher recovery results compared to the other two strains (Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus brasiliensis). The differences in recovery between the swab type and recovery method were less pronounced in the in situ study. In particular, the recovery of the swab type depending on the recovery method was not found. In conclusion, if swabs are to be used for environmental monitoring, their suitability should first be evaluated. This can be approached with artificially inoculated surfaces. However, naturally inoculated surfaces might be more

  2. The non-contact heart rate measurement system for monitoring HRV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji-Jer; Yu, Sheng-I; Syu, Hao-Yi; See, Aaron Raymond

    2013-01-01

    A noncontact ECG monitoring and analysis system was developed using capacitive-coupled device integrated to a home sofa. Electrodes were placed on the backrest of a sofa separated from the body with only the chair covering and the user's clothing. The study also incorporates measurements using different fabric materials, and a pure cotton material was chosen to cover the chair's backrest. The material was chosen to improve the signal to noise ratio. The system is initially implemented on a home sofa and is able to measure non-contact ECG through thin cotton clothing and perform heart rate analysis to calculate the heart rate variability (HRV) parameters. It was also tested under different conditions and results from reading and sleeping exhibited a stable ECG. Subsequently, results from our calculated HRV were found to be identical to those of a commercially available HRV analyzer. However, HRV parameters are easily affected by motion artifacts generated during drinking or eating with the latter producing a more severe disturbance. Lastly, parameters measured are saved on a cloud database, providing users with a long-term monitoring and recording for physiological information.

  3. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Helder Onno K; van Goudoever Johannes B; Hop Wim C J; Brug Johannes; Kornelisse René F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to d...

  4. Life Change Units (LCU) rating as stressors in Iranian hospitals' nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargahi, Hossein; Shaham, Golsa

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare workers suffer from work-related or occupational stress. This can lead to severe distress, burnout or physical illness, and finally to decrease quality of work life and services provision. Nurses must be aware of retential stressors, because they add to the cumulative effect of other stressful events. Holmes and Rahe both found a relationship between life change unit as stressors and health changes. This research reported here aims to measure the life change units as stressors among Iranian Hospitals Nurses by LCU rating. A cross - sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 389 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The respondents were asked to select each of 54 events that cause stress ranked in order of their life change units developed by Holmes and Rahe as stress scale. Before beginning the main study, the reliability and coincidental validity was performed. All data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 18, t-test, Anova statistical methods. Approximately, half of the nurses associated major mortgage, foreclosure of mortgage or loan. More than 50% of the Iranian nurses had 150-300 and more than 300 LCU rating which had the chance to expose to extremely serious risk to health.Iranian hospitals nurses suffer from stress that caused by Life Change Units organizational factors such as change in the financial state, change in the work environment and major mortgage. We recommend to Iranian nursing policy-makers to choose strategies to help nurses' cope effectively with workplace stressors. Nursing managers and / or nursing management should develop strategies to address and improve the quality of working conditions for nurses in the hospitals. Providing educational and career prospects can contribute to decrease nurses' occupational stress level, the maintaining their work ability.

  5. Life Change Units (LCU Rating as Stressors in Iranian Hospitals’ Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dargahi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare workers suffer from work-related or occupational stress. This can lead to severe distress, burnout or physical illness, and finally to decrease quality of work life and services provision. Nurses must be aware of retential stressors, because they add to the cumulative effect of other stressful events. Holmes and Rahe both found a relationship between life change unit as stressors and health changes. This research reported here aims to measure the life change units as stressors among Iranian Hospitals Nurses by LCU rating. A cross - sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 389 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The respondents were asked to select each of 54 events that cause stress ranked in order of their life change units developed by Holmes and Rahe as stress scale. Before beginning the main study, the reliability and coincidental validity was performed. All data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 18, t-test, Anova statistical methods. Approximately, half of the nurses associated major mortgage, foreclosure of mortgage or loan. More than 50% of the Iranian nurses had 150-300 and more than 300 LCU rating which had the chance to expose to extremely serious risk to health.Iranian hospitals nurses suffer from stress that caused by Life Change Units organizational factors such as change in the financial state, change in the work environment and major mortgage. We recommend to Iranian nursing policy-makers to choose strategies to help nurses cope effectively with workplace stressors. Nursing managers and / or nursing management should develop strategies to address and improve the quality of working conditions for nurses in the hospitals. Providing educational and career prospects can contribute to decrease nurses occupational stress level, the maintaining their work ability.

  6. Ventilation rates in large commercial layer hen houses with two-year continuous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, L; Ni, J-Q; Diehl, C A; Kilic, I; Heber, A J; Chen, Y; Cortus, E L; Bogan, B W; Lim, T T; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J-C; Chen, L

    2012-01-01

    1. Ventilation controls the indoor environment and is critical for poultry production and welfare. Ventilation is also crucial for assessing aerial pollutant emissions from the poultry industry. Published ventilation data for commercial layer houses have been limited, and are mostly based on short-term studies, mainly because monitoring airflow from large numbers of fans is technically challenging. 2. A two-year continuous ventilation monitoring trial was conducted at two commercial manure belt houses (A and B), each with 250 000 layers and 88 130-cm exhaust fans. All the fans were individually monitored with fan rotational speed sensors or vibration sensors. Differential static pressures across the house walls were also measured. Three fan performance assessment methods were applied periodically to determine fan degradations. Fan models were developed to calculate house ventilations. 3. A total of 693 and 678 complete data days, each containing >16 h of valid ventilation data, were obtained in houses A and B, respectively. The two-year mean ventilation rates of houses A and B were 2·08 and 2·10 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1), corresponding to static pressures of -36·5 and -48·9 Pa, respectively. For monthly mean ventilation, the maximum rates were 4·87 and 5·01 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in July 2008, and the minimum were 0·59 and 0·81 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in February 2008, for houses A and B, respectively. 4. The two-year mean ventilation rates were similar to those from a survey in Germany and a 6-month study in Indiana, USA, but were much lower than the 8·4 and 6·2 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) from a study in Italy. The minimum monthly mean ventilation rates were similar to the data obtained in winter in Canada, but were lower than the minimum ventilation suggested in the literature. The lower static pressure in house B required more ventilation energy input. The two houses, although identical, demonstrated differences in indoor environment controls

  7. Calibration of Passive Samplers for the Monitoring of Pharmaceuticals in Water-Sampling Rate Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Męczykowska, Hanna; Kobylis, Paulina; Stepnowski, Piotr; Caban, Magda

    2017-05-04

    Passive sampling is one of the most efficient methods of monitoring pharmaceuticals in environmental water. The reliability of the process relies on a correctly performed calibration experiment and a well-defined sampling rate (Rs) for target analytes. Therefore, in this review the state-of-the-art methods of passive sampler calibration for the most popular pharmaceuticals: antibiotics, hormones, β-blockers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), along with the sampling rate variation, were presented. The advantages and difficulties in laboratory and field calibration were pointed out, according to the needs of control of the exact conditions. Sampling rate calculating equations and all the factors affecting the Rs value - temperature, flow, pH, salinity of the donor phase and biofouling - were discussed. Moreover, various calibration parameters gathered from the literature published in the last 16 years, including the device types, were tabled and compared. What is evident is that the sampling rate values for pharmaceuticals are impacted by several factors, whose influence is still unclear and unpredictable, while there is a big gap in experimental data. It appears that the calibration procedure needs to be improved, for example, there is a significant deficiency of PRCs (Performance Reference Compounds) for pharmaceuticals. One of the suggestions is to introduce correction factors for Rs values estimated in laboratory conditions.

  8. Novel Wireless Sensor System for Monitoring Oxygen, Temperature and Respiration Rate of Horticultural Crops Post Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Green

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to design optimal packages, it is of pivotal importance to determine the rate at which harvested fresh fruits and vegetables consume oxygen. The respiration rate of oxygen (RRO2 is determined by measuring the consumed oxygen per hour per kg plant material, and the rate is highly influenced by temperature and gas composition. Traditionally, RRO2 has been determined at discrete time intervals. In this study, wireless sensor networks (WSNs were used to determine RRO2 continuously in plant material (fresh cut broccoli florets at 5 °C, 10 °C and 20 °C and at modified gas compositions (decreasing oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide levels. Furthermore, the WSN enabled concomitant determination of oxygen and temperature in the very close vicinity of the plant material. This information proved a very close relationship between changes in temperature and respiration rate. The applied WSNs were unable to determine oxygen levels lower than 5% and carbon dioxide was not determined. Despite these drawbacks in relation to respiration analysis, the WSNs offer a new possibility to do continuous measurement of RRO2 in post harvest research, thereby investigating the close relation between temperature and RRO2. The conclusions are that WSNs have the potential to be used as a monitor of RRO2 of plant material after harvest, during storage and packaging, thereby leading to optimized consumer products.

  9. Location of In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in the United States-Variability in Event Rate and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perman, Sarah M; Stanton, Emily; Soar, Jasmeet; Berg, Robert A; Donnino, Michael W; Mikkelsen, Mark E; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M; Yang, Lin; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-09-29

    In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is a major public health problem with significant mortality. A better understanding of where IHCA occurs in hospitals (intensive care unit [ICU] versus monitored ward [telemetry] versus unmonitored ward) could inform strategies for reducing preventable deaths. This is a retrospective study of adult IHCA events in the Get with the Guidelines-Resuscitation database from January 2003 to September 2010. Unadjusted analyses were used to characterize patient, arrest, and hospital-level characteristics by hospital location of arrest (ICU versus inpatient ward). IHCA event rates and outcomes were plotted over time by arrest location. Among 85 201 IHCA events at 445 hospitals, 59% (50 514) occurred in the ICU compared to 41% (34 687) on the inpatient wards. Compared to ward patients, ICU patients were younger (64±16 years versus 69±14; Plocations. Survival rates vary based on location of IHCA. Optimizing patient assignment to unmonitored wards versus telemetry wards may contribute to improved survival after IHCA. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  11. Use of Audible and Chart-recorded Ultrasonography to Monitor Fetal Heart Rate and Uterine Blood Flow Parameters in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of audible chart-recorded doppler ultrasonography (DUS) to monitor both uterine blood flow and fetal heart rate (FHR) during pregnancy in dairy cattle. Possible applications of DUS include the monitoring of fetal distress when a pregnancy be...

  12. An Evaluation of Thermal Imaging Based Respiration Rate Monitoring in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah AL-Khalidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An important indicator of an individual’s health is respiration rate. It is the average number of times air is inhaled and exhaled per minute. Existing respiration monitoring methods require an instrument to be attached to the patient’s body during the recording. This is a discomfort to the patient and the instrument can be dislodged from its position. Approach: In this study a novel noncontact, thermal imaging based respiration rate measurement method is developed and evaluated. Facial thermal videos of 16 children (age: Median = 6.5 years, minimum = 6 months, maximum = 17 years were processed in the study. The recordings were carried out while the children rested comfortably on a bed. The children’s respiration rates were also simultaneously measured using a number of conventional contact based methods. Results: This allowed comparisons with the thermal imaging method to be carried out. The image capture rate was 50 frames per second and the duration of a thermal video recording was 2 min per child. The thermal images were filtered and segmented to identify the nasal region. An algorithm was developed to automatically track the identified nasal area. This region was partitioned into eight equal concentric segments. The pixel values within each segment were averaged to produce a single thermal feature for that segment of the image. A respiration signal was obtained by plotting each segment��€™s feature against time. Conclusion: Respiration rate values were automatically calculated by determining the number of oscillations in the respiration signals per minute. A close correlation (coefficient = 0.994 was observed between the respiration rates measured using the thermal imaging method and those obtained using the most effective conventional contact based respiration method.

  13. Noninvasive ventilation for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure: intubation rate in an experienced unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contou, Damien; Fragnoli, Chiara; Córdoba-Izquierdo, Ana; Boissier, Florence; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Thille, Arnaud W

    2013-12-01

    Failure of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is common in patients with COPD admitted to the ICU for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF). We aimed to assess the rate of NIV failure and to identify early predictors of intubation under NIV in patients admitted for AHRF of all origins in an experienced unit. This was an observational cohort study using data prospectively collected over a 3-year period after the implementation of a nurse-driven NIV protocol in a 24-bed medical ICU of a French university hospital. Among 242 subjects receiving NIV for AHRF (P(aCO2) > 45 mm Hg), 67 had cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE), 146 had acute-on-chronic respiratory failure (AOCRF) (including 99 subjects with COPD and 47 with other chronic respiratory diseases), and 29 had non-AOCRF (mostly pneumonia). Overall, the rates of intubation and ICU mortality were respectively 15% and 5%. The intubation rates were 4% in CPE, 15% in AOCRF, and 38% in non-AOCRF (P intubation rate was reduced to 15% in patients receiving NIV for AHRF, with a mortality rate of only 5%. Whereas the risk of NIV failure is associated with hypoxemia and acidosis after initiation of NIV, it is also markedly influenced by the presence or absence of an underlying chronic respiratory disease.

  14. Simultaneous monitoring of maternal and fetal heart rate variability during labor in relation with fetal gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Fernandes, Diana; Pinto, Paula; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Bernardes, João

    2017-08-21

    Male gender is considered a risk factor for several adverse perinatal outcomes. Fetal gender effect on fetal heart rate (FHR) has been subject of several studies with contradictory results. The importance of maternal heart rate (MHR) monitoring during labor has also been investigated, but less is known about the effect of fetal gender on MHR. The aim of this study is to simultaneously assess maternal and FHR variability during labor in relation with fetal gender. Simultaneous MHR and FHR recordings were obtained from 44 singleton term pregnancies during the last 2 hr of labor (H1, H2 ). Heart rate tracings were analyzed using linear (time- and frequency-domain) and nonlinear indices. Both linear and nonlinear components were considered in assessing FHR and MHR interaction, including cross-sample entropy (cross-SampEn). Mothers carrying male fetuses (n = 22) had significantly higher values for linear indices related with MHR average and variability and sympatho-vagal balance, while the opposite occurred in the high-frequency component and most nonlinear indices. Significant differences in FHR were only observed in H1 with higher entropy values in female fetuses. Assessing the differences between FHR and MHR, statistically significant differences were obtained in most nonlinear indices between genders. A significantly higher cross-SampEn was observed in mothers carrying female fetuses (n = 22), denoting lower synchrony or similarity between MHR and FHR. The variability of MHR and the synchrony/similarity between MHR and FHR vary with respect to fetal gender during labor. These findings suggest that fetal gender needs to be taken into account when simultaneously monitoring MHR and FHR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ozone monitoring in the UK (United Kingdom): A review of 1978/8. Data from monitoring sites operated by Warren Spring Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, J.S.; Broughton, G.F.; Dando, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    A new national air-quality monitoring network has been established for the Department of the Environment. Its purpose is to determine rural baseline concentrations of ozone and other pollutants throughout the United Kingdom. The report describes the background to the establishment of the network, together with its present structure and instrumentation. A series of data analyses are presented and discussed, with the intention of providing a broad and preliminary overview of ozone observations at WSL-operated monitoring sites throughout the first full year of network operation. Average and peak levels of ozone during 1987/8 are quantified, seasonal and diurnal variations are determined, and high pollution periods are examined.

  16. Evaluating and monitoring analgesia and sedation in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessler, Curtis N; Grap, Mary Jo; Ramsay, Michael Ae

    2008-01-01

    Management of analgesia and sedation in the intensive care unit requires evaluation and monitoring of key parameters in order to detect and quantify pain and agitation, and to quantify sedation. The routine use of subjective scales for pain, agitation, and sedation promotes more effective management, including patient-focused titration of medications to specific end-points. The need for frequent measurement reflects the dynamic nature of pain, agitation, and sedation, which change constantly in critically ill patients. Further, close monitoring promotes repeated evaluation of response to therapy, thus helping to avoid over-sedation and to eliminate pain and agitation. Pain assessment tools include self-report (often using a numeric pain scale) for communicative patients and pain scales that incorporate observed behaviors and physiologic measures for noncommunicative patients. Some of these tools have undergone validity testing but more work is needed. Sedation-agitation scales can be used to identify and quantify agitation, and to grade the depth of sedation. Some scales incorporate a step-wise assessment of response to increasingly noxious stimuli and a brief assessment of cognition to define levels of consciousness; these tools can often be quickly performed and easily recalled. Many of the sedation-agitation scales have been extensively tested for inter-rater reliability and validated against a variety of parameters. Objective measurement of indicators of consciousness and brain function, such as with processed electroencephalography signals, holds considerable promise, but has not achieved widespread implementation. Further clarification of the roles of these tools, particularly within the context of patient safety, is needed, as is further technology development to eliminate artifacts and investigation to demonstrate added value.

  17. General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Based High-Rate Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughry, Thomas A.

    2015-02-01

    As the volume of data acquired by space-based sensors increases, mission data compression/decompression and forward error correction code processing performance must likewise scale. This competency development effort was explored using the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) to accomplish high-rate Rice Decompression and high-rate Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding at the satellite mission ground station. Each algorithm was implemented and benchmarked on a single GPGPU. Distributed processing across one to four GPGPUs was also investigated. The results show that the GPGPU has considerable potential for performing satellite communication Data Signal Processing, with three times or better performance improvements and up to ten times reduction in cost over custom hardware, at least in the case of Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

  18. General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Based High-Rate Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughry, Thomas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As the volume of data acquired by space-based sensors increases, mission data compression/decompression and forward error correction code processing performance must likewise scale. This competency development effort was explored using the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) to accomplish high-rate Rice Decompression and high-rate Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding at the satellite mission ground station. Each algorithm was implemented and benchmarked on a single GPGPU. Distributed processing across one to four GPGPUs was also investigated. The results show that the GPGPU has considerable potential for performing satellite communication Data Signal Processing, with three times or better performance improvements and up to ten times reduction in cost over custom hardware, at least in the case of Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

  19. Variation exists in rates of admission to intensive care units for heart failure patients across hospitals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Kyan C.; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Kim, Nancy; Strait, Kelly M.; Li, Shu-Xia; Chen, Serene I.; Lagu, Tara; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite increasing attention on reducing relatively costly hospital practices while maintaining the quality of care, few studies have examined how hospitals use the intensive care unit (ICU), a high-cost setting, for patients admitted with heart failure (HF). We characterized hospital patterns of ICU admission for patients with HF and determined their association with the use of ICU-level therapies and patient outcomes. Methods and Results We identified 166,224 HF discharges from 341 hospitals in the 2009–10 Premier Perspective® database. We excluded hospitals with transfers. We defined ICU as including medical ICU, coronary ICU, and surgical ICU. We calculated the percent of patients admitted directly to an ICU. We compared hospitals in the top-quartile (high ICU admission) with the remaining quartiles. The median percentage of ICU admission was 10% (Interquartile Range 6% to 16%; range 0% to 88%). In top-quartile hospitals, treatments requiring an ICU were used less often: percentage of ICU days receiving mechanical ventilation (6% top quartile versus 15% others), non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (8% versus 19%), vasopressors and/or inotropes (9% versus 16%), vasodilators (6% versus 12%), and any of these interventions (26% versus 51%). Overall HF in-hospital risk standardized mortality was similar (3.4% versus 3.5%; P = 0.2). Conclusions ICU admission rates for HF varied markedly across hospitals and lacked association with in-hospital risk-standardized mortality. Greater ICU use correlated with fewer patients receiving ICU interventions. Judicious ICU use could reduce resource consumption without diminishing patient outcomes. PMID:23355624

  20. A New Model of Delirium Care in the Acute Geriatric Setting: Geriatric Monitoring Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Mei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common and serious condition, which affects many of our older hospitalised patients. It is an indicator of severe underlying illness and requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment, associated with poor survival, functional outcomes with increased risk of institutionalisation following the delirium episode in the acute care setting. We describe a new model of delirium care in the acute care setting, titled Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU where the important concepts of delirium prevention and management are integrated. We hypothesize that patients with delirium admitted to the GMU would have better clinical outcomes with less need for physical and psychotropic restraints compared to usual care. Methods/Design GMU models after the Delirium Room with adoption of core interventions from Hospital Elder Life Program and use of evening bright light therapy to consolidate circadian rhythm and improve sleep in the elderly patients. The novelty of this approach lies in the amalgamation of these interventions in a multi-faceted approach in acute delirium management. GMU development thus consists of key considerations for room design and resource planning, program specific interventions and daily core interventions. Assessments undertaken include baseline demographics, comorbidity scoring, duration and severity of delirium, cognitive, functional measures at baseline, 6 months and 12 months later. Additionally we also analysed the pre and post-GMU implementation knowledge and attitude on delirium care among staff members in the geriatric wards (nurses, doctors and undertook satisfaction surveys for caregivers of patients treated in GMU. Discussion This study protocol describes the conceptualization and implementation of a specialized unit for delirium management. We hypothesize that such a model of care will not only result in better clinical outcomes for the elderly patient with delirium compared to usual geriatric care

  1. [On-line monitoring of oxygen uptake rate and its application in hybridoma culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qiang; Mi, Li; Li, Ling; Wang, Xian-Hui; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2003-09-01

    On-line analysis and control are critical for the optimization of product yields in animal cell culture. The close monitor of viable cell number helps to gain a better insight into the metabolism and to refine culture strategy. In this study, we use the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) to estimate the number of viable cell and the OUR-based feed-back control strategy for nutrients feeding to improve the efficiency of cell culture. A hybridoma cell line (HAb18) was cultured in fed-batch and perfusion model using serum free medium in 5L CelliGen Plus bioreactor (NBS Co., American) and 5L Biostat B bioreactor (Braun Co., Germany). The system and the method for online monitoring OUR in bioreactors, based on the dynamic measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO), were developed. The method of on-line cell concentration estimation was established based on the relationship between the growth of the hybridoma and the uptake rate of oxygen. This method was then used to determine OUR and the concentrations of cell, antibody, glucose, lactate, glutamine and ammonia in the bioreactors at given times. The relationship between OUR and nutrients metabolism was studied and OUR-based feed-back control strategy, which used the state deltaOUR = 0 as the regulation point, was established and used to control the rates of nutrients or medium feeding rate in the perfusion culture. The results showed that there was close relationship between OUR, concentration of live cells, productivity of antibody and consumption of glutamine. The sudden decrease in OUR may be caused by glutamine depletion, and with different delay times, the viable cell concentration and antibody productivity also decreased. The further analysis revealed the linear relationship between OUR and the density of live cells in the exponential growth phase as qOUR = (0.103 +/- 0.028) x 10(-12) mol/cell/h. These findings can be applied to the on-line detection of live cell density. Our study also indicated that by adjusting the perfusion

  2. Combining GPS with heart rate monitoring to measure physical activity in children: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Badland, Hannah M; Schofield, Grant

    2009-09-01

    The recent development of global positioning system (GPS) receivers with integrated heart rate (HR) monitoring has provided a new method for estimating the energy expenditure associated with children's movement. The purpose of this feasibility study was to trial a combination of GPS surveillance and HR monitoring in 39 primary-aged children from New Zealand. Spatial location and HR data were recorded during a school lunch break using an integrated GPS/HR receiver (1Hz). Children averaged a total distance of 1.10+/-0.56km at speeds ranging from 0 to 18.6kmh(-1). Activity patterns were characterised by short bursts of moderate to high speeds followed by longer periods of slow speeds. In addition, boys averaged higher speeds than girls (1.77+/-0.62kmh(-1) and 1.36+/-0.50kmh(-1), respectively; p=0.003). The percentage of time spent at 0kmh(-1) (stationary) ranged from 0.1% to 21.3% with a mean of 6.4+/-4.6%. These data suggest that while children were relatively active during the lunch period, they spent a substantial portion of time engaged in slow or stationary physical activities. Furthermore, associations between HR, average speed, and stationary time demonstrated that children who moved at faster speeds expended more energy than those who moved at slower speeds. We conclude that the combined approach of GPS and HR monitoring is a promising new method for investigating children's play-related energy expenditure. There is also scope to integrate GPS data with geographic information systems to examine where children play and accumulate physical activity.

  3. Portable Heart Rate Detector Based on Photoplethysmography with Android Programmable Devices for Ubiquitous Health Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Kin Lao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a miniature portable heart rate detector system is implemented by modern hardware ICs and simple sensor circuit with software executable on both PC and Android platform. The biosignal is first extracted via photoplethysmography (PPG principle into electric signal. Then a microprocessor is used to covert biosignal from analog to digital format, suitably for feeding into an RF module (nRF24L01 for RF transmission. On the receiver end, the computer and/or smart phone can analyze the data using a robust algorithm that can detect peaks of the PPG waveform, hence to calculating the heart rate. Some application software running on Windows and Android phone have been developed to display heart rate information and time domain waveform to users for health care monitoring. In the future, pure Bluetooth technology will be used for wireless personal communications instead of RF modules. At the same time, the data can be sent to computer console using existing available networks (3G, 4G, WiFi, etc. for health database logging purpose.

  4. The Promise and Challenges of High Rate GNSS for Environmental Monitoring and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, John

    2017-04-01

    The decadal vision Global Geodetic Observing System recognizes the potential of high rate real time GNSS for environmental monitoring. The GGOS initiated a program to advance GNSS real time high rate measurements to augment seismic and other sensor systems for earthquake and tsunami early warning. High rate multi-GNSS networks can provide ionospheric tomography for the detection and tracking of land, ocean and atmospheric gravity waves that can provide coastal warning of tsunamis induced by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, severe weather and other catastrophic events. NASA has collaborated on a microsatellite constellation of GPS receivers to measure ocean surface roughness to improve severe storm tracking and a equatorial system of GPS occultation receivers to measure ionospheric and atmospheric dynamics. Systems such as these will be significantly enhanced by the availability of a four fold increase in GNSS satellite systems with new and enhanced signal structures and by the densification of regional multi-GNSS networks. These new GNSS capabilities will rely upon improved and cost effective communications infrastructure for a network of coordinated real time analysis centers with input to national warning systems. Most important, the implementation of these new real time GNSS capabilities will rely upon the broad international support for the sharing of real time GNSS much as is done in weather and seismic observing systems and as supported by the Committee of Experts on UN Global Geodetic Information Management (UNGGIM).

  5. Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring interpretation in labour: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maso, G; Piccoli, M; De Seta, F; Parolin, S; Banco, R; Camacho Mattos, L; Bogatti, P; Alberico, S

    2015-02-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) has been introduced in the obstetrics practice as a test to identify the first signs of fetal deterioration, allowing a prompt intervention to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, results from clinical trials fail to demonstrate a clear benefit with the use of EFM. No decrease in the incidence of cerebral palsy due to intrapartum asphyxia has been achieved and a significant increase in the rate of operative deliveries and in medico-legal litigations has been observed instead. Despite the lack of evidence supporting its safety and effectiveness, this method is routinely used in the clinical practice and periodical updated guidelines to standardize the method of interpretation and proper actions are proposed. However, limitations still exist and the unavoidable consequences are the increasing rate of caesarean delivery, partly due to a defensive attitude in medical choices, and medico-legal litigations for presumed inappropriate evaluation in case of perinatal adverse event. While Obstetrics Societies are trying to "fight" the rise in caesarean section rates, intrapartum EFM tracings are taken in the court proceedings as one of the main evidences in case of adverse event. The aim of this review is to discuss the limitations of guidelines dealing with intrapartum EFM and the pathophysiological basis to assess the suspicious tracings which represent the most observed and critical issue of EFM interpretation.

  6. Variable input observer for structural health monitoring of high-rate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jonathan; Laflamme, Simon; Cao, Liang; Dodson, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    The development of high-rate structural health monitoring methods is intended to provide damage detection on timescales of 10 µs -10ms where speed of detection is critical to maintain structural integrity. Here, a novel Variable Input Observer (VIO) coupled with an adaptive observer is proposed as a potential solution for complex high-rate problems. The VIO is designed to adapt its input space based on real-time identification of the system's essential dynamics. By selecting appropriate time-delayed coordinates defined by both a time delay and an embedding dimension, the proper input space is chosen which allows more accurate estimations of the current state and a reduction of the convergence rate. The optimal time-delay is estimated based on mutual information, and the embedding dimension is based on false nearest neighbors. A simulation of the VIO is conducted on a two degree-of-freedom system with simulated damage. Results are compared with an adaptive Luenberger observer, a fixed time-delay observer, and a Kalman Filter. Under its preliminary design, the VIO converges significantly faster than the Luenberger and fixed observer. It performed similarly to the Kalman Filter in terms of convergence, but with greater accuracy.

  7. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  8. Leak rate and burst test data for McGuire Unit 1 steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherburne, P.A. [B& W Nuclear Service Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Frye, C.R. [Babcock & Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Mayes, D.B. [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1992-12-31

    To support the development of tube plugging criteria that would allow tubes with through-wall cracks to remain in service, sections of 12 tubes were removed from the McGuire Unit-1 steam generators. These tubes were sent to B&W Nuclear Service Company for metallographic examination and for determination of burst pressure and leak rate at both operating and faulted conditions. Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) had degraded these tubes in the tube-to-tubesheet roll transitions. To measure primary-to-secondary leakage at pressures and temperatures equivalent to those in the McGuire Unit-1 steam generators, an autoclave-based test loop was designed and installed at the Babcock & Wilcox Lynchburg Research Center. Sections of the tube containing the roll transitions were then installed in the autoclave and actual primary- to-secondary leakage was measured at 288{degrees}C (550{degrees}F) and at 9 and 18.3 MPa (1300 and 2650 psi) pressure differentials. Following the leak test, the tubes were pressurized internally until the tube wall ruptured. Leak rate, burst pressure, and eddy-current information were then correlated with the through-wall crack lengths as determined by metallographic examination. Results confirm the ability to measure the crack length with eddy-current techniques. Results also support analytical and empirical models developed by the nuclear industry in calculating critical crack lengths in roll transitions.

  9. Evaluation of wear rate of dental composites polymerized by halogen or LED light curing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaghehmand H.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sufficient polymerization is a critical factor to obtain optimum physical properties and clinical efficacy of resin restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate wear rates of composite resins polymerized by two different systems Light Emitting Diodes (LED to and Halogen lamps. Materials and Methods: In this laboratory study, 20 specimens of A3 Tetric Ceram composite were placed in brass molds of 2*10*10 mm dimensions and cured for 40 seconds with 1 mm distance from surface. 10 specimens were cured with LED and the other 10 were cured with Halogen unit. A device with the ability to apply force was developed in order to test the wear of composites. After storage in distilled water for 10 days, the specimens were placed in the wear testing machine. A chrome cobalt stylus with 1.12 mm diameter was applied against the specimens surfaces with a load of 2 kg. The weight of each samples before and after 5000, 10000, 20000, 40000, 80000 and 120000 cycles was measured using an electronic balance with precision of 10-4 grams. Data were analyzed using t test and paired t test. P0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, LED and halogen light curing units resulted in a similar wear rate in composite resin restorations.

  10. Admitting acute ischemic stroke patients to a stroke care monitoring unit versus a conventional stroke unit : a randomized pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, Geert; Elting, Jan Willem; Langedijk, Marc; Maurits, Natasha M; De Keyser, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pathophysiological considerations and observational studies indicate that elevated body temperature, hypoxia, hypotension, and cardiac arrhythmias in the acute phase of ischemic stroke may aggravate brain damage and worsen outcome. METHODS: Both units were organized with the

  11. Admitting acute ischemic stroke patients to a stroke care monitoring unit versus a conventional stroke unit : a randomized pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, Geert; Elting, Jan Willem; Langedijk, Marc; Maurits, Natasha M; De Keyser, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pathophysiological considerations and observational studies indicate that elevated body temperature, hypoxia, hypotension, and cardiac arrhythmias in the acute phase of ischemic stroke may aggravate brain damage and worsen outcome. METHODS: Both units were organized with the

  12. The fetal heart rate collaborative practice project: situational awareness in electronic fetal monitoring-a Kaiser Permanente Perinatal Patient Safety Program Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachin, S Rachel; Lopez, Connie M; Powell, Kimberly J; Corbett, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring has historically been interpreted with wide variation between and within disciplines on the obstetric healthcare team. This leads to inconsistent decision making in response to tracing interpretation. To implement a multidisciplinary electronic fetal monitoring training program, utilizing the best evidence available, enabling standardization of fetal heart rate interpretation to promote patient safety. Local multidisciplinary expertise along with an outside consultant collaborated over a series of meetings to create a multimedia instructional electronic fetal monitoring training program. After production was complete, a series of conferences attended by nurses, certified nurse midwives, and physician champions, from each hospital, attended to learn how to facilitate training at their own perinatal units. All healthcare personnel across the Kaiser Permanente perinatal program were trained in NICHD nomenclature, emergency response, interpretation guidelines, and how to create local collaborative practice agreements. Metrics for program effectiveness were measured through program evaluations from attendees, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Program evaluations rendered very positive scores from both physicians and clinicians. Comparing baseline to 4 years later, the perception of safety from the staff has increased over 10% in 5 out of the 6 factors analyzed. Active participation from all disciplines in this training series has highlighted the importance of teamwork and communication. The Fetal Heart Rate Collaborative Practice Project continues to evolve utilizing other educational modalities, such as online EFM education and unit-based interdisciplinary tracing reviews.

  13. Wearable Sensing of In-Ear Pressure for Heart Rate Monitoring with a Piezoelectric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Ho Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a novel heart rate (HR monitoring approach in which we measure the pressure variance of the surface of the ear canal. A scissor-shaped apparatus equipped with a piezoelectric film sensor and a hardware circuit module was designed for high wearability and to obtain stable measurement. In the proposed device, the film sensor converts in-ear pulse waves (EPW into electrical current, and the circuit module enhances the EPW and suppresses noise. A real-time algorithm embedded in the circuit module performs morphological conversions to make the EPW more distinct and knowledge-based rules are used to detect EPW peaks. In a clinical experiment conducted using a reference electrocardiogram (ECG device, EPW and ECG were concurrently recorded from 58 healthy subjects. The EPW intervals between successive peaks and their corresponding ECG intervals were then compared to each other. Promising results were obtained from the samples, specifically, a sensitivity of 97.25%, positive predictive value of 97.17%, and mean absolute difference of 0.62. Thus, highly accurate HR was obtained from in-ear pressure variance. Consequently, we believe that our proposed approach could be used to monitor vital signs and also utilized in diverse applications in the near future.

  14. Wearable Sensing of In-Ear Pressure for Heart Rate Monitoring with a Piezoelectric Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang-Ho; Jang, Dae-Geun; Park, Jung Wook; Youm, Se-Kyoung

    2015-09-16

    In this study, we developed a novel heart rate (HR) monitoring approach in which we measure the pressure variance of the surface of the ear canal. A scissor-shaped apparatus equipped with a piezoelectric film sensor and a hardware circuit module was designed for high wearability and to obtain stable measurement. In the proposed device, the film sensor converts in-ear pulse waves (EPW) into electrical current, and the circuit module enhances the EPW and suppresses noise. A real-time algorithm embedded in the circuit module performs morphological conversions to make the EPW more distinct and knowledge-based rules are used to detect EPW peaks. In a clinical experiment conducted using a reference electrocardiogram (ECG) device, EPW and ECG were concurrently recorded from 58 healthy subjects. The EPW intervals between successive peaks and their corresponding ECG intervals were then compared to each other. Promising results were obtained from the samples, specifically, a sensitivity of 97.25%, positive predictive value of 97.17%, and mean absolute difference of 0.62. Thus, highly accurate HR was obtained from in-ear pressure variance. Consequently, we believe that our proposed approach could be used to monitor vital signs and also utilized in diverse applications in the near future.

  15. Successful strategy to decrease indwelling catheter utilization rates in an academic medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sushilkumar Satish; Irukulla, Pavan Kumar; Shenoy, Mangalore Amith; Nyemba, Vimbai; Yacoub, Diana; Kupfer, Yizhak

    2017-08-22

    Duration of indwelling urinary catheterization is an important risk factor for urinary tract infections. We devised a strategy to decrease the utilization of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs). We also highlight the challenges of managing critically ill patients without IUCs and demonstrate some of the initiatives that we undertook to overcome these challenges. A retrospective observational outcomes review was performed in an adult medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2012 and December 2016. This period included a baseline and series of intervals, whereby different aspects of the strategies were implemented. IUC utilization ratio and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates were calculated. Our IUC utilization ratio had a statistically significant decrease from 0.92 (baseline) to 0.28 (after 3 interventions) (P decrease from 5.47 (baseline) to 1.08 (after 3 intervention) (P = .0134). These rates sustained a statistically significant difference over the 2-year follow-up period from the last intervention. Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) was identified as a potential complication of not using an IUC. There was no statistically significant change in the IAD rates during 2013-2016. Our interventions demonstrated that aggressive and comprehensive IUC restriction protocol and provider training can lead to a successful decrease in IUC use, leading to a lower IUC utilization ratio and CAUTI rate in a large complex academic ICU setting. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyclostationary Approach for Heart and Respiration Rates Monitoring with Body Movement Cancellation Using Radar Doppler System

    CERN Document Server

    Kazemi, Somayeh; Amindavar, Hamidreza; Li, Changzhi

    2013-01-01

    Heart and respiration rate measurement using Doppler radar is a non-contact and non-obstructive way for remote thorough-clothing monitoring of vital signs. The modulated back-scattered radar signal in the presence of high noise and interference is non-stationary with hidden periodicities, which cannot be detected by ordinary Fourier analysis. In this paper we propose a cyclostationary approach for such signals and show that by using non-linear transformation and then Fourier analysis of the radar signal, the hidden periodicities can be accurately obtained. Numerical results show that the vital signs can be extracted as cyclic frequencies, independent of SNR and without any filtering or phase unwrapping.

  17. Modeling of the temporal patterns of fluoxetine prescriptions and suicide rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Milane

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To study the potential association of antidepressant use and suicide at a population level, we analyzed the associations between suicide rates and dispensing of the prototypic SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine in the United States during the period 1960-2002. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sources of data included Centers of Disease Control and US Census Bureau age-adjusted suicide rates since 1960 and numbers of fluoxetine sales in the US, since its introduction in 1988. We conducted statistical analysis of age-adjusted population data and prescription numbers. Suicide rates fluctuated between 12.2 and 13.7 per 100,000 for the entire population from the early 1960s until 1988. Since then, suicide rates have gradually declined, with the lowest value of 10.4 per 100,000 in 2000. This steady decline is significantly associated with increased numbers of fluoxetine prescriptions dispensed from 2,469,000 in 1988 to 33,320,000 in 2002 (r(s = -0.92; p < 0.001. Mathematical modeling of what suicide rates would have been during the 1988-2002 period based on pre-1988 data indicates that since the introduction of fluoxetine in 1988 through 2002 there has been a cumulative decrease in expected suicide mortality of 33,600 individuals (posterior median, 95% Bayesian credible interval 22,400-45,000. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of SSRIs in 1988 has been temporally associated with a substantial reduction in the number of suicides. This effect may have been more apparent in the female population, whom we postulate might have particularly benefited from SSRI treatment. While these types of data cannot lead to conclusions on causality, we suggest here that in the context of untreated depression being the major cause of suicide, antidepressant treatment could have had a contributory role in the reduction of suicide rates in the period 1988-2002.

  18. [Predictive variables for mental retardation in a Pediatric Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. Neuropsychological assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sala, A; Palacio-Navarro, A; Donaire, A; García, G; Colomé, R; Boix, C; Sans, A; Campistol, J; Sanmartí, F X

    2010-03-03

    We sought to describe the epidemiological and clinical data from our patients in the Pediatric Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (PEMU) of the Sant Joan de Deu Hospital of Barcelona, and determine the variables of risk for mental retardation. A retrospective review of PEMU reports and hospital discharge summaries from March 2005 to December 2008 was conducted. The data from patients with intelligence quotient (IQ) estimated, older than 3 years of age and with epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) activity was analyzed in 158 patients (8.8 +/- 5.2 years; 55.1% boys). Of those pediatric patients, 63 had IQ less than 70 and 47 an IQ greater than or equal to 70. Intractable epilepsy was present in all of them. The percentage of the patients with mental retardation is significantly higher in patients with onset of epilepsy before 24 months (68.3%) than patients with later onset (27.7%). Onset of seizures, EEG findings and epilepsy etiology are significant risk factors for mental retardation. Early age at seizure, multifocal epilepsy and cryptogenic etiology are factors of worse prognosis to normal development of cognitive functions in pediatric intractable epilepsy.

  19. The influence of impression management scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Catherine L; Kirlin, Kristin A; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Locke, Dona E C

    2012-12-01

    The Somatic Complaints scale (SOM) and Conversion subscale (SOM-C) of the Personality Assessment Inventory perform best in classifying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES); however, the impact of positive impression management (PIM) and negative impression management (NIM) scales on SOM and SOM-C classification has not been examined. We studied 187 patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with confirmed PNES or ES. On SOM, the best cut score was 72.5 T when PIM was elevated and 69.5 T when there was no bias. On SOM-C, when PIM was elevated, the best cut score was 67.5 T and 76.5 T when there was no bias. Negative impression management elevations (n=9) were too infrequent to analyze separately. Despite similarities in classification accuracy, there were differences in sensitivity and specificity with and without PIM, impacting positive and negative predictive values. The presence of PIM bias generally increases positive predictive power of SOM and SOM-C but decreases negative predictive power.

  20. Total monitor units influence on plan quality parameters in volumetric modulated arc therapy for breast case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancosu, P; Reggiori, G; Alongi, F; Cozzi, L; Fogliata, A; Lobefalo, F; Navarria, P; Stravato, A; Tomatis, S; Scorsetti, M

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the correlation between total monitor units (MU), dosimetric findings, and pre-treatment quality assurance for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RapidArc (RA). Ten patients with breast cancer were considered. Dose prescriptions were: 48 Gy and 40.5 Gy in 15 fractions to, respectively, PTV(Boost) and PTVWholeBreast. A reference plan was optimized and four more plans using the "MU Objective", a tool for total MU controlling, were prepared imposing ± 20 and ± 50% total MU for inducing different complexities. Plan objectives were: D95% > 95% for both PTVs, and D2% Plans were evaluated in terms of technical parameters, dosimetric plan objectives findings and pre-treatment quality assurance (QA). Concerning PTVs, there were no significant differences for target coverage (D95%); mean doses for ipsilateral lung and controlateral breast, and V18 Gy for heart decreased with MUs increasing, reaching a plateau with reference plan. Body volume receiving low dose (V5-10 Gy) was minimized for reference plans. All plans had GAI (3 mm, 3%) > 95%. The data suggest that the best plan is the reference one, where the "MU Objective" tool was not used during optimisation. Nevertheless, it is advisable to use the "MU Objective" tool for re-planning when low GAI is found to increase its value. In this case, attention should be paid to OARs dose limits, since their values may be increased. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  2. The number of active motor units and their firing rates in voluntary contraction of human brachialis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanosue, K; Yoshida, M; Akazawa, K; Fujii, K

    1979-01-01

    To make clear the control mechanism of force generation in human muscle, the electrical activity of the brachialis muscle was studied at various levels of contraction force by recording single motor unit discharges as well as mass electromyograms (EMGs). The firing rate of motor units increased with force along an S-shaped curve. At low levels of force, motor units increased their firing rates steeply with force. At intermediate levels of force, each motor unit increased its firing rate linearly with force at lower rates. As the maximum of force was approached, the firing rate increased very steeply, reaching as high as 50 Hz or more. By applying a new method of statistical processing to mass EMGs, the number of active motor units and the size of action potential were estimated at each level of force. The number of active motor units increased monotonously with muscle force. Motor units recruited at high levels of force had larger amplitudes of action potentials than those recruited at lower levels. Calculations were made to determine how the relative contribution to an increase in muscle force is varied between recruitment and the increase in firing rate. The contribution of recruitment gradually decreased with the increase in force. Up to about 70% of the maximum force, recruitment is the major mechanism for increasing the force of contraction.

  3. Encephalitis hospitalization rates and inpatient mortality in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P George

    Full Text Available Encephalitis rates by etiology and acute-phase outcomes for encephalitis in the 21st century are largely unknown. We sought to evaluate cause-specific rates of encephalitis hospitalizations and predictors of inpatient mortality in the United States.Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS from 2000 to 2010, a retrospective observational study of 238,567 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.8 [24.0] years hospitalized within non-federal, acute care hospitals in the U.S. with a diagnosis of encephalitis was conducted. Hospitalization rates were calculated using population-level estimates of disease from the NIS and population estimates from the United States Census Bureau. Adjusted odds of mortality were calculated for patients included in the study.In the U.S. from 2000-2010, there were 7.3±0.2 encephalitis hospitalizations per 100,000 population (95% CI: 7.1-7.6. Encephalitis hospitalization rates were highest among females (7.6±0.2 per 100,000 and those 65 years of age with rates of 13.5±0.9 and 14.1±0.4 per 100,000, respectively. Etiology was unknown for approximately 50% of cases. Among patients with identified etiology, viral causes were most common (48.2%, followed by Other Specified causes (32.5%, which included predominantly autoimmune conditions. The most common infectious agents were herpes simplex virus, toxoplasma, and West Nile virus. Comorbid HIV infection was present in 7.7% of hospitalizations. Average length of stay was 11.2 days with mortality of 5.6%. In regression analysis, patients with comorbid HIV/AIDS or cancer had increased odds of mortality (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.30-2.22 and OR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.88-2.71, respectively. Enteroviral, postinfectious, toxic, and Other Specified causes were associated with lower odds vs. herpes simplex encephalitis.While encephalitis and encephalitis-related mortality impose a considerable burden in the U.S. in the 21st Century, the reported demographics of hospitalized

  4. Validation of an Internet-Based Long Version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Danish Adults Using Combined Accelerometry and Heart Rate Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Helge, Jørn Wulff;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is commonly used in surveys but reliability and validity has not been established in the Danish population. METHODS: Among participants in the Danish Health Examination survey 2007-2008, 142 healthy participants (45% men) wore...... a unit that combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring (Acc+HR) for 7 consecutive days and then completed the IPAQ. Background data were obtained from the survey. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time in moderate, vigorous and sedentary intensity level were derived from the IPAQ...

  5. Mass flow-rate control unit to calibrate hot-wire sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, F.; Uensal, B. [FMP Technology GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Haddad, K. [FMP Technology GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Erlangen (Germany); Al-Salaymeh, A.; Eid, Shadi [University of Jordan, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Amman (Jordan)

    2008-02-15

    Hot-wire anemometry is a measuring technique that is widely employed in fluid mechanics research to study the velocity fields of gas flows. It is general practice to calibrate hot-wire sensors against velocity. Calibrations are usually carried out under atmospheric pressure conditions and these suggest that the wire is sensitive to the instantaneous local volume flow rate. It is pointed out, however, that hot wires are sensitive to the instantaneous local mass flow rate and, of course, also to the gas heat conductivity. To calibrate hot wires with respect to mass flow rates per unit area, i.e., with respect to ({rho}U), requires special calibration test rigs. Such a device is described and its application is summarized within the ({rho}U) range 0.1-25 kg/m{sup 2} s. Calibrations are shown to yield the same hot-wire response curves for density variations in the range 1-7 kg/m{sup 3}. The application of the calibrated wires to measure pulsating mass flows is demonstrated, and suggestions are made for carrying out extensive calibrations to yield the ({rho}U) wire response as a basis for advanced fluid mechanics research on ({rho}U) data in density-varying flows. (orig.)

  6. Computerized fetal heart rate monitoring after vibroacoustic stimulation in the anencephalic fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Jin; Park, Seon-Hye; Kim, Young-Jae; Hoh, Jeong-Kyu; Park, Young-Sun; Park, Moon-Il

    2010-09-01

    To quantify changes in fetal heart rate (FHR) parameters after vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) and to evaluate the usefulness of VAS testing (VAST) in anencephalic fetuses. Our findings may also help to clarify the route(s) of vibration and sound transmission during VAST. We obtained the antepartum FHR tracings of 16 anencephalic fetuses, including both the nonstress test (NST) and VAST. Using a computerized monitoring system, HYFM, we determined all FHR parameters from data collected for 10 min before and 10 min after VAS, at successive gestational stages. We observed three false reactive responses at term. The false reactive rate for VAST (3/16) was higher than that for NST (1/16). No FHR parameters increased significantly after VAS except for the number of fetal movements (FM), which increased significantly in all gestational groups (25th-32nd and 33rd-40th weeks). These findings call attention to an increased probability of a false reactive response in VAST analysis, when the fetus is affected by a CNS disorder. Increased numbers of FM after VAS suggest that the vibratory pathway is more likely to elicit fetal response than the auditory pathway in this setting, and that the vibratory stimulation travels by subcortical rather than by cortical pathways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward the improvement in fetal monitoring during labor with the inclusion of maternal heart rate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Pinto, Paula; Silva, Manuela; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Bernardes, João

    2016-04-01

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring is used routinely in labor, but conventional methods have a limited capacity to detect fetal hypoxia/acidosis. An exploratory study was performed on the simultaneous assessment of maternal heart rate (MHR) and FHR variability, to evaluate their evolution during labor and their capacity to detect newborn acidemia. MHR and FHR were simultaneously recorded in 51 singleton term pregnancies during the last two hours of labor and compared with newborn umbilical artery blood (UAB) pH. Linear/nonlinear indices were computed separately for MHR and FHR. Interaction between MHR and FHR was quantified through the same indices on FHR-MHR and through their correlation and cross-entropy. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis included nonparametric confidence intervals and statistical tests, receiver operating characteristic curves and linear discriminant analysis. Progression of labor was associated with a significant increase in most MHR and FHR linear indices, whereas entropy indices decreased. FHR alone and in combination with MHR as FHR-MHR evidenced the highest auROC values for prediction of fetal acidemia, with 0.76 and 0.88 for the UAB pH thresholds 7.20 and 7.15, respectively. The inclusion of MHR on bivariate analysis achieved sensitivity and specificity values of nearly 100 and 89.1%, respectively. These results suggest that simultaneous analysis of MHR and FHR may improve the identification of fetal acidemia compared with FHR alone, namely during the last hour of labor.

  8. Heart Rate Variability Monitoring during Sleep Based on Capacitively Coupled Textile Electrodes on a Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Ji; Hwang, Su Hwan; Yoon, Hee Nam; Lee, Won Kyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-05-14

    In this study, we developed and tested a capacitively coupled electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement system using conductive textiles on a bed, for long-term healthcare monitoring. The system, which was designed to measure ECG in a bed with no constraints of sleep position and posture, included a foam layer to increase the contact region with the curvature of the body and a cover to ensure durability and easy installation. Nine healthy subjects participated in the experiment during polysomnography (PSG), and the heart rate (HR) coverage and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were analyzed to evaluate the system. The experimental results showed that the mean of R-peak coverage was 98.0% (95.5%-99.7%), and the normalized errors of HRV time and spectral measures between the Ag/AgCl system and our system ranged from 0.15% to 4.20%. The root mean square errors for inter-beat (RR) intervals and HR were 1.36 ms and 0.09 bpm, respectively. We also showed the potential of our developed system for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and wake detection as well as for recording of abnormal states.

  9. Heart Rate Variability Monitoring during Sleep Based on Capacitively Coupled Textile Electrodes on a Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ji Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed and tested a capacitively coupled electrocardiogram (ECG measurement system using conductive textiles on a bed, for long-term healthcare monitoring. The system, which was designed to measure ECG in a bed with no constraints of sleep position and posture, included a foam layer to increase the contact region with the curvature of the body and a cover to ensure durability and easy installation. Nine healthy subjects participated in the experiment during polysomnography (PSG, and the heart rate (HR coverage and heart rate variability (HRV parameters were analyzed to evaluate the system. The experimental results showed that the mean of R-peak coverage was 98.0% (95.5%–99.7%, and the normalized errors of HRV time and spectral measures between the Ag/AgCl system and our system ranged from 0.15% to 4.20%. The root mean square errors for inter-beat (RR intervals and HR were 1.36 ms and 0.09 bpm, respectively. We also showed the potential of our developed system for rapid eye movement (REM sleep and wake detection as well as for recording of abnormal states.

  10. Assessment of skeletal muscle fatigue of road maintenance workers based on heart rate monitoring and myotonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalkis Henrijs

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This research work is dedicated to occupational health problems caused by ergonomic risks. The research object was road building industry, where workers have to work very intensively, have long work hours, are working in forced/constrained work postures and overstrain during the work specific parts of their bodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the work heaviness degree and to estimate the muscle fatigue of workers after one week work cycle. The study group consisted of 10 road construction and maintenance workers and 10 pavers aged between 20 and 60 years. Methods Physical load were analyzed by measuring heart rate (HR, work postures (OWAS and perceived exertion (RPE. Assessments of the muscles strain and functional state (tone were carried out using myotonometric (MYO measurements. The reliability of the statistical processing of heart rate monitoring and myotonometry data was determined using correlating analysis. Results This study showed that that road construction and repairing works should be considered as a hard work according to average metabolic energy consumption 8.1 ± 1.5 kcal/min; paving, in its turn, was a moderately hard work according to 7.2 ± 1.1 kcal/min. Several muscle tone levels were identified allowing subdivision of workers into three conditional categories basing on muscle tone and fatigue: I – absolute muscle relaxation and ability to relax; II – a state of equilibrium, when muscles are able to adapt to the work load and are partly able to relax; and III – muscle fatigue and increased tone. It was also found out that the increase of muscle tone and fatigue mainly depend on workers physical preparedness and length of service, and less – on their age. Conclusion We have concluded that a complex ergonomic analysis consisting of heart rate monitoring, assessment of compulsive working postures and myotonometry is appropriate to assess the work heaviness degree and can provide prognosis of

  11. Continuous ‘Passive’ flow-proportional monitoring of drainage using a new modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Rozemeijer, Joachim; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen;

    2016-01-01

    In view of their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring of agricultural subsurface drain tile systems is important for adequate water quality management. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tile drains are expensive and labour...... information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.Results from this type of monitoring can provide data for the evaluation and optimisation of best management practices in agriculture in order to produce the highest yield without water quality and recipient surface...... intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective and simple method for monitoring loads from tile drains. The Flowcap is a modified Sutro weir (MSW) unit that canbe attached to the outlet of tile drains. It is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads and flowaveraged...

  12. Continuous glucose monitoring system in the operating room and intensive care unit: any difference according to measurement sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Joo-Eun; Park, Yang-Hyo; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-02-01

    Given the benefit of glucose control in the perioperative period, we evaluated the accuracy and performance of the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) depending on different measurement sites in the operating room (OR) and in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients over 18 years of age scheduled for elective surgery and ICU admission were enrolled prospectively. Two CGMS sensors were inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the proximal lateral thigh and the lateral abdomen. The rate of successful measurements from thigh and abdomen in the OR and in the ICU were calculated separately. Each CGMS values were compared with the time-matched arterial blood glucose measurements. CGMS values from both measurement sites were also compared. A total of 22 patients undergoing cardiac surgeries were studied. The rate of successful measurements was higher in the ICU (73.2 %) than in the OR (66.0 %) (P = 0.01); however, that from thigh (72.9 %) and from abdomen (58.7 %) showed statistically significant difference only in the OR (P = 0.04). The Pearson correlation coefficient of thigh and abdomen versus arterial values was 0.67 and 0.60, respectively (P < 0.001). In Clarke error grid analysis, 94.6 % (89.3 % in the OR and 96.1 % in the ICU) of values from thigh fell into clinically acceptable zones compared to 93.7 % (89.0 % in the OR and 95.4 % in the ICU) from abdomen. There were no statistically significant differences in the accuracy according to measurement sites. The CGMS showed high measurement failure rate, especially in the OR. In the OR, the rate of successful measurement was higher from thigh than from abdomen. The CGMS showed low accuracy compared to arterial reference values. Nevertheless, there was no difference in the accuracy of the CGMS between two measurement sites. Perioperative performance of the CGMS still needs to be improved considering relatively low successful measurement rates.

  13. Myocardial strain and strain rate in monitoring subclinical heart failure in asymptomatic long-term survivors of childhood cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.M.C.; Groot-Loonen, J.J.; Marcus, K.A.; Bellersen, L.; Feuth, T.; Bokkerink, J.P.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Korte, C.L. de; Kapusta, L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the role of global myocardial strain and strain rate in monitoring subclinical heart failure in a large group of asymptomatic long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Global strain (rate) parameters of survivors were compared with those in healthy controls and were related to conventional

  14. Does rating of perceived exertion result in target exercise intensity during interval training in cardiac rehabilitation? A study of the Borg scale versus a heart rate monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamot, Inger-Lise; Forbord, Siv Hege; Karlsen, Trine; Støylen, Asbjørn

    2014-09-01

    To assess whether rating of perceived exertion using the Borg 6-20 scale is a valid method for achieving target exercise intensity during high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation. A single-group cross-over design. Ten participants (56 (6.5) years) who were enrolled in a high-intensity interval training cardiac rehabilitation program were recruited. A target exercise intensity of Borg 17 (very hard) was used for exercise intensity guidance in the initial four exercise sessions that took place before a cardiopulmonary exercise test, as in usual care rehabilitation. The heart rate was recorded and blinded to the participants. After performing the test, the participants were then instructed using heart rate monitors openly for exercise guidance in four subsequent exercise sessions, at an intensity corresponding to 85-95% of peak heart rate. The mean exercise intensity during high-intensity bouts was 82% (6%) of peak heart rate for the rating of perceived exertion and 85% (6%) using heart rate monitors (p=0.005). Bland-Altman limits of agreement analysis with a mean bias showed a bias of 2.97 (-2.08, 8.02) percentage points for the two methods. Exercise intensity was highly repeatable with intra-class correlations of 0.95 (95% CI 0.86-0.99, pexercise sessions using rating of perceived exertion and percentage of peak heart rate for intensity control, respectively. Rating of perceived exertion results in an exercise intensity below target during high-intensity interval training bouts in cardiac rehabilitation. Heart rate monitoring should be used for accurate intensity guidance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences between young and elderly in soleus motor unit discharge rate in dynamic movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni eKallio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is related to changes at the muscular level, leading to a decline in motor performance increasing the risk of falling and injury. It seems that the age-related changes in motor unit activation are muscle- and intensity dependent. The purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in soleus motor unit discharge rate (MUDR in both isometric and dynamic contractions between young and elderly adults. 11 young (YOUNG and 8 elderly (OLD males participated in the study. The subjects performed isometric and dynamic plantar flexions while seated in an ankle dynamometer. The force levels studied were 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the isometric (ISO MVC in ISO and 10, 20 and 40% in concentric (CON and eccentric (ECC contractions. Soleus intramuscular EMG was recorded with bipolar fine-wire electrodes and decomposed to individual trains of motor unit discharges. In ISO the MUDR was higher in YOUNG in 20, 40, 60 and 80% MVC, while in the dynamic contractions no age-difference was seen. For both age-groups MUDR was higher in CON compared to ISO or ECC. The relative level of sEMG activity in SOL and GM for a given force level was in all conditions higher for OLD compared to YOUNG. The decreased MUDR in OLD may be an adaptation to an increased twitch duration in order to optimize force generation. The lack of an age-difference in dynamic contractions could be due to differences in recruitment-strategies, coactivation or a lack of recording from high force levels.

  16. NCHS - Age-adjusted Death Rates for the Top 10 Leading Causes of Death: United States, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Age-adjusted death rates for the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States, including mortality patterns from 1999 through 2013, and by state of residence...

  17. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

    2005-01-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  18. Volume of activity and occupancy rate in intensive care units. Association with mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Gaetano; Gattinoni, Luciano; Radrizzani, Danilo; Simini, Bruno; Bertolini, Guido; Ferla, Luca; Mistraletti, Giovanni; Porta, Francesca; Miranda, Dinis R

    2004-02-01

    Mortality after many procedures is lower in centers where more procedures are done. It is controversial whether this is true for intensive care units, too. We examined the relationship between the volume of activity of intensive care units (ICUs) and mortality by a measure of risk-adjusted volume of activity specific for ICUs. Prospective, multicenter, observational study. Eighty-nine ICUs in 12 European countries. During a 4-month study period, 12,615 patients were enrolled. Demographic and clinical statistics, severity at admission and a score of nursing complexity and workload were collected. Total volume of activity was defined as the number of patients admitted per bed per year, high-risk volume as the number of high-risk patients admitted per bed per year (selected combining of length of stay and severity of illness). A multi-step risk-adjustment process was planned. ICU volume corresponding both to overall [odds ratio (OR) 0.966] and 3,838 high-risk (OR 0.830) patients was negatively correlated with mortality. Relative mortality decreased by 3.4 and 17.0% for every five extra patients treated per bed per year in overall volume and high-risk volume, respectively. A direct relationship was found between mortality and the ICU occupancy rate (OR 1.324 and 1.351, respectively). Intensive care patients, whatever their level of risk, are best treated where more high-risk patients are treated. Moreover, the higher the ICU occupancy rate, the higher is the mortality.

  19. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-09

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations.

  20. Electroencephalographic Patterns Recorded by Continuous EEG Monitoring in Patients with Change of Consciousness in the Neurological Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindağ, Ebru; Okudan, Zeynep Vildan; Tavukçu Özkan, Sedef; Krespi, Yakup; Baykan, Betül

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to examine the frequency of various electrographic patterns including periodic discharges (PD), repetitive spike waves (RSW), rhythmic delta activities (RDA), nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in continuous EEG monitoring (cEEG) of the critically ill patients with change of consciousness and the presence of specific clinical and laboratory findings associated with these important patterns in this study. Patients with changes of consciousness in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU) were consecutively monitored with cEEG during 2 years. Their clinical, electrophysiological, radiological and laboratory findings were evaluated retrospectively. This sample consisted of 57 (25 men) patients with a mean age of 68.2 years. Mean duration of cEEG monitoring was 2532.6 minutes. The most common electrographic patterns were PD (33%) and NCS-NCSE (26.3%). The presence of NCS-NCSE was significantly associated with PD (57.9%, p<0.001). PD and NCS-NCSE were the mostly seen in patients with acute stroke and hypoxic encephalopathy. Duration of monitoring was significantly longer in the group with PD and NCS-NCSE (p:0.004, p:0.014). Detection of any electrographic pattern in EEG before monitoring was associated with the presence of any pattern in cEEG (59.3%, p<0.0001). Convulsive or nonconvulsive seizure during monitoring was common in patients with electrographic patterns (p<0.0001). 66.7% of NCS-NCSE was seen within the first 12 hours and 26.7% was seen within the 12-24 hours of the monitoring. Detection of any electrographic pattern in EEG before monitoring was associated with the presence of any important pattern in cEEG monitoring. This association suggest that at least 24 hours-monitoring of these patients could be useful for the diagnosis of clinical and/or electrographic seizures.

  1. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Sahoko; Li, Weihua; Omura, Seiichi; Fujitani, Yuji; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi; Hiraku, Yusuke; Hisanaga, Naomi; Wakai, Kenji; Ding, Xuncheng; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Ichihara, Gaku

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO2 particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N-N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/-) or percentage of RR 50+/- that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58-30.8 mg/m3 during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m3). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO2 particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  2. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m(-2) BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) VO2max). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The inter-subject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min(-1) per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p=0.026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p=0.574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p=0.032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p=0.026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  3. Potential Impact of Benzodiazepine Use on the Rate of Hip Fractures in Five Large European Countries and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Benzodiazepine use increases the risk of falls and has been associated with an increased risk of hip fractures. Our aim was to estimate the possible population impact of the use of benzodiazepines on the rate of hip fracture in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We conducted a literature review to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) for hip fractures and use of benzodiazepines. Prevalence rates of benzodiazepine use in 2009 were calculated for each co...

  4. Strategies for Monitoring Outcomes in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Claire; Tookey, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK) through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than 5 in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) exposure and more than 5000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short- and long-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART) Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms, but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the "flagging" of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals, including those relating to consent and confidentiality, are also discussed.

  5. Strategies for monitoring outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eThorne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than five in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART exposure and more than 5,000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short and longer-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the flagging of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals including those relating to consent and confidentiality are also discussed.

  6. Effect of Acuros XB algorithm on monitor units for stereotactic body radiotherapy planning of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rao F; Villarreal-Barajas, Eduardo; Lau, Harold; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a curative regimen that uses hypofractionated radiation-absorbed dose to achieve a high degree of local control in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the presence of heterogeneities, the dose calculation for the lungs becomes challenging. We have evaluated the dosimetric effect of the recently introduced advanced dose-calculation algorithm, Acuros XB (AXB), for SBRT of NSCLC. A total of 97 patients with early-stage lung cancer who underwent SBRT at our cancer center during last 4 years were included. Initial clinical plans were created in Aria Eclipse version 8.9 or prior, using 6 to 10 fields with 6-MV beams, and dose was calculated using the anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) as implemented in Eclipse treatment planning system. The clinical plans were recalculated in Aria Eclipse 11.0.21 using both AAA and AXB algorithms. Both sets of plans were normalized to the same prescription point at the center of mass of the target. A secondary monitor unit (MU) calculation was performed using commercial program RadCalc for all of the fields. For the planning target volumes ranging from 19 to 375cm(3), a comparison of MUs was performed for both set of algorithms on field and plan basis. In total, variation of MUs for 677 treatment fields was investigated in terms of equivalent depth and the equivalent square of the field. Overall, MUs required by AXB to deliver the prescribed dose are on an average 2% higher than AAA. Using a 2-tailed paired t-test, the MUs from the 2 algorithms were found to be significantly different (p algorithms.

  7. Monitoring the status of forests and rangelands in the Western United States using ecosystem performance anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigge, Matthew B.; Wylie, Bruce; Gu, Yingxin; Belnap, Jayne; Phuyal, Khem P.; Tieszen, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The effects of land management and disturbance on ecosystem performance (i.e. biomass production) are often confounded by those of weather and site potential. The current study overcomes this issue by calculating the difference between actual and expected ecosystem performance (EEP) to generate ecosystem performance anomalies (EPA). This study aims to delineate and quantify average EPA from 2000–2009 within the Greater Platte and Upper Colorado River Basins, USA. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images averaged over the growing season (GSN) served as a proxy of actual ecosystem performance. Yearly EEP was determined with rule-based piecewise regression tree models of abiotic data (climate, soils, elevation, etc.), independently created for each land cover. EPA were calculated as the residuals of the EEP to GSN relationship, and characterized as normal performing, underperforming, and overperforming at the 90% confidence level. Validation revealed that EPA values were related to biomass production (R2 = 0.56, P = 0.02) and likely to the proportion of biomass removed by livestock in the Nebraska Sandhills. Overall, 60.6% of the study area was (normal) performing near its EEP, 3.0% was severely underperforming, 5.0% was highly overperforming, and the remainder was slightly underperforming or overperforming. Generally, disturbances such as fires, floods, and insect damage, in addition to high grazing intensity, result in a negative EPA. Conversely, mature stands and appropriate management often result in positive EPA values. This method provides information critical to land managers to evaluate the appropriateness of previous management practices and restoration efforts and quantify disturbance impacts. Results are at a scale sufficient for many of the large management units of the region and for locating areas needing further investigation. Applications of EPA data to monitoring invasive species

  8. Independent verification of monitor unit calculation for radiation treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Li-Xin; Huang, Shao-Min; Sun, Wen-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Deng, Xiao-Wu

    2010-02-01

    To ensure the accuracy of dose calculation for radiation treatment plans is an important part of quality assurance (QA) procedures for radiotherapy. This study evaluated the Monitor Units (MU) calculation accuracy of a third-party QA software and a 3-dimensional treatment planning system (3D TPS), to investigate the feasibility and reliability of independent verification for radiation treatment planning. Test plans in a homogenous phantom were designed with 3-D TPS, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Report No. 430, including open, blocked, wedge, and multileaf collimator (MLC) fields. Test plans were delivered and measured in the phantom. The delivered doses were input to the QA software and the independent calculated MUs were compared with delivery. All test plans were verified with independent calculation and phantom measurements separately, and the differences of the two kinds of verification were then compared. The deviation of the independent calculation to the measurements was (0.1 +/- 0.9)%, the biggest difference fell onto the plans that used block and wedge fields (2.0%). The mean MU difference between the TPS and the QA software was (0.6 +/- 1.0)%, ranging from -0.8% to 2.8%. The deviation in dose of the TPS calculation compared to the measurements was (-0.2 +/- 1.7)%, ranging from -3.9% to 2.9%. MU accuracy of the third-party QA software is clinically acceptable. Similar results were achieved with the independent calculations and the phantom measurements for all test plans. The tested independent calculation software can be used as an efficient tool for TPS plan verification.

  9. Performance assessment of the BEBIG MultiSource high dose rate brachytherapy treatment unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony; Mzenda, Bongile

    2009-12-21

    A comprehensive system characterisation was performed of the Eckert & Ziegler BEBIG GmbH MultiSource High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment unit with an (192)Ir source. The unit is relatively new to the UK market, with the first installation in the country having been made in the summer of 2009. A detailed commissioning programme was devised and is reported including checks of the fundamental parameters of source positioning, dwell timing, transit doses and absolute dosimetry of the source. Well chamber measurements, autoradiography and video camera analysis techniques were all employed. The absolute dosimetry was verified by the National Physical Laboratory, UK, and compared to a measurement based on a calibration from PTB, Germany, and the supplied source certificate, as well as an independent assessment by a visiting UK centre. The use of the 'Krieger' dosimetry phantom has also been evaluated. Users of the BEBIG HDR system should take care to avoid any significant bend in the transfer tube, as this will lead to positioning errors of the source, of up to 1.0 mm for slight bends, 2.0 mm for moderate bends and 5.0 mm for extreme curvature (depending on applicators and transfer tube used) for the situations reported in this study. The reason for these errors and the potential clinical impact are discussed. Users should also note the methodology employed by the system for correction of transit doses, and that no correction is made for the initial and final transit doses. The results of this investigation found that the uncorrected transit doses lead to small errors in the delivered dose at the first dwell position, of up to 2.5 cGy at 2 cm (5.6 cGy at 1 cm) from a 10 Ci source, but the transit dose correction for other dwells was accurate within 0.2 cGy. The unit has been mechanically reliable, and source positioning accuracy and dwell timing have been reproducible, with overall performance similar to other existing HDR equipment. The unit is capable of high

  10. Design of a microprocessor-based Control, Interface and Monitoring (CIM unit for turbine engine controls research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaat, J. C.; Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    High speed minicomputers were used in the past to implement advanced digital control algorithms for turbine engines. These minicomputers are typically large and expensive. It is desirable for a number of reasons to use microprocessor-based systems for future controls research. They are relatively compact, inexpensive, and are representative of the hardware that would be used for actual engine-mounted controls. The Control, Interface, and Monitoring Unit (CIM) contains a microprocessor-based controls computer, necessary interface hardware and a system to monitor while it is running an engine. It is presently being used to evaluate an advanced turbofan engine control algorithm.

  11. Motor unit firing rates of the gastrocnemii during maximal brief steady-state contractions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mitchell T; Rice, Charles L; Dalton, Brian H

    2016-02-01

    The human triceps surae (soleus, medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemii) is complex and important for posture and gait. The soleus exhibits markedly lower motor unit firing rates (MUFRs; ∼16Hz) during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) than other limb muscles, but this information is unknown for the MG and LG. During multiple visits, subjects performed a series of 5-7, ∼7-s plantar flexor MVCs with tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the MG and LG. During a separate testing session, another group of subjects performed submaximal isometric contractions at 25%, 50%, and 75% MVC with inserted fine-wires in the MG, LG and soleus. Maximum steady-state MUFRs for MG and LG (∼23Hz) were not different, but faster than prior reports for the soleus. No differences between the three triceps surae components were detected for 25% or 50% MVC, but at 75% MVC, the MG MUFRs were 31% greater than soleus. The triceps surae exhibit similar torque modulation strategies at 75% MVC) the gastrocnemii rely on faster rates to generate maximal torque than the soleus. Therefore, the MG and LG exhibit a larger range of MUFR capacities.

  12. Comparison of Primary Care Physician Reimbursement Rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Nathan; Withy, Kelley; Rogers, Kevin; DuBose-Morris, Ragan; Kurozawa, Tiffany

    2017-03-01

    With a growing shortage of physicians, particularly primary care physicians, the issue of adequate pay in Hawai'i is increasingly important. Anecdotal reports of low pay in Hawai'i have rarely been substantiated. Data from FAIR Health, a company that tracks private insurance reimbursement rates, is compared across the United States (US) for the CPT code 99213. In addition, FAIR Health and Medicare rates are compared for cities with both similar and disparate cost of living to Hawai'i. Hawai'i is in the second lowest quintile for payment in the US for private insurances, and providers are reimbursed significantly lower than in cities with similar cost of living by both Medicare and private insurances. Methods for increasing payment to physicians in Hawai'i are essential to recruiting the necessary workforce. Revising payment methodologies that increase pay for services in areas of unmet need, revising Medicare Geographic Price Cost Indices to better balance pay in areas of need, and making use of the 10% Medicare Bonus Program for physicians working in Health Professions Shortage Areas are first steps to creating a sustainable plan for physician payment in the future.

  13. Final Report Real Time Monitoring of Rates of Subsurface Microbial Activity Associated with Natural Attenuation and Electron Donor Availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-03-22

    The project was successful in developing new sensing technologies for monitoring rates of microbial activity in soils and sediments and also developed a novel proof-of-concept for monitoring the presence of bioavailable concentrations of a diversity of metabolites and toxic components in sedimentary environments. These studies led not only to publications in the peer-reviewed literature, but also two patent applications and a start-up company.

  14. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  15. Correlation between annual gravity changes monitored by GRACE and background seismicity rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Y.; Yamada, K.

    2016-12-01

    GRACE(Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) has monitored global gravity changes after 2002.Indeed the gravity changes include signals of mass redistribution by M9-classmega-earthquakes (Han et al., 2006; Matsuo and Heki, 2011) and uplift by a deep earthquake (Tanaka et al., 2015),but most of them represent water mass movements (ex. Wahr et al., 2004). Water mass movements around the surfacemay affect earthquake occurrences via surface loads or pore pressure increases (ex. Ellsworth, 2013).Thus we examine the relation between temporal gravity changes and earthquake occurrences in a global scale. We use the GRACE level-3 data (for land) analyzed by UTCSR. The observation period is from April, 2002to January, 2015. The sampling interval is about 1 month. For deficient data, we linearly interpolate themfrom the last and next data. Then we estimate linear trends and amplitudes of annual changes. We also use seismicity catalogue data from USGS and select earthquakes over M4 and whose focal depths areshallower than 30 km. In order to exclude effects of aftershocks of large earthquakes, we extractbackground seismicity µ in the ETAS model (Ogata, 1988). We need sufficient numbers of earthquakesin each spatial grid for stable estimation. Therefore we first separate the surface of the Earth intolarge spatial grids and next select grids where mean values of the earthquake numberswere over three per month. We estimated the background seismicity rates, the linear gravity trends, andthe amplitudes of the annual gravity changes in the selected grids. We find that the correlation coefficient between the background seismicity rate and the annual gravity change is about 0.60 (p-value is 0.002), whereas that of the linear gravity trend between the background seismicity rateis about -0.03. This result implies that annual water movements truly affected the earthquake occurrences, butsecular movements did not.

  16. ONBOARD MONITORING OF ENGINE OIL RESOURCE WORKING-OUT RATE IN WHEELED AND CATERPILLAR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An engine oil is capable reliably and longtime to perform specified functions only in the case when its properties correspond to those thermal, mechanical and chemical impacts to which the oil is subjected in the engine. Compatibility of the engine design, its uprate and oil properties is one of the main conditions for provision of high operational reliability. Type and properties of fuel, quality of an engine oil, engine type, its design, its health, its operational regime and conditions and a number of other factors influence on intensity of oil contamination in the operated engine. Oil quality is deteriorated due to accumulation of incomplete combustion products in it and this process is associated with the engine's health. This leads to reduction of viscosity, deterioration of lubrication ability, troubles in fluid friction mode. Combustion products have rather high amount of aggressive corrosive oxides.Service-life of engine oil prior to its change is determined not only by automobile mileage or tractor operating time but also by the period of time within which this work has been carried out. Corrosion processes are speeding up, protective processes are worsening, oil ageing is accelerating when vehicles have short daily and small mileages. So it is necessary to change oil at least annually.A new method for onboard monitoring of engine oil resource working-out rate in wheeled and caterpillar machines has been developed in the paper. Usage of fuel expended volume by engine while determining engine oil resource working-out rate makes it possible timely to assess a residual resource of the engine oil and also predict the date of its change at any operational period of wheeled and caterpillar machines.

  17. Annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-09-01

    This report presents the data collected during field activities and quarterly soil-gas sampling activities conducted from May 9, 2005, through May 20, 2006, at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329, Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill; Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-44-01, Fuel Spill. The CAU is located at the DRA, which is located approximately two miles southwest of Mercury, Nevada, as shown in Figure 1-1. Field activities were conducted in accordance with the revised sampling approach outlined in the Addendum to the Closure Report (CR) for CAU 329 (NNSA/NSO, 2005) to support data collection requirements. The previous annual monitoring program for CAU 329 was initiated in August 2000 using soil-gas samples collected from three specific intervals at the DRA-0 and DRA-3 monitoring wells. Results of four sampling events from 2000 through 2003 indicated there is uncertainty in the approach to establish a rate of natural attenuation as specified in ''Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 1999). As a result, the Addendum to the CR (NNSA/NSO, 2005) was completed to address this uncertainty by modifying the previous approach. A risk evaluation was added to the scope of the project to determine if the residual concentration of the hazardous constituents of JP4 pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment and if a corrective action was required at the site, because the current quarterly monitoring program is not expected to yield a rate constant that could be used effectively to determine a biodegradation rate for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in less than the initial five years outlined in the CR. Additionally, remediation to the Tier 1 action level for TPH is not practical or technically feasible due to the depth of contamination.

  18. Association between unemployment rates and prescription drug utilization in the United States, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background While extensive evidence suggests that the economic recession has had far reaching effects on many economic sectors, little is known regarding its impact on prescription drug utilization. The purpose of this study is to describe the association between state-level unemployment rates and retail sales of seven therapeutic classes (statins, antidepressants, antipsychotics, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, opiates, phosphodiesterase [PDE] inhibitors and oral contraceptives) in the United States. Methods Using a retrospective mixed ecological design, we examined retail prescription sales using IMS Health Xponent™ from September 2007 through July 2010, and we used the Bureau of Labor Statistics to derive population-based rates and mixed-effects modeling with state-level controls to examine the association between unemployment and utilization. Our main outcome measure was state-level utilization per 100,000 people for each class. Results Monthly unemployment levels and rates of use of each class varied substantially across the states. There were no statistically significant associations between use of ACE inhibitors or SSRIs/SNRIs and average unemployment in analyses across states, while for opioids and PDE inhibitors there were small statistically significant direct associations, and for the remaining classes inverse associations. Analyses using each state as its own control collectively exhibited statistically significant positive associations between increases in unemployment and prescription drug utilization for five of seven areas examined. This relationship was greatest for statins (on average, a 4% increase in utilization per 1% increased unemployment) and PDE inhibitors (3% increase in utilization per 1% increased unemployment), and lower for oral contraceptives and atypical antipsychotics. Conclusion We found no evidence of an association between increasing unemployment and decreasing prescription utilization, suggesting that any

  19. Application of synthetic aperture radar interferometry for mine subsidence monitoring in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wempen, Jessica Michelle

    Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR), a satellite-based remote sensing technique, is a practical method for measuring deformation of the earth's surface. In this investigation, the application of DInSAR for monitoring mine subsidence was evaluated for active underground mining regions in the Green River Basin in southwest Wyoming and the Wasatch Plateau in central Utah. Interferograms were generated using X-band (3-cm wavelength) Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the TerraSAR-X mission and L-band (24-cm wavelength) Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite. In general, the DInSAR data have high spatial and temporal resolutions and show gradual, progressive subsidence. In the Green River Basin, displacements were estimated using both L-band and X-band data. In the Wasatch Plateau, displacements were only estimated using L-band data; areas affected by subsidence are identifiable in the X-band data, but precisely quantifying subsidence magnitudes is difficult as a result of significant phase noise. In the Green River Basin, the maximum subsidence magnitude was 150 cm over 690 days, estimated using L-band DInSAR. In the Wasatch Plateau, the maximum subsidence magnitude was 180 cm over 414 days. In both regions, as a result of low coherence in the areas with large displacements, the maximum displacements may be underestimated by tens of centimeters. Additionally, relationships between surface deformations measured by DInSAR and mining-induced seismicity (MIS) in the Green River Basin and the Wasatch Plateau were explored. Both regions exhibit large magnitude, relatively rapid subsidence, but the characteristics (rates and magnitudes) of MIS in the Wasatch Plateau study region and the Green River Basin are significantly different. In the Wasatch Plateau study region, surface displacements tend to precede seismicity, event rates tend to be high, and event magnitudes tend to be relatively low. In the Green River

  20. Integrated Wearable System for Monitoring Heart Rate and Step during Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Adi Prasetyo Joko Prawiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates a heart rate (HR monitoring system with step counter for use during physical activities. Novel step counter algorithm has been developed to enable the highly accurate detection of step. The proposed system comprises a wireless wearable device, a smartphone, and a remote server. Data transmission between a wearable device and a smartphone is conducted via Bluetooth low energy (BLE. An indirect contact measurement method has also been devised to eliminate the need for direct contact electrodes and likelihood of skin irritation. The proposed system is compact, lightweight, and comfortable to wear. A smartphone application provides the interface for the display of data related to HR, step count (SC, exercise intensity, speed, distance, and calories burned, as well as waveforms related to ECG and step cycle. ECG peak detection algorithm achieved accuracy of 99.7% using the MIT-BIH ST Change Database. Accuracy of 98.89% was achieved for HR and 98.96% for SC at treadmill speeds of 1.8 to 9.0 km/h.

  1. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  2. Use of heart rate variability in monitoring stress and recovery in judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José; Alamo, Juan M; García-Massó, Xavier; Buscà, Bernat; López, Jose L; Serra-Añó, Pilar; González, Luís-Millán

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of different judo training loads on heart rate variability (HRV) measurements, to determine if they can be used as valid indicators in monitoring stress and recovery in judo athletes. Fourteen male national-standard judo athletes were randomly divided into 2 groups, and each group followed a different type of training, namely, a high training load (HTL) and a moderate training load program (MTL). Data collection included HRV measurements, a Recovery Stress Questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-SPORT), and strength measurements, 4 weeks before and after the training program. The HTL group had lower square root of the mean squared difference of successive RR intervals, very low frequency, high frequency, short-term variability, short-range scaling exponents, general recovery, sport-specific recovery, general stress, maximum strength, maximum power, and higher low/high frequency ratio at posttest compared with pretest (p ≤ 0.05). The HTL group showed lower short-range and long-range scaling exponents, general recovery, sport-specific recovery, and higher general stress than the MTL group in posttest measurements (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, judo athletes enrolled in an HTL program showed an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system with decreased vagal modulation, together with a decrease in strength parameters, higher markers for stress, and a lower perception of recovery.

  3. Monitoring granulation rate processes using three PAT tools in a pilot-scale fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, Ai Tee; Goh, Xueping; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the responses of three Process Analytical Technology (PAT) techniques applied simultaneously to monitor a pilot-scale fluidized bed granulation process. Real-time measurements using focused beam reflectance measurement (Lasentec FBRM) and near-infra red spectroscopy (Bruker NIR) were taken by inserting in-line probes into the fluidized bed. Non-intrusive acoustic emission measurements (Physical Acoustic AE) were performed by attaching piezoelectric sensors on the external wall of the fluidized bed. Powder samples were collected at regular intervals during the granulation process and characterized offline using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, stereo-optical microscopy and loss on drying method. PAT data comprising chord length distribution and chord count (from FBRM), absorption spectra (from NIR) and average signal levels and counts (from AE) were compared with the particle properties measured using offline samples. All three PAT techniques were able to detect the three granulation regimes or rate processes (wetting and nucleation, consolidation and growth, breakage) to varying degrees of sensitivity. Being dependent on optical signals, the sensitivities of the FBRM and NIR techniques were susceptible to fouling on probe windows. The AE technique was sensitive to background fluidizing air flows and external interferences. The sensitivity, strengths and weaknesses of the PAT techniques examined may facilitate the selection of suitable PAT tools for process development and scale-up studies.

  4. Coherence of heart rate variability and local physical fields in monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzhilkin, D. A.; Borodin, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Technological advances have led to a substantial modification of the physical fields of the environment, which could affect the status of living organisms under their constant exposure. In this study, the activity of human cardiovascular system under the influence of a complex natural physical environmental factors investigated. The study was conducted on a representative homogeneous sample (44 persons aged 19 to 22 years) by simultaneous monitoring of electrocardiograms and natural physical fields in Tomsk (geomagnetic field, meteorological parameters - temperature, pressure and humidity, surface wind speed, the parameters of the Schumann resonance - amplitude, frequency and quality factor of the first four modes in the range of 6 to 32 Hz, the power spectral density infrasonic background in the range of from 0,5 to 32 Hz). It was shown that among the set of parameters of physical fields present field that can resonate in the functioning of the human organism. The greatest coherence with heart rate variability detect variations eastern component of the geomagnetic field.

  5. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2006-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report provides the results and inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 Waste Management Division U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This report includes an analysis and summary of the site inpsections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at Corrective Action Unit 110, for the annual period July 2005 thrugh June 2006.

  6. A pressure ulcer and fall rate quality composite index for acute care units: A measure development study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Diane K; Jayawardhana, Ananda; Burman, Mary E; Dunton, Nancy E; Staggs, Vincent S; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron J

    2016-11-01

    Composite indices are single measures that combine the strengths of two or more individual measures and provide broader, easy-to-use measures for evaluation of provider performance and comparisons across units and hospitals to support quality improvement. The study objective was to develop a unit-level inpatient composite nursing care quality performance index-the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index. Two-phase measure development study. 5144 patient care units in 857 United States hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indictors(®) during the year 2013. The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index was developed in two phases. In Phase 1 the formula was generated using a utility function and generalized penalty analysis. Experts with experience in healthcare quality measurement provided the point of indicator equivalence. In Phase 2 initial validity evidence was gathered based on hypothesized relationships between the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index and other variables using two-level (unit, hospital) hierarchical linear mixed modeling. The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index=100-PUR-FR, where PUR is pressure ulcer rate and FR is total fall rate. Higher scores indicate better quality. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between pairs of experts and provided evidence for inter-rater reliability of the formula. The validation process demonstrated that higher registered nurse skill mix, higher percent of registered nurses with a baccalaureate in nursing or higher degree, higher percent of registered nurses with national specialty certification, and lower percent of hours supplied by agency staff were significantly associated with higher Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index scores. Higher percentages of unit patients at risk for a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer and higher unit rates of physical restraint use were not associated with higher Pressure

  7. Note: Signal conditioning of a hot-film anemometer for a periodic flow rate monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Federico; Tagliaferri, Cristian

    2011-12-01

    A flow monitoring system based on a constant temperature hot-film anemometer is presented. The device has been designed to monitor a dispensing process of extremely low quantities of adhesive material. The monitoring device presented in this paper is useful in industrial applications where exact flow speed tracking is not needed, but reliability and tolerance to parameters variability are essential. During the design of the device, problems related to the physical characteristic of the calorimetric sensor, in particular its thermal capacitance, and to the periodic nature of the monitored flow have been taken into account and suitable solutions have been implemented. The schematic representation of the monitoring device together with the experimental results obtained by monitoring fluids with different physical characteristics are presented.

  8. Automatic chemical monitoring in the composition of functions performed by the unit level control system in the new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, L. G.; Khrennikov, N. N.

    2014-08-01

    The article presents information on the state of regulatory framework and development of a subsystem for automated chemical monitoring of water chemistries in the primary and secondary coolant circuits used as part of the automatic process control system in new projects of VVER reactor-based nuclear power plant units. For the strategy of developing and putting in use the water chemistry-related part of the automated process control system within the standard AES-2006 nuclear power plant project to be implemented, it is necessary to develop regulatory documents dealing with certain requirements imposed on automatic water chemistry monitoring systems in accordance with the requirements of federal codes and regulations in the field of using atomic energy.

  9. The role of neuropsychology on an epilepsy monitoring unit: a peek behind the "do not disturb" sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirlin, Kristin A; Locke, Dona E C

    2014-09-01

    Neuropsychological services are considered an essential component of specialized epilepsy centers. In such a multidisciplinary setting, neuropsychologists interact regularly with other professionals involved in epilepsy patients' care. For these other professionals, this article provides an overview of the background of neuropsychologists, the services they provide, and how their findings contribute to the evaluation of the epilepsy patient. Two case examples are included to illustrate how neuropsychological evaluations are employed in the epilepsy monitoring unit setting.

  10. Service configuration, unit characteristics and variation in intervention rates in a national sample of obstetric units in England: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Rachel E; Townend, John; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian; Macfarlane, Alison; McCourt, Christine; Newburn, Mary; Redshaw, Maggie; Sandall, Jane; Silverton, Louise; Hollowell, Jennifer

    2014-05-29

    To explore whether service configuration and obstetric unit (OU) characteristics explain variation in OU intervention rates in 'low-risk' women. Ecological study using funnel plots to explore unit-level variations in adjusted intervention rates and simple linear regression, stratified by parity, to investigate possible associations between unit characteristics/configuration and adjusted intervention rates in planned OU births. Characteristics considered: OU size, presence of an alongside midwifery unit (AMU), proportion of births in the National Health Service (NHS) trust planned in midwifery units or at home and midwifery 'under' staffing. 36 OUs in England. 'Low-risk' women with a 'term' pregnancy planning vaginal birth in a stratified, random sample of 36 OUs. Adjusted rates of intrapartum caesarean section, instrumental delivery and two composite measures capturing birth without intervention ('straightforward' and 'normal' birth). Funnel plots showed unexplained variation in adjusted intervention rates. In NHS trusts where proportionately more non-OU births were planned, adjusted intrapartum caesarean section rates in the planned OU births were significantly higher (nulliparous: R(2)=31.8%, coefficient=0.31, p=0.02; multiparous: R(2)=43.2%, coefficient=0.23, p=0.01), and for multiparous women, rates of 'straightforward' (R(2)=26.3%, coefficient=-0.22, p=0.01) and 'normal' birth (R(2)=17.5%, coefficient=0.24, p=0.01) were lower. The size of the OU (number of births), midwifery 'under' staffing levels (the proportion of shifts where there were more women than midwives) and the presence of an AMU were associated with significant variation in some interventions. Trusts with greater provision of non-OU intrapartum care may have higher intervention rates in planned 'low-risk' OU births, but at a trust level this is likely to be more than offset by lower intervention rates in planned non-OU births. Further research using high quality data on unit characteristics and

  11. SU-E-T-31: Alternative VMAT Technique Reduces Total Monitor Units for Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happersett, L; Mechalakos, J; Kuo, L; Zhang, P; Rimner, A [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate an alternative approach to VMAT optimization for hypofractionation lung treatment which increases average aperture opening and results in lower total Monitor Units (MU) without significantly sacrificing plan quality. Methods: Benchmark Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (bVMAT) plans were generated for 10 lung Stereotactic Body radiotherapy (SBRT) cases using Eclipse Version 11.0.42 (Varian Medical Systems) without a maximum MU constraint. Prescriptions ranged from 40 to 54Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. AAA dose calculation and PRO fluence based optimization was utilized. Two comparison VMAT plans were generated for each case, one that forced an initial “open” mlc aperture conformal to the tumor as a starting condition (oVMAT) with similar optimization parameters and arc geometries, and one that repeated the bVMAT optimization but added a maximum MU constraint (muVMAT). All plans used two arcs with lengths between 168 to 230 degrees. PTV D 95% and Dmean, lung V20 Gy, chest wall V30 Gy, average aperture opening and MU's were compared. Statistical significance was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Average PTV D(95), PTV mean and lung V20Gy over all plans was 99.2 ± 1.7%, 103.3 ± 0.6% and 7.8 ± 2.4% respectively. The average chest wall V30Gy was 61 ± 61 cc and ranged between 0 to 166 cc. There were no significant differences between the three techniques for the dosimetric quantities. MUs were reduced by 11 ±11% (p<0.01) and 25 ± 5% (p<0.01) and the average aperture size was increased by 13.7 ± 14% (p=0.02) and 35.8 ± 10% (p<0.01) with muVMAT and oVMAT, respectively, compared to bVMAT. Conclusion: oVMAT and muVMAT techniques were both able to increase average aperture size and reduce total MU compared to the benchmark VMAT plan, but the magnitude of the changes observed for oVMAT was larger.

  12. Effects of minimum monitor unit threshold on spot scanning proton plan quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Michelle; Beltran, Chris; Mayo, Charles S; Herman, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of the minimum monitor unit (MU) on the quality of clinical treatment plans for scanned proton therapy. Delivery system characteristics limit the minimum number of protons that can be delivered per spot, resulting in a min-MU limit. Plan quality can be impacted by the min-MU limit. Two sites were used to investigate the impact of min-MU on treatment plans: pediatric brain tumor at a depth of 5-10 cm; a head and neck tumor at a depth of 1-20 cm. Three-field, intensity modulated spot scanning proton plans were created for each site with the following parameter variations: min-MU limit range of 0.0000-0.0060; and spot spacing range of 2-8 mm. Comparisons were based on target homogeneity and normal tissue sparing. For the pediatric brain, two versions of the treatment planning system were also compared to judge the effects of the min-MU limit based on when it is accounted for in the optimization process (Eclipse v.10 and v.13, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The increase of the min-MU limit with a fixed spot spacing decreases plan quality both in homogeneous target coverage and in the avoidance of critical structures. Both head and neck and pediatric brain plans show a 20% increase in relative dose for the hot spot in the CTV and 10% increase in key critical structures when comparing min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0060 with a fixed spot spacing of 4 mm. The DVHs of CTVs show min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0010 produce similar plan quality and quality decreases as the min-MU limit increases beyond 0.0020. As spot spacing approaches 8 mm, degradation in plan quality is observed when no min-MU limit is imposed. Given a fixed spot spacing of ≤4 mm, plan quality decreases as min-MU increased beyond 0.0020. The effect of min-MU needs to be taken into consideration while planning proton therapy treatments.

  13. Quality and safety in adult epilepsy monitoring units: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Natalie; Macrodimitris, Sophie; Wiebe, Samuel; Lukmanji, Sara; Jetté, Nathalie

    2016-11-01

    The epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) is a valuable resource for optimizing management of persons with epilepsy, but may place patients at risk for adverse events due to withdrawal of treatment and induction of symptoms. The purpose of this study was to synthesize data on the safety and quality of care in EMUs to inform the development of quality indicators for EMUs. A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting and Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search strategy, which included broad search terms and synonyms pertaining to the EMU, was run in six medical databases and included conference proceedings. Data abstracted included patient and EMU demographics and quality and safety variables. Study quality was evaluated using a modified 15-item Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. Descriptive statistics and meta-analyses were used to describe and synthesize the evidence. The search yielded 7,601 references, of which 604 were reviewed in full text. One-hundred thirty-five studies were included. The quality and safety data came from 181,823 patients and reported on 34 different quality and safety variables. Included studies commonly reported the number of patients (108 studies; median number patients, 171.5), age (49 studies; mean age 35.7 years old), and the reason for admission (34 studies). The most common quality and safety data reported were the utility of the EMU admission (38 studies). Thirty-three studies (24.4%) reported on adverse events, and yielded a pooled proportion of adverse events of 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5-9%). The mean quality score was 73.3% (standard deviation [SD] 17.2). This study demonstrates that there is a great deal of variation in the reporting of quality and safety measures and in the quality and safety in EMUs. Study quality also varied considerably from one study to the next. These findings highlight the need to develop

  14. Mechanical deformation model of the western United States instantaneous strain-rate field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred F.; Vergnolle, Mathilde

    2006-10-01

    We present a relationship between the long-term fault slip rates and instantaneous velocities as measured by Global Positioning System (GPS) or other geodetic measurements over a short time span. The main elements are the secularly increasing forces imposed by the bounding Pacific and Juan de Fuca (JdF) plates on the North American plate, viscoelastic relaxation following selected large earthquakes occurring on faults that are locked during their respective interseismic periods, and steady slip along creeping portions of faults in the context of a thin-plate system. In detail, the physical model allows separate treatments of faults with known geometry and slip history, faults with incomplete characterization (i.e. fault geometry but not necessarily slip history is available), creeping faults, and dislocation sources distributed between the faults. We model the western United States strain-rate field, derived from 746 GPS velocity vectors, in order to test the importance of the relaxation from historic events and characterize the tectonic forces imposed by the bounding Pacific and JdF plates. Relaxation following major earthquakes (M γ 8.0) strongly shapes the present strain-rate field over most of the plate boundary zone. Equally important are lateral shear transmitted across the Pacific-North America plate boundary along ~1000 km of the continental shelf, downdip forces distributed along the Cascadia subduction interface, and distributed slip in the lower lithosphere. Post-earthquake relaxation and tectonic forcing, combined with distributed deep slip, constructively interfere near the western margin of the plate boundary zone, producing locally large strain accumulation along the San Andreas fault (SAF) system. However, they destructively interfere further into the plate interior, resulting in smaller and more variable strain accumulation patterns in the eastern part of the plate boundary zone. Much of the right-lateral strain accumulation along the SAF system

  15. Mechanical deformation model of the western United States instantaneous strain-rate field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Vergnolle, M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a relationship between the long-term fault slip rates and instantaneous velocities as measured by Global Positioning System (GPS) or other geodetic measurements over a short time span. The main elements are the secularly increasing forces imposed by the bounding Pacific and Juan de Fuca (JdF) plates on the North American plate, viscoelastic relaxation following selected large earthquakes occurring on faults that are locked during their respective interseismic periods, and steady slip along creeping portions of faults in the context of a thin-plate system. In detail, the physical model allows separate treatments of faults with known geometry and slip history, faults with incomplete characterization (i.e. fault geometry but not necessarily slip history is available), creeping faults, and dislocation sources distributed between the faults. We model the western United States strain-rate field, derived from 746 GPS velocity vectors, in order to test the importance of the relaxation from historic events and characterize the tectonic forces imposed by the bounding Pacific and JdF plates. Relaxation following major earthquakes (M ??? 8.0) strongly shapes the present strain-rate field over most of the plate boundary zone. Equally important are lateral shear transmitted across the Pacific-North America plate boundary along ???1000 km of the continental shelf, downdip forces distributed along the Cascadia subduction interface, and distributed slip in the lower lithosphere. Post-earthquake relaxation and tectonic forcing, combined with distributed deep slip, constructively interfere near the western margin of the plate boundary zone, producing locally large strain accumulation along the San Andreas fault (SAF) system. However, they destructively interfere further into the plate interior, resulting in smaller and more variable strain accumulation patterns in the eastern part of the plate boundary zone. Much of the right-lateral strain accumulation along the SAF

  16. Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates - United States, 2007 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Cynthia; Callaghan, William; Olson, Christine; Sharma, Andrea; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-11-04

    Reductions in births to teens and preterm birth rates are two recent public health successes in the United States (1,2). From 2007 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 42%, from 41.5 to 24.2 per 1,000 females. The preterm birth rate decreased 8.4%, from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births (1). Rates of preterm births vary by maternal age, being higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. It is unknown how changes in the maternal age distribution in the United States have affected preterm birth rates. CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups. The effects of age distribution changes on the preterm birth rate decrease were different in younger and older mothers. The decrease in the proportion of births to mothers aged ≤19 and 20-24 years and reductions in age-specific preterm rates in all age groups contributed to the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. The increase in births to mothers aged ≥30 years had no effect on the overall preterm birth rate decrease. The decline in preterm births from 2007 to 2014 is related, in part, to teen pregnancy prevention and the changing maternal age distribution. Effective public health strategies for further reducing preterm birth rates need to be tailored to different age groups.

  17. The Regional Centralization of Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring and Its Impact on Neonatal Acidemia and the Cesarean Birth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Michikata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The improvement of the accuracy of fetal heart rate (FHR pattern interpretation to improve perinatal outcomes remains an elusive challenge. We examined the impact of an FHR centralization system on the incidence of neonatal acidemia and cesarean births. Methods. We performed a regional, population-based, before-and-after study of 9,139 deliveries over a 3-year period. The chi-squared test was used for the statistical analysis. Results. The before-and-after study showed no difference in the rates of acidemia, cesarean births, or perinatal death in the whole population. A subgroup analysis using the 4 hospitals in which an FHR centralization system was continuously connected (compliant group and 3 hospitals in which the FHR centralization system was connected on demand (noncompliant group showed that the incidence acidemia was significantly decreased (from 0.47% to 0.11% without a corresponding increase in the cesarean birth rate due to nonreassuring FHR patterns in the compliant group. Although there was no difference in the incidence of nonreassuring FHR patterns in the noncompliant group, the total cesarean birth rate was significantly higher than that in the compliant group. Conclusion. The continuous FHR centralization system, in which specialists help to interpret results and decide clinical actions, was beneficial in reducing the incidence of neonatal acidemia (pH < 7.1 without increasing the cesarean birth rate due to nonreassuring FHR patterns.

  18. Increased rates of intensive care unit admission in patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, T; Sviri, S; Rmeileh, A A; Nubani, A; Abutbul, A; Hoss, S; van Heerden, P V; Bayya, A E; Hidalgo-Grass, C; Moses, A E; Nir-Paz, R

    2016-08-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of respiratory disease. In the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting M. pneumoniae is not considered a common pathogen. In 2010-13 an epidemic of M. pneumoniae-associated infections was reported and we observed an increase of M. pneumoniae patients admitted to ICU. We analysed the cohort of all M. pneumoniae-positive patients' admissions during 2007 to 2012 at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Centre (a 1100-bed tertiary medical centre). Mycoplasma pneumoniae diagnosis was made routinely using PCR on throat swabs and other respiratory samples. Clinical parameters were retrospectively extracted. We identified 416 M. pneumoniae-infected patients; of which 68 (16.3%) were admitted to ICU. Of these, 48% (173/416) were paediatric patients with ICU admission rate of 4.6% (8/173). In the 19- to 65-year age group ICU admission rate rose to 18% (32/171), and to 38.8% (28/72) for patients older than 65 years. The mean APACHE II score on ICU admission was 20, with a median ICU stay of 7 days, and median hospital stay of 11.5 days. Of the ICU-admitted patients, 54.4% (37/68) were mechanically ventilated upon ICU admission. In 38.2% (26/68), additional pathogens were identified mostly later as secondary pathogens. A concomitant cardiac manifestation occurred in up to 36.8% (25/68) of patients. The in-hospital mortality was 29.4% (20/68) and correlated with APACHE II score. Contrary to previous reports, a substantial proportion (16.3%) of our M. pneumoniae-infected patients required ICU admission, especially in the adult population, with significant morbidity and mortality.

  19. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Putila

    Full Text Available Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior.Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National Geochemical Survey were combined, respectively, with 2008 BRFSS estimates on smoking prevalence and 2000 U.S. Census county level income to determine the effects of these factors on lung cancer incidence, as estimated from respective state-wide cancer registries and the SEER database. Poisson regression was used to determine the association between each variable and age-adjusted county-level lung cancer incidence. ANOVA was used to assess interaction effects between covariates.Sediment levels of arsenic were significantly associated with an increase in incident cases of lung cancer (P<0.0001. These effects persisted after controlling for smoking and income (P<0.0001. Across the U.S., exposure to arsenic may contribute to up to 5,297 lung cancer cases per year. There was also a significant interaction between arsenic exposure levels and smoking prevalence (P<0.05.Arsenic was significantly associated with lung cancer incidence rates in the U.S. after controlling for smoking and income, indicating that low-level exposure to arsenic is responsible for excess cancer cases in many parts of the U.S. Elevated county smoking prevalence strengthened the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer incidence rate, an effect previously unseen on a population level.

  20. Real-time automatic interpolation of ambient gamma dose rates from the Dutch radioactivity monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, P.H.; Pebesma, E.J.; Twenhöfel, C.J.W.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Detection of radiological accidents and monitoring the spread of the contamination is of great importance. Following the Chernobyl accident many European countries have installed monitoring networks to perform this task. Real-time availability of automatically interpolated maps showing the spread of

  1. Characterization of obesity rates for dermatologic ambulatory office visits to United States physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Alan B

    2017-03-01

    Obesity continues to increase in the United States (US) and elsewhere, with a number of published dermatologic associations. The purpose of this study was to characterize obesity among US office visits for dermatologic diseases. Data from the 2005 to 2011 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) were searched for the most common dermatologic diagnoses for which body mass index (BMI) could be classified. For all dermatologic patient visits, 10% were underweight, 36.5% were normal weight, 23.8% were overweight and 29.7% were obese. Increasing age predicted the yearly increased likelihood of obesity (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01, 1.02; p dermatologic diagnosis patients were more likely to be obese than NAMCS patients (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.03, 1.45; p = 0.02). Specific diseases were found to have the highest obesity rates, including psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa and acanthosis nigricans. A large proportion of dermatologic diagnosis patients are obese, and awareness could lead to interventions that may improve their disease and decrease risks of comorbidities.

  2. Report on public health actions and vaccination strategies to monitor measles epidemic in Local Health Unit A in Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Spadea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: between May 2010 and october 2011 the unit of Preventive Medicine for the developmental ages of district IV, Health unit aSL rM/a, received 136 measles case notifications from the unit of Epidemiology and Prophylaxis of Infectious diseases.
    Methods: in accordance with the infectious diseases monitoring protocol, we introduced a series of preventive measures, such as monitoring subjects in contact with measles-infected patients, recommend- ing the administration of two Measles Mumps and rubella (MMr doses four weeks apart, and informing paediatricians, families and school teachers about the measles epidemic.
    Results: all the activities above led to an increased number of MMr doses administered and a significant improvement of measles immunization coverage among residents of the district IV health unit of rome. concerning MMr 1, in a sample cohort consisting of children ≤24 months, the immunization coverage increased from 77% on the 31/12/09 to 88% on the 31/12/11. Instead, for MMr 2, in a cohort of children ≤6 years, the same ratio improved from 51% on the 31/12/09 to 65% on the 31/12/11.
    Discussion: the results indicate a material increase in the immunization coverage once our public health actions and vaccination strategies had been implemented among young residents of district IV aSL rM/a...

  3. Comparing the monitoring of patients transferred from a critical care unit to hospital wards at after-hours with day transfers: an exploratory, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sally D; Coster, Samantha; Norman, Ian

    2014-12-01

    To investigate possible factors related to patient monitoring to explain the higher mortality rates associated with after-hours transfers compared with daytime transfers from critical care units to the wards. International research suggests that patients transferred from critical care units after-hours have a higher mortality rate than transfers during daytime, although the reasons remain unknown. A prospective exploratory study. Twenty-nine patients transferred from a UK critical care unit to a ward within the same hospital after-hours for 10 weeks beginning April 2009 were compared with 29 transfers during daytime hours matched on potentially confounding characteristics. UK Critical Care Unit transfer guidelines have remained unchanged since data collection. Outcomes were as follows: (i) frequency of nursing observations; (ii) time periods from transfer to first medical review; (iii) time period from transfer to first clinical observations; (iv) frequency of transfer to an inappropriate ward; (v) delayed transfers from Critical Care Unit to ward. Using Wilcoxon's Rank test (two tail) to compare paired data from the matched groups, observations were recorded significantly less frequently within the first 12 hours for after-hours transfers. Time from transfer to first clinical observations was significantly longer for after-hour transfer patients. The delay from when the patient was ready for ward care and actual transfer was also longer for the after-hours transfer group. Surveillance differences, including time to the first set of observations and frequency of observations in the first 12 hours, are potential factors that may explain the differential mortality associated with after-hours transfers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.

  5. Monitoring of Persons with Risk for Exposure to Ebola Virus Disease - United States, November 3, 2014-March 8, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Fisher, Emily; Vagi, Sara; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Prudent, Natasha; Dott, Mary; Daley, Randolph; Avchen, Rachel Nonkin

    2015-07-03

    On October 27, 2014, CDC released guidance for monitoring and movement of persons with potential Ebola virus disease (Ebola) exposure in the United States. For persons with possible exposure to Ebola, this guidance recommended risk categorization, daily monitoring during the 21-day incubation period, and, for persons in selected risk categories, movement restrictions. The purpose of the guidance was to delineate methods for early identification of symptoms among persons at potential risk for Ebola so that they could be isolated, tested, and if necessary, treated to improve their chance of survival and reduce transmission. Within 7 days, all 50 states and two local jurisdictions (New York City [NYC] and the District of Columbia [DC]) had implemented the guidelines. During November 3, 2014-March 8, 2015, a total of 10,344 persons were monitored for up to 21 days with >99% complete monitoring. This public health response demonstrated the ability of state, territorial, and local health agencies to rapidly implement systems to effectively monitor thousands of persons over a sustained period.

  6. Riparian Monitoring of Wadeable Streams Protocol for the Park Units in the Northern Colorado Plateau Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A quick reviewed survey protocol framework developed by the National Park Service (NPS) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for riparian monitoring of wadeable streams...

  7. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  8. Continuous EEG monitoring in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    André-Obadia, N; Parain, D; Szurhaj, W

    2015-03-01

    Continuous EEG monitoring in the ICU is different from planned EEG due to the rather urgent nature of the indications, explaining the fact that recording is started in certain cases by the clinical team in charge of the patient's care. Close collaboration between neurophysiology teams and intensive care teams is essential. Continuous EEG monitoring can be facilitated by quantified analysis systems. This kind of analysis is based on certain signal characteristics, such as amplitude or frequency content, but raw EEG data should always be interpreted if possible, since artefacts can sometimes impair quantified EEG analysis. It is preferable to work within a tele-EEG network, so that the neurophysiologist has the possibility to give an interpretation on call. Continuous EEG monitoring is thus useful in the diagnosis of non-convulsive epileptic seizures or purely electrical discharges and in the monitoring of status epilepticus when consciousness disorders persist after initial treatment. A number of other indications are currently under evaluation.

  9. Motor unit rate coding is severely impaired during forceful and fast muscular contractions in individuals post stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Li-Wei; Palmer, Jacqueline A; Binder-Macleod, Stuart; Knight, Christopher A

    2013-06-01

    Information regarding how motor units are controlled to produce forces in individuals with stroke and the mechanisms behind muscle weakness and movement slowness can potentially inform rehabilitation strategies. The purpose of this study was to describe the rate coding mechanism in individuals poststroke during both constant (n = 8) and rapid (n = 4) force production tasks. Isometric ankle dorsiflexion force, motor unit action potentials, and surface electromyography were recorded from the paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior. In the paretic limb, strength was 38% less and the rate of force development was 63% slower. Linear regression was used to describe and compare the relationships between motor unit and electromyogram (EMG) measures and force. During constant force contractions up to 80% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), rate coding was compressed and discharge rates were lower in the paretic limb. During rapid muscle contractions up to 90% MVC, the first interspike interval was prolonged and the rate of EMG rise was less in the paretic limb. Future rehabilitation strategies for individuals with stroke could focus on regaining these specific aspects of motor unit rate coding and neuromuscular activation.

  10. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Stock

    Full Text Available Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years were randomly assigned to training (n = 15 or control (n = 9 groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC and y-intercepts (pps of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70, but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  11. A useful method to monitor outputs from a pulsed light source and its application to rate effect studies in a photomultiplier tube

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kurashige, H; Matono, Y; Murakami, K; Nomura, T; Sakamoto, H; Sasao, N; Suehiro, M; Fukushima, Y; Ikegami, Y; Nakamura, T T; Taniguchi, T; Asai, M

    1999-01-01

    In order to study short-term gain stability in a photomultiplier tube at high counting rate, we constructed an LED pulsed light source and its output monitoring system. For the monitoring system, we employed a photon counting method using a photomultiplier as a monitor photon detector. It is found that the method offers a simple way to monitor outputs from a pulsed light source and that, together with an LED light source, it provides a useful method to investigate photomultiplier's rate effects.

  12. Monitoring and prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in military veterans with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameed Ahmed M Khatana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with serious mental illness (SMI and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors--is significantly higher in these patients than in the general population. Metabolic monitoring among patients using second generation antipsychotics (SGAs--a risk factor for metabolic syndrome--has been shown to be inadequate despite the release of several guidelines. However, patients with SMI have several factors independent of medication use that predispose them to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Our study therefore examines monitoring and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI, including those not using SGAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively identified all patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder during 2005-2006 and obtained demographic and clinical data. Incomplete monitoring of metabolic syndrome was defined as being unable to determine the status of at least one of the syndrome components. Of the 1,401 patients included (bipolar disorder: 822; schizophrenia: 222; and schizoaffective disorder: 357, 21.4% were incompletely monitored. Only 54.8% of patients who were not prescribed SGAs and did not have previous diagnoses of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were monitored for all metabolic syndrome components compared to 92.4% of patients who had all three of these characteristics. Among patients monitored for metabolic syndrome completely, age-adjusted prevalence of the syndrome was 48.4%, with no significant difference between the three psychiatric groups. CONCLUSIONS: Only one half of patients with SMI not using SGAs or previously diagnosed with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were completely monitored for metabolic syndrome components compared to greater than 90% of those with these characteristics

  13. Portable air quality sensor unit for participatory monitoring: an end-to-end VESNA-AQ based prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucnik, Matevz; Robinson, Johanna; Smolnikar, Miha; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Mohorcic, Mihael

    2015-04-01

    Key words: portable air quality sensor, CITI-SENSE, participatory monitoring, VESNA-AQ The emergence of low-cost easy to use portable air quality sensors units is opening new possibilities for individuals to assess their exposure to air pollutants at specific place and time, and share this information through the Internet connection. Such portable sensors units are being used in an ongoing citizen science project called CITI-SENSE, which enables citizens to measure and share the data. The project aims through creating citizens observatories' to empower citizens to contribute to and participate in environmental governance, enabling them to support and influence community and societal priorities as well as associated decision making. An air quality measurement system based on VESNA sensor platform was primarily designed within the project for the use as portable sensor unit in selected pilot cities (Belgrade, Ljubljana and Vienna) for monitoring outdoor exposure to pollutants. However, functionally the same unit with different set of sensors could be used for example as an indoor platform. The version designed for the pilot studies was equipped with the following sensors: NO2, O3, CO, temperature, relative humidity, pressure and accelerometer. The personal sensor unit is battery powered and housed in a plastic box. The VESNA-based air quality (AQ) monitoring system comprises the VESNA-AQ portable sensor unit, a smartphone app and the remote server. Personal sensor unit supports wireless connection to an Android smartphone via built-in Wi-Fi. The smartphone in turn serves also as the communication gateway towards the remote server using any of available data connections. Besides the gateway functionality the role of smartphone is to enrich data coming from the personal sensor unit with the GPS location, timestamps and user defined context. This, together with an accelerometer, enables the user to better estimate ones exposure in relation to physical activities, time

  14. Environmental Monitoring Report - United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Facilities, Calendar Year 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Each year since 1972, a report has been prepared on the environmental monitoring activities for the DOE facilities in oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the previous calendar year. previously, the individual facilities published quarterly and annual progress reports that contained some environmental monitoring data. The environmental monitoring program for 1984 includes sampling and analysis of air, water from surface streams, groundwater, creek sediment, biota, and soil for both radioactive and nonradioactive (including hazardous) materials. Special environmental studies that have been conducted in the Oak Ridge area are included in this report, primarily as abstracts or brief summaries. The annual report for 1984 on environmental monitoring and surveillance of the Oak Ridge community by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is included as an appendix. A brief description of the topography and climate of the Oak Ridge area and a short description of the three DOE facilities are provided below to enhance the reader's understanding of the direction and contents of the environmental monitoring program for Oak Ridge.

  15. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary

  16. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary dri

  17. Volume of activity and occupancy rate in intensive care units. Association with mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iapichino, G; Gattinoni, L; Radrizzani, D; Simini, B; Bertolini, G; Ferla, L; Mistraletti, G; Porta, F; Miranda, DR

    Objective. Mortality after many procedures is lower in centers where more procedures are done. It is controversial whether this is true for intensive care units, too. We examined the relationship between the volume of activity of intensive care units (ICUs) and mortality by a measure of

  18. Continuous stroke unit electrocardiographic monitoring versus 24-hour Holter electrocardiography for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Timolaos; Güntner, Janina; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Marquardt, Lars; Reichardt, Christine; Becker, Rüdiger; Reinhardt, Roland; Hepp, Thomas; Kirchhof, Paulus; Aleynichenko, Elena; Ringleb, Peter; Hacke, Werner; Veltkamp, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Cardioembolism in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pxAF) is a frequent cause of ischemic stroke. Sensitive detection of pxAF after stroke is crucial for adequate secondary stroke prevention; the optimal diagnostic modality to detect pxAF on stroke units is unknown. We compared 24-hour Holter electrocardiography (ECG) with continuous stroke unit ECG monitoring (CEM) for pxAF detection. Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were prospectively enrolled. After a 12-channel ECG on admission, all patients received 24-hour Holter ECG and CEM. Additionally, ECG monitoring data underwent automated analysis using dedicated software to identify pxAF. Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation or with atrial fibrillation on the admission ECG were excluded. Four hundred ninety-six patients (median age, 69 years; 61.5% male) fulfilled all inclusion criteria (ischemic stroke: 80.4%; transient ischemic attack: 19.6%). Median stroke unit stay lasted 88.8 hours (interquartile range, 65.0-122.0). ECG data for automated CEM analysis were available for a median time of 64.0 hours (43.0-89.8). Paroxysmal AF was documented in 41 of 496 patients (8.3%). Of these, Holter detected pxAF in 34.1%; CEM in 65.9%; and automated CEM in 92.7%. CEM and automated CEM detected significantly more patients with pxAF than Holter (PHolter ECG. The comparative usefulness of prolonged or repetitive Holter ECG recordings requires further evaluation.

  19. Performance monitoring of a multi-unit solar domestic hot water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuch, P.D.; Harrison, S.J. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Solar Calorimetry Lab.

    1994-12-01

    A solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system was installed on an existing multi-family apartment building in 1991. Energy monitoring hardware was installed in 1992. It was a preheat system that was retrofitted upstream of existing hot water tanks located in the building. Monitoring of the system continued for eight months. As a result of this monitoring, average daily values could be made available for each month, as well as values of incident solar radiation, outdoor temperature, hot water use, total system energy, auxiliary energy, solar energy delivered to the load, energy loss from the recirculation loop and pump run time. Performance results indicated that the system performed at a level close to simulated values, but that system performance during the summer period was severely reduced due to low hot water usage. 5 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  1. Wireless Monitoring in Intensive Care Units by a 3D-Printed System with Embedded Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Basilotta, Flavia; Riario, Stefano; Stradolini, Francesca; Taurino, Irene; Demarchi, Danilo; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The design, realization, and preliminary test of a portable wireless system for measuring key metabolites (e.g., glucose, lactate, calcium, potassium, etc..) in intensive cure monitoring is presented. The system is composed by a 3D-Printed case, which includes the fluidic system that drives the monitored human fluids on top of the sensing devices. The case fully integrates a hardware platform on PCB that connects the biosensors to the read-out frontend and to a Bluetooth® module for the data ...

  2. Taxes, divorce-transactions costs, economic conditions, and divorce rates: an exploratory empirical inquiry for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, R J; Belton, W J

    1995-01-01

    "This study argues that, given the tax deductibility of alimony payments in the United States, higher marginal federal income tax rates may reduce the expected transactions costs of divorce and act thereby to increase the divorce rate. After allowing for a variety of other factors, including inflation, female labor force participation, AIDS, the Vietnam War, age, the availability of legal assistance, and transfer payments, both first-differences estimates and Granger-causality tests strongly support the hypothesis."

  3. Haemodynamic Monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit: Results from a Web-Based Swiss Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Siegenthaler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this survey was to describe, in a situation of growing availability of monitoring devices and parameters, the practices in haemodynamic monitoring at the bedside. Methods. We conducted a Web-based survey in Swiss adult ICUs (2009-2010. The questionnaire explored the kind of monitoring used and how the fluid management was addressed. Results. Our survey included 71% of Swiss ICUs. Echocardiography (95%, pulmonary artery catheter (PAC: 85%, and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD (82% were the most commonly used. TPTD and PAC were frequently both available, although TPTD was the preferred technique. Echocardiography was widely available (95% but seems to be rarely performed by intensivists themselves. Guidelines for the management of fluid infusion were available in 45% of ICUs. For the prediction of fluid responsiveness, intensivists rely preferentially on dynamic indices or echocardiographic parameters, but static parameters, such as central venous pressure or pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, were still used. Conclusions. In most Swiss ICUs, multiple haemodynamic monitoring devices are available, although TPTD is most commonly used. Despite the usefulness of echocardiography and its large availability, it is not widely performed by Swiss intensivists themselves. Regarding fluid management, several parameters are used without a clear consensus for the optimal method.

  4. Interest of Monitoring Diaphragmatic Electrical Activity in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ducharme-Crevier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi is a new minimally invasive bedside technology that was developed for the neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA mode of ventilation. In addition to its role in NAVA ventilation, this technology provides the clinician with previously unavailable and essential information on diaphragm activity. In this paper, we review the clinical interests of EAdi in the pediatric intensive care setting. Firstly, the monitoring of EAdi allows the clinician to tailor the ventilatory settings on an individual basis, avoiding frequent overassistance leading potentially to diaphragmatic atrophy. Increased inspiratory EAdi levels can also suggest insufficient support, while a strong tonic activity may reflect the patient efforts to increase its lung volume. EAdi monitoring also allows detection of patient-ventilator asynchrony. It can play a role in evaluation of extubation readiness. Finally, EAdi monitoring provides the clinician with better understanding of the ventilatory capacity of patients with acute neuromuscular disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical impact of these potential benefits.

  5. Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: beta scientific and management scientific aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, P.M.H.; van Putten, M.J.A.M.; Jarm, T.; Kramar, P.; Zupanic, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to various technological advances, it is now possible to continuously monitor critically ill patients using EEG, including the extraction of various quantitative features. In this study, several beta scientific and management scientific aspects of the implementation and use of cEEg on the ICU wi

  6. Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: beta scientific and management scientific aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, P.M.H.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Jarm, T.; Kramar, P.; Zupanic, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to various technological advances, it is now possible to continuously monitor critically ill patients using EEG, including the extraction of various quantitative features. In this study, several beta scientific and management scientific aspects of the implementation and use of cEEg on the ICU

  7. Potential impact of benzodiazepine use on the rate of hip fractures in five large European countries and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, T P; de Vries, F; Goldenberg, J S B; Klungel, O H; Robinson, N J; Ibáñez, Luisa; Petri, H

    2012-07-01

    Benzodiazepine use increases the risk of falls and has been associated with an increased risk of hip fractures. Our aim was to estimate the possible population impact of the use of benzodiazepines on the rate of hip fracture in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. We conducted a literature review to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) for hip fractures and use of benzodiazepines. Prevalence rates of benzodiazepine use in 2009 were calculated for each country using the IMS MIDAS database and three public databases in Denmark, the Netherlands, and Norway. Both the RR and prevalence rates were used for calculation of population attributable risks (PARs) of hip fractures associated with benzodiazepine use. The literature review showed an increased risk of hip fractures in benzodiazepine users (RR = 1.4, 95 % CI 1.2-1.6). Rate of benzodiazepine use showed considerable differences between countries, ranging from 4.7 % to 22.3 % of population ever in a 1-year period. These are reflected in results for the PARs; estimated attributions of benzodiazepines to the rate of hip fractures were 1.8 %, 95 % CI 1.1-2.6 (Germany); 2.0 %, 95 % CI 1.2-2.8 (United Kingdom); 5.2 %, 95 % CI 3.2-7.3 (Italy); 7.4 %, 95 % CI 4.5-10.0 (France); 8.0 %, 95 % CI 4.9-11.0 (United States); and 8.2 %, 95 % CI 5.1-12.0 (Spain). PAR estimates suggest that the potential attribution of benzodiazepine use on the population rate of hip fractures in the five specified European countries and the United States varies between 1.8 % and 8.2 %. During the next phase of the IMI-PROTECT study, a comparison with individual patient data will show whether this approach is valid.

  8. Verification of monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT clinical radiotherapy: report of AAPM Task Group 114.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin L; Heaton, Robert; Fraser, Martin W; Goddu, S Murty; Kirby, Thomas H; Lam, Kwok Leung; Molineu, Andrea; Zhu, Timothy C

    2011-01-01

    The requirement of an independent verification of the monitor units (MU) or time calculated to deliver the prescribed dose to a patient has been a mainstay of radiation oncology quality assurance. The need for and value of such a verification was obvious when calculations were performed by hand using look-up tables, and the verification was achieved by a second person independently repeating the calculation. However, in a modern clinic using CT/MR/PET simulation, computerized 3D treatment planning, heterogeneity corrections, and complex calculation algorithms such as convolution/superposition and Monte Carlo, the purpose of and methodology for the MU verification have come into question. In addition, since the verification is often performed using a simpler geometrical model and calculation algorithm than the primary calculation, exact or almost exact agreement between the two can no longer be expected. Guidelines are needed to help the physicist set clinically reasonable action levels for agreement. This report addresses the following charges of the task group: (1) To re-evaluate the purpose and methods of the "independent second check" for monitor unit calculations for non-IMRT radiation treatment in light of the complexities of modern-day treatment planning. (2) To present recommendations on how to perform verification of monitor unit calculations in a modern clinic. (3) To provide recommendations on establishing action levels for agreement between primary calculations and verification, and to provide guidance in addressing discrepancies outside the action levels. These recommendations are to be used as guidelines only and shall not be interpreted as requirements.

  9. Effect of sexed-semen use on Holstein conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...

  10. Life Change Units (LCU) Rating as Stressors in Iranian Hospitals’ Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Dargahi; Golsa Shaham

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare workers suffer from work-related or occupational stress. This can lead to severe distress, burnout or physical illness, and finally to decrease quality of work life and services provision. Nurses must be aware of retential stressors, because they add to the cumulative effect of other stressful events. Holmes and Rahe both found a relationship between life change unit as stressors and health changes. This research reported here aims to measure the life change units as stressors amon...

  11. Photovoltaic Module Thermal/Wind Performance: Long-Term Monitoring and Model Development for Energy Rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TamizhMani, G.; Ji, L.; Tang, Y.; Petacci, L.; Osterwald, C.

    2003-06-01

    In order to predict the energy production of photovoltaic (PV) modules, it is necessary to predict the module temperature as a function of ambient temperature, wind speed, wind direction, total irradiance, and relative humidity. This paper presents a mathematical model to predict the module temperature based on the field monitored real data of module temperature, ambient temperature, wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity.

  12. New Approach to Purging Monitoring Wells: Lower Flow Rates Reduce Required Purging Volumes and Sample Turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is generally accepted that monitoring wells must be purged to access formation water to obtain “representative” ground water quality samples. Historically anywhere from 3 to 5 well casing volumes have been removed prior to sample collection to evacuate the standing well water...

  13. The use of Routine Outcome Monitoring in child semi-residential psychiatry : Predicting parents’ completion rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.; Siebelink, B.; Blaauw, T.; Vermeiren, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parents’ perspectives on their children’s treatment process and outcomes are valuable to treatment development and improvement. Participants’ engagement in Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) has, however, been difficult and may particularly be so in specialized settings, such as semi-reside

  14. Are movies with tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sex, and violence rated for youth?: A comparison of rating systems in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Vargas, Rosa; Braun, Sandra; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Sevigny, Eric L.; Billings, Deborah L.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Navarro, Ashley; Hardin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine between-country differences and changes over time in the portrayal of youth risk behaviors in films rated for youth in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the United States. Methods Content and ratings were analyzed for 362 films that were popular across all four countries from 2002–2009. Country-specific ratings were classified as either youth or adult, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to determine between-country differences in the presence of tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sexual content, and violence in youth-rated films. Within-country differences in this content over time were also assessed, comparing films released from 2002–2005 with those released from 2006–2009. Results In the US, films rated for youth were less likely to contain all five risk behaviors than in youth-rated films in Argentina, Brazil, and, when the “15 and older” rating was considered a youth rating, in Mexico. All three Latin American countries “downrated” films that received an adult rating in the US. Nevertheless, tobacco and drug use in youth-rated films declined over time in all countries, whereas moderate to extreme alcohol use and violence involving children or youth increased in all countries. Conclusions Tobacco and drug use have declined in popular US films, but these behaviors are still prevalent in films rated for youth across the Americas. The apparent success of advocacy efforts to reduce tobacco and other drugs in films suggests that similar efforts be directed to reduce alcohol portrayals. PMID:24316001

  15. Dependence of the neutron monitor count rate and time delay distribution on the rigidity spectrum of primary cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeard, P.-S.; Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Nuntiyakul, W.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Neutron monitors are the premier instruments for precisely tracking time variations in the Galactic cosmic ray flux at GeV-range energies above the geomagnetic cutoff at the location of measurement. Recently, a new capability has been developed to record and analyze the neutron time delay distribution (related to neutron multiplicity) to infer variations in the cosmic ray spectrum as well. In particular, from time delay histograms we can determine the leader fraction L, defined as the fraction of neutrons that did not follow a previous neutron detection in the same tube from the same atmospheric secondary particle. Using data taken during 2000-2007 by a shipborne neutron monitor latitude survey, we observe a strong dependence of the count rate and L on the geomagnetic cutoff. We have modeled this dependence using Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere and in the neutron monitor. We present new yield functions for the count rate of a neutron monitor at sea level. The simulation results show a variation of L with geomagnetic cutoff as observed by the latitude survey, confirming that these changes in L can be attributed to changes in the cosmic ray spectrum arriving at Earth's atmosphere. We also observe a variation in L with time at a fixed cutoff, which reflects the evolution of the cosmic ray spectrum with the sunspot cycle, known as solar modulation.

  16. Monitoring cerebral oxygen saturation during cardiopulmonary bypass using near-infrared spectroscopy: the relationships with body temperature and perfusion rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yichao; Ding, HaiShu; Gong, Qingcheng; Jia, Zaishen; Huang, Lan

    2006-03-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) because of weak arterial pulsation, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) is almost the only available method to monitor cerebral oxygenation noninvasively. Our group develops a NIRS oximeter to monitor regional cerebral oxygenation especially its oxygen saturation (rScO2). To achieve optimal coupling between the sensor and human brain, the distances between the light source and the detectors on it are properly chosen. The oximeter is calibrated by blood gas analysis, and the results indicate that its algorithm is little influenced by either background absorption or overlying tissue. We used it to measure the rScO2 of 15 patients during CPB. It is shown that rScO2 is negatively correlated with body temperature and positively with perfusion rate. There are two critical stages during CPB when rScO2 might be relatively low: one is the low-perfusion-rate stage, the other is the early rewarming stage. During cooling, the changes of total hemoglobin concentration (CtHb) compared with its original value is also monitored. It is shown that CtHb decreases to a small extent, which may mainly reflect cerebral vasoconstriction induced by cooling. All these results indicate that NIRS can be used to monitor cerebral oxygenation to protect cerebral tissue during CPB.

  17. Predicting business unit performance using employee surveys: Monitoring HRM-related changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, F.C. van de; Paauwe, J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Organisations are increasingly using strategy tools such as workforce scorecards to keep track of human resource management related change processes that have been implemented and the effects of these on business unit performance. However, in this area, the challenge of finding appropriate

  18. CHIPS: Monitoring Colonias along the United States-Mexico border in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. The expansion of colonias in the United States-Mexico border region can be traced to the rapid growth associated with the Mexican Border Industrial Program during the 1960s. This rapid population growth created a lack of affordable housing, causing new migrants in the United States to purchase rural homestead lots through a contract-for-deed program from land developers. Because of the need to keep prices affordable and the absence of effective land-use controls, these homesteads expanded into rural subdivisions, commonly called colonias, without proper infrastructure. Colonias have been identified in the four U.S. border states, with Texas having designated the majority, which numbered over 1,400 colonias in 2001. Because the region is binationally interconnected economically, politically, and socially, the phenomenon of colonias in the United States is a transborder issue.

  19. EcoNum, a research unit devoted to marine environment monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Richir, Jonathan; Batigny, Antoine; Georges, Nadège; Fullgrabe, Lovina; Suvarov, Paul; Gobert, Sylvie; Lepoint, Gilles; Borges, Alberto; Champenois, Willy; Franck, Fabrice; Roberty, Stéphane; Lejeune, Pierre; Abadie, Arnaud; Leduc, Michèle; Boissery, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of coastal environments remains a research domain of great interest and concern. Coastal ecosystems are threatened by natural and human-induced stressors and are, as transitional environments, particularly sensitive to disturbances. EcoNum first research thematic revolves around hermatypic corals, calcifying organisms, and their adaptation potentials to environmental changes including by using original and patented chemostats. The studied organisms are grown and maintained i...

  20. Fourth IRMF comparison of calibrations of portable gamma-ray dose- rate monitors 2001-2002 Ionising radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, V E

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a fourth comparison of calibrations of gamma-ray dose-rate monitors in which fifteen establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three gamma-ray monitors for calibration in the fields produced using sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and sup 6 sup 0 Co. The instruments used were an Electra with MC 20 probe, a Mini-Instruments Mini-rad 1000 and a Siemens electronic personal dosemeter Mk 2 (EPD). The responses relative to 'true' dose equivalent rate were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the facilities and fields employed. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments. However, the participants' treatment of uncertainties needs improvement and demonstrates a need for guidance in this area.

  1. A multi-channel opto-electronic sensor to accurately monitor heart rate against motion artefact during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abdullah; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Barrett, Laura; Esliger, Dale; Hayes, Matthew; Akbare, Shafique; Achart, Jérôme; Kuoch, Sylvain

    2015-10-12

    This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS) to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR) efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA), and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05); a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p heart rate.

  2. [Gastric mucosa tonometry in routine monitoring in the surgical intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, G; Uhlig, T; Götschl, A; Schmucker, P; Rothhammer, A

    1998-06-01

    Monitoring tissue oxygenation in the splanchnic region could be helpful for critically ill patients. In this study the postoperative course of gastric mucosal CO2 (prCO2) in 40 patients is shown. Following approval of the ethics committee, 24 patients schedulded for surgery with an expected large fluid turnover and 16 multiple injured patients were monitored with a gas tonometry device in addition to standard monitoring (ECG, pulse oximetry, capnometry, CVP, arterial pressure). Normoventilated patients with prCO2 > 50 for more than 30 minutes were treated with fluid therapy, followed by catecholamine therapy, followed by transfusion (fig. 1). All patients were admitted to the SICU post-operatively. The variation of prCO2-values was greater in multiple injured patients. Their prCO2-values began in a lower range compared to patients with scheduled operation, became higher at the end of the first SICU-day and remained higher thereafter. They had a higher fluid turnover and needed more catecholamines. Multiple injured patients with an arterio-intestinal CO2-Difference (CO2-Gap) > 10 had a higher ISS-Score, were longer mechanically ventilated, had a longer SICU-stay and a higher incidence of complications in comparison to patients with aCO2-Gap 10 could be predictive for a more severe course in intensive care patients.

  3. An EPQ Model with Unit Production Cost and Set-Up Cost as Functions of Production Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been devoted to economic production quantity (EPQ problem. However, no attention has been paid to problems where unit production and set-up costs must be considered as functions of production rate. In this paper, we address the problem of determining the optimal production quantity and rate of production in which unit production and set-up costs are assumed to be continuous functions of production rate. Based on the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ formula, the cost function associated with this model is proved to be nonconvex and a procedure is proposed to solve this problem. Finally, utility of the model is presented using some numerical examples and the results are analyzed.

  4. The impact of the economy on suicide and homicide rates in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D; Motohashi, Y; Yang, B

    1992-01-01

    A time series study of socioeconomic correlates of suicide and homicide in Japan and the USA from 1953 to 1982 revealed cross-national differences. Divorce rates were positively associated with rates of personal violence in the USA but negatively associated with these rates in Japan. Unemployment and female labor force participation also correlated differently with rates of personal violence in the two nations suggesting that different theories may be necessary to account for the variation in rates of personal violence in different societies.

  5. Performance of a GM tube based environmental dose rate monitor operating in the Time-To-Count mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zickefoose, J.; Kulkarni, T.; Martinson, T.; Phillips, K.; Voelker, M. [Canberra Industries Inc. (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in the aftermath of a natural disaster underline the importance of a large array of networked environmental monitors to cover areas around nuclear power plants. These monitors should meet a few basic criteria: have a uniform response over a wide range of gamma energies, have a uniform response over a wide range of incident angles, and have a large dynamic range. Many of these criteria are met if the probe is qualified to the international standard IEC 60532 (Radiation protection instrumentation - Installed dose rate meters, warning assemblies and monitors - X and gamma radiation of energy between 50 keV and 7 MeV), which specifically deals with energy response, angle of incidence, dynamic range, response time, and a number of environmental characteristics. EcoGamma is a dual GM tube environmental gamma radiation monitor designed specifically to meet the requirements of IEC 60532 and operate in the most extreme conditions. EcoGamma utilizes two energy compensated GM tubes operating with a Time-To-Count (TTC) collection algorithm. The TTC algorithm extends the lifetime and range of a GM tube significantly and allows the dual GM tube probe to achieve linearity over approximately 10 decades of gamma dose rate (from the Sv/hr range to 100 Sv/hr). In the TTC mode of operation, the GM tube is not maintained in a biased condition continuously. This is different from a traditional counting system where the GM tube is held at a constant bias continuously and the total number of strikes that the tube registers are counted. The traditional approach allows for good sensitivity, but does not lend itself to a long lifetime of the tube and is susceptible to linearity issues at high count rates. TTC on the other hand only biases the tube for short periods of time and in effect measures the time between events, which is statistically representative of the total strike rate. Since the tube is not continually biased, the life of the tube

  6. 40 CFR 60.1820 - How do I monitor the injection rate of activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... activated carbon? 60.1820 Section 60.1820 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... activated carbon? If your municipal waste combustion unit uses activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must meet three requirements: (a) Select a carbon injection system...

  7. A changing epidemiology of suicide? The influence of birth cohorts on suicide rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie A

    2014-08-01

    The increases in suicide among middle-aged baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964) in the United States since 1999 suggest a changing epidemiology of suicide. Using data from 1935 to 2010, this paper conducts age-period-cohort analyses to determine the impact of cohorts in shaping temporal patterns of suicide in the United States. The analysis demonstrates that age, period and cohort effects are all important in determining suicide trends. Net of age and period effects, the cohort pattern of suicide rates is U-shaped, with cohorts born between 1915 and 1945 possessing among the very lowest suicide rates. Suicide rates begin to rise with boomers and subsequent cohorts exhibit increasingly higher rates of suicide. The general pattern exists for both men and women but is especially pronounced among males. The average suicide rate over the entire period for males is about 28 per 100,000, 95% CI [27.4, 28.7]. For males born in 1930-34, the suicide rate is estimated to be 17.4 per 100,000, 95% CI [15.9, 18.8]; for males born between 1955 and 1959, the rate is essentially the same as the average for the period while for males born between 1985 and 1989, the suicide rate is estimated to be 37.8 per 100,000, 95% CI [33.1, 43.4]. The results dispute popular claims that boomers exhibit an elevated suicide rate relative to other generations, but boomers do appear to have ushered in new cohort patterns of suicide rates over the life course. These patterns are interpreted within a Durkheimian framework that suggests weakened forms of social integration and regulation among postwar cohorts may be producing increased suicide rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A sensor for monitoring pulse rate, respiration rhythm, and body movement in bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, Yusuke; Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Mukai, Koji; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    A non-constraint cardiac vibration, respiration, and body movement monitoring system has been developed. The sensor system is designed to be easily installable under an existing bed mattress. The sensor consists of a 40-kHz ultrasound transmitter and receiver pair. The transmitted ultrasound is reflected on the mattress' undersurface, and the amplitude of the received ultrasonic wave is modulated by the shape of the mattress, and parameters such as respiration, cardiac vibration, and movement. The physiological parameters can be extracted from the reflected ultrasound by an envelope detection circuit. To confirm the accuracy of the developed system, measurements were performed on 6 normal male subjects aged 25.0 ± 6.7 years, using 2 pocket spring coil mattresses and a polyurethane foam mattress. The results revealed that the physiological parameters were monitored with an 84.2% average accuracy for all mattresses when the subjects lay on the beds in the supine, lateral, and prone positions.

  9. Global positioning system measurements over a strain monitoring network in the eastern two-thirds of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strange, W.E.

    1991-09-01

    A 45-station geodetic network was established in 1987 using global positioning system (GPS) technology to provide a means of monitoring strain and deformation in the central and eastern United States. Reduction of the initial epoch data showed that accuracies of 1 to 3 cm can be achieved for horizontal position, provided sufficient observations are available and there are four or more fiducial stations whose positions are known a priori, for example from Very Long Baseline Interferometry measurements. Accuracies obtained provide the ability to determine strain at the 1:10{sup 7} to 1:10{sup 8} level. Vertical positions are less accurate because of problems in modeling refraction and are determined at the 5 to 7 cm level. It is planned to remeasure this network at regular intervals in the coming years to place bounds on the strain occurring in the central and eastern United States. This network is also expected to serve as a reference network for more detailed monitoring networks in areas of high risk such as the New Madrid area. Future measurements are expected to provide more accurate results because of increased numbers of GPS satellites available and improved computation software. The improved software will also allow future upgrading of the accuracy of the 1987 observations. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Asner, Gregory P.; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-01-01

    Commodity gold prices increased substantially following the 2008 global financial crisis. Gold demand has fueled a massive increase in mining activity, some of which is centered in the Amazon basin. Western Amazonian forests of Peru have become an epicenter for mostly illegal gold mining, but the clandestine nature of mining activities has made monitoring and reporting of forest losses extremely challenging. We combined high-resolution satellite and aircraft-based imaging with field surveys t...

  11. Defensive Rekeying Strategies for Physical-Layer-Monitored Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Benjamin; Mullins, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Control Systems Security; International audience; ZigBee networks are integrating rapidly into critical infrastructures such as the smart grid and public health centers. Numerous ZigBee-based smart meters have been installed in metropolitan areas and hospitals commonly employ ZigBee technology for patient and equipment monitoring. The associated ZigBee networks transport sensitive information and must be secured against exfiltration and denial-of-service attacks. Indeed, novel tools t...

  12. Hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer mortality rates reveal a larger racial disparity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Anna L; Gravitt, Patti E; Rositch, Anne F

    2017-05-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the age-standardized and age-specific annual US cervical cancer mortality rates after correction for the prevalence of hysterectomy and to evaluate disparities by age and race. Estimates for deaths due to cervical cancer stratified by age, state, year, and race were derived from the National Center for Health Statistics county mortality data (2000-2012). Equivalently stratified data on the prevalence of hysterectomy for women 20 years old or older from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were used to remove women who were not at risk from the denominator. Age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates were computed, and trends in mortality rates were analyzed with Joinpoint regression. Age-standardized rates were higher for both races after correction. For black women, the corrected mortality rate was 10.1 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.6-10.6), whereas the uncorrected rate was 5.7 per 100,000 (95% CI, 5.5-6.0). The corrected rate for white women was 4.7 per 100,000 (95% CI, 4.6-4.8), whereas the uncorrected rate was 3.2 per 100,000 (95% CI, 3.1-3.2). Without the correction, the disparity in mortality between races was underestimated by 44%. Black women who were 85 years old or older had the highest corrected rate: 37.2 deaths per 100,000. A trend analysis of corrected rates demonstrated that white women's rates decreased at 0.8% per year, whereas the annual decrease for black women was 3.6% (P cervical cancer mortality rates are underestimated, particularly in black women. The highest rates are seen in the oldest black women, and public health efforts should focus on appropriate screening and adequate treatment in this population. Cancer 2017;123:1044-50. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Synthesis of marine ecosystem monitoring activities for the United States Virgin Islands: 1990-2009

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The ecological integrity of coral reef ecosystems in the U.S. Caribbean is widely considered to have deteriorated in the last three decades due to a range of threats and stressors from both human and non-human processes Rothenberger 2008, Wilkinson 2008). In response to the threats to Caribbean coral reef ecosystems and other regions around the world, the United States Government authorized the Coral Reef Conservation Act of 2000 to: (1) preserve, sustain, and restore the condition of coral r...

  14. Exploring measurement biases associated with esophageal Doppler monitoring in critically ill patients in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawicki Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Esophageal Doppler monitoring (EDM is utilized in numerous clinical settings. This study examines the relationship between pulmonary artery catheter (PAC and EDM-derived hemodynamic parameters, concentrating on gender- and age-related EDM measurement biases. Materials and Methods : Prospective study of EDM use in ventilated surgical ICU patients. Parameters examined included demographics, diagnosis, resuscitation endpoints, cardiac output (CO and stroke volume from both devices, number of personnel and time needed to place equipment, time to data acquisition, duration of use, complications of placement. Results : Fifteen patients (11 men, 4 women, mean age 47 years were included. Most common diagnoses included trauma (7/15 and sepsis (4/15. Insertion time and time to data acquisition were shorter for EDM than for PAC ( P < 0.001. The EDM required an average of 1.1 persons to place (2.4 for PAC, P =0.002. Mean EDM utilization time was 12.4 h. There was a fair CO correlation between EDM and PAC (r = 0.647, P < 0.001. Overall, the EDM underestimated CO relative to PAC (bias -1.42 ± 2.08, 95% CI: -5.58-2.74, with more underestimation in women (mean bias difference of -1.16, P < 0.001. No significant age-related measurement bias differences between PAC and EDM were noted. Significant reductions in lactate and norepinephrine requirement were noted following EDM monitoring periods. Conclusions : This study found that the EDM significantly underestimated cardiac output in women when compared to PAC. Clinicians should be aware of this measurement bias when making therapeutic decision based on EDM data. Significant reductions in lactate and norepinephrine requirement during EDM monitoring periods support the clinical usefulness of EDM technology.

  15. Measurement of the dosimetric parameters for low monitor units in step-and-shoot IMRT delivered by Siemens Artiste linear accelerators; Medida de los parametros dosimetricos para bajo numero de unidades monitor en IMRT segmentada estatica administrada por aceleradores lineales Siemens Artiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, C.; Lopez Fernandez, A.; Saez Beltran, M.; Martin Martin, G.; Alonso Iracheta, L.

    2012-07-01

    Absorbed dose linearity and beam stability, both for low monitor units, are important factors for ensuring planned dose delivery in step-and-shoot IMRT. For Siemens Artiste linear accelerators, under IMRT stable irradiation conditions and for a single segment of 20 cm x 20 cm field size, the linearity of the absorbed dose with the monitor units, field flatness and symmetry have been measured for the range between 1 and 10 monitor units. We have found that absorbed dose linearity with monitor units is within 2% down to 2 monitor units and it is about 9% for 1 monitor unit. Flatness and symmetry values show variations within 1% down to 2 monitor units and increase by 9% for lower values. Using our monitor unit distribution per segment in IMRT we estimate that the uncertainty in absorbed dose for a whole treatment due to these factors is less than 1% (k= 3). (Author) 13 refs.

  16. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise : implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four sub

  17. Evaluating an Enhanced Vegetation Condition Index (VCI Based on VIUPD for Drought Monitoring in the Continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhe Jiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a complex hazard, and it has an impact on agricultural, ecological, and socio-economic systems. The vegetation condition index (VCI, which is derived from remote-sensing data, has been widely used for drought monitoring. However, VCI based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI does not perform well in certain circumstances. In this study, we examined the utility of the vegetation index based on the universal pattern decomposition method (VIUPD based VCI for drought monitoring in various climate divisions across the continental United States (CONUS. We compared the VIUPD-derived VCI with the NDVI-derived VCI in various climate divisions and during different sub-periods of the growing season. It was also compared with other remote-sensing-based drought indices, such as the temperature condition index (TCI, precipitation condition index (PCI and the soil moisture condition index (SMCI. The VIUPD-derived VCI had stronger correlations with long-term in situ drought indices, such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and the standardized precipitation index (SPI-3, SPI-6, SPI-9, and SPI-12 than did the NDVI-derived VCI, and other indices, such as TCI, PCI and SMCI. The VIUPD has considerable potential for drought monitoring. As VIUPD can make use of the information from all the observation bands, the VIUPD-derived VCI can be regarded as an enhanced VCI.

  18. Intermittent auscultation versus continuous fetal monitoring: exploring factors that influence birthing unit nurses' fetal surveillance practice using theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patey, Andrea M; Curran, Janet A; Sprague, Ann E; Francis, Jill J; Driedger, S Michelle; Légaré, France; Lemyre, Louise; Pomey, Marie-Pascale A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-09-25

    Intermittent Auscultation (IA) is the recommended method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. However, the majority of women receive continuous electronic monitoring. We used the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to explore the views of Birthing Unit nurses about using IA as their primary method of fetal surveillance for healthy women in labour. Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed a convenience sample of birthing unit nurses throughout Ontario, Canada to elicit their views about fetal surveillance. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were content analysed using the TDF and themes were framed as belief statements. Domains potentially key to changing fetal surveillance behaviour and informing intervention design were identified by noting the frequencies of beliefs, content, and their reported influence on the use of IA. We interviewed 12 birthing unit nurses. Seven of the 12 TDF domains were perceived to be key to changing birthing unit nurses' behaviour The nurses reported that competing tasks, time constraints and the necessity to multitask often limit their ability to perform IA (domains Beliefs about capabilities; Environmental context and resources). Some nurses noted the decision to use IA was something that they consciously thought about with every patient while others stated it their default decision as long as there were no risk factors (Memory, attention and decision processes, Nature of behaviour). They identified positive consequences (e.g. avoid unnecessary interventions, mother-centered care) and negative consequences of using IA (e.g. legal concerns) and reported that the negative consequences can often outweigh positive consequences (Beliefs about consequences). Some reported that hospital policies and varying support from care teams inhibited their use of IA (Social influences), and that support from the entire team and hospital management would likely increase their use (Social

  19. Randomized trial of automated, electronic monitoring to facilitate early detection of sepsis in the intensive care unit*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Michael H; Weavind, Lisa; Wheeler, Arthur P; Martin, Jason B; Gowda, Supriya Srinivasa; Semler, Matthew W; Hayes, Rachel M; Albert, Daniel W; Deane, Norment B; Nian, Hui; Mathe, Janos L; Nadas, Andras; Sztipanovits, Janos; Miller, Anne; Bernard, Gordon R; Rice, Todd W

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether automated identification with physician notification of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in medical intensive care unit patients expedites early administration of new antibiotics or improvement of other patient outcomes in patients with sepsis. : A prospective randomized, controlled, single center study. Medical intensive care unit of an academic, tertiary care medical center. Four hundred forty-two consecutive patients admitted over a 4-month period who met modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria in a medical intensive care unit. Patients were randomized to monitoring by an electronic "Listening Application" to detect modified (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) criteria vs. usual care. The listening application notified physicians in real time when modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria were detected, but did not provide management recommendations. The median time to new antibiotics was similar between the intervention and usual care groups when comparing among all patients (6.0 hr vs. 6.1 hr, p = .95), patients with sepsis (5.3 hr vs. 5.1 hr; p = .90), patients on antibiotics at enrollment (5.2 hr vs. 7.0 hr, p = .27), or patients not on antibiotics at enrollment (5.2 hr vs. 5.1 hr, p = .85). The amount of fluid administered following detection of modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria was similar between groups whether comparing all patients or only patients who were hypotensive at enrollment. Other clinical outcomes including intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, and mortality were not shown to be different between patients in the intervention and control groups. Realtime alerts of modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria to physicians in one tertiary care medical intensive care unit were feasible and safe but did not influence measured therapeutic interventions for sepsis or significantly alter clinical outcomes.

  20. Monitoring oral temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) during capture and handling in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arthur W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Stamper, M. Andrew; Colee, James; Powell, James A.; Reid, James P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Harr, Kendal E.

    2012-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are captured, handled, and transported to facilitate conservation, research, and rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring manatee oral temperature (OT), heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RR) during out-of-water handling can assist efforts to maintain animal well-being and improve medical response to evidence of declining health. To determine effects of capture on manatee vital signs, we monitored OT, HR, and RR continuously for a 50-min period in 38 healthy, awake, juvenile and adult Florida manatees (T. m. latirostris) and 48 similar Antillean manatees (T. m. manatus). We examined creatine kinase (CK), potassium (K+), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate values for each animal to assess possible systemic inflammation and muscular trauma. OT range was 29.5 to 36.2° C, HR range was 32 to 88 beats/min, and RR range was 0 to 17 breaths/5 min. Antillean manatees had higher initial OT, HR, and RR than Florida manatees (p manatees had higher overall lactate values ([mean ± SD] 20.6 ± 7.8 mmol/L) than Florida manatees (13.7 ± 6.7 mmol/L; p manatee OT, HR, and RR during capture and handling in the field or in a captive care setting.

  1. 40 CFR 73.19 - Certain units with declining SO2 rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a utility system whose combined commercial and industrial kilowatt-hour sales increased more than 20 percent between calendar years 1980 and 1990; and (8) It is part of a utility system whose company-wide... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Allocations § 73.19 Certain units with...

  2. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  3. North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) anuran detection data from the eastern and central United States (1994-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Tasha M.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Weir, Linda A.

    2017-01-01

    The North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) was a collaborative citizen science effort between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and 26 Partners (state agencies, universities, and nonprofits) for monitoring calling amphibian populations over much of the eastern and central United States. Initiated in 1997 in response to needs set forth by the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force in 1994 regarding increased anecdotal observations of global amphibian declines, NAAMP was designed to provide scientifically and statistically defensible, long-term distribution and trends data for calling amphibian populations at the state and regional level in the United States. The USGS discontinued coordination of the program at the conclusion of the 2015 field season. Modeled after the USGS Breeding Bird Survey, NAAMP used a network of random and state-requested non-random roadside routes with listening stops near wetlands to collect frog and toad occupancy and environmental data in predominantly unprotected lands. Data collection and verification under a unified protocol began in 2001 and continued through 2015 with the addition of observer assessment scores in 2006. The USGS utilized verified 2001-2015 data from random routes to produce occupancy trend reports for anuran species of the Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest regions and states of the United States. This dataset includes all raw, verified NAAMP data from 1997 through 2015 and also raw, verified data from Partner States that precede the program (1994-1996). Data preceding 2001 followed variations of the unified protocol. Please refer to metadata for additional information regarding protocol and a list of the represented states and see the Species.csv file for the list of 58 represented species.

  4. A comparative study of United States and China exchange rate behavior: A co integration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rates always affect the prices of the imports and export of products and services in which countries are trading with other parts of the world. Therefore, exchange rate calculation is one of the essential issues for making appropriate policies. This research investigates the determinants of trade, i.e. import, export, industrial growth, consumption level and oil prices fluctuation, which bring changes in exchange rate and their influence eventually on balance of payments. Data of defined variables was collected on yearly basis for China and USA for thirty one years. By applying cointegration, it is estimated that there existed a long run relationship in both countries. USA and China had significant and correct signs on the short run dynamic and some of the factors did not. Exchange rate did not granger cause balance of payment and balance of payment did not granger cause exchange rate. In conclusion, we found that determinants of balance of trade could affect the exchange rates, also, these rates had considerable effect (positive or negative on balance of payments. In this twofold study, we found relationship of exchange rate with selected determinants of trade, and also examined their bilateral effect, and then made contrast of both countries.

  5. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  7. Radial artery applanation tonometry for continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitoring in the cardiac intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langwieser, Nicolas; Prechtl, Luisa; Meidert, Agnes S; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Bradaric, Christian; Ibrahim, Tareq; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Schmid, Roland M; Wagner, Julia Y; Saugel, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    Hemodynamic monitoring plays a pivotal role in the treatment of patients in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). The innovative radial artery applanation tonometry technology allows for continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure (AP) measurement. By closing the gap between continuous invasive AP monitoring (arterial catheter) and intermittent noninvasive AP monitoring (oscillometry) this technology might improve CICU patient monitoring. We therefore aimed to evaluate the measurement performance of radial artery applanation tonometry in comparison with a radial arterial catheter in CICU patients. In this prospective method comparison study, we simultaneously recorded AP noninvasively with radial artery applanation tonometry (T-line 200 pro device; Tensys Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) and invasively with an arterial catheter (criterion standard) in 30 patients treated in the CICU of a German university hospital. We statistically analyzed 7,304 averaged 10-beat epochs of measurements of mean AP, systolic AP, and diastolic AP by using Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements. Our study revealed a mean difference ± standard deviation (95% limits of agreement; percentage error) between radial artery applanation tonometry and the criterion standard method (radial arterial catheter) of +2 ± 6 mmHg (-10 to +14 mmHg; 17%) for mean AP, -6 ± 11 mmHg (-28 to +15 mmHg; 20%) for systolic AP, and +4 ± 7 mmHg (-9 to +17 mmHg; 23%) for diastolic AP. In CICU patients, continuous noninvasive measurement of AP using radial artery applanation tonometry is feasible. The technology showed reasonable accuracy and precision in comparison with radial arterial catheter-derived AP values.

  8. TROIKA: a general framework for heart rate monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic signals during intensive physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Pi, Zhouyue; Liu, Benyuan

    2015-02-01

    Heart rate monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic signals during subjects' intensive exercise is a difficult problem, since the signals are contaminated by extremely strong motion artifacts caused by subjects' hand movements. So far few works have studied this problem. In this study, a general framework, termed TROIKA, is proposed, which consists of signal decomposiTion for denoising, sparse signal RecOnstructIon for high-resolution spectrum estimation, and spectral peaK trAcking with verification. The TROIKA framework has high estimation accuracy and is robust to strong motion artifacts. Many variants can be straightforwardly derived from this framework. Experimental results on datasets recorded from 12 subjects during fast running at the peak speed of 15 km/h showed that the average absolute error of heart rate estimation was 2.34 beat per minute, and the Pearson correlation between the estimates and the ground truth of heart rate was 0.992. This framework is of great values to wearable devices such as smartwatches which use PPG signals to monitor heart rate for fitness.

  9. Operative correction of judoists’ training loads on the base of on-line monitoring of heart beats rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: ensure increase of effectiveness of training process’s control by means of operative correction of training loads of different qualification judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate indicators. Material: the research was conducted on the base of Brest SCJSOR № 1. Judo wrestlers of different sport qualification (age 17-19 years old, n=15 participated in the research. Monitoring of judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate was carried out with the help of system “Polar”. Results: we have found factorial structure of functional fitness in every profile of sportsmen. Model characteristics of judo wrestlers were supplemented with the most important sides of functional fitness. Analysis of indicators of restoration effectiveness indicators (REI in both groups of judo wrestlers showed high level of organism’s responsiveness to training load of special and power orientation in comparison with speed power load. We have worked out algorithm of operative correction of training loads by indicators of heart beats rate in training process, depending on orientation and intensity of loads’ physiological influence on judo wrestler. Conclusions: Telemetric on-line monitoring of sportsman’s heart beats rate and calculation of REI permit to objectively assess effectiveness of training’s construction and of micro-cycle in total and detect in due time the trend to development of over-loading and failure of adaptation.

  10. NEMS/CMOS sensor for monitoring deposition rates in stencil lithography

    OpenAIRE

    Sansa, Marc; Arcamone, Julien; Verd, Jaume; Uranga, Arantxa; Abadal, Gabriel; Núria, Barniol; Savu, Veronica; van den Boogaart, Marc; Brugger, Jürgen; Perez-Murano, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    A nanoelectromechanical mass sensor is used to characterize material deposition rates in stencil lithography. The material flux through micron size apertures is mapped with high spatial (below 1 μm) and deposition rate (below 10 pm/s) resolutions by displacing the stencil apertures over the sensor. The sensor is based on a resonating metallic beam (with submicron size width and thickness) monolithically integrated with a CMOS circuit, resulting in a CMOS/NEMS self-oscillator. The sensor is us...

  11. Comparing Observed with Predicted Weekly Influenza-Like Illness Rates during the Winter Holiday Break, United States, 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjiang; Wong, Karen K.; Zheteyeva, Yenlik; Shi, Jianrong; Uzicanin, Amra; Rainey, Jeanette J.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, influenza season typically begins in October or November, peaks in February, and tapers off in April. During the winter holiday break, from the end of December to the beginning of January, changes in social mixing patterns, healthcare-seeking behaviors, and surveillance reporting could affect influenza-like illness (ILI) rates. We compared predicted with observed weekly ILI to examine trends around the winter break period. We examined weekly rates of ILI by region in the United States from influenza season 2003–2004 to 2012–2013. We compared observed and predicted ILI rates from week 44 to week 8 of each influenza season using the auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method. Of 1,530 region, week, and year combinations, 64 observed ILI rates were significantly higher than predicted by the model. Of these, 21 occurred during the typical winter holiday break period (weeks 51–52); 12 occurred during influenza season 2012–2013. There were 46 observed ILI rates that were significantly lower than predicted. Of these, 16 occurred after the typical holiday break during week 1, eight of which occurred during season 2012–2013. Of 90 (10 HHS regions x 9 seasons) predictions during the peak week, 78 predicted ILI rates were lower than observed. Out of 73 predictions for the post-peak week, 62 ILI rates were higher than observed. There were 53 out of 73 models that had lower peak and higher post-peak predicted ILI rates than were actually observed. While most regions had ILI rates higher than predicted during winter holiday break and lower than predicted after the break during the 2012–2013 season, overall there was not a consistent relationship between observed and predicted ILI around the winter holiday break during the other influenza seasons. PMID:26649568

  12. Secular trends in caesarean section rates over 20 years in a regional obstetric unit in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, W H; Kong, C W; To, W Wk

    2017-08-01

    Although caesarean section rates have been increasing over the years in both public and private sectors in Hong Kong, there has been a paucity of formal surveys on local trends in such rates. This study aimed to examine the trends in caesarean section rates over a 20-year period at a public regional obstetric unit in Hong Kong using the Robson's Ten-group Classification System. All deliveries in a single obstetric unit during a 20-year period (1995-2014) were classified into 10 subgroups according to the Robson's classification. The annual caesarean section rate for each subgroup was calculated and then stratified into 5-year intervals to analyse any significant trends. The caesarean section rates in a total of 86 262 births with complete data were analysed. The overall caesarean section rate increased modestly from 15.4% to 24.6% during the study period. There was an obvious increasing trend for caesarean section in those with previous caesarean section (Robson's category 5), breech presentation at delivery (category 6 and 7), multiple pregnancy (category 8), and preterm labour (category 10). A gradual fall in caesarean section rate from 14.4% to 10.8% was seen in primiparous women with term spontaneous labour (category 1). Statistically significant differences (Psection rate may be associated with clinical management policies that allow women with relative risk factors (such as breech, previous caesarean section, or multiple pregnancy) to opt for caesarean section. This rise was counterbalanced by a decrease in primary caesarean section rate in primiparous women with spontaneous labour. The trend for caesarean section was more in line with patient expectations rather than evidence-based practice.

  13. The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between levels of household firearm ownership, as measured directly and by a proxy—the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm—and age-adjusted firearm homicide rates at the state level. Methods. We conducted a negative binomial regression analysis of panel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems database on gun ownership and firearm homicide rates across all 50 states during 1981 to 2010. We determined fixed effects for year, accounted for clustering within states with generalized estimating equations, and controlled for potential state-level confounders. Results. Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%. Conclusions. We observed a robust correlation between higher levels of gun ownership and higher firearm homicide rates. Although we could not determine causation, we found that states with higher rates of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides. PMID:24028252

  14. The relationship between gun ownership and firearm homicide rates in the United States, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2013-11-01

    We examined the relationship between levels of household firearm ownership, as measured directly and by a proxy-the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm-and age-adjusted firearm homicide rates at the state level. We conducted a negative binomial regression analysis of panel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems database on gun ownership and firearm homicide rates across all 50 states during 1981 to 2010. We determined fixed effects for year, accounted for clustering within states with generalized estimating equations, and controlled for potential state-level confounders. Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%. We observed a robust correlation between higher levels of gun ownership and higher firearm homicide rates. Although we could not determine causation, we found that states with higher rates of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides.

  15. A Multi-Channel Opto-Electronic Sensor to Accurately Monitor Heart Rate against Motion Artefact during Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alzahrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA, and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05; a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001; the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA from −17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001; the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from −15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate.

  16. CHIPS: A New Way to Monitor Colonias Along the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Humberson, Delbert G.

    2007-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for colonias and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Offices of the Texas Attorney General, Secretary of State, and the Texas Water Development Board has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report generator can be tailored to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. For example, a congressman could use CHIPS to list colonias with wastewater issues in a specific county, whereas a health researcher could list all colonias without clinical access. To help cities along the United States-Mexico border manage issues related to colonias growth, CHIPS will become publicly available in an Internet-enabled GIS as part of a cooperative study between the USGS, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica.

  17. Implantation and monitoring of a novel telemetry unit in the Syrian golden hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Jennifer; Bermeo-Blanco, Oscar A; Gibson, Neil; Bogie, Heather; Grenwis, Jessica; Vela, Eric M

    2012-06-01

    Radiotelemetry allows for real-time remote monitoring of biological parameters in freely moving laboratory animals. The HD-X11 transmitter is a novel telemetry device that enables simultaneous collection of body temperature, activity, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and other biopotentials in small animal models. Previously, researchers could only collect either blood pressure or ECG parameters; prioritizing the signal of most interest or increasing the number of animals on study to capture both signals at one time. This new device eliminates the need for separate animal groups for assorted measurements and allows for a more complete cardiovascular assessment. Evaluation of the transmitter from both surgical and data collection perspectives indicates that the HD-X11 transmitter can be a useful tool to researchers in a wide range of scientific and medical fields.

  18. Atmospheric Ammonia and Particulate Inorganic Nitrogen Monitoring in the United States - A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyawasam, T.

    2016-12-01

    Due to emission by disproportionately high livestock numbers and increased nitrogen fertilization, Ammonia (NH3) has come to play an increasingly important role in the global biogeochemical cycle of reactive nitrogen as well as in secondary aerosol formation and climate. Because of the public health problems it causes and the effects on the atmosphere, monitoring the global distribution of NH3 sources becomes crucial. Accurate measurements of atmospheric NH3 via ground level sensors and satellites are fundamentally essential for meteorological forecasting, hazard warning and various other applications. Since the NH3 retrieval quality is affected by meteorological properties, such as the vertical temperature, water vapor profiles, surface temperatures, and emissivity, which are used to model the atmosphere, even though satellite systems has the capability of monitoring environmental variables with high temporal and spatial coverages, they lack precision at or near ground level. Due to cost of implementation and technical maintenance constraints, daily global coverage of accurate NH3 in situ measurements from ground based sensors is also often limited in spatial representation. In research related to climate and atmospheric physics, the advances in sensor technology have led to the use of automated sensors in a variety of climate and atmospheric data analysis applications. The extant research is expanding further but lacks a framework to consider the current and future trends, gaps, challenges and opportunities. This research will attempt to provide insight into key capabilities of the current and potential future approaches and will present a framework to better understand NH3 research with the use of in - situ as well as remote sensors in detecting NH3 in the ambient atmosphere.

  19. Particulate Air Pollution, Exceptional Aging, and Rates of Centenarians: A Nationwide Analysis of the United States, 1980–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hales, Nick; Burnett, Richard T.; Jerrett, Michael; Mix, Carter; Dockery, Douglas W.; Pope, C. Arden

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exceptional aging, defined as reaching age 85 years, shows geographic inequalities that may depend on local environmental conditions. Links between particulate pollution—a well-recognized environmental risk factor—and exceptional aging have not been investigated. Objectives: We conducted a nationwide analysis of ~28 million adults in 3,034 United States counties to determine whether local PM2.5 levels (particulate matter air pollution and low rates of smoking, poverty, and obesity. Improvements in these determinants may contribute to increasing exceptional aging. Citation: Baccarelli AA, Hales N, Burnett RT, Jerrett M, Mix C, Dockery DW, Pope CA III. 2016. Particulate air pollution, exceptional aging, and rates of centenarians: a nationwide analysis of the United States, 1980–2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1744–1750; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP197 PMID:27138440

  20. NCHS - Infant and neonatal mortality rates: United States, 1915-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rates are infants (under 1 year) and neonatal (under 28 days) deaths per 1,000 live births. http://blogs.cdc.gov/nchs-data-visualization/deaths-in-the-us/

  1. Rates of TBI-related Deaths by Age Group — United States, 2001–2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Changes in the rates of TBI-related deaths vary depending on age. For persons 44 years of age and younger, TBI-related deaths decreased between the periods of...

  2. Residential electricity rates for the United States for Solcost Data Bank cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L. E.

    1981-05-01

    Electricity rates are given for selected cities in each state, first of the Southern Solar Energy Center region and then of the rest of the US, for an average residence that uses 1000 kWh a month. (LEW)

  3. Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in the EU and the United States: Evidence on their Mutual Interactions (in English)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Stavárek

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the causal relationships among stock prices and effective exchange rates in four old EU member countries (Austria, France, Germany, and the UK), four new EU member countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia), and in the United States. Both the long- and short-term causalities between these variables are explored using monthly data. The paper also endeavors to answer the question of whether the linkages between the analyzed economic variables...

  4. The death of marriage? The effects of new forms of legal recognition on marriage rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillender, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    Some conservative groups argue that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the value of marriage to opposite-sex couples. This article examines how changes in U.S. legal recognition laws occurring between 1995 and 2010 designed to include same-sex couples have altered marriage rates in the United States. Using a difference-in-differences strategy that compares how marriage rates change after legal recognition in U.S. states that alter legal recognition versus states that do not, I find no evidence that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the opposite-sex marriage rate. Although the opposite-sex marriage rate is unaffected by same-sex couples marrying, it decreases when domestic partnerships are available to opposite-sex couples.

  5. Cyclostationarity-based joint monitoring of symbol-rate, frequency offset, CD and OSNR for Nyquist WDM superchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Maria; Sato, Masaki; Thomsen, Benn

    2015-10-01

    Software-defined transceivers can be reconfigured based on demand and existing channel impairments, and as such, monitoring of both signal and channel parameters is necessary. We demonstrate a novel joint estimation method suitable for spectrally efficient Nyquist wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), based on the cyclostationary property of linearly modulated signals, exploited both in the frequency and time domains. Using a Nyquist superchannel composed of three 10 GBaud channels, we experimentally demonstrate the simultaneous monitoring of symbol-rate with 100% accuracy, roll-off, frequency offset (FO), chromatic dispersion (CD) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) with root-mean-square errors (RMSE) of 20%, 4 MHz, 200 ps/nm and 1.5 dB respectively, when the roll-off factor is larger than 0.06 for DP-QPSK and 0.3 for DP-16QAM.

  6. On the use of statistics and kriging to the monitoring of hydro generating units at Hydro-Quebec; Application de la statistique et du krigeage a la surveillance de groupes hydroelectriques a Hydro-Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, F.

    1996-12-31

    Optimizing the preventing monitoring of a water current power generator requires a good statistical representation. But the unit working rate is always one of the three most interesting ones, which results in poor statistical data for any other working rate. Kriging has been used, in a simplified and efficient way that takes into account for each state the preceding state and the following one (dual kriging). In addition, a novel approach for computing the standard deviation of a distribution is described, as well as a method for estimating the bias on the interpolation used to calculate the latter`s range of validity. (D.L.) 32 refs.

  7. Susceptibility patterns and ESBL rates of Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections in Canada and the United States, SMART 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, Sibylle H; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Hoban, Daryl J; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Badal, Robert E; Sahm, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract infections (UTI) is a concern. To evaluate resistance trends, 3498 Escherichia coli UTI isolates were collected from 2010 to 2014 in the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) in Canada and United States (US). ESBL phenotype and susceptibility were determined using CLSI microdilution and breakpoints. US ESBL rates increased in 2010-2014 (7.8-18.3%, P infections, males, and older patients (≥65 years). Overall, ESBL rates in Canada showed no significant trend (10.4-13.0%. P = 0.079), and were lower than US rates in recent years, but increased significantly among community-associated (CA) infections, females, and older patients. In the US, but not Canada, susceptibility to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones among 2013-2014 isolates was significantly lower in isolates from HA than CA UTI, males than females, and ≥65- than coli. Subgroup analyses like these may help direct empirical therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FreezeFramer: A prototype tool to monitor stress and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Samir; Hilton, Brian; Li, Haiqing; Hassan, Taimur; Tulu, Bengisu; McCraty, Rollin

    2007-10-11

    This paper describes the design, architecture, and implementation of a software application, FreezeFramer, developed to help individuals manage stress. The application measures heart rate variability through a finger or earlobe clip-on sensor that reads pulse information. While a detailed subjective evaluation is on going, system performance analyses are reported here.

  9. Real-time monitoring of spontaneous resonance in heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil

    2008-01-01

    The resonant characteristic of heart rate variability is usually generated using biofeedback and the external pacing of breathing, which is typically around 6 breaths/min (0.1 Hz), although the exact frequency varies between individuals. It was hypothesized that the actual resonant characteristic of heart rate actually depends on the current psychophysiological state of the subject; therefore, the real-team evaluation of this form of resonance is important for a variety of biofeedback applications. This paper presents an analysis of the spontaneous resonance of heart rate variability generated during singing and non-paced slow breathing after breathing exercises. Two methods for automatic analysis and characterization of heart rate variability resonance in real-time have been presented. The first method uses FFT-based spectral analysis, while the second method calculates the period and amplitude of the RR interval variation during each resonant cycle. The proposed methods were tested on a 45-min record from a chanting session and compared with manually annotated and measured periods.

  10. A systematic review on heart-rate recovery to monitor changes in training status in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Lamberts, R.P.; Kallen, V.L.; Jin, A.; Meeteren, N.L.U.

    2012-01-01

    Heart-rate recovery (HRR) has been proposed as a marker of autonomic function and training status in athletes. The authors performed a systematic review of studies that examined HRR after training. Five cross-sectional studies and 8 studies investigating changes over time (longitudinal) met our

  11. Nonstressed antepartum heart-rate monitoring - implications of decelerations after spontaneous contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; REDMAN, CWG; HUISJES, HJ; TURNBULL, AC

    1980-01-01

    Fetal outcome in 98 patients with spontaneous antepartum late decelerations was studied by combining the data of two obstetric departments. Heart rate variability was used to classify the different patterns into two categories: terminal and decelerative. In 14 of the 47 pregnancies in which a termin

  12. A systematic review on heart-rate recovery to monitor changes in training status in athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Lamberts, R.P.; Kallen, V.L.; Jin, A.; Van Meeteren, N.L.U.

    2012-01-01

    Heart-rate recovery (HRR) has been proposed as a marker of autonomic function and training status in athletes. The authors performed a systematic review of studies that examined HRR after training. Five cross-sectional studies and 8 studies investigating changes over time (longitudinal) met our crit

  13. Online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in bottom spray fluid bed coating--development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2010-08-16

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop a visiometric process analyzer for online monitoring of particle mass flow rate in the bottom spray fluid bed coating process. The secondary purpose is to investigate the influences of partition gap and air accelerator insert size on particle mass flow rate using the developed visiometric process analyzer. Particle movement in the region between the product chamber and partition column was captured using a high speed camera. Mean particle velocity and number of particles in the images were determined by particle image velocimetry and morphological image processing method respectively. Mass flow rate was calculated using particle velocity, number of particles in the images, particle density and size information. Particle velocity and number findings were validated using image tracking and manual particle counting techniques respectively. Validation experiments showed that the proposed method was accurate. Partition gap was found to influence particle mass flow rate by limiting the rate of solids flux into the partition column; the air accelerator insert was found to influence particle mass flow rate by a Venturi effect. Partition gap and air accelerator insert diameter needed to be adjusted accordingly in relation to the other variability sources and diameter of coating cores respectively. The potential, challenges and possible solutions of the proposed visiometric process analyzer were further discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High-rate RTK and PPP multi-GNSS positioning for small-scale dynamic displacements monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paziewski, Jacek; Sieradzki, Rafał; Baryła, Radosław; Wielgosz, Pawel

    2017-04-01

    The monitoring of dynamic displacements and deformations of engineering structures such as buildings, towers and bridges is of great interest due to several practical and theoretical reasons. The most important is to provide information required for safe maintenance of the constructions. High temporal resolution and precision of GNSS observations predestine this technology to be applied to most demanding application in terms of accuracy, availability and reliability. GNSS technique supported by appropriate processing methodology may meet the specific demands and requirements of ground and structures monitoring. Thus, high-rate multi-GNSS signals may be used as reliable source of information on dynamic displacements of ground and engineering structures, also in real time applications. In this study we present initial results of application of precise relative GNSS positioning for detection of small scale (cm level) high temporal resolution dynamic displacements. Methodology and algorithms applied in self-developed software allowing for relative positioning using high-rate dual-frequency phase and pseudorange GPS+Galileo observations are also given. Additionally, an approach was also made to use the Precise Point Positioning technique to such application. In the experiment were used the observations obtained from high-rate (20 Hz) geodetic receivers. The dynamic displacements were simulated using specially constructed device moving GNSS antenna with dedicated amplitude and frequency. The obtained results indicate on possibility of detection of dynamic displacements of the GNSS antenna even at the level of few millimetres using both relative and Precise Point Positioning techniques after suitable signals processing.

  15. Developing algorithms for healthcare insurers to systematically monitor surgical site infection rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingston James M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Claims data provide rapid indicators of SSIs for coronary artery bypass surgery and have been shown to successfully rank hospitals by SSI rates. We now operationalize this method for use by payers without transfer of protected health information, or any insurer data, to external analytic centers. Results We performed a descriptive study testing the operationalization of software for payers to routinely assess surgical infection rates among hospitals where enrollees receive cardiac procedures. We developed five SAS programs and a user manual for direct use by health plans and payers. The manual and programs were refined following provision to two national insurers who applied the programs to claims databases, following instructions on data preparation, data validation, analysis, and verification and interpretation of program output. A final set of programs and user manual successfully guided health plan programmer analysts to apply SSI algorithms to claims databases. Validation steps identified common problems such as incomplete preparation of data, missing data, insufficient sample size, and other issues that might result in program failure. Several user prompts enabled health plans to select time windows, strata such as insurance type, and the threshold number of procedures performed by a hospital before inclusion in regression models assessing relative SSI rates among hospitals. No health plan data was transferred to outside entities. Programs, on default settings, provided descriptive tables of SSI indicators stratified by hospital, insurer type, SSI indicator (inpatient, outpatient, antibiotic, and six-month period. Regression models provided rankings of hospital SSI indicator rates by quartiles, adjusted for comorbidities. Programs are publicly available without charge. Conclusion We describe a free, user-friendly software package that enables payers to routinely assess and identify hospitals with potentially high SSI

  16. Integrated Use Of MERIS And Other EO Data For Water Quality And Red Tide Monitoring Along United Arab Emirates Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriola, G.; Avgikou, V.; Manunta, P.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal zones host a large percentage of global population and economical and productive activities and are in need of a constant monitoring. The C-wams project is focused at implementing a suite EO services targeting two growing sectors: Waste Water Treatment and Desalination plants. The coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) hosts some of the largest desalination plants in the world and their operation can affect and be affected by the status of the WQ near the coast: the local phenomenon known as Red Tide caused increasing damages in the last 4 years. Some actors are involved in this respect in the Persian gulf, among them the Environment Agency of Abu Dhabi (EAD). In UAE an historical study-case is being performed aimed at identifying Red Tide events using MERIS images, integrating them with other medium and higher resolution data. The present work describes its scenario and the preliminary results obtained.

  17. Debris-flow deposits and watershed erosion rates near southern Death Valley, CA, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K.M.; Menges, C.M.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Debris flows from the steep, granitic hillslopes of the Kingston Range, CA are commensurate in age with nearby fluvial deposits. Quaternary chronostratigraphic differentiation of debris-flow deposits is based upon time-dependent characteristics such as relative boulder strength, derived from Schmidt Hammer measurements, degree of surface desert varnish, pedogenesis, and vertical separation. Rock strength is highest for Holocene-aged boulders and decreases for Pleistocene-aged boulders weathering to grus. Volumes of age-stratified debris-flow deposits, constrained by deposit thickness above bedrock, GPS surveys, and geologic mapping, are greatest for Pleistocene deposits. Shallow landslide susceptibility, derived from a topographically based GIS model, in conjunction with deposit volumes produces watershed-scale erosion rates of ???2-47 mm ka-1, with time-averaged Holocene rates exceeding Pleistocene rates. ?? 2003 Millpress.

  18. Ciprofloxacin Resistance and Gonorrhea Incidence Rates in 17 Cities, United States, 1991–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Gift, Thomas L.; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Weinstock, Hillard S.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance can hinder gonorrhea prevention and control efforts. In this study, we analyzed historical ciprofloxacin resistance data and gonorrhea incidence data to examine the possible effect of antimicrobial drug resistance on gonorrhea incidence at the population level. We analyzed data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project and city-level gonorrhea incidence rates from surveillance data for 17 cities during 1991–2006. We found a strong positive association between ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates at the city level during this period. Their association was consistent with predictions of mathematical models in which resistance to treatment can increase gonorrhea incidence rates through factors such as increased duration of infection. These findings highlight the possibility of future increases in gonorrhea incidence caused by emerging cephalosporin resistance. PMID:24655615

  19. Microorganisms in Confined Habitats: Microbial Monitoring and Control of Intensive Care Units, Operating Rooms, Cleanrooms and the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maximilian; Mahnert, Alexander; Koskinen, Kaisa; Pausan, Manuela R; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Krause, Robert; Perras, Alexandra K; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Berg, Gabriele; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS) are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room), product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms), or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 - and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g., microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic) resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  20. Microorganisms in confined habitats: Microbial monitoring and control of intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room, product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms, or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 – and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g. microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  1. Variability of the human heart rate as a diagnostic instrument obtained by mean of a wireless monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas Mauricio, Sánchez; Hernández González, Martha Alicia; Figueroa Vega, Nicte; Malacara Hernández, Juan Manuel; Fraga Teodoro, Córdova

    2014-11-01

    Introduction: Heart rate variability (HRV) is the cyclic measurement of RR intervals between normal beats. Aim: To determine the VFC via a wireless Polar monitor. Material and methods: 100 symptomatic menopausal women were studied for measurements of HRV were I post a Polar RS400 Watch four hrs. Results: Obtained through the fast Fourier transform, the frequency domain HRV low frequency (LF) 0.04-0.15 Hz, high frequency (HF) 0.15-0.4Hz and the ratio LF / HF. Conclusion: obtaining HRV is important for cardiovascular autonomic assessment in menopausal women.

  2. A Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit for Long-Term Monitoring in the Dependency Care Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Català

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Human movement analysis is a field of wide interest since it enables the assessment of a large variety of variables related to quality of life. Human movement can be accurately evaluated through Inertial Measurement Units (IMU, which are wearable and comfortable devices with long battery life. The IMU’s movement signals might be, on the one hand, stored in a digital support, in which an analysis is performed a posteriori. On the other hand, the signal analysis might take place in the same IMU at the same time as the signal acquisition through online classifiers. The new sensor system presented in this paper is designed for both collecting movement signals and analyzing them in real-time. This system is a flexible platform useful for collecting data via a triaxial accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer, with the possibility to incorporate other information sources in real-time. A µSD card can store all inertial data and a Bluetooth module is able to send information to other external devices and receive data from other sources. The system presented is being used in the real-time detection and analysis of Parkinson’s disease symptoms, in gait analysis, and in a fall detection system.

  3. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2001-08-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning site is located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (Figure 1). This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 23, 2001. Because of questionable representativeness and precision of the results, the site was resampled on June 12, 2001. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the December 1997 Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1997). If after six years the rate of degradation appears to be so slow that the greatest concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) present at the site would not decay within 30 years of the site closure, the site will be reevaluated with consideration to enriching the impacted soil at the site to enhance the degradation process. A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report, samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in TPH concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, the data results from 2000 were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2001 consisted of the following: Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2); Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay

  4. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  5. Biomedical Mathematics, Unit VI: Rates of Change. Student Text. Revised Version, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This collection of lessons seeks to teach mathematical concepts associated with rates of change. Lessons are presented in the context of biomedical situations. Each section contains several readings relating to the central concept of the section. Example problems are presented in each section and solutions are presented and explained. Each section…

  6. Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

  7. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  8. Production rates for United States Forest Service brush disposal planning in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Stu Hoyt; Nathaniel Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Timber harvesting operations generate brush and other vegetative debris, which often has no marketable value. In many western U.S. forests, these materials represent a fire hazard and a potential threat to forest health and must be removed or burned for disposal. Currently, there is no established, consistent method to estimate brush disposal production rates in the U....

  9. Monitoring forest/non-forest land use conversion rates with annual inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch; Paul C. Van Deusen

    2012-01-01

    The transitioning of land from forest to other uses is of increasing interest as urban areas expand and the world’s population continues to grow. Also of interest, but less recognized, is the transitioning of land from other uses into forest. In this paper, we show how rates of conversion from forest to non-forest and non-forest to forest can be estimated in the US...

  10. The effect of textile-based inductive coil sensor positions for heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hye Ran; Lee, Young-Jae; Gi, Sunok; Khang, Seonah; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lim, Min-Gyu; Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Whan

    2014-02-01

    In the research related to heart rate measurement, few studies have been done using magnetic-induced conductivity sensing methods to measure the heart rate. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the position of a textile-based inductive coil sensor on the measurement of the heart rate. In order to assess the capability of the textile-based inductive coil sensor and the repeatability of measured cardiac muscle contractions, we proposed a new quality index based on the morphology of measured signals using a textile-based inductive coil sensor. We initially explored eight potential positions of the inductive sensor in a pilot experiment, followed by three sensor positions in the main experiment. A simultaneously measured electrocardiography (ECG) signal (Lead II) which was used as a reference signal for a comparison of the R-peak location with signals obtained from selected positions of the textile-based inductive coil sensor. The result of the main experiment indicated that the total quality index obtained from the sensor position 'P3', which was located 3 cm away from the left side from the center front line on the chest circumference line, was the highest (QI value = 1.30) among the three positions across all the subjects. This finding led us to conclude that (1) the position of the textile-based inductive coil sensor significantly affected the quality of the measurement results, and that (2) P3 would be the most appropriate position for the textile-based inductive coil sensor for heart rate measurements based on the magnetic-induced conductivity sensing principle.

  11. The effect of corrosion induced surface morphology changes on ultrasonically monitored corrosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdacsi, Attila; Cegla, Frederic

    2016-11-01

    Corrosion rates obtained by very frequent (daily) measurements with permanently installed ultrasonic sensors have been shown to be highly inaccurate when changes in surface morphology lead to ultrasonic signal distortion. In this paper the accuracy of ultrasonically estimated corrosion rates (mean wall thickness loss) by means of standard signal processing methods (peak to peak—P2P, first arrival—FA, cross correlation—XC) was investigated and a novel thickness extraction algorithm (adaptive cross-correlation—AXC) is presented. All of the algorithms were tested on simulated ultrasonic data that was obtained by modelling the surface geometry evolution coupled with a fast ultrasonic signal simulator based on the distributed point source method. The performance of each algorithm could then be determined by comparing the actual known mean thickness losses of the simulated surfaces to the values that each algorithm returned. The results showed that AXC is the best of the investigated processing algorithms. For spatially random thickness loss 90% of AXC estimated thickness trends were within -10 to +25% of the actual mean loss rate (e.g. 0.75-1.1 mm year-1 would be measured for a 1 mm year-1 actual mean loss rate). The other algorithms (P2P, FA, XC) exhibited error distributions that were 5-10 times larger. All algorithms performed worse in scenarios where wall loss was not distributed randomly in space (spatially correlated thickness loss occured) and where the overall rms of the surface was either growing or declining. However, on these surfaces AXC also outperformed the other algorithms and showed almost an order of magnitude improvement compared to them.

  12. Solid Waste Management Units And Areas Of Concern Annual Long-Term Monitoring & Maintenance Report For Calendar Year 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Long-term controls were maintained at 21 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) in accordance with the requirements of the “Long-Term Monitoring and Maintenance Plan for SWMUs and AOCs Granted Corrective Action Complete with Controls” in Attachment M of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Operating Permit, which took effect February 26, 2015. Maintenance and controls at these SWMUs and AOCs are described and documented in this report. Conditions requiring maintenance or repair activities were not identified for any of the inspected SWMUs or AOCs. Based upon the inspections performed and site conditions observed, the administrative and physical institutional controls in place at the SWMUs and AOCs are effectively providing continued protection of human health and the environment. This report does not present monitoring and maintenance activities for SWMU 76, the Mixed Waste Landfill; those activities adhere to the approved MWL LTMM Plan, Section 4.8.1 requiring a separate annual report which will be submitted to the NMED by June 30, 2017.

  13. A Technical Evaluation of Wireless Connectivity from Patient Monitors to an Anesthesia Information Management System During Intensive Care Unit Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpao, Allan F; Galvez, Jorge A; England, W Randall; Wartman, Elicia C; Scott, James H; Hamid, Michael M; Rehman, Mohamed A; Epstein, Richard H

    2016-02-01

    Surgical procedures performed at the bedside in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia were documented using paper anesthesia records in contrast to the operating rooms, where an anesthesia information management system (AIMS) was used for all cases. This was largely because of logistical problems related to connecting cables between the bedside monitors and our portable AIMS workstations. We implemented an AIMS for documentation in the NICU using wireless adapters to transmit data from bedside monitoring equipment to a portable AIMS workstation. Testing of the wireless AIMS during simulation in the presence of an electrosurgical generator showed no evidence of interference with data transmission. Thirty NICU surgical procedures were documented via the wireless AIMS. Two wireless cases exhibited brief periods of data loss; one case had an extended data gap because of adapter power failure. In comparison, in a control group of 30 surgical cases in which wired connections were used, there were no data gaps. The wireless AIMS provided a simple, unobtrusive, portable alternative to paper records for documenting anesthesia records during NICU bedside procedures.

  14. The effect of heat exposure on cortisol and catecholamine excretion rates in workers in glass manufacturing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelova, K; Deyanov, Ch; Velkova, D; Ivanova, M; Stanchev, V

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of long term repeated heat exposure on the excretion rates of stress hormones of workers in glass manufacturing unit. Sixteen operators, exposed to heat, were studied during the hot period and compared to a control group of 16 subjects, working in the same manufacturing unit. Both groups had moderate work load. The microclimate components and the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature were used for defining the heat exposure. The excretion rates of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed during the early morning shifts on three hour intervals using RIA and fluoriphotometric methods. Heart rate was followed, too. The psychosocial factors were measured by the "My job" questionnaire. Highly significantly higher cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline values were measured in the heat exposed operators compared to the control group, while significant differences of the psychosocial factors between the two groups lacked. Even if the heart rate was in the safe limits, the found alterations in the stress system are considerable and indicate heat stress. The work in conditions of overheat is associated with considerable heat stress and the possible health implications need to be clarified.

  15. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  16. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Onno K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. Methods A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. Results A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range of 697 (559–840 per day. The median (interquartile range number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7, 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1, and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3, respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. Conclusions We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns.

  17. Reliability of Pressure Ulcer Rates: How Precisely Can We Differentiate Among Hospital Units, and Does the Standard Signal-Noise Reliability Measure Reflect This Precision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggs, Vincent S; Cramer, Emily

    2016-08-01

    Hospital performance reports often include rankings of unit pressure ulcer rates. Differentiating among units on the basis of quality requires reliable measurement. Our objectives were to describe and apply methods for assessing reliability of hospital-acquired pressure ulcer rates and evaluate a standard signal-noise reliability measure as an indicator of precision of differentiation among units. Quarterly pressure ulcer data from 8,199 critical care, step-down, medical, surgical, and medical-surgical nursing units from 1,299 US hospitals were analyzed. Using beta-binomial models, we estimated between-unit variability (signal) and within-unit variability (noise) in annual unit pressure ulcer rates. Signal-noise reliability was computed as the ratio of between-unit variability to the total of between- and within-unit variability. To assess precision of differentiation among units based on ranked pressure ulcer rates, we simulated data to estimate the probabilities of a unit's observed pressure ulcer rate rank in a given sample falling within five and ten percentiles of its true rank, and the probabilities of units with ulcer rates in the highest quartile and highest decile being identified as such. We assessed the signal-noise measure as an indicator of differentiation precision by computing its correlations with these probabilities. Pressure ulcer rates based on a single year of quarterly or weekly prevalence surveys were too susceptible to noise to allow for precise differentiation among units, and signal-noise reliability was a poor indicator of precision of differentiation. To ensure precise differentiation on the basis of true differences, alternative methods of assessing reliability should be applied to measures purported to differentiate among providers or units based on quality. © 2016 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Why is the teen birth rate in the United States so high and why does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Melissa S; Levine, Phillip B

    2012-01-01

    Teens in the United States are far more likely to give birth than in any other industrialized country in the world. U.S. teens are two and a half times as likely to give birth as compared to teens in Canada, around four times as likely as teens in Germany or Norway, and almost 10 times as likely as teens in Switzerland. Among more developed countries, Russia has the next highest teen birth rate after the United States, but an American teenage girl is still around 25 percent more likely to give birth than her counterpart in Russia. Moreover, these statistics incorporate the almost 40 percent fall in the teen birth rate that the United States has experienced over the past two decades. Differences across U.S. states are quite dramatic as well. A teenage girl in Mississippi is four times more likely to give birth than a teenage girl in New Hampshire--and 15 times more likely to give birth as a teen compared to a teenage girl in Switzerland. This paper has two overarching goals: understanding why the teen birth rate is so high in the United States and understanding why it matters. Thus, we begin by examining multiple sources of data to put current rates of teen childbearing into the perspective of cross-country comparisons and recent historical context. We examine teen birth rates alongside pregnancy, abortion, and "shotgun" marriage rates as well as the antecedent behaviors of sexual activity and contraceptive use. We seek insights as to why the rate of teen childbearing is so unusually high in the United States as a whole, and in some U.S. states in particular. We argue that explanations that economists have tended to study are unable to account for any sizable share of the variation in teen childbearing rates across place. We describe some recent empirical work demonstrating that variation in income inequality across U.S. states and developed countries can explain a sizable share of the geographic variation in teen childbearing. To the extent that income inequality

  19. Gravity Monitoring of Ground-Water Storage Change in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winester, D.; Pool, D. R.; Schmerge, D. L.; Hoffmann, J. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Repeat measurements of absolute gravity have been made since 1998 to estimate changes in ground-water mass as part of ground-water budget estimates in arid and semiarid regions of the Southwestern United States. The absolute acceleration of gravity is measured twice each year at 16 stations to an accuracy of about plus or minus 2 microGal, or about 5 cm of water. Observations are normally done for the purpose of providing gravity control for relative gravity surveys of networks of stations across wider areas. Other data incorporated into the ground-water budget estimates include precipitation, water levels, moisture content in the unsaturated zone, surface water runoff, and ellipsoid heights using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Gravity and water-level changes are correlated for stations measured in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province near Tucson, Phoenix, Casa Grande, and Sierra Vista, Arizona. Decreasing gravity and water levels in the Tucson area since the summer of 1998 are likely related to predominant drought conditions and decreases in ground-water storage following above average winter precipitation and recharge during the El Nino of 1998. Increases in gravity at stations in the upper and middle Verde Valley Watershed in central Arizona since the fall of 2000 do not correlate well with declining streamflows and water levels and may be caused by temporary increases in soil moisture following wet winters. There have been no significant observed gravity changes at two stations in the El Paso, Texas, area since the initial observations during the summer of 2003, even though ground-water pumping in the area has been heavy.

  20. Monitoring the impact of the indoor air quality on silver cultural heritage objects using passive and continuous corrosion rate assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    `t Hart, Lucy; Storme, Patrick; Anaf, Willemien; Nuyts, Gert; Vanmeert, Frederik; Dorriné, Walter; Janssens, Koen; de Wael, Karolien; Schalm, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    There is a long tradition in evaluating industrial atmospheres by measuring the corrosion rate of exposed metal coupons. The heritage community also uses this method, but the interpretation of the corrosion rate often lacks clarity due to the low corrosivity in indoor museum environments. This investigation explores the possibilities and drawbacks of different silver corrosion rate assessments. The corrosion rate is determined by three approaches: (1) chemical characterization of metal coupons using analytical techniques such as electrochemical measurements, SEM-EDX, XRD, and µ-Raman spectroscopy, (2) continuous corrosion monitoring methods based on electrical resistivity loss of a corroding nm-sized metal wire and weight gain of a corroding silver coated quartz crystal, and (3) characterization of the visual degradation of the metal coupons. This study confirms that subtle differences in corrosivity between locations inside a museum can be determined on condition that the same corrosion rate assessment is used. However, the impact of the coupon orientation with respect to the prevailing direction of air circulation can be substantially larger than the impact of the coupon location.

  1. South Africa and United States stock prices and the Rand/Dollar exchange rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ocran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the dynamic causal relations between the two major financial assets, stock prices of the US and South Africa and the rand/US$ exchange rate. The study uses a mixed bag of time series approaches such as cointegration, Granger causality, impulse response functions and forecasting error variance decompositions.  The paper identifies a bi-directional causality from the Standard & Poor’s 500 stock price index to the rand/US$ exchange rate in the Granger sense. It was also found that the Standard & Poor’s stock price index accounts for a significant portion of the variations in the Johannesburg Stock Exchange’s All Share index. Thus, while causality in the Granger sense could not be established for the relationship between the price indices of the two stock exchanges it can argued that there is some relationship between them. The results of the study have implications for both business and Government.

  2. NPSAT1 MEMS 3-AXIS Rate Sensor Suite Performance, Characterization, and Flight Unit Acceptance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    compensation MEMS rate data sent to C&DH 14 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 15 II. MICROMACHINED VIBRATORY GYROSCOPES MEMS -based gyroscopes are...circuit errors for MEMS gyroscopes using state observers,” in Sensing Technology, 2008. ICST 2008 3rd International Conference on, 2008, pp. 25–30...Shkel, MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes : Structural Approaches to Improve Robustness ( MEMS Reference Shelf), 2nd ed.,New York, NY:Springer, 2008. [21

  3. Linkages between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in the EU and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Stavarek

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the causal relationship between stock prices and effective exchange rates in four old EU-member countries (Austria, France, Germany, and the UK), four new EU-member countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia) and in the USA. Both the long-run and short run causalities between these variables are explored using monthly data. The paper also tries to answer the question whether the linkages between analyzed economic variables are of the similar...

  4. A rate-based transcutaneous CO2 sensor for noninvasive respiration monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, M; Ge, X; Kostov, Y; Luu, P; Tolosa, L; Woo, H.; Viscardi, R; Falk, S; R. Potts; G Rao

    2015-01-01

    The pain and risk of infection associated with invasive blood sampling for blood gas measurements necessitate the search for reliable noninvasive techniques. In this work we developed a novel rate-based noninvasive method for a safe and fast assessment of respiratory status. A small sampler was built to collect the gases diffusing out of the skin. It was connected to a CO2 sensor through gas-impermeable tubing. During a measurement, the CO2 initially present in the sampler was first removed b...

  5. Monitoring and condition-based maintenance with abrupt change in a system's deterioration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladirad, Mitra; Grall, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the maintenance of a system which undergoes a change in its deterioration rate is considered. The time of change of regime and the parameters after the change are unknown. To deal with unknown change time and unknown parameters, a detection procedure based on a suitable online change detection algorithm is used. The paper proposes a maintenance decision rule versus detection policy in order to minimise the long-run average maintenance cost, and the performances of this policy are studied through numerical implementations.

  6. Methodological and experimental study of the relationship between displacement rate of landslide and GNSS strategy for deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordan, Daniele; Piras, Marco; Allasia, Paolo; Dabove, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The use of GNSS for landslide monitoring is not a novelty. In the field of large slope instabilities, where the phenomena are usually wide and the use of complex monitoring networks is needed, often a continuous monitoring is required. In this case, the installed GNSS solution is composed by a dual frequency receiver, with a solar power and with a radio connection to a ground station, where the measurement sessions of the rovers are collected and processed. The management of the collected data is the most critical aspect because the approach, which is commonly used, assumes a fixed position of the GNSS antenna during the acquisition time window. When the landslide is active, the position shift of the point can be considered insignificant for the low displacement rate, but together with the increase of the velocity, the GNSS time series processing becomes a crucial aspect to obtain reliable and enough accurate measurements. Starting from real case studies as the Italian large slope instabilities of Montaguto (Avellino, Italy) and Mont de La Saxe (Courmayeur, Italy), we focused on the presence of different kinematic domains with dissimilar displacement behaviors and velocities. In particular, the range of velocities registered during the main active periods ranges from several millimeters/day up to several meters/day, so the strategy for the GNSS processing data must be very different. Methodology for data acquisition (continuous or windowed) and its duration, type of receivers and antenna used (single or dual frequency, GPS or GNSS, mass market or geodetic), data processing strategies (i.e. single epoch, kinematic), and eventually GNSS network services are fundamental factors, which may favor one or another solution, according to time, economy and infrastructure readiness in the field. In the greater part of these studies, the choices were made based on the experience of responsible in the similar conditions. Starting from the behavior of real cases previously cited

  7. Prioritization of constituents for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Zogorski, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2,541 constituents were evaluated and prioritized for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States. This prioritization was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in preparation for the upcoming third decade (Cycle 3; 2013–23) of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report provides the methods used to prioritize the constituents and the results of that prioritization. Constituents were prioritized by the NAWQA National Target Analyte Strategy (NTAS) work group on the basis of available information on physical and chemical properties, observed or predicted environmental occurrence and fate, and observed or anticipated adverse effects on human health or aquatic life. Constituents were evaluated within constituent groups that were determined on the basis of physical or chemical properties or on uses or sources. Some constituents were evaluated within more than one constituent group. Although comparable objectives were used in the prioritization of constituents within the different constituent groups, differences in the availability of information accessed for each constituent group led to the development of separate prioritization approaches adapted to each constituent group to make best use of available resources. Constituents were assigned to one of three prioritization tiers: Tier 1, those having the highest priority for inclusion in ambient monitoring of water or sediment on a national or regional scale (including NAWQA Cycle 3 monitoring) on the basis of their likelihood of environmental occurrence in ambient water or sediment, or likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; Tier 2, those having intermediate priority for monitoring on the basis of their lower likelihood of environmental occurrence or lower likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; and Tier 3, those having low or no priority for monitoring on the basis of evidence of nonoccurrence or lack of

  8. Monitoring conterminous United States (CONUS) land cover change with Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M.C.; Egorov, Alexey; Potapov, P.V.; Stehman, S.V.; Tyukavina, A.; Turubanova, S.A.; Roy, David P.; Goetz, S.J.; Loveland, T.R.; Ju, J.; Kommareddy, A.; Kovalskyy, Valeriy; Forsyth, C.; Bents, T.

    2014-01-01

    Forest cover loss and bare ground gain from 2006 to 2010 for the conterminous United States (CONUS) were quantified at a 30 m spatial resolution using Web-Enabled Landsat Data available from the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) (http://landsat.usgs.gov/WELD.php). The approach related multi-temporal WELD metrics and expert-derived training data for forest cover loss and bare ground gain through a decision tree classification algorithm. Forest cover loss was reported at state and ecoregional scales, and the identification of core forests' absent of change was made and verified using LiDAR data from the GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimetry System) instrument. Bare ground gain correlated with population change for large metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) outside of desert or semi-desert environments. GoogleEarth™ time-series images were used to validate the products. Mapped forest cover loss totaled 53,084 km2 and was found to be depicted conservatively, with a user's accuracy of 78% and a producer's accuracy of 68%. Excluding errors of adjacency, user's and producer's accuracies rose to 93% and 89%, respectively. Mapped bare ground gain equaled 5974 km2 and nearly matched the estimated area from the reference (GoogleEarth™) classification; however, user's (42%) and producer's (49%) accuracies were much less than those of the forest cover loss product. Excluding errors of adjacency, user's and producer's accuracies rose to 62% and 75%, respectively. Compared to recent 2001–2006 USGS National Land Cover Database validation data for forest loss (82% and 30% for respective user's and producer's accuracies) and urban gain (72% and 18% for respective user's and producer's accuracies), results using a single CONUS-scale model with WELD data are promising and point to the potential for national-scale operational mapping of key land cover transitions. However, validation results highlighted limitations, some of which can be addressed by

  9. Sunlight inactivation of viruses in open-water unit process treatment wetlands: modeling endogenous and exogenous inactivation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Andrea I; Nguyen, Mi T; Schilling, Iris E; Wenk, Jannis; Nelson, Kara L

    2015-03-03

    Sunlight inactivation is an important mode of disinfection for viruses in surface waters. In constructed wetlands, for example, open-water cells can be used to promote sunlight disinfection and remove pathogenic viruses from wastewater. To aid in the design of these systems, we developed predictive models of virus attenuation that account for endogenous and exogenous sunlight-mediated inactivation mechanisms. Inactivation rate models were developed for two viruses, MS2 and poliovirus type 3; laboratory- and field-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the models' ability to estimate inactivation rates in a pilot-scale, open-water, unit-process wetland cell. Endogenous inactivation rates were modeled using either photoaction spectra or total, incident UVB irradiance. Exogenous inactivation rates were modeled on the basis of virus susceptibilities to singlet oxygen. Results from both laboratory- and field-scale experiments showed good agreement between measured and modeled inactivation rates. The modeling approach presented here can be applied to any sunlit surface water and utilizes easily measured inputs such as depth, solar irradiance, water matrix absorbance, singlet oxygen concentration, and the virus-specific apparent second-order rate constant with singlet oxygen (k2). Interestingly, the MS2 k2 in the open-water wetland was found to be significantly larger than k2 observed in other waters in previous studies. Examples of how the model can be used to design and optimize natural treatment systems for virus inactivation are provided.

  10. Monitoring of resistivity and IP: The Syscal Monitoring Unit (SMU), a new system dedicated for remote control of the Syscal Pro resistivimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gance, Julien; Leite, Orlando; Texier, Benoît; Bernard, Jean; Truffert, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    All matter, gas, fluids and energy transfer at soil/atmosphere interface govern soil, rock and life evolution in the critical zone. Near surface electrical resistivity and chargeability modifications with time are distinguishable and process related enough for bringing to geoscientist relevant clue within this highly studied zone. Such non-invasive measurements are directly sensitive to a wide range of remarkable parameters (soil water content, temperature, soil water conductivity, clay content, etc.). In order to increase physical, chemical and biological processes understanding, resistivity and IP monitoring remain the less costly and the more powerful method among others. Indeed, these methods are the most suitable to image 2D/3D and 4D processes in an automated way. Whether such geophysical survey are for academic knowledge, waste landfill leakage or landslide monitoring purpose, it has to be done during medium to long period of time (from days to years). Nevertheless, operators don't need to be on site all the survey long. So, equipment manufacturers had to propose them suitable solutions for their needs. Syscal Pro resistivimeter is well adapted to observe the critical zone down to 100 m depth with its 10 channels and 250 watts. Its high speed recording (up to 1000 records/min) ability is also suited to apprehend expected kinetics of studied phenomena. In this context, IRIS Instruments developed a dedicated remote unit able to remote control Syscal Pro resistivimeter. It allows to change acquisition parameters (sequences), to check the main constant (battery levels, internal temperature) and to alert in case of any recording troubles. Data can be sent directly to FTP or SSH server or by mail for an easy and constant access to the data. Alert functionalities sent by mail in case of low battery or too many outliers present in the data are welcome to check the dimensioning of the energy source and for easily maintaining the long-term acquisition necessary for

  11. Optimizing nitrogen rates in the midwestern United States for maximum ecosystem value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M. Ewing

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of corn production to the midwestern United States cannot be overestimated. However, high production requires high nitrogen fertilization, which carries costs to environmental services such as water quality. Therefore, a trade-off exists between the production of corn yield and water quality. We used the Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment for Shallow depths and Crop Environment Resource Synthesis-Maize models to investigate the nature of this trade-off while testing the Simple Analytic Framework trade-offs featured in this Special Feature. First, we estimated the current levels of yield and water quality production in northeastern Iowa and southern Minnesota at the 1-square-kilometer, county, and regional scales. We then constructed an efficiency frontier from optimized nitrogen application patterns to maximize the production of both yield and water quality. Results highlight the context dependency of this trade-off, but show room for increasing the production of both services to the benefit of all stakeholders. We discuss these results in the context of spatial scale, biophysical limitations to the production of services, and stakeholder outcomes given disparate power balances and biophysical contexts.

  12. Comparison of the Resistance of Diabetic Foot Isolates with Community and Intensive Care Unit Resistance Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Pehlivanoğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Using proper antibiotics in diabetic foot infections can save an extremity. The goal of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of the most frequent isolates from diabetic foot infections, to compare these results with those for species obtained from both intensive care unit and community-acquired infections, and to re-evaluate the empirical antimicrobial therapy in diabetic foot infections. Material and Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on bacteria from diabetic foot cultures, ICU and community-acquired infections. Skin and soft tissue samples of a total of 181 patients have been studied. Sensitivity to ampicillin/ sulbactam (SAM, ciprofloxacin (CIP, piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP, cefoperazone/sulbactam (SCF, amikacin (AN, meropenem (MEM and cefepime (FEP has been investigated. Results: Among the samples, reproduction was detected in 154 (85%, 132 of which (79.5% contained gram-negative bacteria (46 Enterobacter spp, 36 Pseudomonas spp, 30 Acinetobacter spp, 20 others. Resistance of bacteria isolated from diabetic foot cultures was less than the one of bacteria isolated from ICU and more than the one from community-acquired infections. However, an increased resistance was detected to ciprofloxacin, frequently used in urinary infections, in agents from community-acquired infections. Conclusion: In conclusion, due to the risk of possible loss of tissue/extremity and possible antibiotic resistance, treatment should be started empirically and continued considering the culture results. (The Me di cal Bul le tin of Ha se ki 2011; 49: 137-40

  13. A Review of Greene (2002 High School Graduation Rates in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Phelps

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The - Greene Method- of calculating school - graduation rates- and the Manhattan Institute (MI criticisms of official graduation and completion statistics are outlined and scrutinized. The methodology fails to recognize the complexity of the issue and appears to ignore the considerable efforts that have been undertaken by education statisticians to remediate the problems inherent to these types of data. The Greene method for calculating completion ratios is simulated and found to have little to no reliability. It is recommended that anyone intent on reporting valid and reliable education indicators avoid use of the Greene Method.

  14. Bedload transport rates in a gravel bedded-river derived from high-resolution monitoring using seismic impact plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Peter; Soar, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Accurate characterisation of bedload transport rates is critical for a better understanding of geomorphological process dynamics, aquatic habitats, sediment budgets and strategies for catchment-scale initiatives in sediment management under conditions of climate change. However, rate estimation is challenging in practice: direct measurements are costly and logistically difficult to achieve with acceptable accuracy over geomorphologically-relevant time periods, and the uncertainty in transport rates predicted from empirical formulae and numerical simulation is rarely below 50 per cent. Partly reflecting these issues, passive technologies for continuous bedload monitoring are becoming increasingly popular. Sensors such as seismic impact plates offer the opportunity to characterise bedload activity at exceptionally high resolution - monitoring from the River Avon, (Devon, UK) indicated that despite significant intra-event and between-plate differences in apparent bedload transport aggregated over 5-minute periods, the magnitude-frequency product of discharge and impact frequency result in a highly plausible effective discharge, supporting the potential value of impact plates as indicators of relative sediment transport loads over annual timescales. Whereas the focus in bedload rate estimation to date has been on developing satisfactory sediment rating curves from detection signals, we instead develop a method for directly estimating bedload transport rates from impact plate data as a function of intensity of transport (count, n, per second), bed material mass (kg) and cross-stream transport variability. Bulk sediment samples are converted to a mass in transit for each instantaneous discharge according to the intensity of transport and a Monte Carlo simulation of the load in transit determined at random from the bed material particle size distribution. The lower detection threshold is determined using experimental calibration and the upper size limit is determined from

  15. Possibility of improvement of potentiodynamic method for monitoring corrosion rate of steel reinforcement in concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Živica

    2001-10-01

    Quantitative data on corroding steel reinforcement in reinforced concrete structures are undoubtedly very useful for evaluation of their service life and timely repairs. The method of electrode potential measurement is a convenient and simple test for this purpose, but it provides no quantitative data on corrosion rate and only information regarding active or passive state of steel reinforcement can be obtained. We show here the possibility of obtaining quantitative data on degree of corrosion of steel reinforcement by a potentiodynamic method. The developed method is based on experimentally estimated mathematical relation between the results of potentiodynamic method and degree of corrosion of steel reinforcement. It is possible to calculate the degree of corrosion of steel reinforcement using this mathematical relation and the measured values of current density by the potentiodynamic method.

  16. Decreasing Clostridium Difficile-Associated Fatality Rates among Hospitalized Patients in the Unites States: 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manish P; Bime, Christian; Taleban, Sasha

    2017-08-08

    Clostridium difficile infection has emerged as a major public health problem in the United States over the last two decades. Several strategies have been implemented at the hospital, community, state and national levels to combat this infection. We examined the trends in the Clostridium difficile-associated fatality rate, hospital length of stay and hospital charges over the last decade. We used data from the National Inpatient Sample to identify patients with a principal diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection from 2004-2014. Outcomes included in-hospital fatality rate, hospital length of stay and hospital charges. For each outcome, trends were also stratified by age categories as the risk of infection and associated mortality increase with age. Clostridium difficile infection discharges increased from 19.9/100,000 persons in 2004 to 33.8/100,000 persons in 2014. Clostridium difficile-associated fatality decreased from 3.6% in 2004 to 1.6% in 2014 (linear trend PClostridium difficile infection in the United States has decreased over two fold in the last decade despite increasing infection rates. Despite decreasing length of stay, the hospital charges of Clostridium difficile infection are increasing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Relative deprivation in income and self-rated health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Malavika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Berkman, Lisa; Subramanian, S V

    2009-08-01

    Absolute income is robustly associated with health status. Few studies have, however, examined if relative income is independently associated with health. We examined if, over and above the effects of absolute income, individual relative deprivation in income as well as position in the income hierarchy is associated with individual poor health in the U.S. Using three rounds of the Current Population Surveys (CPS), we analyzed the association between self-rated health (1=fair/poor, 0=otherwise) and the Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation in income and percentile position in the income hierarchy across 17 reference groups. Over and above the effects of absolute income, the odds ratio for reporting poor health among individuals in the highest quintile of relative deprivation compared to the lowest quintile ranged between 2.18 and 3.30, depending on the reference groups used. A 10 percentile increase in income position within reference groups was associated with an odds ratio of poor health of 0.89. Relative deprivation appeared to explain between 33 and 94% of the association between individual income and self-rated health. Relative deprivation in income is independently associated with poor health over and above the well established effects of absolute income on health. Relative deprivation may partly explain the association between income inequality and worse population health status.

  18. Evaluation of an exercise field test using heart rate monitors to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery in an asymptomatic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L Coolbaugh

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and heart rate recovery (HRR can improve risk stratification for cardiovascular disease, but these measurements are rarely made in asymptomatic individuals due to cost. An exercise field test (EFT to assess CRF and HRR would be an inexpensive method for cardiovascular disease risk assessment in large populations. This study assessed 1 the predictive accuracy of a 12-minute run/walk EFT for estimating CRF ([Formula: see text] and 2 the accuracy of HRR measured after an EFT using a heart rate monitor (HRM in an asymptomatic population. METHODS: Fifty subjects (48% women ages 18-45 years completed a symptom-limited exercise tolerance test (ETT (Bruce protocol and an EFT on separate days. During the ETT, [Formula: see text] was measured by a metabolic cart, and heart rate was measured continuously by a HRM and a metabolic cart. RESULTS: EFT distance and sex independently predicted[Formula: see text]. The average absolute difference between observed and predicted [Formula: see text] was 0.26 ± 3.27 ml·kg-1·min-1 for our model compared to 7.55 ± 3.64 ml·kg-1·min-1 for the Cooper model. HRM HRR data were equivalent to respective metabolic cart values during the ETT. HRR at 1 minute post-exercise during ETT compared to the EFT had a moderate correlation (r=0.75, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: A more accurate model to estimate CRF from a 12-minute run/walk EFT was developed, and HRR can be measured using a HRM in an asymptomatic population outside of clinical settings.

  19. MICROST: A mixed approach for heart rate monitoring during intensive physical exercise using wrist-type PPG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shilin; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Xinyu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The performance of heart rate (HR) monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals is strongly influenced by motion artifacts (MAs), since the intensive physical exercises are common in real world. Few works focus on this study so far because of unsatisfying quality of corrupted PPG signals. In this paper, we propose an accurate and efficient strategy, named MICROST, which estimates heart rate based on a mixed approach. The MICROST framework is designed as a MIxed algorithm which consists of acceleration Classification (AC), fiRst-frame prOcessing and heuriStic Tracking. Experimental results using recordings from 12 subjects during fast running and intensive movement showed the average absolute error of heart rate estimation was 2.58 beat per minute (BPM), and the Pearson correlation between the estimates and the ground-truth of heart rate was 0.988. We discuss our approach in real time to face the applications of wearable devices such as smart-watches in reality.

  20. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 Solar Mass/yr. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar Mass/yr for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.