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Sample records for monitor unit rate

  1. On the hazard rate process for imperfectly monitored multi-unit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, A.; Berenguer, C.; Grall, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a stochastic model to characterize the failure distribution of multi-unit systems when the current units state is imperfectly monitored. The definition of the hazard rate process existing with perfect monitoring is extended to the realistic case where the units failure time are not always detected (non-detection events). The so defined observed hazard rate process gives a better representation of the system behavior than the classical failure rate calculated without any information on the units state and than the hazard rate process based on perfect monitoring information. The quality of this representation is, however, conditioned by the monotony property of the process. This problem is mainly discussed and illustrated on a practical example (two parallel units). The results obtained motivate the use of the observed hazard rate process to characterize the stochastic behavior of the multi-unit systems and to optimize for example preventive maintenance policies

  2. On the hazard rate process for imperfectly monitored multi-unit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)]. E-mail: anne.barros@utt.fr; Berenguer, C. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Grall, A. [Institut des Sciences et Techonologies de l' Information de Troyes (ISTIT-CNRS), Equipe de Modelisation et Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes (UTT), 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a stochastic model to characterize the failure distribution of multi-unit systems when the current units state is imperfectly monitored. The definition of the hazard rate process existing with perfect monitoring is extended to the realistic case where the units failure time are not always detected (non-detection events). The so defined observed hazard rate process gives a better representation of the system behavior than the classical failure rate calculated without any information on the units state and than the hazard rate process based on perfect monitoring information. The quality of this representation is, however, conditioned by the monotony property of the process. This problem is mainly discussed and illustrated on a practical example (two parallel units). The results obtained motivate the use of the observed hazard rate process to characterize the stochastic behavior of the multi-unit systems and to optimize for example preventive maintenance policies.

  3. Dosimetric accuracy at low monitor unit setting in electron beams at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikumar, M.; Ravichandran, R.; Supe, Sanjay S.; Sharma, Anil K.

    1999-01-01

    As electron beam with low monitor unit (LMU) settings are used in some dosimetric studies, better understanding of accuracy in dose delivery at LMU setting is necessary. The dose measurements were carried out with 0.6 cm 3 farmer type ion chamber at d max in a polystyrene phantom. Measurements at different MUs show that the dose linearity ratio (DLR) increases as the MU setting decreases below 20 MU and DLRs are found to increase when the incident electron beams have higher energies. The increase in DLR is minimum for low dose rate setting for all five electron beam energies (6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV). As the variation in dose delivery is machine-specific, a detailed study should be conducted before the low MU setting is implemented. Since errors in dose delivery are high at higher dose rates, low dose rate may be better at low MU unit setting. (author)

  4. Charge balancing fill rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    A fill rate monitor has been developed for the NSLS storage rings to allow machine tuning over a very large dynamic range of beam current. Synchrotron light, focused on a photodiode, produces a signal proportional to the beam current. A charge balancing circuit processes the diode current, creating an output signal proportional to the current injected into the ring. The unit operates linearly over a dynamic range of 120 dB and can resolve pulses of injected beam as small as 1 μA

  5. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion......Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  6. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Beenish M.

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone?s camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, ?Unique Heart Rate Monitor?, you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal ...

  7. Heart rate monitoring mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Beenish M

    2016-01-01

    Total number of times a heart beats in a minute is known as the heart rate. Traditionally, heart rate was measured using clunky gadgets but these days it can be measured with a smartphone's camera. This can help you measure your heart rate anywhere and at anytime, especially during workouts so you can adjust your workout intensity to achieve maximum health benefits. With simple and easy to use mobile app, 'Unique Heart Rate Monitor', you can also maintain your heart rate history for personal reflection and sharing with a provider.

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across Marianas Archipelago in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  12. Dose and dose rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, O.; Ryba, J.; Slezak, V.; Svobodova, B.; Viererbl, L.

    1984-10-01

    The methods are discussea of measuring dose rate or dose using a scintillation counte. A plastic scintillator based on polystyrene with PBD and POPOP activators and coated with ZnS(Ag) was chosen for the projected monitor. The scintillators were cylindrical and spherical in shape and of different sizes; black polypropylene tubes were chosen as the best case for the probs. For the counter with different plastic scintillators, the statistical error 2σ for natural background was determined. For determining the suitable thickness of the ZnS(Ag) layer the energy dependence of the counter was measured. Radioisotopes 137 Cs, 241 Am and 109 Cd were chosen as radiation sources. The best suited ZnS(Ag) thickness was found to be 0.5 μm. Experiments were carried out to determine the directional dependence of the detector response and the signal to noise ratio. The temperature dependence of the detector response and its compensation were studied, as were the time stability and fatigue manifestations of the photomultiplier. The design of a laboratory prototype of a dose rate and dose monitor is described. Block diagrams are given of the various functional parts of the instrument. The designed instrument is easiiy portable, battery powered, measures dose rates from natural background in the range of five orders, i.e., 10 -2 to 10 3 nGy/s, and allows to determine a dose of up to 10 mGy. Accouracy of measurement in the energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV is better than +-20%. (E.S.)

  13. Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the types of monitoring? • How is auscultation performed? • How is electronic fetal monitoring performed? • How ... methods of fetal heart rate monitoring in labor. Auscultation is a method of periodically listening to the ...

  14. Unit Monitors Manchester-Format Data Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit card converts data signals into convenient hexadecimal form for troubleshooting. Bus-monitoring unit converts data signals from Manchester II format used on data bus into hexadecimal format. Monitoring circuit causes hexadecimal words to display on video terminal, where test engineer compares them with hexadecimal records for troubleshooting. Circuit monitors one bus or two buses simultaneously.

  15. Mobile units for monitoring of radiation situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Filgas, R.; Cespirova, I.

    1995-01-01

    For the radiation monitoring network of the Czech Republic a prototype of the small system for dose rate measurements and nuclide activity estimates suitable for use in mobile units was designed and tested in National Radiation Protection Institute. The system consists of high purity Ge detector, multichannel analyzer, high pressure ionization chamber or proportional counter and portable computer working in multitask mode for storing and evaluating of the spectra as well as dose rate handling, recording, storing and searching and presentation. The information about actual position is provided by the global positioning system Garmin on-line connected to the computer. This information is used later on to create the maps of contamination using small desktop mapping (GIS) system. The system is designed to be used in measurements on foot, in car, with helicopter or small fixed wing aircraft. (J.K.)

  16. Evaluation of eleven years of area monitoring for external dose rate in a deposit of radioactive waste at the ore treatment unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Oliveira, S.Q. de; Py Junior, D.A.; Silva, A.C.A.; Garcia Filho, O., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ, (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    At Ore Treatment Unit (UTM, in Portuguese) situated in Pocos de Caldas, MG, there is a deposit of about 40 tons radioactive waste produced decades ago from Santo Amaro deactivated plant (SAP) and then from NUCLEMON that processed monazite sands to extract rare earth elements. This waste contains uranium and thorium and it is stored in six hangars. This study aims to analyze the dose rates in the hangars from 2002 to 2012. Annually, two samples were obtained, for a total of 24 samples. The results showed the highest doses rates at UTM, ranging from 0.5 to 409.8 μSv h{sup -}'1 for the total set of samples. The averages extended from 0.96 μSv h{sup -1} in hangar C-02 up to 282.64 μSv h{sup -1} in hangar C-05. Considering each hangar separately, the results were as follows: hangar C-01 average 30.34 μSv h{sup -1}, ranging from 6.2 to 71.7 μSv h{sup -1}; hangar C-02 average 0.96 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 0.5 to 2.51 μSv h{sup -1}); hangar C-05 average 282.64 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 3.7 to 409.8 μSv h{sup -1}); hangar C-06 average 188.92 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 1.85 to 338.0 μSv h{sup -1}); hangar C-07, average 172.05 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 1.95 to 283.0 μSv h{sup -1}) and hangar C-09, average 122.59 μSv h{sup -1} (min-max 1.11 to 277.0 μSv h{sup -1}). ANOVA test indicated that the dose rates averages in the six hangars are different (F{sub calc} of 70.90 higher F{sub crit} of 2.28), and the Tukey test allowed to group the hangars in the following sequence: C-05> C-06 = C-07> C-09> C-01 = C-02. (author)

  17. Evaluation of eleven years of area monitoring for external dose rate in a deposit of radioactive waste at the ore treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.S.; Oliveira, S.Q. de; Py Junior, D.A.; Silva, A.C.A.; Garcia Filho, O.

    2013-01-01

    At Ore Treatment Unit (UTM, in Portuguese) situated in Pocos de Caldas, MG, there is a deposit of about 40 tons radioactive waste produced decades ago from Santo Amaro deactivated plant (SAP) and then from NUCLEMON that processed monazite sands to extract rare earth elements. This waste contains uranium and thorium and it is stored in six hangars. This study aims to analyze the dose rates in the hangars from 2002 to 2012. Annually, two samples were obtained, for a total of 24 samples. The results showed the highest doses rates at UTM, ranging from 0.5 to 409.8 μSv h - '1 for the total set of samples. The averages extended from 0.96 μSv h -1 in hangar C-02 up to 282.64 μSv h -1 in hangar C-05. Considering each hangar separately, the results were as follows: hangar C-01 average 30.34 μSv h -1 , ranging from 6.2 to 71.7 μSv h -1 ; hangar C-02 average 0.96 μSv h -1 (min-max 0.5 to 2.51 μSv h -1 ); hangar C-05 average 282.64 μSv h -1 (min-max 3.7 to 409.8 μSv h -1 ); hangar C-06 average 188.92 μSv h -1 (min-max 1.85 to 338.0 μSv h -1 ); hangar C-07, average 172.05 μSv h -1 (min-max 1.95 to 283.0 μSv h -1 ) and hangar C-09, average 122.59 μSv h -1 (min-max 1.11 to 277.0 μSv h -1 ). ANOVA test indicated that the dose rates averages in the six hangars are different (F calc of 70.90 higher F crit of 2.28), and the Tukey test allowed to group the hangars in the following sequence: C-05> C-06 = C-07> C-09> C-01 = C-02. (author)

  18. Credit Ratings and Bank Monitoring Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, L.I.; Roszbach, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use credit rating data from two Swedish banks to elicit evidence on these banks’ loan monitoring ability. We do so by comparing the ability of bank ratings to predict loan defaults relative to that of public ratings from the Swedish credit bureau. We test the banks’ abilility to

  19. Automatic Flushing Unit With Cleanliness Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, N. E.

    1982-01-01

    Liquid-level probe kept clean, therefore at peak accuracy, by unit that flushes probe with solvent, monitors effluent for contamination, and determines probe is particle-free. Approach may be adaptable to industrial cleaning such as flushing filters and pipes, and ensuring that manufactured parts have been adequately cleaned.

  20. Developed vibration waveform monitoring unit for CBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, T.; Hotsuta, K.; Hirose, I.; Morita, E.

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many rotating machines such as pumps and fans are in use. Shikoku Research Institute Inc. has recently developed easy-to-use tools to facilitate the maintenance of such equipment. They include a battery-operated vibration waveform monitoring unit which allows unmanned vibration monitoring on a regular basis and data collection even from intermittently operating equipment, a waveform data collector which can be used for easy collection, storage, control, and analysis of raw vibration waveform data during normal operation, and vibration analysis and evaluation tools. A combination of these tools has a high potential for optimization of rotating equipment maintenance. (author)

  1. Monitoring apparatus for monitoring a user's heart rate and/or heart rate variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A monitoring apparatus (4) monitors a user's heart rate and/or heart rate variation. The apparatus includes a capacitor (22) which is positionable on or near a body part of a person, for example a person's limb, for example an arm (3), such that an electrical capacitance of the capacitor (22) is

  2. Tools for Trigger Rate Monitoring at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Geoffrey; Wightman, Andrew Steven

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, we expect the LHC to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of roughly $2.0 \\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, with about 60 simultaneous proton-proton collisions (pileup) per event. In these challenging conditions, it is important to be able to intelligently monitor the rate at which data are being collected (the trigger rate). It is not enough to simply look at the trigger rate; it is equally important to compare the trigger rate with expectations. We present a set of software tools that have been developed to accomplish this. The tools include a real-time component - a script that monitors the rates of individual triggers during data-taking, and activates an alarm if rates deviate significantly from expectation. Fits are made to previously collected data and extrapolated to higher pileup. The behavior of triggers as a function of pileup is then monitored as data are collected - plots are automatically produced on an hourly basis and uploaded to a web area...

  3. Delta count-rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Etten, D.; Olsen, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A need for a more effective way to rapidly search for gamma-ray contamination over large areas led to the design and construction of a very sensitive gamma detection system. The delta count-rate monitoring system was installed in a four-wheel-drive van instrumented for environmental surveillance and accident response. The system consists of four main sections: (1) two scintillation detectors, (2) high-voltage power supply amplifier and single-channel analyzer, (3) delta count-rate monitor, and (4) count-rate meter and recorder. The van's 6.5-kW generator powers the standard nuclear instrument modular design system. The two detectors are mounted in the rear corners of the van and can be run singly or jointly. A solid-state bar-graph count-rate meter mounted on the dashboard can be read easily by both the driver and passenger. A solid-state strip chart recorder shows trends and provides a permanent record of the data. An audible alarm is sounded at the delta monitor and at the dashboard count-rate meter if a detected radiation level exceeds the set background level by a predetermined amount

  4. Thoron exhalation rate monitor with absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Detao; Zhao Guizhi

    2003-01-01

    A measurement method of thoron exhalation rate is developed based on the characteristic of thorium C' which emits a α particle with higher energy than those of α particles released from radon and radon progenies. The principles of discriminating radon and realizing thoron exhalation rate measurement on the material surface with absorber, the passive and integrated thoron exhalation rate monitor studied, and its calibration coefficient determination method are introduced. The effectiveness of mitigating thoron exhalation rate of wall surface by depressurization inside wall and thoron exhalation rates on some materials surfaces were measured by using the studied monitors. The calibration coefficient of the studied monitor is R=0.246 cm -2 ·(kBq·m -3 ·h) -1 . The lower limit of detection is LLD=18.4 mBq·m -2 ·s -1 when the sampling period is 7 days and the standard deviation of background track densities of the adopted CR-39 SSNTD is s T =1.6 cm -2

  5. Stock keeping unit fill rate specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R. H.; Syntetos, A. A.; Babai, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The fill rate is the most widely applied service level measure in industry and yet there is minimal advice available on how it should be differentiated on an individual Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) basis given that there is an overall system target service level. The typical approach utilized in

  6. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Beyer, D.; Doerfel, H.; Erlenbach, H.; Fischbach, G.; Henrichs, K.; Keller, K.D.; Koenig, K.; Riedel, W.; Scheler, R.; Schieferdecker, H.

    1994-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [de

  7. FPGA Implementation of Heart Rate Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, D; Rakshit, M; Sahu, P K

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a system that calculates the heart rate from Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. After heart rate calculation, tachycardia, bradycardia or normal heart rate can easily be detected. ECG is a diagnosis tool routinely used to access the electrical activities and muscular function of the heart. Heart rate is calculated by detecting the R peaks from the ECG signal. To provide a portable and the continuous heart rate monitoring system for patients using ECG, needs a dedicated hardware. FPGA provides easy testability, allows faster implementation and verification option for implementing a new design. We have proposed a five-stage based methodology by using basic VHDL blocks like addition, multiplication and data conversion (real to the fixed point and vice-versa). Our proposed heart rate calculation (R-peak detection) method has been validated, using 48 first channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. It shows an accuracy of 99.84%, the sensitivity of 99.94% and the positive predictive value of 99.89%. Our proposed method outperforms other well-known methods in case of pathological ECG signals and successfully implemented in FPGA.

  8. Monitoring current rates of salt dome movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, R.L.; Manning, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The tectonic stability of salt domes is a major concern for long-term domal storage of noxious wastes. A necessary phase of the many faceted dome storage study includes obtaining a measure of current vertical movement of any potential storage dome. This information then can be combined with data obtained from studies involving geologic time scales so as to provide a history of dome movement that includes present time. A system of instrumentation for monitoring current rates of dome movement is described. Complimentary finite element modelling of plausible dome movement also is presented. The proposed instrumentation system includes tiltmeters, precise levelling, laser ranging, and monitoring of microseisms. Thus, components of rotation and vertical and horizontal movements at the ground surface over a dome can be monitored. In addition, a measure of dome movement also may be obtained acoustically. The finite element modelling furnishes an aid for: (1) locating instrument sites over a dome so as to maximize instrument sensitivity, and (2) interpreting data obtained from the instrumentation system. An example of tiltmeter installation and operation over a dome in northwest Louisiana is included. Typical tiltmeter output is presented and discussed

  9. Bluetooth Heart Rate Monitors For Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, R. E.; West, M. R.; Kalogera, K. L.; Hanson, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required for crewmembers during exercise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data are required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health aboard the ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) were worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_HRM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the 2 data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. RESULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6% error), followed by CS4 (3.3% error), CS3 (6.4% error), and CS2 (9.2% error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, but unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to obtain the best quality data. CS2 will be

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across the Mariana Archipelago in 2011 and Retrieved in 2014 (NCEI Accession 0157758)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across American Samoa in 2012 and Retrieved in 2015 (NCEI Accession 0159149)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  12. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010 and Retrieved in 2013 (NCEI Accession 0157722)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  13. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Calcification Rates of Crustose Coralline Algae Derived from Calcification Accretion Units (CAUs) Deployed across American Samoa and the Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Calcification accretion units, or CAUs, are used to assess the current effects of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on calcification and accretion rates of...

  14. TLA-marker for wear rate monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Plostinaru, D.; Ivan, A.; Catana, M.; Roman, M.

    1992-01-01

    A very effective and promising method of wear monitoring in industry is the Thin Layer Activation (TLA) method. The main feature of this technique is the creation of thin radioactive layers on the investigated surface by irradiation of the sample with an accelerated ion beam (protons, deuterons, 3-He). In the present paper we describe an extension of the TLA-Method to produce radioactive markers to be implanted into heavy object which can hardly be transported to an accelerator for direct surface activation. The sensitivity of wear measuring is usually 1% of the actual layer thickness. It is obvious that the TLA technique has a sensitivity about two orders of magnitude higher than the activation in the bulk volume, produced in a nuclear reactor. Controlling the activation depth (80 - 250 microns) we produced different marker sets with sensitivities of 1 - 3 microns. The TLA markers were used to measure the wear rate of railway-car brake disks and of the railroad. The measured data were corroborated with other physical parameters of interest. (Author)

  15. TLA-marker for wear rate monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan-Sion, C; Plostinaru, D; Ivan, A [Institute of Atomic Physics, Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, R-76900 Bucharest, P.O.Box MG-6, (Romania); Catana, M; Roman, M [Institute for Research and Design in Transportation, Bucharest, (Romania)

    1992-01-01

    A very effective and promising method of wear monitoring in industry is the Thin Layer Activation (TLA) method. The main feature of this technique is the creation of thin radioactive layers on the investigated surface by irradiation of the sample with an accelerated ion beam (protons, deuterons, 3-He). In the present paper we describe an extension of the TLA-Method to produce radioactive markers to be implanted into heavy object which can hardly be transported to an accelerator for direct surface activation. The sensitivity of wear measuring is usually 1% of the actual layer thickness. It is obvious that the TLA technique has a sensitivity about two orders of magnitude higher than the activation in the bulk volume, produced in a nuclear reactor. Controlling the activation depth (80 - 250 microns) we produced different marker sets with sensitivities of 1 - 3 microns. The TLA markers were used to measure the wear rate of railway-car brake disks and of the railroad. The measured data were corroborated with other physical parameters of interest. (Author).

  16. Challenges of ECG monitoring and ECG interpretation in dialysis units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, Dimitrios; Malik, Marek

    Patients on hemodialysis (HD) suffer from high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to high rates of coronary artery disease and arrhythmias. Electrocardiography (ECG) is often performed in the dialysis units as part of routine clinical assessment. However, fluid and electrolyte changes have been shown to affect all ECG morphologies and intervals. ECG interpretation thus depends on the time of the recording in relation to the HD session. In addition, arrhythmias during HD are common, and dialysis-related ECG artifacts mimicking arrhythmias have been reported. Studies using advanced ECG analyses have examined the impact of the HD procedure on selected repolarization descriptors and heart rate variability indices. Despite the challenges related to the impact of the fluctuant fluid and electrolyte status on conventional and advanced ECG parameters, further research in ECG monitoring during dialysis has the potential to provide clinically meaningful and practically useful information for diagnostic and risk stratification purposes. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of movable fixed area γ dose rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongyu; Cheng Wen; Li Jikai; Huang Hong; Shen Qiming; Zhang Qiang; Liu Zhengshan

    2005-10-01

    Movable fixed area γ dose rate monitor has not only the characteristics of fixed area γ dose rate monitor, but that of portable meter as well. Its main function is to monitor the areas where dose rate would change without orderliness to prevent unplanned radiation exposure accidents from happening. The design way of the monitor, the main indicators description, the working principle and the comprising of software and hardware are briefly introduced. The monitor has the characteristics of simple installation, easy maintenance, little power consumption, wide range, notability of visual and audible alarm and so on. Its design and technique have novelty and advancement. (authors)

  18. AIR TICKETS RATES MONITORING: INFORMATION SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Smirnov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article conduct analysis of preconditions of air tickets fares dynamics. Monitoring informational system formation in aim of public regulation of air transport on base of an assessment of the current state and development prospects of Russian civil aviation, and formed the conceptual basis for information system architecture at the levels of the presentation layer, business-logic and data access layer.

  19. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  20. Jaguar surveying and monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie

    2016-06-10

    Because of the jaguar’s (Panthera onca) endangered status under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 throughout its range (from Arizona in the north to Argentina in the south), jaguar individuals and populations are monitored to varying degrees throughout their range. Knowledge gained from monitoring jaguars is helpful for wildlife managers who are responsible for conserving this species. The University of Arizona (UA) has conducted a multiyear surveying and monitoring effort for jaguars and ocelots in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The purpose of this work was to establish an effective surveying and monitoring system for jaguars along the United States-Mexico border. Surveying and monitoring in this study focused on the United States side of the border, but the methods could also be used in Mexico. The intent was to develop and implement a surveying and monitoring system that would provide the greatest probability of recording jaguar presence in, and passage through, the border area.

  1. Monitoring water for radioactive releases in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.; Broadway, J.A.; Kahn, B.

    1990-01-01

    The major radiological environmental monitoring programs for water in the United States are described. The applications of these programs for monitoring radioactive fallout, routine discharges from nuclear facilities, and releases due to accidents at such facilities are discussed, and some examples of measurements are presented. The programs monitor rainfall, surface water, and water supplies. Samples are usually collected and analyzed on a monthly or quarterly schedule, but the frequency is increased in response to emergencies. (author)

  2. Monitoring nocturnal heart rate with bed sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, M; Kortelainen, J M; Pärkkä, J; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S L; Bianchi, A M

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Biosignal Interpretation: Advanced Methods for Studying Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems". The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of the estimated Nocturnal Heart Rate (HR), recorded through a bed sensor, compared with the one obtained from standard electrocardiography (ECG). Twenty-eight sleep deprived patients were recorded for one night each through matrix of piezoelectric sensors, integrated into the mattress, through polysomnography (PSG) simultaneously. The two recording methods have been compared in terms of signal quality and differences in heart beat detection. On average, coverage of 92.7% of the total sleep time was obtained for the bed sensor, testifying the good quality of the recordings. The average beat-to-beat error of the inter-beat intervals was 1.06%. These results suggest a good overall signal quality, however, considering fast heart rates (HR > 100 bpm), performances were worse: in fact, the sensitivity in the heart beat detection was 28.4% while the false positive rate was 3.8% which means that a large amount of fast beats were not detected. The accuracy of the measurements made using the bed sensor has less than 10% of failure rate especially in periods with HR lower than 70 bpm. For fast heart beats the uncertainty increases. This can be explained by the change in morphology of the bed sensor signal in correspondence of a higher HR.

  3. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  4. A maintenance policy for two-unit parallel systems based on imperfect monitoring information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Anne [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)]. E-mail: anne.barros@utt.fr; Berenguer, Christophe [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France); Grall, Antoine [Department Genie des Systems Industiels (GSI), Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes, Cedex (France)

    2006-02-01

    In this paper a maintenance policy is optimised for a two-unit system with a parallel structure and stochastic dependences. Monitoring problems are taken into account in the optimisation scheme: the failure time of each unit can be not detected with a given probability. Conditions on the system parameters (unit failure rates) and on the non-detection probabilities must be verified to make the optimisation scheme valid. These conditions are clearly identified. Numerical experiments allow to show the relevance of taking into account monitoring problems in the maintenance model.

  5. A maintenance policy for two-unit parallel systems based on imperfect monitoring information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Anne; Berenguer, Christophe; Grall, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a maintenance policy is optimised for a two-unit system with a parallel structure and stochastic dependences. Monitoring problems are taken into account in the optimisation scheme: the failure time of each unit can be not detected with a given probability. Conditions on the system parameters (unit failure rates) and on the non-detection probabilities must be verified to make the optimisation scheme valid. These conditions are clearly identified. Numerical experiments allow to show the relevance of taking into account monitoring problems in the maintenance model

  6. The principle and data analysis of online monitoring system of containment leak rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunwei; Yang Yongdeng; Qiao Yu; Liang Bo

    2014-01-01

    The use of online monitoring system of containment leak rate (EPP) in Qinshan 2nd nuclear power plant is introduced. When the containment leak rate reaches the operational limit, the system will automatically alarm and inform the unit operator to take the necessary action. But it is found that the EPP will give a mendacious alarm of 'Containment leak rate abnormity' once in a while during use. The mendacious alarm has an effect on the normal operation of the unit. The reason of the mendacious alarm is analyzed. The data monitored by the EPP are relative hysteretic and the veracity of the flow of compressed air into the containment has a significant influence on the data monitored by the EPP. (authors)

  7. Cuff inflation during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Skov-Madsen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Skov-Madsen, My Svensson, Jeppe Hagstrup ChristensenDepartment of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkIntroduction: Twenty four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a clinically validated procedure in evaluation of blood pressure (BP. We hypothesised that the discomfort during cuff inflation would increase the heart rate (HR measured with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring compared to a following HR measurement with a 24-h Holter monitor.Methods: The study population (n = 56 were recruited from the outpatient’s clinic at the Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital at Aalborg, Denmark. All the patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD. We compared HR measured with a 24-h Holter monitor with a following HR measured by a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring.Results: We found a highly significant correlation between the HR measured with the Holter monitor and HR measured with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (r = 0.77, p < 0.001. Using the Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference in HR was only 0.5 beat/min during 24 hours with acceptable limits of agreement for both high and low HR levels. Dividing the patients into groups according to betablocker treatment, body mass index, age, sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment, statins treatment, diuretic treatment, or calcium channel blocker treatment revealed similar results as described above.Conclusion: The results indicate that the discomfort induced by cuff inflation during 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring does not increase HR. Thus, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring may be a reliable measurement of the BP among people with CKD.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Holter monitoring, heart rate, chronic kidney disease, hypertension

  8. The extratemporal lobe epilepsies in the epilepsy monitoring unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Deepa; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETLE) are characterized by the epileptogenic foci outside the temporal lobe. They have a wide spectrum of semiological presentation depending upon the site of origin. They can arise from frontal, parietal, occipital lobes and from hypothalamic hamartoma. We discuss in this review the semiology of different types of ETLE encountered in the epilepsy monitoring unit. PMID:24791090

  9. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  10. Development of miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huilu; Tuo Xianguo; Xi Dashun; Tang Rong; Mu Keliang; Yang Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a miniature γ dose rate monitor with high sensitivity which design based on single chip microcomputer, it can continue monitoring γ dose rate and then choose wire or wireless communications to sent the monitoring data to host according to the actual conditions. It has two kinds of power supply system, AC power supply system and battery which can be chose by concrete circumstances. The design idea and implementation technology of hardware and software and the system structure of the monitor are detailed illustrated in this paper. The experimental results show that measurable range is 0.1 mR/h-200 mR/h, the sensitivity of γ is 90 cps/mR/h, dead time below 200 us, error of stability below ±10%. (authors)

  11. Monitoring corrosion rates and localised corrosion in low conductivity water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of low corrosion rates and localised corrosion in a media with low conductivity is a challenge. In municipal district heating, quality control may be improved by implementing on-line corrosion monitoring if a suitable technique can be identified to measure both uniform and localised...... corrosion. Electrochemical techniques (LPR, EIS, crevice corrosion current) as well as direct measurement techniques (high-sensitive electrical resistance, weight loss) have been applied in operating plants. Changes in the corrosion processes are best monitored in non-aggressive, low conductivity media...

  12. Towards 24/7 continuous heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarniceriu, Adrian; Parak, Jakub; Renevey, Philippe; Nurmi, Marko; Bertschi, Mattia; Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2016-08-01

    Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) carry rich information about physical activity, mental and physical load, physiological status, and health of an individual. When combined with activity monitoring and personalized physiological modelling, HR/HRV monitoring may be used for monitoring of complex behaviors and impact of behaviors and external factors on the current physiological status of an individual. Optical HR monitoring (OHR) from wrist provides a comfortable and unobtrusive method for HR/HRV monitoring and is better adhered by users than traditional ECG electrodes or chest straps. However, OHR power consumption is significantly higher than that for ECG based methods due to the measurement principle based on optical illumination of the tissue. We developed an algorithmic approach to reduce power consumption of the OHR in 24/7 HR trending. We use continuous activity monitoring and a fast converging frequency domain algorithm to derive a reliable HR estimate in 7.1s (during outdoor sports, in average) to 10.0s (during daily life). The method allows >80% reduction in power consumption in 24/7 OHR monitoring when average HR monitoring is targeted, without significant reduction in tracking accuracy.

  13. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Enabled Body Sensor Network for Self-Powered Human Heart-Rate Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiming; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiaoshi; Zhou, Zhihao; Meng, Keyu; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jin; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-26

    Heart-rate monitoring plays a critical role in personal healthcare management. A low-cost, noninvasive, and user-friendly heart-rate monitoring system is highly desirable. Here, a self-powered wireless body sensor network (BSN) system is developed for heart-rate monitoring via integration of a downy-structure-based triboelectric nanogenerator (D-TENG), a power management circuit, a heart-rate sensor, a signal processing unit, and Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission. By converting the inertia energy of human walking into electric power, a maximum power of 2.28 mW with total conversion efficiency of 57.9% was delivered at low operation frequency, which is capable of immediately and sustainably driving the highly integrated BSN system. The acquired heart-rate signal by the sensor would be processed in the signal process circuit, sent to an external device via the Bluetooth module, and displayed on a personal cell phone in a real-time manner. Moreover, by combining a TENG-based generator and a TENG-based sensor, an all-TENG-based wireless BSN system was developed, realizing continuous and self-powered heart-rate monitoring. This work presents a potential method for personal heart-rate monitoring, featured as being self-powered, cost-effective, noninvasive, and user-friendly.

  14. Longterm monitoring of ambient dose equivalent rates at aviation altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, B.; Burmeister, S.; Moeller, T.; Scharrenberg, E. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Briese, J. [Deutsche Lufthansa AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Burda, O.; Klages, T.; Langner, F.; Marquardt, J.; Wissmann, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig Germany (Germany); Matthiae, D.; Reitz, G. [German Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Linder Hoehe, 51147 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The complex radiation field at flight altitudes results mainly from the interaction of energetic charged particles with atmospheric molecules and atoms and consists of secondary neutrons, protons, gamma rays, electrons, positrons and muons. Due to the continuous interactions of primary and secondary particles within the atmosphere, the intensity of each component depends on the height. Since the Earth's magnetic field acts as rigidity filter for the charged primary particles, the flux of the primary particles into the atmosphere and the resulting intensity of secondary particles depend on the geomagnetic latitude being highest over the geomagnetic poles. The main primary component consists of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), mainly protons and alpha particles, whose flux is modulated in the heliosphere. Beside this slowly varying galactic component, solar energetic particle events may temporarily increase the intensity of this radiation field. In the frame of the Radiation Monitoring on Board Aircraft (RAMONA) collaboration, three NAVIgation and DOSimetry (NAVIDOS) systems were installed in 2008 and 2009 on board of three Lufthansa Airbus A340 aircraft. They have been maintained since then by the consortium. Two of the NAVIDOS units rely on the DOSimetry TELescopes (DOSTELs), one is based on a LIULIN detector. This unique setup is ideally suited to investigate variations in the radiation field at different flight altitudes and geomagnetic positions and has been used to measure the radiation exposure during the recent extended solar minimum and thereafter. With increasing solar activity in 2010 the measured dose rates have been decreasing. Since these variations depend on the location of the aircraft, a detailed data analysis is required and presented.

  15. First Results of the LHC Collision Rate Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, S; Bart Pedersen, S; Boccardi, A; Dutriat, C; Miyamoto, R; Doolittle, L; Matis, H S; Placidi, M; Ratti, A; Stezelberger, T; Yaver, H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of CERN large hadron collider (LHC) is to collide protons and heavy ions with centre of mass energies up to 14 zTeV. In order to monitor and optimize the collision rates special detectors have been developed and installed around the four luminous interaction regions. Due to the different conditions at the high luminosity experiments (ATLAS and CMS) and the low luminosity experiments (ALICE and LHC-b) two very different types of monitors are used: a fast ionisation chamber (BRAN-A) and a Cd-Te solid state detector (BRAN-B respectively. Moreover, in order to cope with the low collision rates foreseen for the initial run, a third type of monitor, based on a simple scintillating pad, was installed in parallel with the BRAN-A (BRAN-P). This contribution illustrates the results obtained during the 2010 run with an outlook for 2011 and beyond.

  16. Heart Rate Monitors Promote Physical Education for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Jan; Sander, Allan N.

    2004-01-01

    National health and fitness data suggests that a significant percentage of children are not on a pathway to leading healthy, physically active lifestyles. Many children are leading sedentary lifestyles due to a lack of opportunity, success, or self-motivation in physical activity. Programs that highlight the use of heart rate monitors offer a…

  17. A high arctic experience of uniting research and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring is science keeping our thumb on the pulse of the environment to detect any changes of concern for societies. Basic science is the question-driven search for fundamental processes and mechanisms. Given the firm root of monitoring in human interests and needs, basic sciences have often been regarded as scientifically "purer"—particularly within university-based research communities. We argue that the dichotomy between "research" and "monitoring" is an artificial one, and that this artificial split clouds the definition of scientific goals and leads to suboptimal use of resources. We claim that the synergy between the two scientific approaches is well distilled by science conducted under extreme logistic constraints, when scientists are forced to take full advantage of both the data and the infrastructure available. In evidence of this view, we present our experiences from two decades of uniting research and monitoring at the remote research facility Zackenberg in High Arctic Greenland. For this site, we show how the combination of insights from monitoring with the mechanistic understanding obtained from basic research has yielded the most complete understanding of the system—to the benefit of all, and as an example to follow. We therefore urge scientists from across the continuum from monitoring to research to come together, to disregard old division lines, and to work together to expose a comprehensive picture of ecosystem change and its consequences.

  18. Converter Monitoring Unit for Retrofit of Wind Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannestad, Bjorn; Maarbjerg, Anders Eggert; Frederiksen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    A Converter Monitoring Unit (CMU), which will enable condition monitoring of wind turbine converters is presented in this paper. Reducing the cost of corrective maintenance by means of condition monitoring is a way of lowering Operation & Maintenance (O&M) costs for wind turbine systems....... The CMU must be able to detect a broad range of failure modes related to Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules and associated gate drives. IGBT collector-emitter on-state voltage (vceon) and current (ic) is sampled in the CMU and used for detection of emerging failures. A new method...... for compensation of unwanted inductive voltage drop in the vceon measurement path is presented, enabling retrofitting of CMUs in existing wind turbines. Finally, experimental results obtained on a prototype CMU are presented. Experimentally the vceon dependency to IGBT junction temperature and deterioration...

  19. Enhanced dynamic wedge and independent monitor unit verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, SJ.

    2005-01-01

    Some serious radiation accidents have occurred around the world during the delivery of radiotherapy treatment. The regrettable incident in Panama clearly indicated the need for independent monitor unit (MU) verification. Indeed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), after investigating the incident, made specific recommendations for radiotherapy centres which included an independent monitor unit check for all treatments. Independent monitor unit verification is practiced in many radiotherapy centres in developed countries around the world. It is mandatory in USA but not yet in Australia. This paper describes development of an independent MU program, concentrating on the implementation of the Enhanced Dynamic Wedge (EDW) component. The difficult case of non centre of field (COF) calculation points under the EDW was studied in some detail. Results of a survey of Australasian centres regarding the use of independent MU check systems is also presented. The system was developed with reference to MU calculations made by Pinnacle 3 D Radiotherapy Treatment Planning (RTP) system (ADAC - Philips) for 4MV, 6MV and 18MV X-ray beams used at the Newcastle Mater Misericordiae Hospital (NMMH) in the clinical environment. A small systematic error was detected in the equation used for the EDW calculations. Results indicate that COF equations may be used in the non COF situation with similar accuracy to that achieved with profile corrected methods. Further collaborative work with other centres is planned to extend these findings

  20. Comparison of monitor units calculated by radiotherapy treatment planning system and an independent monitor unit verification software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellakumar, P; Arun, C; Sanjay, S S; Ramesh, S B

    2011-01-01

    In radiation therapy, the monitor units (MU) needed to deliver a treatment plan are calculated by treatment planning systems (TPS). The essential part of quality assurance is to verify the MU with independent monitor unit calculation to correct any potential errors prior to the start of treatment. In this study, we have compared the MU calculated by TPS and by independent MU verification software. The MU verification software was commissioned and tested for the data integrity to ensure that the correct beam data was considered for MU calculations. The accuracy of the calculations was tested by creating a series of test plans and comparing them with ion chamber measurements. The results show that there is good agreement between the two. The MU difference (MUdiff) between the monitor unit calculations of TPS and independent MU verification system was calculated for 623 fields from 245 patients and was analyzed by treatment site for head & neck, thorax, breast, abdomen and pelvis. The mean MUdiff of -0.838% with a standard deviation of 3.04% was observed for all 623 fields. The site specific standard deviation of MUdiff was as follows: abdomen and pelvis (<1.75%), head & neck (2.5%), thorax (2.32%) and breast (6.01%). The disparities were analyzed and different correction methods were used to reduce the disparity. © 2010 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship of motor unit size, firing rate and force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwit, R A; Stashuk, D; Tracy, B; McHugh, M; Brown, W F; Metter, E J

    1999-07-01

    Using a clinical electromyographic (EMG) protocol, motor units were sampled from the quadriceps femoris during isometric contractions at fixed force levels to examine how average motor unit size and firing rate relate to force generation. Mean firing rates (mFRs) and sizes (mean surface-detected motor unit action potential (mS-MUAP) area) of samples of active motor units were assessed at various force levels in 79 subjects. MS-MUAP size increased linearly with increased force generation, while mFR remained relatively constant up to 30% of a maximal force and increased appreciably only at higher force levels. A relationship was found between muscle force and mS-MUAP area (r2 = 0.67), mFR (r2 = 0.38), and the product of mS-MUAP area and mFR (mS-MUAP x mFR) (r2 = 0.70). The results support the hypothesis that motor units are recruited in an orderly manner during forceful contractions, and that in large muscles only at higher levels of contraction ( > 30% MVC) do mFRs increase appreciably. MS-MUAP and mFR can be assessed using clinical EMG techniques and they may provide a physiological basis for analyzing the role of motor units during muscle force generation.

  2. Wearable Sweat Rate Sensors for Human Thermal Comfort Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2018-01-19

    We propose watch-type sweat rate sensors capable of automatic natural ventilation by integrating miniaturized thermo-pneumatic actuators, and experimentally verify their performances and applicability. Previous sensors using natural ventilation require manual ventilation process or high-power bulky thermo-pneumatic actuators to lift sweat rate detection chambers above skin for continuous measurement. The proposed watch-type sweat rate sensors reduce operation power by minimizing expansion fluid volume to 0.4 ml through heat circuit modeling. The proposed sensors reduce operation power to 12.8% and weight to 47.6% compared to previous portable sensors, operating for 4 hours at 6 V batteries. Human experiment for thermal comfort monitoring is performed by using the proposed sensors having sensitivity of 0.039 (pF/s)/(g/m 2 h) and linearity of 97.9% in human sweat rate range. Average sweat rate difference for each thermal status measured in three subjects shows (32.06 ± 27.19) g/m 2 h in thermal statuses including 'comfortable', 'slightly warm', 'warm', and 'hot'. The proposed sensors thereby can discriminate and compare four stages of thermal status. Sweat rate measurement error of the proposed sensors is less than 10% under air velocity of 1.5 m/s corresponding to human walking speed. The proposed sensors are applicable for wearable and portable use, having potentials for daily thermal comfort monitoring applications.

  3. Installation and commissioning of instantaneous dose rate monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Iaydjiev, Plamen

    2018-01-01

    INRNE-Sofia was working on the installation and commissioning of new instantaneous dose rate monitoring system for the GIF++ facility at CERN. The final device, containing an 8-channels readout board was designed and tested at the CERN facility during November 2017, in an irradiation campaign supported by the AIDA-2020 TA program. The system is designed to be fully integrated in the GIF++ control system and the data measured are available to the users.

  4. Treatment of fluctuations of startup rates for core subcriticality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos de Abreu; Martinez, Aquilino Senra

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is presented a method to eliminate the variations in the source and intermediate range count rate, which are used for the on-line and real time monitoring of the critical safety function Subcriticality. The method may be applied to a safety parameters display system, because it is very simple and precise, which it will not affect the real time requirements of such systems. Variations in the count range could cause a temporary positive startup rate, that could lead to incorrect addressing of function restoration guideline. (author)

  5. Heart Rate Monitor for Portable MP3 Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaywoo; Lee, Mi-Hee; Lee, Hyoung-Ki; Choi, Kiwan; Bang, Seokwon; Kim, Sangryong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a photoplethysmography sensor based on a heart rate monitor for a portable MP3 player. Two major design issues are addressed: one is to acquire the sensor signal with a proper amplitude despite a wide range of variation and the other is to handle the noise contaminated signal which is caused by a motion artifact. A benchmarking test with a professional medical photoplethysmography sensor shows that our device performs very well in calculating heart rate even though our photoplethysmography sensor module was designed to be cost effective.

  6. Asymptotic failure rate of a continuously monitored system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grall, A.; Dieulle, L.; Berenguer, C.; Roussignol, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with a perfectly continuously monitored system which gradually and stochastically deteriorates. The system is renewed by a delayed maintenance operation, which is triggered when the measured deterioration level exceeds an alarm threshold. A mathematical model is developed to study the asymptotic behavior of the reliability function. A procedure is proposed which allows us to identify the asymptotic failure rate of the maintained system. Numerical experiments illustrate the efficiency of the proposed procedure and emphasize the relevance of the asymptotic failure rate as an interesting indicator for the evaluation of the control-limit preventive replacement policy

  7. Asymptotic failure rate of a continuously monitored system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grall, A. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: antoine.grall@utt.fr; Dieulle, L. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: laurence.dieulle@utt.fr; Berenguer, C. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.fr; Roussignol, M. [Laboratoire d' Analyse et de Mathematiques Appliquees, Universite de Marne la Vallee, 5 bd Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77454 Marne la Vallee, Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: michel.roussignol@univ-mlv.fr

    2006-02-01

    This paper deals with a perfectly continuously monitored system which gradually and stochastically deteriorates. The system is renewed by a delayed maintenance operation, which is triggered when the measured deterioration level exceeds an alarm threshold. A mathematical model is developed to study the asymptotic behavior of the reliability function. A procedure is proposed which allows us to identify the asymptotic failure rate of the maintained system. Numerical experiments illustrate the efficiency of the proposed procedure and emphasize the relevance of the asymptotic failure rate as an interesting indicator for the evaluation of the control-limit preventive replacement policy.

  8. Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation in the United States, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Ewert, John W.; Ramsey, David W.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Schilling, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is one of the most volcanically active countries in the world. According to the global volcanism database of the Smithsonian Institution, the United States (including its Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) is home to about 170 volcanoes that are in an eruptive phase, have erupted in historical time, or have not erupted recently but are young enough (eruptions within the past 10,000 years) to be capable of reawakening. From 1980 through 2008, 30 of these volcanoes erupted, several repeatedly. Volcano monitoring in the United States is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program, which operates a system of five volcano observatories-Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). The observatories issue public alerts about conditions and hazards at U.S. volcanoes in support of the USGS mandate under P.L. 93-288 (Stafford Act) to provide timely warnings of potential volcanic disasters to the affected populace and civil authorities. To make efficient use of the Nation's scientific resources, the volcano observatories operate in partnership with universities and other governmental agencies through various formal agreements. The Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories (CUSVO) was established in 2001 to promote scientific cooperation among the Federal, academic, and State agencies involved in observatory operations. Other groups also contribute to volcano monitoring by sponsoring long-term installation of geophysical instruments at some volcanoes for specific research projects. This report describes a database of information about permanently installed ground-based instruments used by the U.S. volcano observatories to monitor volcanic activity (unrest and eruptions). The purposes of this Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation Database (VMID) are to (1) document the Nation's existing

  9. Emergency radiological monitoring and analysis United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. Following a major radiological incident the FRERP authorizes the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). The FRMAC is established to coordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted states and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for coordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis and quality assurance. This program includes: (1) Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed Wing and Helicopter, (2) Field Monitoring and Sampling, (3) Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories, (4) Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance, (5) Environmental Dosimetry, and (6) An integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures handbook is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets and operations of FRMAC monitoring and analysis and the content and preparation of this handbook

  10. Exposure rates from concrete covered cylindrical units containing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1983-03-01

    Exposure rates from cylindrical waste units containing the nuclides 60 Co, 134 Cs and 137 Cs homogeneously mixed in a solidification product have been calculated. Analyses have been made for single drums and for two disposal geometries, one with the units placed below ground near the surface in a circular geometry, and one with the units placed on the ground in a pile behind a concrete wall. Due to self-shielding of the units, the exposure rate from the two geometries will be a factor of only 10 - 20 higher than from a single unit, even without soil or wall shielding. With one meter of soil above the circular pile below ground, a reduction factor of 5.10 3 to 5.10 4 can be achieved, depending on the nuclide considered. Placing a one-meter concrete wall in front of the drum pile on the ground gives rise to a reduction factor in the range of 5.10 5 to 2.10 7 . (author)

  11. Portable and fixed monitoring units for tank calibrations and monitoring of process liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landat, D.A.; Hunt, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    The development work stems from safeguards support activities carried out at the JRC Ispra, Italy to the inspectorate agencies. A range of measurement equipment covering the needs of the inspector have been designed, developed and tested in both the laboratory and in nuclear facilities. The instruments comprise four units: (1) a portable pressure measurement device, (2) a volume long term monitoring device, (3) an unattended volume measurement system and (4) a level measurement unit. Utilization of the equipment has proven to give independent measurement checks and confirmation of operator's instrumentation and declarations, ensuring continuity of knowledge. (J.P.N.)

  12. M rate at TE. Monitoring at TeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gonzalez, Magdalena; Alfaro, Ruben [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Tovmassian, Gagik [Instituto de Astronomia Sede Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-07-01

    A dedicated long-term monitoring programm at TeV energies has been started by the FACT project about four years ago. Being limited to one site, gaps due to the rotation of the Earth remain in the measured light curves. This makes it difficult to study typical variability time scales of few hours to one day. To allow for systematic studies of continuous observations over up to 12 hours, a second telescope is being installed at a site in about six hours distance in longitude. For the M rate at TE (Monitoring at TeV energies) telescope, a mount from a previous experiment is being refurbished and will be equipped with a new camera. Using silicon based photo sensors like in FACT, an excellent and stable performance will be achieved. M rate at TE is a joint project of German and Mexican universities which aims at extending the blazar monitoring to so far unexplored time ranges. In the presentation, the status of this emerging project is reported.

  13. Onboard monitoring of fatigue damage rates in the hull girder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2011-01-01

    Most new advanced ships have extensive data collection systems to be used for continuous monitoring of engine and hull performance, for voyage performance evaluation etc. Such systems could be expanded to include also procedures for stress monitoring and for decision support, where the most...... critical wave-induced ship extreme responses and fatigue damage accumulation can be estimated for hypothetical changes in ship course and speed in the automatically estimated wave environment.The aim of this paper is to outline a calculation procedure for fatigue damage rate prediction in hull girders...... taking into account whipping stresses. It is conceptually shown how such a method, which integrates onboard estimation of sea states, can be used to deduce decision support with respect to the accumulated fatigue damage in the hull girder.The paper firstly presents a set of measured full-scale wave...

  14. Rate-based structural health monitoring using permanently installed sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Permanently installed sensors are becoming increasingly ubiquitous, facilitating very frequent in situ measurements and consequently improved monitoring of `trends' in the observed system behaviour. It is proposed that this newly available data may be used to provide prior warning and forecasting of critical events, particularly system failure. Numerous damage mechanisms are examples of positive feedback; they are `self-accelerating' with an increasing rate of damage towards failure. The positive feedback leads to a common time-response behaviour which may be described by an empirical relation allowing prediction of the time to criticality. This study focuses on Structural Health Monitoring of engineering components; failure times are projected well in advance of failure for fatigue, creep crack growth and volumetric creep damage experiments. The proposed methodology provides a widely applicable framework for using newly available near-continuous data from permanently installed sensors to predict time until failure in a range of application areas including engineering, geophysics and medicine.

  15. Development and evaluation of an instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeld, F.; Jeanjaquet, S. L.; Kendig, M. W.; Roe, D. K.

    1985-06-01

    A research program was carried out in which a new instantaneous atmospheric corrosion rate monitor (ACRM) was developed and evaluated, and equipment was constructed which will allow the use of many sensors in an economical way in outdoor exposures. In the first task, the ACRM was developed and tested in flow chambers in which relative humidity and gaseous and particulate pollutant levels can be controlled. Diurnal cycles and periods of rain were simulated. The effects of aerosols were studied. A computerized system was used for collection, storage, and analysis of the electrochemical data. In the second task, a relatively inexpensive electronics system for control of the ACRM and measurement of atmospheric corrosion rates was designed and built. In the third task, calibration of deterioration rates of various metallic and nonmetallic materials with the response of the ACRMs attached to these materials was carried out under controlled environmental conditions using the system developed in the second task. A Quality Assurance project plan was prepared with inputs from the Rockwell International Environmental Monitoring and Service Center and Quality Assurance System audits were performed.

  16. Zinc injection on the EDF fleet monitoring the injection on 12 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Meur, Gaelle Harmand; Anne-Marie; Stutzmann, Agnes; Taunier, Stephane; Benfarah, Moez; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Alain, Rocher; Claeys, Myriam; Bonne, Sebastien

    2012-09-01

    After a first implementation of zinc injection at Bugey 2 and Bugey 4, EDF decided to extend the program to other units of its fleet. 14 more reactors from the French fleet of 58 were chosen in order to - Reduce the radiation sources for curative or preventive (after SGR) reasons - Mitigate stress corrosion cracking on nickel alloys and reduce the rate of generalized corrosion - Prevent the risk of CIPS, mainly after a fuel management change. Zinc injection started on 9 new units in 2011, 1 unit in 2012 and will be extended to 4 other units before the end of 2013. To monitor the injection, EDF has defined a complete program concerning chemistry, radiation protection (dose rate and deposited activities measurements), materials (statistical analysis of SG tube cracks), fuel (oxide measurements) and waste (radiochemical characterization of filters). Reference units were chosen for each field because of the size of the fleet. This paper will detail the different monitoring programs on the EDF plants injecting zinc. (authors)

  17. Digital Heart-Rate Variability Parameter Monitoring and Assessment ASIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massagram, W; Hafner, N; Mingqi Chen; Macchiarulo, L; Lubecke, V M; Boric-Lubecke, O

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes experimental results for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), designed for digital heart rate variability (HRV) parameter monitoring and assessment. This ASIC chip measures beat-to-beat (RR) intervals and stores HRV parameters into its internal memory in real time. A wide range of short-term and long-term ECG signals obtained from Physionet was used for testing. The system detects R peaks with millisecond accuracy, and stores up to 2 min of continuous RR interval data and up to 4 min of RR interval histogram. The prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.5 ¿m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology on a 3×3 mm(2) die area, with a measured dynamic power consumption of 10 ¿W and measured leakage current of 2.62 nA. The HRV monitoring system including this HRV ASIC, an analog-to-digital converter, and a low complexity microcontroller was estimated to consume 32.5 ¿V, which is seven times lower power than a stand-alone microcontroller performing the same functions. Compact size, low cost, and low power consumption make this chip suitable for a miniaturized portable HRV monitoring system.

  18. Double electrolyte sensor for monitoring hydrogen permeation rate in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaihua College, Huaihua 418008 (China); Yu, G., E-mail: yuganghnu@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ou, A.L.; Hu, L.; Xu, W.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Designed an amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes. {yields} Explained the principle of determining hydrogen permeation rate. {yields} Verified good stability, reproducibility and correctness of the developed sensor. {yields} Field on-line monitoring the susceptivity of hydrogen induced cracks. - Abstract: An amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes composed of a gelatiniform electrolyte and KOH solution has been developed to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen atoms in steel equipment owing to hydrogen corrosion. The gelatiniform electrolyte was made of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS), carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2 mol dm{sup -3} KOH solution. The results show that the gelatiniform electrolyte containing 50 wt.% polymers has suitable viscosity and high electrical conductivity. The consistent permeation curves were detected by the sensor of the double electrolyte and single liquid KOH electrolyte, respectively. The developed sensor has good stability and reproducibility at room temperature.

  19. Double electrolyte sensor for monitoring hydrogen permeation rate in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Y.J.; Yu, G.; Ou, A.L.; Hu, L.; Xu, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Designed an amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes. → Explained the principle of determining hydrogen permeation rate. → Verified good stability, reproducibility and correctness of the developed sensor. → Field on-line monitoring the susceptivity of hydrogen induced cracks. - Abstract: An amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes composed of a gelatiniform electrolyte and KOH solution has been developed to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen atoms in steel equipment owing to hydrogen corrosion. The gelatiniform electrolyte was made of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS), carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2 mol dm -3 KOH solution. The results show that the gelatiniform electrolyte containing 50 wt.% polymers has suitable viscosity and high electrical conductivity. The consistent permeation curves were detected by the sensor of the double electrolyte and single liquid KOH electrolyte, respectively. The developed sensor has good stability and reproducibility at room temperature.

  20. Rate Predictions and Trigger/DAQ Resource Monitoring in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, D M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Since starting in 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has pro- duced collisions at an ever increasing rate. The ATLAS experiment successfully records the collision data with high eciency and excel- lent data quality. Events are selected using a three-level trigger system, where each level makes a more re ned selection. The level-1 trigger (L1) consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger which seeds two higher software based trigger levels. Over 300 triggers compose a trig- ger menu which selects physics signatures such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. Each trigger consumes computing resources of the ATLAS trigger system and oine storage. The LHC instantaneous luminosity conditions, desired physics goals of the collaboration, and the limits of the trigger infrastructure determine the composition of the ATLAS trigger menu. We describe a trigger monitoring frame- work for computing the costs of individual trigger algorithms such as data request rates and CPU consumption. This framework has been used...

  1. Bluetooth(Registered Trademark) Heart Rate Monitors for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; West, Michael R.; Kalogera, Kent L.; Hanson, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is required during exercise for crewmembers aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be for future exploration missions. The cardiovascular system must be sufficiently stressed throughout a mission to maintain the ability to perform nominal and contingency/emergency tasks. High quality heart rate data is required to accurately determine the intensity of exercise performed by the crewmembers and show maintenance of VO2max. The quality of the data collected on ISS is subject to multiple limitations and is insufficient to meet current requirements. PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of commercially available Bluetooth® heart rate monitors (BT_HRM) and their ability to provide high quality heart rate data to monitor crew health on board ISS and during future exploration missions. METHODS: Nineteen subjects completed 30 data collection sessions of various intensities on the treadmill and/or cycle. Subjects wore several BT_HRM technologies for each testing session. One electrode-based chest strap (CS) was worn, while one or more optical sensors (OS) was worn. Subjects were instrumented with a 12-lead ECG to compare the heart rate data from the Bluetooth sensors. Each BT_RHM data set was time matched to the ECG data and a +/-5bpm threshold was applied to the difference between the two data sets. Percent error was calculated based on the number of data points outside the threshold and the total number of data points. REULTS: The electrode-based chest straps performed better than the optical sensors. The best performing CS was CS1 (1.6%error), followed by CS4 (3.3%error), CS3 (6.4%error), and CS2 (9.2%error). The OS resulted in 10.4% error for OS1 and 14.9% error for OS2. CONCLUSIONS: The highest quality data came from CS1, unfortunately it has been discontinued by the manufacturer. The optical sensors have not been ruled out for use, but more investigation is needed to determine how to get the best quality data. CS2 will be used in an

  2. Enhanced dynamic wedge and independent monitor unit verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, S.J.; University of Newcastle, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Some serious radiation accidents have occurred around the world during the delivery of radiotherapy treatment. The regrettable incident in Panama clearly indicated the need for independent monitor unit (MU) verification. Indeed the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), after investigating the incident, made specific recommendations for radiotherapy centres which included an independent monitor unit check for all treatments. Independent monitor unit verification is practiced in many radiotherapy centres in developed countries around the world. It is mandatory in USA but not yet in Australia. The enhanced dynamic wedge factor (EDWF) presents some significant problems in accurate MU calculation, particularly in the case of non centre of field position (COF). This paper describes development of an independent MU program, concentrating on the implementation of the EDW component. The difficult case of non COF points under the EDW was studied in detail. A survey of Australasian centres regarding the use of independent MU check systems was conducted. The MUCalculator was developed with reference to MU calculations made by Pinnacle 3D RTP system (Philips) for 4MV, 6MV and 18MV X-ray beams from Varian machines used at the Newcastle Mater Misericordiae Hospital (NMMH) in the clinical environment. Ionisation chamber measurements in solid water TM and liquid water were performed based on a published test data set. Published algorithms combined with a depth dependent profile correction were applied in an attempt to match measured data with maximum accuracy. The survey results are presented. Substantial data is presented in tabular form and extensive comparison with published data. Several different methods for calculating EDWF are examined. A small systematic error was detected in the Gibbon equation used for the EDW calculations. Generally, calculations were within +2% of measured values, although some setups exceeded this variation. Results indicate that COF

  3. Unconstrained monitoring of long-term heart and breath rates during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wenxi; Zhu, Xin; Wei, Daming; Nemoto, Tetsu; Sugitani, Kayo; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro

    2008-01-01

    An unconstrained method for the long-term monitoring of heart and breath rates during sleep is proposed. The system includes a sensor unit and a web-based network module. The sensor unit is set beneath a pillow to pick up the pressure variations from the head induced by inhalation/exhalation movements and heart pulsation during sleep. The measured pressure signal was digitized and transferred to a remote database server via the network module. A wavelet-based algorithm was employed to detect the heart and breath rates, as well as body movement, during sleep. The overall system was utilized for a total six-month trial operation delivered to a female subject. The profiles of the heart and breath rates on a beat-by-beat and daily basis were obtained. Movements during sleep were also estimated. The results show that the daily average percentage of undetectable periods (UPs) during 881.6 sleep hours over a 180 day period was 17.2%. A total of 89.2% of sleep hours had a UP of not more than 25%. The profile of the heart rate revealed a periodic property that corresponded to the female monthly menstrual cycle. Our system shows promise as a long-term unconstrained monitor for heart and breath rates, and for other physiological parameters related to the quality of sleep and the regularity of the menstrual cycle. (note)

  4. QRS peak detection for heart rate monitoring on Android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambudi Utomo, Trio; Nuryani, Nuryani; Darmanto

    2017-11-01

    In this study, Android smartphone is used for heart rate monitoring and displaying electrocardiogram (ECG) graph. Heart rate determination is based on QRS peak detection. Two methods are studied to detect the QRS complex peak; they are Peak Threshold and Peak Filter. The acquisition of ECG data is utilized by AD8232 module from Analog Devices, three electrodes, and Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3. To record the ECG data from a patient, three electrodes are attached to particular body’s surface of a patient. Patient’s heart activity which is recorded by AD8232 module is decoded by Arduino UNO R3 into analog data. Then, the analog data is converted into a voltage value (mV) and is processed to get the QRS complex peak. Heart rate value is calculated by Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3 uses the QRS complex peak. Voltage, heart rate, and the QRS complex peak are sent to Android smartphone by Bluetooth HC-05. ECG data is displayed as the graph by Android smartphone. To evaluate the performance of QRS complex peak detection method, three parameters are used; they are positive predictive, accuracy and sensitivity. Positive predictive, accuracy, and sensitivity of Peak Threshold method is 92.39%, 70.30%, 74.62% and for Peak Filter method are 98.38%, 82.47%, 83.61%, respectively.

  5. Safe and effective error rate monitors for SS7 signaling links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Douglas C.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes SS7 error monitor characteristics, discusses the existing SUERM (Signal Unit Error Rate Monitor), and develops the recently proposed EIM (Error Interval Monitor) for higher speed SS7 links. A SS7 error monitor is considered safe if it ensures acceptable link quality and is considered effective if it is tolerant to short-term phenomena. Formal criteria for safe and effective error monitors are formulated in this paper. This paper develops models of changeover transients, the unstable component of queue length resulting from errors. These models are in the form of recursive digital filters. Time is divided into sequential intervals. The filter's input is the number of errors which have occurred in each interval. The output is the corresponding change in transmit queue length. Engineered EIM's are constructed by comparing an estimated changeover transient with a threshold T using a transient model modified to enforce SS7 standards. When this estimate exceeds T, a changeover will be initiated and the link will be removed from service. EIM's can be differentiated from SUERM by the fact that EIM's monitor errors over an interval while SUERM's count errored messages. EIM's offer several advantages over SUERM's, including the fact that they are safe and effective, impose uniform standards in link quality, are easily implemented, and make minimal use of real-time resources.

  6. Environmental gamma dose rate monitoring along Mumbai-Pune route using environmental radiation monitor with navigational aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, N.; Kale, M.S.; Raman, N.; Krishnamachari, G.; Harikumar, M.; Sharma, D.N.; Mehta, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A continuous environmental radiation monitor with navigational aid (ERMNA) for mapping natural gamma radiation background on country wide scale by deployment in railway coaches, has been designed. The system makes use of Indian railway network which is one of the widest network of railways in the world covering nearly complete length and breadth of the country. The system uses an energy compensated (within ± 30%) GN detectors for measurement of environmental dose rate due to natural background, a global positioning system (GPS) for on-line acquisition of positional co-ordinates (longitude and latitude) and an 8085 based data acquisition and processing unit. This system is deployed in guard's cabin of a train. The dose rate data tagged with positional co-ordinates and collected by the system during train journey is down loaded into a Lap Top PC for storage, analysis and graphical representation. The system has been used for background monitoring between Mumbai and Pune. The dose rates recorded over a period of three months ranging from November 1996 to February 1997 along the route show no change in the values which vary from 4 μr/h to 6 μR/h along the route. It drops down to <3 μR/h within tunnels en route. (author)

  7. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    A by-pass unit suitable for placement of a number of different probes for corrosion monitoring has been designed. Also measurements of water parameters are allowed in a side stream from the unit. The project is a part of the Nordic Innovation Fund project KORMOF. The by-pass unit has been installed...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...

  8. Monitor units are not predictive of neutron dose for high-energy IMRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hälg Roger A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the substantial increase in beam-on time of high energy intensity-modulated radiotherapy (>10 MV techniques to deliver the same target dose compared to conventional treatment techniques, an increased dose of scatter radiation, including neutrons, is delivered to the patient. As a consequence, an increase in second malignancies may be expected in the future with the application of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. It is commonly assumed that the neutron dose equivalent scales with the number of monitor units. Methods Measurements of neutron dose equivalent were performed for an open and an intensity-modulated field at four positions: inside and outside of the treatment field at 0.2 cm and 15 cm depth, respectively. Results It was shown that the neutron dose equivalent, which a patient receives during an intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment, does not scale with the ratio of applied monitor units relative to an open field irradiation. Outside the treatment volume at larger depth 35% less neutron dose equivalent is delivered than expected. Conclusions The predicted increase of second cancer induction rates from intensity-modulated treatment techniques can be overestimated when the neutron dose is simply scaled with monitor units.

  9. Accuracy of acoustic respiration rate monitoring in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Mario; Redford, Daniel T; Quigley, Thomas W; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Kurth, C Dean; Szmuk, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Rainbow acoustic monitoring (RRa) utilizes acoustic technology to continuously and noninvasively determine respiratory rate from an adhesive sensor located on the neck. We sought to validate the accuracy of RRa, by comparing it to capnography, impedance pneumography, and to a reference method of counting breaths in postsurgical children. Continuous respiration rate data were recorded from RRa and capnography. In a subset of patients, intermittent respiration rate from thoracic impedance pneumography was also recorded. The reference method, counted respiratory rate by the retrospective analysis of the RRa, and capnographic waveforms while listening to recorded breath sounds were used to compare respiration rate of both capnography and RRa. Bias, precision, and limits of agreement of RRa compared with capnography and RRa and capnography compared with the reference method were calculated. Tolerance and reliability to the acoustic sensor and nasal cannula were also assessed. Thirty-nine of 40 patients (97.5%) demonstrated good tolerance of the acoustic sensor, whereas 25 of 40 patients (62.5%) demonstrated good tolerance of the nasal cannula. Intermittent thoracic impedance produced erroneous respiratory rates (>50 b·min(-1) from the other methods) on 47% of occasions. The bias ± SD and limits of agreement were -0.30 ± 3.5 b·min(-1) and -7.3 to 6.6 b·min(-1) for RRa compared with capnography; -0.1 ± 2.5 b·min(-1) and -5.0 to 5.0 b·min(-1) for RRa compared with the reference method; and 0.2 ± 3.4 b·min(-1) and -6.8 to 6.7 b·min(-1) for capnography compared with the reference method. When compared to nasal capnography, RRa showed good agreement and similar accuracy and precision but was better tolerated in postsurgical pediatric patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Requirements for internal contamination monitoring units; Anforderungen an Inkorporationsmessstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, E. [GSF, Inst. fuer Biophysikalische Strahlenforschung, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Beyer, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Abt. ASS (Germany); Doerfel, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Erlenbach, H. [Zentralstelle fuer Sicherheitstechnik NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fischbach, G. [Siemens Brennelementewerk, Hanau (Germany); Henrichs, K. [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Keller, K.D. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Tuebingen (Germany); Koenig, K. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, ISH, Neuherberg (Germany); Riedel, W. [Freie Univ. Berlin, Klinikum Steglitz (Germany); Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, FB Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany); Schieferdecker, H. [Hauptabteilung Sicherheit, Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    For the evaluation of internal contamination by officially authorized monitoring units according to section 63 (6) of the German radiation protection ordinance, a directive will be prepared in order to define uniform requirements for the laboratories in charge of incorporation monitoring by appointment of the relevant authorities. These requirements refer to equipment, to performance of measurements, to interpretation of measured values, to quality control as well as to documentation and to delivery of results. The duties of such laboratories comprise measurements of radioactivity, evaluation of intakes of radionuclides and of the resulting internal radiation dose, but also transmission of results to the employer, to the central dose registry, and under certain circumstances to the authorities. Among the requirements to be met by the laboratory for incorporation control are a sufficient measuring efficiency, the implementation of in-house checks, and the participation in intercomparison programs. For the accomplishment of such duties the laboratory needs appropriate apparatus, rooms, facilities, and staffing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ermittlung der Koerperdosen nach Paragraph 63 StrlSchV sind fuer die gemaess Abs. 6 von der zustaendigen Behoerde zu bestimmenden Messstellen in einer Richtlinie einheitliche Anforderungen festzulegen. Diese beziehen sich auf deren Ausstattung, die Durchfuehrung der Messungen, Auswertungen und Qualitaetskontrollen sowie die Aufzeichnung und Uebermittlung der Ergebnisse. Die Aufgaben der Messstellen umfassen die Messungen der Radioaktivitaet im Koerper bzw. in Koerperausscheidungen, die Ermittlung der Zufuhr an Radionukliden sowie der daraus resultierenden Koerperdosis und die Weiterleitung der Ergebnisse an den Auftraggeber, an das zentrale Dosisregister und in bestimmten Faellen an die Behoerde. Zu den von einer Messstelle zu erfuellenden Anforderungen gehoeren eine ausreichende Messeffektivitaet, die Durchfuehrung von Eigenkontrollen

  11. Smartphone-based photoplethysmographic imaging for heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafeef, Maha

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to make use of visible light reflected mode photoplethysmographic (PPG) imaging for heart rate (HR) monitoring via smartphones. The system uses the built-in camera feature in mobile phones to capture video from the subject's index fingertip. The video is processed, and then the PPG signal resulting from the video stream processing is used to calculate the subject's heart rate. Records from 19 subjects were used to evaluate the system's performance. The HR values obtained by the proposed method were compared with the actual HR. The obtained results show an accuracy of 99.7% and a maximum absolute error of 0.4 beats/min where most of the absolute errors lay in the range of 0.04-0.3 beats/min. Given the encouraging results, this type of HR measurement can be adopted with great benefit, especially in the conditions of personal use or home-based care. The proposed method represents an efficient portable solution for HR accurate detection and recording.

  12. Evaluation of eleven years of area monitoring in ore treatment unit: I external exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S.; Py Junior, D.A.; Oliveira, S.Q. de; Dantas, M.V.A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A., E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Pereira, J.R.S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (OTU) is an uranium mining and milling complex deactivated in 1995 that operated monazite during the years 2004 and 2005 in a plant used especially for that purpose called Chemical Treatment of Monazite (CTM). This study aims to analyze the monitoring of area to exposure rate from 2002 to 2012, comparing periods of suspended operation of OTU and identifying the influences of CTM and of the radioactive waste deposit, from other facilities of OTU. A total of 22,294 samples were analyzed for area dose rates; average values were obtained of 6.74 μSv h{sup -1} with an amplitude from 0 to 420 μSv h{sup -1}. 92% of the monitoring were below the derivative limit for workers, and 1,702 monitoring samples showed values above this limit. Ignoring the monitoring that was realized at CTM and at the deposit of radioactive waste, the number of monitoring samples were reduced to 1,341. In this case, the average reduces to 0.96 μSv h{sup -1}, going from 0 to 25 μSv h{sup -1}, only 15 samples remained above the threshold for workers and 675 samples were below the limit for individual public. It can be concluded that the OTU is an installation with nearly 99% of monitoring area safe for workers and 50% for individual public. The inclusion of new practices (CTM) and the deposit of radioactive waste coming from other facilities alter this picture dramatically, increased the dose rates. (author)

  13. Validation of Heart Rate Monitor Polar RS800 for Heart Rate Variability Analysis During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, David; Garatachea, Nuria; Almeida, Rute; Casajús, Jose A; Bailón, Raquel

    2018-03-01

    Hernando, D, Garatachea, N, Almeida, R, Casajús, JA, and Bailón, R. Validation of heart rate monitor Polar RS800 for heart rate variability analysis during exercise. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 716-725, 2018-Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during exercise is an interesting noninvasive tool to measure the cardiovascular response to the stress of exercise. Wearable heart rate monitors are a comfortable option to measure interbeat (RR) intervals while doing physical activities. It is necessary to evaluate the agreement between HRV parameters derived from the RR series recorded by wearable devices and those derived from an electrocardiogram (ECG) during dynamic exercise of low to high intensity. Twenty-three male volunteers performed an exercise stress test on a cycle ergometer. Subjects wore a Polar RS800 device, whereas ECG was also recorded simultaneously to extract the reference RR intervals. A time-frequency spectral analysis was performed to extract the instantaneous mean heart rate (HRM), and the power of low-frequency (PLF) and high-frequency (PHF) components, the latter centered on the respiratory frequency. Analysis was done in intervals of different exercise intensity based on oxygen consumption. Linear correlation, reliability, and agreement were computed in each interval. The agreement between the RR series obtained from the Polar device and from the ECG is high throughout the whole test although the shorter the RR is, the more differences there are. Both methods are interchangeable when analyzing HRV at rest. At high exercise intensity, HRM and PLF still presented a high correlation (ρ > 0.8) and excellent reliability and agreement indices (above 0.9). However, the PHF measurements from the Polar showed reliability and agreement coefficients around 0.5 or lower when the level of the exercise increases (for levels of O2 above 60%).

  14. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training Rates in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Monique L.; Cox, Margueritte; Al-Khatib, Sana M.; Nichol, Graham; Thomas, Kevin L.; Chan, Paul S.; Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Fosbol, Emil L.; Eigel, Brian; Clendenen, Bill; Peterson, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    Context Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves the likelihood of surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet treatment rates differ by a community’s racial and income composition. Objective To determine if CPR training differs by the race and income of communities across the United States (U.S.). Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed county-level CPR training rates from 2010–2011 using CPR training data from the American Heart Association, the American Red Cross, and the Health and Safety Institute. We utilized multivariable logistic regression models to examine the association of annual adult CPR training rates with a county’s proportion of black residents and median household income (categorized as tertiles), as well as other demographic, geographic, and healthcare characteristics. Main Outcome Measure CPR training rate. Results From 07/01/2010–06/30/2011, 13.1 million persons in 3143 U.S. counties received CPR training. The median county training rate ranged from 0.00%–1.29% (median=0.51%) in the lower tertile, 1.29%–4.07% (median=2.39%) in the middle tertile, and >4.07% (median=6.81%) in the upper tertile. Counties that were most likely to have CPR training rates in the lower tertile included those with a higher proportion of rural (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10, 1.15 per 5 percentage point [PP] change), black (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.06, 1.13 per 5 PP change), and Hispanic residents (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11 per 5 PP change); those with a lower median household income (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04, 1.34 per $10,000 decrease); those with a higher median age (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04, 1.53 per 10 year change); and those located in the South. Conclusions Counties with a higher proportion of rural, black, Hispanic, and lower income residents had lower CPR training rates. Differences in CPR training by race and income may contribute to recognized disparities in bystander CPR treatment and OHCA survival, and

  15. A practical approach for electron monitor unit calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, David; Patyal, Baldev; Cho, Jongmin; Cheng, Ing Y; Nookala, Prashanth

    2009-01-01

    Electron monitor unit (MU) calculation requires measured beam data such as the relative output factor (ROF) of a cone, insert correction factor (ICF) and effective source-to-surface distance (ESD). Measuring the beam data to cover all possible clinical cases is not practical for a busy clinic because it takes tremendous time and labor. In this study, we propose a practical approach to reduce the number of data measurements without affecting accuracy. It is based on two findings of dosimetric properties of electron beams. One is that the output ratio of two inserts is independent of the cone used, and the other is that ESD is a function of field size but independent of cone and jaw opening. For the measurements to prove the findings, a parallel plate ion chamber (Markus, PTW 23343) with an electrometer (Cardinal Health 35040) was used. We measured the outputs to determine ROF, ICF and ESD of different energies (5-21 MeV). Measurements were made in a Plastic Water(TM) phantom or in water. Three linear accelerators were used: Siemens MD2 (S/N 2689), Siemens Primus (S/N 3305) and Varian Clinic 21-EX (S/N 1495). With these findings, the number of data set to be measured can be reduced to less than 20% of the data points. (note)

  16. Radiological survey of Goiania by a mobile monitoring unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, M.C.F.

    1989-01-01

    After the initial response to the radiological accident in Goiania, a radiological survey throughout the city was performed using a mobile unit. This unit was equipped with two Geiger Muller detectors outsise the vehicle and one 4' x 4' NaI(Tl) detector connected to a dual recorder. All three detectors were placed 1 m above the ground. The survey system covers a wide range of exposure rate, since environmental levels up to 10 R h -1 . Eighty percent of the Goiania urban area was covered by this survey and except for some specific locations the contamination was restricted to the main foci surroundings ocurring in a non homogenous pattern. The highest value observed in the city after the main foci decontamination was of 0.7 mR h -1 in the 57 th street - where the source was opened. Results of the main foci and some other locations are apresented in the paper. The system designed to perform the survey in the city played a fundamental role during the decontamination process (author) [pt

  17. Design of an integrated sensor platform for vital sign monitoring of newborn infants at neonatal intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Bouwstra, S.; Ayoola, Idowu; Dols, S.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring and advances in medical treatments have resulted in a significant increase of survival rate in critically ill infants admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The quality of life and long-term health prospects of the neonates depend increasingly on the

  18. Rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Monique L; Cox, Margueritte; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Nichol, Graham; Thomas, Kevin L; Chan, Paul S; Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Fosbol, Emil L; Eigel, Brian; Clendenen, Bill; Peterson, Eric D

    2014-02-01

    Prompt bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves the likelihood of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Large regional variations in survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have been noted. To determine whether regional variations in county-level rates of CPR training exist across the United States and the factors associated with low rates in US counties. We used a cross-sectional ecologic study design to analyze county-level rates of CPR training in all US counties from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. We used CPR training data from the American Heart Association, the American Red Cross, and the Health & Safety Institute. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined the association of annual rates of adult CPR training of citizens by these 3 organizations (categorized as tertiles) with a county's geographic, population, and health care characteristics. Completion of CPR training. Rate of CPR training measured as CPR course completion cards distributed and CPR training products sold by the American Heart Association, persons trained in CPR by the American Red Cross, and product sales data from the Health & Safety Institute. RESULTS During the study period, 13.1 million persons in 3143 US counties received CPR training. Rates of county training ranged from 0.00% to less than 1.29% (median, 0.51%) in the lower tertile, 1.29% to 4.07% (median, 2.39%) in the middle tertile, and greater than 4.07% or greater (median, 6.81%) in the upper tertile. Counties with rates of CPR training in the lower tertile were more likely to have a higher proportion of rural areas (adjusted odds ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.10-1.15] per 5-percentage point [PP] change), higher proportions of black (1.09 [1.06-1.13] per 5-PP change) and Hispanic (1.06 [1.02-1.11] per 5-PP change) residents, a lower median household income (1.18 [1.04-1.34] per $10 000 decrease), and a higher median age (1.28 [1.04-1.58] per 10-year change). Counties in the South

  19. Development of electronic tattoo for pulse rate monitoring: Materials perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Shilpa Vikas; Sonavane, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    In India, there is a growing concern of the heart diseases and deaths due to heart failure. The severity of the problem can be minimised by efficient heart rate monitoring which can be used to provide before time caution to cater heart attack. Wearable sensor can be designed to sense the pulse. The sensor can be either placed near to heart or on the wrist to sense pulses and send pulse signals to the doctors. Such sensor should adhere to the skin for sufficiently long period without causing etching to the patient. It should also be bendable and stretchable like skin. This paper is a part of the research work carried out to develop patch type sensor, which is termed as Electronic Tattoo (ET). In pursuit for development of ET, we came across various designs and candidate materials which can be used for the ET. Thus, in this paper, we describe the process of selecting best suited method and material for the ET. It may also be noted that the sensor development is governed by the prevailing IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  1. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods

  2. Development of expert system for fuel monitoring and analysis in WWER-1000 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhanskii, V.; Evdokimov, I.; Sorokin, A.; Kanukova, V.; Zborovskii, V.; Aliev, T.; Sokolov, N.; Shishkin, A.

    2011-01-01

    At present, an expert system (software package) for fuel monitoring in WWER units is under development in Russia. It comprises several modules which cover analysis of coolant activity, detection of failures and estimation of failure parameters, predictions of activity level and some aspects of PCI analysis. This paper outlines the current version of the fuel monitoring system, its basic features and user interface. Advances in development of computer modules for PCI analysis are reported. At present two levels of PCI analysis are used. The first is estimation of probability for pellets to get in contact with cladding in fuel rods. Estimations are made with taking into account specifications and tolerances for fuel fabrication as well as fuel operation conditions. The second level of PCI analysis implies a simplified approach for on-line calculations of stresses in cladding depending on power ramping rates. The model for PCI calculations and its application within the computer system is demonstrated. (authors)

  3. Variable Accuracy of Wearable Heart Rate Monitors during Aerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, Stephen; Etiwy, Muhammad; Wang, Robert; Blackburn, Gordon; Phelan, Dermot; Gillinov, A Marc; Houghtaling, Penny; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Desai, Milind Y

    2017-08-01

    Athletes and members of the public increasingly rely on wearable HR monitors to guide physical activity and training. The accuracy of newer, optically based monitors is unconfirmed. We sought to assess the accuracy of five optically based HR monitors during various types of aerobic exercise. Fifty healthy adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 38 ± 12 yr, 54% female) completed exercise protocols on a treadmill, a stationary bicycle, and an elliptical trainer (±arm movement). Each participant underwent HR monitoring with an electrocardiogaphic chest strap monitor (Polar H7), forearm monitor (Scosche Rhythm+), and two randomly assigned wrist-worn HR monitors (Apple Watch, Fitbit Blaze, Garmin Forerunner 235, and TomTom Spark Cardio), one on each wrist. For each exercise type, HR was recorded at rest, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity. Agreement between HR measurements was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (rc). Across all exercise conditions, the chest strap monitor (Polar H7) had the best agreement with ECG (rc = 0.996) followed by the Apple Watch (rc = 0.92), the TomTom Spark (rc = 0.83), and the Garmin Forerunner (rc = 0.81). Scosche Rhythm+ and Fitbit Blaze were less accurate (rc = 0.75 and rc = 0.67, respectively). On treadmill, all devices performed well (rc = 0.88-0.93) except the Fitbit Blaze (rc = 0.76). While bicycling, only the Garmin, Apple Watch, and Scosche Rhythm+ had acceptable agreement (rc > 0.80). On the elliptical trainer without arm levers, only the Apple Watch was accurate (rc = 0.94). None of the devices was accurate during elliptical trainer use with arm levers (all rc < 0.80). The accuracy of wearable, optically based HR monitors varies with exercise type and is greatest on the treadmill and lowest on elliptical trainer. Electrode-containing chest monitors should be used when accurate HR measurement is imperative.

  4. Acoustic monitoring systems tests at Indian Point Unit 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Rao, G.V.; Craig, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the results of a program to test acoustic monitoring systems on Indian Point Unit No. 1 under actual plant operating conditions, less the reactor core. The two types of systems evaluated were the monitoring of acoustic emissions generated by growing flaws and the monitoring of acoustic signals from leaks

  5. Identifying common practices and challenges for local urban tree monitoring programs across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; E. Gregory McPherson; Bryant C. Scharenbroch; Julia. Bartens

    2013-01-01

    Urban forest monitoring data are essential to assess the impacts of tree planting campaigns and management programs. Local practitioners have monitoring projects that have not been well documented in the urban forestry literature. To learn more about practitioner-driven monitoring efforts, the authors surveyed 32 local urban forestry organizations across the United...

  6. Forest health monitoring in the United States: focus on national reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; Kevin Potter

    2013-01-01

    The health and sustainability of United States forests have been monitored for many years from several different perspectives. The national Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program was established in 1990 by Federal and State agencies to develop a national system for monitoring and reporting on the status and trends of forest ecosystem health. We describe and illustrate...

  7. Independent calculation of monitor units for VMAT and SPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin; Bush, Karl; Ding, Aiping; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dose and monitor units (MUs) represent two important facets of a radiation therapy treatment. In current practice, verification of a treatment plan is commonly done in dose domain, in which a phantom measurement or forward dose calculation is performed to examine the dosimetric accuracy and the MU settings of a given treatment plan. While it is desirable to verify directly the MU settings, a computational framework for obtaining the MU values from a known dose distribution has yet to be developed. This work presents a strategy to calculate independently the MUs from a given dose distribution of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT). Methods: The dose at a point can be expressed as a sum of contributions from all the station points (or control points). This relationship forms the basis of the proposed MU verification technique. To proceed, the authors first obtain the matrix elements which characterize the dosimetric contribution of the involved station points by computing the doses at a series of voxels, typically on the prescription surface of the VMAT/SPORT treatment plan, with unit MU setting for all the station points. An in-house Monte Carlo (MC) software is used for the dose matrix calculation. The MUs of the station points are then derived by minimizing the least-squares difference between doses computed by the treatment planning system (TPS) and that of the MC for the selected set of voxels on the prescription surface. The technique is applied to 16 clinical cases with a variety of energies, disease sites, and TPS dose calculation algorithms. Results: For all plans except the lung cases with large tissue density inhomogeneity, the independently computed MUs agree with that of TPS to within 2.7% for all the station points. In the dose domain, no significant difference between the MC and Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) dose distribution is found in terms of isodose contours

  8. Independent calculation of monitor units for VMAT and SPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin; Bush, Karl; Ding, Aiping; Xing, Lei, E-mail: lei@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Dose and monitor units (MUs) represent two important facets of a radiation therapy treatment. In current practice, verification of a treatment plan is commonly done in dose domain, in which a phantom measurement or forward dose calculation is performed to examine the dosimetric accuracy and the MU settings of a given treatment plan. While it is desirable to verify directly the MU settings, a computational framework for obtaining the MU values from a known dose distribution has yet to be developed. This work presents a strategy to calculate independently the MUs from a given dose distribution of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT). Methods: The dose at a point can be expressed as a sum of contributions from all the station points (or control points). This relationship forms the basis of the proposed MU verification technique. To proceed, the authors first obtain the matrix elements which characterize the dosimetric contribution of the involved station points by computing the doses at a series of voxels, typically on the prescription surface of the VMAT/SPORT treatment plan, with unit MU setting for all the station points. An in-house Monte Carlo (MC) software is used for the dose matrix calculation. The MUs of the station points are then derived by minimizing the least-squares difference between doses computed by the treatment planning system (TPS) and that of the MC for the selected set of voxels on the prescription surface. The technique is applied to 16 clinical cases with a variety of energies, disease sites, and TPS dose calculation algorithms. Results: For all plans except the lung cases with large tissue density inhomogeneity, the independently computed MUs agree with that of TPS to within 2.7% for all the station points. In the dose domain, no significant difference between the MC and Eclipse Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) dose distribution is found in terms of isodose contours

  9. Accuracy of a Wrist-Worn Wearable Device for Monitoring Heart Rates in Hospital Inpatients: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Ryan R; Boyd, J Gordon; Maslove, David M

    2016-09-20

    As the sensing capabilities of wearable devices improve, there is increasing interest in their application in medical settings. Capabilities such as heart rate monitoring may be useful in hospitalized patients as a means of enhancing routine monitoring or as part of an early warning system to detect clinical deterioration. To evaluate the accuracy of heart rate monitoring by a personal fitness tracker (PFT) among hospital inpatients. We conducted a prospective observational study of 50 stable patients in the intensive care unit who each completed 24 hours of heart rate monitoring using a wrist-worn PFT. Accuracy of heart rate recordings was compared with gold standard measurements derived from continuous electrocardiographic (cECG) monitoring. The accuracy of heart rates measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2.R) was also measured as a positive control. On a per-patient basis, PFT-derived heart rate values were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring (average bias of -1.14 beats per minute [bpm], with limits of agreement of 24 bpm). By comparison, Spo2.R recordings produced more accurate values (average bias of +0.15 bpm, limits of agreement of 13 bpm, P<.001 as compared with PFT). Personal fitness tracker device performance was significantly better in patients in sinus rhythm than in those who were not (average bias -0.99 bpm vs -5.02 bpm, P=.02). Personal fitness tracker-derived heart rates were slightly lower than those derived from cECG monitoring in real-world testing and not as accurate as Spo2.R-derived heart rates. Performance was worse among patients who were not in sinus rhythm. Further clinical evaluation is indicated to see if PFTs can augment early warning systems in hospitals. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02527408; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02527408 (Archived by WebCite at  http://www.webcitation.org/6kOFez3on).

  10. Experience of our new monitor for betatron therapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takenori; Sato, Hisao; Abe, Shunsuke; Suyama, Sachio.

    1975-01-01

    The amount of high energy electron beams is instable owing to lots of factors. As a matter of course, we should be careful in controling the amount of beams and it is also necessary to improve the beam monitoring apparatuses to make them stable. We have improved a usual monitor and had experiments with it. Here is the report. (1) An ordinary monitor is influenced by humidity, air atmosphere induced noise from an apparatus and so on. We made a new monitor with due regard to these factors. When the count is set to 100 with a usual monitor, the standard dose meter (ionex) indicate is 280 R in 16 MeV and the lowest one is 198 R. Between standard dose meter (ionex) and usual monitor is 82 R. With the trial monitor, the highest integrated dose is 103 R and the lowest one is 89 R. The difference is only 14 R and we are satisfied with the result. We gain this value after 16 months' trial. (2) The chamber is made air tight and has a double structure with a collection electrode sandwiched between high tension charging electrodes. In this way, we can eliminate the influences of humidity and induced noise from an apparatus itself and we can putup ion collection efficiency without widening the distance between the electrodes. As for the indicator circuit, we can get an input signal with a big s/n ratio and so we need not use high impedance resistors in the input circuitry. There is little affect from humidity and induced noise, and the circuit is stable. The indicator circuit has a complete electronic system, therefore counting speed is greatly improved and we can measure a large amount of beams in a short time. The trial monitor has four measuring ranges and so measuring is easily done. Our monitor has a circuit tester, too, and we can test the measuring circuit on occasion. (auth.)

  11. Patient Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate Monitoring With an Alert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... an Alert System Using the Omron 790it Blood Pressure. Monitor ... detailed medical information on the vital signs of patients and will save many lives that may be lost. Keywords: Omron .... at rest, in beats per minute (BPM):.

  12. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  13. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline A Boatin

    Full Text Available We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5% successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0 on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96. Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively, useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively, and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively. In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of

  14. Executive Information System Modelling to Monitor Indonesian Criminal Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Bernadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Similar to any other governments, Indonesia government has the role of protecting the security of its citizens via the established police unit. However, the executive unit is often unable to provide response in timely manner due to the huge data size. For the reason, an executive information system (EIS is established in order to provide necessary information to leverage the decision making process. This work intends to establish and evaluate the executive information system and its support to facilitate the efforts to fight crimes in Indonesia territory. The EIS prototype is established and is evaluated on the basis of the six information system success factors where the required data are collected by means of questionnaire. The results suggest that the factors of system quality, information quality, easy-of-use, user satisfaction, and individual and organization impacts are very significant.

  15. Electronic monitoring and voice prompts improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infections in an intermediate care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Sandra M; Earsing, Karen; Strauss, Kevin; Lane, Stephen; Lipsett, Pamela A

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether electronic monitoring of hand hygiene and voice prompts can improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infection rates in a surgical intermediate care unit. Three-phase quasi-experimental design. Phase I was electronic monitoring and direct observation; phase II was electronic monitoring and computerized voice prompts for failure to perform hand hygiene on room exit; and phase III was electronic monitoring only. Nine-room, 14-bed intermediate care unit in a university, tertiary-care institution. All patient rooms, utility room, and staff lavatory were monitored electronically. All healthcare personnel including physicians, nurses, nursing support personnel, ancillary staff, all visitors and family members, and any other personnel interacting with patients on the intermediate care unit. All patients with an intermediate care unit length of stay >48 hrs were followed for nosocomial infection. Electronic monitoring during all phases, computerized voice prompts during phase II only. We evaluated a total of 283,488 electronically monitored entries into a patient room with 251,526 exits for 420 days (10,080 hrs and 3,549 patient days). Compared with phase I, hand hygiene compliance in patient rooms improved 37% during phase II (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.83) and 41% in phase III (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.84). When adjusting for patient admissions during each phase, point estimates of nosocomial infections decreased by 22% during phase II and 48% during phase III; when adjusting for patient days, the number of infections decreased by 10% during phase II and 40% during phase III. Although the overall rate of nosocomial infections significantly decreased when combining phases II and III, the association between nosocomial infection and individual phase was not significant. Electronic monitoring provided effective ongoing feedback about hand hygiene compliance. During both the voice prompt phase and post

  16. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  17. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-01-01

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year

  18. 40 CFR 73.19 - Certain units with declining SO2 rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certain units with declining SO2 rates... declining SO2 rates. (a) Eligibility. A unit is eligible for allowance allocations under this section if it... generator with nameplate capacity equal to or greater than 75 MWe; (3) Its 1985 actual SO2 emissions rate...

  19. Multi-area unit commitment with ramp-rate limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that there are two tasks considered in power system generation scheduling. One is the unit commitment which determines the unit start up and shut down schedules in order to minimize the system fuel expenditure. The other is the economic dispatch which assigns the system load demand to the committed generating units for minimizing the power generation cost. The economic operation attracts a great deal of attention as a modest reduction in percentage fuel cost leads to a large saving in the system operation costs. Many studies for power system generation scheduling have successfully applied various mathematical algorithms such as Lagrangian relaxation, dynamic programming, and artificial intelligence techniques e.g., expert systems, artificial neural networks (ANN), etc. The AI techniques have incorporated the system practical operational policies in the mathematical techniques to improve system models considerably. The mechanism of ANN simulates the learning process of the human brain. One class of ANN learns the knowledge through examples, or training facts, composed by various inputs and their corresponding outputs. The extent of the intelligibility of ANN depends upon the diversity of the training facts. For an input which is not in the training facts, the trained ANN can estimate an output based on its previous knowledge about the problem

  20. A Rating of training units in boys basketball by category of U14

    OpenAIRE

    Mašková, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Title: A Rating of training units in boys basketball by category of U14. Objective: Preparation, implementation and evaluation of basketball training units starting by U14 categories. The training units focus on a drill, training game and fitness training following by blending these three components. Methods: Preparing these training units I have used the professional basketball literature. This bachelor work is based on quantitative way of research. The raiting of training units was analyzed...

  1. Evaluating the Use of Tissue Oximetry to Decrease Intensive Unit Monitoring for Free Flap Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Joseph A; Vargas, Christina R; Ho, Olivia A; Lin, Samuel J; Tobias, Adam M; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative free flap care has historically required intensive monitoring for 24 hours in an intensive care unit. Continuous monitoring with tissue oximetry has allowed earlier detection of vascular compromise, decreasing flap loss and improving salvage. This study aims to identify whether a fast-track postoperative paradigm can be safely used with tissue oximetry to decrease intensive monitoring and costs. All consecutive microsurgical breast reconstructions performed at a single institution were reviewed (2008-2014) and cases requiring return to the operating room were identified. Data evaluated included patient demographics, the take back time course, and complications of flap loss and salvage. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to analyse the utility of a postoperative intensive monitoring setting. There were 900 flaps performed and 32 required an unplanned return to the operating room. There were 16 flaps that required a reexploration within the first 24 hours; the standard length of intensive unit monitoring. After 4 hours, there were 7 flaps (44%) detected by tissue oximetry for reexploration. After 15 hours of intensive monitoring postoperatively, cost analysis revealed that the majority (15/16; 94%) of failing flaps had been identified and the cost of identifying each subsequent failing flap exceeded the cost of another hour of intensive monitoring. The postoperative paradigm for microsurgical flaps has historically required intensive unit monitoring. Using tissue oximetry, a fast-track pathway can reduce time spent in an intensive monitoring setting from 24 to 15 hours with significant cost savings and minimal risk of missing a failing free flap.

  2. Heart Rate Monitoring in Team Sports—A Conceptual Framework for Contextualizing Heart Rate Measures for Training and Recovery Prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schneider

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules. In this regard, exercise-related heart rate measures are likely the most applicable markers, as they can be routinely assessed during warm-ups using short (3–5 min submaximal exercise protocols for an entire squad with common chest strap-based team monitoring devices. However, a comprehensive and meaningful monitoring of the training process requires the accurate separation of various types of responses, such as strain, recovery, and adaptation, which may all affect heart rate measures. Therefore, additional information on the training context (such as the training phase, training load, and intensity distribution combined with multivariate analysis, which includes markers of (perceived wellness and fatigue, should be considered when interpreting changes in heart rate indices. The aim of this article is to outline current limitations of heart rate monitoring, discuss methodological considerations of univariate and multivariate approaches, illustrate the influence of different analytical concepts on assessing meaningful changes in heart rate responses, and provide case examples for contextualizing heart rate measures using

  3. Heart Rate Monitoring in Team Sports-A Conceptual Framework for Contextualizing Heart Rate Measures for Training and Recovery Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christoph; Hanakam, Florian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Döweling, Alexander; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules. In this regard, exercise-related heart rate measures are likely the most applicable markers, as they can be routinely assessed during warm-ups using short (3-5 min) submaximal exercise protocols for an entire squad with common chest strap-based team monitoring devices. However, a comprehensive and meaningful monitoring of the training process requires the accurate separation of various types of responses, such as strain, recovery, and adaptation, which may all affect heart rate measures. Therefore, additional information on the training context (such as the training phase, training load, and intensity distribution) combined with multivariate analysis, which includes markers of (perceived) wellness and fatigue, should be considered when interpreting changes in heart rate indices. The aim of this article is to outline current limitations of heart rate monitoring, discuss methodological considerations of univariate and multivariate approaches, illustrate the influence of different analytical concepts on assessing meaningful changes in heart rate responses, and provide case examples for contextualizing heart rate measures using simple heuristics. To

  4. Dust and smoke pollution monitoring in industrial unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Dust and smoke are the two most commonly emitted industrial pollutants which are visible to the naked eye. Cement plants and power generation plants, based on coal and fuel oil etc. are the most common examples of industry emitting these pollutants. In this article these pollutants have been briefly described and some monitoring instruments for dust and smoke emissions have been specific. These instruments are especially suitable for power station and the cement industry etc. Automotive in urban areas. However, this paper does not include equipment for automotive exhaust pollution. (author)

  5. 76 FR 75523 - Vessel Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service Providers for Use in... relevant features of the enhanced mobile transmitting unit (E-MTU) VMS and communications service providers... with the Orbcomm mobile communications provider service. Skymate can be reached at 866-SKYMATE and...

  6. 75 FR 63445 - Vessel Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Monitoring Systems; Approved Mobile Transmitting Units and Communications Service Providers for Use in the... features of the VMS. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the list of NOAA-approved VMS mobile transmitting units and NOAA-approved VMS communications service providers, please contact the VMS Support Center at...

  7. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  8. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  9. A new respiratory rate monitor: development and initial clinical experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hök, B; Wiklund, L; Henneberg, S

    1993-01-01

    different kinds of interference, including motion artefacts. The sensor is nonexpensive, rugged, simple to apply and inherently safe. An instrument with continuous display of respiratory rate, and an audiovisual apnea alarm has been designed and built. The complete system has been tested on patients during...... and apnea. Such events may in some patients be as frequent as one incident per hour. One case of 'Ondine's curse' provided clear evidence that pulse oximetry has a low sensitivity to respiratory disorders....

  10. Ethiopia before the United Nations Treaty Monitoring Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brems

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the many human rights conventions adopted by the UN, seven are known — together with their additional protocols — as the core international human rights instruments: - The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; - The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; - The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; - The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women; - The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; - The Convention on the Rights of the Child;  - The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all Migrant Workers and Members of their Families.  The main international control mechanism under these conventions is what may be considered the standard mechanism in international human rights protection: state reporting before an international committee. An initial report is due usually one year after joining the treaty and afterwards, reports are due periodically (every four or five years. The international committees examine the reports submitted by the state parties. In the course of this examination they include information from other sources, such as the press, other United Nations materials or NGO information. They also hold a meeting with representatives of the state submitting the report. At the end of this process the committee issues 'concluding observations' or 'concluding comments'. This paper focuses on the experience of one state — Ethiopia - with the seven core human rights treaties. This should allow the reader to gain insights both into the human rights situation in Ethiopia and in the functioning of the United Nations human rights protection system. Key Words: United Nations, Human Rights Conventions, State Reporting, Human Rights Situation in Ethiopia

  11. Primary shutdown system monitoring unit for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Tahir Kamal; Balasubramanian, R.; Agilandaeswari, K.

    2013-01-01

    Shut off rods made up of neutron absorbing material are used as Primary Shutdown System. To reduce the power of the reactor under certain abnormal operating conditions, these rods must go down into the core within a specified time. Any malfunctioning in the movement of rods cannot be tolerated and Secondary Shutdown System (SSS) must be actuated within stipulated time to reduce the reactor power. A special safety critical, hardwired electronics unit has been designed to detect failure of PSS Shut off rods movements and generate trip signals for initiating SSS. (author)

  12. Remote vital parameter monitoring in neonatology - robust, unobtrusive heart rate detection in a realistic clinical scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanik, Nikolai; Heimann, Konrad; Pereira, Carina; Paul, Michael; Blazek, Vladimir; Venema, Boudewijn; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2016-12-01

    Vital parameter monitoring of term and preterm infants during incubator care with self-adhesive electrodes or sensors directly positioned on the skin [e.g. photoplethysmography (PPG) for oxygen saturation or electrocardiography (ECG)] is an essential part of daily routine care in neonatal intensive care units. For various reasons, this kind of monitoring contains a lot of stress for the infants. Therefore, there is a need to measure vital parameters (for instance respiration, temperature, pulse, oxygen saturation) without mechanical or conductive contact. As a non-contact method of monitoring, we present an adapted version of camera-based photoplethysmography imaging (PPGI) according to neonatal requirements. Similar to classic PPG, the PPGI camera detects small temporal changes in the term and preterm infant's skin brightness due to the cardiovascular rhythm of dermal blood perfusion. We involved 10 preterm infants in a feasibility study [five males and five females; mean gestational age: 26 weeks (24-28 weeks); mean biological age: 35 days (8-41 days); mean weight at the time of investigation: 960 g (670-1290 g)]. The PPGI camera was placed directly above the incubators with the infant inside illuminated by an infrared light emitting diode (LED) array (850 nm). From each preterm infant, 5-min video sequences were recorded and analyzed post hoc. As the measurement scenario was kept as realistic as possible, the infants were not constrained in their movements in front of the camera. Movement intensities were assigned into five classes (1: no visible motion to 5: heavy struggling). PPGI was found to be significantly sensitive to movement artifacts. However, for movement classes 1-4, changes in blood perfusion according to the heart rate (HR) were recovered successfully (Pearson correlation: r=0.9759; r=0.765 if class 5 is included). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universal Hospital of the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany (EK 254/13).

  13. An assessment of seismic monitoring in the United States; requirement for an Advanced National Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    This report assesses the status, needs, and associated costs of seismic monitoring in the United States. It sets down the requirement for an effective, national seismic monitoring strategy and an advanced system linking national, regional, and urban monitoring networks. Modernized seismic monitoring can provide alerts of imminent strong earthquake shaking; rapid assessment of distribution and severity of earthquake shaking (for use in emergency response); warnings of a possible tsunami from an offshore earthquake; warnings of volcanic eruptions; information for correctly characterizing earthquake hazards and for improving building codes; and data on response of buildings and structures during earthquakes, for safe, cost-effective design, engineering, and construction practices in earthquake-prone regions.

  14. The nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Mark, Barbara A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in hospital characteristics, nursing unit characteristics, the nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units. Research in urban hospitals has found an association between the nurse work environment and job satisfaction and turnover rates, but this association has not been examined in rural hospitals. Rural and urban nursing units were compared in a national random sample of 97 United States hospitals (194 nursing units) with between 99 and 450 beds. Significant differences were found between hospital and nursing unit characteristics and the nurse work environment in rural and urban nursing units. Both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment were found to have a significant influence on nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates. Job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units are associated with both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment. Both rural and urban hospitals can improve nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates by changing unit characteristics, such as creating better support services and a work environment that supports autonomous nursing practice. Rural hospitals can also improve the work environment by providing nurses with more educational opportunities.

  15. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  16. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program

  17. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1990 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory -- Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release

  18. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Smith, D.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1983. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclide releases yield an estimated dose of 5 x 10 -5 man-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.2 mrem per year. Plutonium and krypton in air were similar to 1982 levels while cesium and strontium in other samples were near the detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 29 references, 35 figures, 30 tables

  19. Variations in breastfeeding rates for very preterm infants between regions and neonatal units in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonet, Mercedes; Blondel, Béatrice; Agostino, Rocco

    2011-01-01

    To compare breastfeeding rates at discharge for very preterm infants between European regions and neonatal units, and to identify characteristics associated with breast feeding using multilevel models.......To compare breastfeeding rates at discharge for very preterm infants between European regions and neonatal units, and to identify characteristics associated with breast feeding using multilevel models....

  20. Pricing Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrager, D.F.; Pelsser, A.

    2004-01-01

    We derive general pricing formulas for Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance under stochastic interest rates. Our main contribution focusses on the effect of stochastic interest rates. First, we show the effect of stochastic interest rates can be interpreted as, what is

  1. Economic Conditions and the Divorce Rate: A Time-Series Analysis of the Postwar United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J.

    1985-01-01

    Challenges the belief that the divorce rate rises during prosperity and falls during economic recessions. Time-series regression analysis of postwar United States reveals small but positive effects of unemployment on divorce rate. Stronger influences on divorce rates are changes in age structure and labor-force participation rate of women.…

  2. An Application of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide to Prison Suicide Rates in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2005-01-01

    E. Durkheim (1897) suggested that the societal rate of suicide might be explained by societal factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The current study examined male prison suicide rates and suicide rates for men in the total population in the United States and found that variables based on Durkheim's theory of suicide explained…

  3. Outcomes of an innovative model of acute delirium care: the Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong MS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mei Sian Chong, Mark Chan, Laura Tay, Yew Yoong Ding Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Geriatrics and Active Ageing, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore Objective: Delirium is associated with poor outcomes following acute hospitalization. The Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU is a specialized five-bedded unit for acute delirium care. It is modeled after the Delirium Room program, with adoption of core interventions from the Hospital Elder Life Program and use of evening light therapy to consolidate circadian rhythms and improve sleep in older inpatients. This study examined whether the GMU program improved outcomes in delirious patients. Method: A total of 320 patients, including 47 pre-GMU, 234 GMU, and 39 concurrent control subjects, were studied. Clinical characteristics, cognitive status, functional status (Modified Barthel Index [MBI], and chemical restraint-use data were obtained. We also looked at in-hospital complications of falls, pressure ulcers, nosocomial infection rate, and discharge destination. Secondary outcomes of family satisfaction (for the GMU subjects were collected. Results: There were no significant demographic differences between the three groups. Pre-GMU subjects had longer duration of delirium and length of stay. MBI improvement was most evident in the GMU compared with pre-GMU and control subjects (19.2±18.3, 7.5±11.2, 15.1±18.0, respectively (P<0.05. The GMU subjects had a zero restraint rate, and pre-GMU subjects had higher antipsychotic dosages. This translated to lower pressure ulcer and nosocomial infection rate in the GMU (4.1% and 10.7%, respectively and control (1.3% and 7.7%, respectively subjects compared with the pre-GMU (9.1% and 23.4%, respectively subjects (P<0.05. No differences were observed in mortality or discharge destination among the three groups. Caregivers of GMU subjects felt the multicomponent intervention to be useful, with scheduled activities voted the most beneficial in patient

  4. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982

  5. Characterizing the Breadth and Depth of Volunteer Water Monitoring Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Genskow, Kenneth D.

    2018-01-01

    A survey of 345 volunteer water monitoring programs in the United States was conducted to document their characteristics, and perceived level of support for data to inform natural resource management or policy decisions. The response rate of 86% provided information from 46 states. Programs represented a range of ages, budgets, objectives, scopes, and level of quality assurance, which influenced data uses and perceived support by sponsoring agency administrators and external decision makers. Most programs focused on rivers, streams, and lakes. Programs had not made substantial progress to develop EPA or state-approved quality assurance plans since 1998, with only 48% reporting such plans. Program coordinators reported feeling slightly more support for data to be used for management as compared to policy decisions. Programs with smaller budgets may be at particular risk of being perceived to lack credibility due to failure to develop quality assurance plans. Over half of programs identified as collaborative, in that volunteers assisted scientists in program design, data analysis and/or dissemination of results. Just under a third were contributory, in which volunteers primarily collected data in a scientist-defined program. Recommendations to improve perceived data credibility, and to augment limited budgets include developing quality assurance plans and gaining agency approval, and developing partnerships with other organizations conducting monitoring in the area to share resources and knowledge. Funding agencies should support development of quality assurance plans to help ensure data credibility. Service providers can aid in plan development by providing training to program staff over time to address high staff turnover rates.

  6. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: Implications for monitoring training : Implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four

  7. Performance Evaluation of the United Nations Environment Programme Air Quality Monitoring Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A request for technical collaboration between the UNEP and the US EPA resulted in the establishment of a MCRADA. The purpose of this agreement was to evaluate an air quality monitoring system (referred to as the UNEP pod) developed by the UNEP for use in environmental situations ...

  8. 40 CFR Table 11 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units 11 Table 11 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment... and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units To comply with Inspection or monitoring...

  9. An advanced NSSS integrity monitoring system for Shin-Kori nuclear units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y. G.; Kim, H. B.; Galin, S. R.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    The advanced design features of NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) Integrity Monitoring System for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4 are summarized herein. During the overall system design and detailed component design processes, many design improvements have been made for the system. The major design changes are: 1) the application of a common software platform for all subsystems, 2) the implementation of remote access, control and monitoring capabilities, and 3) the equipment redesign and rearrangement that has simplified the system architecture. Changes give an effect on cabinet size, number of cables, cyber-security, graphic user interfaces, and interfaces with other monitoring systems. The system installation and operation for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4 will be more convenient than those for previous Korean nuclear units in view of its remote control capability, automated test functions, improved user interface functions, and much less cabling. (authors)

  10. An Advanced NSSS Integrity Monitoring System for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yang Gyun; Galin, Scott R.; Lee, Sang Jeong

    2010-12-01

    The advanced design features of NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) Integrity Monitoring System for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4 are summarized herein. During the overall system design and detailed component design processes, many design improvements have been made for the system. The major design changes are: 1) the application of a common software platform for all subsystems, 2) the implementation of remote access, control and monitoring capabilities, and 3) the equipment redesign and rearrangement that has simplified the system architecture. Changes give an effect on cabinet size, number of cables, cyber-security, graphic user interfaces, and interfaces with other monitoring systems. The system installation and operation for Shin-Kori Nuclear Units 3 and 4 will be more convenient than those for previous Korean nuclear units in view of its remote control capability, automated test functions, improved user interface functions, and much less cabling.

  11. Improving staff response to seizures on the epilepsy monitoring unit with online EEG seizure detection algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommens, Nicole; Geertsema, Evelien; Jansen Holleboom, Lisanne; Cox, Fieke; Visser, Gerhard

    2018-05-11

    User safety and the quality of diagnostics on the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) depend on reaction to seizures. Online seizure detection might improve this. While good sensitivity and specificity is reported, the added value above staff response is unclear. We ascertained the added value of two electroencephalograph (EEG) seizure detection algorithms in terms of additional detected seizures or faster detection time. EEG-video seizure recordings of people admitted to an EMU over one year were included, with a maximum of two seizures per subject. All recordings were retrospectively analyzed using Encevis EpiScan and BESA Epilepsy. Detection sensitivity and latency of the algorithms were compared to staff responses. False positive rates were estimated on 30 uninterrupted recordings (roughly 24 h per subject) of consecutive subjects admitted to the EMU. EEG-video recordings used included 188 seizures. The response rate of staff was 67%, of Encevis 67%, and of BESA Epilepsy 65%. Of the 62 seizures missed by staff, 66% were recognized by Encevis and 39% by BESA Epilepsy. The median latency was 31 s (staff), 10 s (Encevis), and 14 s (BESA Epilepsy). After correcting for walking time from the observation room to the subject, both algorithms detected faster than staff in 65% of detected seizures. The full recordings included 617 h of EEG. Encevis had a median false positive rate of 4.9 per 24 h and BESA Epilepsy of 2.1 per 24 h. EEG-video seizure detection algorithms may improve reaction to seizures by improving the total number of seizures detected and the speed of detection. The false positive rate is feasible for use in a clinical situation. Implementation of these algorithms might result in faster diagnostic testing and better observation during seizures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Condition based monitoring, diagnosis and maintenance on operating equipments of a hydraulic generator unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X T; Feng, F Z; Si, A W

    2012-01-01

    According to performance characteristics of operating equipments in a hydraulic generator unit (HGU), the relative techniques on condition monitoring and fault diagnosis (CMFD) are introduced in this paper, especially the key technologies are emphasized, such as equipment monitoring, expert system (ES), intelligent diagnosis and condition based maintenance (CBM). Meanwhile, according to the instructor on CBM proposed by State electric power corporation, based on integrated mode, the main steps on implementation of CBM are discussed in this paper.

  13. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  14. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans

  15. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  16. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If...

  17. Exploding Head Syndrome in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Kara; Ng, Marcus C

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of paroxysmal events in epilepsy patients is often made through video-telemetry electroencephalography in the epilepsy monitoring unit. This case report describes the first-ever diagnosis of exploding head syndrome in a patient with longstanding epilepsy and novel nocturnal events. In this report, we describe the presentation of exploding head syndrome and its prevalence and risk factors. In addition, the prevalence of newly diagnosed sleep disorders through video-telemetry electroencephalography in the epilepsy monitoring unit is briefly reviewed. This report also illustrates the novel use of clobazam for the treatment of exploding head syndrome.

  18. Condition monitoring of primary coolant pump-motor units of Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rshikesan, P.B.; Sharma, S.S.; Mhetre, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    As the primary coolant pump motor units are located in shut down accessible area, their start up, satisfactory operation and shut down are monitored from control room. As unavailability of one pump in standardised 220 MWe station reduces the station power to about 110 MWe, satisfactory operation of the pump is also important from economic considerations. All the critical parameters of pump shaft, mechanical seal, bearing system, motor winding and shaft displacement (vibrations) are monitored/recorded to ensure satisfactory operation of critical, capital intensive pump-motor units. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  19. A microcontroller based readout unit for a smart personnel monitoring TLD badge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaonkar, U.P.; Kulkarni, M.S.; Kannan, S.

    1997-01-01

    An automated TLD personnel monitoring system is under development to cope up with the requirements of personnel monitoring of rapidly growing number of radiation workers. The core of the system is a smart TLD badge incorporating a memory device and a microcontroller based readout unit for reading the memory contents of the badge. The memory is used to store personnel data including the accumulated dose data. The reader unit has a serial RS 232C interface for connection to a PC for entering/modifying data in the memory. A password protected software has also been developed in C for entering/modifying the data in the single memory. 3 figs

  20. Design of heart rate monitor based on piezoelectric sensor using an Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Veni; Muninggar, Jodelin; Shanti. N. A, Made R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Reading of result heart rate using an acoustic stethoscope needs a particular skill, quiet environment, and hearing sensitivity. This project had the purpose design of a user-friendly automatic heart rate monitor and especially in a noisy area which to eliminate problems and incorrect reading of result. The liquid crystal display shows a heart rate as a result of measurements. The design of the heart rate monitor has two main parts; the signal recorder that a piezoelectric sensor, a filter, and an amplifier as recorder. The second parts was Arduino microcontroller with reinforced. Besides, three supporting buttons provided as the manual switches, the ‘on’, the ‘start’, and ‘reset’ buttons. The values acquired from the heart rate monitor indicate that those were on the Vernier BPS-BTA value range. The measurement error factor of the heart rate monitor then compared to the Vernier BPS-BTA test device was 3.15%. Besides, the value of statistical independent-test indicates that there is no significant difference (P = 0.971) between the heart rate monitor device and the Vernier BPS-BTA. In conclusion, this device was ready to be used because it has almost the same accuracy with the standart device.

  1. Deep Learning versus Professional Healthcare Equipment: A Fine-Grained Breathing Rate Monitoring Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In mHealth field, accurate breathing rate monitoring technique has benefited a broad array of healthcare-related applications. Many approaches try to use smartphone or wearable device with fine-grained monitoring algorithm to accomplish the task, which can only be done by professional medical equipment before. However, such schemes usually result in bad performance in comparison to professional medical equipment. In this paper, we propose DeepFilter, a deep learning-based fine-grained breathing rate monitoring algorithm that works on smartphone and achieves professional-level accuracy. DeepFilter is a bidirectional recurrent neural network (RNN stacked with convolutional layers and speeded up by batch normalization. Moreover, we collect 16.17 GB breathing sound recording data of 248 hours from 109 and another 10 volunteers to train and test our model, respectively. The results show a reasonably good accuracy of breathing rate monitoring.

  2. Adjustment of the Kompleks Titan-2 monitoring computerized system at the Rovno NPP third unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigaev, B.P.

    1987-01-01

    Information signal origin and processing processes in the monitoring computerized system 'Komplex Titan-2' at the Rovno NPP third unit are considered. The system exercises control over the following production equipment parameters: the state of keys of control of lock fittings, mechanisms, regulators, reserve mechanism automatic shut-down circuit; the state of lock fittings, mechanisms, regulators, reserve mechanism automated switching on; parameter deviation from permissible values; interlock operation; protection system state; the state of autonomous units and devices

  3. Acoustic emission monitoring of preservice testing at Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.; Pappas, R.A.; Friesel, M.A.

    1985-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of selected pressure boundary areas at TVA's Watts Bar, Unit 1 Nuclear Plant in the US during hot functional preservice testing is described. Background, methodology, and results are included. The work discussed here is a major milestone in a program supported by the US NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. The subject work demonstrated that anticipated problem areas can be overcome. Work is continuing to AE monitoring during reactor operation. 3 refs., 6 figs

  4. Mainstream end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozycki, H J; Sysyn, G D; Marshall, M K; Malloy, R; Wiswell, T E

    1998-04-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients would help clinicians avoid complications of hypocarbia and hypercarbia. End-tidal CO2 monitoring has not been used in this population to date, but recent technical advances and the introduction of surfactant therapy, which improves ventilation-perfusion matching, might improve the clinical utility of end-tidal monitoring. To determine the accuracy and precision of end-tidal CO2 monitoring in NICU patients. Nonrandomized recording of simultaneous end-tidal and arterial CO2 pairs. Two university NICUs. Forty-five newborn infants receiving mechanical ventilation who had indwelling arterial access, and a predefined subsample of infants who were NICU patients is as accurate as capillary or transcutaneous monitoring but less precise than the latter. It may be useful for trending or for screening patients for abnormal arterial CO2 values.

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history

  6. Surveillance Monitoring Management for General Care Units: Strategy, Design, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Susan P; Taenzer, Andreas H; Karon, Nancy; Blike, George

    2016-07-01

    The growing number of monitoring devices, combined with suboptimal patient monitoring and alarm management strategies, has increased "alarm fatigue," which have led to serious consequences. Most reported alarm man- agement approaches have focused on the critical care setting. Since 2007 Dartmouth-Hitchcock (Lebanon, New Hamp- shire) has developed a generalizable and effective design, implementation, and performance evaluation approach to alarm systems for continuous monitoring in general care settings (that is, patient surveillance monitoring). In late 2007, a patient surveillance monitoring system was piloted on the basis of a structured design and implementation approach in a 36-bed orthopedics unit. Beginning in early 2009, it was expanded to cover more than 200 inpatient beds in all medicine and surgical units, except for psychiatry and labor and delivery. Improvements in clinical outcomes (reduction of unplanned transfers by 50% and reduction of rescue events by more than 60% in 2008) and approximately two alarms per patient per 12-hour nursing shift in the original pilot unit have been sustained across most D-H general care units in spite of increasing patient acuity and unit occupancy. Sample analysis of pager notifications indicates that more than 85% of all alarm conditions are resolved within 30 seconds and that more than 99% are resolved before escalation is triggered. The D-H surveillance monitoring system employs several important, generalizable features to manage alarms in a general care setting: alarm delays, static thresholds set appropriately for the prevalence of events in this setting, directed alarm annunciation, and policy-driven customization of thresholds to allow clinicians to respond to needs of individual patients. The systematic approach to design, implementation, and performance management has been key to the success of the system.

  7. Forehead reflectance photoplethysmography to monitor heart rate: preliminary results from neonatal patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M R; Carpenter, J; Crowe, J A; Teoh, J; Hayes-Gill, B R; Marlow, N; Ward, C; Mann, C; Sharkey, D

    2014-01-01

    Around 5%–10% of newborn babies require some form of resuscitation at birth and heart rate (HR) is the best guide of efficacy. We report the development and first trial of a device that continuously monitors neonatal HR, with a view to deployment in the delivery room to guide newborn resuscitation. The device uses forehead reflectance photoplethysmography (PPG) with modulated light and lock-in detection. Forehead fixation has numerous advantages including ease of sensor placement, whilst perfusion at the forehead is better maintained in comparison to the extremities. Green light (525 nm) was used, in preference to the more usual red or infrared wavelengths, to optimize the amplitude of the pulsatile signal. Experimental results are presented showing simultaneous PPG and electrocardiogram (ECG) HRs from babies (n = 77), gestational age 26–42 weeks, on a neonatal intensive care unit. In babies ⩾32 weeks gestation, the median reliability was 97.7% at ±10 bpm and the limits of agreement (LOA) between PPG and ECG were +8.39 bpm and −8.39 bpm. In babies <32 weeks gestation, the median reliability was 94.8% at ±10 bpm and the LOA were +11.53 bpm and −12.01 bpm. Clinical evaluation during newborn deliveries is now underway. (paper)

  8. Vastus Lateralis Motor Unit Firing Rate Is Higher in Women With Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Alessio; Hunt, Michael A; Hodges, Paul W; Garland, S Jayne

    2018-05-01

    To compare neural drive, determined from motor unit firing rate, in the vastus medialis and lateralis in women with and without patellofemoral pain. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Women (N=56) 19 to 35 years of age, including 36 with patellofemoral pain and 20 controls. Not applicable. Participants sustained an isometric knee extension contraction at 10% of their maximal voluntary effort for 70 seconds. Motor units (N=414) were identified using high-density surface electromyography. Average firing rate was calculated between 5 and 35 seconds after recruitment for each motor unit. Initial firing rate was the inverse of the first 3 motor unit interspike intervals. In control participants, vastus medialis motor units discharged at higher rates than vastus lateralis motor units (P=.001). This was not observed in women with patellofemoral pain (P=.78) because of a higher discharge rate of vastus lateralis compared with control participants (P=.002). No between-group differences were observed for vastus medialis (P=.93). Similar results were obtained for the initial motor unit firing rate. These findings suggest that women with patellofemoral pain have a higher neural drive to vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis, which may be a contributor of the altered patellar kinematics observed in some studies. The different neural drive may be an adaptation to patellofemoral pain, possibly to compensate for decreased quadriceps force production, or a precursor of patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. State of the art in thin film thickness and deposition rate monitoring sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzea, Cristina; Robbie, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    In situ monitoring parameters are indispensable for thin film fabrication. Among them, thickness and deposition rate control are often the most important in achieving the reproducibility necessary for technological exploitation of physical phenomena dependent on film microstructure. This review describes the types of thickness and deposition rate sensors and their theoretical and phenomenological background, underlining their performances, as well as advantages and disadvantages

  10. Smart pillow for heart-rate monitoring using a fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihao; Teo, Ju Teng; Ng, Soon Huat; Yim, Huiqing

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a new method to monitor heart rate using fiber optic microbending based sensor for in-bed non-intrusive monitoring. The sensing system consists of transmitter, receiver, sensor mat, National Instrument (NI) data acquisition (DAQ) card and a computer for signal processing. The sensor mat is embedded inside a commercial pillow. The heart rate measurement system shows an accuracy of +/-2 beats, which has been successfully demonstrated in a field trial. The key technological advantage of our system is its ability to measure heart rate with no preparation and minimal compliance by the patient.

  11. Validation of an Internet-Based Long Version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Danish Adults Using Combined Accelerometry and Heart Rate Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2014-01-01

    a unit that combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring (Acc+HR) for 7 consecutive days and then completed the IPAQ. Background data were obtained from the survey. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time in moderate, vigorous and sedentary intensity level were derived from the IPAQ...

  12. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years

  13. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L. (comps.)

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  14. The development of the operational program for seismic monitoring system of Uljin Unit 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.; Heo, T.Y.; Cho, B.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, T.G.; Kim, H.M.; Kim, Y.S.; Oh, S.M.; Kang, Y.S. [Korea Electric Power Data Network Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Due to aging of the imported seismic monitoring system of Uljin of t 1 and 2 units it is difficult for this system to provide enough functions needed for the security of seismic safety and the evaluation of the earthquake data from the seismic instrumentation. For this reason, it is necessary to replace the seismic monitoring system of Uljin 1 and 2 units with a new system which has the localized and upgraded hardware and corresponding software. In the part of standardization of existing seismic monitoring system, furthermore, it is necessary to develop the seismic wave analysis system which incorporate newly developed software and can real-timely analyze the seismic wave. This report is the finial product of research project ``The development of the operational program for seismic monitoring system of Uljin Unit 1 and 2`` which have been performed from June 1996 to June 1997 by KEPRI and KDN. Main accomplishments - Review of regulatory criteria for seismic monitoring system -Analysis and upgrade of hardware system -Analysis and upgrade of software system - Development of seismic wave analysis system. (author). 17 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Application for verification of monitor units of the treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.

    2011-01-01

    Current estimates algorithms achieve acceptable degree of accuracy. However, operate on the basis of un intuitive models. It is therefore necessary to verify the calculation of monitor units of the treatment planning system (TPS) with those obtained by other independent formalisms. To this end, we have developed an application based on factorization formalism that automates the calculation of dose.

  16. Unit-based functional IDDT testing for aging degradation monitoring in a VLIW processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yong; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, functional unit-based IDDT testing has been applied for a 90nm VLIW processor to monitor its aging degradation. This technique can provide health data for reliability evaluation as used in e.g. prognostic software for lifetime prediction. The test-program development based on the

  17. Wireless transmission design for health monitoring at neonatal intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Nguyen, S.T.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Health monitoring is crucial for the survival of the ill and fragile infants admitted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a hospital. However, the adhesive electrodes and wires cause discomfort to the patients and hamper the parent-child interaction. In this paper, we propose the

  18. Electrical - light current remote monitoring, control and automation. [Coal mine, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collingwood, C H

    1981-06-01

    A brief discussion is given of the application of control monitoring and automation techniques to coal mining in the United Kingdom, especially of the use of microprocessors, for the purpose of enhancing safety and productivity. Lighting systems for the coal mine is similarly discussed.

  19. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Grossman, R.F.; Corkern, W.D.; Thome, D.J.; Patzer, R.G.; Hopper, J.L.

    1981-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory in Las Vegas (EMSL-LV) continued its Offsite Radiological Safety Program for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other sites of past underground nuclear tests. For each test, the Laboratory provided airborne meteorological measurements, ground and airborne radiation monitoring teams, and special briefings to the Test Controller's Advisory Panel. Test-related radioactivity from the NTS was detected offsite following the Riola Test conducted on September 25, 1980. This consisted of xenon-133 (3.4 x 10 -11 μCi/m1) and xenon-135 (3.6 x 10 -10 μCi/m1) in a compressed air sample collected at Lathrop Wells, Nevada. The estimated dose equivalent to the whole body of a hypothetical receptor at Lathrop Wells from exposure to the radioxenon was 0.011 mrem, which is 0.006 percent of the radiation protection guide for a suitable sample of the general population. Whole-body counts of individuals residing in the environs of the NTS showed no manmade radionuclides attributable to the testing program. The only radioactivity from non-NTS sites of past underground nuclear tests was due to tritium in water samples collected from the Project Dribble Site near Hattiesburg, Mississippi, and the Project Long Shot Site on Amchitka Island, Alaska. The maximum concentrations measured at these locations were 1 and 0.1 percent of the Concentration Guide for drinking water, respectively. A small amount of airborne radioactivity originating from nuclear tests carried out by the People's Republic of China was detected during 1980 at some stations scattered throughout the Air Surveillance Network. The Laboratory's Animal Investigation Program sampled tissues from wildlife and domestic animals on and around the NTS. Data from analysis of these tissues are published separately in an annual report

  20. Teen Birth Rates for Age Group 15-19 in the United States by County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data set contains mean teen birth rates by year for each county and state in the United States. Hierarchical Bayesian space-time models were used to generate...

  1. NCHS - Birth Rates for Unmarried Women by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes birth rates for unmarried women by age group, race, and Hispanic origin in the United States since 1970. National data on births by Hispanics...

  2. NCHS - Teen Birth Rates for Females by Age Group, Race, and Hispanic Origin: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes teen birth rates for females by age group, race, and Hispanic origin in the United States since 1960. National data on births by Hispanic...

  3. Disturbances of motor unit rate modulation are prevalent in muscles of spastic-paretic stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C. J.; Powers, R. K.; Rymer, W. Z.; Suresh, N. L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke survivors often exhibit abnormally low motor unit firing rates during voluntary muscle activation. Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor unit firing rates in the spastic-paretic biceps brachii muscle of stroke survivors. To achieve this objective, we recorded the incidence and duration of impaired lower- and higher-threshold motor unit firing rate modulation in spastic-paretic, contralateral, and healthy control muscle during increases in isometric force generated by the elbow flexor muscles. Impaired firing was considered to have occurred when firing rate became constant (i.e., saturated), despite increasing force. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the lower-threshold unit was longer for spastic-paretic (3.9 ± 2.2 s) than for contralateral (1.4 ± 0.9 s; P unit was also longer for the spastic-paretic (1.7 ± 1.6 s) than contralateral (0.3 ± 0.3 s; P = 0.007) and control (0.1 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.009) muscles. This impaired firing rate of the lower-threshold unit arose, despite an increase in the overall descending command, as shown by the recruitment of the higher-threshold unit during the time that the lower-threshold unit was saturating, and by the continuous increase in averages of the rectified EMG of the biceps brachii muscle throughout the rising phase of the contraction. These results suggest that impairments in firing rate modulation are prevalent in motor units of spastic-paretic muscle, even when the overall descending command to the muscle is increasing. PMID:24572092

  4. Motor unit discharge rate in dynamic movements of the aging soleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, Jouni; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Aging is related to a variety of changes at the muscular level. It seems that the age-related changes in motor unit activation are muscle- and intensity dependent. The purpose of this study was to examine the motor unit discharge rate (MUDR) in both isometric and dynamic contractions of the aging...

  5. 78 FR 49079 - Lease Modifications, Lease and Logical Mining Unit Diligence, Advance Royalty, Royalty Rates, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Management 43 CFR Parts 3000, 3400, 3430, et al. Lease Modifications, Lease and Logical Mining Unit Diligence... Lease Modifications, Lease and Logical Mining Unit Diligence, Advance Royalty, Royalty Rates, and Bonds... producing coal and has achieved diligence; (3) the value of any unpaid bonus payments; and (4) 100 percent...

  6. Motor unit recruitment patterns 2: the influence of myoelectric intensity and muscle fascicle strain rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2008-06-01

    To effectively meet the force requirements of a given movement an appropriate number and combination of motor units must be recruited between and within muscles. Orderly recruitment of motor units has been shown to occur in a wide range of skeletal muscles, however, alternative strategies do occur. Faster motor units are better suited to developing force rapidly, and produce higher mechanical power with greater efficiency at faster shortening strain rates than slower motor units. As the frequency content of the myoelectric signal is related to the fibre type of the active motor units, we hypothesised that, in addition to an association between myoelectric frequency and intensity, there would be a significant association between muscle fascicle shortening strain rate and myoelectric frequency content. Myoelectric and sonomicrometric data were collected from the three ankle extensor muscles of the rat hind limb during walking and running. Myoelectric signals were analysed using wavelet transformation and principal component analysis to give a measure of the signal frequency content. Sonomicrometric signals were analysed to give measures of muscle fascicle strain and strain rate. The relationship between myoelectric frequency and both intensity and muscle fascicle strain rate was found to change across the time course of a stride, with differences also occurring in the strength of the associations between and within muscles. In addition to the orderly recruitment of motor units, a mechanical strategy of motor unit recruitment was therefore identified. Motor unit recruitment is therefore a multifactorial phenomenon, which is more complex than typically thought.

  7. An enhanced ionising radiation monitoring and detecting technique in radiotherapy units of hospitals using wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a solution of ionising radiation monitoring based on the concept of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), is presented. Radiation dose rate measured by the sensor node is sent to the monitoring station through ZigBee wireless network operated on 2.4 GHz unlicensed Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band. The system is calibrated for use for ionizing radiation dose rate range of between amount of ionising radiation observed in radiotherapy unit of a hospital and 1.02 mSv/h. Power consumption of the sensor node is kept low by operating the node ZigBee radio with low duty cycle: i.e. by keeping the radio awake only during data transmission/reception. Two ATmega8 microcontrollers, one each for sensor node and the monitoring station, are programmed to perform interfacing, data processing, and control functions. The system range of coverage is 124m for outdoor (line of site) deployment and 56.8m for indoor application where 5 brick walls separated the sensor node and the monitoring station. Range of coverage of the system is extendable via the use of ZigBee router (s)

  8. Wireless sensor and data transmission needs and technologies for patient monitoring in the operating room and intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksuniemi, M; Sorvoja, H; Alasaarela, E; Myllyla, R

    2005-01-01

    In the intensive care unit, or during anesthesia, patients are attached to monitors by cables. These cables obstruct nursing staff and hinder the patients from moving freely in the hospital. However, rapidly developing wireless technologies are expected to solve these problems. To this end, this study revealed problem areas in current patient monitoring and established the most important medical parameters to monitor. In addition, usable wireless techniques for short-range data transmission were explored and currently employed wireless applications in the hospital environment were studied. The most important parameters measured of the patient include blood pressures, electrocardiography, respiration rate, heart rate and temperature. Currently used wireless techniques in hospitals are based on the WMTS and WLAN standards. There are no viable solutions for short-range data transmission from patient sensors to patient monitors, but potentially usable techniques in the future are based on the WPAN standards. These techniques include Bluetooth, ZigBee and UWB. Other suitable techniques might be based on capacitive or inductive coupling. The establishing of wireless techniques depends on ensuring the reliability of data transmission, eliminating disturbance by other wireless devices, ensuring patient data security and patient safety, and lowering the power consumption and price.

  9. Feasibility of Telemetric Intracranial Pressure Monitoring in the Neuro Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja-Cyron, Alexander; Kelsen, Jesper; Andresen, Morten; Fugleholm, Kåre; Juhler, Marianne

    2018-05-03

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is crucial in the management of acute neurosurgical conditions such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, pathological ICP may persist beyond the admission to the neuro intensive care unit (NICU). We investigated the feasibility of telemetric ICP monitoring in the NICU, as this technology provides the possibility of long-term ICP assessment beyond NICU discharge. In this prospective investigation, we implanted telemetric ICP sensors (Raumedic Neurovent-P-tel) instead of conventional, cabled ICP sensors in patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy. We recorded ICP curves, duration of ICP monitoring, signal quality, and complications. Seventeen patients were included (median age 55 years) and diagnoses were: severe TBI (8), malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (8), and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (1). In total, 3015 h of ICP monitoring were performed, and the median duration of ICP monitoring was 188 h (interquartile range [IQR] 54-259). The ICP signal was lost 613 times (displacement of the reader unit on the skin) for a median of 1.5 min, corresponding to 0.8% of the total monitoring period. When the signal was lost, it could always be restored by realignment of the reader unit on the skin above the telemetric sensor. Sixteen of 17 patients survived the NICU admission, and ICP gradually decreased from 10.7 mm Hg (IQR 7.5-13.6) during the first postoperative day to 6.3 mm Hg (IQR 4.0-8.3) after 1 week in the NICU. All 17 implanted telemetric sensors functioned throughout the NICU admission, and no wound infections were observed. Therefore, telemetric ICP monitoring in an acute neurosurgical setting is feasible. Signal quality and stability are sufficient for clinical decision making based on mean ICP. The low sampling frequency (5 Hz) does not permit analysis of intracranial pulse wave morphology, but resolution is sufficient for calculation of derived indices such as the pressure reactivity

  10. Ia Afferent input alters the recruitment thresholds and firing rates of single human motor units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, G; Cafarelli, E

    2003-06-01

    Vibration of the patellar tendon recruits motor units in the knee extensors via excitation of muscle spindles and subsequent Ia afferent input to the alpha-motoneuron pool. Our first purpose was to determine if the recruitment threshold and firing rate of the same motor unit differed when recruited involuntarily via reflex or voluntarily via descending spinal pathways. Although Ia input is excitatory to the alpha-motoneuron pool, it has also been shown paradoxically to inhibit itself. Our second purpose was to determine if vibration of the patellar tendon during a voluntary knee extension causes a change in the firing rate of already recruited motor units. In the first protocol, 10 subjects voluntarily reproduced the same isometric force profile of the knee extensors that was elicited by vibration of the patellar tendon. Single motor unit recordings from the vastus lateralis (VL) were obtained with tungsten microelectrodes and unitary behaviour was examined during both reflex and voluntary knee extensions. Recordings from 135 single motor units showed that both recruitment thresholds and firing rates were lower during reflex contractions. In the second protocol, 7 subjects maintained a voluntary knee extension at 30 N for approximately 40-45 s. Three bursts of patellar tendon vibration were superimposed at regular intervals throughout the contraction and changes in the firing rate of already recruited motor units were examined. A total of 35 motor units were recorded and each burst of superimposed vibration caused a momentary reduction in the firing rates and recruitment of additional units. Our data provide evidence that Ia input modulates the recruitment thresholds and firing rates of motor units providing more flexibility within the neuromuscular system to grade force at low levels of force production.

  11. Sampling and Analysis Plan Update for Groundwater Monitoring 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DR Newcomer

    1999-01-01

    This document updates the sampling and analysis plan (Department of Energy/Richland Operations--95-50) to reflect current groundwater monitoring at the 1100-EM-1Operable Unit. Items requiring updating included sampling and analysis protocol, quality assurance and quality control, groundwater level measurement procedure, and data management. The plan covers groundwater monitoring, as specified in the 1993 Record of Decision, during the 5-year review period from 1995 through 1999. Following the 5-year review period, groundwater-monitoring data will be reviewed by Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the progress of natural attenuation of trichloroethylene. Monitored natural attenuation and institutional controls for groundwater use at the inactive Horn Rapids Landfill was the selected remedy specified in the Record of Decision

  12. Implementation of a wireless sensor network for heart rate monitoring in a senior center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jyh-How; Su, Tzu-Yao; Raknim, Paweeya; Lan, Kun-Chan

    2015-06-01

    Wearable sensor systems are widely used to monitor vital sign in hospitals and in recent years have also been used at home. In this article we present a system that includes a ring probe, sensor, radio, and receiver, designed for use as a long-term heart rate monitoring system in a senior center. The primary contribution of this article is successfully implementing a cheap, large-scale wireless heart rate monitoring system that is stable and comfortable to use 24 h a day. We developed new finger ring sensors for comfortable continuous wearing experience and used dynamic power adjustment on the ring so the sensor can detect pulses at different strength levels. Our system has been deployed in a senior center since May 2012, and 63 seniors have used this system in this period. During the 54-h system observation period, 10 alarms were set off. Eight of them were due to abnormal heart rate, and two of them were due to loose probes. The monitoring system runs stably with the senior center's existing WiFi network, and achieves 99.48% system availability. The managers and caregivers use our system as a reliable warning system for clinical deterioration. The results of the year-long deployment show that the wireless group heart rate monitoring system developed in this work is viable for use within a designated area.

  13. An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K

    2003-07-07

    This report documents the results of Phase 1 of the ''Air Force Hydrazine Detector Characterization and Calibration Project''. A method for calibrating model MDA 7100 hydrazine detectors in the United States Air Force (AF) inventory has been developed. The calibration system consists of a Kintek 491 reference gas generation system, a humidifier/mixer system which combines the dry reference hydrazine gas with humidified diluent or carrier gas to generate the required humidified reference for calibrations, and a gas sampling interface. The Kintek reference gas generation system itself is periodically calibrated using an ORNL-constructed coulometric titration system to verify the hydrazine concentration of the sample atmosphere in the interface module. The Kintek reference gas is then used to calibrate the hydrazine monitors. Thus, coulometric titration is only used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek reference gas generation system, and is not required for hydrazine monitor calibrations. One advantage of using coulometric titration for verifying the concentration of the reference gas is that it is a primary standard (if used for simple solutions), thereby guaranteeing, in principle, that measurements will be traceable to SI units (i.e., to the mole). The effect of humidity of the reference gas was characterized by using the results of concentrations determined by coulometric titration to develop a humidity correction graph for the Kintek 491 reference gas generation system. Using this calibration method, calibration uncertainty has been reduced by 50% compared to the current method used to calibrate hydrazine monitors in the Air Force inventory and calibration time has also been reduced by more than 20%. Significant findings from studies documented in this report are the following: (1) The Kintek 491 reference gas generation system (generator, humidifier and interface module) can be used to calibrate hydrazine detectors. (2) The

  14. Adequate technologies for wireless real-time dose rate monitoring for off-site emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielmann, R.; Buerkin, W.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: What are the requirements for off-site gamma dose rate monitoring systems? What are the pros and cons of available communication technologies? This report gives an overview of modern communication techniques and their applicability for reliable real-time data acquisition as basis for off-site nuclear emergency management. The results of three years operating experience with a wireless gamma dose rate monitoring system, installed around the NPPs of KURSK, KALININ and BALAKOVA (Russia) in the year 2000, are shown. (author)

  15. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Nathan L. Stephenson; John C. Byrne; Lori D. Daniels; Jerry F. Franklin; Peter Z. Fule; Mark E. Harmon; Andrew J. Larson; Jeremy M. Smith; Alan H. Taylor; Thomas T. Veblen

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29...

  16. Water and Wastewater Annual Price Escalation Rates for Selected Cities across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-27

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Federal Energy Management Program to identify trends in annual water and wastewater price escalation rates across the United States. This study can be used to inform the selection of an appropriate escalation rates for inclusion in LCCA.

  17. A Bayesian analysis of the unit root in real exchange rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Schotman (Peter); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a posterior odds analysis of the hypothesis of a unit root in real exchange rates. From a Bayesian viewpoint the random walk hypothesis for real exchange rates is a posteriori as probable as a stationary AR(1) process for four out of eight time series investigated. The French

  18. Current practice and recommendations in UK epilepsy monitoring units. Report of a national survey and workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamandi, Khalid; Beniczky, Sandor; Diehl, Beate; Kandler, Rosalind H; Pressler, Ronit M; Sen, Arjune; Solomon, Juliet; Walker, Matthew C; Bagary, Manny

    2017-08-01

    Inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an important investigation in patients with seizures or blackouts, and in the pre-surgical workup of patients with epilepsy. There has been an expansion in the number of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) in the UK offering VEM with a necessary increase in attention on quality and safety. Previous surveys have shown variation across centres on issues including consent and patient monitoring. In an effort to bring together healthcare professionals in the UK managing patients on EMU, we conducted an online survey of current VEM practice and held a one-day workshop convened under the auspices of the British Chapter of the ILAE. The survey and workshop aimed to cover all aspects of VEM, including pre-admission, consent procedures, patient safety, drug reduction and reinstatement, seizure management, staffing levels, ictal testing and good data recording practice. This paper reports on the findings of the survey, the workshop presentations and workshop discussions. 32 centres took part in the survey and there were representatives from 22 centres at the workshop. There was variation in protocols, procedures and consent processes between units, and levels of observation of monitored patients. Nevertheless, the workshop discussion found broad areas of agreement on points. A survey and workshop of UK epilepsy monitoring units found that some variability in practice is inevitable due to different local arrangements and patient groups under investigation. However, there were areas of clear consensus particularly in relation to consent and patient safety that can be applied to most units and form a basis for setting minimum standards. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of daily noise exposure monitoring on annual rates of hearing loss in industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R; Cullen, Mark R; Slade, Martin D; Dixon-Ernst, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is prevalent, yet evidence on the effectiveness of preventive interventions is lacking. The effectiveness of a new technology allowing workers to monitor daily at-ear noise exposure was analysed. Workers in the hearing conservation program of an aluminium smelter were recruited because of accelerated rates of hearing loss. The intervention consisted of daily monitoring of at-ear noise exposure and regular feedback on exposures from supervisors. The annual rate of change in high frequency hearing average at 2, 3 and 4 KHz before intervention (2000-2004) and 4 years after intervention (2006-2009) was determined. Annual rates of loss were compared between 78 intervention subjects and 234 controls in other company smelters matched for age, gender and high frequency hearing threshold level in 2005. Individuals monitoring daily noise exposure experienced on average no further worsening of high frequency hearing (average rate of hearing change at 2, 3 and 4 KHz = -0.5 dB/year). Matched controls also showed decelerating hearing loss, the difference in rates between the two groups being significant (p hearing loss showed a similar trend but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Monitoring daily occupational noise exposure inside hearing protection with ongoing administrative feedback apparently reduces the risk of occupational NIHL in industrial workers. Longer follow-up of these workers will help determine the significance of the intervention effect. Intervention studies for the prevention of NIHL need to include appropriate control groups.

  20. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater-Inspection and Monitoring Requirements for Waste Management Units 7 Table 7 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... for Waste Management Units To comply with Inspection or monitoring requirement Frequency of inspection...

  1. Exposure rate measurements on TV monitors LiF:Mg, Cu, P (GR- 200A) chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaye, S.S.; Sadagopan, Geetha; Bhatt, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    For measuring exposure rate on black and white TV monitor screen, LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200A) TLD chips were used. The samples were kept on TV monitor screen and exposed for 560 hrs with TV in 'ON' condition. The exposure rate on TV monitor screen was determined from integrated TL measurements and it varied from 0.081μGy/hr to 0.106 μGy/hr. Thus it was observed that the exposure levels were well below the prescribed limits (i.e. 5 μGy/h at 5 cm from the surface). LiF:Mg,Cu,P (GR-200A) TLD discs were also used to estimate the dose level on the surface of two types of TV monitors. The samples were kept at five different locations on the two (14 C PT AND 20 C PT) models of TV monitors and exposed for 622 hrs. From the measurement of TL, integrated dose on the screen were in the range 3.86 mR to 12.34 mR, the corresponding dose rate being 6.206 mR/hr to 19.839 mR/hr. This ensures that doses were well below the recommended limit of 0.5 mR/hr at 5cm. (author)

  2. Design description of a microprocessor based Engine Monitoring and Control unit (EMAC) for small turboshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    Research programs have demonstrated that digital electronic controls are more suitable for advanced aircraft/rotorcraft turbine engine systems than hydromechanical controls. Commercially available microprocessors are believed to have the speed and computational capability required for implementing advanced digital control algorithms. Thus, it is desirable to demonstrate that off-the-shelf microprocessors are indeed capable of performing real time control of advanced gas turbine engines. The engine monitoring and control (EMAC) unit was designed and fabricated specifically to meet the requirements of an advanced gas turbine engine control system. The EMAC unit is fully operational in the Army/NASA small turboshaft engine digital research program.

  3. In-core monitor housing replacement at Fukushima Daiichi Unit No.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Tomoyuki

    1999-01-01

    The in-core monitor (ICM) housing replacement of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) has been completed at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit No. 4 (1F4) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in Japan. Since cracking of the inside surface of an ICM housing was found in this unit, the ICM housing was replaced with one made of low-carbon stainless steel (SS) to improve Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) resistance. This project is the first application of the replacement procedure for the ICM housing and employs various advanced technologies. The outline of the ICM housing replacement project and applied technologies are discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. The Design of a γ-dose rate monitoring meter Based on C8051F020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Wei; Liu Chong; Wu Longxiong; Yang Binhua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of γ-dose-rate monitoring meter based on C8051F020 single chip microcomputer (SCM), and also describes the solution of hardware and software. The peripheral circuit of USB is also included. This meter can rapidly measure γ-dose-rate and store more data in power failure. In addition, it is featured with low power, small size, strong anti-interference and accurate measurement. (authors)

  5. Monitoring of dose rates and radiation flux density in working rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajtor, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problems of determining the neutron field characteristics (dose equivalent rate and flux density) in relation to the environmental monitoring by radiation protection services. The measurement devices used for measuring dose equivalent rate and neutron flux density RUS-U8 multi-purpose scintillation radiometer and RUP-1 multi-purpose transportable radiometer as well as measurement technique are described. Recommendations are given for checking measuring devices calibration, registering measurement results [ru

  6. The software and hardware design of a 16 channel online dose rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Wenjuan; Yan Yonghong; Yang Shiming; Li Xiaonan; Min Jian

    2011-01-01

    The software and hardware design of a 16 channel online dose rate monitoring system is presented. After being amplified and A/D converted, the output signal of the sensors was sent to a microprocessor through an FPGA, where the low-frequency filter, calculation, temperature compensation and pedestal deduction were accomplished. Such steps corrected the variation of dark current dependent on temperature fluctuations in a effective way, and finally the instantaneous dose rate results with enough precise were obtained. (authors)

  7. Design and accomplishment for the monitoring unit of the sup 6 sup 0 Co train freight inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Cong Peng

    2002-01-01

    The sup 6 sup 0 Co railway cargo inspection system has super automaticity. And the monitoring unit is an important part of the automatic control system. The author introduces the idea of designing the monitoring unit in detail and accomplishes a new-style unit which is different from the traditional one. The monitoring unit which is highly integrated, easy to be mounted and debugged and convenient to be operated and maintained has play an excellent role in the work of the whole inspection system

  8. Frameworks to monitor and predict rates and resource usage in the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219969; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Farm consists of around 40,000 CPU cores which filter events at an input rate of up to 100 kHz. A costing framework is built into the high level trigger thus enabling detailed monitoring of the system and allowing for data-driven predictions to be made utilising specialist datasets. An overview is presented in to how ATLAS collects in-situ monitoring data on CPU usage during the trigger execution, and how these data are processed to yield both low level monitoring of individual selection-algorithms and high level data on the overall performance of the farm. For development and prediction purposes, ATLAS uses a special ‘Enhanced Bias’ event selection. This mechanism is explained along with how it is used to profile expected resource usage and output event rate of new physics selections, before they are executed on the actual high level trigger farm.

  9. Syncope During Competitive Events: Interrogating Heart Rate Monitor Watches May Be Useful!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabouillot, Oscar; Bostanci, Kevin; Bouvier, Francois; Dumitrescu, Nicolae; Stéfuriac, Maria; Paule, Philippe; Roche, Nicolas-Charles

    2017-12-01

    This is a case report of a 45-year-old man who reported complete amnesia during the very first kilometer of a 10-km run. He was wearing a heart rate monitor (HRM). The interrogation of his HRM watch showed 200 bpm tachycardia beginning in the first kilometer and increasing up to 220 bpm during the last kilometer. The patient was asked to wear a Holter-monitor (Holter Research Laboratory; Helena, Montana USA) electrocardiogram (ECG) while practicing a training session. This examination allowed for the diagnosis of an adrenergic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) with an impressive auriculo-ventricular conduction over 260 bpm. This case highlights that non-medical devices, such as connected watches, can be helpful to diagnose arrhythmias. Thabouillot O , Bostanci K , Bouvier F , Dumitrescu N , Stéfuriac M , Paule P , Roche NC . Syncope during competitive events: interrogating heart rate monitor watches may be useful! Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):691-693.

  10. Auditing of Monitoring and Respiratory Support Equipment in a Level III-C Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bergon-Sendin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Random safety audits (RSAs are a safety tool but have not been widely used in hospitals. Objectives. To determine the frequency of proper use of equipment safety mechanisms in relation to monitoring and mechanical ventilation by performing RSAs. The study also determined whether factors related to the patient, time period, or characteristics of the area of admission influenced how the device safety systems were used. Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted in a level III-C Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU during 2012. 87 days were randomly selected. Appropriate overall use was defined when all evaluated variables were correctly programmed in the audited device. Results. A total of 383 monitor and ventilator audits were performed. The Kappa coefficient of interobserver agreement was 0.93. The rate of appropriate overall use of the monitors and respiratory support equipment was 33.68%. Significant differences were found with improved usage during weekends, OR 1.85 (1.12–3.06, p=0.01, and during the late shift (3 pm to 10 pm, OR 1.59 (1.03–2.4, p=0.03. Conclusions. Equipment safety systems of monitors and ventilators are not properly used. To improve patient safety, we should identify which alarms are really needed and where the difficulties lie for the correct alarm programming.

  11. 40 CFR 75.81 - Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Hg Mass Emission Provisions § 75.81 Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level. The owner or operator of the...

  12. The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed in Boris Kidric Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koturovic, A.M.; Sobajic, M.V.; Smelcerovic, M.A.; Damljanovic, D.D.; Drndarevic, V.R.

    1989-01-01

    The last generation of contamination and exposure rate meters and monitors designed and produced in Boris Kidric Institute, presented in this paper, are digital survey instruments. The common principle of these instruments is the 'simple precision' concept, i.e. predetermined time pulse counting. This principle is discussed and basic structure of these instruments is shown with their possibilities and features (author)

  13. X-γ dose rate continuous monitor with wide range based on single-chip microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Debo; Ling Qiu; Guo Lanying; Yang Binhua

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a concept about circuit designing of X-γ dose rate continuous monitor with wide range based on single-chip microcomputer, and also presents the design procedure of hardware and software, and gives several methods for solving the design procedure of hardware and software with emphasis. (authors)

  14. Sampling optimization trade-offs for long-term monitoring of gamma dose rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, S.J.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Twenhöfel, C.J.W.; Stöhlker, U.

    2008-01-01

    This paper applies a recently developed optimization method to examine the design of networks that monitor radiation under routine conditions. Annual gamma dose rates were modelled by combining regression with interpolation of the regression residuals using spatially exhaustive predictors and an

  15. MOTOR UNIT FIRING RATES DURING SPASMS IN THENAR MUSCLES OF SPINAL CORD INJURED SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eZijdewind

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury. Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical spinal cord injury. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG, surface EMG, and force were recorded during thenar muscle spasms that occurred spontaneously or that were triggered by movement of a shoulder or leg. Most spasms were submaximal (mean: 39%, SD: 33 of the force evoked by median nerve stimulation at 50 Hz with strong relationships between EMG and force (R2>0.69. Unit recruitment occurred over a wide force range (0.2-103% of 50 Hz force. Significant unit rate modulation occurred during spasms (frequency at 25% maximal force: 8.8 Hz, 3.3 SD; at maximal force: 16.1 Hz, 4.1 SD. Mean recruitment frequency (7.1 Hz, 3.2 SD was significantly higher than derecruitment frequency (5.4 Hz, 2.4 SD. Coactive unit pairs that fired for more than 4 s showed high (R2>0.7, n=4 or low (R2:0.3-0.7, n=12 rate-rate correlations, and derecruitment reversals (21 pairs, 29%. Later recruited units had higher or lower maximal firing rates than lower threshold units. These discrepant data show that coactive motoneurons are driven by both common inputs and by synaptic inputs from different sources during muscle spasms. Further, thenar motoneurons can still fire at high rates in response to various peripheral inputs after spinal cord injury, supporting the idea that low maximal voluntary firing rates and forces in thenar muscles result from reduced descending drive.

  16. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, V

    2005-12-15

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified

  17. MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (MCU) GAMMA MONITORS SYSTEM FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) selected Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) as the preferred technology for the removal of radioactive cesium from High-Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Before the full-scale Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) becomes operational, the Closure Business Unit (CBU) plans to process a portion of dissolved saltcake waste through a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU). This work was derived from Technical Task Request SP-TTR-2004-00013, ''Gamma Monitor for MCU''. The deliverables for this task are the hardware and software for the gamma monitors and a report summarizing the testing and acceptance of this equipment for use in the MCU. Gamma-ray monitors are required to: (1) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the decontaminated salt solution before entering the DSS (Decontaminated Salt Solution) Hold Tank, (2) Measure the Cs-137 concentration in the strip effluent before entering the Strip Effluent Hold Tank, (3) Verify proper operation of the solvent extraction system by verifying material balance within the process (The DSS Hold Tank Cs-137 concentration will be very low and the Cs-137 concentration in the Strip Effluent Hold Tank will be fifteen times higher than the Cs-137 concentration in the Feed Tank.) Sodium iodide monitors are used to measure the Cs-137 concentration in the piping before the DSS Hold tank, while GM monitors are used for Cs-137 measurements before the Strip Effluent Hold Tank. Tungsten shields were designed using Monte Carlo calculations and fabricated to reduce the process background radiation at the detector positions. These monitors were calibrated with NIST traceable standards that were specially made to be the same as the piping being monitored. Since this gamma ray monitoring system is unique, specially designed software was written and acceptance tested by Savannah River National Laboratory personnel. The software is a LabView-based application that serves as a unified interface for controlling

  18. Taming of the monitors: reducing false alarms in intensive care units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plešinger, Filip; Klimeš, Petr; Halámek, Josef; Jurák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 8 (2016), s. 1313-1325 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/12/2034; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ECG * critical care * arrhythmia * intensive care unit * ICU monitor * false alarm * beat detection Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2016

  19. Managed care market share and cesarean section rates in the United States: is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, W J; Sutton, A

    2000-11-01

    After peaking during the early 1980s, cesarean section rates in the United States have been falling for the last decade. At the same time, managed care enrollment has increased dramatically. This study examines whether managed care penetration in local markets is associated with lower cesarean section rates in those geographic area. A cross-sectional comparison of cesarean section rates and health maintenance organization (HMO) market penetration in 61 selected metropolitan areas in the United States was conducted. National birth certificate data for 1996 were used to calculate crude and race-adjusted cesarean section rates for residents in each area. No relationship between overall cesarean section rates in the metropolitan areas and managed care penetration was observed. Subanalyses of racial groups demonstrated the existence of a weak association between managed care penetration and cesarean section rates for white women (21.2% for the highest quartile of HMO penetration, compared with 19.1% for the lowest quartile; P = .03), but not for African-Americans or other minorities. Managed care penetration in a market may have an association with cesarean section rates for white women, but the strength of this relationship is small. Even if managed care delivery systems reduce cesarean section rates in their own populations, this change is likely to have only a small impact on overall cesarean rates. HMO penetration is unlikely to influence national cesarean section rates, nor does it appear to explain state variations in these rates.

  20. Salamander chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) in the United States—Developing research, monitoring, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2016-01-20

    The recently (2013) identified pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), poses a severe threat to the distribution and abundance of salamanders within the United States and Europe. Development of a response strategy for the potential, and likely, invasion of Bsal into the United States is crucial to protect global salamander biodiversity. A formal working group, led by Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins Science Center, and Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, was held at the USGS Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, Colorado, United States from June 23 to June 25, 2015, to identify crucial Bsal research and monitoring needs that could inform conservation and management strategies for salamanders in the United States. Key findings of the workshop included the following: (1) the introduction of Bsal into the United States is highly probable, if not inevitable, thus requiring development of immediate short-term and long-term intervention strategies to prevent Bsal establishment and biodiversity decline; (2) management actions targeted towards pathogen containment may be ineffective in reducing the long-term spread of Bsal throughout the United States; and (3) early detection of Bsal through surveillance at key amphibian import locations, among high-risk wild populations, and through analysis of archived samples is necessary for developing management responses. Top research priorities during the preinvasion stage included the following: (1) deployment of qualified diagnostic methods for Bsal and establishment of standardized laboratory practices, (2) assessment of susceptibility for amphibian hosts (including anurans), and (3) development and evaluation of short- and long-term pathogen intervention and management strategies. Several outcomes were achieved during the workshop, including development

  1. Successful global assessments and monitoring: The roles of the international community and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Successful global assessments and monitoring of natural resources requires teamwork between participating nations and the international communities charged with the responsibility for collecting and disseminating information. In an attempt to identify emerging information needs and to promote coordination, the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO) and other national and international groups held a major conference and workshop in Venice, Italy, on global monitoring last September. The results of the meeting and subsequent events in Montreal indicated a need for more aggressive leadership at the international level and more cooperation at the national level. This paper reports on the outcome of the Venice conference and list some things that the international community and the United States must do to make global assessments and monitoring a reality

  2. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  3. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA

  4. Monitoring of carbon monoxide in residences with bulk wood pellet storage in the Northeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Alan; Jordan, Carolyn E; Wake, Cameron; Soto-Garcia, Lydia

    2017-10-01

    The interest in biomass fuel is continuing to expand globally and in the northeastern United States as wood pellets are becoming a primary source of fuel for residential and small commercial systems. Wood pellets for boilers are often stored in basement storage rooms or large bag-type containers. Due to the enclosed nature of these storage areas, the atmosphere may exhibit increased levels of carbon monoxide. Serious accidents in Europe have been reported over the last decade in which high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) have been found in or near bulk pellet storage containers. The aim of this study was to characterize the CO concentrations in areas with indoor storage of bulk wood pellets. Data was obtained over approximately 7 months (December 2013 to June 2014) at 25 sites in New Hampshire and Massachusetts: 16 homes using wood pellet boilers with indoor pellet storage containers greater than or equal to 3 ton capacity; 4 homes with wood pellet heating systems with outdoor pellet storage; 4 homes using other heating fuels; and a university laboratory site. CO monitors were set up in homes to collect concentrations of CO in the immediate vicinity of wood pellet storage containers, and data were then compared to those of homes using fossil fuel systems. The homes monitored in this study provided a diverse set of housing stock spanning two and a half centuries of construction, with homes built from 1774 to 2013, representing a range of air exchange rates. The CO concentration data from each home was averaged hourly and then compared to a threshold of 9 ppm. While concentrations of CO were generally low for the homes studied, the need to properly design storage locations for pellets is and will remain a necessary component of wood pellet heating systems to minimize the risk of CO exposure. This paper is an assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure from bulk wood pellet storage in homes in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Understanding the CO concentrations

  5. Do State-Based Policies Have an Impact on Teen Birth Rates and Teen Abortion Rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrette, Marianne; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-10-01

    The United States has one of the highest teen birth rates among developed countries. Interstate birth rates and abortion rates vary widely, as do policies on abortion and sex education. The objective of our study is to assess whether US state-level policies regarding abortion and sexual education are associated with different teen birth and teen abortion rates. We carried out a state-level (N = 51 [50 states plus the District of Columbia]) retrospective observational cross-sectional study, using data imported from the National Vital Statistics System. State policies were obtained from the Guttmacher Institute. We used descriptive statistics and regression analysis to study the association of different state policies with teen birth and teen abortion rates. The state-level mean birth rates, when stratifying between policies protective and nonprotective of teen births, were not statistically different-for sex education policies, 39.8 of 1000 vs 45.1 of 1000 (P = .2187); for mandatory parents' consent to abortion 45 of 1000, vs 38 of 1000 when the minor could consent (P = .0721); and for deterrents to abortion, 45.4 of 1000 vs 37.4 of 1000 (P = .0448). Political affiliation (35.1 of 1000 vs 49.6 of 1000, P births. Lower teen abortion rates were, however, associated with restrictive abortion policies, specifically lower in states with financial barriers, deterrents to abortion, and requirement for parental consent. While teen birth rates do not appear to be influenced by state-level sex education policies, state-level policies that restrict abortion appear to be associated with lower state teen abortion rates. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Independent dose per monitor unit review of eight U.S.A. proton treatment facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyers, M. F.; Ibbott, G. S.; Grant, R. L.; Summers, P. A.; Followill, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Compare the dose per monitor unit at different proton treatment facilities using three different dosimetry methods. Methods: Measurements of dose per monitor unit were performed by a single group at eight facilities using 11 test beams and up to six different clinical portal treatment sites. These measurements were compared to the facility reported dose per monitor unit values. Results: Agreement between the measured and reported doses was similar using any of the three dosimetry methods. Use of the ICRU 59 N D,w based method gave results approximately 3% higher than both the ICRU 59 N X and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N D,w based methods. Conclusions: Any single dosimetry method could be used for multi-institution trials with similar conformity between facilities. A multi-institutional trial could support facilities using both the ICRU 59 N X based and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N D,w based methods but use of the ICRU 59 N D,w based method should not be allowed simultaneously with the other two until the difference is resolved

  7. Spread-out Bragg peak and monitor units calculation with the Monte Carlo Code MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herault, J.; Iborra, N.; Serrano, B.; Chauvel, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the dosimetric potential of the Monte Carlo code MCNPX applied to the protontherapy field. For series of clinical configurations a comparison between simulated and experimental data was carried out, using the proton beam line of the MEDICYC isochronous cyclotron installed in the Centre Antoine Lacassagne in Nice. The dosimetric quantities tested were depth-dose distributions, output factors, and monitor units. For each parameter, the simulation reproduced accurately the experiment, which attests the quality of the choices made both in the geometrical description and in the physics parameters for beam definition. These encouraging results enable us today to consider a simplification of quality control measurements in the future. Monitor Units calculation is planned to be carried out with preestablished Monte Carlo simulation data. The measurement, which was until now our main patient dose calibration system, will be progressively replaced by computation based on the MCNPX code. This determination of Monitor Units will be controlled by an independent semi-empirical calculation

  8. Effects of fatigue on motor unit firing rate versus recruitment threshold relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fatigue on the average firing rate versus recruitment threshold relationships for the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis. Nineteen subjects performed ten maximum voluntary contractions of the dominant leg extensors. Before and after this fatiguing protocol, the subjects performed a trapezoid isometric muscle action of the leg extensors, and bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from both muscles. These signals were then decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. For each subject and muscle, the relationship between average firing rate and recruitment threshold was examined using linear regression analyses. For the VL, the linear slope coefficients and y-intercepts for these relationships increased and decreased, respectively, after fatigue. For both muscles, many of the motor units decreased their firing rates. With fatigue, recruitment of higher threshold motor units resulted in an increase in slope for the VL. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Changing medical practices and nosocomial infection rates in French maternity units from 1997 to 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Boulétreau, A; Caillat-Vallet, E; Dumas, A M; Ayzac, L; Chapuis, C; Emery, M N; Girard, R; Haond, C; Lafarge-Leboucher, J; Tissot-Guerraz, F; Fabry, J

    2005-04-01

    In this study we describe the changes in medical practices and nosocomial infection rates in obstetrics observed through a surveillance network in the South East of France. The maternity units which belong to this network participated in voluntary surveillance using the network's methodology. The criteria for the diagnosis of nosocomial infections were in accordance with the methods described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 101240 pregnancies including 18503 caesareans (18.3%) were included in the network from 1997 to 2000. During the study period, nosocomial infection rates following caesarean section and vaginal delivery decreased respectively from 7.8% to 4.3% (p infection control programs in maternity units has been confirmed by the results of this surveillance network. During the study period, both obstetrics-related risk factors for nosocomial infection and observed hospital-acquired infection rates were dramatically reduced, what prove an improvement of quality of care in maternity units.

  10. ATLAS trigger operations: Monitoring with “Xmon” rate prediction system

    CERN Document Server

    Aukerman, Andrew Todd; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the operations and online monitoring with the “Xmon” rate prediction system for the trigger system at the ATLAS Experiment. A two-level trigger system reduces the LHC’s bunch-crossing rate, 40 MHz at design capacity, to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz, while maintaining a high efficiency of selecting events of interest. The Xmon system uses the luminosity value to predict trigger rates that are, in turn, compared with incoming rates. The predictions rely on past runs to parameterize the luminosity dependency of the event rate for a trigger algorithm. Some examples are given to illustrate the performance of the tool during recent operations.

  11. Reduced firing rates of high threshold motor units in response to eccentric overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Tom G; Pahar, Madhu; Chesham, Ross; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2017-01-01

    Acute responses of motor units were investigated during submaximal voluntary isometric tasks following eccentric overload (EO) and constant load (CL) knee extension resistance exercise. Ten healthy resistance-trained participants performed four experimental test sessions separated by 5 days over a 20 day period. Two sessions involved constant load and the other two used eccentric overload. EO and CL used both sessions for different target knee eccentric extension phases; one at 2 sec and the other at 4 sec. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and isometric trapezoid efforts for 10 sec at 70% MVC were completed before and after each intervention and decomposed electromyography was used to measure motor unit firing rate. The firing rate of later recruited, high-threshold motor units declined following the 2-sec EO but was maintained following 2sec CL (P motor units were maintained for both loading types following 4-sec extension phases. MVC and rate of force development where maintained following both EO and CL and 2 and 4 sec phases. This study demonstrates a slower firing rate of high-threshold motor units following fast eccentric overload while MVC was maintained. This suggests that there was a neuromuscular stimulus without cost to the force-generating capacity of the knee extensors. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Design And Measurement Of Radiation Exposure Rates At An X-Ray Diagnostic Radiological Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tito-Sutjipto

    2003-01-01

    Every radiation employees suffers radiation exposure risk while doing his job. It is important therefore to investigate the occupational health and safety of radiation employees on its relationship with the design and measurement of radiation exposure rates at an X-ray diagnostic radiological unit in this work, a case study was held on the radiological unit at BP-4 Yogyakarta for patient diagnostics, This research armed to investigate the relationship between the design of radiological unit for X-ray diagnostics and the location of the X-ray machine, based on the distance variable and radiation exposure rate during patient diagnostics. This was performed using radiological unit design data for X-ray diagnostics and the measurement of radiation exposure rates throughout patient diagnostics. The design data can then be used for determining the requirement of primary and secondary shielding materials for radiological unit as well as a calculation basis of radiation exposure rates during patient diagnostics. From the result of the research, it can be concluded that from the occupational health and safety point of view, radiation exposure around the X-ray machines are fairly good, both for the shielding materials in each X-ray room and the radiation exposures received by the workers, because they are far beyond the maximum permittable average limit (16.67 m R/days). (author)

  13. Determination of the catalyst circulation rate in a FCC cold flow pilot unit using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Valdemir A. dos; Lima, Emerson A.O.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear techniques of gamma transmission and radioactive tracer were used to estimate the catalyst circulation rate in a cold flow pilot plant unit of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC). Catalyst circulation rate in a FCC unit, allow to determine operating conditions of the exchange catalyst and inlet data for fluid dynamic simulation computational program. The pilot unit was fabricated obeying geometrical parameters provided by the Petrobras Research Center (CENPES), based on hot pilot units to existing in that center. The cold flow pilot unit has a transfer line, two separation vessels flash type, a return column, a riser and a regenerator. The vertical sections as riser, return column, regenerator column and transfer line are made of transparent material (glass). The two separation vessels have bases with tapered cylindrical shapes and are made of steel plates. The riser is divided into four sections of different diameters (0.005 m, 0.010 m, 0.018 m and 0.025 m) and rising upwards, to simulate the increasing flow rate caused by the increase of volume with the increase of the number of moles due to molecules breakage. The radioactive tracer used was the catalyst itself (intrinsic tracer) irradiated by neutron activation, yielding the radioisotope 59 Fe. The velocity measurements were also obtained with aid of an electronic clock triggered by certain radiation levels across the two detectors. Besides estimates for the catalyst circulation rate was possible to identify the type of flow relative to the catalyst in return column. (author)

  14. Comparative evaluation of heart rate-based monitors: Apple Watch vs Fitbit Charge HR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Hibbing, Paul; Mantis, Constantine; Welk, Gregory J

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the validity of energy expenditure (EE), steps, and heart rate measured with the Apple Watch 1 and Fitbit Charge HR. Thirty-nine healthy adults wore the two monitors while completing a semi-structured activity protocol consisting of 20 minutes of sedentary activity, 25 minutes of aerobic exercise, and 25 minutes of light intensity physical activity. Criterion measures were obtained from an Oxycon Mobile for EE, a pedometer for steps, and a Polar heart rate strap worn on the chest for heart rate. For estimating whole-trial EE, the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) from Fitbit Charge HR (32.9%) was more than twice that of Apple Watch 1 (15.2%). This trend was consistent for the individual conditions. Both monitors accurately assessed steps during aerobic activity (MAPE Apple : 6.2%; MAPE Fitbit : 9.4%) but overestimated steps in light physical activity. For heart rate, Fitbit Charge HR produced its smallest MAPE in sedentary behaviors (7.2%), followed by aerobic exercise (8.4%), and light activity (10.1%). The Apple Watch 1 had stronger validity than the Fitbit Charge HR for assessing overall EE and steps during aerobic exercise. The Fitbit Charge HR provided heart rate estimates that were statistically equivalent to Polar monitor.

  15. Monitoring and Analysis of Environmental Gamma Dose Rate around Serpong Nuclear Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Susila

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An environmental radiation monitoring system that continuously measures gamma dose rate around nuclear facilities is an important tool to present dose rate information to the public or authorities for radiological protection during both normal operation and radiological accidents. We have developed such a system that consists of six GM-based device for monitoring the environmental dose rate around Serpong Nuclear Complex. It has operated since 2010. In this study, a description of the system and analysis of measured data are presented. Analysis of the data for the last five years shows that the average dose rate levels were between 84-99 nSv/h which are still lower than terrestrial gamma radiation levels at several other locations in Indonesia. Time series analysis of the monitoring data demonstrates a good agreement between an increase in environmental gamma dose rate and the presence of iodine and argon in the air by in situ measurement. This result indicates that system is also effective for an early warning system in the case of radiological emergency.

  16. 24 CFR 882.123 - Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section 23 monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion of Section 23 Units to... Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 882.123 Conversion of Section 23 Units to Section 8 and Section 23 monitoring. (a)-(d) [Reserved] (e) Section 23 policies for units planned for conversion on or before...

  17. Characteristics of Noble Gas-filled Ionization Chambers for a Low Dose Rate Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Soo; Park, Se Hwan; Ha, Jan Ho; Lee, Jae Hyung; Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Jung Bok; Kim, Yong Kyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Cho, Seung Yeon

    2007-01-01

    An ionization chamber is still widely used in fields such as an environmental radiation monitoring, a Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) in nuclear facilities, and an industrial application due to its operational stability for a long period and its designs for its applications. Ionization chambers for RMS and an environmental radiation monitoring are requested to detect a low dose rate at as low as 10-2 mR/h and several 3R/h, respectively. Filling gas and its pressure are two of the important factors for an ionization chamber development to use it in these fields, because these can increase the sensitivity of an ionization chamber. We developed cylindrical and spherical ionization chambers for a low dose rate monitoring. Response of a cylindrical ionization chamber, which has a 1 L active volume, was compared when it was filled with Air, Ar, and Xe gas respectively. Response of a spherical ionization chamber was also compared in the case of 9 atm and 25 atm filling-pressures. An inter-comparison with a commercially available high pressure Ar ionization chamber and a fabricated ionization chamber was also performed. A High Pressure Xenon (HPXe) ionization chamber, which was configured with a shielding mesh to eliminate an induced charge of positive ions, was fabricated both for the measurement of an environmental dose rate and for the measurement of an energy spectrum

  18. Design and Implementation of a Smart Sensor for Respiratory Rate Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte Luis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, development and implementation of a smart sensor to monitor the respiratory rate. This sensor is aimed at overcoming the drawbacks of other systems currently available in market, namely, devices that are costly, uncomfortable, difficult-to-install, provide low detection sensitivity, and little-to-null patient-to-patient calibration. The device is based on capacitive sensing by means of an LC oscillator. Experimental results show that the sensor meets the necessary requirements, making feasible the proposed monitoring system with the technology used.

  19. Firing rate modulation of human motor units in different muscles during isometric contraction with various forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, K; Narusawa, M

    1996-05-06

    To examine the factors affecting the control of human motor units, rate coding strategies of the motor units were investigated in upper limb and intrinsic hand muscles during voluntary isometric contraction of steady force levels up to 80% of maximal voluntary contraction. Numerous spike trains from single motor units were recorded from the m. first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the m. biceps brachii (BB) of eight human subjects by means of tungsten micro-electrodes, and the mean firing rate (MFR) was calculated for each subject and inter-individual comparisons made. The MFRs of the FDI were larger than that of the BB at the higher force level, and substantial differences were not found between these muscles at the lower force level. The slope of the linear regression line of MFRs vs. exerted forces for the FDI was more than twice that for the BB. Therefore, isometric force control of the FDI depends more on the rate coding strategy. The difference in rate coding between the FDI and BB motor units may be determined by factors other than muscle fiber composition, because both muscles are known to possess a similar composition of fiber types. Possible mechanisms underlying these characteristics of rate coding strategy are considered in this report.

  20. Monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in bioventing processes using in situ respiration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Byun, I G; Kim, Y O; Hwang, I S; Park, T J

    2006-01-01

    An in situ measuring system of respiration rate was applied for monitoring biodegradation of diesel fuel in a bioventing process for bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil. Two laboratory-scale soil columns were packed with 5 kg of soil that was artificially contaminated by diesel fuel as final TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) concentration of 8,000 mg/kg soil. Nutrient was added to make a relative concentration of C:N:P = 100:10:1. One soil column was operated with continuous venting mode, and the other one with intermittent (6 h venting/6 h rest) venting mode. On-line O2 and CO2 gas measuring system was applied to measure O2 utilisation and CO2 production during biodegradation of diesel for 5 months. Biodegradation rate of TPH was calculated from respiration rate measured by the on-line gas measuring system. There were no apparent differences between calculated biodegradation rates from two columns with different venting modes. The variation of biodegradation rates corresponded well with trend of the remaining TPH concentrations comparing other biodegradation indicators, such as C17/pristane and C18/phytane ratio, dehydrogenase activity, and the ratio of hydrocarbon utilising bacteria to total heterotrophic bacteria. These results suggested that the on-line measuring system of respiration rate would be applied to monitoring biodegradation rate and to determine the potential applicability of bioventing process for bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.

  1. Audit Calculations of LBLOCA for Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 Power Up rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Donggu; Huh, Byunggil; Yoo, Seunghunl; Yang, Chaeyong; Seul, Kwangwon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The KINS-Realistic Evaluation Model (KINS-REM) was developed for the independent audit calculation in 1991, and the code accuracy and statistical method have been improved. To support the licensing review and to confirm the validity of licensee's calculation, regulatory auditing calculations have been also conducted. Currently, the modification of Ulchin 1 and 2 operating license for 4.5% power up rate is under review. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. In this study, the regulatory audit calculation for LBLOCA of Ulchin Unit 1 and 2 with 4.5% power up rate was performed by applying KINS-REM. It is confirmed that the analysis results of LBLOCA for Ulchin 1 and 2 power up rate meets the PCT acceptance criteria.

  2. Motor unit firing rates during spasms in thenar muscles of spinal cord injured subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Bakels, Robert; Thomas, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms) commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical

  3. Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-05

    Diana Khuu discusses Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010.  Created: 1/5/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/7/2015.

  4. Annosus Root Disease Hazard Rating, Detection, and Management Strategies in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Alexander

    1989-01-01

    Annosus root disease (ARD), is the major root disease of pines in the southeastern United States where severely affected trees exhibit growth loss. Assessing the potential damage of ARD is essential for making effective disease control and management decisions. A soil hazard rating system developed to identify potential for tree mortality is described. The Annosus...

  5. Ads' click-through rates predicting based on gated recurrent unit neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiaohong; Guo, Zixuan; Dong, Wen; Jin, Lingzi

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the effect of online advertising and to increase the revenue of advertising, the gated recurrent unit neural networks(GRU) model is used as the ads' click through rates(CTR) predicting. Combined with the characteristics of gated unit structure and the unique of time sequence in data, using BPTT algorithm to train the model. Furthermore, by optimizing the step length algorithm of the gated unit recurrent neural networks, making the model reach optimal point better and faster in less iterative rounds. The experiment results show that the model based on the gated recurrent unit neural networks and its optimization of step length algorithm has the better effect on the ads' CTR predicting, which helps advertisers, media and audience achieve a win-win and mutually beneficial situation in Three-Side Game.

  6. Epidemiologic Surveillance of Teenage Birth Rates in the United States, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raid; Decesare, Julie Zemaitis; Hans, Jennifer; Roussos-Ross, Kay

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the geographic variation in the average teenage birth rates by county in the contiguous United States. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics were used in this retrospective cohort to count the total number of live births to females aged 15-19 years by county between 2006 and 2012. Software for disease surveillance and spatial cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of high or low teenage births in counties or areas of greater than 100,000 teenage females. The analysis was then adjusted for percentage of poverty and high school diploma achievement. The unadjusted analysis identified the top 10 clusters of teenage births. The cluster with the highest rate was a city and the surrounding 40 counties, demonstrating an average teen birth rate of 67 per 1,000 females in the age range, 87% higher than the rate in the contiguous United States. Adjustments for poverty rates and high school diploma achievement shifted the top clusters to other areas. Despite an overall national decline in the teenage birth rate, clusters of elevated teenage birth rates remain. These clusters are not random and remain higher than expected when adjusted for poverty and education. This data set provides a framework to focus targeted interventions to reduce teenage birth rates in this high-risk population.

  7. Motor unit firing rate patterns during voluntary muscle force generation: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Muscle force is generated by a combination of motor unit (MU) recruitment and changes in the discharge rate of active MUs. There have been two basic MU recruitment and firing rate paradigms reported in the literature, which describe the control of the MUs during force generation. The first (termed the reverse ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits lower firing rates for lower threshold units, with higher firing rates occurring in higher threshold units. The second (termed the ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits an inverse arrangement, with lower threshold units reaching higher firing rates. Approach. Using a simulation of the MU activity in a hand muscle, this study examined the force generation capacity and the variability of the muscle force magnitude at different excitation levels of the MU pool under these two different MU control paradigms. We sought to determine which rate/recruitment scheme was more efficient for force generation, and which scheme gave rise to the lowest force variability. Main results. We found that the force output of both firing patterns leads to graded force output at low excitation levels, and that the force generation capacity of the two different paradigms diverged around 50% excitation. In the reverse ‘onion skin’ pattern, at 100% excitation, the force output reached up to 88% of maximum force, whereas for the ‘onion skin’ pattern, the force output only reached up to 54% of maximum force at 100% excitation. The force variability was lower at the low to moderate force levels under the ‘onion skin’ paradigm than with the reverse ‘onion skin’ firing patterns, but this effect was reversed at high force levels. Significance. This study captures the influence of MU recruitment and firing rate organization on muscle force properties, and our results suggest that the different firing organizations can be beneficial at different levels of voluntary muscle force generation and perhaps for different tasks.

  8. Microcontroller based four-channel current readout unit for beam slit monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holikatti, A.C.; Puntambekar, T.A.; Pithawa, C.K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a microcontroller based four-channel current readout unit for Beam Slit Monitor (BSM) installed in Transport Line-1 of Indus Accelerator Complex. BSM is a diagnostic device consisting of two horizontal and two vertical blades, which can be moved independently in to the beam pipe to cut the beam transversely. The readout unit employs switched integrators with reset, hold and select switches and timing and control unit. It integrates the current output of the four blades of BSM and produces an output corresponding to the beam charge intercepted by the blade. The integrator outputs are then multiplexed and digitized using 12-bit ADC. Acquired digital data from ADC is stored into on-chip RAM of the microcontroller. The readout sequence is synchronized with the Microtron beam-timing signal. The timing of integration, hold and reset cycles is controlled by the microcontroller. The unit is connected on a serial link to the host computer in main control room. This unit has been integrated with the BSM system and is being used to obtain the electron beam profile. (author)

  9. Design of an Integrated Sensor Platform for Vital Sign Monitoring of Newborn Infants at Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring and advances in medical treatments have resulted in a significant increase of survival rate in critically ill infants admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The quality of life and long-term health prospects of the neonates depend increasingly on the reliability and comfort of the monitoring systems. In this paper, we present the design work of a smart jacket for vital sign monitoring of neonates at a NICU. The design represents a unique integration of sensor technology, user focus and design aspects. Textile sensors, a reflectance pulse oximeter and a wearable temperature sensor were proposed to be embedded into the smart jacket. Location of the sensor, materials and appearance were designed to optimize the functionality, patient comfort and the possibilities for aesthetic features. Prototypes were built for demonstrating the design concept and experimental results were obtained from tests on premature babies at the NICU of M�xima Medical Centre (MMC in Veldhoven, the Netherlands.

  10. The Vibration Monitoring of the Gascompressor Units with Application of Hurst's Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, O V; Novichkov, S V; Kochetkov, A V

    2016-01-01

    The gascompressor units work in the unsteady regime which depends on many internal and external factors. For the solution of problems of control, management and forecasting the statistical assessment of a condition of object in real time according to noisy observations of one realization of stochastic process is carried out. The traditional spectral analysis on the basis of Fast Fourier Transformation in this case is inefficient if time scale is much less than duration, which is subject to the analysis. Therefore for monitoring of a condition of the equipment it is offered to use Hurst's statistics by means of which it is possible to investigate quantitatively law of development of a vibration signal and unambiguously to analyze a condition of the gascompressor units. Calculation of economic efficiency from introduction of such technology of monitoring will provide decrease on average by 2.5% of a consumption of gas and specific costs of capital repairs of the gascompressor units at the expense of increase in a total operating time by 20%. (paper)

  11. Analysis of time series exposure rates obtained at a monitoring station around nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, I.; Ogawa, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Honda, Y.; Nakashima, Y.; Yoshimoto, T.; Tsujimoto, T.

    1991-01-01

    From the investigation on the variation of AAD rates monitored in the natural environment around nuclear power station, it may be concluded; (1) Differences between monthly averaged air absorbed dose rates (AAD rates) given by all data obtained and those obtained in fine weather become larger in winter (from Dec. to Feb.) (2) Cummulative frequency distributions of AAD rates are very different among four seasons. Remarkably high AAD rates are observed by heavy rains in summer and snow falls or rains in winter. (3) Though the hypothesis that the frequency distribution of AAD rates fit to the lognormal distribution can not be accepted by chi-square test, higher part of the frequency distribution of AAD rates agree approximately with the lognormal one. (4) Identification of AAD rates due to plume exposure may be possible by statistical analysis assuming lognormal distribution of AAD rates as well as the discrimination method based on the reference standard using mean values and standard deviations of the data obtained in fine weather. (author)

  12. Online dose rate monitoring: Better information by using the IRMA concept (Integral Radiological Multidetector Arrays)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1989-01-01

    A new GM detector system has been developed for online environmental monitoring. The approach is unorthodox, but simple: A) Take a set of radiological probes and feed all their information to an 'intelligent' front-end. B) Elaborate some algorithms, so that the system will give out just one gamma dose rate (running over more than nine decades). C) If necessary, associate some additional sensors, and the system will exhibit better discriminating qualities for the detection of artificial nuclides in the environment. (orig.)

  13. Design of readout electronics for BES III online dose rate monitoring and protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shiming; Gong Guanghua; Shao Beibei; Li Jin

    2006-01-01

    To protect the beam pipe of BES III, Si PIN diodes will be used as detectors to monitor the dose rate level near the IP area. Analog to digital conversion is selected to read out the current signals of Si PIN diodes. Several low current amplifying and measuring methods are compared, mainly describing the theory of operation, software and hardware design and performance of the A/D conversion circuit. (authors)

  14. Dose rate evaluation of workers on the operation floor in Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kaoru; Kurosawa, Masahiko; Shirai, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Ippei; Mukaida, Naoki

    2017-09-01

    At Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3, installation of a fuel handling machine is planned to support the removal of spent fuel. The dose rates at the workplace were calculated based on the source distribution measured using a collimator in order to confirm that the dose rates on the operation floor were within a manageable range. It was confirmed that the accuracy of the source distribution was C/M = 1.0-2.4. These dose rates were then used to plan the work on the operation floor.

  15. Wireless AE Event and Environmental Monitoring for Wind Turbine Blades at Low Sampling Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Omar M.; Tian, Gui Y.; Cumanan, K.; Neasham, J.

    Integration of acoustic wireless technology in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications introduces new challenges due to requirements of high sampling rates, additional communication bandwidth, memory space, and power resources. In order to circumvent these challenges, this chapter proposes a novel solution through building a wireless SHM technique in conjunction with acoustic emission (AE) with field deployment on the structure of a wind turbine. This solution requires a low sampling rate which is lower than the Nyquist rate. In addition, features extracted from aliased AE signals instead of reconstructing the original signals on-board the wireless nodes are exploited to monitor AE events, such as wind, rain, strong hail, and bird strike in different environmental conditions in conjunction with artificial AE sources. Time feature extraction algorithm, in addition to the principal component analysis (PCA) method, is used to extract and classify the relevant information, which in turn is used to classify or recognise a testing condition that is represented by the response signals. This proposed novel technique yields a significant data reduction during the monitoring process of wind turbine blades.

  16. Characteristics of flattening filter free beams at low monitor unit settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akino, Yuichi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi; Inoue, Shinichi; Mizuno, Hirokazu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sumida, Iori; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Newer linear accelerators (linacs) have been equipped to deliver flattening filter free (FFF) beams. When FFF beams are used for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the stability of delivery of small numbers of monitor units (MU) is important. The authors developed automatic measurement techniques to evaluate the stability of the dose profile, dose linearity, and consistency. Here, the authors report the performance of the Artiste™ accelerator (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) in delivering low-MU FFF beams.Methods: A 6 MV flattened beam (6X) with 300 MU/min dose rate and FFF beams of 7 (7XU) and 11 MV (11XU), each with a 500 MU/min dose rate, were measured at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 20 MU settings. For the 2000 MU/min dose rate, the 7 (7XUH) and 11 MV (11XUH) beams were set at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 MU because of the limits of the minimum MU settings. Beams with 20 × 20 and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field sizes were alternately measured ten times in intensity modulated (IM) mode, with which Siemens linacs regulate beam delivery for step-and-shoot IMRT. The in- and crossplane beam profiles were measured using a Profiler™ Model 1170 (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) in multiframe mode. The frames of 20 × 20 cm{sup 2} beams were identified at the off-axis profile. The 6X beam profile was normalized at the central axis. The 7 and 11 MV FFF beam profiles were rescaled to set the dose at the central axis at 145% and 170%, respectively. Point doses were also measured using a Farmer-type ionization chamber and water-equivalent solid phantom to evaluate the linearity and consistency of low-MU beam delivery. The values displayed on the electrometer were recognized with a USB-type camera and read with open-source optical character recognition software.Results: The symmetry measurements of the 6X, 7XU, and 11XU beam profiles were better than 2% for beams ≥2 MU and improved with increasing MU. The variations in flatness of FFF beams ≥2 MU were

  17. Characteristics of flattening filter free beams at low monitor unit settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Yuichi; Ota, Seiichi; Inoue, Shinichi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Sumida, Iori; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Isohashi, Fumiaki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Newer linear accelerators (linacs) have been equipped to deliver flattening filter free (FFF) beams. When FFF beams are used for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the stability of delivery of small numbers of monitor units (MU) is important. The authors developed automatic measurement techniques to evaluate the stability of the dose profile, dose linearity, and consistency. Here, the authors report the performance of the Artiste™ accelerator (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) in delivering low-MU FFF beams.Methods: A 6 MV flattened beam (6X) with 300 MU/min dose rate and FFF beams of 7 (7XU) and 11 MV (11XU), each with a 500 MU/min dose rate, were measured at 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, and 20 MU settings. For the 2000 MU/min dose rate, the 7 (7XUH) and 11 MV (11XUH) beams were set at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 MU because of the limits of the minimum MU settings. Beams with 20 × 20 and 10 × 10 cm 2 field sizes were alternately measured ten times in intensity modulated (IM) mode, with which Siemens linacs regulate beam delivery for step-and-shoot IMRT. The in- and crossplane beam profiles were measured using a Profiler™ Model 1170 (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) in multiframe mode. The frames of 20 × 20 cm 2 beams were identified at the off-axis profile. The 6X beam profile was normalized at the central axis. The 7 and 11 MV FFF beam profiles were rescaled to set the dose at the central axis at 145% and 170%, respectively. Point doses were also measured using a Farmer-type ionization chamber and water-equivalent solid phantom to evaluate the linearity and consistency of low-MU beam delivery. The values displayed on the electrometer were recognized with a USB-type camera and read with open-source optical character recognition software.Results: The symmetry measurements of the 6X, 7XU, and 11XU beam profiles were better than 2% for beams ≥2 MU and improved with increasing MU. The variations in flatness of FFF beams ≥2 MU were ±5%. The

  18. The Detector Control Unit An ASIC for the monitoring of the CMS silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Magazzù, G; Moreira, P

    2004-01-01

    The Detector Control Unit (DCU) is an ASIC developed as the central building block of a monitoring system for the CMS Tracker. Leakage currents in the Silicon detectors, power supply voltages of the readout electronics and local temperatures will be monitored in order to guarantee safe operating conditions during the 10-years lifetime in the LHC environment. All these measurements can be performed by an A/D converter preceded by an analog multiplexer and properly interfaced to the central control system. The requirements in terms of radiation tolerance, low-power dissipation and integration with the rest of the system led to the design of a custom integrated circuit. Its structure and characteristics are described in this paper. (6 refs).

  19. SU-F-T-67: Correction Factors for Monitor Unit Verification of Clinical Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, J [Mercy Health Partners, Muskegon, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Monitor units calculated by electron Monte Carlo treatment planning systems are often higher than TG-71 hand calculations for a majority of patients. Here I’ve calculated tables of geometry and heterogeneity correction factors for correcting electron hand calculations. Method: A flat water phantom with spherical volumes having radii ranging from 3 to 15 cm was created. The spheres were centered with respect to the flat water phantom, and all shapes shared a surface at 100 cm SSD. D{sub max} dose at 100 cm SSD was calculated for each cone and energy on the flat phantom and for the spherical volumes in the absence of the flat phantom. The ratio of dose in the sphere to dose in the flat phantom defined the geometrical correction factor. The heterogeneity factors were then calculated from the unrestricted collisional stopping power for tissues encountered in electron beam treatments. These factors were then used in patient second check calculations. Patient curvature was estimated by the largest sphere that aligns to the patient contour, and appropriate tissue density was read from the physical properties provided by the CT. The resulting MU were compared to those calculated by the treatment planning system and TG-71 hand calculations. Results: The geometry and heterogeneity correction factors range from ∼(0.8–1.0) and ∼(0.9–1.01) respectively for the energies and cones presented. Percent differences for TG-71 hand calculations drop from ∼(3–14)% to ∼(0–2)%. Conclusion: Monitor units calculated with the correction factors typically decrease the percent difference to under actionable levels, < 5%. While these correction factors work for a majority of patients, there are some patient anatomies that do not fit the assumptions made. Using these factors in hand calculations is a first step in bringing the verification monitor units into agreement with the treatment planning system MU.

  20. Methods for monitoring corals and crustose coralline algae to quantify in-situ calcification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jennifer M.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Hickey, T. Don

    2013-01-01

    The potential effect of global climate change on calcifying marine organisms, such as scleractinian (reef-building) corals, is becoming increasingly evident. Understanding the process of coral calcification and establishing baseline calcification rates are necessary to detect future changes in growth resulting from climate change or other stressors. Here we describe the methods used to establish a network of calcification-monitoring stations along the outer Florida Keys Reef Tract in 2009. In addition to detailing the initial setup and periodic monitoring of calcification stations, we discuss the utility and success of our design and offer suggestions for future deployments. Stations were designed such that whole coral colonies were securely attached to fixed apparati (n = 10 at each site) on the seafloor but also could be easily removed and reattached as needed for periodic weighing. Corals were weighed every 6 months, using the buoyant weight technique, to determine calcification rates in situ. Sites were visited in May and November to obtain winter and summer rates, respectively, and identify seasonal patterns in calcification. Calcification rates of the crustose coralline algal community also were measured by affixing commercially available plastic tiles, deployed vertically, at each station. Colonization by invertebrates and fleshy algae on the tiles was low, indicating relative specificity for the crustose coralline algal community. We also describe a new, nonlethal technique for sampling the corals, used following the completion of the monitoring period, in which two slabs were obtained from the center of each colony. Sampled corals were reattached to the seafloor, and most corals had completely recovered within 6 months. The station design and sampling methods described herein provide an effective approach to assessing coral and crustose coralline algal calcification rates across time and space, offering the ability to quantify the potential effects of

  1. Heart rate monitoring in soccer: interest and limits during competitive match play and training, practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Dellal; da Silva, Cristiano Diniz; Hill-Haas, Stephen; Wong, Del P; Natali, Antonio J; De Lima, Jorge R P; Bara Filho, Mauricio G B; Marins, Joao J C B; Garcia, Emerson Silami; Karim, Chamari

    2012-10-01

    The identification of physiological loads imposed by soccer training or match play reveals essential information, which may help improve training and recovery strategies. Until today, the use of heart rate (HR) monitoring is not standardized in soccer. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze, determine and compare the exercise intensity (EI) monitored by HR in professional, youth, and recreational soccer players during matches and training sessions using a meta-analysis. Heart rate is one of the most common physiological variables used to determine exercise internal training load. The mean EI recorded during competitive matches was described as 70-80% of VO2max or 80-90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), independent of the playing level. With respect to HR training zones, approximately 65% of the total match duration is spent at intensity of 70-90% HRmax and rarely below 65% HRmax. However, although HRmax is mostly employed in the literature, monitoring EI should be expressed in relation to reserve heart rate, as it was described as a more reliable indicator of HR, allowing interindividual comparisons. The HR response according to the playing position indicates that midfielders are characterized by the highest EI, followed by forwards and fullbacks. Moreover, in the second half of the match, the EI is lower than that observed during the first half; this reduction could be correlated with the level of the player's physical conditioning. Consequently, coaches may favor the use of interval training or small-sided training games because these are shown to improve both aerobic capacity and the ability to repeat high-intensity actions. Small-sided games allow reaching similar HR responses to those found during interval training and match play but with greater heterogeneity values. Future investigations should include a larger sample of players with special reference to playing position and the expression of EI in percentage of the reserve heart rate, analyzing the

  2. Simplified conversions between specific conductance and salinity units for use with data from monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Reclamation, and the California Department of Water Resources maintain a large number of monitoring stations that record specific conductance, often referred to as “electrical conductivity,” in San Francisco Bay Estuary and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Specific conductance units that have been normalized to a standard temperature are useful in fresh waters, but conversion to salinity units has some considerable advantages in brackish waters of the estuary and Delta. For example, salinity is linearly related to the mixing ratio of freshwater and seawater, which is not the case for specific conductance, even when values are normalized to a standard temperature. The Practical Salinity Scale 1978 is based on specific conductance, temperature, and pressure measurements of seawater and freshwater mixtures (Lewis 1980 and references therein). Equations and data that define the scale make possible conversions between specific conductance and salinity values.

  3. Improvement of a sensor unit for wrist blood pressure monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sangjun; Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Ayuzenara, Odgerel; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    A blood pressure sensor unit for ubiquitous healthcare monitoring was newly developed. The digital wrist band-type blood pressure devices for home are popular already in the market. It is useful for checking blood pressure level at home and control of hypertension. Especially, it is very essential home device to check the health condition of blood circulation disease. Nowadays many product types are available. But the measurement of blood pressure is not accurate enough compared with the mechanical type. It needs to be upgraded to assure the precise health data enough to use in the hospital. The structure, feature and output signal of capacitor type pressure sensors are analyzed. An improved design of capacitor sensor is suggested. It shows more precise health data after use on a wrist band type health unit. They can be applied for remote u-health medical service.

  4. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...

  5. Development of DUST: A computer code that calculates release rates from a LLW disposal unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Performance assessment of a Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal facility begins with an estimation of the rate at which radionuclides migrate out of the facility (i.e., the disposal unit source term). The major physical processes that influence the source term are water flow, container degradation, waste form leaching, and radionuclide transport. A computer code, DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term) has been developed which incorporates these processes in a unified manner. The DUST code improves upon existing codes as it has the capability to model multiple container failure times, multiple waste form release properties, and radionuclide specific transport properties. Verification studies performed on the code are discussed

  6. Monitoring the consistency of the dynalyser output via digital display unit and calculated practical peak voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Muhammad Jamal Mohd Isa; Abdul Aziz Mohd Ramli; Shahrul Azlan Azizan

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to ensure the adequacy and accuracy of the Dynalyser Digital Display unit for measuring the true kVp from the invasive kVp meter unit during calibration of non-invasive kVp meters. An invasive high voltage divider (dynalyser) coupled to the x-ray system measures the true kilo voltage supplied to the x-ray tube. The kVp output measured was displayed via its digital display unit while its waveform was acquired using a calibrated oscilloscope. The waveform was used to calculate the Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) using the International Standard method adapted from IEC 61676 and treated as the true kVp value. The kVp output was measured at 9 points ranging between 40 kV-120 kV with interval steps of 10 kV and monitored every day. The test result was evaluated for variation of output, intrinsic error and limit of variation in compliance with the IEC standard. Results showed that kVp output measured by the display unit everyday is consistent with variations of not more than ±0.45 kV, intrinsic error of not more than ±0.009 kV and limits of variation of less than 1% which comply with the IEC standard requirement. The kVp output via digital display unit has a total uncertainty of not more than 2.8 kV (k=2) while the PPV output via oscilloscope has total uncertainty of not more than 0.75 kV (k=2). As a conclusion, the dynalyser digital display unit complies with standard requirement and can be used to measure the true kVp output during the calibration of non-invasive kVp meters. (author)

  7. Development of Product Availability Monitoring System In Production Unit In Automotive Component Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, Rachmad; Raharno, Sri; Yuwana Martawirya, Yatna; Arthaya, Bagus

    2018-03-01

    This paper described a methodology to monitor the availability of products in a production unit in the automotive component industry. Automotive components made are automotive components made through sheet metal working. Raw material coming into production unit in the form of pieces of plates that have a certain size. Raw materials that come stored in the warehouse. Data of raw each material in the warehouse are recorded and stored in a data base system. The material will then undergo several production processes in the production unit. When the material is taken from the warehouse, material data are also recorded and stored in a data base. The data recorded are the amount of material, material type, and date when the material is out of the warehouse. The material coming out of the warehouse is labeled with information related to the production processes that the material must pass. Material out of the warehouse is a product will be made. The products have been completed, are stored in the warehouse products. When the product is entered into the product warehouse, product data is also recorded by scanning the barcode contained on the label. By recording the condition of the product at each stage of production, we can know the availability of the product in a production unit in the form of a raw material, the product being processed and the finished product.

  8. Monitoring fetal heart rate during pregnancy: contributions from advanced signal processing and wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Maria G; Fanelli, Andrea; Magenes, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring procedures are the basis to evaluate the clinical state of patients and to assess changes in their conditions, thus providing necessary interventions in time. Both these two objectives can be achieved by integrating technological development with methodological tools, thus allowing accurate classification and extraction of useful diagnostic information. The paper is focused on monitoring procedures applied to fetal heart rate variability (FHRV) signals, collected during pregnancy, in order to assess fetal well-being. The use of linear time and frequency techniques as well as the computation of non linear indices can contribute to enhancing the diagnostic power and reliability of fetal monitoring. The paper shows how advanced signal processing approaches can contribute to developing new diagnostic and classification indices. Their usefulness is evaluated by comparing two selected populations: normal fetuses and intra uterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Results show that the computation of different indices on FHRV signals, either linear and nonlinear, gives helpful indications to describe pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and neural system controlling the fetal heart. As a further contribution, the paper briefly describes how the introduction of wearable systems for fetal ECG recording could provide new technological solutions improving the quality and usability of prenatal monitoring.

  9. Validity of a heart rate monitor during work in the laboratory and on the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A. D. Jr; Lee, S. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Bishop, P.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate heart rate measurement during work is required for many industrial hygiene and ergonomics situations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of heart rate measurements obtained by a simple, lightweight, commercially available wrist-worn heart rate monitor (HRM) during work (cycle exercise) sessions conducted in the laboratory and also during the particularly challenging work environment of space flight. Three different comparisons were made. The first compared HRM data to simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings of varying heart rates that were generated by an ECG simulator. The second compared HRM data to ECG recordings collected during work sessions of 14 subjects in the laboratory. Finally, ECG downlink and HRM data were compared in four astronauts who performed cycle exercise during space flight. The data were analyzed using regression techniques. The results were that the HRM recorded virtually identical heart rates compared with ECG recordings for the data set generated by an ECG simulator. The regression equation for the relationship between ECG versus HRM heart rate data during work in the laboratory was: ECG HR = 0.99 x (HRM) + 0.82 (r2 = 0.99). Finally, the agreement between ECG downlink data and HRM data during space flight was also very high, with the regression equation being: Downlink ECG HR = 1.05 x (HRM) -5.71 (r2 = 0.99). The results of this study indicate that the HRM provides accurate data and may be used to reliably obtain valid data regarding heart rate responses during work.

  10. 40 CFR Table 31 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Monitoring Systems for HAP Emissions From Sulfur Recovery Units 31 Table 31 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment..., Subpt. UUU, Table 31 Table 31 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Continuous Monitoring Systems for HAP Emissions...

  11. Energy-Neutral Data Collection Rate Control for IoT Animal Behavior Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Wilhelm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy-neutral operation (ENO is a major concern for Internet of things (IoT sensor systems. Animals can be tagged with IoT sensors to monitor their movement and behavior. These sensors wirelessly upload collected data and can receive parameters to change their operation. Typically, the behavior monitors are powered by a battery where the system relies upon harvesting solar radiation for sustainable operation. Solar panels typically are used as the harvesting mechanism and can have a level of uncertainty regarding consistent energy delivery due to factors such as adverse weather, foliage, time of day, and individual animal behavior. The variability of available energy inevitably creates a trade-off in the rate at which data can be collected with respect to incoming and stored energy. The objective of this research was to investigate and simulate methods and parameters that can control the data collection rate of an IoT behavior monitor to achieve sustained operation with unknown and random energy harvesting. Analysis and development of a control system were performed by creating a software model of energy consumption and then simulating using different initial conditions and random energy harvesting rates for evaluation. The contribution of this effort was the exploration into the usage of a discrete-time gain scheduled Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID that was tuned to a specific device configuration, using battery state of charge as an input, and found to maintain a battery level set-point, reject small solar harvesting energy disturbances, and maintain a consistent data collection rate throughout the day.

  12. Annual Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program Report for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Gregory Graham

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 2001 Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted in accordance with 10 CFR 72.44 for the Three Mile Island, Unit 2, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. A description of the facility and the monitoring program is provided. The results of monitoring the two predominant radiation exposure pathways, potential airborne radioactivity releases and direct radiation exposure, indicate the facility operation has not contributed to any increase in the estimated maximum potential dose commitment to the general public.

  13. Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Llactayo, William; Tupayachi, Raul; Luna, Ernesto Ráez

    2013-11-12

    Gold mining has rapidly increased in western Amazonia, but the rates and ecological impacts of mining remain poorly known and potentially underestimated. We combined field surveys, airborne mapping, and high-resolution satellite imaging to assess road- and river-based gold mining in the Madre de Dios region of the Peruvian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. In this period, the geographic extent of gold mining increased 400%. The average annual rate of forest loss as a result of gold mining tripled in 2008 following the global economic recession, closely associated with increased gold prices. Small clandestine operations now comprise more than half of all gold mining activities throughout the region. These rates of gold mining are far higher than previous estimates that were based on traditional satellite mapping techniques. Our results prove that gold mining is growing more rapidly than previously thought, and that high-resolution monitoring approaches are required to accurately quantify human impacts on tropical forests.

  14. Cardiovascular oscillations at the bedside: early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis using heart rate characteristics monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorman, J Randall; Lake, Douglas E; Delos, John B; Flower, Abigail A; Cao, Hanqing; Kovatchev, Boris P; Richman, Joshua S

    2011-01-01

    We have applied principles of statistical signal processing and nonlinear dynamics to analyze heart rate time series from premature newborn infants in order to assist in the early diagnosis of sepsis, a common and potentially deadly bacterial infection of the bloodstream. We began with the observation of reduced variability and transient decelerations in heart rate interval time series for hours up to days prior to clinical signs of illness. We find that measurements of standard deviation, sample asymmetry and sample entropy are highly related to imminent clinical illness. We developed multivariable statistical predictive models, and an interface to display the real-time results to clinicians. Using this approach, we have observed numerous cases in which incipient neonatal sepsis was diagnosed and treated without any clinical illness at all. This review focuses on the mathematical and statistical time series approaches used to detect these abnormal heart rate characteristics and present predictive monitoring information to the clinician

  15. Development and implementation of a software for assessment of calculations in radiotherapy monitor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Marcio Rogerio; Silva, Marco Antonio da; Rodrigues, Laura Natal

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop and implement a software based on the manual calculation algorithm for verification of the calculations in radiotherapy monitor units and to establish acceptance levels as a mechanism of quality assurance. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from Clinac 600C and 2100C Varian linear accelerators and the computerized treatment planning system used was CadPlan TM . Results: For the 6 MV beams the acceptance levels for deviations among the calculations of monitor units, divided by treatment area, were the following: breast (0.0%±1.7%), head and neck (1.5%±0.5%), hypophysis (-1.7%±0.5%), pelvis (2.1%±2.1%) and thorax (0.2%±1.3%). For the 15 MV beams the suggested level for pelvis in all the treatment techniques was (3.2%±1.3%). Conclusion: The present data are sufficient to justify the use of the software in the clinical practice as a tool for the quality assurance program. (author)

  16. Monitoring of health care personnel employee and occupational health immunization program practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Ruth M; Sorrells, Nikka; Westhusing, Kelly; Wiemken, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have identified concerns with various elements of health care personnel immunization programs, including the handling and management of the vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess monitoring processes that support evaluation of the care of vaccines in health care settings. An 11-question survey instrument was developed for use in scripted telephone surveys. State health departments in all 50 states in the United States and the District of Columbia were the target audience for the surveys. Data from a total of 47 states were obtained and analyzed. No states reported an existing monitoring process for evaluation of health care personnel immunization programs in their states. Our assessment indicates that vaccine evaluation processes for health care facilities are rare to nonexistent in the United States. Identifying existing practice gaps and resultant opportunities for improvements may be an important safety initiative that protects patients and health care personnel. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Byrne, J.C.; Daniels, L.D.; Franklin, J.F.; Fule, P.Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Larson, A.J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Taylor, A.H.; Veblen, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  18. Proposing an Empirically Justified Reference Threshold for Blood Culture Sampling Rates in Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Stefanie; Schwab, Frank; Geffers, Christine; Bongartz, Hannah; Brunkhorst, Frank M.; Gastmeier, Petra; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.

    2014-01-01

    Early and appropriate blood culture sampling is recommended as a standard of care for patients with suspected bloodstream infections (BSI) but is rarely taken into account when quality indicators for BSI are evaluated. To date, sampling of about 100 to 200 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days is recommended as the target range for blood culture rates. However, the empirical basis of this recommendation is not clear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the association between blood culture rates and observed BSI rates and to derive a reference threshold for blood culture rates in intensive care units (ICUs). This study is based on data from 223 ICUs taking part in the German hospital infection surveillance system. We applied locally weighted regression and segmented Poisson regression to assess the association between blood culture rates and BSI rates. Below 80 to 90 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days, observed BSI rates increased with increasing blood culture rates, while there was no further increase above this threshold. Segmented Poisson regression located the threshold at 87 (95% confidence interval, 54 to 120) blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days. Only one-third of the investigated ICUs displayed blood culture rates above this threshold. We provided empirical justification for a blood culture target threshold in ICUs. In the majority of the studied ICUs, blood culture sampling rates were below this threshold. This suggests that a substantial fraction of BSI cases might remain undetected; reporting observed BSI rates as a quality indicator without sufficiently high blood culture rates might be misleading. PMID:25520442

  19. Suicide rates in the national and expatriate population in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervic, Kanita; Amiri, Leena; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Yousef, Said; Salem, Mohamed O; Voracek, Martin; Sonneck, Gernot

    2012-11-01

    Reports on suicide from the Gulf region are scarce. Dubai is a city with a large expatriate population. However, total and gender-specific suicide rates for the national and expatriate populations are not known. To investigate total and gender-specific suicide rates in the national and expatriate population in Dubai and to elicit socio-demographic characteristics of suicide victims. Registered suicides in Dubai from 2003 to 2009, and aggregated socio-demographic data of suicide victims were analysed. Suicide rates per 100,000 population were calculated. Suicide rate among expatriates (6.3/100,000) was seven times higher than the rate among the nationals (0.9/100,000). In both groups, male suicide rate was more than three times higher than the female rate. Approximately three out of four expatriate suicides were committed by Indians. The majority of suicide victims were male, older than 30 years, expatriate, single and employed, with an education of secondary school level and below. Further research on risk factors for and protective factors against suicide, particularly among the expatriate population, is needed. Epidemiological monitoring of suicide trends at the national level and improvement of UAE suicide statistics would provide useful information for developing suicide prevention strategies.

  20. A Bootstrap Neural Network Based Heterogeneous Panel Unit Root Test: Application to Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Christian de Peretti; Carole Siani; Mario Cerrato

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a bootstrap artificial neural network based panel unit root test in a dynamic heterogeneous panel context. An application to a panel of bilateral real exchange rate series with the US Dollar from the 20 major OECD countries is provided to investigate the Purchase Power Parity (PPP). The combination of neural network and bootstrapping significantly changes the findings of the economic study in favour of PPP.

  1. Verification of Sulfate Attack Penetration Rates for Saltstone Disposal Unit Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-12

    Recent Special Analysis modeling of Saltstone Disposal Units consider sulfate attack on concrete and utilize degradation rates estimated from Cementitious Barriers Partnership software simulations. This study provides an independent verification of those simulation results using an alternative analysis method and an independent characterization data source. The sulfate penetration depths estimated herein are similar to the best-estimate values in SRNL-STI-2013-00118 Rev. 2 and well below the nominal values subsequently used to define Saltstone Special Analysis base cases.

  2. Synchronization of motor unit firings: an epiphenomenon of firing rate characteristics not common inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Joshua C; De Luca, Carlo J

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous motor unit firing instances have been attributed to anatomical inputs shared by motoneurons. Yet, there is a lack of empirical evidence confirming the notion that common inputs elicit synchronization under voluntary conditions. We tested this notion by measuring synchronization between motor unit action potential trains (MUAPTs) as their firing rates progressed within a contraction from a relatively low force level to a higher one. On average, the degree of synchronization decreased as the force increased. The common input notion provides no empirically supported explanation for the observed synchronization behavior. Therefore, we investigated a more probable explanation for synchronization. Our data set of 17,546 paired MUAPTs revealed that the degree of synchronization varies as a function of two characteristics of the motor unit firing rate: the similarity and the slope as a function of force. Both are measures of the excitation of the motoneurons. As the force generated by the muscle increases, the firing rate slope decreases, and the synchronization correspondingly decreases. Different muscles have motor units with different firing rate characteristics and display different amounts of synchronization. Although this association is not proof of causality, it consistently explains our observations and strongly suggests further investigation. So viewed, synchronization is likely an epiphenomenon, subject to countless unknown neural interactions. As such, synchronous firing instances may not be the product of a specific design and may not serve a specific physiological purpose. Our explanation for synchronization has the advantage of being supported by empirical evidence, whereas the common input does not. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Unit soil loss rate from various construction sites during a storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniquiz, Marla C; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Eunju; Kong, Dong-Soo; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2009-01-01

    The Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE) opts to establish an ordinance having a standard specifying an allowable soil loss rate applicable to construction projects. The predicted amount of soil loss from a construction site exceeding the standard can be used to calculate the percent reduction necessary to comply with the ordinance. This research was conducted to provide a basis to establish a standard by investigating the unit soil loss rates in the three phases of development: pre-construction, active construction and post construction based from 1,036 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports within the six-year period (2000-2005). Based on the findings, several factors affect the magnitude of soil loss rates particularly storm characteristics, site slope, soil type, location from rivers, as well as the type of construction activity. In general, the unit soil loss rates during the active construction phase are extremely higher in comparison to undisturbed areas; in magnitude of 7 to 80 times larger in urban areas and 18 to 585 times in rural areas. Only between 20 to 40 percent of the soil loss rates was contributed at pre- and post- construction phases indicating that the active construction phase is the most important phase to control.

  4. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  5. Teen Birth Rates for Urban and Rural Areas in the United States, 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Rossen, Lauren M; Branum, Amy M

    2016-11-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System •Birth rates for teenagers aged 15-19 declined in urban and rural counties from 2007 through 2015, with the largest declines in large urban counties and the smallest declines in rural counties. •From 2007 through 2015, the teen birth rate was lowest in large urban counties and highest in rural counties. •Declines in teen birth rates in all urban counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest in Arizona, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Colorado, with 17 states experiencing a decline of 50% or more. •Declines in teen birth rates in all rural counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest (50% or more) in Colorado and Connecticut. •In 2015, teen birth rates were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic females. Teen birth rates have demonstrated an unprecedented decline in the United States since 2007 (1). Declines occurred in all states and among all major racial and Hispanic-origin groups, yet disparities by both geography and demographic characteristics persist (2,3). Although teen birth rates and related declines have been described by state, patterns by urban-rural location have not yet been examined. This report describes trends in teen birth rates in urban (metropolitan) and rural (nonmetropolitan) areas in the United States overall and by state from 2007 through 2015 and by race and Hispanic origin for 2015. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  6. Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

  7. Recommended methods for range-wide monitoring of prairie dogs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lyman L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Otis, David L.; Biggins, Dean E.; Stevens, Patricia D.; Koprowski, John L.; Ballard, Warren

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for conserving grassland, prairie scrub, and shrub-steppe ecosystems is maintaining prairie dog populations across the landscape. Of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as threatened, the Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) is a candidate for listing in a portion of its range, and the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) have each been petitioned for listing at least once in recent history. Although the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) determined listing is not warranted for either the black-tailed prairie dog or white-tailed prairie dog, the petitions and associated reviews demonstrated the need for the States to monitor and manage for self-sustaining populations. In response to these findings, a multi-State conservation effort was initiated for the nonlisted species which included the following proposed actions: (1) completing an assessment of each prairie dog species in each State, (2) developing a range-wide monitoring protocol for each species using a statistically valid sampling procedure that would allow comparable analyses across States, and (3) monitoring prairie dog status every 3-5 years depending upon the species. To date, each State has completed an assessment and currently is monitoring prairie dog status; however, for some species, the inconsistency in survey methodology has made it difficult to compare data year-to-year or State-to-State. At the Prairie Dog Conservation Team meeting held in November 2008, there was discussion regarding the use of different methods to survey prairie dogs. A recommendation from this meeting was to convene a panel in a workshop-type forum and have the panel review the different methods being used and provide recommendations for range-wide monitoring protocols for each species of prairie dog. Consequently, the Western

  8. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units 10 Table 10 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units As stated in § 63.1565(b)(1), you shall meet each...

  9. 40 CFR Table 17 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Monitoring Systems for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units 17 Table 17 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in § 63.1566(b)(1), you shall meet each...

  10. Development of a reference Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU for the monitoring and control of grid stability and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndilimabaka Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the details of the development of a Phasor Measurement Unit regarding the requirements of the IEEE C37.118-2005 synchrophasor standard relative to steady-state conditions on grid monitoring and control. This phasor measurement unit is intended to be used for field tests sooner.

  11. Development of a reference Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) for the monitoring and control of grid stability and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndilimabaka, Hervé; Blanc, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses the details of the development of a Phasor Measurement Unit regarding the requirements of the IEEE C37.118-2005 synchrophasor standard relative to steady-state conditions on grid monitoring and control. This phasor measurement unit is intended to be used for field tests sooner.

  12. Monitoring method for an ambient Gamma exposure rate and its measurement analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mo Sung [Cheongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jong Kwan [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Daily and seasonal variations of the ambient gamma ray exposure rates were measured by using a pressurized ion chamber from January 2003 to December 2005 in the Cheongju Regional Radiation Monitoring Post and the patterns of the distributions were studied. The annual average of the daily variation of the exposure rate was {approx}0.17 {mu}R/h. The exposure rate was found to be maximum during 8:00 am to 9:00 am and minimum during 8:00 pm to 10:00 pm. For the annual data, the exposure rate was the minimum during the month of February. The exposure rate increased from February to mid-October (except during the period from May to July with no change) and decreased from October to February. The seasonal variation was found to be about 1 {mu}R/h. Most of the measured values (96%) of the exposure rates fell under the normal distribution with a deviation of less than 4.8% and the remaining 4% had large fluctuations caused mainly by the rainfalls.

  13. Telephone audit for monitoring stroke unit facilities: a post hoc analysis from PROSIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelise, Livia; Gattinoni, Monica; Bersano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Although several valid approaches exist to measure the number and the quality of acute stroke units, only few studies tested their reliability. This study is aimed at establishing whether the telephone administration of the PROject of Stroke unIt ITaly (PROSIT) audit questionnaire is reliable compared with direct face-to-face interview. Forty-three medical leaders in charge of in-hospital stroke services were interviewed twice using the same PROSIT questionnaire with 2 different modalities. First, the interviewers approached the medical leaders by telephone. Thereafter, they went to the hospital site and performed a direct face-to-face interview. Six independent couples of trained researchers conducted the audit interviews. The degree of intermodality agreement was measured with kappa statistic. We found a perfect agreement for stroke units identification between the 2 different audit modalities (K = 1.00; standard error [SE], 1.525). The agreement was also very good for stroke dedicated beds (K = 1.00; SE, 1.525) and dedicated personnel (K = 1.00; SE, 1.525), which are the 2 components of stroke unit definition. The agreement was lower for declared in use process of care and availability of diagnostic investigations. The telephone audit can be used for monitoring stroke unit structures. It is more rapid, less expensive, and can repeatedly be used at appropriate intervals. However, a reliable description of the process of care and diagnostic investigations indicators should be obtained by either local site audit visit or prospective stroke register based on individual patient data. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring catalyst flow rate in a FCC cold pilot unity by gamma ray transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Marcio F.P.; Netto, Wilson F.S.; Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Junior, Isacc A.S.; Dantas, Carlos C.; Melo, Silvio B.; Lima, Emerson A.O.

    2013-01-01

    A model for monitoring catalyst mass flow in riser of Fluid Catalytic Cracking - FCC, pilot unity as a function of air flow and solid injection is proposed. The fluidized FCC- catalyst bed system is investigated in an experimental setup the Cold Pilot Unity - CPU by means of gamma ray transmission measurements. Riser in CPU simulates the reactor in FCC process. By automation control air flow is instrumentally measured in riser and the solid injection is manually controlled by valve adjusting. Keeping a constant solid injection, catalyst level at the return column was measured by gamma transmission for several air flow values in riser. The operational condition reached a steady state regime before given to setup a new air flow value. A calibration of catalyst level as a function of air flow in riser is calculated, therefore, a model for solid feed rate is derived. Recent published work evaluates solid concentration in riser of the CPU by means of gamma ray transmission, and a correlation with air velocity is obtained. In this work, the model for solid feed rate was further investigated by carrying out experiments to measure catalyst concentration at the same air flow values. These experiments lead to a model for monitoring catalyst flow in riser as function of solid feed rate and air flow. Simulation with random numbers produced with Matlab software allows to define validation criteria for the model parameters. (author)

  15. ATP bioluminescence: Surface hygiene monitoring in milk preparation room of neonatal intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Mahirah; Ishak, Shareena; Jaafar, Rohana; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    ATP Bioluminescence application and standard microbiological analyses were used to evaluate the cleanliness of milk contact surfaces and non-milk contact surfaces in milk preparation room of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). A total of 44 samples including the breast pump, milk bottle, milk bottle screw top and screw ring, teats, measuring cups, waterless warmer, refrigerator, dishwasher and pasteurizer inner wall were tested on May 2017. 3M Clean and Trace Hygiene Monitoring (UXL100 ATP Test swabs) and the bioluminescence reader Clean-Trace NG Luminometer (3M) were used to measure the Relative Light Unit (RLU) and microbiological analysis using 3M Quick Swab and 3MTM PetrifilmTM for enumeration of aerobic count, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform and detection of Escherichia coli (CFU /100cm2 or utensil/item). The RLU values were from 11 to 194 and passed the ATP benchmark for intensive care unit (ICU), < 250 RLU as recommended. Aerobic colony count was only found in waterless warmer (0.05±0.01 mean log CFU/warmer). None of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli and coliform was detected in all samples. A weak correlation was found between bioluminescence measurements RLU and the microbiological analysis (CFU). However, the use of ATP bioluminescence in monitoring milk preparation room cleanliness can be a useful method for assessing rapidly the surface hygiene as well as to verify the Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure (SSOP) prior to implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) in milk preparation room.

  16. Development of γ dose rate monitor based on FPGA and single-chip microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhiguo; Ling Qiu; Guo Lanying; Yang Binhua

    2009-01-01

    A novelγdose rate monitor with multiple channels signal collection in which takes the FPGA as the core process chip and single-chip microcomputer as the data processor had been developed. This paper introduced the communication interface design between FPGA and MCU, and gave the data acquisition module and the function simulation chart designed by FPGA. In addition, the software and hardware design diagrams of MCU had been given in this paper. The maximum digitallization was carried on in the designing process. The experiments showed that the scheme for the system matched to the requests completely. (authors)

  17. Monitoring the World Health Organization Global Target 2025 for Exclusive Breastfeeding: Experience From the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priya M; Perrine, Cria G; Chen, Jian; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Flores-Ayala, Rafael

    2017-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months, calculated from a single 24-hour recall among mothers of children 0 to 5 months of age, is a World Health Organization (WHO) indicator used to monitor progress on the 2025 global breastfeeding target. Many upper-middle-income and high-income countries, including the United States, do not have estimates for this indicator. Research aim: To describe the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months in the United States. We used a single 24-hour dietary recall from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012 to calculate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months. We discuss our results in the context of routine breastfeeding surveillance, which is reported from a national survey with different methodology. Among children younger than 6 months, 24.4%, 95% confidence interval [17.6, 31.1], were exclusively breastfed the previous day. To our knowledge, this is the first estimate of the WHO indicator of exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months for the United States. This study supports the global surveillance and data strategy for reporting to the WHO on the 2025 target for exclusive breastfeeding.

  18. Symbol error rate performance evaluation of the LM37 multimegabit telemetry modulator-demodulator unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, H.

    1981-01-01

    The LM37 multimegabit telemetry modulator-demodulator unit was tested for evaluation of its symbol error rate (SER) performance. Using an automated test setup, the SER tests were carried out at various symbol rates and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), ranging from +10 to -10 dB. With the aid of a specially designed error detector and a stabilized signal and noise summation unit, measurement of the SER at low SNR was possible. The results of the tests show that at symbol rates below 20 megasymbols per second (MS)s) and input SNR above -6 dB, the SER performance of the modem is within the specified 0.65 to 1.5 dB of the theoretical error curve. At symbol rates above 20 MS/s, the specification is met at SNR's down to -2 dB. The results of the SER tests are presented with the description of the test setup and the measurement procedure.

  19. Improving Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection Rates in the Medical Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haytham; Raji, Salama J.; Khallaf, Abeer; Abu Hija, Seham; Mathew, Raji; Rashed, Hanan; Du Plessis, Christelle; Allie, Zaytoen; Ellahham, Samer

    2017-01-01

    Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC) in Abu Dhabi is the main tertiary care referral hospital in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with 560 bed capacity with a high occupancy rate. SKMC senior management has made a commitment to make quality and patient safety a top priority. Preventing health care associated infections, including Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI), is a high priority for our hospital. In order to improve CAUTI rates a multidisciplinary task force team was formed and led this performance improvement project. The purpose of this publication is to indicate the quality improvement interventions implemented to reduce CAUTI rates and the outcome of those interventions. We chose to conduct the pilot study in General Medicine as it is the busiest department in the hospital, with an average of 390 patients admitted per month during the study period. The study period was from March 2015 till April 2016. Our aim was to reduce CAUTI rates per 1000 device days in the medical units. Implemented interventions resulted in a reduction of CAUTI from 6.8 per 1000 device days in March 2015 to zero CAUTI in February through April 2016. PMID:28469893

  20. Hopfield neural network and optical fiber sensor as intelligent heart rate monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a design and fabrication of an intelligent fiber-optic sensor used for examining and monitoring heart rate activity. It is found in the literature that the use of fiber sensors as heart rate sensor is widely studied. However, the use of smart sensors based on Hopfield neural networks is very low. In this work, the sensor is a three fibers without cladding of about 1 cm, fed by laser light of 1550 nm of wavelength. The sensing portions are mounted with a micro sensitive diaphragm to transfer the pulse pressure on the left radial wrist. The influenced light intensity will be detected by a three photodetectors as inputs into the Hopfield neural network algorithm. The latter is a singlelayer auto-associative memory structure with a same input and output layers. The prior training weights are stored in the net memory for the standard recorded normal heart rate signals. The sensors' heads work on the reflection intensity basis. The novelty here is that the sensor uses a pulse pressure and Hopfield neural network in an integrity approach. The results showed a significant output measurements of heart rate and counting with a plausible error rate.

  1. A New Approach for the Determination of Dose Rate and Radioactivity for Detected Gamma Nuclides Using an Environmental Radiation Monitor Based on an NaI(Tl) Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Kim, Chang-Jong; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Wanno; Chang, Hyon-Sock; Chung, Kun Ho

    2017-10-01

    To expand the application of dose rate spectroscopy to the environment, the method using an environmental radiation monitor (ERM) based on a 3' × 3' NaI(Tl) detector was used to perform real-time monitoring of the dose rate and radioactivity for detected gamma nuclides in the ground around an ERM. Full-energy absorption peaks in the energy spectrum for dose rate were first identified to calculate the individual dose rates of Bi, Ac, Tl, and K distributed in the ground through interference correction because of the finite energy resolution of the NaI(Tl) detector used in an ERM. The radioactivity of the four natural radionuclides was then calculated from the in situ calibration factor-that is, the dose rate per unit curie-of the used ERM for the geometry of the ground in infinite half-space, which was theoretically estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. By an intercomparison using a portable HPGe and samples taken from the ground around an ERM, this method to calculate the dose rate and radioactivity of four nuclides using an ERM was experimentally verified and finally applied to remotely monitor them in real-time in the area in which the ERM had been installed.

  2. VAMCIS, a new measuring channel for continuous monitoring of leak rates inside PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, G.; Dubail, A.; Lefevre, F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess the primary to secondary leakage, radioactive isotopes, formed in the primary coolant as a result of fission or neutron capture, are usually monitored in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) secondary coolant. Conventional methods mainly based on the detection of 133 Xe, tritium, and 41 Ar are widely used on French Electricite de France (EdF) PWRs. Some years ago, it appeared necessary to improve both leak rate assessments and steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) detection. A volumetric activity measuring channel inside steam (VAMCIS) has been developed for this purpose. The SGTR that occurred at the North Anna PWR has focused the attention of safety authorities on this new measuring channel. It is planned to implement VAMCIS at North Anna in order to check the leak rate variations more accurately

  3. Cardiovascular risk rate in hypertensive patients attended in primary health care units: the influence of pharmaceutical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Yuri Milen Firmino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular complications are relevant due to their frequency and severity on the hypertension scenario. Studies refer Pharmaceutical Care (PC as capable of decreasing cardiovascular risk rate (%CVR on hypertensive patients. This study aimed to investigate, through a randomized clinical assay, the influence of PC service on the %CVR of hypertensive patients assisted in a health primary care unit from Fortaleza-Ceará. Two study groups were formed: i. Intervention Group (IG, which received orientation about taking medicines, actions aiming to prevent/solve medicine interactions and adverse effects and non-pharmacological interventions for 9 months and, ii. Control Group (CG, which received traditional assistance of the unit and was monitored during the same period. It was observed a statistically significant reduction on %CVR (10.76 to 7.86; p=0.04 and systolic blood pressure levels (SBP (137.69 to 131.54; p<0.01 in the IG, while, in the CG, there was no significant alteration. 151 Drug Related Problem (DRP were identified and it was realized 124 pharmaceutical interventions, with 89.2% of them resulting on solution/prevention of the problem. Our findings indicated that the inclusion of the PC service in the hypertensive health assistance was more effective at the %CVR and the SBP reduction in comparison to the traditional assistance offered.

  4. Rates and Outcomes of Parathyroidectomy for Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Moon; Long, Jin; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Leonard, Mary B; Norton, Jeffrey A; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-07-07

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is common among patients with ESRD. Although medical therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism has changed dramatically over the last decade, rates of parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism across the United States population are unknown. We examined temporal trends in rates of parathyroidectomy, in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay, and costs of hospitalization. Using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a representative national database on hospital stay regardless of age and payer in the United States, we identified parathyroidectomies for secondary hyperparathyroidism from 2002 to 2011. Data from the US Renal Data System reports were used to calculate the rate of parathyroidectomy. We identified 32,971 parathyroidectomies for secondary hyperparathyroidism between 2002 and 2011. The overall rate of parathyroidectomy was approximately 5.4/1000 patients (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.0/1000 to 6.0/1000). The rate decreased from 2003 (7.9/1000 patients; 95% CI, 6.2/1000 to 9.6/1000), reached a nadir in 2005 (3.3/1000 patients; 95% CI, 2.6/1000 to 4.0/1000), increased again through 2006 (5.4/1000 patients; 95% CI, 4.4/1000 to 6.4/1000), and remained stable since that time. Rates of in-hospital mortality decreased from 1.7% (95% CI, 0.8% to 2.6%) in 2002 to 0.8% (95% CI, 0.1% to 1.6%) in 2011 (P for trend secondary hyperparathyroidism have not declined in recent years. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. [Does intraoperative nerve monitoring reduce the rate of recurrent nerve palsies during thyroid surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, W; Dralle, H; Hamelmann, W; Thomusch, O; Sekulla, C; Meyer, Th; Timm, S; Thiede, A

    2002-05-01

    Two different aspects of the influence of neuromonitoring on the possible reduction of post-operative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies require critical examination: the nerve identification and the monitoring of it's functions. Due to the additional information from the EMG signals, neuromonitoring is the best method for identifying the nerves as compared to visual identification alone. There are still no randomized studies available that compare the visual and electrophysiological recurrent laryngeal nerve detection in thyroid operations with respect to the postoperative nerve palsies. Nevertheless, comparisons with historical collectives show that a constant low nerve-palsy-rate was achieved with electrophysiological detection in comparison to visual detection. The rate of nerve identification is normally very high and amounts to 99 % in our own patients. The data obtained during the "Quality assurance of benign and malignant Goiter" study show that in hemithyreoidectomy and subtotal resection, lower nerve-palsy-rates are achieved with neuromonitoring as compared to solely visual detection. Following subtotal resection, this discrepancy becomes even statistically significant. While monitoring the nerve functions with the presently used neuromonitoring technique, it is possible to observe the EMG-signal remaining constant or decreasing in volume. Assuming that a constant neuromonitoring signal represents a normal vocal cord, our evaluation shows that there is a small percentage of false negative and positive results. Looking at the permanent recurrent nerve palsy rates, this method has a specificity of 98 %, a sensitivity of 100 %, a positive prognostic value of 10 %, and a negative prognostic value of 100 %. Although an altered neuromonitoring signal can be taken as a clear indication of eventual nerve damage, an absolutely reliable statement about the postoperative vocal cord function is presently not possible with intraoperative neuromonitoring.

  6. The constant failure rate model for fault tree evaluation as a tool for unit protection reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vichev, S.; Bogdanov, D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the fault tree analysis method as a tool for unit protection reliability estimation. The constant failure rate model applies for making reliability assessment, and especially availability assessment. For that purpose an example for unit primary equipment structure and fault tree example for simplified unit protection system is presented (author)

  7. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu; Yoshioka, Yuzuru.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have been developing a measurement system for bubbly flow in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system combining an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor with a video data processing unit is proposed, which can measure simultaneously velocity profiles in both gas and liquid phases, a void fraction profile for bubbly flow in a channel, and an average bubble diameter and void fraction. Furthermore, the proposed measurement system is applied to measure flow characteristics of a bubbly countercurrent flow in a vertical rectangular channel to verify its capability. (author)

  8. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  9. Application for verification of monitor units of the treatment planning system; Aplicacion para la verificacion de unidades monitor del sistema de planificacion de tratamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.

    2011-07-01

    Current estimates algorithms achieve acceptable degree of accuracy. However, operate on the basis of un intuitive models. It is therefore necessary to verify the calculation of monitor units of the treatment planning system (PTS) with those obtained by other independent formalisms. To this end, we have developed an application based on factorization formalism that automates the calculation of dose.

  10. Rate of generation of tritium during the operation of Tsuruga Power Station Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funamoto, Hisao; Yoshinari, Masaharu; Fukuda, Masayuki; Makino, Shinichi; Watari, Tuneo

    1994-01-01

    Total amount of 3 H activity in primary coolant due to the operation of Tsuruga Power Station Unit No. 2 was estimated. The 3 H inventory was measured for samples from the spent fuel pool, primary coolant and miscellaneous tanks. From the result of the measurement and the data of environmental release of 3 H, the rate of generation of 3 H in the reactor was found to be 25 TBq/GWa. Since Tsuruga Power Station Unit No. 2 is a PWR type reactor, we presume that most of the 3 H in primary coolant is formed by 10 B(n, 2α) 3 H reaction. It is necessary to release about 23 TBq/GWa of 3 H to maintain the station inventory at the present level. (author)

  11. 2015 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area: Subsurface Correction Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Project Shoal Area in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The corrective action strategy is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. Although water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized to the agreement of both the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  12. Independent calculation of the monitor units and times of treatment in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Marcio Rogerio

    2005-01-01

    In this work, an independent verification system of calculations in radiotherapy was developed and applied, using Visual Basic TM programming language. The computational program performs calculations of monitor units and treatment time, based on the algorithm of manual calculation. The calculations executed for the independent system had initially been compared with the manual calculations performed by the medical physicists of the Institute of Radiotherapy of the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo. In this step, the results found for more than two hundred fields studied were similar to those found in the literature; deviations larger than +- 1% were found only in five cases involving errors in manual calculation. The application of the independent system, in this stage, could have identified errors up to +- 2,4%. Based on these data, the system was validated for use in clinical routine. In a second step, calculations were compared with calculations realized by the treatment computerized planning system CadPIan TM . When, again, the results were similar to those published in other works allowing to obtain levels of acceptance of the discrepancies between the calculations executed for the independent system and the calculations developed from the planning system, separated by anatomical region, as recommended according by the recent literature. For beams of 6 MV, the levels of acceptance for deviations between the calculations of monitor units, separated by treatment region were the following; breast +- 1.7%, head and neck +2%; hypophysis +- 2.2%; pelvis +- 4 . 1% and thorax +- 1.5%. For beams of 15 MV, the level suggested for pelvis was of +- 4.5%. (author)

  13. Life Change Units (LCU Rating as Stressors in Iranian Hospitals’ Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dargahi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare workers suffer from work-related or occupational stress. This can lead to severe distress, burnout or physical illness, and finally to decrease quality of work life and services provision. Nurses must be aware of retential stressors, because they add to the cumulative effect of other stressful events. Holmes and Rahe both found a relationship between life change unit as stressors and health changes. This research reported here aims to measure the life change units as stressors among Iranian Hospitals Nurses by LCU rating. A cross - sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 389 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The respondents were asked to select each of 54 events that cause stress ranked in order of their life change units developed by Holmes and Rahe as stress scale. Before beginning the main study, the reliability and coincidental validity was performed. All data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 18, t-test, Anova statistical methods. Approximately, half of the nurses associated major mortgage, foreclosure of mortgage or loan. More than 50% of the Iranian nurses had 150-300 and more than 300 LCU rating which had the chance to expose to extremely serious risk to health.Iranian hospitals nurses suffer from stress that caused by Life Change Units organizational factors such as change in the financial state, change in the work environment and major mortgage. We recommend to Iranian nursing policy-makers to choose strategies to help nurses cope effectively with workplace stressors. Nursing managers and / or nursing management should develop strategies to address and improve the quality of working conditions for nurses in the hospitals. Providing educational and career prospects can contribute to decrease nurses occupational stress level, the maintaining their work ability.

  14. Variation of heart transplant rates in the United States during holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodin, Justin L; Ayers, Colby R; Thibodeau, Jennifer T; Mishkin, Joseph D; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Markham, David W; Drazner, Mark H; Patel, Parag C

    2014-08-01

    Some cardiac transplant programs may upgrade listed patients to United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) 1A-status during the holidays. Whether more transplants actually occur during holidays is unknown. We assessed rates of single-organ heart transplantation from 2001 to 2010 for recipients age ≥18 yr using the UNOS database. Patients were stratified by transplantation during holiday (±3 d, n = 2375) and non-holiday periods (n = 16 112). Holidays included Easter/Spring break, Memorial Day, July 4th, Labor Day, Thanksgiving, and Christmas/New Years (winter holidays). Secondary analysis assessing transplant rates across seasons was also completed. Donor and recipient characteristics were similar between groups. Compared with non-holidays, July 4th had higher transplant rates (5.69 vs. 5.09 transplants/d, p = 0.03) while the winter holiday had lower transplant rates (4.50 vs. 5.09 transplants/d, p < 0.01). There was a trend toward lower transplant rates for all holidays compared with non-holidays (p = 0.06). Transplant rates were significantly different across seasons with greater rates in spring and summer (p < 0.01). Heart transplant rates were higher during the July 4th and lower during the winter holidays. Although there was a higher likelihood of transplantation during the spring and summer seasons, upgrading patients to 1A status during most holidays may not improve their chances for transplantation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Investment in epilepsy monitoring units improves epilepsy care—experience in a regional neuroscience centre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinty, RN

    2017-08-01

    An evaluation of the clinical yield of inpatient long-term video-EEG (vEEG) in a new epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) was undertaken, with findings compared to the centre’s prior method of bedside vEEG recording in a standard neurology ward, as reported in 2004. A retrospective analysis of neurophysiology reports for all adults who underwent elective vEEG monitoring in the EMU at Cork University Hospital between January 2015 and July 2016 was conducted. Of 115 vEEG studies in the EMU, 100 (87.0%) were deemed diagnostically conclusive, 14 (12.2%) failed to catch any clinical events and showed normal EEG throughout, and one (0.9%) captured spells of unclear clinical significance—the corresponding figures reported in 2004 for bedside vEEGs were 21.3%, 77% and 1.6%, respectively. The EMU offers a more effective method of recording inpatient vEEG, which aids decision-making and improves clinical outcomes. Some evidence-based measures which could further enhance diagnostic yield are discussed.

  16. Microphone variability and degradation: implications for monitoring programs employing autonomous recording units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Turgeon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous recording units (ARUs are emerging as an effective tool for avian population monitoring and research. Although ARU technology is being rapidly adopted, there is a need to establish whether variation in ARU components and their degradation with use might introduce detection biases that would affect long-term monitoring and research projects. We assessed whether microphone sensitivity impacted the probability of detecting bird vocalizations by broadcasting a sequence of 12 calls toward an array of commercially available ARUs equipped with microphones of varying sensitivities under three levels (32 dBA, 42 dBA, and 50 dBA of experimentally induced noise conditions selected to reflect the range of noise levels commonly encountered during avian surveys. We used binomial regression to examine factors influencing probability of detection for each species and used these to examine the impact of microphone sensitivity on the effective detection area (ha for each species. Microphone sensitivity loss reduced detection probability for all species examined, but the magnitude of the effect varied between species and often interacted with distance. Microphone sensitivity loss reduced the effective detection area by an average of 25% for microphones just beyond manufacturer specifications (-5 dBV and by an average of 66% for severely compromised microphones (-20 dBV. Microphone sensitivity loss appeared to be more problematic for low frequency calls where reduction in the effective detection area occurred most rapidly. Microphone degradation poses a source of variation in avian surveys made with ARUs that will require regular measurement of microphone sensitivity and criteria for microphone replacement to ensure scientifically reproducible results. We recommend that research and monitoring projects employing ARUs test their microphones regularly, replace microphones with declining sensitivity, and record sensitivity as a potential covariate in

  17. Can online benchmarking increase rates of thrombolysis? Data from the Austrian stroke unit registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Julia; Seyfang, Leonhard; Lang, Wilfried

    2013-09-01

    Despite its widespread availability and known safety and efficacy, a therapy with intravenous thrombolysis is still undergiven. We aimed to identify whether nationwide quality projects--like the stroke registry in Austria--as well as online benchmarking and predefined target values can increase rates of thrombolysis. Therefore, we assessed 6,394 out of 48,462 patients with ischemic stroke from the Austrian stroke registry (study period from March 2003 to December 2011) who had undergone thrombolysis treatment. We defined lower level and target values as quality parameters and evaluated whether or not these parameters could be achieved in the past years. We were able to show that rates of thrombolysis in Austria increased from 4.9% in 2003 to 18.3% in 2011. In a multivariate regression model, the main impact seen was the increase over the years [the OR ranges from 0.47 (95% CI 0.32-0.68) in 2003 to 2.51 (95% CI 2.20-2.87) in 2011). The predefined lower and target levels of thrombolysis were achieved at the majority of participating centers: in 2011 the lower value of 5% was achieved at all stroke units, and the target value of 15% was observed at 21 of 34 stroke units. We conclude that online benchmarking and the concept of defining target values as a tool for nationwide acute stroke care appeared to result in an increase in the rate of thrombolysis over the last few years while the variability between the stroke units has not yet been reduced.

  18. Effects of a Staff Training Intervention on Seclusion Rates on an Adult Inpatient Psychiatric Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Julie; Paun, Olimpia; Fogg, Louis

    2018-06-01

    The current article presents the effects of a 90-minute staff training intervention aimed at reducing inpatient psychiatric seclusion rates through strengthened staff commitment to seclusion alternatives and improved de-escalation skills. The intervention occurred at an 18-bed adult inpatient psychiatric unit whose seclusion rates in 2015 were seven times the national average. Although the project's primary outcome compared patient seclusion rates before and after the intervention, anonymous staff surveys measured several secondary outcomes. Seclusion rates were reduced from a 6-month pre-intervention average of 2.95 seclusion hours per 1,000 patient hours to a 6-month post-intervention average of 0.29 seclusion hours per 1,000 patient hours, a 90.2% reduction. Completed staff surveys showed significant staff knowledge gains, non-significant changes in staff attitudes about seclusion, non-significant changes in staff de-escalation skill confidence, and use of the new resource sheet by only 17% of staff. The key study implication is that time-limited, focused staff training interventions can have a measurable impact on reducing inpatient seclusion rates. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(6), 23-30.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. A Brief "DSM-IV"-Referenced Teacher Rating Scale for Monitoring Behavioral Improvement in ADHD and Co-Occurring Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…

  20. Working paper on monitoring strategies in the United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and United States of America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buring, E.; Lanting, R.

    1989-01-01

    This study is a working paper on monitoring strategies used in the U.K., the FRG and the USA to assess exposure to airborne chemical substances. After a brief description of the basic philosophy on monitoring strategies, the requirements formonitoring from the different legal systems in the three

  1. Use of Internet Search Data to Monitor Rotavirus Vaccine Impact in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Minesh P; Lopman, Benjamin A; Tate, Jacqueline E; Harris, John; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Sanchez-Uribe, Edgar; Richardson, Vesta; Steiner, Claudia A; Parashar, Umesh D

    2018-02-19

    Previous studies have found a strong correlation between internet search and public health surveillance data. Less is known about how search data respond to public health interventions, such as vaccination, and the consistency of responses in different countries. In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between internet searches for "rotavirus" and rotavirus disease activity in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine. We compared time series of internet searches for "rotavirus" from Google Trends with rotavirus laboratory reports from the United States and United Kingdom and with hospitalizations for acute gastroenteritis in the United States and Mexico. Using time and location parameters, Google quantifies an internet query share (IQS) to measure the relative search volume for specific terms. We analyzed the correlation between IQS and laboratory and hospitalization data before and after national vaccine introductions. There was a strong positive correlation between the rotavirus IQS and laboratory reports in the United States (R2 = 0.79) and United Kingdom (R2 = 0.60) and between the rotavirus IQS and acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations in the United States (R2 = 0.87) and Mexico (R2 = 0.69) (P United States and by 70% (95% CI, 55%-86%) in Mexico. In the United Kingdom, there was a loss of seasonal variation after vaccine introduction. Rotavirus internet search data trends mirrored national rotavirus laboratory trends in the United States and United Kingdom and gastroenteritis-hospitalization data in the United States and Mexico; lower correlations were found after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Long-term dust climatology in the western United States reconstructed from routine aerosol ground monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Tong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an observation-based dust identification approach and applies it to reconstruct long-term dust climatology in the western United States. Long-term dust climatology is important for quantifying the effects of atmospheric aerosols on regional and global climate. Although many routine aerosol monitoring networks exist, it is often difficult to obtain dust records from these networks, because these monitors are either deployed far away from dust active regions (most likely collocated with dense population or contaminated by anthropogenic sources and other natural sources, such as wildfires and vegetation detritus. Here we propose an approach to identify local dust events relying solely on aerosol mass and composition from general-purpose aerosol measurements. Through analyzing the chemical and physical characteristics of aerosol observations during satellite-detected dust episodes, we select five indicators to be used to identify local dust records: (1 high PM10 concentrations; (2 low PM2.5/PM10 ratio; (3 higher concentrations and percentage of crustal elements; (4 lower percentage of anthropogenic pollutants; and (5 low enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements. After establishing these identification criteria, we conduct hierarchical cluster analysis for all validated aerosol measurement data over 68 IMPROVE sites in the western United States. A total of 182 local dust events were identified over 30 of the 68 locations from 2000 to 2007. These locations are either close to the four US Deserts, namely the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave Desert, the Sonoran Desert, and the Chihuahuan Desert, or in the high wind power region (Colorado. During the eight-year study period, the total number of dust events displays an interesting four-year activity cycle (one in 2000–2003 and the other in 2004–2007. The years of 2003, 2002 and 2007 are the three most active dust periods, with 46, 31 and 24

  3. General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Based High-Rate Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughry, Thomas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As the volume of data acquired by space-based sensors increases, mission data compression/decompression and forward error correction code processing performance must likewise scale. This competency development effort was explored using the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) to accomplish high-rate Rice Decompression and high-rate Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding at the satellite mission ground station. Each algorithm was implemented and benchmarked on a single GPGPU. Distributed processing across one to four GPGPUs was also investigated. The results show that the GPGPU has considerable potential for performing satellite communication Data Signal Processing, with three times or better performance improvements and up to ten times reduction in cost over custom hardware, at least in the case of Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

  4. Recruitment and rate coding organisation for soleus motor units across entire range of voluntary isometric plantar flexions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Tomomichi; Riek, Stephan; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2009-10-01

    Unlike upper limb muscles, it remains undocumented as to how motor units in the soleus muscle are organised in terms of recruitment range and discharge rates with respect to their recruitment and de-recruitment thresholds. The possible influence of neuromodulation, such as persistent inward currents (PICs) on lower limb motor unit recruitment and discharge rates has also yet to be reported. To address these issues, electromyographic (EMG) activities from the soleus muscle were recorded using selective branched-wire intramuscular electrodes during ramp-and-hold contractions with intensities up to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The multiple single motor unit activities were then derived using a decomposition technique. The onset-offset hysteresis of motor unit discharge, i.e. a difference between recruitment and de-recruitment thresholds, as well as PIC magnitude calculated by a paired motor unit analysis were used to examine the neuromodulatory effects on discharge behaviours, such as minimum firing rate, peak firing rate and degree of increase in firing rate. Forty-two clearly identified motor units from five subjects revealed that soleus motor units are recruited progressively from rest to contraction strengths close to 95% of MVC, with low-threshold motor units discharging action potentials slower at their recruitment and with a lower peak rate than later recruited high-threshold units. This observation is in contrast to the 'onion skin phenomenon' often reported for the upper limb muscles. Based on positive correlations of the peak discharge rates, initial rates and recruitment order of the units with the magnitude of the onset-offset hysteresis and not PIC contribution, we conclude that discharge behaviours among motor units appear to be related to a variation in an intrinsic property other than PICs.

  5. The Emergency Radiological Monitoring and Analysis Division of the United States Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) provides the framework for integrating the various Federal agencies responding to a major radiological emergency. The FRERP authorises the creation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), which is established to co-ordinate all Federal agencies involved in the monitoring and assessment of the off-site radiological conditions in support of the impacted States and the Lead Federal Agency (LFA). Within the FRMAC, the Monitoring and Analysis Division is responsible for co-ordinating all FRMAC assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, and quality assurance. This program includes: 1. Aerial Radiological Monitoring - Fixed-Wing and Helicopter; 2. Field Monitoring and Sampling; 3. Radioanalysis - Mobile and Fixed Laboratories; 4. Radiation Detection Instrumentation - Calibration and Maintenance; 5. Environmental Dosimetry; 6. Integrated program of Quality Assurance. To assure consistency, completeness, and the quality of the data produced, a methodology and procedures manual is being developed. This paper discusses the structure, assets, and operations of the FRMAC Monitoring and Analysis Division and the content and preparation of the manual. (author)

  6. Parents of preschoolers: expert media recommendations and ratings knowledge, media-effects beliefs, and monitoring practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B; Brouwer, Jason; Curtiss, Kathleen; McBroom, Evan

    2009-03-01

    Given the increase in screen media targeted at the very young, the purpose of this study was to examine preschooler parents' knowledge about expert recommendations for young children's screen media experience, their knowledge of specific screen media ratings, their beliefs about screen media effects, and actual monitoring practices. Parents of 94 children education, age and gender of child, and parents' perceptions of their child's favorite television show and favorite video or computer game. Eleven multiple-choice questions assessed the respondent's knowledge of expert recommendations for screen media for preschoolers and the meaning of television and video game content ratings. Fourteen questions addressed the typical amount of their preschooler's screen media exposure, parental rules regarding screen media use, and parents' beliefs about appropriate use of screen media for preschoolers. Preschoolers were exposed to an average of approximately 12 hours of screen media in a typical week. Parents believe that media do have either short- or long-term effects on preschoolers. Performance on factual questions was poor (mean score: 2.83 of 11). In particular, only 34% of the parents correctly identified the expert recommendation for children >2 years of age. Parents should continue to be educated about the need for preschoolers to participate in activities that promote language development, socialization, imagination, and physical activity. Although professionals should work to improve the ratings, and ultimately to implement a universal ratings system for all screen media, parents need to be encouraged to improve their understanding of current recommendations for screen media exposure and television and video game ratings.

  7. Portable Heart Rate Detector Based on Photoplethysmography with Android Programmable Devices for Ubiquitous Health Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Kin Lao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a miniature portable heart rate detector system is implemented by modern hardware ICs and simple sensor circuit with software executable on both PC and Android platform. The biosignal is first extracted via photoplethysmography (PPG principle into electric signal. Then a microprocessor is used to covert biosignal from analog to digital format, suitably for feeding into an RF module (nRF24L01 for RF transmission. On the receiver end, the computer and/or smart phone can analyze the data using a robust algorithm that can detect peaks of the PPG waveform, hence to calculating the heart rate. Some application software running on Windows and Android phone have been developed to display heart rate information and time domain waveform to users for health care monitoring. In the future, pure Bluetooth technology will be used for wireless personal communications instead of RF modules. At the same time, the data can be sent to computer console using existing available networks (3G, 4G, WiFi, etc. for health database logging purpose.

  8. Can we improve the clinical utility of respiratory rate as a monitored vital sign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyou; Reisner, Andrew T; Gribok, Andrei; McKenna, Thomas M; Reifman, Jaques

    2009-06-01

    Respiratory rate (RR) is a basic vital sign, measured and monitored throughout a wide spectrum of health care settings, although RR is historically difficult to measure in a reliable fashion. We explore an automated method that computes RR only during intervals of clean, regular, and consistent respiration and investigate its diagnostic use in a retrospective analysis of prehospital trauma casualties. At least 5 s of basic vital signs, including heart rate, RR, and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures, were continuously collected from 326 spontaneously breathing trauma casualties during helicopter transport to a level I trauma center. "Reliable" RR data were identified retrospectively using automated algorithms. The diagnostic performances of reliable versus standard RR were evaluated by calculation of the receiver operating characteristic curves using the maximum-likelihood method and comparison of the summary areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). Respiratory rate shows significant data-reliability differences. For identifying prehospital casualties who subsequently receive a respiratory intervention (hospital intubation or tube thoracotomy), standard RR yields an AUC of 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.69), whereas reliable RR yields an AUC of 0.67 (0.57-0.77), P support algorithms.

  9. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  10. Increased pregnancy rate with use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Janet E; Wakelin, Melanie; Ellis, Jayne E

    2007-02-01

    To determine the effect on pregnancy rates through use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor (CEFM) in women trying to conceive. Prospective study, in which volunteers were randomly assigned either to use or not to use the CEFM. All participants could also use other aids to conception. Data were self-reported by volunteers using daily diaries, supplied and collected by mail. Home use, under conditions normally experienced by over-the-counter purchasers of the marketed device. Women who were trying to conceive; 653 (CEFM 305, control 348) provided evaluable information. CEFM was used for two cycles. Cumulative pregnancy rates over two cycles of use. The cumulative pregnancy rate for 2 cycles was significantly higher in the CEFM group (22.7%) compared with the control group (14.4%). More women who had been trying to conceive for conceive for >6 months (odds ratio: 2.67). Previous pregnancy and younger age of partners were also significant prognostic factors, but use of other aids to conception was not. After adjustment for other factors, CEFM use remained a significant factor affecting the chance of conceiving within two cycles (odds ratio: 1.89). CEFM users found the device to be easy/very easy to use (90%) and convenient/very convenient (80%). Use of the CEFM increases the likelihood of getting pregnant during the first two cycles of use compared with its nonuse, in women who had been trying to conceive for up to 2 years.

  11. Rating of intra-operative neuro-monitoring results in operative correction of the spinal deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Skripnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work was filing the electrophysiological phenomena observed in the process of intra-operative neuromonitoring followed by development of the results’ scale of intra-operative neuro-physiological testing of the pyramidal tract. Materials and мethods. The selection for evaluation included data of 147 protocols of intra-operative neuromonitoring in 135 patients (53 males, 82 females, aged from 1 y. 5 m. to 52 years (14,1±0,7 years with spinal deformities of different etiology who underwent instrumentation spinal correction followed by fixation of thoracic / thoracolumbar spine segments using various variants of internal systems of trans-pedicular fixation. Intra-operative neuro-monitoring was performed using system «ISIS IOM» (Inomed Medizintechnik GmbH, Germany. The changes of motor evoked potentials were evaluated according to this scale. Results. Five types of pyramidal system reaction to operative invasion were revealed. According to neurophysiological criteria three grades of the risk of neurological disorders development during operative spinal deformity correction and, correspondingly, three levels of anxiety for the surgeon were defined. Conclusion. Intra-operative neurophysiological monitoring is the effective highly technological instrument to prevent neurological disorders in the spinal deformity. Offered rating scale of the risk of neurological complications gives the possibility to highlight three levels of anxiety during operative invasion.

  12. Evaluation of wear rate of dental composites polymerized by halogen or LED light curing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaghehmand H.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sufficient polymerization is a critical factor to obtain optimum physical properties and clinical efficacy of resin restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate wear rates of composite resins polymerized by two different systems Light Emitting Diodes (LED to and Halogen lamps. Materials and Methods: In this laboratory study, 20 specimens of A3 Tetric Ceram composite were placed in brass molds of 2*10*10 mm dimensions and cured for 40 seconds with 1 mm distance from surface. 10 specimens were cured with LED and the other 10 were cured with Halogen unit. A device with the ability to apply force was developed in order to test the wear of composites. After storage in distilled water for 10 days, the specimens were placed in the wear testing machine. A chrome cobalt stylus with 1.12 mm diameter was applied against the specimens surfaces with a load of 2 kg. The weight of each samples before and after 5000, 10000, 20000, 40000, 80000 and 120000 cycles was measured using an electronic balance with precision of 10-4 grams. Data were analyzed using t test and paired t test. P0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, LED and halogen light curing units resulted in a similar wear rate in composite resin restorations.

  13. Real time monitoring automation of dose rate absorbed in air due to environmental gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Manzano de Armas, Jose F.; Alonso Abad, Dolores; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Tomas Zerquera, Juan; Caveda Ramos, Celia A.; Kalber, Olof; Fabelo Bonet, Orlando; Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Cartas Aguila, Hector; Leyva Fernandez, Julio C.

    2005-01-01

    The Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) as the head institution of the National Radiological Environmental Surveillance Network (RNVRA) has strengthened its detection and response capacity for a radiological emergency situation. The measurements of gamma dose rate at the main point of the RNVRA are obtained in real time and the CPHR receives the data coming from those points in a short time. To achieve the operability of the RNVRA it was necessary to complete the existent monitoring facilities using 4 automatic gamma probes, implementing in this way a real time measurement system. The software, GenitronProbe for obtaining the data automatically from the probe, Data Mail , for sending the data via e-mail, and Gamma Red , for receiving and processing the data in the head institution ,were developed

  14. The influence of economic business cycles on United States suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, I M

    1984-01-01

    A number of social science investigators have shown that a downturn in the economy leads to an increase in the suicide rate. However, the previous works on the subject are flawed by the fact that they employ years as their temporal unit of analysis. This time period is so large that it makes it difficult for investigators to precisely determine the length of the lag effect, while at the same time removing the autocorrelation effects. Also, although most works on suicide and the business cycle employ unemployment as a measure of a downturn in the business cycle, the average duration of unemployment represents a better measure for determining the social impact of an economic downturn. From 1947 to 1977 the average monthly duration of unemployment is statistically related to the suicide rate using multivariate time-series analysis. From 1910 to 1939 the Ayres business index, a surrogate measure for movement in the business cycle, is statistically related to the monthly suicide rate. An examination of the findings confirms that in most cases a downturn in the economy causes an increase in the suicide rate.

  15. Rates of undiagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in London drug and alcohol detoxification units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huntley Zoe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ADHD is a common childhood onset mental health disorder that persists into adulthood in two-thirds of cases. One of the most prevalent and impairing comorbidities of ADHD in adults are substance use disorders. We estimate rates of ADHD in patients with substance abuse disorders and delineate impairment in the co-morbid group. Method Screening for ADHD followed by a research diagnostic interview in people attending in-patient drug and alcohol detoxification units. Results We estimated prevalence of undiagnosed ADHD within substance use disorder in-patients in South London around 12%. Those individuals with substance use disorders and ADHD had significantly higher self-rated impairments across several domains of daily life; and higher rates of substance abuse and alcohol consumption, suicide attempts, and depression recorded in their case records. Conclusions This study demonstrates the high rates of untreated ADHD within substance use disorder populations and the association of ADHD in such patients with greater levels of impairment. These are likely to be a source of additional impairment to patients and represent an increased burden on clinical services.

  16. Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: estimates for the United States, 1976-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S J; Mosher, W D; Curtin, S C; Abma, J C; Henshaw, S

    2000-01-01

    This report presents national estimates of pregnancies and pregnancy rates according to women's age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status, race, and Hispanic origin. Data are presented for 1976-96. Data from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) are used to show information on sexual activity, contraceptive practices, and infertility, as well as women's reports of pregnancy intentions. Tables of pregnancy rates and the factors affecting pregnancy rates are presented and interpreted. Birth data are from the birth-registration system for all births registered in the United States and reported by State health departments to NCHS; abortion data are from The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) and the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); and fetal loss data are from pregnancy history information collected in the NSFG. In 1996 an estimated 6.24 million pregnancies resulted in 3.89 million live births, 1.37 million induced abortions, and 0.98 million fetal losses. The pregnancy rate in 1996 was 104.7 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, 9 percent lower than in 1990 (115.6), and the lowest recorded since 1976 (102.7). Since 1990 rates have dropped 8 percent for live births, 16 percent for induced abortions, and 4 percent for fetal losses. The teenage pregnancy rate has declined considerably in the 1990's, falling 15 percent from its 1991 high of 116.5 per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years to 98.7 in 1996. Among the factors accounting for this decline are decreased sexual activity, increases in condom use, and the adoption of the injectable and implant contraceptives.

  17. Modeling of the temporal patterns of fluoxetine prescriptions and suicide rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Milane

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the potential association of antidepressant use and suicide at a population level, we analyzed the associations between suicide rates and dispensing of the prototypic SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine in the United States during the period 1960-2002.Sources of data included Centers of Disease Control and US Census Bureau age-adjusted suicide rates since 1960 and numbers of fluoxetine sales in the US, since its introduction in 1988. We conducted statistical analysis of age-adjusted population data and prescription numbers. Suicide rates fluctuated between 12.2 and 13.7 per 100,000 for the entire population from the early 1960s until 1988. Since then, suicide rates have gradually declined, with the lowest value of 10.4 per 100,000 in 2000. This steady decline is significantly associated with increased numbers of fluoxetine prescriptions dispensed from 2,469,000 in 1988 to 33,320,000 in 2002 (r(s = -0.92; p < 0.001. Mathematical modeling of what suicide rates would have been during the 1988-2002 period based on pre-1988 data indicates that since the introduction of fluoxetine in 1988 through 2002 there has been a cumulative decrease in expected suicide mortality of 33,600 individuals (posterior median, 95% Bayesian credible interval 22,400-45,000.The introduction of SSRIs in 1988 has been temporally associated with a substantial reduction in the number of suicides. This effect may have been more apparent in the female population, whom we postulate might have particularly benefited from SSRI treatment. While these types of data cannot lead to conclusions on causality, we suggest here that in the context of untreated depression being the major cause of suicide, antidepressant treatment could have had a contributory role in the reduction of suicide rates in the period 1988-2002.

  18. Analysis of the necessity for inserting new surveillance capsule into the Kori Unit 1 RPV to monitor material fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taek Ho

    2007-01-01

    In association with monitoring of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fracture toughness, surveillance capsule test specimens have been used to monitor the material property of nuclear reactor vessel. As far as Kori Unit 1 is concerned, 6 capsules were put into the vessel before commercial operation of the plant. Up to now, all the six capsules have been withdrawn to test and monitor the fracture toughness of RPV material. The last capsule has been withdrawn on June this year, and the Kori unit 1 has been shut downed since July 2007 and will be shut downed until December this year for about 6 months, preparing the life extension of the plant to operate the plant 10 more years. With the situation that all the surveillance capsules have been withdrawn, public ask the following question, 'To extend the life of Kori Unit 1 more than 10 years, is it necessary to insert new surveillance capsules into the Kori Unit 1 to monitor RPV material fracture toughness?' In connection with this issue, planning project have been carried out since spring this year. In this paper, it is described that inserting new surveillance capsule into the Kori Unit 1 RPV has some meaning in some public acceptance point of view and is not necessary in material engineering point of view

  19. Monitoring of mass flux of catalyst FCC in a Cold Pilot Unit by gamma radiation transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Marcio Fernando Paixao de

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for monitoring the mass flow of catalyst FCC - Fluid Catalytic Cracking - in a CPU - Cold Pilot unit - due to the injection of air and solid by gamma radiation transmission. The CPU simplifies the process of FCC, which is represented by the catalyst cycle, and it was constructed of acrylic, so that the flow can be visualized. The CPU consists of riser separation chamber and return column, and simulates the riser reactor of the FCC process. The catalyst is injected into the column back to the base of the riser, an inclined tube, where the compressed air means that there fluidization along the riser. When the catalyst comes in the separation chamber, the solid phase is sent to the return column, and the gas phase exits the system through one of the four cyclones at the top of the separation chamber. The transmission gamma of measures will be made by means of three test sections that have source and detector shielded. Pressure drop in the riser measurements are made through three pressure gauges positioned on the riser. The source used was Am-241 gamma ray with energy of 60 keV, and detector used was a scintillator of NaI (Tl) of 2 x 2 . Measures the mass flow of catalyst are made by varying the seal of the catalyst, and density of solid in the riser because with the combination of these measures can determine the speed of the catalyst in the riser. The results show that the transmission gamma is a suitable technique for monitoring the flow of catalyst, flow model in CPU is annular, tomography third generation is more appropriate to study the CPU and the density variation in circulation in the CPU decreases linearly with increasing air flow. (author)

  20. Cost-effectiveness of programs to eliminate disparities in elderly vaccination rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelidis, Constantinos I; Zimmerman, Richard K; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Smith, Kenneth J

    2014-07-15

    There are disparities in influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates among elderly minority groups and little guidance as to which intervention or combination of interventions to eliminate these disparities is likely to be most cost-effective. Here, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of four hypothetical vaccination programs designed to eliminate disparities in elderly vaccination rates and differing in the number of interventions. We developed a Markov model in which we assumed a healthcare system perspective, 10-year vaccination program and lifetime time horizon. The cohort was the combined African-American and Hispanic 65 year-old birth cohort in the United States in 2009. We evaluated five different vaccination strategies: no vaccination program and four vaccination programs that varied from "low intensity" to "very high intensity" based on the number of interventions deployed in each program, their cumulative cost and their cumulative impact on elderly minority influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates. The very high intensity vaccination program ($24,479/quality-adjusted life year; QALY) was preferred at willingness-to-pay-thresholds of $50,000 and $100,000/QALY and prevented 37,178 influenza cases, 342 influenza deaths, 1,158 invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases and 174 IPD deaths over the birth cohort's lifetime. In one-way sensitivity analyses, the very high intensity program only became cost-prohibitive (>$100,000/QALY) at less likely values for the influenza vaccination rates achieved in year 10 of the high intensity (>73.5%) or very high intensity (eliminate disparities in elderly minority vaccination rates and including four interventions would be cost-effective.

  1. Off-site environmental monitoring report: radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.D.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Patzer, R.G.; Smith, D.D.

    1985-04-01

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1984. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclides releases yield an estimated dose of 1 x 10 -3 person-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.6 mrem per year. Plutonium in air was still detectable along with krypton-85, which continued its gradual increase, as has been reported previously. Cesium and strontium in air were near their detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 32 refs., 36 figs., 27 tabs

  2. Heart Rate Variability Monitoring during Sleep Based on Capacitively Coupled Textile Electrodes on a Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ji Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed and tested a capacitively coupled electrocardiogram (ECG measurement system using conductive textiles on a bed, for long-term healthcare monitoring. The system, which was designed to measure ECG in a bed with no constraints of sleep position and posture, included a foam layer to increase the contact region with the curvature of the body and a cover to ensure durability and easy installation. Nine healthy subjects participated in the experiment during polysomnography (PSG, and the heart rate (HR coverage and heart rate variability (HRV parameters were analyzed to evaluate the system. The experimental results showed that the mean of R-peak coverage was 98.0% (95.5%–99.7%, and the normalized errors of HRV time and spectral measures between the Ag/AgCl system and our system ranged from 0.15% to 4.20%. The root mean square errors for inter-beat (RR intervals and HR were 1.36 ms and 0.09 bpm, respectively. We also showed the potential of our developed system for rapid eye movement (REM sleep and wake detection as well as for recording of abnormal states.

  3. Determination of the intensity of a power jump session by means of heart rate monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Grossl

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p129 A Power Jump (PJ session is considered to be a safe and easy class that also involves intermittent exercises that prolong the time to exhaustion. However, there is not enough information about this subject in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of a PJ session by means of heart rate (HR monitoring. Eleven physically active females participated in the study (age: 21.7 ± 1.9 years; body mass: 59.3 ± 4.8 kg; height: 162.6 ± 5.6 cm; percentage body fat: 22.6 ± 3.2 %. Participants were asked to perform an incremental test (IT, in order to obtain values for oxygen uptake (VO2, maximal heart rate (HRmax, heart rate deflection point (HRDP and energy expenditure (EE. The HR of the subjects was monitored during a special type of Power Jump session called “mix nine” on two different occasions. According to the HRDP values, physiological domains could be divided into three exercise intensity classes: moderate, heavy and severe. Descriptive statistics were adopted (mean ± SD. Student’s t test was used to compare HR and EE between PJ1 and PJ2. For comparisons between domains, two-way ANOVA and the Scheffé test were used. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Mean HRmax obtained during the IT was 195±10bpm. The velocities, HR and %HRmax corresponding to HRDP and 80% of HRDP were 10.1±0.95km.h-1, 178±7bpm and 91.7±4.0%; and 8.1±0.76km.h-1, 143±5bpm and 73.4±3.2%, respectively. Values for HRmean and EE were significantly different when PJ1 (161±11bpm, 386±58.2kcal and PJ2 (156±10bpm, 355.1±53.8kcal were compared. The times spent in each exercise intensity domain were: heavy 51±14.5%; severe 27±19.7% and moderate 23±8.7%. These results show that the subjects spent most of the time in the heavy exercise domain which, in turn, appears to be the most indicated for improving aerobic capacity.

  4. Assessment of skeletal muscle fatigue of road maintenance workers based on heart rate monitoring and myotonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalkis Henrijs

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This research work is dedicated to occupational health problems caused by ergonomic risks. The research object was road building industry, where workers have to work very intensively, have long work hours, are working in forced/constrained work postures and overstrain during the work specific parts of their bodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the work heaviness degree and to estimate the muscle fatigue of workers after one week work cycle. The study group consisted of 10 road construction and maintenance workers and 10 pavers aged between 20 and 60 years. Methods Physical load were analyzed by measuring heart rate (HR, work postures (OWAS and perceived exertion (RPE. Assessments of the muscles strain and functional state (tone were carried out using myotonometric (MYO measurements. The reliability of the statistical processing of heart rate monitoring and myotonometry data was determined using correlating analysis. Results This study showed that that road construction and repairing works should be considered as a hard work according to average metabolic energy consumption 8.1 ± 1.5 kcal/min; paving, in its turn, was a moderately hard work according to 7.2 ± 1.1 kcal/min. Several muscle tone levels were identified allowing subdivision of workers into three conditional categories basing on muscle tone and fatigue: I – absolute muscle relaxation and ability to relax; II – a state of equilibrium, when muscles are able to adapt to the work load and are partly able to relax; and III – muscle fatigue and increased tone. It was also found out that the increase of muscle tone and fatigue mainly depend on workers physical preparedness and length of service, and less – on their age. Conclusion We have concluded that a complex ergonomic analysis consisting of heart rate monitoring, assessment of compulsive working postures and myotonometry is appropriate to assess the work heaviness degree and can provide prognosis of

  5. Understanding heart rate alarm adjustment in the intensive care units through an analytical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Fidler

    Full Text Available Heart rate (HR alarms are prevalent in ICU, and these parameters are configurable. Not much is known about nursing behavior associated with tailoring HR alarm parameters to individual patients to reduce clinical alarm fatigue.To understand the relationship between heart rate (HR alarms and adjustments to reduce unnecessary heart rate alarms.Retrospective, quantitative analysis of an adjudicated database using analytical approaches to understand behaviors surrounding parameter HR alarm adjustments. Patients were sampled from five adult ICUs (77 beds over one month at a quaternary care university medical center. A total of 337 of 461 ICU patients had HR alarms with 53.7% male, mean age 60.3 years, and 39% non-Caucasian. Default HR alarm parameters were 50 and 130 beats per minute (bpm. The occurrence of each alarm, vital signs, and physiologic waveforms was stored in a relational database (SQL server.There were 23,624 HR alarms for analysis, with 65.4% exceeding the upper heart rate limit. Only 51% of patients with HR alarms had parameters adjusted, with a median upper limit change of +5 bpm and -1 bpm lower limit. The median time to first HR parameter adjustment was 17.9 hours, without reduction in alarms occurrence (p = 0.57.HR alarms are prevalent in ICU, and half of HR alarm settings remain at default. There is a long delay between HR alarms and parameters changes, with insufficient changes to decrease HR alarms. Increasing frequency of HR alarms shortens the time to first adjustment. Best practice guidelines for HR alarm limits are needed to reduce alarm fatigue and improve monitoring precision.

  6. A New Model of Delirium Care in the Acute Geriatric Setting: Geriatric Monitoring Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Mei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common and serious condition, which affects many of our older hospitalised patients. It is an indicator of severe underlying illness and requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment, associated with poor survival, functional outcomes with increased risk of institutionalisation following the delirium episode in the acute care setting. We describe a new model of delirium care in the acute care setting, titled Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU where the important concepts of delirium prevention and management are integrated. We hypothesize that patients with delirium admitted to the GMU would have better clinical outcomes with less need for physical and psychotropic restraints compared to usual care. Methods/Design GMU models after the Delirium Room with adoption of core interventions from Hospital Elder Life Program and use of evening bright light therapy to consolidate circadian rhythm and improve sleep in the elderly patients. The novelty of this approach lies in the amalgamation of these interventions in a multi-faceted approach in acute delirium management. GMU development thus consists of key considerations for room design and resource planning, program specific interventions and daily core interventions. Assessments undertaken include baseline demographics, comorbidity scoring, duration and severity of delirium, cognitive, functional measures at baseline, 6 months and 12 months later. Additionally we also analysed the pre and post-GMU implementation knowledge and attitude on delirium care among staff members in the geriatric wards (nurses, doctors and undertook satisfaction surveys for caregivers of patients treated in GMU. Discussion This study protocol describes the conceptualization and implementation of a specialized unit for delirium management. We hypothesize that such a model of care will not only result in better clinical outcomes for the elderly patient with delirium compared to usual geriatric care

  7. Estimating Housing Vacancy Rate in Qingdao City with Npp-Viirs Nighttime Light and Geographical National Conditions Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, X.

    2018-04-01

    Accompanying China's rapid urbanization in recent decades, especially in the new millennium, the housing problem has become one of the most important issues. The estimation and analysis of housing vacancy rate (HVR) can assist decision-making in solving this puzzle. It is particularly significant to government departments. This paper proposed a practical model for estimating the HVR in Qingdao city using NPP-VIIRS nighttime light composed data, Geographic National Conditions Monitoring data (GNCMD) and resident population distribution data. The main steps are: Firstly, pre-process the data, and finally forming a series of data sets with 500*500 grid as the basic unit; Secondly, select 400 grids of different types within the city as sample grids for SVM training, and establish a reasonable HVR model; Thirdly, using the model to estimate HVR in Qingdao and employing spatial statistical analysis methods to reveal the spatial differentiation pattern of HVR in this city; Finally test the accuracy of the model with two different methods. The results conclude that HVR in the southeastern coastal area of Qingdao city is relatively low and the low-low clusters distributed in patches. Simultaneously, in other regions it shows the tendency of the low value accumulation in the downtown area and the increasing trend towards the outer suburbs. Meanwhile the suburban and scenery regions by the side of the sea and mountains are likely to be the most vacant part of the city.

  8. Monitoring and assessment of ingestive chewing sounds for prediction of herbage intake rate in grazing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J R; Cangiano, C A; Pece, M A; Larripa, M J; Milone, D H; Utsumi, S A; Laca, E A

    2018-05-01

    Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows' foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.

  9. Environmental radiation monitoring: mobile gamma dose rate measurements along Mumbai-Hyderabad rail route and Hyderabad city roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divkar, J.K.; Padmanabhan, N.; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Pujari, R.N.; Dogra, Santosh; Sharma, D.N.; Rajagopalan, S.; Srivastava, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Radiation monitoring based on gamma dose rate logging on a mobile platform integrated with real time position from a Global Positioning System is an effective tool to acquire dose rate profile and generate radiological map of any geographical region. The microcontroller based dose rate data acquisition system capable of storing the acquired data and transferring to an attached laptop/PC and providing a graphical illustration of relative variations in gamma background can also be used for quick assessment of environmental radiological impact assessment. This paper describes the methodology and results of the environmental gamma dose rate monitoring surveys carried out: (i) on Mumbai-Hyderabad rail route with the systems installed in the trains guard's room and (ii) Hyderabad city roads with systems installed in a monitoring van. The results indicate significant difference in the gamma background measured along the rail route between Mumbai-Hyderabad and in the radiological map generated after the Hyderabad city survey. (author)

  10. Energy Expenditure in Playground Games in Primary School Children Measured by Accelerometer and Heart Rate Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prieto, Jorge Cañete; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Fonseca, Juan Fernando Ortega; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. 32 primary school children (9.9 ± 0.6 years old, 19.8 ± 4.9 kg · m -2 BMI and 37.6 ± 7.2 ml · kg -1 · min -1 VO 2max ). Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. Thirty-eight sessions were recorded in 32 different children. Each game was recorded at least in three occasions in other three children. The intersubject coefficient of variation within a game was 27% for IC, 37% for accelerometry and 13% for HR. The overall mean EE in the games was 4.2 ± 1.4 kcals · min -1 per game, totaling to 375 ± 122 kcals/per 90 min/session. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 (p = .026) for endurance games and 0.21 (p = .574) for strength games. The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and HR was 0.71 (p = .032) for endurance games and 0.48 (p = .026) for strength games. Our data indicate that both accelerometer and HR monitors are useful devices for estimating EE during endurance games, but only HR monitors estimates are accurate for endurance games.

  11. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Sahoko [Mie University, Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies (Japan); Li, Weihua [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Omura, Seiichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Fujitani, Yuji [National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Hiraku, Yusuke [Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine (Japan); Hisanaga, Naomi [Aichi Gakusen University, Faculty of Human Science and Design (Japan); Wakai, Kenji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine (Japan); Ding, Xuncheng [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Kobayashi, Takahiro, E-mail: takakoba@airies.or.jp [Association for International Research Initiatives for Environmental Studies (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@rs.tus.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO{sub 2} particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N–N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/−) or percentage of RR 50+/− that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58–30.8 mg/m{sup 3} during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m{sup 3}). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO{sub 2} particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  12. On the usefulness of portal monitor unit subtraction in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperman, Vadim Y; Lubich, Leslie M

    2003-01-01

    In order to avoid additional dose to patients caused by portal imaging with megavoltage x-rays, portal monitor units (MUs) are frequently subtracted from the actual treatment MUs. This study examines the usefulness of portal MU subtraction in radiation therapy. For 11 prostate cancer patients treated with 23 MV photons, dose to prostate due to portal filming with 6 MV photons was determined. In all 11 patients subtraction of portal MU values from the actual treatment MUs resulted in a small underdosing of the prostate with an average treatment error of -0.5%. Portal filming without MU subtraction would cause small overdosing of the prostate with an average treatment error of 1.2%. The results of this study indicate that the benefits of portal MU subtraction are in doubt if (a) the energy of treatment x-rays is much higher than that of the portal x-rays and/or (b) when radiotherapy is performed with physical wedges. Based on the obtained results, we argue against unconditional use of the portal MU subtraction method to eliminate the dose from portal imaging

  13. Monitoring of radon gas in caves of the Yorkshire Dales, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langridge, D; Stokes, R P; Jackson, C P

    2010-01-01

    A number of vocational training courses are held in caves in the Yorkshire Dales region of the United Kingdom. The instructors and students involved in these courses have the potential to be exposed to enhanced levels of radon ( 222 Rn) and its progeny as a result of their occupations. A prior radiological risk assessment for the training courses recommended that an environmental monitoring programme be carried out to establish the radon concentrations in the caves, and that the caving instructors wear personal radon dosemeters. Radon gas concentrations varied seasonally, being at their highest in summer and their lowest in winter. The lowest result was 40 Bq m -3 recorded in Lower Longchurn cave during winter, whilst the highest result was 4440 Bq m -3 recorded in Crackpot cave during the summer. As the individuals involved in the caving are entering atmospheres with radon gas concentrations in excess of 400 Bq m -3 , the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1999 (GB Parliament 2000 Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (London: Stationary Office) SI 1999/3232) apply. A system of work is therefore in place to control exposure to radon. This system of work stipulates an initial dose investigation level of 1 mSv, a second dose investigation level of 2 mSv and an annual dose limit of 6 mSv. The highest annual dose recorded to date is 2.2 mSv, although the average (median) annual dose is only 0.5 mSv.

  14. The influence of impression management scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Catherine L; Kirlin, Kristin A; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Locke, Dona E C

    2012-12-01

    The Somatic Complaints scale (SOM) and Conversion subscale (SOM-C) of the Personality Assessment Inventory perform best in classifying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES); however, the impact of positive impression management (PIM) and negative impression management (NIM) scales on SOM and SOM-C classification has not been examined. We studied 187 patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with confirmed PNES or ES. On SOM, the best cut score was 72.5 T when PIM was elevated and 69.5 T when there was no bias. On SOM-C, when PIM was elevated, the best cut score was 67.5 T and 76.5 T when there was no bias. Negative impression management elevations (n=9) were too infrequent to analyze separately. Despite similarities in classification accuracy, there were differences in sensitivity and specificity with and without PIM, impacting positive and negative predictive values. The presence of PIM bias generally increases positive predictive power of SOM and SOM-C but decreases negative predictive power. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Generalized monitor unit calculation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chihray; Kim, Siyong; Kahler, Darren L.; Palta, Jatinder R.

    2003-01-01

    The generalized monitor unit (MU) calculation equation for the Varian enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) is derived. The assumption of this MU calculation method is that the wedge factor of the EDW at the center of the field is a function of field size, the position of the center of the field in the wedge direction, and the final position of the moving jaw. The wedge factors at the center of the field in both symmetric and asymmetric fields are examined. The difference between calculated and measured wedge factors is within 1.0%. The method developed here is easy to implement. The only datum required in addition to the standard set of conventional physical wedge implementation data is the off-axis output factor for the open field in the reference condition. The off-center point calculation is also examined. For the off-center point calculation, the dose profile in the wedge direction for the largest EDW field is used to obtain the relative off-center ratio in any smaller wedge field. The accuracy of the off-center point calculation decreases when the point of calculation is too close to the field edge

  16. Dose linearity and monitor unit stability of a G4 type cyberknife robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudahar, H.; Kurup, P.G.G.; Murali, V.; Velmurugan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Dose linearity studies on conventional linear accelerators show a linearity error at low monitor units (MUs). The purpose of this study was to establish the dose linearity and MU stability characteristics of a cyberknife (Accuracy Inc., USA) stereotactic radiosurgery system. Measurements were done at a depth of 5 cm in a stereotactic dose verification phantom with a source to surface distance of 75 cm in a Generation 4 (G4) type cyberknife system. All the 12 fixed-type collimators starting from 5 to 60 mm were used for the dose linearity study. The dose linearity was examined in small (1-10), medium (15-100) and large (125-1000) MU ranges. The MU stability test was performed with 60 mm collimator for 10 MU and 20 MU with different combinations. The maximum dose linearity error of -38.8% was observed for 1 MU with 5 mm collimator. Dose linearity error in the small MU range was considerably higher than in the medium and large MU ranges. The maximum error in the medium range was -2.4%. In the large MU range, the linearity error varied between -0.7% and 1.2%. The maximum deviation in the MU stability was -3.03%. (author)

  17. Hypertension: The understanding of bearer’s users, enrolled and monitored in the family health units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilara Maria Mesquita Mendes Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High Blood Pressure (HBP occupies a prominent position, due to its high incidence and prevalence, as a multifactorial disease and mostly asymptomatic, that fundamentally endangers the promote life’s quality. The study aimed to portray the understanding of bearer’s users enrolled and monitored by the HIPERDIA program, in Family Health Units, about their pathology and thus be able to establish strategies that may be closer to their reality to propose policies to encourage the promotion of health. The study with qualitative approach, conducted in the municipality of Jequié -Bahia, with 08 Family Health Teams, with 152 users with hypertension. We used the semi-structured interview and the collective subject speech technique, which enabled us to reconstruct 04 speeches: DSC 01: "To me it is a terrible disease", DSC 02 "do not eat salt, do not eat fat”, DSC 03 "it is to have headaches, vertigo, it causes heart attack, it causes stroke" DSC 04 "I do not know what it exactly is", they reflect the understanding of the study subjects about their pathology. This leads us to think of health actions aimed at health education emerging the need for change in the approach and use of a common language between professionals and service users, ensuring the promotion of life’s quality and, consequently, the co-responsibility in the treatment adherence.

  18. 78 FR 7411 - Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS); Certification of New VMS Unit for Use in Northeast Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Monitoring Systems (VMS); Certification of New VMS Unit for Use in Northeast Fisheries AGENCY: National... used effective January 24, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Office of Law Enforcement, Northeast Division, Northeast VMS Team, telephone 978-281-9213. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulations at 50 CFR 648...

  19. Contractile function and motor unit firing rates of the human hamstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Eric A; Rice, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular properties of the lower limb in health, aging, and disease are well described for major lower limb muscles comprising the quadriceps, triceps surae, and dorsiflexors, with the notable exception of the posterior thigh (hamstrings). The purpose of this study was to further characterize major muscles of the lower limb by comprehensively exploring contractile properties in relation to spinal motor neuron output expressed as motor unit firing rates (MUFRs) in the hamstrings of 11 (26.5 ± 3.8) young men. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation, stimulated contractile properties including a force-frequency relationship, and MUFRs from submaximal to maximal voluntary contractile intensities were assessed in the hamstrings. Strength and MUFRs were assessed at two presumably different muscle lengths by varying the knee joint angles (90° and 160°). Knee flexion MVCs were 60-70% greater in the extended position (160°). The frequency required to elicit 50% of maximum tetanic torque was 16-17 Hz. Mean MUFRs at 25-50% MVC were 9-31% less in the biceps femoris compared with the semimembranosus-semitendinosus group. Knee joint angle (muscle length) influenced MUFRs such that mean MUFRs were greater in the shortened (90°) position at 50% and 100% MVC. Compared with previous reports, mean maximal MUFRs in the hamstrings are greater than those in the quadriceps and triceps surae and somewhat less than those in the tibialis anterior. Mean maximal MUFRs in the hamstrings are influenced by changes in knee joint angle, with lower firing rates in the biceps femoris compared with the semimembranosus-semitendinosus muscle group. We studied motor unit firing rates (MUFRs) at various voluntary contraction intensities in the hamstrings, one of the only major lower limb muscles to have MUFRs affected by muscle length changes. Within the hamstrings muscle-specific differences have greater impact on MUFRs than length changes, with the biceps femoris

  20. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Cooksey-Stowers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision. Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16. Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05 and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01. Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  1. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-11-14

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity ( p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality ( p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  2. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05) and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01). Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity. PMID:29135909

  3. Applications of the monitor of loose parts in the cycle 6 of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleros, G.; Mendez, A.; Gomez, R.A.; Castillo, R.; Bravo, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The monitor of loose parts (Loose Parts Monitoring System) installed in the Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde Central is a tool to detect strange objects or parts loose in the system of refrigeration of the reactor that could be impacted in the walls of the recirculation knots or in the internal of the reactor. In this work two applications are shown carried out with the Monitor of Loose Parts, determining the characteristics of the stable nominal conditions, those which when changing, they are used to diagnose during the Cycle 6 of the Unit 2, failures in the components of the the recirculation circuits or to identify mechanical vibrations of the recirculation knots induced by a flow of recirculation bistable associated to operative conditions of the reactor. (Author)

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Uuu of... - Continous Monitoring Systems for Metal HAP Emissions From Catalytic Cracking Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scrubbing liquor) flow rate to the control device. (2) If you use a wet scrubber of the non-venturi jet... liquor) flow rate to the control device. (2) If you use a wet scrubber of the non-venturi jet-ejector... size Electrostatic precipitator or wet scrubber or no control device Continuous opacity monitoring...

  5. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  6. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuously estimate load level (for example, the feed rate of municipal solid waste or refuse-derived fuel... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  7. Final Report Real Time Monitoring of Rates of Subsurface Microbial Activity Associated with Natural Attenuation and Electron Donor Availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-03-22

    The project was successful in developing new sensing technologies for monitoring rates of microbial activity in soils and sediments and also developed a novel proof-of-concept for monitoring the presence of bioavailable concentrations of a diversity of metabolites and toxic components in sedimentary environments. These studies led not only to publications in the peer-reviewed literature, but also two patent applications and a start-up company.

  8. Dose rate mapping and quantitative analysis of radioactive deposition with simple monitoring instruments in Finland after the Chernobyl accident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivukoski, J. [Ministry of the Interior, Rescue Dept., Helsinki (Finland); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail: janne.koivukoski@intermin.fi

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the Finnish dose-rate mapping equipment and the system to process the obtained results, which were used immediately after the 1986 Chernobyl accident. We present the results of the external gamma-radiation monitoring carried out with simple civil-defence gamma monitoring instruments and compare them with the subsequent deposition mapping performed with research-grade instruments. The analysis shows that the quality of radiation mapping is good enough for decision makers to direct protective measures to the right areas. This review also demonstrates that a simple stationary external gamma radiation monitoring network can be effectively used for early warning in radiation emergency situations. (orig.)

  9. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  10. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías, R; García, M A; Ramos, J; Bragós, R; Fernández, M

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  11. Association between unemployment rates and prescription drug utilization in the United States, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background While extensive evidence suggests that the economic recession has had far reaching effects on many economic sectors, little is known regarding its impact on prescription drug utilization. The purpose of this study is to describe the association between state-level unemployment rates and retail sales of seven therapeutic classes (statins, antidepressants, antipsychotics, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, opiates, phosphodiesterase [PDE] inhibitors and oral contraceptives) in the United States. Methods Using a retrospective mixed ecological design, we examined retail prescription sales using IMS Health Xponent™ from September 2007 through July 2010, and we used the Bureau of Labor Statistics to derive population-based rates and mixed-effects modeling with state-level controls to examine the association between unemployment and utilization. Our main outcome measure was state-level utilization per 100,000 people for each class. Results Monthly unemployment levels and rates of use of each class varied substantially across the states. There were no statistically significant associations between use of ACE inhibitors or SSRIs/SNRIs and average unemployment in analyses across states, while for opioids and PDE inhibitors there were small statistically significant direct associations, and for the remaining classes inverse associations. Analyses using each state as its own control collectively exhibited statistically significant positive associations between increases in unemployment and prescription drug utilization for five of seven areas examined. This relationship was greatest for statins (on average, a 4% increase in utilization per 1% increased unemployment) and PDE inhibitors (3% increase in utilization per 1% increased unemployment), and lower for oral contraceptives and atypical antipsychotics. Conclusion We found no evidence of an association between increasing unemployment and decreasing prescription utilization, suggesting that any

  12. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

    2005-01-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  13. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew; Pirie, Dawn; Horton, Keith; Garbeil, Harold; Pilger, Eric; Ramm, Hans; Hoblitt, Rick; Thornber, Carl; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Poggi, Pasquale

    2005-05-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ˜US10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican™ cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1° field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60° FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican™-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ˜3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1° and 15° FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  14. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-09

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations.

  15. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations

  16. Independent verification of monitor unit calculation for radiation treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Li-Xin; Huang, Shao-Min; Sun, Wen-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Deng, Xiao-Wu

    2010-02-01

    To ensure the accuracy of dose calculation for radiation treatment plans is an important part of quality assurance (QA) procedures for radiotherapy. This study evaluated the Monitor Units (MU) calculation accuracy of a third-party QA software and a 3-dimensional treatment planning system (3D TPS), to investigate the feasibility and reliability of independent verification for radiation treatment planning. Test plans in a homogenous phantom were designed with 3-D TPS, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Report No. 430, including open, blocked, wedge, and multileaf collimator (MLC) fields. Test plans were delivered and measured in the phantom. The delivered doses were input to the QA software and the independent calculated MUs were compared with delivery. All test plans were verified with independent calculation and phantom measurements separately, and the differences of the two kinds of verification were then compared. The deviation of the independent calculation to the measurements was (0.1 +/- 0.9)%, the biggest difference fell onto the plans that used block and wedge fields (2.0%). The mean MU difference between the TPS and the QA software was (0.6 +/- 1.0)%, ranging from -0.8% to 2.8%. The deviation in dose of the TPS calculation compared to the measurements was (-0.2 +/- 1.7)%, ranging from -3.9% to 2.9%. MU accuracy of the third-party QA software is clinically acceptable. Similar results were achieved with the independent calculations and the phantom measurements for all test plans. The tested independent calculation software can be used as an efficient tool for TPS plan verification.

  17. Strategies for monitoring outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eThorne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than five in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART exposure and more than 5,000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short and longer-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the flagging of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals including those relating to consent and confidentiality are also discussed.

  18. Independent monitor unit calculation for intensity modulated radiotherapy using the MIMiC multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Xing Lei; Nath, Ravinder

    2002-01-01

    A self-consistent monitor unit (MU) and isocenter point-dose calculation method has been developed that provides an independent verification of the MU for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using the MIMiC (Nomos Corporation) multileaf collimator. The method takes into account two unique features of IMRT using the MIMiC: namely the gantry-dynamic arc delivery of intensity modulated photon beams and the slice-by-slice dose delivery for large tumor volumes. The method converts the nonuniform beam intensity planned at discrete gantry angles of 5 deg. or 10 deg. into conventional nonmodulated beam intensity apertures of elemental arc segments of 1 deg. This approach more closely simulates the actual gantry-dynamic arc delivery by MIMiC. Because each elemental arc segment is of uniform intensity, the MU calculation for an IMRT arc is made equivalent to a conventional arc with gantry-angle dependent beam apertures. The dose to the isocenter from each 1 deg. elemental arc segment is calculated by using the Clarkson scatter summation technique based on measured tissue-maximum-ratio and output factors, independent of the dose calculation model used in the IMRT planning system. For treatments requiring multiple treatment slices, the MU for the arc at each treatment slice takes into account the MU, leakage and scatter doses from other slices. This is achieved by solving a set of coupled linear equations for the MUs of all involved treatment slices. All input dosimetry data for the independent MU/isocenter point-dose calculation are measured directly. Comparison of the MU and isocenter point dose calculated by the independent program to those calculated by the Corvus planning system and to direct measurements has shown good agreement with relative difference less than ±3%. The program can be used as an independent initial MU verification for IMRT plans using the MIMiC multileaf collimators

  19. MercNet: A national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  20. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  1. A PRESSURE ULCER AND FALL RATE QUALITY COMPOSITE INDEX FOR ACUTE CARE UNITS: A MEASURE DEVELOPMENT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Ananda; Burman, Mary E.; Dunton, Nancy E.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Composite indices are single measures that combine the strengths of two or more individual measures and provide broader, easy-to-use measures for evaluation of provider performance and comparisons across units and hospitals to support quality improvement. Objective The study objective was to develop a unit-level inpatient composite nursing care quality performance index – the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index. Design Two-phase measure development study. Settings 5,144 patient care units in 857 United States hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indictors® during the year 2013. Methods The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index was developed in two phases. In Phase 1 the formula was generated using a utility function and generalized penalty analysis. Experts with experience in healthcare quality measurement provided the point of indicator equivalence. In Phase 2 initial validity evidence was gathered based on hypothesized relationships between the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index and other variables using two-level (unit, hospital) hierarchical linear mixed modeling. Results The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index = 100 − PUR − FR, where PUR is pressure ulcer rate and FR is total fall rate. Higher scores indicate better quality. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between pairs of experts and provided evidence for inter-rater reliability of the formula. The validation process demonstrated that higher registered nurse skill mix, higher percent of registered nurses with a baccalaureate in nursing or higher degree, higher percent of registered nurses with national specialty certification, and lower percent of hours supplied by agency staff were significantly associated with higher Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index scores. Higher percentages of unit patients at risk for a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer and higher unit rates of

  2. Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates - United States, 2007 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Cynthia; Callaghan, William; Olson, Christine; Sharma, Andrea; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-11-04

    Reductions in births to teens and preterm birth rates are two recent public health successes in the United States (1,2). From 2007 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 42%, from 41.5 to 24.2 per 1,000 females. The preterm birth rate decreased 8.4%, from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births (1). Rates of preterm births vary by maternal age, being higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. It is unknown how changes in the maternal age distribution in the United States have affected preterm birth rates. CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups. The effects of age distribution changes on the preterm birth rate decrease were different in younger and older mothers. The decrease in the proportion of births to mothers aged ≤19 and 20-24 years and reductions in age-specific preterm rates in all age groups contributed to the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. The increase in births to mothers aged ≥30 years had no effect on the overall preterm birth rate decrease. The decline in preterm births from 2007 to 2014 is related, in part, to teen pregnancy prevention and the changing maternal age distribution. Effective public health strategies for further reducing preterm birth rates need to be tailored to different age groups.

  3. Off-site environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States Nuclear Test areas, Calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Fontana, C.A.; Grossman, R.F.; Black, S.C.; Dye, R.E.; Smith, D.D.; Thome', D.J.; Mullen, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    The principal activity at the NTS is testing of nuclear devices, though other related projects are also conducted. The principal activities of the Off-Site Radiological Safety Program are routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests; and protective actions in support of the nuclear testing program. These are conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. 28 refs., 37 figs., 30 tabs

  4. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Trattner

    Full Text Available Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i shed light on these relations and (ii establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  5. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Christoph; Parra, Denis; Elsweiler, David

    2017-01-01

    Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i) shed light on these relations and (ii) establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  6. Long term monitoring of water production flow rates in boreholes in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinsot, A.; Delay, J.; La Vaissiere, R. de; Cruchaudet, M.

    2010-01-01

    the control unit located in the drift. The water was circulated from the borehole interval through the control unit in the circulation module, which included a reservoir placed on a weighing scale, a circulation pump and a flowmeter. Water flowed out from the reservoir to a dead end line at a flow rate controlled and monitored by a mass flow controller. The water inflow from the formation was deduced from the reservoir mass measurement. Moreover the reservoir contained a rubber bladder filled with gas. This bladder made it possible to fix the total water pressure in the interval by injecting or removing gas. This type of experiment was performed in two boreholes. In both experimental concepts, the surface of the rock in the borehole intervals was close to 1 m2. The 5-meter-long intervals of the 4 boreholes, in which the experiments were performed, were located at more than 10 m from the drift walls. As a result, the intervals were located outside the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ), in a zone with a hydraulic pressure close to the initial one. Absolute pressure measurements in neighboring boreholes indicated that the water pressure varied between 41 and 35 bars over 4 years. In the seepage water collection experiments, the interval's absolute pressure varied between 1 and 1.5 bars. The water production flow rate evolved from 15-25 mL/day down to 10-15 mL/day over 4 years. In the water circulation experiments, pressure steps ranging from 6 to 17 bars were imposed. The water pressure in the rock surrounding this borehole was monitored in neighboring boreholes. Transient purely hydraulic simulations were performed with the numerical tool PORFLOW in a radial 1D configuration. They aimed to evaluate the specific storage, the hydraulic gradient and the hydraulic influence radius around the boreholes due to the 'pumping tests'. The long term hydrogeological characterization described above at the borehole scale may be compared with the same type of description

  7. Design of a microprocessor-based Control, Interface and Monitoring (CIM unit for turbine engine controls research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaat, J. C.; Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    High speed minicomputers were used in the past to implement advanced digital control algorithms for turbine engines. These minicomputers are typically large and expensive. It is desirable for a number of reasons to use microprocessor-based systems for future controls research. They are relatively compact, inexpensive, and are representative of the hardware that would be used for actual engine-mounted controls. The Control, Interface, and Monitoring Unit (CIM) contains a microprocessor-based controls computer, necessary interface hardware and a system to monitor while it is running an engine. It is presently being used to evaluate an advanced turbofan engine control algorithm.

  8. Do pregnancy characteristics contribute to rising childhood cancer incidence rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca D; Osypuk, Theresa L; Poynter, Jenny N; Vock, David M; Spector, Logan G

    2018-03-01

    Since 1975, childhood cancer incidence rates have gradually increased in the United States; however, few studies have conducted analyses across time to unpack this temporal rise. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing cancer incidence rates are due to secular trends in pregnancy characteristics that are established risk factors for childhood cancer incidence including older maternal age, higher birthweight, and lower birth order. We also considered temporal trends in sociodemographic characteristics including race/ethnicity and poverty. We conducted a time series county-level ecologic analysis using linked population-based data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries (1975-2013), birth data from the National Center for Health Statistics (1970-2013), and sociodemographic data from the US Census (1970-2010). We estimated unadjusted and adjusted average annual percent changes (AAPCs) in incidence of combined (all diagnoses) and individual types of cancer among children, ages 0-4 years, from Poisson mixed models. There was a statistically significant unadjusted temporal rise in incidence of combined childhood cancers (AAPC = 0.71%; 95% CI = 0.55-0.86), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (0.78%; 0.49-1.07), acute myeloid leukemia (1.86%; 1.13-2.59), central nervous system tumors (1.31%; 0.94-1.67), and hepatoblastoma (2.70%; 1.68-3.72). Adjustment for county-level maternal age reduced estimated AAPCs between 8% (hepatoblastoma) and 55% (combined). However, adjustment for other county characteristics did not attenuate AAPCs, and AAPCs remained significantly above 0% in models fully adjusted for county-level characteristics. Although rising maternal age may account for some of the increase in childhood cancer incidence over time, other factors, not considered in this analysis, may also contribute to temporal trends. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Putila

    Full Text Available Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior.Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National Geochemical Survey were combined, respectively, with 2008 BRFSS estimates on smoking prevalence and 2000 U.S. Census county level income to determine the effects of these factors on lung cancer incidence, as estimated from respective state-wide cancer registries and the SEER database. Poisson regression was used to determine the association between each variable and age-adjusted county-level lung cancer incidence. ANOVA was used to assess interaction effects between covariates.Sediment levels of arsenic were significantly associated with an increase in incident cases of lung cancer (P<0.0001. These effects persisted after controlling for smoking and income (P<0.0001. Across the U.S., exposure to arsenic may contribute to up to 5,297 lung cancer cases per year. There was also a significant interaction between arsenic exposure levels and smoking prevalence (P<0.05.Arsenic was significantly associated with lung cancer incidence rates in the U.S. after controlling for smoking and income, indicating that low-level exposure to arsenic is responsible for excess cancer cases in many parts of the U.S. Elevated county smoking prevalence strengthened the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer incidence rate, an effect previously unseen on a population level.

  10. Maternal depression in the United States: nationally representative rates and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Karen A; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Koenen, Karestan C

    2011-11-01

    To examine the public health burden of major depressive disorder (MDD) among mothers: its prevalence and sociodemographic patterns; associated functioning, comorbidities, and adversities; and racial/ethnic disparities. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 8916 mothers in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative survey of the civilian U.S. population in 2001?2002. Past-year MDD was assessed with a structured interview protocol. Ten percent of mothers experienced depression in the past year. White and Native American women, those with low education or income, and those not married had high rates of depression. Depression was not strongly patterned by number of or age of children. Depressed mothers experienced more adversities (poverty, separation or divorce, unemployment, financial difficulties) and had worse functioning. Half of depressed mothers received services for their depression. Black and Hispanic depressed mothers were more likely to experience multiple adversities and less likely to receive services than white depressed mothers. Maternal depression is a major public health problem in the United States, with an estimated 1 in 10 children experiencing a depressed mother in any given year. Professionals who work with mothers and children should be aware of its prevalence and its detrimental effects.

  11. Glomerular filtration rate and functional decline in an acute geriatric unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Chaparro, José Mauricio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low estimated Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR is associated with functional decline. Little is known on that association in hospitalized elderly. Objective: Determine if low eGFR is associated with functional decline. Methods: Prospective cohort study that included 1826 patients 60 years and older hospitalized in a Geriatric Acute Unit, admitted between January 2012 and August 2015. The outcome was functional status assessed four times by the Barthel Index (BI. Kidney function was estimated by MDRD-4 IDMS and was grouped into four categories according to eGFR (normal ≥90, mild 60-89, moderate 59-30, severe <30. Multivariate logistic regression models and GLIMMIX procedure for longitudinal analyzes were used. Results: Mean age was 82.3±7.2 years, 51 % were women. In multivariate logistic regression, a BI≤60 at admission was associated with age ≥80, female gender, high comorbidity, social deterioration, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, MMSE<19, while the presence of mild or moderate renal failure reduced this risk. In the longitudinal analysis, lower total BI at follow-up was associated with age ≥80, female gender, social deterioration, hospital stay ≥15 days, high comorbidity, hypoalbuminemia, MMSE<19. The presence of mild, moderate or severe renal impairment was associated with higher BI over time. Conclusions: A low eGFR was associated with lower risk for functional decline at admission and overtime. These findings differ from previous reports in the literature.

  12. Measurement and monitoring of entrance exposure dose rate in X-ray image intensifier television with dose rate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J [Bezirkskrankenhaus Brandenburg (German Democratic Republic)

    1981-03-01

    For X-ray image intensifier television operation very low entrance dose rates (about 5.2 nA/kg) are stated and demanded, respectively. These required values are often manifold exceeded in practice so that a check seems to be necessary. It is shown and proved how these measurements can be performed with simple, generally available means of measurement in the radiological practice. For ZnCdS-image intensifiers should be considered that about 13 nA/kg for the large entrance size are not to be exceeded; for the CsI type lower values (factor 1.5) are practicable because of the twofold quantum absorption efficiency. Furthermore, some tests for a semiquantitative function check of the automatic dose rate control are proposed.

  13. A Geodetic Strain Rate Model for the Pacific-North American Plate Boundary, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreemer, C.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Holland, A. A.; Bennett, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    We present a model of crustal strain rates derived from GPS measurements of horizontal station velocities in the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the western United States. The model reflects a best estimate of present-day deformation from the San Andreas fault system in the west to the Basin and Range province in the east. Of the total 2,846 GPS velocities used in the model, 1,197 are derived by ourselves, and 1,649 are taken from (mostly) published results. The velocities derived by ourselves (the "UNR solution") are estimated from GPS position time-series of continuous and semi-continuous stations for which data are publicly available. We estimated ITRF2005 positions from 2002-2011.5 using JPL's GIPSY-OASIS II software with ambiguity resolution applied using our custom Ambizap software. Only stations with time-series that span at least 2.25 years are considered. We removed from the time-series continental-scale common-mode errors using a spatially-varying filtering technique. Velocity uncertainties (typically 0.1-0.3 mm/yr) assume that the time-series contain flicker plus white noise. We used a subset of stations on the stable parts of the Pacific and North American plates to estimate the Pacific-North American pole of rotation. This pole is applied as a boundary condition to the model and the North American - ITRF2005 pole is used to rotate our velocities into a North America fixed reference frame. We do not include parts of the time-series that show curvature due to post-seismic deformation after major earthquakes and we also exclude stations whose time-series display a significant unexplained non-linearity or that are near volcanic centers. Transient effects longer than the observation period (i.e., slow viscoelastic relaxation) are left in the data. We added to the UNR solution velocities from 12 other studies. The velocities are transformed onto the UNR solution's reference frame by estimating and applying a translation and rotation that minimizes

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Structure Monitoring during Integrated Leakage Rate Testing Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As the last barrier of nuclear reactor, prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs play an important role in nuclear power plants (NPPs. To test the mechanical property of PCCV during the integrated leakage rate testing (ILRT, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor was used to monitor concrete strain. In addition, a finite element method (FEM model was built to simulate the progress of the ILRT. The results showed that the strain monitored by FBG had the same trend compared to the inner pressure variation. The calculation results showed a similar trend compared with the monitoring results and provided much information about the locations in which the strain sensors should be installed. Therefore, it is confirmed that FBG sensors and FEM simulation are very useful in PCCV structure monitoring.

  15. The potential impact of increased treatment rates for alcohol dependence in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Gmel, Gerrit; Drummond, Colin

    2014-02-05

    Alcohol consumption has been linked to a considerable burden of disease in the United Kingdom (UK), with most of this burden due to heavy drinking and Alcohol Dependence (AD). However, AD is undertreated in the UK, with only 8% of those individuals with AD being treated in England and only 6% of those individuals with AD being treated in Scotland. Thus, the objective of this paper is to quantify the deaths that would have been avoided in the UK in 2004 if the treatment rate for AD had been increased. Data on the prevalence of AD, alcohol consumption, and mortality were obtained from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, and the 2004 Global Burden of Disease study respectively. Data on the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment and Motivational Interviewing/Cognitive Behavioural Therapy were obtained from Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses. Simulations were used to model the number of deaths under different treatment scenarios. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model the effects of Brief Interventions and to examine the effect of using AD prevalence data obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. In the UK, 320 female and 1,385 male deaths would have been avoided if treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment had been increased to 20%. This decrease in the number of deaths represents 7.9% of all alcohol-attributable deaths (7.0% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for women and 8.1% of all alcohol-attributable deaths for men). If we used lower AD prevalence rates obtained from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, then treatment coverage of pharmacological treatment in hospitals for 20% of the population with AD would have resulted in the avoidance of 529 deaths in 2004 (99 deaths avoided for women and 430 deaths avoided for men). Increasing AD treatment in the UK would have led to a large number of deaths being avoided in 2004. Increased AD

  16. Monitoring the hand hygiene compliance of health care workers in a general intensive care unit: Use of continuous closed circle television versus overt observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Livshiz-Riven, Ilana; Gushansky, Alexander; Erblat, Alexander; Koyfman, Leonid; Ziv, Tomer; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Klein, Moti; Borer, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    A variety of hand hygiene monitoring programs (HHMPs) have come into use in hospitals throughout the world. In the present study, we compare continuous closed circle television (CCTV) with overt observation for monitoring the hand hygiene compliance of health care workers (HCWs) in a general intensive care unit (GICU). This is a cross-sectional and comparative study. In this study, we use a novel hand hygiene CCTV monitoring system for hand hygiene performance monitoring. The study population incorporated all the GICU HCWs, including registered nurses, staff physicians, and auxiliary workers. All HCWs of our GICU were observed, including ICU registered nurses, ICU staff physicians, and auxiliary workers participated in the present study. Overall, each observer team did 50 sessions in each arm of the study. Total number of hand hygiene opportunities was approaching 500 opportunities. The compliance rates when only overt observations were performed was higher than when only covert observations were performed with a delta of approximately 10% (209 out of 590 [35.43%] vs 130 out of 533 [24.39%]; P hand hygiene. However, there is no clear basis for incorporating a CCTV observation modality into a health care system that already operates an overt observation program. We have shown that CCTV methodology records a different distribution of opportunities for performing hand hygiene and of actual performances of hand hygiene compared with overt observation. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2006-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report provides the results and inspections and monitoring for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 Waste Management Division U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This report includes an analysis and summary of the site inpsections, repairs and maintenance, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at Corrective Action Unit 110, for the annual period July 2005 thrugh June 2006.

  18. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers.

  19. Clinical evaluation of monitor unit software and the application of action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Nyholm, Tufve; Olofsson, Joergen; Kjaer-Kristoffersen, Flemming; Schnekenburger, Bruno; Winkler, Peter; Nystroem, Hakan; Ahnesjoe, Anders; Karlsson, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was the clinical evaluation of an independent dose and monitor unit verification (MUV) software which is based on sophisticated semi-analytical modelling. The software was developed within the framework of an ESTRO project. Finally, consistent handling of dose calculation deviations applying individual action levels is discussed. Materials and methods: A Matlab-based software ('MUV') was distributed to five well-established treatment centres in Europe (Vienna, Graz, Basel, Copenhagen, and Umea) and evaluated as a quality assurance (QA) tool in clinical routine. Results were acquired for 226 individual treatment plans including a total of 815 radiation fields. About 150 beam verification measurements were performed for a portion of the individual treatment plans, mainly with time variable fluence patterns. The deviations between dose calculations performed with a treatment planning system (TPS) and the MUV software were scored with respect to treatment area, treatment technique, geometrical depth, radiological depth, etc. Results: In general good agreement was found between calculations performed with the different TPSs and MUV, with a mean deviation per field of 0.2 ± 3.5% (1 SD) and mean deviations of 0.2 ± 2.2% for composite treatment plans. For pelvic treatments less than 10% of all fields showed deviations larger than 3%. In general, when using the radiological depth for verification calculations the results and the spread in the results improved significantly, especially for head-and-neck and for thorax treatments. For IMRT head-and-neck beams, mean deviations between MUV and the local TPS were -1.0 ± 7.3% for dynamic, and -1.3 ± 3.2% for step-and-shoot IMRT delivery. For dynamic IMRT beams in the pelvis good agreement was obtained between MUV and the local TPS (mean: -1.6 ± 1.5%). Treatment site and treatment technique dependent action levels between ±3% and ±5% seem to be clinically realistic if a radiological depth

  20. A machine learning approach to the accurate prediction of monitor units for a compact proton machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baozhou; Lam, Dao; Yang, Deshan; Grantham, Kevin; Zhang, Tiezhi; Mutic, Sasa; Zhao, Tianyu

    2018-05-01

    Clinical treatment planning systems for proton therapy currently do not calculate monitor units (MUs) in passive scatter proton therapy due to the complexity of the beam delivery systems. Physical phantom measurements are commonly employed to determine the field-specific output factors (OFs) but are often subject to limited machine time, measurement uncertainties and intensive labor. In this study, a machine learning-based approach was developed to predict output (cGy/MU) and derive MUs, incorporating the dependencies on gantry angle and field size for a single-room proton therapy system. The goal of this study was to develop a secondary check tool for OF measurements and eventually eliminate patient-specific OF measurements. The OFs of 1754 fields previously measured in a water phantom with calibrated ionization chambers and electrometers for patient-specific fields with various range and modulation width combinations for 23 options were included in this study. The training data sets for machine learning models in three different methods (Random Forest, XGBoost and Cubist) included 1431 (~81%) OFs. Ten-fold cross-validation was used to prevent "overfitting" and to validate each model. The remaining 323 (~19%) OFs were used to test the trained models. The difference between the measured and predicted values from machine learning models was analyzed. Model prediction accuracy was also compared with that of the semi-empirical model developed by Kooy (Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2005). Additionally, gantry angle dependence of OFs was measured for three groups of options categorized on the selection of the second scatters. Field size dependence of OFs was investigated for the measurements with and without patient-specific apertures. All three machine learning methods showed higher accuracy than the semi-empirical model which shows considerably large discrepancy of up to 7.7% for the treatment fields with full range and full modulation width. The Cubist-based solution

  1. SU-E-T-31: Alternative VMAT Technique Reduces Total Monitor Units for Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happersett, L; Mechalakos, J; Kuo, L; Zhang, P; Rimner, A [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate an alternative approach to VMAT optimization for hypofractionation lung treatment which increases average aperture opening and results in lower total Monitor Units (MU) without significantly sacrificing plan quality. Methods: Benchmark Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (bVMAT) plans were generated for 10 lung Stereotactic Body radiotherapy (SBRT) cases using Eclipse Version 11.0.42 (Varian Medical Systems) without a maximum MU constraint. Prescriptions ranged from 40 to 54Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. AAA dose calculation and PRO fluence based optimization was utilized. Two comparison VMAT plans were generated for each case, one that forced an initial “open” mlc aperture conformal to the tumor as a starting condition (oVMAT) with similar optimization parameters and arc geometries, and one that repeated the bVMAT optimization but added a maximum MU constraint (muVMAT). All plans used two arcs with lengths between 168 to 230 degrees. PTV D 95% and Dmean, lung V20 Gy, chest wall V30 Gy, average aperture opening and MU's were compared. Statistical significance was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Average PTV D(95), PTV mean and lung V20Gy over all plans was 99.2 ± 1.7%, 103.3 ± 0.6% and 7.8 ± 2.4% respectively. The average chest wall V30Gy was 61 ± 61 cc and ranged between 0 to 166 cc. There were no significant differences between the three techniques for the dosimetric quantities. MUs were reduced by 11 ±11% (p<0.01) and 25 ± 5% (p<0.01) and the average aperture size was increased by 13.7 ± 14% (p=0.02) and 35.8 ± 10% (p<0.01) with muVMAT and oVMAT, respectively, compared to bVMAT. Conclusion: oVMAT and muVMAT techniques were both able to increase average aperture size and reduce total MU compared to the benchmark VMAT plan, but the magnitude of the changes observed for oVMAT was larger.

  2. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm 2 beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm 2 field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  3. Poster - 21: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculations for Breast Field-In-Field Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosztyla, Robert; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas; Roumeliotis, Michael; Schinkel, Colleen [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To determine the source of systematic monitor unit (MU) calculation discrepancies between RadCalc and Eclipse treatment planning software for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy field-in-field breast treatments. Methods: Data were reviewed for 28 patients treated with a field-in-field breast technique with MU calculations from RadCalc that were larger than MU calculations from Eclipse for at least one field. The distance of the calculation point from the jaws was measured in each field’s beam’s-eye-view and compared with the percentage difference in MU (%ΔMU) between RadCalc and Eclipse. 10×10, 17×13 and 20×20 cm{sup 2} beam profiles were measured using the Profiler 2 diode array for 6-MV photon beams and compared with profiles calculated with Eclipse and RadCalc using a gamma analysis (3%, 3 mm). Results: The mean %ΔMU was 1.3%±0.3%. There was a statistically-significant correlation between %ΔMU and the distance of the calculation point from the Y jaw (r=−0.43, p<0.001). RadCalc profiles differed from measured profiles, especially near the jaws. The gamma pass rate for 6-MV fields of 17×13 cm{sup 2} field size was 95%±1% for Eclipse-generated profiles and 53%±20% for RadCalc-generated profiles (p=0.01). Conclusions: Calculations using RadCalc for field-in-field breast plans resulted in MUs that were larger than expected from previous clinical experience with wedged plans with calculation points far from the jaws due to the position of the calculation point near the jaws in the beam’s-eye-view of each field.

  4. A program for monitor unit calculation for high energy photon beams in isocentric condition based on measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesheva-Atanasova, N.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is: 1) to propose a procedure and a program for monitor unit calculation for radiation therapy with high energy photon beams, based on data measured by author; 2) to compare this data with published one and 3) to evaluate the precision of the monitor unit calculation program. From this study it could be concluded that, we reproduced with a good agreement the published data, except the TPR values for dept up to 5 cm. The measured relative weight of upper and lower jaws - parameter A was dramatically different from the published data, but perfectly described the collimator exchange effect for our treatment machine. No difference was found between the head scatter ratios, measured in a mini phantom and those measured with a proper brass buildup cap. Our monitor unit calculation program was found to be reliable and it can be applied for check up of the patient's plans for irradiation with high energy photon beams and for some fast calculations. Because of the identity in the construction, design and characteristics of the Siemens accelerators, and the agreement with the published data for the same beam qualities, we hope that most of our experimental data and this program can be used after verification in other hospitals

  5. Motor unit recruitment and firing rate in medial gastrocnemius muscles during external perturbations in standing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C L; Ivanova, T D; Hunt, M A; Garland, S J

    2014-10-01

    There is limited investigation of the interaction between motor unit recruitment and rate coding for modulating force during standing or responding to external perturbations. Fifty-seven motor units were recorded from the medial gastrocnemius muscle with intramuscular electrodes in response to external perturbations in standing. Anteriorly directed perturbations were generated by applying loads in 0.45-kg increments at the pelvis every 25-40 s until 2.25 kg was maintained. Motor unit firing rate was calculated for the initial recruitment load and all subsequent loads during two epochs: 1) dynamic response to perturbation directly following each load drop and 2) maintenance of steady state between perturbations. Joint kinematics and surface electromyography (EMG) from lower extremities and force platform measurements were assessed. Application of the external loads resulted in a significant forward progression of the anterior-posterior center of pressure (AP COP) that was accompanied by modest changes in joint angles (recruitment, motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop was significantly lower than during subsequent load drops or during the steady state at the same load. There was a modest increase in motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop on subsequent load drops associated with regaining balance. There was no effect of maintaining balance with increased load and forward progression of the AP COP on steady-state motor unit firing rate. The medial gastrocnemius utilized primarily motor unit recruitment to achieve the increased levels of activation necessary to maintain standing in the presence of external loads. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Monitoring and prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in military veterans with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameed Ahmed M Khatana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with serious mental illness (SMI and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors--is significantly higher in these patients than in the general population. Metabolic monitoring among patients using second generation antipsychotics (SGAs--a risk factor for metabolic syndrome--has been shown to be inadequate despite the release of several guidelines. However, patients with SMI have several factors independent of medication use that predispose them to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Our study therefore examines monitoring and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI, including those not using SGAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively identified all patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder during 2005-2006 and obtained demographic and clinical data. Incomplete monitoring of metabolic syndrome was defined as being unable to determine the status of at least one of the syndrome components. Of the 1,401 patients included (bipolar disorder: 822; schizophrenia: 222; and schizoaffective disorder: 357, 21.4% were incompletely monitored. Only 54.8% of patients who were not prescribed SGAs and did not have previous diagnoses of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were monitored for all metabolic syndrome components compared to 92.4% of patients who had all three of these characteristics. Among patients monitored for metabolic syndrome completely, age-adjusted prevalence of the syndrome was 48.4%, with no significant difference between the three psychiatric groups. CONCLUSIONS: Only one half of patients with SMI not using SGAs or previously diagnosed with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were completely monitored for metabolic syndrome components compared to greater than 90% of those with these characteristics

  7. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  8. Radioactive waste evacuation of the sources of a low dose rate brachytherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrada, A.; Huerga, C.; Santa Olalla, I.; Vicedo, A.; Corredoira, E.; Plaza, R.; Vidal, J.; Tellez, M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The second class Radioactive Installation start -up authorization makes responsible for its security to the installation exploiter and supervisor. The specifications established in the authorization, which are mandatory, point out several actions, some of these actions are the hermeticity tests of radioactive sources an radiologic controls of environment dosimetry. It is necessary to optimize the time spent in each activity, managing them as reasonably as possible. An important matter to take into account is to keep and control only those radioactive or radiological equipment which, even if are in work, have an appropriate performance for the patient treatment Material And Method a Paz hospital has an intracavity brachytherapy (L.D.R.), Curietron model. The Radioprotection Department proposed to remove from service the unit due to its age, this was carried out by the Commission of Guarantee and Quality Control. There were different solutions taken into account to decommission the unit, finally the option chosen as the most convenient for the installation was to manage directly the withdrawal of the radioactive material which consisted of seven Cs-137 probes model CsM1 and total nominal certificated activity of 7770 MBq ( 210 mCi ) dated in May 2005. It also has to be considered as a radioactive waste the inner storage elements of the Curietron and the transport and storage curie stock, built with depleted uranium. To accomplish this aim an evacuation container was designed consisting of an alloy of low-melting point (M.C.P.96), which fulfills the transport conditions imposed by E.N.R.E.S.A. ( Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A). A theoretical calculation was performed to estimate the thickness of the shield which adequate to the rate of dose in contact demanded. Accuracy of these calculations has been verified using T.L. dosimetry. Results The radiation levels during the extraction intervention of the radioactive probes and its transfer to

  9. Favorable bed utilization and readmission rates for emergency department observation unit heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrager, Justin; Wheatley, Matthew; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki; Osborne, Anwar; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Hung, Olivia; Butler, Javed; Ross, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare readmission rates and hospital bed-days between acute decompensated heart failure (AHF) patients admitted or discharged following accelerated treatment protocol (ATP)-driven care in an emergency department observation unit (OU). This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at two urban university-affiliated hospitals. A total of 358 selected AHF patients received treatment on an ATP in the OU between October 1, 2007, and June 30, 2011. The comparison of interest was admission or discharge following OU treatment. The outcome of interest was readmission within 30 and 90 days of hospital discharge following care in the OU. We also examined resource use (inpatient, inpatient plus outpatient-days) between the admitted and discharged groups. Time to readmission analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards regression. Discharged and admitted patients were similar with respect to age, race, sex, ED length of stay (LOS), and OU LOS. Patients admitted from the OU had a higher median B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; 1,063 pg/mL [interquartile range {IQR} = 552 to 2,067 pg/mL] vs. 708 pg/mL [IQR = 254 to 1,683 pg/mL]; p = 0.002) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN; 19 mg/dL [IQR = 14 to 26 mg/dL] vs. 17 mg/dL [IQR = 13 to 23 mg/dL]) than those discharged (p = 0.04) and a lower median ejection fraction (EF; 22.5% [15% to 43%] vs. 35% [IQR 20% to 55%]; p = 0.002). In models controlling for age, race, sex, clinical site, BNP, BUN, creatinine, and EF, the 30-day readmission rate (13.8% in the study population as a whole) was not significantly different between the patients discharged or admitted following OU care (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47 to 2.10). The readmission rates were also not significantly different at 90 days (HR = 1.07; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.77). Within 30 days of discharge from the OU, patients spent a median of 1.7 days (IQR = 0.0 to 5.1 days) as inpatients, compared to 3.5 days (IQR = 2.3 to 5.8 days

  10. Annual incidence rates of herpes zoster among an immunocompetent population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara H; Palmer, Liisa; Gatwood, Justin; Lenhart, Gregory; Kawai, Kosuke; Acosta, Camilo J

    2015-11-06

    Herpes zoster (HZ), also known as shingles, is a painful and commonly occurring condition in the United States. In spite of a universally recommended vaccine for use in immunocompetent adults aged 60 years and older, HZ continues to impact the American public, and a better understanding of its current incidence is needed. The objective of the current study is to estimate the overall and age- and gender-specific incidence rates (IRs) of HZ among an immunocompetent US population in 2011 following availability of a vaccine. Claims data from the Truven Health MarketScan® Research databases between 01/01/2011 and 12/31/2011 were extracted. Immunocompetent adult patients, enrolled as of January 1, 2011 were analyzed. The denominator was defined as eligible subjects who were immunocompetent, had no evidence of zoster vaccination, and no diagnosis of HZ (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code 053.xx) in the 90 days prior to January 1, 2011. Subjects contributed person-days to the denominator until the occurrence of one of the following events: end of continuous enrollment in the database, a claim for zoster vaccination, diagnosis of HZ or end of the observation period (December 31, 2011). The numerator was defined as enrollees within the denominator file exhibiting evidence of HZ. Annual IRs were calculated for the entire population in the database as well as by gender and age group; standardized IRs were also produced using the 2010 US Census data. The overall annual IR of HZ across all ages was 4.47 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.44-4.50) which monotonically increased with age from 0.86 (95% CI: 0.84-0.88) for those aged ≤ 19 to 12.78 (95% CI: 12.49-13.07) for patients ≥ 80 years. The IR was 8.46 (95% CI: 8.39-8.52) among adults ≥ 50 years and 10.46 (95% CI: 10.35-10.56) among those aged ≥ 60 years. Women compared to men had higher HZ incidence (5.25, 95% CI: 5.21-5.29 vs. 3.66, 95

  11. Validation of a High Sampling Rate Inertial Measurement Unit for Acceleration During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provot, Thomas; Chiementin, Xavier; Oudin, Emeric; Bolaers, Fabrice; Murer, Sébastien

    2017-08-25

    The musculo-skeletal response of athletes to various activities during training exercises has become a critical issue in order to optimize their performance and minimize injuries. However, dynamic and kinematic measures of an athlete's activity are generally limited by constraints in data collection and technology. Thus, the choice of reliable and accurate sensors is crucial for gathering data in indoor and outdoor conditions. The aim of this study is to validate the use of the accelerometer of a high sampling rate ( 1344 Hz ) Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) in the frame of running activities. To this end, two validation protocols are imposed: a classical one on a shaker, followed by another one during running, the IMU being attached to a test subject. For each protocol, the response of the IMU Accelerometer (IMUA) is compared to a calibrated industrial accelerometer, considered as the gold standard for dynamic and kinematic data collection. The repeatability, impact of signal frequency and amplitude (on shaker) as well as the influence of speed (while running) are investigated. Results reveal that the IMUA exhibits good repeatability. Coefficient of Variation CV is 1 % 8.58 ± 0.06 m / s 2 on the shaker and 3 % 26.65 ± 0.69 m / s 2 while running. However, the shaker test shows that the IMUA is affected by the signal frequency (error exceeds 10 % beyond 80 Hz ), an observation confirmed by the running test. Nevertheless, the IMUA provides a reliable measure in the range 0-100 Hz, i.e., the most relevant part in the energy spectrum over the range 0-150 Hz during running. In our view, these findings emphasize the validity of IMUs for the measurement of acceleration during running.

  12. Nutritional screening and dietitian consultation rates in a geriatric evaluation and management unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Elsa; Wright, Olivia; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Hubbard, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    Nutritional screening may not always lead to intervention. The present study aimed to determine: (i) the rate of nutritional screening in hospitalised older adults; (ii) whether nutritional screening led to dietitian consultation and (iii) factors associated with malnutrition. In this prospective study of patients aged ≥70 years admitted to a Geriatric Evaluation and Management Unit (GEMU), malnutrition was screened for using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and identified using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Of the 172 patients participating in the study, 53 (30.8%) patients were malnourished, and 84 (48.8%) were at risk of malnutrition. Mean (SD) age was 85.2 (6.4 years), with 131 patients (76.2%) female. Nutritional screening was performed for all patients; however, it was incomplete in 59 (34.3%) because of omission of the anthropometric measurement. Overall, 62 (36.0%) of the total number of patients were seen by the dietitian, which included 26 (49%) of malnourished patients, 27 (32%) of at-risk patients and 9 (26%) of the well-nourished patients. No patients lost >1% of body weight during GEMU stay. Malnourished patients were more likely to be frail, have poor appetite, depression, and have lower levels of: albumin, cognition, physical function, grip strength and quality of life. The full benefits of nutritional screening by MNA-SF may not be realised if it does not result in malnourished patients receiving a dietitian consultation. However, it is possible that enrichment of the foodservice with high protein/high-energy options minimised patient weight loss in the GEMU. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  13. Effects of Barbell Deadlift Training on Submaximal Motor Unit Firing Rates for the Vastus Lateralis and Rectus Femoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S.; Thompson, Brennan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units. PMID:25531294

  14. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Stock

    Full Text Available Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years were randomly assigned to training (n = 15 or control (n = 9 groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC and y-intercepts (pps of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70, but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  15. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  16. SSDL quality assurance for environmental dose/dose rate monitoring of photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Member states of IAEA have recently approved an expanded Nuclear Safety Programme and two International Conventions have been signed. One concerns early notification of a nuclear accident, and the other concerns assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. In the course of the implementation of these conventions an international system will be established by the Agency for the reception and dissemination of data following a nuclear accident. Such data should include the results of radiation measurements obtained by radiation monitoring. These data must be reliable, and comparable. This assures that numerical values of measured quantities obtained at different times, sites and countries, and with different instruments, can be compared in order that the competent authorities may draw conclusions. Such measurements may also have legal consequences. This implies that the instruments used for the measurement should comply with the relevant international specifications, and that the readings of these instruments be traceable to the international measurement system. At a meeting of an expert working group on International Cooperation in Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection held in November 1986, a proposal to produce a technical document on ''The role of SSDLs in the quality assurance programme relating to the use of dose and dose rate meters for personal and environmental measurements'' received high priority, and at a subsequent meeting of the Board of Governors the proposal was approved. Prior to these proposals the SSDL Scientific Committee at its annual meeting in May 1986 also advised the IAEA to promote measures to ensure world wide reliability and traceability of dose measurements in the field of radiation protection. On 26-30 January 1987 an Advisory Group Meeting on ''The role of SSDLs in the dosimetry of unintentional radiation exposures'' was organized by the IAEA. This Advisory Group assisted the Agency in the formulation of a

  17. Optimizing the data acquisition rate for a remotely controllable structural monitoring system with parallel operation and self-adaptive sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Wenjuan; Guo, Aihuang; Liu, Yang; Azmi, Asrul Izam; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel technique that optimizes the real-time remote monitoring and control of dispersed civil infrastructures. The monitoring system is based on fiber Bragg gating (FBG) sensors, and transfers data via Ethernet. This technique combines parallel operation and self-adaptive sampling to increase the data acquisition rate in remote controllable structural monitoring systems. The compact parallel operation mode is highly efficient at achieving the highest possible data acquisition rate for the FBG sensor based local data acquisition system. Self-adaptive sampling is introduced to continuously coordinate local acquisition and remote control for data acquisition rate optimization. Key issues which impact the operation of the whole system, such as the real-time data acquisition rate, data processing capability, and buffer usage, are investigated. The results show that, by introducing parallel operation and self-adaptive sampling, the data acquisition rate can be increased by several times without affecting the system operating performance on both local data acquisition and remote process control

  18. A consideration of two biochemical approaches to monitoring human populations for a change in germ cell mutation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.; Mohrenweiser, H.; Satoh, Chiyoko; Hamilton, H.B.

    1978-10-01

    This report presents two different strategies for monitoring increased mutation rates resulting from exposure to an environmental mutagen, both of which are based on the detection of biochemical variants of polypeptides. Using the first strategy, one monitors a defined population continuously for the rate at which children with such a variant are born to normal parents. An increase in this rate implies increasing exposure to a mutagen. With the second strategy, one contrasts the findings in the children born to a control group or groups with the findings in the children born to an exposed group, however this is defined. An example of each strategy is included. The alternatives to mutation which must be considered when a child with a variant is found to have nonaffected parents are considered. The numbers of individuals necessary to detect an increase of a specified magnitude are discussed. (author)

  19. Enhancement of hand hygiene compliance among health care workers from a hemodialysis unit using video-monitoring feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carrillo, Laura Arelí; Rodríguez-López, Juan Manuel; Galarza-Delgado, Dionisio Ángel; Baena-Trejo, Laura; Padilla-Orozco, Magaly; Mendoza-Flores, Lidia; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2016-08-01

    The importance of hand hygiene in the prevention of health care-associated infection is well known. Experience with hand hygiene compliance (HHC) evaluation in hemodialysis units is scarce. This study was a 3-phase, prospective longitudinal intervention study during a 5-month period in a 13-bed hemodialysis unit at a university hospital in Northern Mexico. The unit performs an average of 1,150 hemodialysis procedures per month. Compliance was evaluated by a direct observer and a video assisted observer. Feedback was given to health care workers in the form of educational sessions and confidential reports and video analysis of compliance and noncompliance. A total of 5,402 hand hygiene opportunities were registered; 5,201 during 7,820 minutes of video footage and 201 by direct observation during 1,180 minutes. Lower compliance during the baseline evaluation was observed by video monitoring compared with direct observation (P hand hygiene compliance. Video-assisted monitoring of hand hygiene is an excellent method for the evaluation of HHC in a hemodialysis unit; enhanced HHC can be achieved through a feedback program to the hemodialysis staff that includes video examples and confidential reports. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing use of less-invasive hemodynamic monitoring in 3 specialty surgical intensive care units: a 5-year experience at a tertiary medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, Orlando C; Calabrese, Rebecca C; Staff, Ilene

    2015-01-01

    Less-invasive hemodynamic monitoring (eg, esophageal doppler monitoring [EDM] and arterial pressure contour analysis, FloTrac) is increasingly used as an alternative to pulmonary artery catheters (PACs) in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU). The decrease in use of PACs is not associated with increased mortality. Five-year retrospective review of 1894 hemodynamically monitored patients admitted to 3 surgical ICUs in a university-affiliate, tertiary care urban hospital. Data included the number of admissions, diagnosis-related group discharge case mix, length of stay, insertion of monitoring devices (PAC, EDM, and FloTrac probes), administered intravenous vasoactive agents (β-predominant agonists--dobutamine, epinephrine, and dopamine; vasopressors--norepinephrine and phenylephrine), and mortality. Data from hospital administrative databases were compiled to create patient characteristic and monitoring variables across a 5-year time period, 2005 to 2009 inclusive. Chi-square for independent proportions, 1-way analysis of variance, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used; tests for trend were conducted. An α level of .05 was considered significant. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences v14 was used for all statistical testing. There was a significant change in the type of hemodynamic monitors inserted in 2 of the 3 surgical ICUs (in the general surgery and neurointensive care but not in the cardiac ICU) from PACs to less-invasive devices (FloTrac or EDM) during the 5-year study period (P < .001). There was no change in mortality rate over the time period (P = .492). There was an overall increase in the proportion of monitored patients who received intravenous vasoactive agents (P < .001) with a progressive shift from β-agonists to vasopressors (P < .002). Multivariate analyses indicated that age, case mix, and use of vasoactive agents were all independent predictors of inhospital mortality (P = .001) but that type of monitoring was not (P = .638). In a 5

  1. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary

  2. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan's purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner

  3. Remediating and Monitoring White Phosphorus Contamination at Eagle River Flats (Operable Unit C), Fort Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, M. E; Racine, C. H; Collins, C. M; Walsh, M. R; Bailey, R. N

    2001-01-01

    .... Army Engineer District, Alaska, and U.S. Army Alaska, Public Works, describing the results of research, monitoring, and remediation efforts addressing the white phosphorus contamination in Eagle River Flats, an 865-ha estuarine salt marsh...

  4. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  5. NPP Temelin automatic monitoring and diagnostic system of secondary side of the unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, S.; Pisl, M.; Drab, F.

    1997-01-01

    Two measuring and evaluating systems by SKODA PRAHA are described, designed for the Temelin nuclear power plant: a permanent secondary side diagnostic system for technology monitoring in the period of startup and operation; and the system of physical and power starting-up for monitoring during the first and repeated startup. The purposes of both systems are outlined. The scope of diagnostics covered and the functioning of the secondary side system is dealt with in some detail. (A.K.)

  6. A GPRS-Based Low Energy Consumption Remote Terminal Unit for Aquaculture Water Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Dan; Li , Daoliang; Fei , Biaoqing; Wang , Yang; Peng , Fa

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The monitoring of water quality parameters such as DO, pH, salinity and temperature are necessary for the health of seafood such as sea cucumber. However, traditional monitoring system is based on cable data acquisition that has many disadvantages. Nowadays, GPRS is the most commonly accepted way for wireless transmission. Based on it, a type of low energy consumption RTU is developed and applied. In this paper, details of the design are introduced. In hardware design ...

  7. Effects of episodic sediment supply on bedload transport rate in mountain rivers. Detecting debris flow activity using continuous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Taro; Sakurai, Wataru; Iuchi, Takuma; Izumiyama, Hiroaki; Borgatti, Lisa; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    Monitoring of sediment transport from hillslopes to channel networks as a consequence of floods with suspended and bedload transport, hyperconcentrated flows, debris and mud flows is essential not only for scientific issues, but also for prevention and mitigation of natural disasters, i.e. for hazard assessment, land use planning and design of torrent control interventions. In steep, potentially unstable terrains, ground-based continuous monitoring of hillslope and hydrological processes is still highly localized and expensive, especially in terms of manpower. In recent years, new seismic and acoustic methods have been developed for continuous bedload monitoring in mountain rivers. Since downstream bedload transport rate is controlled by upstream sediment supply from tributary channels and bed-external sources, continuous bedload monitoring might be an effective tool for detecting the sediments mobilized by debris flow processes in the upper catchment and thus represent an indirect method to monitor slope instability processes at the catchment scale. However, there is poor information about the effects of episodic sediment supply from upstream bed-external sources on downstream bedload transport rate at a single flood time scale. We have examined the effects of sediment supply due to upstream debris flow events on downstream bedload transport rate along the Yotagiri River, central Japan. To do this, we have conducted continuous bedload observations using a hydrophone (Japanese pipe microphone) located 6.4 km downstream the lower end of a tributary affected by debris flows. Two debris flows occurred during the two-years-long observation period. As expected, bedload transport rate for a given flow depth showed to be larger after storms triggering debris flows. That is, although the magnitude of sediment supply from debris flows is not large, their effect on bedload is propagating >6 km downstream at a single flood time scale. This indicates that continuous bedload

  8. Online Health Monitoring using Facebook Advertisement Audience Estimates in the United States: Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejova, Yelena; Weber, Ingmar; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2018-03-28

    Facebook, the most popular social network with over one billion daily users, provides rich opportunities for its use in the health domain. Though much of Facebook's data are not available to outsiders, the company provides a tool for estimating the audience of Facebook advertisements, which includes aggregated information on the demographics and interests, such as weight loss or dieting, of Facebook users. This paper explores the potential uses of Facebook ad audience estimates for eHealth by studying the following: (1) for what type of health conditions prevalence estimates can be obtained via social media and (2) what type of marker interests are useful in obtaining such estimates, which can then be used for recruitment within online health interventions. The objective of this study was to understand the limitations and capabilities of using Facebook ad audience estimates for public health monitoring and as a recruitment tool for eHealth interventions. We use the Facebook Marketing application programming interface to correlate estimated sizes of audiences having health-related interests with public health data. Using several study cases, we identify both potential benefits and challenges in using this tool. We find several limitations in using Facebook ad audience estimates, for example, using placebo interest estimates to control for background level of user activity on the platform. Some Facebook interests such as plus-size clothing show encouraging levels of correlation (r=.74) across the 50 US states; however, we also sometimes find substantial correlations with the placebo interests such as r=.68 between interest in Technology and Obesity prevalence. Furthermore, we find demographic-specific peculiarities in the interests on health-related topics. Facebook's advertising platform provides aggregate data for more than 190 million US adults. We show how disease-specific marker interests can be used to model prevalence rates in a simple and intuitive manner

  9. Online Health Monitoring using Facebook Advertisement Audience Estimates in the United States: Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ingmar; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Background Facebook, the most popular social network with over one billion daily users, provides rich opportunities for its use in the health domain. Though much of Facebook’s data are not available to outsiders, the company provides a tool for estimating the audience of Facebook advertisements, which includes aggregated information on the demographics and interests, such as weight loss or dieting, of Facebook users. This paper explores the potential uses of Facebook ad audience estimates for eHealth by studying the following: (1) for what type of health conditions prevalence estimates can be obtained via social media and (2) what type of marker interests are useful in obtaining such estimates, which can then be used for recruitment within online health interventions. Objective The objective of this study was to understand the limitations and capabilities of using Facebook ad audience estimates for public health monitoring and as a recruitment tool for eHealth interventions. Methods We use the Facebook Marketing application programming interface to correlate estimated sizes of audiences having health-related interests with public health data. Using several study cases, we identify both potential benefits and challenges in using this tool. Results We find several limitations in using Facebook ad audience estimates, for example, using placebo interest estimates to control for background level of user activity on the platform. Some Facebook interests such as plus-size clothing show encouraging levels of correlation (r=.74) across the 50 US states; however, we also sometimes find substantial correlations with the placebo interests such as r=.68 between interest in Technology and Obesity prevalence. Furthermore, we find demographic-specific peculiarities in the interests on health-related topics. Conclusions Facebook’s advertising platform provides aggregate data for more than 190 million US adults. We show how disease-specific marker interests can be used to model

  10. Evaluation of delivered monitor unit accuracy of gated step-and-shoot IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Lee, MeYeon; Kim, Su SSan; Park, SoAh; Hwang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Oh, Do Hoon; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 431070 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul 431070 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To overcome the problem of organ motion in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), gated IMRT is often used for the treatment of lung cancer. In this study, the authors investigated the accuracy of the delivered monitor units (MUs) from each segment during gated IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array for user-specific verification purpose. Methods: The authors planned a 6 MV photon, seven-port step-and-shoot lung IMRT delivery. The respiration signals for gated IMRT delivery were obtained from the one-dimensional moving phantom using the real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The beams were delivered using a Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with the Millennium 120 MLC. The MatriXX (IBA Dosimetry GmbH, Germany) was validated through consistency and reproducibility tests as well as comparison with measurements from a Farmer-type ion chamber. The authors delivered beams with varying dose rates and duty cycles and analyzed the MatriXX data to evaluate MU delivery accuracy. Results: There was quite good agreement between the planned segment MUs and the MUs computed from the MatriXX within {+-}2% error. The beam-on times computed from the MatriXX data were almost identical for all cases, and they matched well with the RPM beam-on and beam-off signals. A slight difference was observed between them, but it was less than 40 ms. The gated IMRT delivery demonstrated an MU delivery accuracy that was equivalent to ungated IMRT, and the delivered MUs with a gating signal agreed with the planned MUs within {+-}0.5 MU regardless of dose rate and duty cycle. Conclusions: The authors can conclude that gated IMRT is able to deliver an accurate dose to a patient during a procedure. The authors believe that the methodology and results can be transferred to other vendors' devices, particularly those that do not provide MLC log data for a verification purpose.

  11. The use of crowdsourcing for dietary self-monitoring: crowdsourced ratings of food pictures are comparable to ratings by trained observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Helander, Elina E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Perez-Macias, Jose Maria; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-04-01

    Crowdsourcing dietary ratings for food photographs, which uses the input of several users to provide feedback, has potential to assist with dietary self-monitoring. This study assessed how closely crowdsourced ratings of foods and beverages contained in 450 pictures from the Eatery mobile app as rated by peer users (fellow Eatery app users) (n = 5006 peers, mean 18.4 peer ratings/photo) using a simple 'healthiness' scale were related to the ratings of the same pictures by trained observers (raters). In addition, the foods and beverages present in each picture were categorized and the impact on the peer rating scale by food/beverage category was examined. Raters were trained to provide a 'healthiness' score using criteria from the 2010 US Dietary Guidelines. The average of all three raters' scores was highly correlated with the peer healthiness score for all photos (r = 0.88, pcrowdsourcing holds potential to provide basic feedback on overall diet quality to users utilizing a low burden approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Facilitating control of fed-batch fermentation processes by monitoring the growth rates of saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulers, M.L.B.; Ariaans, L.J.J.M.; Soeterboek, R.; Giuseppin, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a growth rate controller for a fed-batch bioprocess. An observer estimates the growth rate. The observer is based on knowledge about the stoichiometric relations of the process. Furthermore, the observer needs online measurements of the oxygen uptake rate and the

  13. Monitoring of ovarian activity by measurement of urinary excretion rates of estrone glucuronide and pregnanediol glucuronide using the Ovarian Monitor, Part II: reliability of home testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Leonard F; Vigil, Pilar; Gross, Barbara; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Cooke, Delwyn G; Brown, James B

    2012-02-01

    The UNDP/WHO/World Bank/Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (Geneva) set up a study to determine whether it is feasible for women to monitor their ovarian activity reliably by home testing. Daily self-monitoring of urinary hormone metabolites for menstrual cycle assessment was evaluated by comparison of results obtained with the Home Ovarian Monitor by untrained users both at home and in study centres. Women collected daily data for urinary estrone glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG) for two cycles, then the procedure was repeated in the women's local centre (in Chile, Australia or New Zealand) giving a total of 113 duplicate cycles. The tests were performed without the benefit of replicates or quality controls. The home and centre cycles were normalized and compared to identify assay errors, and the resulting home and centre menstrual cycle profiles were averaged. Reliable mean cycle profiles were obtained with the home and centre excretion rates agreeing to within 36 ± 21 nmol/24 h for E1G and 0.77 ± 0.28 µmol/24 h for baseline PdG values (1-5 µmol/24 h). The cycles had a mean length of 28.1 ± 3.1 days (n = 112; 5th and 95th percentiles: 24 and 35 days, respectively), a mean follicular phase of 14.8 ± 3.1 days (n = 107; 5th and 95th percentiles: 11 and 21 days) and a mean luteal phase length of 13.3 ± 1.5 days (n = 106; 5th and 95th percentiles: 11 and 17 days), calculated from the day of the LH peak. The study confirmed that the Ovarian Monitor pre-coated assay tubes worked well even in the hands of lay users, without standard curves, quality controls or replicates. Point-of-care monitoring to give reliable fertility data is feasible.

  14. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs.

  15. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1989 by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels, and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether the testing is in compliance with existing radiation protection standards, and to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of both animals and humans. To implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any release of radioactivity, personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each test. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to NTS activities. Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk Surveillance, TLD, and PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program. 35 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs

  16. Are movies with tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sex, and violence rated for youth?: A comparison of rating systems in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Vargas, Rosa; Braun, Sandra; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Sevigny, Eric L.; Billings, Deborah L.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Navarro, Ashley; Hardin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine between-country differences and changes over time in the portrayal of youth risk behaviors in films rated for youth in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the United States. Methods Content and ratings were analyzed for 362 films that were popular across all four countries from 2002–2009. Country-specific ratings were classified as either youth or adult, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to determine between-country differences in the presence of tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sexual content, and violence in youth-rated films. Within-country differences in this content over time were also assessed, comparing films released from 2002–2005 with those released from 2006–2009. Results In the US, films rated for youth were less likely to contain all five risk behaviors than in youth-rated films in Argentina, Brazil, and, when the “15 and older” rating was considered a youth rating, in Mexico. All three Latin American countries “downrated” films that received an adult rating in the US. Nevertheless, tobacco and drug use in youth-rated films declined over time in all countries, whereas moderate to extreme alcohol use and violence involving children or youth increased in all countries. Conclusions Tobacco and drug use have declined in popular US films, but these behaviors are still prevalent in films rated for youth across the Americas. The apparent success of advocacy efforts to reduce tobacco and other drugs in films suggests that similar efforts be directed to reduce alcohol portrayals. PMID:24316001

  17. Are movies with tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sex, and violence rated for youth? A comparison of rating systems in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James D; Vargas, Rosa; Braun, Sandra; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Sevigny, Eric L; Billings, Deborah L; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Navarro, Ashley; Hardin, James

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to determine between-country differences and changes over time in the portrayal of youth risk behaviors in films rated for youth in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the United States. Content and ratings were analyzed for 362 films that were popular across all four countries from 2002 to 2009. Country-specific ratings were classified as either youth or adult, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to determine between-country differences in the presence of tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sexual content, and violence in youth-rated films. Within-country differences in this content over time were also assessed, comparing films released from 2002 to 2005 with those released from 2006 to 2009. In the US, films rated for youth were less likely to contain all five risk behaviors than in youth-rated films in Argentina, Brazil, and, when the "15 and older" rating was considered a youth rating, in Mexico. All three Latin American countries "downrated" films that received an adult rating in the US. Nevertheless, tobacco and drug use in youth-rated films declined over time in all countries, whereas moderate to extreme alcohol use and violence involving children or youth increased in all countries. Tobacco and drug use have declined in popular US films, but these behaviors are still prevalent in films rated for youth across the Americas. The apparent success of advocacy efforts to reduce tobacco and other drugs in films suggests that similar efforts be directed to reduce alcohol portrayals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of optimal operation management by a monitoring system for corrosion and heat-transfer rate of condensate pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Katsmi; Kominami, Hirohiko; Atsumi, Tetsuro; Nagata, Koji (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Sumitomo Light Metal Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-09-26

    In order to optimize the anticorrosion and antifouling management of aluminum brass condensate pipes, the monitoring system was developed, which could control a corrosion resistance and heat transfer rate during operation. Since a polarization resistance could be used as an index for anticorrosion control, while a heat transmission coefficient or cleanliness factor for heat transfer control, a polarization resistance meter and fouling meter were made as prototype detectors. Fundamental test of a model condenser (simulated by-pass pipe) was performed using a processing system combined with the meters, and monitored data and analytical data of the test were arranged. System performance was ascertained to be preferable by the verification test on a real condenser, however, more compact system was required for practical use because of restriction in by-pass pipe installation. In addition to the monitoring function, a control function for sponge ball cleaning and iron ion injection was also added to keep the specified index value. 13 figs,. 1 tab.

  19. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.

  20. Evaluation of the environmental equivalent dose rate using area monitors for neutrons in clinical linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Ana Paula; Pereira, Walsan Wagner; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Batista, Delano V.S.

    2009-01-01

    The Neutron Laboratory of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute - IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, initiated studies on the process of calibration of neutron area monitors and the results of the measurements performed at radiotherapy treatment rooms, containing clinical accelerators

  1. Environmental Monitoring Report - United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Facilities, Calendar Year 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Each year since 1972, a report has been prepared on the environmental monitoring activities for the DOE facilities in oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the previous calendar year. previously, the individual facilities published quarterly and annual progress reports that contained some environmental monitoring data. The environmental monitoring program for 1984 includes sampling and analysis of air, water from surface streams, groundwater, creek sediment, biota, and soil for both radioactive and nonradioactive (including hazardous) materials. Special environmental studies that have been conducted in the Oak Ridge area are included in this report, primarily as abstracts or brief summaries. The annual report for 1984 on environmental monitoring and surveillance of the Oak Ridge community by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is included as an appendix. A brief description of the topography and climate of the Oak Ridge area and a short description of the three DOE facilities are provided below to enhance the reader's understanding of the direction and contents of the environmental monitoring program for Oak Ridge.

  2. Westinghouse power distribution monitoring experience at Duke Power's McGuire Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobmyer, L.R.; Cash, M.T.; Kitlan, M.S.; Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In the evolution of the Westinghouse methodology of assuring safe core power distributions, emphasis was placed on analysis and not on continuous detailed core monitoring. Power distribution monitoring is currently achieved by periodic surveillances using the movable in-core detector system (MIDS) and by continuous observations of the two-section excore power range detectors. Control of the power distribution is regulated by limits on the indications from these systems, by limits on control rod insertion, and by operational constraints on the position indication systems. As more plants come on line and as more utilities take over the fuel design function for themselves, the desire for better core monitoring becomes evident. Also, the need and desire by the utilities to have more control over their operating margin has motivated the industry to offer and/or upgrade core monitoring systems. Westinghouse and Duke Power are participants in a joint development program to finalize the development of the core on-line surveillance monitoring and operations system (COSMOS). This final stage of development consists of prototype field trials at the McGuire Nuclear Plant. The purpose of the prototype program is to determine how well the design objectives are met and how to improve the system based on the operating experience at McGuire. Another purpose of this prototype program is to generate the necessary experience and information to develop a topical report for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to obtain a licensing basis for technical specification relaxation

  3. Effect of sexed-semen use on Holstein conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...

  4. Antipsychotic drug prescription rates among Dutch nursing homes : the influence of patient characteristics and the dementia special care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, M. J. G.; Wetzels, R. B.; Bor, H.; Zuidema, S. U.; Koopmans, R. T. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the differences in antipsychotic drug prescription rates in residents with dementia in dementia special care units (SCUs) of Dutch nursing homes, considering the differences in patient characteristics. Method: As part of the Waalbed-II study, the data on antipsychotic drug use

  5. Portable air quality sensor unit for participatory monitoring: an end-to-end VESNA-AQ based prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucnik, Matevz; Robinson, Johanna; Smolnikar, Miha; Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Mohorcic, Mihael

    2015-04-01

    Key words: portable air quality sensor, CITI-SENSE, participatory monitoring, VESNA-AQ The emergence of low-cost easy to use portable air quality sensors units is opening new possibilities for individuals to assess their exposure to air pollutants at specific place and time, and share this information through the Internet connection. Such portable sensors units are being used in an ongoing citizen science project called CITI-SENSE, which enables citizens to measure and share the data. The project aims through creating citizens observatories' to empower citizens to contribute to and participate in environmental governance, enabling them to support and influence community and societal priorities as well as associated decision making. An air quality measurement system based on VESNA sensor platform was primarily designed within the project for the use as portable sensor unit in selected pilot cities (Belgrade, Ljubljana and Vienna) for monitoring outdoor exposure to pollutants. However, functionally the same unit with different set of sensors could be used for example as an indoor platform. The version designed for the pilot studies was equipped with the following sensors: NO2, O3, CO, temperature, relative humidity, pressure and accelerometer. The personal sensor unit is battery powered and housed in a plastic box. The VESNA-based air quality (AQ) monitoring system comprises the VESNA-AQ portable sensor unit, a smartphone app and the remote server. Personal sensor unit supports wireless connection to an Android smartphone via built-in Wi-Fi. The smartphone in turn serves also as the communication gateway towards the remote server using any of available data connections. Besides the gateway functionality the role of smartphone is to enrich data coming from the personal sensor unit with the GPS location, timestamps and user defined context. This, together with an accelerometer, enables the user to better estimate ones exposure in relation to physical activities, time

  6. The influence of maternity units' intrapartum intervention rates and midwives' risk perception for women suitable for midwifery-led care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Marianne M P; Kornbrot, Diana

    2004-03-01

    to test the hypothesis that midwives working in higher intervention units would have a higher perception of risk for the intrapartum care of women suitable for midwifery-led care than midwives working in lower intervention units. an initial retrospective analysis of the computerised records of 9887 healthy Caucasian women in spontaneous labour enabled the categorisation of 11 units as either 'lower intrapartum intervention' or 'higher intrapartum intervention' units. A survey of the midwives involved in intrapartum care in these 11 units, using standardised scenario questionnaires, was used to investigate midwives' options for intrapartum interventions, their perceptions of intrapartum risk and the accuracy of these perceptions in the light of actual maternity outcomes. midwives working in maternity units that had a higher level of intervention generally perceived intrapartum risks to be higher than midwives working in lower intervention units. However, midwives generally underestimated the ability of women to progress normally and overestimated the advantages of technological interventions, in particular epidural analgesia. variations in intrapartum care cannot be solely explained by the characteristics of the women. The influence of the workplace culture plays a significant role in shaping midwives' perceptions of risk, but it seems even more likely that the medicalisation of childbirth has had an influence on midwives' appreciation of intrapartum risks. Intervention rates for low-risk births are often higher than recommended by research. The level of interventions varies across hospitals and higher rates are associated with higher perception of risk by midwives. Attention needs to be given to the influence the workplace plays in shaping midwives' perception of risk; and to the effect of organisational culture on intervention rates.

  7. The design preparation for radiation monitoring system in the frame of completion NPP Mochovce Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevecka, S.; Slavik, O.; Kapisovsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    In 1985 a Basic Design of Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) has been elaborated for Mochovce NPP unit 3 and 4 construction. Due to construction interruption in the following years this design solution became obsolete. A new solution of RMS have been developed with conception following that of original Basic Design accommodating also safety measures implemented in RMS of NPP EMO units 1 and 2, and based on modem instrumentation and computer technique. Following the updating of Basic Design documentation the preparation of elaboration of RMS detailed design was carried on. In the frame of this preparation a review of possible suppliers of instrumentation satisfying the conception of radiation monitoring system and the extension of required deliveries has been made. Also criteria on RMS suppliers selection have been determined. The types of monitoring systems and equipment, as well as their quantities, have been specified based on updated Basic Design requirements and production profiles and possibilities of potential suppliers. The required parameters of measurements (including measurement geometry) have been evaluated, as well as requirements of legislation and requirements of proposed RMS architecture. (authors)

  8. 75 FR 52947 - Maximum Per Diem Rates for the Continental United States (CONUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... per diem rate setting process enhances the government's ability to obtain policy-compliant lodging where it is needed. In conjunction with the annual lodging study, GSA identified five new non-standard... diem localities and updates the standard CONUS rate. The CONUS per diem rates prescribed in Bulletin 11...

  9. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  10. Fourth IRMF comparison of calibrations of portable gamma-ray dose- rate monitors 2001-2002 Ionising radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, V E

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a fourth comparison of calibrations of gamma-ray dose-rate monitors in which fifteen establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three gamma-ray monitors for calibration in the fields produced using sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and sup 6 sup 0 Co. The instruments used were an Electra with MC 20 probe, a Mini-Instruments Mini-rad 1000 and a Siemens electronic personal dosemeter Mk 2 (EPD). The responses relative to 'true' dose equivalent rate were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the facilities and fields employed. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments. However, the participants' treatment of uncertainties needs improvement and demonstrates a need for guidance in this area.

  11. Performance of a GM tube based environmental dose rate monitor operating in the Time-To-Count mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zickefoose, J.; Kulkarni, T.; Martinson, T.; Phillips, K.; Voelker, M. [Canberra Industries Inc. (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in the aftermath of a natural disaster underline the importance of a large array of networked environmental monitors to cover areas around nuclear power plants. These monitors should meet a few basic criteria: have a uniform response over a wide range of gamma energies, have a uniform response over a wide range of incident angles, and have a large dynamic range. Many of these criteria are met if the probe is qualified to the international standard IEC 60532 (Radiation protection instrumentation - Installed dose rate meters, warning assemblies and monitors - X and gamma radiation of energy between 50 keV and 7 MeV), which specifically deals with energy response, angle of incidence, dynamic range, response time, and a number of environmental characteristics. EcoGamma is a dual GM tube environmental gamma radiation monitor designed specifically to meet the requirements of IEC 60532 and operate in the most extreme conditions. EcoGamma utilizes two energy compensated GM tubes operating with a Time-To-Count (TTC) collection algorithm. The TTC algorithm extends the lifetime and range of a GM tube significantly and allows the dual GM tube probe to achieve linearity over approximately 10 decades of gamma dose rate (from the Sv/hr range to 100 Sv/hr). In the TTC mode of operation, the GM tube is not maintained in a biased condition continuously. This is different from a traditional counting system where the GM tube is held at a constant bias continuously and the total number of strikes that the tube registers are counted. The traditional approach allows for good sensitivity, but does not lend itself to a long lifetime of the tube and is susceptible to linearity issues at high count rates. TTC on the other hand only biases the tube for short periods of time and in effect measures the time between events, which is statistically representative of the total strike rate. Since the tube is not continually biased, the life of the tube

  12. Performance of a GM tube based environmental dose rate monitor operating in the Time-To-Count mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zickefoose, J.; Kulkarni, T.; Martinson, T.; Phillips, K.; Voelker, M.

    2015-01-01

    The events at the Fukushima Daiichi power plant in the aftermath of a natural disaster underline the importance of a large array of networked environmental monitors to cover areas around nuclear power plants. These monitors should meet a few basic criteria: have a uniform response over a wide range of gamma energies, have a uniform response over a wide range of incident angles, and have a large dynamic range. Many of these criteria are met if the probe is qualified to the international standard IEC 60532 (Radiation protection instrumentation - Installed dose rate meters, warning assemblies and monitors - X and gamma radiation of energy between 50 keV and 7 MeV), which specifically deals with energy response, angle of incidence, dynamic range, response time, and a number of environmental characteristics. EcoGamma is a dual GM tube environmental gamma radiation monitor designed specifically to meet the requirements of IEC 60532 and operate in the most extreme conditions. EcoGamma utilizes two energy compensated GM tubes operating with a Time-To-Count (TTC) collection algorithm. The TTC algorithm extends the lifetime and range of a GM tube significantly and allows the dual GM tube probe to achieve linearity over approximately 10 decades of gamma dose rate (from the Sv/hr range to 100 Sv/hr). In the TTC mode of operation, the GM tube is not maintained in a biased condition continuously. This is different from a traditional counting system where the GM tube is held at a constant bias continuously and the total number of strikes that the tube registers are counted. The traditional approach allows for good sensitivity, but does not lend itself to a long lifetime of the tube and is susceptible to linearity issues at high count rates. TTC on the other hand only biases the tube for short periods of time and in effect measures the time between events, which is statistically representative of the total strike rate. Since the tube is not continually biased, the life of the tube

  13. An expert system for corrosion rate monitoring and diagnosis in the heating circuits of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducelli, C.; Conte, E.; Federico, A.G.; Tripi, A.; Ronchetti, C.

    1988-01-01

    The radiation field of out of core components of a water reactor primary plant depends on corrosion product equilibria. The computer programs that try to simulate the behaviour of the corrosion products and the radiation build up didn't provide good results, especially in describing several different plants with the same program. In order to obtain better results the authors decided to use a different approach, building an expert system, which performs on-line corrosion rate monitoring by means of a number of probes connected to an automatic corrosimeter, evaluates expected corrosion rate values and behaviours, and, if there are discrepancies, performs a diagnosis, providing suggestions to overcome the difficulty. (author)

  14. Using preventive home monitoring to reduce hospital admission rates and reduce costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Birthe Irene; Haesum, Lisa K E; Soerensen, Natascha

    2012-01-01

    We studied whether preventive home monitoring of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could reduce the frequency of hospital admissions and lower the cost of hospitalization. Patients were recruited from a health centre, general practitioner (GP) or the pulmonary hospital ward....... They were randomized to usual care or tele-rehabilitation with a telehealth monitoring device installed in their home for four months. A total of 111 patients were suitable for inclusion and consented to be randomized: 60 patients were allocated to intervention and three were lost to follow...... of admissions was €3461 per patient in the intervention group and €4576 in the control group; this difference was not significant. The Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to hospital admission were longer for the intervention group than the controls, but the difference was not significant. Future work requires...

  15. Determination of void fraction from source range monitor and mass flow rate data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    This is a report on the calculation of the TMI-2 primary coolant system local void fraction from source range neutron flux monitor data and from hot leg mass flowrate meter data during the first 100 minutes of the accident. The methods of calculation of void fraction from the two data sources is explained and the results are compared. It is indicated that the void fraction determined using the mass flowrate data contained an error of unknown magnitude due to the assumption of constant homogeneous volumetric flowrate used in the calculation and required further work. Void fraction determined from the source range monitor data is felt to be usable although an uncertainty analysis has not been performed

  16. Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: beta scientific and management scientific aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, P.M.H.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; Jarm, T.; Kramar, P.; Zupanic, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to various technological advances, it is now possible to continuously monitor critically ill patients using EEG, including the extraction of various quantitative features. In this study, several beta scientific and management scientific aspects of the implementation and use of cEEg on the ICU

  17. Interest of Monitoring Diaphragmatic Electrical Activity in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ducharme-Crevier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi is a new minimally invasive bedside technology that was developed for the neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA mode of ventilation. In addition to its role in NAVA ventilation, this technology provides the clinician with previously unavailable and essential information on diaphragm activity. In this paper, we review the clinical interests of EAdi in the pediatric intensive care setting. Firstly, the monitoring of EAdi allows the clinician to tailor the ventilatory settings on an individual basis, avoiding frequent overassistance leading potentially to diaphragmatic atrophy. Increased inspiratory EAdi levels can also suggest insufficient support, while a strong tonic activity may reflect the patient efforts to increase its lung volume. EAdi monitoring also allows detection of patient-ventilator asynchrony. It can play a role in evaluation of extubation readiness. Finally, EAdi monitoring provides the clinician with better understanding of the ventilatory capacity of patients with acute neuromuscular disease. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the clinical impact of these potential benefits.

  18. A changing epidemiology of suicide? The influence of birth cohorts on suicide rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie A

    2014-08-01

    The increases in suicide among middle-aged baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964) in the United States since 1999 suggest a changing epidemiology of suicide. Using data from 1935 to 2010, this paper conducts age-period-cohort analyses to determine the impact of cohorts in shaping temporal patterns of suicide in the United States. The analysis demonstrates that age, period and cohort effects are all important in determining suicide trends. Net of age and period effects, the cohort pattern of suicide rates is U-shaped, with cohorts born between 1915 and 1945 possessing among the very lowest suicide rates. Suicide rates begin to rise with boomers and subsequent cohorts exhibit increasingly higher rates of suicide. The general pattern exists for both men and women but is especially pronounced among males. The average suicide rate over the entire period for males is about 28 per 100,000, 95% CI [27.4, 28.7]. For males born in 1930-34, the suicide rate is estimated to be 17.4 per 100,000, 95% CI [15.9, 18.8]; for males born between 1955 and 1959, the rate is essentially the same as the average for the period while for males born between 1985 and 1989, the suicide rate is estimated to be 37.8 per 100,000, 95% CI [33.1, 43.4]. The results dispute popular claims that boomers exhibit an elevated suicide rate relative to other generations, but boomers do appear to have ushered in new cohort patterns of suicide rates over the life course. These patterns are interpreted within a Durkheimian framework that suggests weakened forms of social integration and regulation among postwar cohorts may be producing increased suicide rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Automated system of monitoring and positioning of functional units of mining technological machines for coal-mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshcheryakov Yaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is show to the development of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional nodes of mining technological machines. It describes the structure, element base, algorithms for identifying the operating states of a walking excavator; various types of errors in the functioning of microelectromechanical gyroscopes and accelerometers, as well as methods for their correction based on the Madgwick fusion filter. The results of industrial tests of an automated monitoring and positioning system for functional units on one of the opencast coal mines of Kuzbass are presented. This work is addressed to specialists working in the fields of the development of embedded systems and control systems, radio electronics, mechatronics, and robotics.

  20. Validation of an Internet-Based Long Version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Danish Adults Using Combined Accelerometry and Heart Rate Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is commonly used in surveys but reliability and validity has not been established in the Danish population. METHODS: Among participants in the Danish Health Examination survey 2007-2008, 142 healthy participants (45% men) wore...... a unit that combined accelerometry and heart rate monitoring (Acc+HR) for 7 consecutive days and then completed the IPAQ. Background data were obtained from the survey. Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time in moderate, vigorous and sedentary intensity level were derived from the IPAQ...... and compared with estimates from Acc+HR using Spearman´s correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Repeatability of the IPAQ was also assessed. RESULTS: PAEE from the two methods was significantly positively correlated (0.28 and 0.49 for women and men, respectively). Men significantly overestimated PAEE...

  1. Heart Disease Death Rates Among Blacks and Whites Aged ≥35 Years - United States, 1968-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Miriam; Greer, Sophia; Odom, Erika; Schieb, Linda; Vaughan, Adam; Kramer, Michael; Casper, Michele

    2018-03-30

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2015, heart disease accounted for approximately 630,000 deaths, representing one in four deaths in the United States. Although heart disease death rates decreased 68% for the total population from 1968 to 2015, marked disparities in decreases exist by race and state. 1968-2015. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data on deaths in the United States were abstracted for heart disease using diagnosis codes from the eighth, ninth, and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10) for 1968-2015. Population estimates were obtained from NVSS files. National and state-specific heart disease death rates for the total population and by race for adults aged ≥35 years were calculated for 1968-2015. National and state-specific black-white heart disease mortality ratios also were calculated. Death rates were age standardized to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to perform time trend analyses. From 1968 to 2015, heart disease death rates decreased for the total U.S. population among adults aged ≥35 years, from 1,034.5 to 327.2 per 100,000 population, respectively, with variations in the magnitude of decreases by race and state. Rates decreased for the total population an average of 2.4% per year, with greater average decreases among whites (2.4% per year) than blacks (2.2% per year). At the national level, heart disease death rates for blacks and whites were similar at the start of the study period (1968) but began to diverge in the late 1970s, when rates for blacks plateaued while rates for whites continued to decrease. Heart disease death rates among blacks remained higher than among whites for the remainder of the study period. Nationwide, the black-white ratio of heart disease death rates increased from 1.04 in 1968 to 1.21 in 2015, with large increases occurring during the 1970s and 1980s followed by small but steady

  2. Change in muscle fascicle length influences the recruitment and discharge rate of motor units during isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Benjamin; Carpentier, Alain; Duchateau, Jacques

    2005-11-01

    This study examines the effect of fascicle length change on motor-unit recruitment and discharge rate in the human tibialis anterior (TA) during isometric contractions of various intensities. The torque produced during dorsiflexion and the surface and intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) from the TA were recorded in eight subjects. The behavior of the same motor unit (n = 59) was compared at two ankle joint angles (+10 and -10 degrees around the ankle neutral position). Muscle fascicle length of the TA was measured noninvasively using ultrasonography recordings. When the ankle angle was moved from 10 degrees plantarflexion to 10 degrees dorsiflexion, the torque produced during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was significantly reduced [35.2 +/- 3.3 vs. 44.3 +/- 4.2 (SD) Nm; P Motor units were activated at a lower recruitment threshold for short compared with long muscle fascicle length, either when expressed in absolute values (2.1 +/- 2.5 vs. 3.6 +/- 3.7 Nm; P motor-unit recruitment were observed at a given absolute or relative torque when muscle fascicles were shortened. However, the data indicate that increased rate coding was mainly present at low torque level (recruitment of additional motor units played a dominant role at higher torque level and decreased compliance (10-35% MVC). Taken together, the results suggest that the central command is modulated by the afferent proprioceptive information during submaximal contractions performed at different muscle fascicle lengths.

  3. Heat Release Rate of an Open Kitchen Fire of Small Residential Units in Tall Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Many small units of area less than 30 m2 in residential buildings over 200 m tall are equipped with open kitchens in Asia, including Hong Kong. Fire safety provisions of these kitchens are determined by performance-based design (PBD). In most PBD projects, only the spread of smoke from the kitchen on fire to the outside was commonly studied. However, a fire load survey in Hong Kong indicated large quantities of combustibles are stored in residential units. Cooking oil was found to be ignited ...

  4. Monitoring oral temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) during capture and handling in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arthur W.; Bonde, Robert K.; Siegal-Willott, Jessica; Stamper, M. Andrew; Colee, James; Powell, James A.; Reid, James P.; Deutsch, Charles J.; Harr, Kendal E.

    2012-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) are captured, handled, and transported to facilitate conservation, research, and rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring manatee oral temperature (OT), heart rate (HR), and respiration rate (RR) during out-of-water handling can assist efforts to maintain animal well-being and improve medical response to evidence of declining health. To determine effects of capture on manatee vital signs, we monitored OT, HR, and RR continuously for a 50-min period in 38 healthy, awake, juvenile and adult Florida manatees (T. m. latirostris) and 48 similar Antillean manatees (T. m. manatus). We examined creatine kinase (CK), potassium (K+), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate values for each animal to assess possible systemic inflammation and muscular trauma. OT range was 29.5 to 36.2° C, HR range was 32 to 88 beats/min, and RR range was 0 to 17 breaths/5 min. Antillean manatees had higher initial OT, HR, and RR than Florida manatees (p capture and handling in the field or in a captive care setting.

  5. Subjective social status and trajectories of self-rated health status: a comparative analysis of Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fujiwara, Takeo; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-11-28

    Japanese society is more egalitarian than the United States as is reflected by the lower degree of prevalence of social inequalities in health. We examined whether subjective socioeconomic status is associated with different trajectories of self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relationship differs between the United States and Japan. We analyzed the responses of 3968 Americans from the survey Midlife in the United States, 2004-06, and the responses of 989 Japanese from the survey Midlife in Japan, 2008. We conducted a multilevel analysis with three self-ratings of health (10 years ago, current and 10 years in the future) nested within individuals and nested within 10 levels of subjective social status. Age, sex, educational level and subjective financial situation were adjusted. After making statistical adjustments for confounding variables, respondents in Japan continued to report lower average levels of health. However, the rate of expected decline in SRH over the next decade was strongly socially patterned in the United States, whereas it was not in Japan. The Japanese showed no disparity in the anticipated trajectory of SRH over time, whereas the Americans showed a strong social class gradient in future trajectories of SRH. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Effects of organ motion on IMRT treatments with segments of few monitor units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seco, J.; Sharp, G. C.; Turcotte, J.; Gierga, D.; Bortfeld, T.; Paganetti, H.

    2007-01-01

    Interplay between organ (breathing) motion and leaf motion has been shown in the literature to have a small dosimetric impact for clinical conditions (over a 30 fraction treatment). However, previous studies did not consider the case of treatment beams made up of many few-monitor-unit (MU) segments, where the segment delivery time (1-2 s) is of the order of the breathing period (3-5 s). In this study we assess if breathing compromises the radiotherapy treatment with IMRT segments of low number of MUs. We assess (i) how delivered dose varies, from patient to patient, with the number of MU per segment, (ii) if this delivered dose is identical to the average dose calculated without motion over the path of the motion, and (iii) the impact of the daily variation of the delivered dose as a function of MU per segment. The organ motion was studied along two orthogonal directions, representing the left-right and cranial-caudal directions of organ movement for a patient setup in the supine position. Breathing motion was modeled as sin(x), sin 4 (x), and sin 6 (x), based on functions used in the literature to represent organ motion. Measurements were performed with an ionization chamber and films. For a systematic study of motion effects, a MATLAB simulation was written to model organ movement and dose delivery. In the case of a single beam made up of one single segment, the dose delivered to point in a moving target over 30 fractions can vary up to 20% and 10% for segments of 10 MU and 20 MU, respectively. This dose error occurs because the tumor spends most of the time near the edges of the radiation beam. In the case of a single beam made of multiple segments with low MU, we observed 2.4%, 3.3%, and 4.3% differences, respectively, for sin(x), sin 4 (x), and sin 6 (x) motion, between delivered dose and motion-averaged dose for points in the penumbra region of the beam and over 30 fractions. In approximately 5-10% of the cases, differences between the motion-averaged dose

  7. Abnormal Strain Rate Sensitivity Driven by a Unit Dislocation-Obstacle Interaction in bcc Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhitong; Fan, Yue

    2018-03-01

    The interaction between an edge dislocation and a sessile vacancy cluster in bcc Fe is investigated over a wide range of strain rates from 108 down to 103 s-1 , which is enabled by employing an energy landscape-based atomistic modeling algorithm. It is observed that, at low strain rates regime less than 105 s-1 , such interaction leads to a surprising negative strain rate sensitivity behavior because of the different intermediate microstructures emerged under the complex interplays between thermal activation and applied strain rate. Implications of our findings regarding the previously established global diffusion model are also discussed.

  8. Elderly suicide rates in the United Kingdom: trends from 1979 to 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit

    2007-01-01

    The proportion of elderly in the population is increasing due to a falling birth rate and increased life expectancy, and suicide rates increase with age. Trends in elderly suicide rates over a 24-year period, 1979 to 2002, were examined. Differences in suicide rates between elderly men and women and between the age-bands 65 to 74 years and 75+ years were examined. Data was ascertained from the WHO website. Suicide rates for men and women for the age-bands 65 to 74 years and 75+ years declined over the 24-year study period. Suicide rates were higher in men than women for both the age bands. In men, suicide rates were higher in the 75+ age-band than in the 65 to 74 years age-band. Various national initiatives may have contributed to the decline in suicide rates. The challenge will be to sustain the decline, given that the population is ageing and suicide rates generally increase with age.

  9. Trends in pregnancy rates for the United States, 1976-97: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S J; Mosher, W D; Curtin, S C; Abma, J C; Henshaw, S

    2001-06-06

    This report presents detailed pregnancy rates for 1996 and 1997 to update a recently published comprehensive report on pregnancies and pregnancy rates for U.S. women. Tabular and graphic data on pregnancy rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status are presented and described. In 1997 an estimated 6.19 million pregnancies resulted in 3.88 million live births, 1.33 million induced abortions, and 0.98 million fetal losses. The 1997 pregnancy rate of 103.7 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years is the lowest recorded since 1976 (102.7), the first year for which a consistent series of national pregnancy rates is available. The 1997 rate was 10 percent lower than the peak rate in 1990 (115.6). The teenage pregnancy rate dropped steadily through 1997, falling to a record low of 94.3 pregnancies per 1,000 teenagers 15-19 years, 19 percent below the 1990 level (116.3). Rates for younger teenagers declined more than for older teenagers.

  10. First annual report RCRA post-closure monitoring and inspections for the U-3fi waste unit. Final report, July 1995--October 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emer, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    This annual Neutron Soil Moisture Monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and neutron soil moisture monitoring data obtained at the U-3fi RCRA Unit, located in Area 3 of the Nevada Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada during the July 1995 to October 1996 period. Inspections of the U-3fi RCRA Unit are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the covers, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit closure. The objective of the neutron logging is to monitor the soil moisture conditions along the 420 ft ER3-3 borehole and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement in the regulated interval. This is the first annual report on the U-3fi closure and includes the first year baseline monitoring data as well as one quarter of compliance monitoring data

  11. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  12. Continuous stroke unit electrocardiographic monitoring versus 24-hour Holter electrocardiography for detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Timolaos; Güntner, Janina; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Marquardt, Lars; Reichardt, Christine; Becker, Rüdiger; Reinhardt, Roland; Hepp, Thomas; Kirchhof, Paulus; Aleynichenko, Elena; Ringleb, Peter; Hacke, Werner; Veltkamp, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Cardioembolism in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pxAF) is a frequent cause of ischemic stroke. Sensitive detection of pxAF after stroke is crucial for adequate secondary stroke prevention; the optimal diagnostic modality to detect pxAF on stroke units is unknown. We compared 24-hour Holter electrocardiography (ECG) with continuous stroke unit ECG monitoring (CEM) for pxAF detection. Patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were prospectively enrolled. After a 12-channel ECG on admission, all patients received 24-hour Holter ECG and CEM. Additionally, ECG monitoring data underwent automated analysis using dedicated software to identify pxAF. Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation or with atrial fibrillation on the admission ECG were excluded. Four hundred ninety-six patients (median age, 69 years; 61.5% male) fulfilled all inclusion criteria (ischemic stroke: 80.4%; transient ischemic attack: 19.6%). Median stroke unit stay lasted 88.8 hours (interquartile range, 65.0-122.0). ECG data for automated CEM analysis were available for a median time of 64.0 hours (43.0-89.8). Paroxysmal AF was documented in 41 of 496 patients (8.3%). Of these, Holter detected pxAF in 34.1%; CEM in 65.9%; and automated CEM in 92.7%. CEM and automated CEM detected significantly more patients with pxAF than Holter (Pstroke on stroke units compared with 24-hour Holter ECG. The comparative usefulness of prolonged or repetitive Holter ECG recordings requires further evaluation.

  13. Population Group Abortion Rates and Lifetime Incidence of Abortion: United States, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna

    2017-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of abortion among population groups and changes in rates between 2008 and 2014. We used secondary data from the Abortion Patient Survey, the American Community Survey, and the National Survey of Family Growth to estimate abortion rates. We used information from the Abortion Patient Survey to estimate the lifetime incidence of abortion. Between 2008 and 2014, the abortion rate declined 25%, from 19.4 to 14.6 per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years. The abortion rate for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years declined 46%, the largest of any group. Abortion rates declined for all racial and ethnic groups but were larger for non-White women than for non-Hispanic White women. Although the abortion rate decreased 26% for women with incomes less than 100% of the federal poverty level, this population had the highest abortion rate of all the groups examined: 36.6. If the 2014 age-specific abortion rates prevail, 24% of women aged 15 to 44 years in that year will have an abortion by age 45 years. The decline in abortion was not uniform across all population groups.

  14. A comparative study of United States and China exchange rate behavior: A co integration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rates always affect the prices of the imports and export of products and services in which countries are trading with other parts of the world. Therefore, exchange rate calculation is one of the essential issues for making appropriate policies. This research investigates the determinants of trade, i.e. import, export, industrial growth, consumption level and oil prices fluctuation, which bring changes in exchange rate and their influence eventually on balance of payments. Data of defined variables was collected on yearly basis for China and USA for thirty one years. By applying cointegration, it is estimated that there existed a long run relationship in both countries. USA and China had significant and correct signs on the short run dynamic and some of the factors did not. Exchange rate did not granger cause balance of payment and balance of payment did not granger cause exchange rate. In conclusion, we found that determinants of balance of trade could affect the exchange rates, also, these rates had considerable effect (positive or negative on balance of payments. In this twofold study, we found relationship of exchange rate with selected determinants of trade, and also examined their bilateral effect, and then made contrast of both countries.

  15. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of environmental radiation monitoring programs in China and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Tianshan; Xu Cuihua; Shang Bing; Zhu Changshou; Sears, R.; Griggs, J.; Leed, H.N.; Wolbarst, A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: It hopes that an awareness of the similarities and differences of China's and USA's programs will prove to be helpful to monitoring networks in their evolving and developing, and possibly to others as well. Methods: Based on the analyses of the sample collection, radionuclides analyses and data dissemination of NRCMS, ERAMS and EML's global network, the similarities and differences of the networks are characterized. Results: ERAMS and NRCMS have more similarities in responsibility, objectives and sampling components. The differences are mainly in the scope and size of each program. EML's global network represents the most extensive and comprehensive global network of its kind in the world for surface air radionuclides monitoring. Conclusions: As compared with EML's global network program, NRCMS and ERAMS has more similarities than differences. (authors)

  17. A low-cost system for graphical process monitoring with colour video symbol display units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, H.; Jarsch, V.; Mueller, W.

    1977-01-01

    A system for computer controlled graphic process supervision, using color symbol video displays is described. It has the following characteristics: - compact unit: no external memory for image storage - problem oriented simple descriptive cut to the process program - no restriction of the graphical representation of process variables - computer and display independent, by implementation of colours and parameterized code creation for the display. (WB) [de

  18. Regional changes and global connections: monitoring climate variability and change in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry F. Diaz

    2004-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the Western United States are complex and include cold desert biomes, such as those found in Nevada; subpolar biomes found in the upper treeline zone; and tundra ecosystems, occurring above timberline. Many studies (for example, Thompson 2000) suggest that high-elevation environments, comprising glaciers, snow, permafrost, water, and the...

  19. Radiation dose distribution monitoring at neutron radiography facility area, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Daud

    1995-01-01

    One experiment was carried out to get the distribution of radiation doses at the neutron radiography facilities, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia. The analysis was done to evaluate the safety level of the area. The analysis was used in neutron radiography work

  20. Minimum detectable activity and false alarm rate relationships for alpha continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy rule for Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR Part 835, December 1993) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual (the RCM) (DOE/EH-0256T, Rev. 1, April 1994) require the use of continuous air monitors (CAMs) in normally occupied areas where an individual is likely to be exposed to a concentration of airborne radioactivity exceeding the derived air concentration (DAC) or where there is a need to alert potentially exposed individuals to unexpected increases in airborne radioactivity levels. The DAC is the airborne concentration that equals the annual limit on intake divided by the volume of air breathed by an average worker for a working year of 2000 h (assuming a breathing volume of 2400 m 3 ). It is equivalent to the airborne concentration to which a worker could be exposed for an entire working year (2000 h) without exceeding the allowable annual limit on intake. The rule and the RCM further require that real-time air monitors have an alarm capability and sufficient sensitivity to alert potentially exposed individuals that immediate action is necessary in order to minimize or terminate inhalation exposures. The RCM also recommends that real-time air monitors should be capable of measuring 1 DAC when averaged over 8 h (8 DAC-h) under laboratory conditions. In response to these recommendations, we are developing procedures for determining the basic sensitivity of alpha CAMs under laboratory conditions and for documenting practical alarm set points for routine use of CAMs under a range of radon and thoron concentrations

  1. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  2. Design and Implementation of the Intensive Care Unit Quality Management Registry: Monitoring Quality and Cost of an Adult Intensive Care Unit in a Greek State Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidis, Dimitrios; Koutsouki, Sotiria; Lampiri, Klairi; Nagy, Eva Ottilia; Papaioannou, Vasilios; Pneumatikos, Ioannis; Anastassopoulos, George

    2017-11-01

    Intensive care electronic registries have been instrumental in quality measurement, improvement, and assurance of intensive care. In this article, the development and pilot implementation of the Intensive Care Unit Quality Management Registry are described, with a particular focus on monitoring the quality and operational cost in an adult ICU at a northern Greek state hospital. A relational database was developed for a hospital ICU so that qualitative and financial data are recorded for further analysis needed for planning quality care improvement and enhanced efficiency. Key features of this database registry were low development cost, user friendliness, maximum data security, and interoperability in existing hospital information systems. The database included patient demographics, nursing and medical parameters, and quality and performance indicators as established in many national registries worldwide. Cost recording was based on a mixed approach: at patient level ("bottom-up" method) and at department level ("top-down" method). During the pilot phase of the database operation, regular monitoring of quality and cost data revealed several fields of quality excellence, while indicating room for improvement for others. Parallel recording and trending of multiple parameters showed that the database can be utilized for optimum ICU quality and cost management and also for further research purposes by nurses, physicians, and administrators.

  3. Operative correction of judoists’ training loads on the base of on-line monitoring of heart beats rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qiang Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: ensure increase of effectiveness of training process’s control by means of operative correction of training loads of different qualification judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate indicators. Material: the research was conducted on the base of Brest SCJSOR № 1. Judo wrestlers of different sport qualification (age 17-19 years old, n=15 participated in the research. Monitoring of judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate was carried out with the help of system “Polar”. Results: we have found factorial structure of functional fitness in every profile of sportsmen. Model characteristics of judo wrestlers were supplemented with the most important sides of functional fitness. Analysis of indicators of restoration effectiveness indicators (REI in both groups of judo wrestlers showed high level of organism’s responsiveness to training load of special and power orientation in comparison with speed power load. We have worked out algorithm of operative correction of training loads by indicators of heart beats rate in training process, depending on orientation and intensity of loads’ physiological influence on judo wrestler. Conclusions: Telemetric on-line monitoring of sportsman’s heart beats rate and calculation of REI permit to objectively assess effectiveness of training’s construction and of micro-cycle in total and detect in due time the trend to development of over-loading and failure of adaptation.

  4. Operative correction of judoists’ training loads on the base of on-line monitoring of heart beats rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong Qiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: ensure increase of effectiveness of training process’s control by means of operative correction of training loads of different qualification judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate indicators. Material: the research was conducted on the base of Brest SCJSOR № 1. Judo wrestlers of different sport qualification (age 17-19 years old, n=15 participated in the research. Monitoring of judo wrestlers’ heart beats rate was carried out with the help of system “Polar”. Results: we have found factorial structure of functional fitness in every profile of sportsmen. Model characteristics of judo wrestlers were supplemented with the most important sides of functional fitness. Analysis of indicators of restoration effectiveness indicators (REI in both groups of judo wrestlers showed high level of organism’s responsiveness to training load of special and power orientation in comparison with speed power load. We have worked out algorithm of operative correction of training loads by indicators of heart beats rate in training process, depending on orientation and intensity of loads’ physiological influence on judo wrestler. Conclusions: Telemetric on-line monitoring of sportsman’s heart beats rate and calculation of REI permit to objectively assess effectiveness of training’s construction and of micro-cycle in total and detect in due time the trend to development of over-loading and failure of adaptation.

  5. The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between levels of household firearm ownership, as measured directly and by a proxy—the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm—and age-adjusted firearm homicide rates at the state level. Methods. We conducted a negative binomial regression analysis of panel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems database on gun ownership and firearm homicide rates across all 50 states during 1981 to 2010. We determined fixed effects for year, accounted for clustering within states with generalized estimating equations, and controlled for potential state-level confounders. Results. Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%. Conclusions. We observed a robust correlation between higher levels of gun ownership and higher firearm homicide rates. Although we could not determine causation, we found that states with higher rates of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides. PMID:24028252

  6. A Multi-Channel Opto-Electronic Sensor to Accurately Monitor Heart Rate against Motion Artefact during Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alzahrani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the use of a multi-channel opto-electronic sensor (OEPS to effectively monitor critical physiological parameters whilst preventing motion artefact as increasingly demanded by personal healthcare. The aim of this work was to study how to capture the heart rate (HR efficiently through a well-constructed OEPS and a 3-axis accelerometer with wireless communication. A protocol was designed to incorporate sitting, standing, walking, running and cycling. The datasets collected from these activities were processed to elaborate sport physiological effects. t-test, Bland-Altman Agreement (BAA, and correlation to evaluate the performance of the OEPS were used against Polar and Mio-Alpha HR monitors. No differences in the HR were found between OEPS, and either Polar or Mio-Alpha (both p > 0.05; a strong correlation was found between Polar and OEPS (r: 0.96, p < 0.001; the bias of BAA 0.85 bpm, the standard deviation (SD 9.20 bpm, and the limits of agreement (LOA from −17.18 bpm to +18.88 bpm. For the Mio-Alpha and OEPS, a strong correlation was found (r: 0.96, p < 0.001; the bias of BAA 1.63 bpm, SD 8.62 bpm, LOA from −15.27 bpm to +18.58 bpm. These results demonstrate the OEPS to be capable of carrying out real time and remote monitoring of heart rate.

  7. Detection unit for measuring dose rate and/or dose of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.

    1987-01-01

    A detection unit is designed consisting of a scintillation detector of the NaI(Tl) type on which there is a correction filter. The filter is an aluminium case in which are placed alternately side by side lead and iron absorption layers. The sensitivity of the detector with this filter is constant for gamma energy within the range 50 to 1300 keV. (M.D.). 2 figs

  8. Monitoring failure rates of commercial implant brands; substantial equivalence in question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, Philippe; Becker, William; Becker, Burton

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the failure rates of two distinct dental implant systems in a clinical practice setting. Date of implant placement and loss were entered prospectively in a data registry system. Failure rates of two commercially pure titanium implants, one with a porous oxydized surface (POS) and the other with a chemically altered surface (CAS), were assessed using a quality control chart and survival analyses. A total of 860 POS and 759 CAS implants were placed. A warning of an increased failure rate of the CAS implant was identified by means of the quality control chart. Survival analyses indicated that the CAS implant failure rate was twice that of the POS implant (Hazard Ratio: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.33-3.28, P-value POS implant was associated with a non-significant 64% drop in the implant failure rate within less than a year (HR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.12-1.14; P-value POS implant and an 8% failure with the CAS implant appears inconsistent with the assumption of substantial equivalence. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. EnviroAtlas - Residential vacancy rate by Census Tract for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the vacancy rate for residential addresses for each Census Tract for each year from 2010-2014. Vacant buildings are included if...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Business vacancy rate by Census Tract for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the vacancy rate for business addresses for each Census Tract for each year from 2010-2014. Vacant buildings are included if they...

  11. NCHS - Infant and neonatal mortality rates: United States, 1915-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rates are infants (under 1 year) and neonatal (under 28 days) deaths per 1,000 live births. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data-visualization/mortality-trends/

  12. Rates of TBI-related Deaths by Age Group - United States, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Changes in the rates of TBI-related deaths vary depending on age. For persons 44 years of age and younger, TBI-related deaths decreased between the periods of...

  13. Rates of TBI-related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths - United States, 2001 – 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In general, total combined rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and deaths have increased over the past...

  14. The Connection between Foreign Direct Investment and Unemployment Rate in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Simionescu; Mirel-Daniel Simionescu

    2017-01-01

    Considering that foreign direct investment (FDI) is the principal mechanism for economic globalization, this study analyzes the relationship between FDI and unemployment rate in the US. A vector error correction model was built for checking the long-run and the short-term relationship between FDI inflows and the absolute variation of the unemployment rate in the current period compared to previous period. The quarterly data covered the period from 2000 to 2016. The empirical findings showed t...

  15. The United States Federal Monitoring and Assessment Centre and radiological database management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1979, a series of events occurring at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, resulted in severe core damage. Recognizing that state resources were insufficient to respond to the first major nuclear power plant emergency in the United States, the State of Pennsylvania asked the Federal Government for assistance. The United States Government undertook the preparation of a plan, which would co-ordinate all federal assets. The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) assigned unique responsibilities and authorities for responding to domestic radiological emergencies to each of 12 different federal agencies which form the FRERP. The overall data collection, analysis, and processing procedures within the FRMAC are overviewed. (author)

  16. Simultaneous minimizing monitor units and number of segments without leaf end abutment for segmental intensity modulated radiation therapy delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaile; Dai Jianrong; Ma Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Leaf end abutment is seldom studied when delivering segmental intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields. We developed an efficient leaf sequencing method to eliminate leaf end abutment for segmental IMRT delivery. Our method uses simple matrix and sorting operations to obtain a solution that simultaneously minimizes total monitor units and number of segments without leaf end abutment between segments. We implemented and demonstrated our method for multiple clinical cases. We compared the results of our method with the results from exhaustive search method. We found that our solution without leaf end abutment produced equivalent results to the unconstrained solutions in terms of minimum total monitor units and minimum number of leaf segments. We conclude that the leaf end abutment fields can be avoided without affecting the efficiency of segmental IMRT delivery. The major strength of our method is its simplicity and high computing speed. This potentially provides a useful means for generating segmental IMRT fields that require high spatial resolution or complex intensity distributions

  17. Birth and fertility rates for states by Hispanic origin subgroups: United States, 1990 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Paul D; Mathews, T J

    2006-05-01

    This report presents U.S. and State-level data on births, birth rates, and fertility rates for Hispanic origin subgroups for 1990 and 2000. Data for non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks are provided for comparison. Data are presented in detailed tables, graphs, and maps. Between 1990 and 2000, the total U.S. Hispanic population increased 58 percent, from 22,353,999 to 35,305,818. Over the same period of time, births to Hispanic mothers increased 37 percent, from 595,073 to 815,868. The smaller increases in births compared with the population resulted in a falling birth rate among Hispanic mothers (26.7 in 1990 to 23.1 births per 1,000 total population in 2000). Birth and fertility rates for Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban mothers all fell between 1990 and 2000. Among the Hispanic subgroups, fertility rates in 2000 ranged from 105.1 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years for Mexican women to 49.3 for Cuban women. Differences in fertility exist not only between Hispanic subgroups but also within groups among States. For example, total fertility rates for Puerto Rican mothers, which estimates the number of children a group of 1,000 women will have in their lifetime, ranged in 2000 from 1,616.5 in New York to 2,403.0 in Pennsylvania.

  18. Warwickshire coalfield second monitoring report working paper No. 8. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, K.; Roberts, P. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    The second in a series of reports providing information relevant to the proposal to deep-mine coal in mid-Warwickshire, United Kingdom. Emphasis is placed upon an updating of energy policy, a progress report on the Belvoir and Selby developments, the impact of coal mining on local income and expenditure, the experience of new mining developments in the West Midlands, the further examination of waste disposal and a detailed look at the economic impacts of coal mining.

  19. Acute effects of dynamic exercises on the relationship between the motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Wages, Nathan P

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of concentric versus eccentric exercise on motor control strategies. Fifteen men performed six sets of 10 repetitions of maximal concentric exercises or eccentric isokinetic exercises with their dominant elbow flexors on separate experimental visits. Before and after the exercise, maximal strength testing and submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions (40% of the maximal force) were performed. Both exercise conditions caused significant strength loss in the elbow flexors, but the loss was greater following the eccentric exercise (t=2.401, P=.031). The surface electromyographic signals obtained from the submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions were decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. For each submaximal trapezoid isometric contraction, the relationship between the average motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold was examined using linear regression analysis. In contrast to the concentric exercise, which did not cause significant changes in the mean linear slope coefficient and y-intercept of the linear regression line, the eccentric exercise resulted in a lower mean linear slope and an increased mean y-intercept, thereby indicating that increasing the firing rates of low-threshold motor units may be more important than recruiting high-threshold motor units to compensate for eccentric exercise-induced strength loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The death of marriage? The effects of new forms of legal recognition on marriage rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillender, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    Some conservative groups argue that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the value of marriage to opposite-sex couples. This article examines how changes in U.S. legal recognition laws occurring between 1995 and 2010 designed to include same-sex couples have altered marriage rates in the United States. Using a difference-in-differences strategy that compares how marriage rates change after legal recognition in U.S. states that alter legal recognition versus states that do not, I find no evidence that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the opposite-sex marriage rate. Although the opposite-sex marriage rate is unaffected by same-sex couples marrying, it decreases when domestic partnerships are available to opposite-sex couples.