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Sample records for monitor space weather

  1. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  2. Space weather monitoring with neutron monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, Christian [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Space Weather affects many areas of the modern society, advance knowledge about space weather events is important to protect personnel and infrastructure. Cosmic Rays (CR) measurements by ground-based Neutron Monitors are influenced by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME), the intensity of the ever present Cosmic Rays is reduced in a Forbush decrease (Fd). In the case of very energetic CMEs, the measured intensity can be significantly increased in a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE). By detecting the anisotropy of the CR environment, a CME can be detected hours before it arrives at Earth. During a GLE the high-energy particles from the Sun can be detected before the more abundant lower energy particles arrive at Earth, thus allowing to take protective measures. Since the beginning of the Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB) project, which has been started in 2008 with funding from the European Commission, real-time data from Neutron Monitors around the world has been made available through one web-portal. We have more than doubled the number of stations providing data since the start of the project to now over 30 stations. The effectiveness of the ALERT applications which are based on NMDB data has been shown by the recent GLE71. We present different applications through which the measurements and different data products are accessible.

  3. Space weather monitoring by groundbased means

    CERN Document Server

    Troshichev, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    This book demonstrates that the method, based on the ground polar cap magnetic observations is a reliable diagnosis of the solar wind energy coming into the magnetosphere Method for the uninterruptive monitoring of the magnetosphere state (i.e. space weather). It shows that the solar wind energy pumping power, can be described by the PC growth rate, thus, the magnetospheric substorms features are predetermined by the PC dynamics. Furthermore, it goes on to show that the beginning and ending of magnetic storms is predictable. The magnetic storm start only if the solar energy input into the magn

  4. Geospace monitoring for space weather research and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagatsuma Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geospace, a space surrounding the Earth, is one of the key area for space weather. Because geospace environment dynamically varies depending on the solar wind conditions. Many kinds of space assets are operating in geospace for practical purposes. Anomalies of space assets are sometimes happened because of space weather disturbances in geospace. Therefore, monitoring and forecasting of geospace environment is very important tasks for NICT's space weather research and development. To monitor and to improve forecasting model, fluxgate magnetometers and HF radars are operated by our laboratory, and its data are used for our research work, too. We also operate real-time data acquisition system for satellite data, such as DSCOVR, STEREO, and routinely received high energy particle data from Himawari-8. Based on these data, we are monitoring current condition of geomagnetic disturbances, and that of radiation belt. Using these data, we have developed empirical models for relativistic electron flux at GEO and inner magnetosphere. To provide userfriendly information , we are trying to develop individual spacecraft anomaly risk estimation tool based on combining models of space weather and those of spacecraft charging, Current status of geospace monitoring, forecasting, and research activities are introduced.

  5. Geospace monitoring for space weather research and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsuma, Tsutomu

    2017-10-01

    Geospace, a space surrounding the Earth, is one of the key area for space weather. Because geospace environment dynamically varies depending on the solar wind conditions. Many kinds of space assets are operating in geospace for practical purposes. Anomalies of space assets are sometimes happened because of space weather disturbances in geospace. Therefore, monitoring and forecasting of geospace environment is very important tasks for NICT's space weather research and development. To monitor and to improve forecasting model, fluxgate magnetometers and HF radars are operated by our laboratory, and its data are used for our research work, too. We also operate real-time data acquisition system for satellite data, such as DSCOVR, STEREO, and routinely received high energy particle data from Himawari-8. Based on these data, we are monitoring current condition of geomagnetic disturbances, and that of radiation belt. Using these data, we have developed empirical models for relativistic electron flux at GEO and inner magnetosphere. To provide userfriendly information , we are trying to develop individual spacecraft anomaly risk estimation tool based on combining models of space weather and those of spacecraft charging, Current status of geospace monitoring, forecasting, and research activities are introduced.

  6. Geodetic Space Weather Monitoring by means of Ionosphere Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The term space weather indicates physical processes and phenomena in space caused by radiation of energy mainly from the Sun. Manifestations of space weather are (1) variations of the Earth's magnetic field, (2) the polar lights in the northern and southern hemisphere, (3) variations within the ionosphere as part of the upper atmosphere characterized by the existence of free electrons and ions, (4) the solar wind, i.e. the permanent emission of electrons and photons, (5) the interplanetary magnetic field, and (6) electric currents, e.g. the van Allen radiation belt. It can be stated that ionosphere disturbances are often caused by so-called solar storms. A solar storm comprises solar events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which have different effects on the Earth. Solar flares may cause disturbances in positioning, navigation and communication. CMEs can effect severe disturbances and in extreme cases damages or even destructions of modern infrastructure. Examples are interruptions to satellite services including the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), communication systems, Earth observation and imaging systems or a potential failure of power networks. Currently the measurements of solar satellite missions such as STEREO and SOHO are used to forecast solar events. Besides these measurements the Earth's ionosphere plays another key role in monitoring the space weather, because it responses to solar storms with an increase of the electron density. Space-geodetic observation techniques, such as terrestrial GNSS, satellite altimetry, space-borne GPS (radio occultation), DORIS and VLBI provide valuable global information about the state of the ionosphere. Additionally geodesy has a long history and large experience in developing and using sophisticated analysis and combination techniques as well as empirical and physical modelling approaches. Consequently, geodesy is predestinated for strongly supporting space weather monitoring via

  7. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Geomagnetic Storm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture geomagnetic storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of geomagnetic storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during geomagnetic storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.

  8. GNSS monitoring of the ionosphere for Space Weather services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krankowski, A.; Sieradzki, R.; Zakharenkova, I. E.; Cherniak, I. V.

    2012-04-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) Ionosphere Working Group routinely provides the users global ionosphere maps (GIMs) of vertical total electron content (vTEC). The IGS GIMs are provided with spatial resolution of 5.0 degrees x 2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, respectively. The current temporal resolution is 2 hours, however, 1-hour maps are delivered as a pilot project. There are three types IGS GIMs: the final, rapid and predicted. The latencies of the IGS ionospheric final and rapid products are 10 days and 1 day, respectively. The predicted GIMs are generated for 1 and 2 days in advance. There are four IGS Associate Analysis Centres (IAACs) that provide ionosphere maps computed with independent methodologies using GNSS data. These maps are uploaded to the IGS Ionosphere Combination and Validation Center at the GRL/UWM (Geodynamics Research Laboratory of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland) that produces the IGS official ionospheric products, which are published online via ftp and www. On the other hand, the increasing number of permanently tracking GNSS stations near the North Geomagnetic Pole allow for using satellite observations to detect the ionospheric disturbances at high latitudes with even higher spatial resolution. In the space weather service developed at GRL/UWM, the data from the Arctic stations belonging to IGS/EPN/POLENET networks were used to study TEC fluctuations and scintillations. Since the beginning of 2011, a near real-time service presenting the conditions in the ionosphere have been operational at GRL/UWM www site. The rate of TEC index (ROTI) expressed in TECU/min is used as a measure of TEC fluctuations. The service provides 2-hour maps of the TEC variability. In addition, for each day the daily map of the ionospheric fluctuations as a function geomagnetic local time is also created. This presentation shows the architecture, algorithms, performance and future developments of the IGS GIMs and this new space

  9. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The awareness of potentially significant impacts of space weather on spaceand ground ]based technological systems has generated a strong desire in many sectors of government and industry to effectively transform knowledge and understanding of the variable space environment into useful tools and applications for use by those entities responsible for systems that may be vulnerable to space weather impacts. Essentially, effectively transitioning science knowledge to useful applications relevant to space weather has become important. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective, and how in the current environment those can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  10. The USGS Geomagnetism Program and its role in Space-Weather Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Finn, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic storms result from the dynamic interaction of the solar wind with the coupled magnetospheric-ionospheric system. Large storms represent a potential hazard for the activities and infrastructure of a modern, technologically based society [Baker et al., 2008]; they can cause the loss of radio communications, reduce the accuracy of global positioning systems, damage satellite electronics and affect satellite operations, increase pipeline corrosion, and induce voltage surges in electric power grids, causing blackouts. So while space weather starts with the Sun and is driven by the solar wind, it is on, or just above, the surface of the Earth that the practical effects of space weather are realized. Therefore, ground-based sensor networks, including magnetic observatories [Love, 2008], play an important role in space weather monitoring.

  11. Space Weather Products and Tools Used in Auroral Monitoring and Forecasting at CCMC/SWRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Key points discussed in this chapter are (1) the importance of aurora research to scientific advances and space weather applications, (2) space weather products at CCMC that are relevant to aurora monitoring and forecasting, and (3) the need for more effort from the whole community to achieve a better and long-lead-time forecast of auroral activity. Aurora, as manifestations of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling that occurs in a region of space that is relatively easy to access for sounding rockets, satellites, and other types of observational platforms, serves as a natural laboratory for studying the underlying physics of the complex system. From a space weather application perspective, auroras can cause surface charging of technological assets passing through the region, result in scintillation effects affecting communication and navigation, and cause radar cluttering that hinders military and civilian applications. Indirectly, an aurora and its currents can induce geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) on the ground, which poses major concerns for the wellbeing and operation of power grids, particularly during periods of intense geomagnetic activity. In addition, accurate auroral forecasting is desired for auroral tourism. In this chapter, we first review some of the existing auroral models and discuss past validation efforts. Such efforts are crucial in transitioning a model(s) from research to operations and for further model improvement and development that also benefits scientific endeavors. Then we will focus on products and tools that are used for auroral monitoring and forecasting at the Space Weather Research Center (SWRC). As part of the CCMC (Community Coordinated Modeling Center), SWRC has been providing space weather services since 2010.

  12. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  13. Space Weather in Operation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Space Weather in Operations” effort will provide on-demand and near-real time space weather event information to the Data Access Toolkit (DAT), which is the...

  14. Monitoring Effective Doses Received By Air Crews With A Space Weather Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, P.

    To fulfil new requirements of the European Community concerning monitoring of effective doses received by air crews, the French Aviation Authority has developed an operational system called Sievert. The SIEVERT system is analysed as an exam- ple of Space Weather application. One of its characteristics is to calculate the dose received on-board each flight on the basis of the specific and detailled flight given by companies. Operational models will be used. As input to the models, the system needs monitoring of galactic cosmic rays and of solar flare particles. The French neu- tron monitors located in Kerguelen Islands (South Indian Ocean) and Terre Adélie (Antarctica) will be used for this purpose. Particular attention will be devoted to evo- lution of the system in conjunction with new measurements available in the frame of a permanent validation process.

  15. Data Products From Particle Detectors On-Board NOAA's Newest Space Weather Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, B. T.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Onsager, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's newest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-16, was launched on 19 November 2016. Instrumentation on-board GOES-16 includes the new Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS), which has been collecting data since 8 January 2017. SEISS is composed of five magnetospheric particle sensor units: an electrostatic analyzer for measuring 30 eV - 30 keV ions and electrons (MPS-LO), a high energy particle sensor (MPS-HI) that measures keV to MeV electrons and protons, east and west facing Solar and Galactic Proton Sensor (SGPS) units with 13 differential channels between 1-500 MeV, and an Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) that measures 30 species of heavy ions (He-Ni) in five energy bands in the 10-200 MeV/nuc range. Measurement of low energy magnetospheric particles by MPS-LO and heavy ions by EHIS are new capabilities not previously flown on the GOES system. Real-time data from GOES-16 will support space weather monitoring and first-principles space weather modeling by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC). Space weather level 2+ data products under development at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) include the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) Event Detection algorithm. Legacy components of the SEP event detection algorithm (currently produced by SWPC) include the Solar Radiation Storm Scales. New components will include, e.g., event fluences. New level 2+ data products also include the SEP event Linear Energy Transfer (LET) Algorithm, for transforming energy spectra from EHIS into LET spectra, and the Density and Temperature Moments and Spacecraft Charging algorithm. The moments and charging algorithm identifies electron and ion signatures of spacecraft surface (frame) charging in the MPS-LO fluxes. Densities and temperatures from MPS-LO will also be used to support a magnetopause crossing detection algorithm. The new data products will provide real-time indicators of potential radiation hazards for the satellite

  16. Solar weather monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hochedez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs, flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.

  17. Monitoring jonosfere i svemirskog vremena u Bosni i Hercegovini : Monitoring of ionosphere and space weather in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džana Horozović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zbog svoje disperzivne prirode, jonosfera uzrokuje kašnjenje koda, odnosno ubrzanje faze signala Globalnih navigacijskih satelitskih sistema - GNSS. Usprkos napretku metoda GNSS pozicioniranja, jonosferska refrakcija je još uvijek jedan od najvećih izvora pogrešaka geodetskog pozicioniranja i navigacije. Različiti fenomeni svemirskog vremena, kao: solarni vjetar, geomagnetna oluja, solarna radijacija, može oštetiti GNSS satelite, dalekovode i elektrodistributivnu mrežu, itd. Zato je važno ustanoviti metode istraživanja i monitoringa svemirskog vremena. Istraživanje jonosfere i svemirskog vremena je predmet ovog rada. Opisan je postupak konstruiranja SID (engl. sudden ionospheric disturbances – iznenadne jonosferske smetnje monitora. Analiza je pokazala da je jonosferska monitoring stanica u Sarajevu SRJV_ION 0436 sposobna otkriti pojačano zračenje. : Due to its dispersive nature, ionosphere causes a group delay or phase acceleration of the signals from Global navigation satellite systems - GNSS. Despite the progress of GNSS positioning methods, the ionospheric refraction is still one of the greatest source of the errors in the geodetic positioning and navigation. Different phenomenons oft he space weather: solar wind, geomagnetic storm, solar radiation, can damage GNSS, and electric power distribution networks but That is why it's important to establish research and monitoring methods of the space weather. The subject of this paper is the investigation of ionosphere and space weather. Procedure of constructing a SID (engl. Sudden ionospheric disturbances monitor station are described. The analysis showed that ionosphere monitoring station in Sarajevo, SRJV_ION 0436, was able to detect increased solar radiation.

  18. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  19. Remote sensing optical instrumentation for enhanced space weather monitoring from the L1 and L5 Lagrange points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Puschmann, K. G.; Luntama, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Space Situational Awareness Programme (SSA), ESA has initiated the assessment of two missions currently foreseen to be implemented to enable enhanced space weather monitoring. These missions utilize the positioning of satellites at the Lagrangian L1 and L5 points. These Phase 0 or Pre-Phase A mission studies are about to be completed and will thereby have soon passed the Mission Definition Review. Phase A studies are planned to start in 2017. The space weather monitoring system currently considers four remote sensing optical instruments and several in-situ instruments to analyse the Sun and the solar wind conditions, in order to provide early warnings of increased solar activity and to identify and mitigate potential threats to society and ground, airborne and space based infrastructure. The suggested optical instruments take heritage from ESA and NASA science missions like SOHO, STEREO and Solar Orbiter, but the instruments are foreseen to be optimized for operational space weather monitoring purposes with high reliability and robustness demands. The instruments are required to provide high quality measurements particularly during severe space weather events. The program intends to utilize the results of the on-going ESA instrument prototyping and technology development activities, and to initiate pre-developments of the operational space weather instruments to ensure the required maturity before the mission implementation.

  20. Space Weather Monitors -- Preparing to Distribute Scientific Devices and Classroom Materials Worldwide for the IHY 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, D. K.; Burress, B.

    2006-05-01

    Stanford's Solar Center, in conjunction with the Space, Telecommunications and Radioscience Laboratory and local educators, have developed inexpensive Space Weather Monitors that students around the world can use to track solar-induced changes to the Earth's ionosphere. Through the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) and the IHY Education and Public Outreach Program, our Monitors have been designated for deployment to 191 countries for the International Heliophysical Year, 2007. In partnership with Chabot Space and Science Center, we are designing and developing classroom and educator support materials to accompany distribution of the monitors worldwide. Earth's ionosphere reacts strongly to the intense x-ray and ultraviolet radiation released by the Sun during solar events and by lightning during thunderstorms. Students anywhere in the world can directly monitor and track these sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) by using a VLF radio receiver to monitor the signal strength from distant VLF transmitters and noting unusual changes as the waves bounce off the ionosphere. High school students "buy in" to the project by building their own antenna, a simple structure costing little and taking a couple hours to assemble. Data collection and analysis are handled by a local PC. Stanford is providing a centralized data repository where students and researchers can exchange and discuss data. Chabot Space & Science Center is an innovative teaching and learning center focusing on astronomy and the space sciences. Formed as a Joint Powers Agency with the City of Oakland (California), the Oakland Unified School District, the East Bay Regional Park District, and in collaboration with the Eastbay Astronomical Society, Chabot addresses the critical issue of broad access to the specialized information and facilities needed to improve K-12 science education and public science literacy. Up to 2,000 K-12 teachers annually take part in Chabot's professional

  1. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Operational Space Weather Monitoring Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichas, Markos; Gibbs, Mark; Harrison, Richard; Green, Lucie; Eastwood, Jonathan; Bentley, Bob; Bisi, Mario; Bogdanova, Yulia; Davies, Jackie; D'Arrigo, Paolo; Eyles, Chris; Fazakerley, Andrew; Hapgood, Mike; Jackson, David; Kataria, Dhiren; Monchieri, Emanuele; Windred, Phil

    2015-06-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) has carried out a study to investigate the possibilities for an operational space weather mission, in collaboration with the Met Office, RAL, MSSL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for 24/7 operational forecasting needs. We have focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 (Earth trailing) offers the greatest benefit for the earliest possible warning on hazardous SWE events and the most accurate SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to cover all UK Met Office/NOAA's users priorities for L5 using instruments with extensive UK/US heritage, consisting of: heliospheric imager, coronograph, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform and subsystems are based on extensive re-use from past Airbus Defence and Space spacecraft to minimize the development cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could be achieved by 2020, assuming Phase A kick-off in 2015-2016. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  2. Space Weather Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...

  3. The Space Weather Monitor Project: Bringing Hands-on Science to Students of the Developing World for the IHY2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, D. K.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Morrow, C.

    2006-08-01

    Stanford's Solar Center, Electrical Engineering Department, and local educators have developed inexpensive Space Weather Monitors that students around the world can use to track solar-induced changes to the Earth's ionosphere. Through the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) and the IHY Education and Public Outreach Program, our Monitors are being deployed to 191 countries for the International Heliophysical Year, 2007. In partnership with Chabot Space and Science Center, we are designing and developing classroom and educator support materials to accompany the distribution. Materials will be culturally sensitive and will be translated into the six official languages of the United Nations (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish). Monitors will be provided free of charge to developing nations and can be set up anywhere there is access to power.

  4. The Future of Ground Magnetometer Arrays in Support of Space Weather Monitoring and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Mark; Zesta, Eftyhia

    2017-11-01

    A community workshop was held in Greenbelt, Maryland, on 5-6 May 2016 to discuss recommendations for the future of ground magnetometer array research in space physics. The community reviewed findings contained in the 2016 Geospace Portfolio Review of the Geospace Section of the Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Science of the National Science Foundation and discussed the present state of ground magnetometer arrays and possible pathways for a more optimal, robust, and effective organization and scientific use of these ground arrays. This paper summarizes the report of that workshop to the National Science Foundation (Engebretson & Zesta, as well as conclusions from two follow-up meetings. It describes the current state of U.S.-funded ground magnetometer arrays and summarizes community recommendations for changes in both organizational and funding structures. It also outlines a variety of new and/or augmented regional and global data products and visualizations that can be facilitated by increased collaboration among arrays. Such products will enhance the value of ground-based magnetometer data to the community's effort for understanding of Earth's space environment and space weather effects.

  5. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  6. Radio frequency diagnostics on board of Cubesat as a tool for planetary Space Weather monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Morawski, M.; Szewczyk, T.

    2014-04-01

    CubeSat pico-satellite standard was developed recently to allow easy access to space for projects with limited funds. Due to relatively cheap yet professional development process, CubeSats have also great educational impact. This allows the students to learn about all crucial aspects of space engineering and project management. Since all the basic steps for developing CubeSat are similar to those performed on bigger satellites (i.e. designing, testing, operating in space), this gives possibility to develop all the necessary skills and experience for future work at space industries. Space Research Center, together with its collaborators from University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn and others, would like to design and build double unit CubeSat as an opportunity to perform scientific experiments in space together with technological demonstrators of subsystems. In order to monitor the Earth's and planetary space environment and obtain a much more complete picture of magnetosphere and ionosphere coupling and particularly waves-particle interaction in this system than those available hitherto new mission of clustered Cubesat mission can be propose. Moreover to enhance our understanding of the rich plasma physical processes that drive the Solar Terrestrial space environment, we need to increase our ability to perform multi-point measurements by means of different sensors. Therefore, new technologies radio frequency radio analyser RFA instrument will gave the possibility for diagnostics 3D electric field component (spectra and wave forms) with extremely high time resolution. Additional technological challenges regarding size, computational power and energy constraints are imposed by the design of CubeSat.

  7. Vodcasting Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Erickson, P. J.; Needles, M.

    2009-01-01

    The topic of space weather is the subject of a series of vodcasts (video podcasts) produced by MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) and Loch Ness Productions (Groton, MA). This paper discusses the production and distribution of the series via Webcast, Youtube, and other avenues. It also presents preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness and outreach of the project through feedback from both formal and information education venues. The vodcast series is linked to the NASA Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology project award "Multi-Instrument Investigation of Inner-Magnetospheric/Ionosphere Disturbances.” It is being carried out by Principal Investigator Dr. John Foster, under the auspices of NASA Grant # NNX06AB86G. The research involves using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) observations to study the location, extent, and duration of perturbations within stormtime ionospheric electric fields at mid- to low latitudes. It combines ground-based global positioning system (GPS) TEC data, incoherent scatter radar measurements of the mid-latitude ionospheric state, and DMSP satellite observations to characterize conditions which lead to severe low-latitude ionospheric perturbations. Each vodcast episode covers a certain aspect of space weather and the research program.

  8. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  9. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  10. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  11. Space weather monitoring and forecasting in South America: products from the user requests to the development of regional magnetic indices and GNSS vertical error maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; Souza, Jonas; Mendes, Odim; Batista, Inez S.; SantAnna, Nilson; Gatto, Rubens; Costa, D. Joaquim

    On August 2007 the National Institute for Space Research started a task force to develop and operate a space weather program, which is kwon by the acronyms Embrace that stands for the Portuguese statement “Estudo e Monitoramento BRAasileiro de Clima Espacial” Program (Brazilian Space Weather Study and Monitoring program). The main purpose of the Embrace Program is to monitor the space climate and weather from sun, interplanetary space, magnetosphere and ionosphere-atmosphere, and to provide useful information to space related communities, technological, industrial and academic areas. Since then we have being visiting several different space weather costumers and we have host two workshops of Brazilian space weather users at the Embrace facilities. From the inputs and requests collected from the users the Embrace Program decided to monitored several physical parameters of the sun-earth environment through a large ground base network of scientific sensors and under collaboration with space weather centers partners. Most of these physical parameters are daily published on the Brazilian space weather program web portal, related to the entire network sensors available. A comprehensive data bank and an interface layer are under development to allow an easy and direct access to the useful information. Nowadays, the users will count on products derived from a GNSS monitor network that covers most of the South American territory; a digisonde network that monitors the ionospheric profiles in two equatorial sites and in one low latitude site; several solar radio telescopes to monitor solar activity, and a magnetometer network, besides a global ionospheric physical model. Regarding outreach, we publish a daily bulletin in Portuguese with the status of the space weather environment on the Sun, in the Interplanetary Medium and close to the Earth. Since December 2011, all these activities are carried out at the Embrace Headquarter, a building located at the INPE's main campus

  12. Space Weather Research in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, A. A.

    DVIN for ASEC (Data Visualization interactive Network for Aragats Space Environmental Center) is product for accessing and analysis the on-line data from Solar Monitors located at high altitude research station on Mt. Aragats in Armenia. Data from ASEC monitors is used worldwide for scientific purposes and for monitoring of severe solar storms in progress. Alert service, based on the automatic analysis of variations of the different species of cosmic ray particles is available for subscribers. DVIN advantages: DVIN is strategically important as a scientific application to help develop space science and to foster global collaboration in forecasting potential hazards of solar storms. It precisely fits with the goals of the new evolving information society to provide long-term monitoring and collection of high quality scientific data, and enables adequate dialogue between scientists, decision makers, and civil society. The system is highly interactive and exceptional information is easily accessible online. Data can be monitored and analyzed for desired time spans in a fast and reliable manner. The ASEC activity is an example of a balance between the scientific independence of fundamental research and the needs of civil society. DVIN is also an example of how scientific institutions can apply the newest powerful methods of information technologies, such as multivariate data analysis, to their data and also how information technologies can provide convenient and reliable access to this data and to new knowledge for the world-wide scientific community. DVIN provides very wide possibilities for sharing data and sending warnings and alerts to scientists and other entities world-wide, which have fundamental and practical interest in knowing the space weather conditions.

  13. Space Weather Research: Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Choudhary, R. K.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Manoharan, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather, just like its meteorological counterpart, is of extreme importance when it comes to its impact on terrestrial near- and far-space environments. In recent years, space weather research has acquired an important place as a thrust area of research having implications both in space science and technology. The presence of satellites and other technological systems from different nations in near-Earth space necessitates that one must have a comprehensive understanding not only of the origin and evolution of space weather processes but also of their impact on technology and terrestrial upper atmosphere. To address this aspect, nations across the globe including India have been investing in research concerning Sun, solar processes and their evolution from solar interior into the interplanetary space, and their impact on Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In India, over the years, a substantial amount of work has been done in each of these areas by various agencies/institutions. In fact, India has been, and continues to be, at the forefront of space research and has ambitious future programs concerning these areas encompassing space weather. This review aims at providing a glimpse of this Indian perspective on space weather research to the reader and presenting an up-to-date status of the same.

  14. Real-time geomagnetic monitoring for space weather-related applications: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Finn, Carol A.

    2017-07-01

    An examination is made of opportunities and challenges for enhancing global, real-time geomagnetic monitoring that would be beneficial for a variety of operational projects. This enhancement in geomagnetic monitoring can be attained by expanding the geographic distribution of magnetometer stations, improving the quality of magnetometer data, increasing acquisition sampling rates, increasing the promptness of data transmission, and facilitating access to and use of the data. Progress will benefit from new partnerships to leverage existing capacities and harness multisector, cross-disciplinary, and international interests.

  15. In situ observations from STEREO/PLASTIC: a test for L5 space weather monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. C. Simunac

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Stream interaction regions (SIRs that corotate with the Sun (corotating interaction regions, or CIRs are known to cause recurrent geomagnetic storms. The Earth's L5 Lagrange point, separated from the Earth by 60 degrees in heliographic longitude, is a logical location for a solar wind monitor – nearly all SIRs/CIRs will be observed at L5 several days prior to their arrival at Earth. Because the Sun's heliographic equator is tilted about 7 degrees with respect to the ecliptic plane, the separation in heliographic latitude between L5 and Earth can be more than 5 degrees. In July 2008, during the period of minimal solar activity at the end of solar cycle 23, the two STEREO observatories were separated by about 60 degrees in longitude and more than 4 degrees in heliographic latitude. This time period affords a timely test for the practical application of a solar wind monitor at L5. We compare in situ observations from PLASTIC/AHEAD and PLASTIC/BEHIND, and report on how well the BEHIND data can be used as a forecasting tool for in situ conditions at the AHEAD spacecraft with the assumptions of ideal corotation and minimal source evolution. Preliminary results show the bulk proton parameters (density and bulk speed are not in quantitative agreement from one observatory to the next, but the qualitative profiles are similar.

  16. In situ observations from STEREO/PLASTIC: a test for L5 space weather monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. C. Simunac

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Stream interaction regions (SIRs that corotate with the Sun (corotating interaction regions, or CIRs are known to cause recurrent geomagnetic storms. The Earth's L5 Lagrange point, separated from the Earth by 60 degrees in heliographic longitude, is a logical location for a solar wind monitor – nearly all SIRs/CIRs will be observed at L5 several days prior to their arrival at Earth. Because the Sun's heliographic equator is tilted about 7 degrees with respect to the ecliptic plane, the separation in heliographic latitude between L5 and Earth can be more than 5 degrees. In July 2008, during the period of minimal solar activity at the end of solar cycle 23, the two STEREO observatories were separated by about 60 degrees in longitude and more than 4 degrees in heliographic latitude. This time period affords a timely test for the practical application of a solar wind monitor at L5. We compare in situ observations from PLASTIC/AHEAD and PLASTIC/BEHIND, and report on how well the BEHIND data can be used as a forecasting tool for in situ conditions at the AHEAD spacecraft with the assumptions of ideal corotation and minimal source evolution. Preliminary results show the bulk proton parameters (density and bulk speed are not in quantitative agreement from one observatory to the next, but the qualitative profiles are similar.

  17. Space Weather, Environment and Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...

  18. Optimized Strategies for Detecting Extrasolar Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Gregg

    2018-06-01

    Fully understanding the implications of space weather for the young solar system, as well as the wider population of planet-hosting stars, requires remote sensing of space weather in other stellar systems. Solar coronal mass ejections can be accompanied by bright radio bursts at low frequencies (typically measurement of the magnetic field strength of the planet, informing on whether the atmosphere of the planet can survive the intense magnetic activity of its host star. However, both stellar and planetary radio emission are highly variable and optimal strategies for detection of these emissions requires the capability to monitor 1000s of nearby stellar/planetary systems simultaneously. I will discuss optimized strategies for both ground and space-based experiments to take advantage of the highly variable nature of the radio emissions powered by extrasolar space weather to enable detection of stellar CMEs and planetary magnetospheres.

  19. Activities of NICT space weather project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Ken T.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Mamoru

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  20. Vodcasting space weather: The Space Weather FX vodcast series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins Petersen, C.; Erickson, P. J.

    2008-06-01

    The topic of space weather is the subject of a series of nine vodcasts (video podcasts) being created by MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, Massachusetts, USA) and Loch Ness Productions (Groton, Massachusetts, USA). This paper describes the project, its science and outreach goals, and introduces the principal participants.

  1. Space Weather Forecasting at IZMIRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidash, S. P.; Belov, A. V.; Abunina, M. A.; Abunin, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1998, the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) has had an operating heliogeophysical service—the Center for Space Weather Forecasts. This center transfers the results of basic research in solar-terrestrial physics into daily forecasting of various space weather parameters for various lead times. The forecasts are promptly available to interested consumers. This article describes the center and the main types of forecasts it provides: solar and geomagnetic activity, magnetospheric electron fluxes, and probabilities of proton increases. The challenges associated with the forecasting of effects of coronal mass ejections and coronal holes are discussed. Verification data are provided for the center's forecasts.

  2. Anthropogenic Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, T. I.; Baker, D. N.; Balogh, A.; Erickson, P. J.; Huba, J. D.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2017-11-01

    Anthropogenic effects on the space environment started in the late 19th century and reached their peak in the 1960s when high-altitude nuclear explosions were carried out by the USA and the Soviet Union. These explosions created artificial radiation belts near Earth that resulted in major damages to several satellites. Another, unexpected impact of the high-altitude nuclear tests was the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) that can have devastating effects over a large geographic area (as large as the continental United States). Other anthropogenic impacts on the space environment include chemical release experiments, high-frequency wave heating of the ionosphere and the interaction of VLF waves with the radiation belts. This paper reviews the fundamental physical process behind these phenomena and discusses the observations of their impacts.

  3. Global Space Weather Observational Network: Challenges and China's Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    To understand space weather physical processes and predict space weather accurately, global space-borne and ground-based space weather observational network, making simultaneous observations from the Sun to geo-space (magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere), plays an essential role. In this talk, we will present the advances of the Chinese space weather science missions, including the ASO-S (Advanced Space-borne Solar Observatory), MIT (Magnetosphere - Ionosphere- Thermosphere Coupling Exploration), and the ESA-China joint space weather science mission SMILE (Solar wind - Magnetosphere - Ionosphere Link Explore), a new mission to image the magnetosphere. Compared to satellites, ground-based monitors are cheap, convenient, and provide continuous real-time data. We will also introduce the Chinese Meridian Project (CMP), a ground-based program fully utilizing the geographic location of the Chinese landmass to monitor the geo-space environment. CMP is just one arm of a larger program that Chinese scientists are proposing to the international community. The International Meridian Circle Program (IMCP) for space weather hopes to connect chains of ground-based monitors at the longitudinal meridians 120 deg E and 60 deg W. IMCP takes advantage of the fact that these meridians already have the most monitors of any on Earth, with monitors in Russia, Australia, Brazil, the United States, Canada, and other countries. This data will greatly enhance the ability of scientists to monitor and predict the space weather worldwide.

  4. Looking toward to the next-generation space weather forecast system. Comments former a former space weather forecaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Fumihiko

    1999-01-01

    In the 21st century, man's space-based activities will increase significantly and many kinds of space utilization technologies will assume a vital role in the infrastructure, creating new businesses, securing the global environment, contributing much to human welfare in the world. Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been contributing to the safety of human activity in space and to the further understanding of the solar terrestrial environment through the study of space weather, including the upper atmosphere, magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and the sun. The next-generation Space Weather Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS) for future space activities based on the present international space weather forecasting system is introduced in this paper. (author)

  5. Communicating space weather to policymakers and the wider public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Bárbara

    2014-05-01

    As a natural hazard, space weather has the potential to affect space- and ground-based technological systems and cause harm to human health. As such, it is important to properly communicate this topic to policymakers and the general public alike, informing them (without being unnecessarily alarmist) about the potential impact of space-weather phenomena and how these can be monitored and mitigated. On the other hand, space weather is related to interesting phenomena on the Sun such as coronal-mass ejections, and incorporates one of the most beautiful displays in the Earth and its nearby space environment: aurora. These exciting and fascinating aspects of space weather should be cultivated when communicating this topic to the wider public, particularly to younger audiences. Researchers have a key role to play in communicating space weather to both policymakers and the wider public. Space scientists should have an active role in informing policy decisions on space-weather monitoring and forecasting, for example. And they can exercise their communication skills by talking about space weather to school children and the public in general. This presentation will focus on ways to communicate space weather to wider audiences, particularly policymakers. It will also address the role researchers can play in this activity to help bridge the gap between the space science community and the public.

  6. Space Weather: The Solar Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenn Rainer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The term space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that can affect human life and health. Our modern hi-tech society has become increasingly vulnerable to disturbances from outside the Earth system, in particular to those initiated by explosive events on the Sun: Flares release flashes of radiation that can heat up the terrestrial atmosphere such that satellites are slowed down and drop into lower orbits, solar energetic particles accelerated to near-relativistic energies may endanger astronauts traveling through interplanetary space, and coronal mass ejections are gigantic clouds of ionized gas ejected into interplanetary space that after a few hours or days may hit the Earth and cause geomagnetic storms. In this review, I describe the several chains of actions originating in our parent star, the Sun, that affect Earth, with particular attention to the solar phenomena and the subsequent effects in interplanetary space.

  7. Space Weather: The Solar Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenn, Rainer

    2006-08-01

    The term space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that can affect human life and health. Our modern hi-tech society has become increasingly vulnerable to disturbances from outside the Earth system, in particular to those initiated by explosive events on the Sun: Flares release flashes of radiation that can heat up the terrestrial atmosphere such that satellites are slowed down and drop into lower orbits, solar energetic particles accelerated to near-relativistic energies may endanger astronauts traveling through interplanetary space, and coronal mass ejections are gigantic clouds of ionized gas ejected into interplanetary space that after a few hours or days may hit the Earth and cause geomagnetic storms. In this review, I describe the several chains of actions originating in our parent star, the Sun, that affect Earth, with particular attention to the solar phenomena and the subsequent effects in interplanetary space.

  8. Recent Activities on the Embrace Space Weather Regional Warning Center: the New Space Weather Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dal Lago, Alisson; Mendes, Odim; Batista, Inez S.; SantAnna, Nilson; Gatto, Rubens; Takahashi, Hisao; Costa, D. Joaquim; Banik Padua, Marcelo; Campos Velho, Haroldo

    2016-07-01

    On August 2007 the National Institute for Space Research started a task force to develop and operate a space weather program, which is known by the acronyms Embrace that stands for the Portuguese statement "Estudo e Monitoramento BRAasileiro de Clima Espacial" Program (Brazilian Space Weather Study and Monitoring program). The mission of the Embrace/INPE program is to monitor the Solar-Terrestrial environment, the magnetosphere, the upper atmosphere and the ground induced currents to prevent effects on technological and economic activities. The Embrace/INPE system monitors the physical parameters of the Sun-Earth environment, such as Active Regions (AR) in the Sun and solar radiation by using radio telescope, Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) information by satellite and ground-based cosmic ray monitoring, geomagnetic activity by the magnetometer network, and ionospheric disturbance by ionospheric sounders and using data collected by four GPS receiver network, geomagnetic activity by a magnetometer network, and provides a forecasting for Total Electronic Content (TEC) - 24 hours ahead - using a version of the SUPIM model which assimilates the two latter data using nudging approach. Most of these physical parameters are daily published on the Brazilian space weather program web portal, related to the entire network sensors available. Regarding outreach, it has being published a daily bulletin in Portuguese and English with the status of the space weather environment on the Sun, the Interplanetary Medium and close to the Earth. Since December 2011, all these activities are carried out at the Embrace Headquarter, a building located at the INPE's main campus. Recently, a comprehensive data bank and an interface layer are under commissioning to allow an easy and direct access to all the space weather data collected by Embrace through the Embrace web Portal. The information being released encompasses data from: (a) the Embrace Digisonde Network (Embrace DigiNet) that monitors

  9. CCMC: bringing space weather awareness to the next generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulaki, A.; Muglach, K.; Zheng, Y.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Rastaetter, L.; Mendoza, A. M. M.; Thompson, B. J.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Pembroke, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Making space weather an element of core education is critical for the future of the young field of space weather. Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is an interagency partnership established to aid the transition of modern space science models into space weather forecasting while supporting space science research. Additionally, over the past ten years it has established itself as a global space science education resource supporting undergraduate and graduate education and research, and spreading space weather awareness worldwide. A unique combination of assets, capabilities and close ties to the scientific and educational communities enable our small group to serve as a hub for rising generations of young space scientists and engineers. CCMC offers a variety of educational tools and resources publicly available online and providing access to the largest collection of modern space science models developed by the international research community. CCMC has revolutionized the way these simulations are utilized in classrooms settings, student projects, and scientific labs. Every year, this online system serves hundreds of students, educators and researchers worldwide. Another major CCMC asset is an expert space weather prototyping team primarily serving NASA's interplanetary space weather needs. Capitalizing on its unique capabilities and experiences, the team also provides in-depth space weather training to hundreds of students and professionals. One training module offers undergraduates an opportunity to actively engage in real-time space weather monitoring, analysis, forecasting, tools development and research, eventually serving remotely as NASA space weather forecasters. In yet another project, CCMC is collaborating with Hayden Planetarium and Linkoping University on creating a visualization platform for planetariums (and classrooms) to provide simulations of dynamic processes in the large domain stretching from the solar corona to the Earth's upper

  10. Socio-Economic Impacts of Space Weather and User Needs for Space Weather Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worman, S. L.; Taylor, S. M.; Onsager, T. G.; Adkins, J. E.; Baker, D. N.; Forbes, K. F.

    2017-12-01

    The 2015 National Space Weather Strategy and Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) details the activities, outcomes, and timelines to build a "Space Weather Ready Nation." NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center and Abt Associates are working together on two SWAP initiatives: (1) identifying, describing, and quantifying the socio-economic impacts of moderate and severe space weather; and (2) outreach to engineers and operators to better understand user requirements for space weather products and services. Both studies cover four technological sectors (electric power, commercial aviation, satellites, and GNSS users) and rely heavily on industry input. Findings from both studies are essential for decreasing vulnerabilities and enhancing preparedness.

  11. GEO Satellites as Space Weather Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0161 GEO Satellites as Space Weather Sensors Kerri Cahoy MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 77 MASSACHUSETTS AVE CAMBRIDGE ... Cambridge , MA 02139 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AF Office of Scientific...Lohmeyer  and  Cahoy,  2013;   Lohmeyer,  et  al.,  2015].  From  the   statistical  analysis,  we  identified  that

  12. Towards a National Space Weather Predictive Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N. J.; Ryschkewitsch, M. G.; Merkin, V. G.; Stephens, G. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Barnes, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Kelly, M. A.; Berger, T. E.; Bonadonna, L. C. M. F.; Hesse, M.; Sharma, S.

    2015-12-01

    National needs in the area of space weather informational and predictive tools are growing rapidly. Adverse conditions in the space environment can cause disruption of satellite operations, communications, navigation, and electric power distribution grids, leading to a variety of socio-economic losses and impacts on our security. Future space exploration and most modern human endeavors will require major advances in physical understanding and improved transition of space research to operations. At present, only a small fraction of the latest research and development results from NASA, NOAA, NSF and DoD investments are being used to improve space weather forecasting and to develop operational tools. The power of modern research and space weather model development needs to be better utilized to enable comprehensive, timely, and accurate operational space weather tools. The mere production of space weather information is not sufficient to address the needs of those who are affected by space weather. A coordinated effort is required to support research-to-applications transition efforts and to develop the tools required those who rely on this information. In this presentation we will review the space weather system developed for the Van Allen Probes mission, together with other datasets, tools and models that have resulted from research by scientists at JHU/APL. We will look at how these, and results from future missions such as Solar Probe Plus, could be applied to support space weather applications in coordination with other community assets and capabilities.

  13. Space weather effects and commerical airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.; Bentley, R.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.

    Space Weather (SW) phenomena can effect many areas of commercial airline operations including avionics, communications and GPS navigation systems. Of particular importance at present is the recently introduced EU legislation requiring the monitoring of aircrew radiation exposure, including any variations at aircraft altitudes due to solar activity. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory is collaborating with Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory on a 3- year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether computer models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It also aims to determine whether solar or geomagnetic activity can cause significant modifications to the doses. This presentation will begin by showing some of the preliminary results obtained so far. As an example, we present a comparison of flight doses measured following the 14t h July 2000 X - class flare that was accompanied by a major Solar Particle Event (SPE). The results highlight the importance of a range of external factors that can strongly influence how SPEs may effect the measured dose at aircraft altitudes. At present, any SPE contributions in the airlines' dose records can only be poorly estimated retrospectively. Ideally, it would be better to try to avoid operating during these possibly significant radiation - enhancing events by utilising SW information (alerts, warnings, etc.). However, doing so poses many difficult operational problems for such a heavily regulated international industry, in terms of safety, security and procedures. Therefore, the use of timely SW information, which is still very unreliable, in a similar manner to terrestrial weather will require agreement from the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and International Air Transport Association (IATA) to Air Traffic Control and Aviation Regulatory Authority's. This

  14. Pushing the Envelope of Extreme Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme Space Weather events are large solar flares or geomagnetic storms, which can cost billions of dollars to recover from. We have few examples of such events; the Carrington Event (the solar superstorm) is one of the few that had superlatives in three categories: size of solar flare, drop in Dst, and amplitude of aa. Kepler observations show that stars similar to the Sun can have flares releasing millions of times more energy than an X-class flare. These flares and the accompanying coronal mass ejections could strongly affect the atmosphere surrounding a planet. What level of solar activity would be necessary to strongly affect the atmosphere of the Earth? Can we map out the envelope of space weather along the evolution of the Sun? What would space weather look like if the Sun stopped producing a magnetic field? To what extreme should Space Weather go? These are the extremes of Space Weather explored in this talk.

  15. Australian Space Weather Services - Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, P.; Patterson, G.; Cole, D. G.; Yuile, C.; Wang, Y.-J.; Tripathi, Y.; Marshall, R.; Thompson, R.; Phelan, P.

    HF radio and magnetic field changes were the first space weather problems experienced. Worldwide magnetometer and ionosonde networks were developed to better understand the problems and advance practical advice. The Ionospheric Predictions Service (IPS) was formed to co-ordinate Australian ionospheric monitoring and advise HF communicators and other groups interested in the effects of solar activity. Although customer numbers and sophistication have changed, service demand has remained steady. Currently, IPS distributes real-time services for HF radio, magnetic and space customers through the web (http://www.ips.gov.au) in addition to other conventional services. The Web HF services are based on an empirical ionospheric model updated hourly using ionosonde data. Magnetic services use similar, empirical, data-driven models

  16. Progress in space weather predictions and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstedt, H.

    The methods of today's predictions of space weather and effects are so much more advanced and yesterday's statistical methods are now replaced by integrated knowledge-based neuro-computing models and MHD methods. Within the ESA Space Weather Programme Study a real-time forecast service has been developed for space weather and effects. This prototype is now being implemented for specific users. Today's applications are not only so many more but also so much more advanced and user-oriented. A scientist needs real-time predictions of a global index as input for an MHD model calculating the radiation dose for EVAs. A power company system operator needs a prediction of the local value of a geomagnetically induced current. A science tourist needs to know whether or not aurora will occur. Soon we might even be able to predict the tropospheric climate changes and weather caused by the space weather.

  17. Influence of space weather on human organism at different geo-latitudes: telecommunication helio-medical monitoring "Geliomed" 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragulskaya, Maria; Obridko, Vladimir; Samsonov, Sergey; Vitaliy, Vishnevskey; Grigoryev, Pavel; Valeriy, Pipin; Khabarova, Olga

    We discuss the results of the long-term telecommunicative biogeophysical monitoring "Geliomed" (2003-2010). The purpose is to explore the effects of spatial and temporal variations in space weather and climatic factors on the human health state. The monitoring is carried out simultaneously at the different geographical areas that covers the different latitudes. The project developed in the joint collaboration the Ukrainian National Academy of Science and the Russian Academy of Science. The experiment carried out simultaneously in Moscow, Yakutsk, Kiev and Simferopol. The principal components of the experiment can be summarized as follows: 1. Equipments and data gathering methods are the same for all the scientific cen-ters which are involved in experiment. Research centers working with the same equipment and using the same protocols with on-line registration of current data on same portal server (http//geliomed.immsp.kiev.ua) 2. The groups of patients involved in the program are kept the same for the whole observational period of time. 3. The daily registered parameters in-clude: psycho-emotional tests and 1-st lead ECG (contain 25 000 measurements for the whole period), arterial pressure (100 000 measurements), variability cardiac contraction (25000 mea-surements), electric conduction of bioactive points on skin (more than 500 000 measurements for the whole period ). 4. The every patient in the monitoring group is examined at the 4 functional states. Registration is done at rest, after standard psychology test, Roufiet test, and after 10 min relax. 5. The data of the ECG measurements are analyzed in the phase space constructed from the signal and its derivative. 6. The results time series were compared with daily values of space weather and geomagnetic parameters. Results. In the all monitoring centers all the patients involved in the monitoring show the same type of changes in the cardiac activity parameters during an isolated magnetic storm. Such a change of the

  18. Community Coordinated Modeling Center: A Powerful Resource in Space Science and Space Weather Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulaki, A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Rastaetter, L.; MacNeice, P. J.; Shim, J. S.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Mendoza, A. M. M.; Zheng, Y.; Mullinix, R.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Pembroke, A. D.; Wiegand, C.

    2015-12-01

    Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a NASA affiliated interagency partnership with the primary goal of aiding the transition of modern space science models into space weather forecasting while supporting space science research. Additionally, over the past ten years it has established itself as a global space science education resource supporting undergraduate and graduate education and research, and spreading space weather awareness worldwide. A unique combination of assets, capabilities and close ties to the scientific and educational communities enable this small group to serve as a hub for raising generations of young space scientists and engineers. CCMC resources are publicly available online, providing unprecedented global access to the largest collection of modern space science models (developed by the international research community). CCMC has revolutionized the way simulations are utilized in classrooms settings, student projects, and scientific labs and serves hundreds of educators, students and researchers every year. Another major CCMC asset is an expert space weather prototyping team primarily serving NASA's interplanetary space weather needs. Capitalizing on its unrivaled capabilities and experiences, the team provides in-depth space weather training to students and professionals worldwide, and offers an amazing opportunity for undergraduates to engage in real-time space weather monitoring, analysis, forecasting and research. In-house development of state-of-the-art space weather tools and applications provides exciting opportunities to students majoring in computer science and computer engineering fields to intern with the software engineers at the CCMC while also learning about the space weather from the NASA scientists.

  19. Space weather and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Space weather has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Severe space weather can disrupt spacecraft, and on Earth can be the cause of power outages and power station failure. It also presents a radiation hazard for airline passengers and astronauts. These ""magnetic storms"" are most commonly caused by coronal mass ejections, or CMES, which are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun that can reach speeds of several thousand km/s. In this SpringerBrief, Space Weather and Coronal Mass Ejections, author Timothy Howard briefly introduces the coronal mass ejection, its sc

  20. Ionospheric research for space weather service support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawska, Iwona; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Dziak-Jankowska, Beata

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of the behavior of the ionosphere is very important for space weather services. A wide variety of ground based and satellite existing and future systems (communications, radar, surveillance, intelligence gathering, satellite operation, etc) is affected by the ionosphere. There are the needs for reliable and efficient support for such systems against natural hazard and minimalization of the risk failure. The joint research Project on the 'Ionospheric Weather' of IZMIRAN and SRC PAS is aimed to provide on-line the ionospheric parameters characterizing the space weather in the ionosphere. It is devoted to science, techniques and to more application oriented areas of ionospheric investigation in order to support space weather services. The studies based on data mining philosophy increasing the knowledge of ionospheric physical properties, modelling capabilities and gain applications of various procedures in ionospheric monitoring and forecasting were concerned. In the framework of the joint Project the novel techniques for data analysis, the original system of the ionospheric disturbance indices and their implementation for the ionosphere and the ionospheric radio wave propagation are developed since 1997. Data of ionosonde measurements and results of their forecasting for the ionospheric observatories network, the regional maps and global ionospheric maps of total electron content from the navigational satellite system (GNSS) observations, the global maps of the F2 layer peak parameters (foF2, hmF2) and W-index of the ionospheric variability are provided at the web pages of SRC PAS and IZMIRAN. The data processing systems include analysis and forecast of geomagnetic indices ap and kp and new eta index applied for the ionosphere forecasting. For the first time in the world the new products of the W-index maps analysis are provided in Catalogues of the ionospheric storms and sub-storms and their association with the global geomagnetic Dst storms is

  1. Space Weather Studies at Istanbul Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Zerefsan

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will introduce the Upper Atmosphere and Space Weather Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University (ITU). It has been established to support the educational needs of the Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 2011 to conduct scientific research in Space Weather, Space Environment, Space Environment-Spacecraft Interactions, Space instrumentation and Upper Atmospheric studies. Currently the laboratory has some essential infrastructure and the most instrumentation for ionospheric observations and ground induced currents from the magnetosphere. The laboratory has two subunits: SWIFT dealing with Space Weather Instrumentation and Forecasting unit and SWDPA dealing with Space Weather Data Processing and Analysis. The research area covers wide range of upper atmospheric and space science studies from ionosphere, ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms, distant magnetotail, magnetopause and bow shock studies, as well as solar and solar wind disturbances and their interaction with the Earth's space environment. We also study the spacecraft environment interaction and novel plasma instrument design. Several scientific projects have been carried out in the laboratory. Operational objectives of our laboratory will be carried out with the collaboration of NASA's Space Weather Laboratory and the facilities are in the process of integration to their prediction services. Educational and research objectives, as well as the examples from the research carried out in our laboratory will be demonstrated in this presentation.

  2. Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help

  3. Bringing Space Weather Down to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.

    2005-05-01

    Most of the public has no idea what Space Weather is, but a number of innovative programs, web sites, magazine articles, TV shows and planetarium shows have taken space weather from an unknown quantity to a much more visible field. This paper reviews new developments, including the new Space Weather journal, the very popular spaceweather.com website, new immersive planetarium shows that can go "on the road", and well-publicized Sun-Earth Day activities. Real-time data and reasonably accurate spaceweather forecasts are available from several websites, with many subscribers. Even the renaissance of amateur radio because of Homeland Security brings a new generation of learners to wonder what is going on in the Sun today. The NSF Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling has a dedicated team to reach both the public and a greater diversity of new scientists.

  4. NASA Space Environments Technical Discipline Team Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, J. I.; Nicholas, A. C.; Parker, L. N.; Xapsos, M.; Walker, P. W.; Stauffer, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Space Environment Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is a technical organization led by NASA's Technical Fellow for Space Environments that supports NASA's Office of the Chief Engineer through the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The Space Environments TDT conducts independent technical assessments related to the space environment and space weather impacts on spacecraft for NASA programs and provides technical expertise to NASA management and programs where required. This presentation will highlight the status of applied space weather activities within the Space Environment TDT that support development of operational space weather applications and a better understanding of the impacts of space weather on space systems. We will first discuss a tool that has been developed for evaluating space weather launch constraints that are used to protect launch vehicles from hazardous space weather. We then describe an effort to better characterize three-dimensional radiation transport for CubeSat spacecraft and processing of micro-dosimeter data from the International Space Station which the team plans to make available to the space science community. Finally, we will conclude with a quick description of an effort to maintain access to the real-time solar wind data provided by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite at the Sun-Earth L1 point.

  5. Forecasting Space Weather Hazards for Astronauts in Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P. C.

    2018-02-01

    Deep Space Gateway provides a unique platform to develop, calibrate, and test a space weather forecasting system for interplanetary travel in a real life setting. We will discuss requirements and design of such a system.

  6. SWIFF: Space weather integrated forecasting framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederiksen Jacob Trier

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available SWIFF is a project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Commission to study the mathematical-physics models that form the basis for space weather forecasting. The phenomena of space weather span a tremendous scale of densities and temperature with scales ranging 10 orders of magnitude in space and time. Additionally even in local regions there are concurrent processes developing at the electron, ion and global scales strongly interacting with each other. The fundamental challenge in modelling space weather is the need to address multiple physics and multiple scales. Here we present our approach to take existing expertise in fluid and kinetic models to produce an integrated mathematical approach and software infrastructure that allows fluid and kinetic processes to be modelled together. SWIFF aims also at using this new infrastructure to model specific coupled processes at the Solar Corona, in the interplanetary space and in the interaction at the Earth magnetosphere.

  7. Space Weather Outreach: Connection to STEM Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2008-12-01

    Many scientists are studying the Sun-Earth system and attempting to provide timely, accurate, and reliable space environment observations and forecasts. Research programs and missions serve as an ideal focal point for creating educational content, making this an ideal time to inform the public about the importance and value of space weather research. In order to take advantage of this opportunity, the Space Science Institute (SSI) is developing a comprehensive Space Weather Outreach program to reach students, educators, and other members of the public, and share with them the exciting discoveries from this important scientific discipline. The Space Weather Outreach program has the following five components: (1) the Space Weather Center Website that includes online educational games; (2) Small Exhibits for Libraries, Shopping Malls, and Science Centers; (3) After-School Programs; (4) Professional Development Workshops for Educators, and (5) an innovative Evaluation and Education Research project. Its overarching goal is to inspire, engage, and educate a broad spectrum of the public and make strategic and innovative connections between informal and K-12 education communities. An important factor in the success of this program will be its alignment with STEM standards especially those related to science and mathematics. This presentation will describe the Space Weather Outreach program and how standards are being used in the development of each of its components.

  8. Training Early Career Space Weather Researchers and other Space Weather Professionals at the CISM Space Weather Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, N. A.; Hughes, W.

    2011-12-01

    This talk will outline the organization of a summer school designed to introduce young professions to a sub-discipline of geophysics. Through out the 10 year life time of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) the CISM Team has offered a two week summer school that introduces new graduate students and other interested professional to the fundamentals of space weather. The curriculum covers basic concepts in space physics, the hazards of space weather, and the utility of computer models of the space environment. Graduate students attend from both inside and outside CISM, from all the sub-disciplines involved in space weather (solar, heliosphere, geomagnetic, and aeronomy), and from across the nation and around the world. In addition, between 1/4 and 1/3 of the participants each year are professionals involved in space weather in some way, such as: forecasters from NOAA and the Air Force, Air Force satellite program directors, NASA specialists involved in astronaut radiation safety, and representatives from industries affected by space weather. The summer school has adopted modern pedagogy that has been used successfully at the undergraduate level. A typical daily schedule involves three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. During the morning lectures, student interaction is encouraged using "Timeout to Think" questions and peer instruction, along with question cards for students to ask follow up questions. During the afternoon labs students, working in groups of four, answer thought provoking questions using results from simulations and observation data from a variety of source. Through the interactions with each other and the instructors, as well as social interactions during the two weeks, students network and form bonds that will last them through out their careers. We believe that this summer school can be used as a model for summer schools in a wide variety of disciplines.

  9. Concept for an International Standard related to Space Weather Effects on Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Tomky, Alyssa

    There is great interest in developing an international standard related to space weather in order to specify the tools and parameters needed for space systems operations. In particular, a standard is important for satellite operators who may not be familiar with space weather. In addition, there are others who participate in space systems operations that would also benefit from such a document. For example, the developers of software systems that provide LEO satellite orbit determination, radio communication availability for scintillation events (GEO-to-ground L and UHF bands), GPS uncertainties, and the radiation environment from ground-to-space for commercial space tourism. These groups require recent historical data, current epoch specification, and forecast of space weather events into their automated or manual systems. Other examples are national government agencies that rely on space weather data provided by their organizations such as those represented in the International Space Environment Service (ISES) group of 14 national agencies. Designers, manufacturers, and launchers of space systems require real-time, operational space weather parameters that can be measured, monitored, or built into automated systems. Thus, a broad scope for the document will provide a useful international standard product to a variety of engineering and science domains. The structure of the document should contain a well-defined scope, consensus space weather terms and definitions, and internationally accepted descriptions of the main elements of space weather, its sources, and its effects upon space systems. Appendices will be useful for describing expanded material such as guidelines on how to use the standard, how to obtain specific space weather parameters, and short but detailed descriptions such as when best to use some parameters and not others; appendices provide a path for easily updating the standard since the domain of space weather is rapidly changing with new advances

  10. Swarm Products and Space Weather Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Olsen, Nils; Martini, Daniel

    The Swarm satellite constellation mission provides high precision magnetic field data and models and other observations that enable us to explore near Earth space for example in terms of in situ electron density and electric fields. On board GPS observables can be used for sounding ionospheric...... in aeronomy and space weather. We will emphasize results from the Swarm mission....

  11. Solar EUV irradiance for space weather applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Solar EUV irradiance is an important driver of space weather models. Large changes in EUV and x-ray irradiances create large variability in the ionosphere and thermosphere. Proxies such as the F10.7 cm radio flux, have provided reasonable estimates of the EUV flux but as the space weather models become more accurate and the demands of the customers become more stringent, proxies are no longer adequate. Furthermore, proxies are often provided only on a daily basis and shorter time scales are becoming important. Also, there is a growing need for multi-day forecasts of solar EUV irradiance to drive space weather forecast models. In this presentation we will describe the needs and requirements for solar EUV irradiance information from the space weather modeler's perspective. We will then translate these requirements into solar observational requirements such as spectral resolution and irradiance accuracy. We will also describe the activities at NOAA to provide long-term solar EUV irradiance observations and derived products that are needed for real-time space weather modeling.

  12. Space Weather: Where Is The Beef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, H. E. J.

    Space weather has become a highly fashionable topic in solar-terrestrial physics. It is perhaps the best tool to popularise the field and it has contributed significantly to the dialogue between solar, magnetospheric, and ionospheric scientist, and also to mu- tual understanding between science and engineering communities. While these are laudable achievements, it is important for the integrity of scientific space weather re- search to recognise the central open questions in the physics of space weather and the progress toward solving them. We still lack sufficient understanding of the solar physics to be able to tell in advance when and where a solar eruption will take place and whether it will turn to a geoeffective event. There is much to do to understand ac- celeration of solar energetic particles and propagation of solar mass ejecta toward the Earth. After more than 40 years of research scientific discussion of energy and plasma transfer through the magnetopause still deals mostly with qualitative issues and the rapid acceleration processes in the magnetosphere are not yet explained in a satisfac- tory way. Also the coupling to the ionosphere and from there to the strong induction effects on ground is another complex of research problems. For space weather science the beef is in the investigation of these and related topics, not in marketing half-useful space weather products to hesitant customers.

  13. Space weather effects on ground based technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T.

    Space weather can affect a variety of forms of ground-based technology, usually as a result of either the direct effects of the varying geomagnetic field, or as a result of the induced electric field that accompanies such variations. Technologies affected directly by geomagnetic variations include magnetic measurements made d ringu geophysical surveys, and navigation relying on the geomagnetic field as a direction reference, a method that is particularly common in the surveying of well-bores in the oil industry. The most obvious technology affected by induced electric fields during magnetic storms is electric power transmission, where the example of the blackout in Quebec during the March 1989 magnetic storm is widely known. Additionally, space weather effects must be taken into account in the design of active cathodic protection systems on pipelines to protect them against corrosion. Long-distance telecommunication cables may also have to be designed to cope with space weather related effects. This paper reviews the effects of space weather in these different areas of ground-based technology, and provides examples of how mitigation against hazards may be achieved. (The paper does not include the effects of space weather on radio communication or satellite navigation systems).

  14. Space Weather Research Towards Applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This book shows the state of the art in Europe on a very new discipline, Space Weather. This discipline lies at the edge between science and industry. This book reflects such a position, with theoretic papers and applicative papers as well. It is divided into 5 chapters. Each chapter starts with a short introduction, which shows the coherence of a given domain. Then, 4 to 5 contributions written by the best specialists in Europe give detailed hints of a hot topic in space weather. From the reading of this book, it becomes evident that space weather is a living discipline, full of promises and already full of amazing realizations. The strength of Europe is clear through the book, but it is also clear that this discipline is world wide.

  15. A coronagraph for operational space weather predication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kevin F.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate prediction of the arrival of solar wind phenomena, in particular coronal mass ejections (CMEs), at Earth, and possibly elsewhere in the heliosphere, is becoming increasingly important given our ever-increasing reliance on technology. The potentially severe impact on human technological systems of such phenomena is termed space weather. A coronagraph is arguably the instrument that provides the earliest definitive evidence of CME eruption; from a vantage point on or near the Sun-Earth line, a coronagraph can provide near-definitive identification of an Earth-bound CME. Currently, prediction of CME arrival is critically dependent on ageing science coronagraphs whose design and operation were not optimized for space weather services. We describe the early stages of the conceptual design of SCOPE (the Solar Coronagraph for OPErations), optimized to support operational space weather services.

  16. Space weather impact on radio device operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berngardt O.I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the space weather impact on operation of radio devices. The review is based on recently published papers, books, and strategic scientific plans of space weather investigations. The main attention is paid to ionospheric effects on propagation of radiowaves, basically short ones. Some examples of such effects are based on 2012–2016 ISTP SB RAS EKB radar data: attenuation of ground backscatter signals during solar flares, effects of traveling ionospheric disturbances of different scales in ground backscatter signals, effects of magnetospheric waves in ionospheric scatter signals.

  17. Space weather impact on radio device operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngardt, Oleg

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews the space weather impact on operation of radio devices. The review is based on recently published papers, books, and strategic scientific plans of space weather investigations. The main attention is paid to ionospheric effects on propagation of radiowaves, basically short ones. Some examples of such effects are based on 2012–2016 ISTP SB RAS EKB radar data: attenuation of ground backscatter signals during solar flares, effects of traveling ionospheric disturbances of different scales in ground backscatter signals, effects of magnetospheric waves in ionospheric scatter signals.

  18. An introduction to Space Weather Integrated Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, D.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    The need for a software toolkit that integrates space weather models and data is one of many challenges we are facing with when applying the models to space weather forecasting. To meet this challenge, we have developed Space Weather Integrated Modeling (SWIM) that is capable of analysis and visualizations of the results from a diverse set of space weather models. SWIM has a modular design and is written in Python, by using NumPy, matplotlib, and the Visualization ToolKit (VTK). SWIM provides data management module to read a variety of spacecraft data products and a specific data format of Solar-Interplanetary Conservation Element/Solution Element MHD model (SIP-CESE MHD model) for the study of solar-terrestrial phenomena. Data analysis, visualization and graphic user interface modules are also presented in a user-friendly way to run the integrated models and visualize the 2-D and 3-D data sets interactively. With these tools we can locally or remotely analysis the model result rapidly, such as extraction of data on specific location in time-sequence data sets, plotting interplanetary magnetic field lines, multi-slicing of solar wind speed, volume rendering of solar wind density, animation of time-sequence data sets, comparing between model result and observational data. To speed-up the analysis, an in-situ visualization interface is used to support visualizing the data 'on-the-fly'. We also modified some critical time-consuming analysis and visualization methods with the aid of GPU and multi-core CPU. We have used this tool to visualize the data of SIP-CESE MHD model in real time, and integrated the Database Model of shock arrival, Shock Propagation Model, Dst forecasting model and SIP-CESE MHD model developed by SIGMA Weather Group at State Key Laboratory of Space Weather/CAS.

  19. The ESA Space Weather Applications Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, A.; Hilgers, A.; Daly, E.

    Following the completion in 2001 of two parallel studies to consider the feasibility of a European Space Weather Programme ESA embarked upon a space weather pilot study with the goal of prototyping European space weather services and assessing the overall market for such within Europe This pilot project centred on a number of targeted service development activities supported by a common infrastructure and making use of only existing space weather assets Each service activity included clear participation from at least one identified service user who was requested to provide initial requirements and regular feedback during the operational phase of the service These service activities are now reaching the end of their 2-year development and testing phase and are now accessible each with an element of the service in the public domain see http www esa-spaceweathet net swenet An additional crucial element of the study was the inclusion of a comprehensive and independent analysis of the benefits both economic and strategic of embarking on a programme which would include the deployment of an infrastructure with space-based elements The results of this study will be reported together with their implication for future coordinated European activities in this field

  20. A Milestone in Commercial Space Weather: USTAR Center for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.; Thompson, D. C.; Scherliess, L.; Zhu, L.; Gardner, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    As of 2009, Utah State University (USU) hosts a new organization to develop commercial space weather applications using funding that has been provided by the State of Utah’s Utah Science Technology and Research (USTAR) initiative. The USTAR Center for Space Weather (UCSW) is located on the USU campus in Logan, Utah and is developing innovative applications for mitigating adverse space weather effects in technological systems. Space weather’s effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the Sun’s photons, particles, and fields. Of the space environment domains that are affected by space weather, the ionosphere is the key region that affects communication and navigation systems. The UCSW has developed products for users of systems that are affected by space weather-driven ionospheric changes. For example, on September 1, 2009 USCW released, in conjunction with Space Environment Technologies, the world’s first real-time space weather via an iPhone app. Space WX displays the real-time, current global ionosphere total electron content along with its space weather drivers; it is available through the Apple iTunes store and is used around the planet. The Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) system is now being run operationally in real-time at UCSW with the continuous ingestion of hundreds of global data streams to dramatically improve the ionosphere’s characterization. We discuss not only funding and technical advances that have led to current products but also describe the direction for UCSW that includes partnering opportunities for moving commercial space weather into fully automated specification and forecasting over the next half decade.

  1. Space weather effects on communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    In the 150 years since the advent of the first electrical communication system - the electrical telegraph - the diversity of communications technologies that are embedded within space-affected environments have vastly increased. The increasing sophistication of these communications technologies, and how their installation and operations may relate to the environments in which they are embedded, requires ever more sophisticated understanding of natural physical phenomena. At the same time, the business environment for most present-day communications technologies that are affected by space phenomena is very dynamic. The commercial and national security deployment and use of these technologies do not wait for optimum knowledge of possible environmental effects to be acquired before new technological embodiments are created, implemented, and marketed. Indeed, those companies that might foolishly seek perfectionist understanding of natural effects can be left behind by the marketplace. A well-considered balance is needed between seeking ever deeper understanding of physical phenomena and implementing `engineering' solutions to current crises. The research community must try to understand, and operate in, this dynamic environment.

  2. Briefing highlights space weather risks to GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-07-01

    Solar storms, which are expected to increase as the Sun nears the most active phase of the solar cycle, can disrupt a variety of technologies on which society relies. Speakers at a 22 June briefing on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C., focused on how space weather can affect the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is used in a wide range of industries, including commercial air travel, agriculture, national security, and emergency response. Rocky Stone, chief technical pilot for United Airlines, noted that GPS allows more aircraft to be in airspace, saves fuel, and helps aircraft move safely on runways. “Improvements in space weather forecasting need to be pursued,” he said. Precision GPS has also “changed the whole nature of farming,” said Ron Hatch, Director of Navigation Systems, NavCom Technology/John Deere. GPS makes it possible for tractors to be driven in the most efficient paths and for fertilizer and water to be applied precisely to the areas that most need them. Space weather-induced degradation of GPS signals can cause significant loss to farms that rely on GPS. Elizabeth Zimmerman, Deputy Associate Administrator for the Office of Response and Recovery at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), described how FEMA relies on GPS for disaster recovery. The agency is developing an operations plan for dealing with space weather, she said.

  3. Space Weather Forecasting and Research at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronne, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (SWRC), within the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), provides experimental research forecasts and analysis for NASA's robotic mission operators. Space weather conditions are monitored to provide advance warning and forecasts based on observations and modeling using the integrated Space Weather Analysis Network (iSWA). Space weather forecasters come from a variety of backgrounds, ranging from modelers to astrophysicists to undergraduate students. This presentation will discuss space weather operations and research from an undergraduate perspective. The Space Weather Research, Education, and Development Initiative (SW REDI) is the starting point for many undergraduate opportunities in space weather forecasting and research. Space weather analyst interns play an active role year-round as entry-level space weather analysts. Students develop the technical and professional skills to forecast space weather through a summer internship that includes a two week long space weather boot camp, mentorship, poster session, and research opportunities. My unique development of research projects includes studying high speed stream events as well as a study of 20 historic, high-impact solar energetic particle events. This unique opportunity to combine daily real-time analysis with related research prepares students for future careers in Heliophysics.

  4. The new Athens Center applied to Space Weather Forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavromichalaki, H.; Sarlanis, C.; Souvatzoglou, G.; Mariatos, G.; Gerontidou, M.; Plainaki, C.; Papaioannou, A.; Tatsis, S.; Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Sun provides most of the initial energy driving space weather and modulates the energy input from sources outside the solar system, but this energy undergoes many transformations within the various components of the solar-terrestrial system, which is comprised of the solar wind, magnetosphere and radiation belts, the ionosphere, and the upper and lower atmospheres of Earth. This is the reason why an Earth's based neutron monitor network can be used in order to produce a real time forecasting of space weather phenomena.Since 2004 a fully functioned new data analysis Center in real-time is in operation in Neutron Monitor Station of Athens University (ANMODAP Center) suitable for research applications. It provides a multi sided use of twenty three neutron monitor stations distributing in all world and operating in real-time given crucial information on space weather phenomena. In particular, the ANMODAP Center can give a preliminary alert of ground level enhancements (GLEs) of solar cosmic rays which can be registered around 20 to 30 minutes before the main part of lower energy particles. Therefore these energetic solar cosmic rays provide the advantage of forth warning. Moreover, the monitoring of the precursors of cosmic rays gives a forehand estimate on that kind of events should be expected (geomagnetic storms and/or Forbush decreases)

  5. Operational space weather service for GNSS precise positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric plasma can significantly influence the propagation of radio waves and the ionospheric disturbances are capable of causing range errors, rapid phase and amplitude fluctuations (radio scintillations of satellite signals that may lead to degradation of the system performance, its accuracy and reliability. The cause of such disturbances should be sought in the processes originating in the Sun. Numerous studies on these phenomena have been already carried out at a broad international level, in order to measure/estimate these space weather induced effects, to forecast them, and to understand and mitigate their impact on present-day technological systems. SWIPPA (Space Weather Impact on Precise Positioning Applications is a pilot project jointly supported by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA. The project aims at establishing, operating, and evaluating a specific space-weather monitoring service that can possibly lead to improving current positioning applications based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS. This space weather service provides GNSS users with essential expert information delivered in the form of several products - maps of TEC values, TEC spatial and temporal gradients, alerts for ongoing/oncoming ionosphere disturbances, etc.

  6. Operational space weather service for GNSS precise positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric plasma can significantly influence the propagation of radio waves and the ionospheric disturbances are capable of causing range errors, rapid phase and amplitude fluctuations (radio scintillations of satellite signals that may lead to degradation of the system performance, its accuracy and reliability. The cause of such disturbances should be sought in the processes originating in the Sun. Numerous studies on these phenomena have been already carried out at a broad international level, in order to measure/estimate these space weather induced effects, to forecast them, and to understand and mitigate their impact on present-day technological systems.

    SWIPPA (Space Weather Impact on Precise Positioning Applications is a pilot project jointly supported by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA. The project aims at establishing, operating, and evaluating a specific space-weather monitoring service that can possibly lead to improving current positioning applications based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS. This space weather service provides GNSS users with essential expert information delivered in the form of several products - maps of TEC values, TEC spatial and temporal gradients, alerts for ongoing/oncoming ionosphere disturbances, etc.

  7. Aviation & Space Weather Policy Research: Integrating Space Weather Observations & Forecasts into Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G.; Jones, B.

    2006-12-01

    The American Meteorological Society and SolarMetrics Limited are conducting a policy research project leading to recommendations that will increase the safety, reliability, and efficiency of the nation's airline operations through more effective use of space weather forecasts and information. This study, which is funded by a 3-year National Science Foundation grant, also has the support of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) who is planning the Next Generation Air Transportation System. A major component involves interviewing and bringing together key people in the aviation industry who deal with space weather information. This research also examines public and industrial strategies and plans to respond to space weather information. The focus is to examine policy issues in implementing effective application of space weather services to the management of the nation's aviation system. The results from this project will provide government and industry leaders with additional tools and information to make effective decisions with respect to investments in space weather research and services. While space weather can impact the entire aviation industry, and this project will address national and international issues, the primary focus will be on developing a U.S. perspective for the airlines.

  8. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's Space Weather Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Presentation involves educating Goddard Space Weather staff about what our needs are, what type of aircraft we have and to learn what we have done in the past to minimize our exposure to Space Weather Hazards.

  9. Third Space Weather Summit Held for Industry and Government Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.

    2009-12-01

    The potential for space weather effects has been increasing significantly in recent years. For instance, in 2008 airlines flew about 8000 transpolar flights, which experience greater exposure to space weather than nontranspolar flights. This is up from 368 transpolar flights in 2000, and the number of such flights is expected to continue to grow. Transpolar flights are just one example of the diverse technologies susceptible to space weather effects identified by the National Research Council's Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (2008). To discuss issues related to the increasing need for reliable space weather information, experts from industry and government agencies met at the third summit of the Commercial Space Weather Interest Group (CSWIG) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), held 30 April 2009 during Space Weather Week (SWW), in Boulder, Colo.

  10. NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

  11. Adaptive Numerical Algorithms in Space Weather Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Gabor; vanderHolst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; DeZeeuw, Darren; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Nakib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising of several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit numerical

  12. Space Weather opportunities from the Swarm mission including near real time applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Floberghagen, Rune; Luehr, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sophisticated space weather monitoring aims at nowcasting and predicting solar-terrestrial interactions because their effects on the ionosphere and upper atmosphere may seriously impact advanced technology. Operating alert infrastructures rely heavily on ground-based measurements and satellite...... these products in timely manner will add significant value in monitoring present space weather and helping to predict the evolution of several magnetic and ionospheric events. Swarm will be a demonstrator mission for the valuable application of LEO satellite observations for space weather monitoring tools....

  13. The sun and space weather Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    This second edition is a great enhancement of literature which will help the reader get deeper into the specific topics. There are new sections included such as space weather data sources and examples, new satellite missions, and the latest results. At the end a comprehensive index is given which will allow the reader to quickly find his topics of interest. The Sun and Space weather are two rapidly evolving topics. The importance of the Sun for the Earth, life on Earth, climate and weather processes was recognized long ago by the ancients. Now, for the first time there is a continuous surveillance of solar activity at nearly all wavelengths. These data can be used to improve our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth interaction. The first chapters of the book deal with the Sun as a star and its activity phenomena as well as its activity cycle in order to understand the complex physics of the Sun-Earth system. The reader will see that there are many phenomena but still no definite explanations and models exis...

  14. SPace weather applications in a technology-dependent society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Space weather can adversely key technology assets, such as, high-voltage electric power transmission grids, oil and gas pipelines, and communications systems that are critical to national security and economy. However, the term of "space weather" is not well known in our society. This presentation will introduce key concepts related to the space weather problem and show how space weather impacts our everyday life. The goal is to promote awareness among the general public. Also, this presentation will highlight how space weather is being used to promote STEM education for community college students through the NASA internship program.

  15. Space weathering of small Koronis family members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.; Trilling, David E.; Enga, Marie-therese; Grier, Jennifer A.

    2011-03-01

    The space weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites is an often debated topic in asteroid science. Q-type asteroids have been shown to display the best spectral match to ordinary chondrites (McFadden, L.A., Gaffey, M.J., McCord, T.B. [1985]. Science 229, 160-163). While the Q-types and ordinary chondrites share some spectral features with S-type asteroids, the S-types have significantly redder spectral slopes than the Q-types in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. This reddening of spectral slope is attributed to the effects of space weathering on the observed surface composition. The analysis by Binzel et al. (Binzel, R.P., Rivkin, A.S., Stuart, J.S., Harris, A.W., Bus, S.J., Burbine, T.H. [2004]. Icarus 170, 259-294) provided a missing link between the Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to a transition from Q-type to S-type asteroid spectra, implying that size, and therefore surface age, is related to the relationship between S- and Q-types. The existence of Q-type asteroids in the main-belt was not confirmed until Mothé-Diniz and Nesvorny (Mothé-Diniz, T., Nesvorny, D. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 486, L9-L12) found them in young S-type clusters. The young age of these families suggest that the unweathered surface could date to the formation of the family. This leads to the question of whether older S-type main-belt families can contain Q-type objects and display evidence of a transition from Q- to S-type. To answer this question we have carried out a photometric survey of the Koronis family using the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope. This provides a unique opportunity to compare the effects of the space weathering process on potentially ordinary chondrite-like bodies within a population of identical initial conditions. We find a trend in spectral slope for objects 1-5 km that shows the

  16. Addressing the Influence of Space Weather on Airline Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The advent of satellite-based augmentation systems has made it possible to navigate aircraft safely using radio signals emitted by global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System. As a signal propagates through the earth's ionosphere, it suffers delay that is proportional to the total electron content encountered along the raypath. Since the magnitude of this total electron content is strongly influenced by space weather, the safety and reliability of GNSS for airline navigation requires continual monitoring of the state of the ionosphere and calibration of ionospheric delay. This paper examines the impact of space weather on GNSS-based navigation and provides an overview of how the Wide Area Augmentation System protects its users from positioning error due to ionospheric disturbances

  17. Space Weather Drivers in the ACE Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, M.; Puhl-Quinn, P.; Jordanova, V. K.; Smith, C. W.; Cohen, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft was launched Aug.~25, 1997 [Stone et al., 1998]. Beginning shortly after launch and continuing to the present day ACE has provided real-time data telemetry of solar wind conditions upstream of the Earth. The real-time data includes solar wind speed and density, magnetic field direction and magnitude, and a range of energetic particle intensities [Zwickl et al., 1999]. The real-time data product is provided within 5 minutes of observation and many partners from both industry and science use these data for a variety of purposes. The most common purpose of practical industrial application involves mitigation of lost services arising from magnetospheric storm activity. Many space weather efforts are directed at providing improved predictions of magnetospheric response that can be applied to real-time data in the hope of better predicting the vulnerability and required action of industry to approaching disturbances. It therefore seems prudent that following 6 years of activity including one solar maximum period we should evaluate the nature and strength of the largest disturbances observed with the hope of better assessing the industrial response. Simply put: ``Did ACE observe disturbances that were as large as those seen previously during the space age?'' If not, it may be the case that industry must evaluate its response to the real-time warnings and not become complacent by the simple act of survival. We compare the most intense space weather events of the ACE era with those recorded on the Omnitape data set spanning 40+ years of spacecraft measurements in the near-Earth environment. We compare both magnetospheric response parameters and solar wind drivers. In addition, we compare the large energetic particle events over the same time frame. Stone, E.~C., et al., Space Science Rev., 86(1-4), 357-408, 1998. Zwickl, R.~D., et al., Space Science Rev., 86(1-4), 633-648, 1998.

  18. Maintaining US Space Weather Capabilities after DMSP: Research to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuzak, J. S.; Gentile, L. C.; Burke, W. J.; Holeman, E. G.; Ober, D. M.; Wilson, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    The first Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft was launched in 1972; the last is scheduled to fly in 2020. Presently, there is no replacement for the space-weather monitoring sensors that now fly on DMSP. The present suite has provided comprehensive, long-term records that constitute a critical component of the US space weather corporate memory. Evolving operational needs and research accomplishments justify continued collection of space environmental data. Examples include measurements to: (1) Monitor the Dst index in real time as a driver of next-generation satellite drag models; (2) Quantify electromagnetic energy fluxes from deep space to the ionosphere/ thermosphere that heat neutrals, drive disturbance-dynamo winds and degrade precise orbit determinations; (3) Determine strengths of stormtime electric fields at high and low latitudes that lead to severe blackouts and spacecraft anomalies; (4) Specify variability of plasma density irregularities, equatorial plasma bubbles, and the Appleton anomaly to improve reliability of communication, navigation and surveillance links; (5) Characterize energetic particle fluxes responsible for auroral clutter and radar degradation; (6) Map regions of L-Band scintillation for robust GPS applications; and (7) Update the World Magnetic Field Model needed to maintain guidance system superiority. These examples illustrate the utility of continued space environment awareness. Comprehensive assessments of both operational requirements and research advances are needed to make informed selections of sensors and spacecraft that support future capabilities. A proposed sensor set and satellite constellation to provide the needed measurement capabilities will be presented.

  19. Terrestrial Planet Space Weather Information: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y.; Lee, C.; Mays, M. L.; Odstrcil, D.; Jian, L.; Galvin, A. B.; Mewaldt, R. A.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Russell, C. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Thompson, W. T.; Baker, D. N.; Dewey, R. M.; Zheng, Y.; Holmstrom, M.; Futaana, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather research is now a solar system-wide enterprise. While with the end of the Venus Express Express mission and MESSENGER, we lost our 'inside' sentinels, new missions such as Solar Orbiter and SPP, and Bepi-Colombo will soon be launched and operating. In the meantime the combination of L1 resources (ACE,WIND,SOHO) and STEREO-A at 1 AU, and Mars Express and MAVEN missions at ~1.5 AU, provide opportunities. Comparative conditions at the Earth orbit and Mars orbit locations are of special interest because they are separated by the region where most solar wind stream interaction regions develop. These alter the propagation of disturbances including the interplanetary CME-driven shocks that make the space radiation affecting future Human mission planning. We share some observational and modeling results thatillustrate present capabilities, as well as developing ones such as ENLIL-based SEP event models that use a range of available observations.

  20. Achievements and Challenges in the Science of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Balogh, André; Gombosi, Tamas; Veronig, Astrid; von Steiger, Rudolf

    2017-11-01

    In June 2016 a group of 40 space weather scientists attended the workshop on Scientific Foundations of Space Weather at the International Space Science Institute in Bern. In this lead article to the volume based on the talks and discussions during the workshop we review some of main past achievements in the field and outline some of the challenges that the science of space weather is facing today and in the future.

  1. Space Weather Models at the CCMC And Their Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Rastatter, Lutz; MacNeice, Peter; Kuznetsova, Masha

    2007-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a US inter-agency activity aiming at research in support of the generation of advanced space weather models. As one of its main functions, the CCMC provides to researchers the use of space science models, even if they are not model owners themselves. The second focus of CCMC activities is on validation and verification of space weather models, and on the transition of appropriate models to space weather forecast centers. As part of the latter activity, the CCMC develops real-time simulation systems that stress models through routine execution. A by-product of these real-time calculations is the ability to derive model products, which may be useful for space weather operators. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the community-provided, space weather-relevant, model suite, which resides at CCMC. We will discuss current capabilities, and analyze expected future developments of space weather related modeling.

  2. Space Weather Forecasting and Supporting Research in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevtsov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the United State, scientific research in space weather is funded by several Government Agencies including the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). For civilian and commercial purposes, space weather forecast is done by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Observational data for modeling come from the network of groundbased observatories funded via various sources, as well as from the instruments on spacecraft. Numerical models used in forecast are developed in framework of individual research projects. The article provides a brief review of current state of space weather-related research and forecasting in the USA.

  3. Successfully Transitioning Science Research to Space Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James

    2012-01-01

    The awareness of potentially significant impacts of space weather on spaceand ground ]based technological systems has generated a strong desire in many sectors of government and industry to effectively transform knowledge and understanding of the variable space environment into useful tools and applications for use by those entities responsible for systems that may be vulnerable to space weather impacts. Essentially, effectively transitioning science knowledge to useful applications relevant to space weather has become important. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective, and how in the current environment those can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  4. Dynamical Networks Characterization of Space Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, L.; Chapman, S. C.; Dods, J.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Space weather can cause disturbances to satellite systems, impacting navigation technology and telecommunications; it can cause power loss and aviation disruption. A central aspect of the earth's magnetospheric response to space weather events are large scale and rapid changes in ionospheric current patterns. Space weather is highly dynamic and there are still many controversies about how the current system evolves in time. The recent SuperMAG initiative, collates ground-based vector magnetic field time series from over 200 magnetometers with 1-minute temporal resolution. In principle this combined dataset is an ideal candidate for quantification using dynamical networks. Network properties and parameters allow us to characterize the time dynamics of the full spatiotemporal pattern of the ionospheric current system. However, applying network methodologies to physical data presents new challenges. We establish whether a given pair of magnetometers are connected in the network by calculating their canonical cross correlation. The magnetometers are connected if their cross correlation exceeds a threshold. In our physical time series this threshold needs to be both station specific, as it varies with (non-linear) individual station sensitivity and location, and able to vary with season, which affects ground conductivity. Additionally, the earth rotates and therefore the ground stations move significantly on the timescales of geomagnetic disturbances. The magnetometers are non-uniformly spatially distributed. We will present new methodology which addresses these problems and in particular achieves dynamic normalization of the physical time series in order to form the network. Correlated disturbances across the magnetometers capture transient currents. Once the dynamical network has been obtained [1][2] from the full magnetometer data set it can be used to directly identify detailed inferred transient ionospheric current patterns and track their dynamics. We will show

  5. An abridged history of federal involvement in space weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Becaja; McCarron, Eoin; Jonas, Seth

    2017-10-01

    Public awareness of space weather and its adverse effects on critical infrastructure systems, services, and technologies (e.g., the electric grid, telecommunications, and satellites) has grown through recent media coverage and scientific research. However, federal interest and involvement in space weather dates back to the decades between World War I and World War II when the National Bureau of Standards led efforts to observe, forecast, and provide warnings of space weather events that could interfere with high-frequency radio transmissions. The efforts to observe and predict space weather continued through the 1960s during the rise of the Cold War and into the present with U.S. government efforts to prepare the nation for space weather events. This paper provides a brief overview of the history of federal involvement in space weather forecasting from World War II, through the Apollo Program, and into the present.

  6. National Space Weather Program Advances on Several Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzelman, Mark; Babcock, Michael

    2008-10-01

    The National Space Weather Program (NSWP; http://www.nswp.gov) is a U.S. federal government interagency initiative through the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology that was created to speed the improvement of space weather services for the nation. The Committee for Space Weather (CSW) under the NSWP has continued to advance the program on a number of fronts over the past 12 months.

  7. Space Weather in the Machine Learning Era: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Wing, S.; Johnson, J.; Jackman, C. M.; McGranaghan, R.

    2018-01-01

    The workshop entitled Space Weather: A Multidisciplinary Approach took place at the Lorentz Center, University of Leiden, Netherlands, on 25-29 September 2017. The aim of this workshop was to bring together members of the Space Weather, Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science communities to address the use of advanced techniques such as Machine Learning, Information Theory, and Deep Learning, to better understand the Sun-Earth system and to improve space weather forecasting. Although individual efforts have been made toward this goal, the community consensus is that establishing interdisciplinary collaborations is the most promising strategy for fully utilizing the potential of these advanced techniques in solving Space Weather-related problems.

  8. Superposed epoch analysis of physiological fluctuations: possible space weather connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanliss, James; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Brown, Denzel; Washington, Brien

    2018-03-01

    There is a strong connection between space weather and fluctuations in technological systems. Some studies also suggest a statistical connection between space weather and subsequent fluctuations in the physiology of living creatures. This connection, however, has remained controversial and difficult to demonstrate. Here we present support for a response of human physiology to forcing from the explosive onset of the largest of space weather events-space storms. We consider a case study with over 16 years of high temporal resolution measurements of human blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart rate variability to search for associations with space weather. We find no statistically significant change in human blood pressure but a statistically significant drop in heart rate during the main phase of space storms. Our empirical findings shed light on how human physiology may respond to exogenous space weather forcing.

  9. Superposed epoch analysis of physiological fluctuations: possible space weather connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanliss, James; Cornélissen, Germaine; Halberg, Franz; Brown, Denzel; Washington, Brien

    2018-03-01

    There is a strong connection between space weather and fluctuations in technological systems. Some studies also suggest a statistical connection between space weather and subsequent fluctuations in the physiology of living creatures. This connection, however, has remained controversial and difficult to demonstrate. Here we present support for a response of human physiology to forcing from the explosive onset of the largest of space weather events—space storms. We consider a case study with over 16 years of high temporal resolution measurements of human blood pressure (systolic, diastolic) and heart rate variability to search for associations with space weather. We find no statistically significant change in human blood pressure but a statistically significant drop in heart rate during the main phase of space storms. Our empirical findings shed light on how human physiology may respond to exogenous space weather forcing.

  10. A Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre for ESA's Space Situational Awareness Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D.; Perry, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre (H-ESC) is one of five thematic virtual centres that are currently being developed as part of ESA's Space Situational Awareness pre-operational Space Weather service. In this presentation we introduce the current products and service that the H-ESC is providing. The immediate and downstream user groups that the centre is aiming to support are discussed. A description is provided on how the H-ESC is largely built on adoption and tailoring of federated products from expert groups around Europe and how these can be used to add value to the overall system. Having only recently been established the H-ESC is continuing to address gaps in its capabilities. Some of the priorities for products, their assessment, validation and integration into the system are discussed together with plans for bespoke development activities tailored to specific end-user group needs.

  11. Operational Numerical Weather Prediction at the Met Office and potential ways forward for operational space weather prediction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  12. Space weather: Modeling and forecasting ionospheric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzadilla Mendez, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Space weather is the set of phenomena and interactions that take place in the interplanetary medium. It is regulated primarily by the activity originating in the Sun and affects both the artificial satellites that are outside of the protective cover of the Earth's atmosphere as the rest of the planets in the solar system. Among the phenomena that are of great relevance and impact on Earth are the auroras and geomagnetic storms , these are a direct result of irregularities in the flow of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field . Given the high complexity of the physical phenomena involved (magnetic reconnection , particle inlet and ionizing radiation to the atmosphere) one of the great scientific challenges today is to forecast the state of plasmatic means either the interplanetary medium , the magnetosphere and ionosphere , for their importance to the development of various human activities such as radio , global positioning , navigation, etc. . It briefly address some of the international ionospheric modeling methods and contributions and participation that currently has the space group of the Institute of Geophysics Geophysics and Astronomy (IGA) in these activities of modeling and forecasting ionospheric. (author)

  13. From Early Exploration to Space Weather Forecasts: Canada's Geomagnetic Odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hing-Lan

    2011-05-01

    Canada is a region ideally suited for the study of space weather: The north magnetic pole is encompassed within its territory, and the auroral oval traverses its vast landmass from east to west. Magnetic field lines link the country directly to the outer magnetosphere. In light of this geographic suitability, it has been a Canadian tradition to install ground monitors to remotely sense the space above Canadian territory. The beginning of this tradition dates back to 1840, when Edward Sabine, a key figure in the “magnetic crusade” to establish magnetic observatories throughout the British Empire in the nineteenth century, founded the first Canadian magnetic observatory on what is now the campus of the University of Toronto, 27 years before the birth of Canada. This observatory, which later became the Toronto Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory, marked the beginning of the Canadian heritage of installing magnetic stations and other ground instruments in the years to come. This extensive network of ground-based measurement devices, coupled with space-based measurements in more modern times, has enabled Canadian researchers to contribute significantly to studies related to space weather.

  14. MAGDAS Project for Space Weather Research and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Kiyohumi

    2009-01-01

    The Space Environment Research Center (SERC), Kyushu University, is currently deploying a new ground-based magnetometer network of MAGnetic Data Acqusition System (MAGDAS), in cooperation with about 30 organizations in the world, in order to understand the complex Sun-Earth system for space weather research and application. SERC will conducts MAGDAS observation at 50 stations in the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) region, and FM-CW radar observation along the 210 deg. magnetic meridian (MM) during the IHY/ILWS/CAWSES periods. This project is actively providing the following space weather monitoring:(1) Global 3-dimensional current system to know electromagnetic coupling of the region 1 and 2 field-aligned currents, auroral electrojet current, Sq current, and equatorial electrojet current. (2) Plasma mass density along the 210 deg. MM to understand plasma environment change during space storms. (3) Ionospheric electric field intensity with 10-sec sampling at L = 1.26 to understand how the external electric field penetrates into the equatorial ionosphere.

  15. Solar origins of space weather and space climate

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Rudolf; Pevtsov, Alexei; Leibacher, John

    2014-01-01

    This topical issue is based on the presentations given at the 26th National Solar Observatory (NSO) Summer Workshop held at the National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak, New Mexico, USA from 30 April to 4 May 2012. This unique forum brought together experts in different areas of solar and space physics to help in developing a full picture of the origin of solar phenomena that affect Earth’s technological systems.  The articles include theory, model, and observation research on the origin of the solar activity and its cycle, as well as a discussion on how to incorporate the research into space-weather forecasting tools.  This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in solar physics and space science.  Previously published in Solar Physics, Vol. 289/2, 2014.

  16. Presenting Critical Space Weather Information to Customers and Stakeholders (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, R. A.; Singer, H. J.; Murtagh, W. J.; Rutledge, B.

    2013-12-01

    Space weather involves changes in the near-Earth space environment that impact technological systems such as electric power, radio communication, satellite navigation (GPS), and satellite opeartions. As with terrestrial weather, there are several different kinds of space weather and each presents unique challenges to the impacted technologies and industries. But unlike terrestrial weather, many customers are not fully aware of space weather or how it impacts their systems. This issue is further complicated by the fact that the largest space weather events occur very infrequently with years going by without severe storms. Recent reports have estimated very large potential costs to the economy and to society if a geomagnetic storm were to cause major damage to the electric power transmission system. This issue has come to the attention of emergency managers and federal agencies including the office of the president. However, when considering space weather impacts, it is essential to also consider uncertainties in the frequency of events and the predicted impacts. The unique nature of space weather storms, the specialized technologies that are impacted by them, and the disparate groups and agencies that respond to space weather forecasts and alerts create many challenges to the task of communicating space weather information to the public. Many customers that receive forecasts and alerts are highly technical and knowledgeable about the subtleties of the space environment. Others know very little and require ongoing education and explanation about how a space weather storm will affect their systems. In addition, the current knowledge and understanding of the space environment that goes into forecasting storms is quite immature. It has only been within the last five years that physics-based models of the space environment have played important roles in predictions. Thus, the uncertainties in the forecasts are quite large. There is much that we don't know about space

  17. CMS Space Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikova, N.; Huang, C.-H.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Wildish, T.; Zhang, X.

    2014-06-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  18. CMS Space Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnikova, N. [Fermilab; Huang, C.-H. [Fermilab; Sanchez-Hernandez, A. [CINVESTAV, IPN; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.; Zhang, X. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2014-01-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  19. Probabilistic Space Weather Forecasting: a Bayesian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.; Borovsky, J.; Care', A.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the Space Weather forecasts, both at operational and research level, are not probabilistic in nature. Unfortunately, a prediction that does not provide a confidence level is not very useful in a decision-making scenario. Nowadays, forecast models range from purely data-driven, machine learning algorithms, to physics-based approximation of first-principle equations (and everything that sits in between). Uncertainties pervade all such models, at every level: from the raw data to finite-precision implementation of numerical methods. The most rigorous way of quantifying the propagation of uncertainties is by embracing a Bayesian probabilistic approach. One of the simplest and most robust machine learning technique in the Bayesian framework is Gaussian Process regression and classification. Here, we present the application of Gaussian Processes to the problems of the DST geomagnetic index forecast, the solar wind type classification, and the estimation of diffusion parameters in radiation belt modeling. In each of these very diverse problems, the GP approach rigorously provide forecasts in the form of predictive distributions. In turn, these distributions can be used as input for ensemble simulations in order to quantify the amplification of uncertainties. We show that we have achieved excellent results in all of the standard metrics to evaluate our models, with very modest computational cost.

  20. Solar Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk,

    2012-01-01

    Radio bursts from the Sun are produced by electron accelerated to relativistic energies by physical processes on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The radio bursts are thus good indicators of solar eruptions. Three types of nonthermal radio bursts are generally associated with CMEs. Type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines. The electrons are thought to be accelerated at the reconnection region beneath the erupting CME, although there is another view that the electrons may be accelerated at the CME-driven shock. Type II bursts are due to electrons accelerated at the shock front. Type II bursts are also excellent indicators of solar energetic particle (SEP) events because the same shock is supposed accelerate electrons and ions. There is a hierarchical relationship between the wavelength range of type /I bursts and the CME kinetic energy. Finally, Type IV bursts are due to electrons trapped in moving or stationary structures. The low frequency stationary type IV bursts are observed occasionally in association with very fast CMEs. These bursts originate from flare loops behind the erupting CME and hence indicate tall loops. This paper presents a summary of radio bursts and their relation to CMEs and how they can be useful for space weather predictions.

  1. NSF's Perspective on Space Weather Research for Building Forecasting Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Webb, D. F.; Oughton, E. J.; Azeem, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    Space weather research at the National Science Foundation (NSF) is focused on scientific discovery and on deepening knowledge of the Sun-Geospace system. The process of maturation of knowledge base is a requirement for the development of improved space weather forecast models and for the accurate assessment of potential mitigation strategies. Progress in space weather forecasting requires advancing in-depth understanding of the underlying physical processes, developing better instrumentation and measurement techniques, and capturing the advancements in understanding in large-scale physics based models that span the entire chain of events from the Sun to the Earth. This presentation will provide an overview of current and planned programs pertaining to space weather research at NSF and discuss the recommendations of the Geospace Section portfolio review panel within the context of space weather forecasting capabilities.

  2. New Space Weather Systems Under Development and Their Contribution to Space Weather Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Schunk, R.; Garrett, H.; Mertens, C.; Bowman, B.

    2008-12-01

    There have been notable successes during the past decade in the development of operational space environment systems. Examples include the Magnetospheric Specification Model (MSM) of the Earth's magnetosphere, 2000; SOLAR2000 (S2K) solar spectral irradiances, 2001; High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) neutral atmosphere densities, 2004; Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) ionosphere specification, 2006; Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry (HAF) solar wind parameters, 2007; Communication Alert and Prediction System (CAPS) ionosphere, high frequency radio, and scintillation S4 index prediction, 2008; and GEO Alert and Prediction System (GAPS) geosynchronous environment satellite charging specification and forecast, 2008. Operational systems that are in active operational implementation include the Jacchia-Bowman 2006/2008 (JB2006/2008) neutral atmosphere, 2009, and the Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) aviation radiation model using the Radiation Alert and Prediction System (RAPS), 2010. U.S. national agency and commercial assets will soon reach a state where specification and prediction will become ubiquitous and where coordinated management of the space environment and space weather will become a necessity. We describe the status of the CAPS, GAPS, RAPS, and JB2008 operational development. We additionally discuss the conditions that are laying the groundwork for space weather management and estimate the unfilled needs as we move beyond specification and prediction efforts.

  3. The effort to increase the space weather forecasting accuracy in KSWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition as the Regional Warning Center of the International Space Environment Service (ISES). KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. Recently, KSWC are focusing on increasing the accuracy of space weather forecasting results and verifying the model generated results. The forecasting accuracy will be calculated based on the probability statistical estimation so that the results can be compared numerically. Regarding the cosmic radiation does, we are gathering the actual measured data of radiation does using the instrument by cooperation with the domestic airlines. Based on the measurement, we are going to verify the reliability of SAFE system which was developed by KSWC to provide the cosmic radiation does information with the airplane cabin crew and public users.

  4. Operational Space Weather Products at IPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudegg, D.; Steward, G.; Marshall, R.; Terkildsen, M.; Kennewell, J.; Patterson, G.; Panwar, R.

    2008-12-01

    IPS Radio and Space Services operates an extensive network (IPSNET) of monitoring stations and observatories within the Australasian and Antarctic regions to gather information on the space environment. This includes ionosondes, magnetometers, GPS-ISM, oblique HF sounding, riometers, and solar radio and optical telescopes. IPS exchanges this information with similar organisations world-wide. The Regional Warning Centre (RWC) is the Australian Space Forecast Centre (ASFC) and it utilizes this data to provide products and services to support customer operations. A wide range of customers use IPS services including; defence force and emergency services using HF radio communications and surveillance systems, organisations involved in geophysical exploration and pipeline cathodic protection, GPS users in aviation. Subscriptions to the alerts, warnings, forecasts and reports regarding the solar, geophysical and ionospheric conditions are distributed by email and Special Message Service (SMS). IPS also develops and markets widely used PC software prediction tools for HF radio skywave and surface wave (ASAPS/GWPS) and provides consultancy services for system planning.

  5. Solar energetic particles and space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.

    2001-02-01

    The solar energetic particles (SEPs) of consequence to space weather are accelerated at shock waves driven out from the Sun by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In the large events, these great shocks fill half of the heliosphere. SEP intensity profiles change appearance with longitude. Events with significant intensities of >10 MeV protons occur at an average rate of ~13 yr-1 near solar maximum and several events with high intensities of >100 MeV protons occur each decade. As particles stream out along magnetic field lines from a shock near the Sun, they generate waves that scatter subsequent particles. At high intensities, wave growth throttles the flow below the ``streaming limit.'' However, if the shock maintains its strength, particle intensities can rise above this limit to a peak when the shock itself passes over the observer creating a `delayed' radiation hazard, even for protons with energies up to ~1 GeV. The streaming limit makes us blind to the intensities at the oncoming shock, however, heavier elements such as He, O, and Fe probe the shape of the wave spectrum, and variation in abundances of these elements allow us to evade the limit and probe conditions at the shock, with the aid of detailed modeling. At high energies, spectra steepen to form a spectral `knee.' The location of the proton spectral knee can vary from ~10 MeV to ~1 GeV, depending on shock conditions, greatly affecting the radiation hazard. Hard spectra are a serious threat to astronauts, placing challenging requirements for shielding, especially on long-duration missions to the moon or Mars. .

  6. Methane monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, C.; Alpers, M.; Millet, B.; Ehret, G.; Flamant, P.

    2017-11-01

    Methane is one of the strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gases. It contributes by its radiative forcing significantly to the global warming. For a better understanding of climate changes, it is necessary to apply precise space-based measurement techniques in order to obtain a global view on the complex processes that control the methane concentration in the atmosphere. The MERLIN mission is a joint French-German cooperation, on a micro satellite mission for space-based measurement of spatial and temporal gradients of atmospheric methane columns on a global scale. MERLIN will be the first Integrated Path Differential Absorption LIDAR for greenhouse gas monitoring from space. In contrast to passive methane missions, the LIDAR instrument allows measurements at alllatitudes, all-seasons and during night.

  7. New Federal Government Space Weather Website and Document Repository Launched

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonadonna, Michael; Jonas, Seth; McNamara, Erin

    2017-11-01

    On Tuesday, 19 September 2017, the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center and Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology (OFCM) launched the new Space Weather Operations, Research, and Mitigation website SWORM.GOV. The website provides access to the public to Federal activities supporting the Executive Office of the President National Science and Technology Council SWORM Subcommittee as well as other activities and events relevant to the National Space Weather Enterprise. SWORM.GOV was approved by the SWORM Subcommittee, funded by NOAA, and maintained by OFCM.

  8. Wireless sensor network for monitoring soil moisture and weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) was developed and deployed in three fields to monitor soil water status and collect weather data for irrigation scheduling. The WSN consists of soil-water sensors, weather sensors, wireless data loggers, and a wireless modem. Soil-water sensors were installed at three...

  9. Growing Diversity in Space Weather and Climate Change Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. P.; Ng, C.; Marchese, P.; Austin, S.; Frost, J.; Cheung, T. D.; Robbins, I.; Carlson, B. E.; Steiner, J. C.; Tremberger, G.; Paglione, T.; Damas, C.; Howard, A.; Scalzo, F.

    2013-12-01

    Space Weather and Global Climate Impacts are critical items on the present national and international science agendas. Understanding and forecasting solar activity is increasingly important for manned space flight, unmanned missions (including communications satellites, satellites that monitor the space and earth environment), and regional power grids. The ability to predict the effects of forcings and feedback mechanisms on global and local climate is critical to survival of the inhabitants of planet Earth. It is therefore important to motivate students to continue their studies via advanced degrees and pursue careers related to these areas. This CUNY-based initiative, supported by NASA and NSF, provided undergraduate research experience for more than 70 students in topics ranging from urban impacts of global climate change to magnetic rope structure, solar flares and CMEs. Other research topics included investigations of the ionosphere using a CubeSat, stratospheric aerosols in Jupiter's atmosphere, and ocean climate modeling. Mentors for the primarily summer research experiences included CUNY faculty, GISS and GSFC scientists. Students were recruited from CUNY colleges as well as other colleges including Spelman, Cornell, Rutgers and SUNY colleges. Fifty-eight percent of the undergraduate students were under-represented minorities and thirty-four percent were female. Many of the research teams included high school teachers and students as well as graduate students. Supporting workshops for students included data analysis and visualization tools, space weather, planetary energy balance and BalloonSats. The project is supported by NASA awards NNX10AE72G and NNX09AL77G, and NSF REU Site award 0851932.

  10. Cost-Loss Analysis of Ensemble Solar Wind Forecasting: Space Weather Use of Terrestrial Weather Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E. M.; Pope, E. C. D.

    2017-12-01

    This commentary concerns recent work on solar wind forecasting by Owens and Riley (2017). The approach taken makes effective use of tools commonly used in terrestrial weather—notably, via use of a simple model—generation of an "ensemble" forecast, and application of a "cost-loss" analysis to the resulting probabilistic information, to explore the benefit of this forecast to users with different risk appetites. This commentary aims to highlight these useful techniques to the wider space weather audience and to briefly discuss the general context of application of terrestrial weather approaches to space weather.

  11. Integration of Space Weather Forecasts into Space Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, G.

    2012-09-01

    How would the US respond to a clandestine attack that disabled one of our satellites? How would we know that it was an attack, not a natural failure? The goal of space weather programs as applied to space protection are simple: Provide a rapid and reliable assessment of the probability that satellite or system failure was caused by the space environment. Achieving that goal is not as simple. However, great strides are being made on a number of fronts. We will report on recent successes in providing rapid, automated anomaly/attack assessment for the penetrating radiation environment in the Earth's radiation belts. We have previously reported on the Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) that was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to assess hazards posed by the natural and by nuclear radiation belts. This year we will report on recent developments that are moving this program from the research, test, and evaluation phases to real-time implementation and application. We will discuss the challenges of leveraging space environment data sets for applications that are beyond the scope of mission requirements, the challenges of moving data from where they exist to where they are needed, the challenges of turning data into actionable information, and how those challenges were overcome. We will discuss the state-of-the-art as it exists in 2012 including the new capabilities that have been enabled and the limitations that still exist. We will also discuss how currently untapped data resources could advance the state-of-the-art and the future steps for implementing automatic real-time anomaly forensics.

  12. Space weather biological and systems effects for suborbital flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    The Aerospace Corporation was tasked to assess the impacts of space weather on both RLVs and ELVs operating at suborbital altitudes from launch sites located in the low (equatorial regions), middle, and high latitudes. The present report presents a b...

  13. Workshop Report on Space Weather Risks and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, Stephanie R.; Straume, Tore

    2012-01-01

    As technological innovations produce new capabilities, complexities, and interdependencies, our susceptibility to the societal impacts of space weather increase. There is real concern in the scientific community that our infrastructure would be at significant risk if a major geomagnetic storm should occur. To discuss the societal impacts of space weather, we brought together an interdisciplinary group of subject matter experts and societal stakeholders to participate in a workshop entitled Space Weather Risks and Society. The workshop was held at Ames Research Center (ARC) on 15-16 October 2011. The workshop was co-sponsored by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (LMATC), the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC, part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA), and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL, part of the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council STFC). The workshop is part of a series of informal weekend workshops hosted by Center Director Pete Worden.

  14. Challenges for Transitioning Science Research to Space Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James

    2013-01-01

    Effectively transitioning science knowledge to useful applications relevant to space weather has become important. The effort to transition scientific knowledge to a useful application is not a research nor is it operations, but an activity that connects two. Successful transitioning must be an intentional effort with a clear goal and measureable outcome. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective, and how in the current environment those can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  15. The Social and Economic Impacts of Space Weather (US Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Webb, D. F.; Oughton, E. J.; Worman, S. L.; Taylor, S. M.; Onsager, T. G.; Adkins, J. E.; Baker, D. N.; Forbes, K. F.; Basoli, D.; Griot, O.

    2017-12-01

    The National Space Weather Action Plan calls for new research into the social and economic impacts of space weather and for the development of quantitative estimates of potential costs. In response to this call, NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and Abt Associates are working together to identify, describe, and quantify the impact of space weather to U.S. interests. This study covers impacts resulting from both moderate and severe space weather events across four technological sectors: Electric power, commercial aviation, satellites, and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) users. It captures the full range of potential impacts, identified from an extensive literature review and from additional conversations with more than 50 sector stakeholders of diverse expertise from engineering to operations to end users. We organize and discuss our findings in terms of five broad but interrelated impact categories including Defensive Investments, Mitigating Actions, Asset Damages, Service Interruptions, and Health Effects. We also present simple, tractable estimates of the potential costs where we focused on quantifying a subset of all identified impacts that are apt to be largest and are also most plausible during moderate and more severe space weather scenarios. We hope that our systematic exploration of the social and economic impacts provides a foundation for the future work that is critical for designing technologies, developing procedures, and implementing policies that can effectively reduce our known and evolving vulnerabilities to this natural hazard.

  16. Predicting Space Weather: Challenges for Research and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, H. J.; Onsager, T. G.; Rutledge, R.; Viereck, R. A.; Kunches, J.

    2013-12-01

    Society's growing dependence on technologies and infrastructure susceptible to the consequences of space weather has given rise to increased attention at the highest levels of government as well as inspired the need for both research and improved space weather services. In part, for these reasons, the number one goal of the recent National Research Council report on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics is to 'Determine the origins of the Sun's activity and predict the variations in the space environment.' Prediction of conditions in our space environment is clearly a challenge for both research and operations, and we require the near-term development and validation of models that have sufficient accuracy and lead time to be useful to those impacted by space weather. In this presentation, we will provide new scientific results of space weather conditions that have challenged space weather forecasters, and identify specific areas of research that can lead to improved capabilities. In addition, we will examine examples of customer impacts and requirements as well as the challenges to the operations community to establish metrics that enable the selection and transition of models and observations that can provide the greatest economic and societal benefit.

  17. Exploring the Architectural Tradespace of Severe Weather Monitoring Nanosatellite Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, N.; Selva, D.; Blackwell, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    MicroMAS-1, a 3U nanosatellite developed by MIT/LL, MIT/SSL, and University of Massachusetts, was launched on July 13, 2014 and is scheduled for deployment from the International Space Station in September. The development of MicroMAS motivates an architectural analysis of a constellation of nanosatellites with the goal of drastically reducing the cost of observing severe storms compared with current monolithic missions such as the Precision and All-Weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission from the NASA Decadal Survey. Our goal is to evolve the instrument capability on weather monitoring nanosatellites to achieve higher performance and better satisfy stakeholder needs. Clear definitions of performance requirements are critical in the conceptual design phase when much of the project's lifecycle cost and performance will be fixed. Ability to perform trade studies and optimization of performance needs with instrument capability will enable design teams to focus on key technologies that will introduce high value and high return on investment. In this work, we approach the significant trades and trends of constellations for monitoring severe storms by applying our rule-based decision support tool. We examine a subset of stakeholder groups listed in the OSCAR online database (e.g., weather, climate) that would benefit from severe storm weather data and their respective observation requirements (e.g. spatial resolution, accuracy). We use ten parameters in our analysis, including atmospheric temperature, humidity, and precipitation. We compare the performance and cost of thousands of different possible constellations. The constellations support hyperspectral sounders that cover different portions of the millimeter-wave spectrum (50-60 GHz, 118GHz, 183GHz) in different orbits, and the performance results are compared against those of the monolithic PATH mission. Our preliminary results indicate that constellations using the hyperspectral millimeter wave sounders can

  18. Arctic Region Space Weather Customers and SSA Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; Kauristi, Kirsti; Wintoft, Peter

    Arctic inhabitants, authorities, and companies rely strongly on precise localization information and communication covering vast areas with low infrastructure and population density. Thus modern technology is crucial for establishing knowledge that can lead to growth in the region. At the same time...... and communication can be established without errors resulting from Space Weather effects. An ESA project have identified and clarified, how the products of the four ESA Space Weather Expert Service Centres (SWE) in the ESA Space Situational Awareness Programme (SSA), can contribute to the requirements of SSA...

  19. Lanzerotti to Head New AGU Journal on Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    Louis J. Lanzerotti has been named editor of a new AGU online publication devoted to the emerging field of near-Earth space conditions and their effects on technical systems. Space Weather: The International Journal of Research and Applications, will be the first journal dedicated solely to the subject, and will include peer-reviewed research, as well as news, features, and opinion articles. A quarterly magazine digest will also be published from the online edition and distributed free of charge to space weather professionals. Lanzerotti, a longtime AGU member who was elected an AGU Fellow in 1985, is currently a consulting physicist at Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories, and a distinguished research professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. He also serves on the governing board of the American Institute of Physics. He is author or co-author of more than 500 publications, including many related to space weather and its effects on communications.

  20. The RMI Space Weather and Navigation Systems (SWANS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnant, Rene; Lejeune, Sandrine; Wautelet, Gilles; Spits, Justine; Stegen, Koen; Stankov, Stan

    The SWANS (Space Weather and Navigation Systems) research and development project (http://swans.meteo.be) is an initiative of the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) under the auspices of the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE). The RMI SWANS objectives are: research on space weather and its effects on GNSS applications; permanent mon-itoring of the local/regional geomagnetic and ionospheric activity; and development/operation of relevant nowcast, forecast, and alert services to help professional GNSS/GALILEO users in mitigating space weather effects. Several SWANS developments have already been implemented and available for use. The K-LOGIC (Local Operational Geomagnetic Index K Calculation) system is a nowcast system based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition, data screening, and calculating the local geomagnetic K index. Simultaneously, the planetary Kp index is estimated from solar wind measurements, thus adding to the service reliability and providing forecast capabilities as well. A novel hybrid empirical model, based on these ground-and space-based observations, has been implemented for nowcasting and forecasting the geomagnetic index, issuing also alerts whenever storm-level activity is indicated. A very important feature of the nowcast/forecast system is the strict control on the data input and processing, allowing for an immediate assessment of the output quality. The purpose of the LIEDR (Local Ionospheric Electron Density Reconstruction) system is to acquire and process data from simultaneous ground-based GNSS TEC and digital ionosonde measurements, and subsequently to deduce the vertical electron density distribution. A key module is the real-time estimation of the ionospheric slab thickness, offering additional infor-mation on the local ionospheric dynamics. The RTK (Real Time Kinematic) status mapping provides a quick look at the small-scale ionospheric effects on the RTK

  1. Space weather and power grids: findings and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Andersson, Emmelie; Murtagh, William; Mitchison, Neil

    2014-05-01

    The impact of space weather on the power grid is a tangible and recurring threat with potentially serious consequences on society. Of particular concern is the long-distance high-voltage power grid, which is vulnerable to the effects of geomagnetic storms that can damage or destroy equipment or lead to grid collapse. In order to launch a dialogue on the topic and encourage authorities, regulators and operators in European countries and North America to learn from each other, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, and NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Centre, with the contribution of the UK Civil Contingencies Secretariat, jointly organised a workshop on the impact of extreme space weather on the power grid on 29-30 October 2013. Being structured into 6 sessions, the topics addressed were space-weather phenomena and the dynamics of their impact on the grid, experiences with prediction and now-casting in the USA and in Europe, risk assessment and preparedness, as well as policy implications arising from increased awareness of the space-weather hazard. The main workshop conclusions are: • There is increasing awareness of the risk of space-weather impact among power-grid operators and regulators and some countries consider it a priority risk to be addressed. • The predictability of space-weather phenomena is still limited and relies, in part, on data from ageing satellites. NOAA is working with NASA to launch the DSCOVR solar wind spacecraft, the replacement for the ACE satellite, in early 2015. • In some countries, models and tools for GIC prediction and grid impact assessment have been developed in collaboration with national power grids but equipment vulnerability models are scarce. • Some countries have successfully hardened their transmission grids to space-weather impact and sustained relatively little or no damage due to currents induced by past moderate space-weather events. • While there is preparedness

  2. Taking Risks for the Future of Space Weather Forecasting, Research, and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Li, X.; Turner, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Taking Risks for the Future of Space Weather Forecasting, Research, and Operations The need for highly improved space weather modeling and monitoring is quickly becoming imperative as our society depends ever more on the sensitive technology that builds and connects our world. Instead of relying primarily on tried and true concepts, academic institutions and funding agencies alike should be focusing on truly new and innovative ways to solve this pressing problem. In this exciting time, where student-led groups can launch CubeSats for under a million dollars and companies like SpaceX are actively reducing the cost-cap of access to space, the space physics community should be pushing the boundaries of what is possible to enhance our understanding of the space environment. Taking great risks in instrumentation, mission concepts, operational development, collaborations, and scientific research is the best way to move our field forward to where it needs to be for the betterment of science and society.

  3. Forecasting Space Weather-Induced GPS Performance Degradation Using Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filjar, R.; Filic, M.; Milinkovic, F.

    2017-12-01

    Space weather and ionospheric dynamics have a profound effect on positioning performance of the Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS). However, the quantification of that effect is still the subject of scientific activities around the world. In the latest contribution to the understanding of the space weather and ionospheric effects on satellite-based positioning performance, we conducted a study of several candidates for forecasting method for space weather-induced GPS positioning performance deterioration. First, a 5-days set of experimentally collected data was established, encompassing the space weather and ionospheric activity indices (including: the readings of the Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) monitors, components of geomagnetic field strength, global Kp index, Dst index, GPS-derived Total Electron Content (TEC) samples, standard deviation of TEC samples, and sunspot number) and observations of GPS positioning error components (northing, easting, and height positioning error) derived from the Adriatic Sea IGS reference stations' RINEX raw pseudorange files in quiet space weather periods. This data set was split into the training and test sub-sets. Then, a selected set of supervised machine learning methods based on Random Forest was applied to the experimentally collected data set in order to establish the appropriate regional (the Adriatic Sea) forecasting models for space weather-induced GPS positioning performance deterioration. The forecasting models were developed in the R/rattle statistical programming environment. The forecasting quality of the regional forecasting models developed was assessed, and the conclusions drawn on the advantages and shortcomings of the regional forecasting models for space weather-caused GNSS positioning performance deterioration.

  4. Extreme Space Weather Events: From Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Pete; Baker, Dan; Liu, Ying D.; Verronen, Pekka; Singer, Howard; Güdel, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Extreme space weather events, while rare, can have a substantial impact on our technologically-dependent society. And, although such events have only occasionally been observed, through careful analysis of a wealth of space-based and ground-based observations, historical records, and extrapolations from more moderate events, we have developed a basic picture of the components required to produce them. Several key issues, however, remain unresolved. For example, what limits are imposed on the maximum size of such events? What are the likely societal consequences of a so-called "100-year" solar storm? In this review, we summarize our current scientific understanding about extreme space weather events as we follow several examples from the Sun, through the solar corona and inner heliosphere, across the magnetospheric boundary, into the ionosphere and atmosphere, into the Earth's lithosphere, and, finally, its impact on man-made structures and activities, such as spacecraft, GPS signals, radio communication, and the electric power grid. We describe preliminary attempts to provide probabilistic forecasts of extreme space weather phenomena, and we conclude by identifying several key areas that must be addressed if we are better able to understand, and, ultimately, predict extreme space weather events.

  5. Space weather in the EU’s FP7 Space Theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiarini Paola

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Technological infrastructures in space and on ground provide services on which modern society and economies rely. Space weather related research is funded under the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Innovation (FP7 of the European Union in response to the need of protecting such critical infrastructures from the damage which could be caused by extreme space weather events. The calls for proposals published under the topic “Security of space assets from space weather events” of the FP7 Space Theme aimed to improve forecasts and predictions of disruptive space weather events as well as identify best practices to limit the impacts on space- and ground-based infrastructures and their data provision. Space weather related work was also funded under the topic “Exploitation of space science and exploration data”, which aims to add value to space missions and Earth-based observations by contributing to the effective scientific exploitation of collected data. Since 2007 a total of 20 collaborative projects have been funded, covering a variety of physical phenomena associated with space weather, from ionospheric disturbances and scintillation, to geomagnetically induced currents at Earth’s surface, to coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles. This article provides an overview of the funded projects, touching upon some results and referring to specific websites for a more exhaustive description of the projects’ outcomes.

  6. Planetary Space Weather Services for the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Nicolas; Grande, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Under Horizon 2020, the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI) will include an entirely new Virtual Access Service, WP5 VA1 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) that will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. VA1 will make five entirely new 'toolkits' accessible to the research community and to industrial partners planning for space missions: a general planetary space weather toolkit, as well as three toolkits dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support ExoMars), comets (building on the expected success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUICE mission to be launched in 2022). This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. It will also create a novel event-diary toolkit aiming at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. So WP10 JRA4 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. The overall objectives of this Joint Research Aactivities will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools available within the partner institutes in order to make prototype planetary event and space weather services operational in

  7. Characterizing Space Weather Effects in the Post-DMSP Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather generally refers to heliophysical phenomena or events that produce a negative impact on manmade systems. While many space weather events originate with impulsive disturbances on the sun, others result from complex internal interactions in the ionosphere-thermosphere system. The reliance of mankind on satellite-based services continues to increase rapidly, yet the global capacity for sensing space weather in the ionosphere seems headed towards decline. A number of recent ionospheric-focused space-based missions are either presently, or soon-to-be, no longer available, and the end of the multi-decade Defense Meteorological Satellite Program is now in sight. The challenge facing the space weather community is how to maintain or increase sensing capabilities in an operational environment constrained by a decreasing numbers of sensors. The upcoming launch of COSMIC-2 in 2016/2018 represents the most significant new capability planned for the future. GNSS RO data has some benefit for background ionospheric models, particularly over regions where ground-based GNSS TEC measurements are unavailable, but the space weather community has a dire need to leverage such missions for far more knowledge of the ionosphere, and specifically for information related to space weather impacts. Meanwhile, the number of ground-based GNSS sensors worldwide has increased substantially, yet progress instrumenting some vastly undersampled regions, such as Africa, remains slow. In fact, the recent loss of support for many existing ground stations in such areas under the former Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) program may actually result in a decrease in such sensing sites over the next 1-2 years, abruptly reversing a positive trend established over the last decade. Here we present potential solutions to the challenges these developments pose to the space weather enterprise. Specific topics include modeling advances required to detect and accurately characterize

  8. Future Missions for Space Weather Specifications and Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsager, T. G.; Biesecker, D. A.; Anthes, R. A.; Maier, M. W.; Gallagher, F. W., III; St Germain, K.

    2017-12-01

    The progress of technology and the global integration of our economic and security infrastructures have introduced vulnerabilities to space weather that demand a more comprehensive ability to specify and to predict the dynamics of the space environment. This requires a comprehensive network of real-time space-based and ground-based observations with long-term continuity. In order to determine the most cost effective space architectures for NOAA's weather, space weather, and environmental missions, NOAA conducted the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study. This presentation will summarize the process used to document the future needs and the relative priorities for NOAA's operational space-based observations. This involves specifying the most important observations, defining the performance attributes at different levels of capability, and assigning priorities for achieving the higher capability levels. The highest priority observations recommended by the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG) for improvement above a minimal capability level will be described. Finally, numerous possible satellite architectures have been explored to assess the costs and benefits of various architecture configurations.

  9. Evaluating Space Weather Architecture Options to Support Human Deep Space Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L.; Minow, J.; Pulkkinen, A.; Fry, D.; Semones, E.; Allen, J.; St Cyr, C.; Mertens, C.; Jun, I.; Onsager, T.; Hock, R.

    2018-02-01

    NASA's Engineering and Space Center (NESC) is conducting an independent technical assessment of space environment monitoring and forecasting architecture options to support human and robotic deep space exploration.

  10. GOES-16 Space Weather Data Availability and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, M.; Rowland, W. F.; Codrescu, S.; Seaton, D. B.; Redmon, R. J.; Hsu, V.

    2017-12-01

    In November 2016, NOAA launched the first in the "R" series of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, GOES-16. Compared to its GOES predecessors, the GOES-R series satellites provide improved in situ measurements of charged particles, higher cadence magnetic field measurements, and enhanced remote sensing of the sun through ultraviolet (UV) imagery and X-ray/UV irradiance. GOES-16 space weather instruments will nominally reach provisional status near the beginning of 2018. After this milestone has been achieved, NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) will provide archive access to GOES-16 space weather data. This presentation will describe the status of the space weather instruments, including available products and their applicability for forecasters, modelers, academics, spacecraft operators, and other users. It will discuss the available access systems for all levels of data-raw telemetry (Level 0), science measurements in high resolution (L1b), and higher-level (L2+) products developed by NCEI scientists. Finally, it will cover NCEI's efforts to promote space weather awareness through data visualization tools and image dissemination via the Helioviewer project.

  11. Space Weathering Evolution on Airless Bodies - Laboratory Simulations with Olivine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Čuda, J.; Bradley, T.; Britt, D.; Filip, J.; Tuček, J.; Malina, O.; Kašlík, J.; Šišková, K.; Zbořil, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2013), s. 25-26 ISSN 0002-7537. [Annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society /45./. 06.10.2013-11.10.2013, Denver] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : space weathering * asteroid * Moon * olivine Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://aas.org/files/resources/dps_abstract_book.pdf

  12. Space Weather Effects Produced by the Ring Current Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushkina, Natalia; Jaynes, Allison; Liemohn, Michael

    2017-11-01

    One of the definitions of space weather describes it as the time-varying space environment that may be hazardous to technological systems in space and/or on the ground and/or endanger human health or life. The ring current has its contributions to space weather effects, both in terms of particles, ions and electrons, which constitute it, and magnetic and electric fields produced and modified by it at the ground and in space. We address the main aspects of the space weather effects from the ring current starting with brief review of ring current discovery and physical processes and the Dst-index and predictions of the ring current and storm occurrence based on it. Special attention is paid to the effects on satellites produced by the ring current electrons. The ring current is responsible for several processes in the other inner magnetosphere populations, such as the plasmasphere and radiation belts which is also described. Finally, we discuss the ring current influence on the ionosphere and the generation of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC).

  13. THE SPACE WEATHER OF PROXIMA CENTAURI b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraffo, C.; Drake, J. J.; Cohen, O.

    2016-01-01

    A planet orbiting in the “habitable zone” of our closest neighboring star, Proxima Centauri, has recently been discovered, and the next natural question is whether or not Proxima b is “habitable.” Stellar winds are likely a source of atmospheric erosion that could be particularly severe in the case of M dwarf habitable zone planets that reside close to their parent star. Here, we study the stellar wind conditions that Proxima b experiences over its orbit. We construct 3D MHD models of the wind and magnetic field around Proxima Centauri using a surface magnetic field map for a star of the same spectral type and scaled to match the observed ∼600 G surface magnetic field strength of Proxima. We examine the wind conditions and dynamic pressure over different plausible orbits that sample the constrained parameters of the orbit of Proxima b. For all the parameter space explored, the planet is subject to stellar wind pressures of more than 2000 times those experienced by Earth from the solar wind. During an orbit, Proxima b is also subject to pressure changes of 1–3 orders of magnitude on timescales of a day. Its magnetopause standoff distance consequently undergoes sudden and periodic changes by a factor of 2–5. Proxima b will traverse the interplanetary current sheet twice each orbit, and likely crosses into regions of subsonic wind quite frequently. These effects should be taken into account in any physically realistic assessment or prediction of its atmospheric reservoir, characteristics, and loss.

  14. THE SPACE WEATHER OF PROXIMA CENTAURI b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garraffo, C.; Drake, J. J.; Cohen, O., E-mail: cgaraffo@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    A planet orbiting in the “habitable zone” of our closest neighboring star, Proxima Centauri, has recently been discovered, and the next natural question is whether or not Proxima b is “habitable.” Stellar winds are likely a source of atmospheric erosion that could be particularly severe in the case of M dwarf habitable zone planets that reside close to their parent star. Here, we study the stellar wind conditions that Proxima b experiences over its orbit. We construct 3D MHD models of the wind and magnetic field around Proxima Centauri using a surface magnetic field map for a star of the same spectral type and scaled to match the observed ∼600 G surface magnetic field strength of Proxima. We examine the wind conditions and dynamic pressure over different plausible orbits that sample the constrained parameters of the orbit of Proxima b. For all the parameter space explored, the planet is subject to stellar wind pressures of more than 2000 times those experienced by Earth from the solar wind. During an orbit, Proxima b is also subject to pressure changes of 1–3 orders of magnitude on timescales of a day. Its magnetopause standoff distance consequently undergoes sudden and periodic changes by a factor of 2–5. Proxima b will traverse the interplanetary current sheet twice each orbit, and likely crosses into regions of subsonic wind quite frequently. These effects should be taken into account in any physically realistic assessment or prediction of its atmospheric reservoir, characteristics, and loss.

  15. Random Vibration of Space Shuttle Weather Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Elishakoff

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with random vibrations of the space shuttle weather protection systems. The excitation model represents a fit to the measured experimental data. The cross-spectral density is given as a convex combination of three exponential functions. It is shown that for the type of loading considered, the Bernoulli-Euler theory cannot be used as a simplified approach, and the structure will be more properly modeled as a Timoshenko beam. Use of the simple Bernoulli-Euler theory may result in an error of about 50% in determining the mean-square value of the bending moment in the weather protection system.

  16. Aurorasaurus: Citizen Scientists Experiencing Extremes of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, E.; Hall, M.; Tapia, A.

    2013-12-01

    Aurorasaurus is a new citizen science mapping platform to nowcast the visibility of the Northern Lights for the public in the current solar maximum, the first with social media. As a recently funded NSF INSPIRE program, we have joint goals among three research disciplines: space weather forecasting, the study of human-computer interactions, and informal science education. We will highlight results from the prototype www.aurorasaurus.org and outline future efforts to motivate online participants and crowdsource viable data. Our citizen science effort is unique among space programs as it includes both reporting observations and data analysis activities to engage the broadest participant network possible. In addition, our efforts to improve space weather nowcasting by including real-time mapping of ground truth observers for rare, sporadic events are a first in the field.

  17. Space Weather Research Presented at the 2007 AGU Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-12-01

    AGU's 47th annual Fall Meeting, held 10-14 December 2007 in San Francisco, Calif., was the largest gathering of geoscientists in the Union's history. More than 14,600 people attended. The Space Physics and Aeronomy (SPA) sections sported excellent turnout, with more than 1300 abstracts submitted over 114 poster and oral sessions. Topics discussed that related to space weather were manifold: the nature of the Sun-Earth system revealed through newly launched satellites, observations and models of ionospheric convection, advances in the understanding of radiation belt physics, Sun-Earth coupling via energetic coupling, data management and archiving into virtual observatories, and the applications of all this research to space weather forecasting and prediction.

  18. The application of heliospheric imaging to space weather operations: Lessons learned from published studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard A.; Davies, Jackie A.; Biesecker, Doug; Gibbs, Mark

    2017-08-01

    The field of heliospheric imaging has matured significantly over the last 10 years—corresponding, in particular, to the launch of NASA's STEREO mission and the successful operation of the heliospheric imager (HI) instruments thereon. In parallel, this decade has borne witness to a marked increase in concern over the potentially damaging effects of space weather on space and ground-based technological assets, and the corresponding potential threat to human health, such that it is now under serious consideration at governmental level in many countries worldwide. Hence, in a political climate that recognizes the pressing need for enhanced operational space weather monitoring capabilities most appropriately stationed, it is widely accepted, at the Lagrangian L1 and L5 points, it is timely to assess the value of heliospheric imaging observations in the context of space weather operations. To this end, we review a cross section of the scientific analyses that have exploited heliospheric imagery—particularly from STEREO/HI—and discuss their relevance to operational predictions of, in particular, coronal mass ejection (CME) arrival at Earth and elsewhere. We believe that the potential benefit of heliospheric images to the provision of accurate CME arrival predictions on an operational basis, although as yet not fully realized, is significant and we assert that heliospheric imagery is central to any credible space weather mission, particularly one located at a vantage point off the Sun-Earth line.

  19. Possible space weather influence on the Earth wheat prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustil'Nik, L.; Yom Din, G.; Dorman, L.

    We present development of our study of possible influence of space weather modulated by cycle of solar activity on the price bursts in the Earth markets In our previous works 1 2 we showed that correspondent response may have place in the specific locations characterized by a high sensitivity of the weather cloudiness in particular to cosmic ray variation b risk zone agriculture c isolated wheat market with limited external supply of agriculture production We showed that in this situation we may wait specific price burst reaction on unfavorable phase of solar activity and space weather what lead to corresponding abnormalities in the local weather and next crop failure We showed that main types of manifestation of this connection are a Distribution of intervals between price bursts must be like to the distribution of intervals between correspondent extremes of solar activity minimums or maximums b price asymmetry between opposite states of solar activity price in the one type of activity state is systematically higher then in the opposite one We showed in our previous publications that this influence in interval distribution is detected with high reliability in Mediaeval England 1250-1700 both for wheat prices and price of consumables basket We showed that for period of Maunder Minimum price asymmetry of wheat prices observed all prices in minimum state of solar activity was higher the prices in the next maximum state We showed later that this price asymmetry had place in 20-th century in USA durum prices too In

  20. Ionospheric Response to Extremes in the Space Environment: Establishing Benchmarks for the Space Weather Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, R. A.; Azeem, S. I.

    2017-12-01

    One of the goals of the National Space Weather Action Plan is to establish extreme event benchmarks. These benchmarks are estimates of environmental parameters that impact technologies and systems during extreme space weather events. Quantitative assessment of anticipated conditions during these extreme space weather event will enable operators and users of affected technologies to develop plans for mitigating space weather risks and improve preparedness. The ionosphere is one of the most important regions of space because so many applications either depend on ionospheric space weather for their operation (HF communication, over-the-horizon radars), or can be deleteriously affected by ionospheric conditions (e.g. GNSS navigation and timing, UHF satellite communications, synthetic aperture radar, HF communications). Since the processes that influence the ionosphere vary over time scales from seconds to years, it continues to be a challenge to adequately predict its behavior in many circumstances. Estimates with large uncertainties, in excess of 100%, may result in operators of impacted technologies over or under preparing for such events. The goal of the next phase of the benchmarking activity is to reduce these uncertainties. In this presentation, we will focus on the sources of uncertainty in the ionospheric response to extreme geomagnetic storms. We will then discuss various research efforts required to better understand the underlying processes of ionospheric variability and how the uncertainties in ionospheric response to extreme space weather could be reduced and the estimates improved.

  1. Stronger Collaborations Needed for Successful Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasofu, Syun-Ichi

    2007-12-01

    One of the purposes of space weather research is to predict when and how the electromagnetic environment around the Earth will be disturbed after specific (solar storms,) which are defined here as various transient solar phenomena that occur at the time of solar flares [Akasofu and Chapman, 1972]. Accurate space weather predictions require an integrating and synthesizing research effort by a close collaboration among solar physicists, interplanetary physicists, magnetospheric physicists, and upper atmosphere physicists. Unfortunately, such integration/synthesis (I/S) projects in the past have often become an umbrella under which individual researchers in the four disciplines pursue only subjects of their own interests, disintegrate into individual projects, and even encourage the trend of infinite specialization because of the potential availability of additional funds.

  2. On the Nature of People's Reaction to Space Weather and Meteorological Weather Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, O. V.; Dimitrova, S.

    2009-12-01

    Our environment includes many natural and artificial agents affecting any person on the Earth in one way or other. This work is focused on two of them - weather and space weather, which are permanently effective. Their cumulative effect is proved by means of the modeling. It is shown that combination of geomagnetic and solar indices and weather strength parameter (which includes six main meteorological parameters) correlates with health state significantly better (up to R=0.7), than separate environmental parameters do. The typical shape of any health characteristics' time-series during human body reaction to any negative impact represents a curve, well-known in medicine as a General Adaptation Syndrome curve by Hans Selye. We demonstrate this on the base of blood pressure time-series and acupunctural experiment data, averaged by group. The first stage of adaptive stress-reaction (resistance to stress) is sometimes observed 1-2 days before geomagnetic storm onset. The effect of "outstripping reaction to magnetic storm", named Tchizhevsky- Velkhover effect, had been known for many years, but its explanation was obtained recently due to the consideration of the near-Earth space plasma processes. It was shown that lowfrequency variations of the solar wind density on a background of the density growth can stimulate the development of the geomagnetic filed (GMF) variations of the wide frequency range. These variations seem to have "bioeffective frequencies", resonant with own frequencies of body organs and systems. The mechanism of human body reaction is supposed to be a parametrical resonance in low-frequency range (which is determined by the resonance in large-scale organs and systems) and a simple forced resonance in GHz-range of variations (the resonance of micro-objects in the organism such as DNA, cell membranes, blood ions etc.) Given examples of mass-reaction of the objects to ULF-range GMF variations during quiet space weather time prove this hypothesis.

  3. Briefing Highlights Vulnerability of GPS to Adverse Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    Through its effects on GPS and other technologies, space weather can affect a variety of industries, including agriculture, commercial air travel, and emergency response. Speakers focused on these topics at a 22 June briefing on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. Solar flares can produce radio bursts that directly interfere with GPS signals. Solar activity can also cause ionospheric disturbances that produce distortions and delays in GPS signals, degrading the accuracy of positioning and navigation systems.

  4. Space Weather Concerns for All-Electric Propulsion Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Richard B.; Pitchford, David

    2015-08-01

    The introduction of all-electric propulsion satellites is a game changer in the quest for low-cost access to space. It also raises new questions for satellite manufacturers, operators, and the insurance industry regarding the general risks and specifically the threat of adverse space weather. The issues surrounding this new concept were discussed by research scientists and up to 30 representatives from the space industry at a special meeting at the European Space Weather Week held in November 2014. Here we report on the discussions at that meeting. We show that for a satellite undergoing electric orbit raising for 200 days the radiation dose due to electrons is equivalent to approximately 6.7 year operation at geostationary orbit or approximately half the typical design life. We also show that electrons can be injected into the slot region (8000 km) where they pose a risk of satellite internal charging. The results highlight the importance of additional radiation protection. We also discuss the benefits, the operational considerations, the other risks from the Van Allen radiation belts, the new business opportunities for space insurance, and the need for space situation awareness in medium Earth orbit where electric orbit raising takes place.

  5. Effects of Space Weathering on Reflectance Spectra of Ureilites: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Gillis-Davis, J.; Cloutis, E.; Applin, D.; Hibbits, C.; Klima, R.; Christoffersen, R.; Fries, M.; Decker, S.

    2017-07-01

    Space weathering and spectral studies of three ureilitic samples show that space weathering causes significant changes in UV-VIS-IR spectra and Raman spectra. Changes due to amorphization of carbon could disguise ureilitic asteroids as CC-like.

  6. Environment monitoring from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental problems such as acid rain, ozone depletion, deforestation, erosion, and the greenhouse effect are of increasing concern, and continuous earth observation from artificial satellites has been contributing significant information on the environment since the 1960s. Earth observation from space has the advantages of wide area coverage at potentially high resolutions, periodic and long-term observation capability, data acquisition with uniform quality and repeatability, and ability to observe using different types of sensors. Problems to be solved in earth observation include the need for preprocessing of satellite data, understanding the relationship between observed physical parameters and objects, and the high volume of data for processing. In Japan, a research project on the higher-order utilization of remote sensing data from space was organized in 1985, and the results led to recognition of the importance of satellite observation. It was then decided to undertake a program to improve the understanding of the earth environment by satellite. Five research plans were selected: a basic study on earth observation by microwaves; global change analysis of the biosphere; a study of the physical process of the water cycle over land; a study of air-sea interaction; and higher-order processing of earth observation information. In recognition of the international nature of satellite data, as well as the capabilities of Canada and Japan in computer, communication, and multimedia technologies, bilateral cooperation is proposed in the area of earth environment information systems based on satellite observation

  7. The Origin of the "Seasons" in Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikpati, Mausumi; Cally, Paul S.; McIntosh, Scott W.; Heifetz, Eyal

    2017-11-01

    Powerful `space weather' events caused by solar activity pose serious risks to human health, safety, economic activity and national security. Spikes in deaths due to heart attacks, strokes and other diseases occurred during prolonged power outages. Currently it is hard to prepare for and mitigate the impact of space weather because it is impossible to forecast the solar eruptions that can cause these terrestrial events until they are seen on the Sun. However, as recently reported in Nature, eruptive events like coronal mass ejections and solar flares, are organized into quasi-periodic "seasons", which include enhanced bursts of eruptions for several months, followed by quiet periods. We explored the dynamics of sunspot-producing magnetic fields and discovered for the first time that bursty and quiet seasons, manifested in surface magnetic structures, can be caused by quasi-periodic energy-exchange among magnetic fields, Rossby waves and differential rotation of the solar interior shear-layer (called tachocline). Our results for the first time provide a quantitative physical mechanism for forecasting the strength and duration of bursty seasons several months in advance, which can greatly enhance our ability to warn humans about dangerous solar bursts and prevent damage to satellites and power stations from space weather events.

  8. National Space Weather Program Releases Strategy for the New Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Samuel P.; Babcock, Michael R.; Bonadonna, Michael F.

    2010-12-01

    The National Space Weather Program (NSWP; http://www.nswp.gov) is a U.S. federal government interagency program established by the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology (OFCM) in 1995 to coordinate, collaborate, and leverage capabilities across stakeholder agencies, including space weather researchers, service providers, users, policy makers, and funding agencies, to improve the performance of the space weather enterprise for the United States and its international partners. Two important documents released in recent months have established a framework and the vision, goals, and strategy to move the enterprise forward in the next decade. The U.S. federal agency members of the NSWP include the departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, Interior, State, and Transportation, plus NASA, the National Science Foundation, and observers from the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). The OFCM is also working with the Department of Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency to formally join the program.

  9. GOES-R Space Weather Data: Achieving User Ready Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, W. F.; Tilton, M.; Redmon, R. J.; Goodman, S. J.; Comerford, M.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasters and the science community will rely on improved Space Weather products from the next generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R Series) for decades to come. Many issues must be successfully addressed in order to produce useful products. The instruments themselves and their basic scientific measurements (Level 1b data, i.e. L1b) must be calibrated and validated. Algorithms must be created to transform L1b into the specific environmental parameters that are of interest to forecasters and the community (Level 2+, i.e. L2+). In the case of Space Weather data, because the L2+ products are not generated within the core GOES-R Ground Segment, a separate system had to be developed in order to implement the L2+ products. Finally, the products must be made available to real time and retrospective users, as well as preserved for future generations. We give an overview of the path to production of the GOES-R Space Weather products, and the role of the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) in this process.

  10. Space weather effects measured in atmospheric radiation on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, K.; Wieman, S. R.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Bell, L. D.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Jones, J. B. L.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, S. I.; Halford, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Since 2013 Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes using a small fleet of six instruments. The objective of this work is to improve radiation risk management in air traffic operations. Under the auspices of the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) projects our team is making dose rate measurements on multiple aircraft flying global routes. Over 174 ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), Solar Energetic Protons (SEPs), and outer radiation belt energetic electrons. The real-time radiation exposure is measured as an absorbed dose rate in silicon and then computed as an ambient dose equivalent rate for reporting dose relevant to radiative-sensitive organs and tissue in units of microsieverts per hour. ARMAS total ionizing absorbed dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into ambient dose equivalent rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users. Dose rates from flight altitudes up to 56,700 ft. are shown for flights across the planet under a variety of space weather conditions. We discuss several space weather

  11. Comparative Science and Space Weather Around the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Manuel; Andre, Nicolas; COSPAR/ILWS Roadmap Team

    2016-10-01

    Space weather refers to the variable state of the coupled space environment related to changing conditions on the Sun and in the terrestrial atmosphere. The presentation will focus on the critical missing knowledge or observables needed to significantly advance our modelling and forecasting capabilities throughout the solar system putting these in perspective to the recommendations in the recent COSPAR/ILWS roadmap. The COSPAR/ILWS RoadMap focuses on high-priority challenges in key areas of research leading to a better understanding of the space environment and a demonstrable improvement in the provision of timely, reliable information pertinent to effects on civilian space- and ground-based systems, for all stakeholders around the world. The RoadMap prioritizes those advances that can be made on short, intermediate and decadal time scales, identifying gaps and opportunities from a predominantly, but not exclusively, geocentric perspective. While discussion of space weather effects has so far largely been concerned to the near-Earth environment, there are significant present and future applications to the locations beyond, and to other planets. Most obviously, perhaps, are the radiation hazards experienced by astronauts on the way to, and on the surface of, the Moon and Mars. Indeed, the environment experienced by planetary spacecraft in transit and at their destinations is of course critical to their design and successful operation. The case of forthcoming missions to Jupiter and Europa is an extreme example. Moreover, such craft can provide information which in turn increases our understanding of geospace. One initiative is that under Horizon 2020, Europlanet RI will set up a Europlanet Planetary Space Weather Service (PSWS). PSWS will make five entirely new `toolkits' accessible to the research community and to industrial partners planning for space missions: - a General planetary space weather toolkit; Mars (in support of the ESA ExoMars missions to be launched

  12. Tool for evaluating the evolution Space Weather Regional Warning Centers under the innovation point of view: the Case Study of the Embrace Space Weather Program Early Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a tool for measuring the evolutional stage of the space weather regional warning centers using the approach of the innovative evolution starting from the perspective presented by Figueiredo (2009, Innovation Management: Concepts, metrics and experiences of companies in Brazil. Publisher LTC, Rio de Janeiro - RJ). It is based on measuring the stock of technological skills needed to perform a certain task that is (or should) be part of the scope of a space weather center. It also addresses the technological capacity for innovation considering the accumulation of technological and learning capabilities, instead of the usual international indices like number of registered patents. Based on this definition, we have developed a model for measuring the capabilities of the Brazilian Study and Monitoring Program Space Weather (Embrace), a program of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), which has gone through three national stages of development and an international validation step. This program was created in 2007 encompassing competence from five divisions of INPE in order to carry out the data collection and maintenance of the observing system in space weather; to model processes of the Sun-Earth system; to provide real-time information and to forecast space weather; and provide diagnostic their effects on different technological systems. In the present work, we considered the issues related to the innovation of micro-processes inherent to the nature of the Embrace program, not the macro-economic processes, despite recognizing the importance of these. During the development phase, the model was submitted to five scientists/managers from five different countries member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES) who presented their evaluations, concerns and suggestions. It was applied to the Embrace program through an interview form developed to be answered by professional members of regional warning centers. Based on the returning

  13. Upper-Atmospheric Space and Earth Weather Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The USEWX project is seeking to monitor, record, and distribute atmospheric measurements of the radiation environment by installing a variety of dosimeters and other...

  14. Space Weather Operation at KASI With Van Allen Probes Beacon Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Giuseppe, Romeo; Ukhorskiy, Sasha; Sibeck, David; Kessel, Ramona; Mauk, Barry; Giles, Barbara; Gu, Bon-Jun; Lee, Hyesook; Park, Young-Deuk; Lee, Jaejin

    2018-02-01

    The Van Allen Probes (VAPs) are the only modern National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft broadcasting real-time data on the Earth's radiation belts for space weather operations. Since 2012, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has contributed to the receipt of these data via a 7 m satellite-tracking antenna and used these beacon data for space weather operations. An approximately 15 min period is required from measurement to acquisition of Level-1 data. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of VAP data for monitoring space weather conditions at geostationary orbit (GEO) by highlighting the Saint Patrick's Day storm of 2015. During that storm, Probe-A observed a significant increase in the relativistic electron flux at 3 RE. Those electrons diffused outward resulting in a large increase of the electron flux >2 MeV at GEO, which potentially threatened satellite operations. Based on this study, we conclude that the combination of VAP data and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (NOAA-GOES) data can provide improved space environment information to geostationary satellite operators. In addition, the findings obtained indicate that more data-receiving sites would be necessary and data connections improved if this or a similar system were to be used as an operational data service.

  15. Geostationary Communications Satellites as Sensors for the Space Weather Environment: Telemetry Event Identification Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, A.; Cahoy, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reliability of geostationary communication satellites (GEO ComSats) is critical to many industries worldwide. The space radiation environment poses a significant threat and manufacturers and operators expend considerable effort to maintain reliability for users. Knowledge of the space radiation environment at the orbital location of a satellite is of critical importance for diagnosing and resolving issues resulting from space weather, for optimizing cost and reliability, and for space situational awareness. For decades, operators and manufacturers have collected large amounts of telemetry from geostationary (GEO) communications satellites to monitor system health and performance, yet this data is rarely mined for scientific purposes. The goal of this work is to acquire and analyze archived data from commercial operators using new algorithms that can detect when a space weather (or non-space weather) event of interest has occurred or is in progress. We have developed algorithms, collectively called SEER (System Event Evaluation Routine), to statistically analyze power amplifier current and temperature telemetry by identifying deviations from nominal operations or other events and trends of interest. This paper focuses on our work in progress, which currently includes methods for detection of jumps ("spikes", outliers) and step changes (changes in the local mean) in the telemetry. We then examine available space weather data from the NOAA GOES and the NOAA-computed Kp index and sunspot numbers to see what role, if any, it might have played. By combining the results of the algorithm for many components, the spacecraft can be used as a "sensor" for the space radiation environment. Similar events occurring at one time across many component telemetry streams may be indicative of a space radiation event or system-wide health and safety concern. Using SEER on representative datasets of telemetry from Inmarsat and Intelsat, we find events that occur across all or many of

  16. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: IONOLAB-TEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, F.; Sezen, U.; Arikan, O.; Ugurlu, O.; Nayir, H.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather (SW) is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space and affect Earth and its technological systems. SW is a consequence of the solar activities and the coupling of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere due to the Earth's magnetic field. The monitoring and prediction of SW has utmost importance for HF communication, Satellite communication, navigation and guidance systems, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Space Craft exit and entry into the atmosphere. Ionosphere is the plasma layer of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation and it is a key player of SW. Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. IONOLAB is a group of researchers of various disciplines, getting together to handle challenges of the Earth's ionosphere. The team has researchers from Hacettepe University and Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and General Command of Mapping of Turkish Army. One of the most important contributions of IONOLAB group is the automated web-based computation service for Total Electron Content (TEC). TEC corresponds to the line integral of electron density distribution on a given path. TEC can also be expressed as the amount of free electrons within 1 m2 cross-sectional area of the cylinder on the ray path. Global Position System (GPS) provides a cost-effective medium for monitoring of ionosphere using the signals recorded by stationary GPS receivers in estimating TEC. IONOLAB group has developed IONOLAB-TEC for reliable and robust estimates for all latitudes and both calm and disturbed days by using RINEX, IONEX and satellite ephemeris data provided from the IGS centers. IONOLAB-TEC consists of a regularized signal estimation algorithm which combines signals from all GPS satellites for a given instant and a given receiver, for a desired time period or for 24 hours

  17. Space plasma observations - observations of solar-terrestrial environment. Space Weather Forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Eiichi; Akioka, Maki

    1996-01-01

    The space environment becomes more important than ever before because of the expansion in the utilization of near-earth space and the increase in the vulnerability of large scale systems on the ground such as electrical power grids. The concept of the Space Weather Forecast program emerged from the accumulation of understanding on basic physical processes and from our activities as one of the regional warning centers of the international network of space environment services. (author)

  18. Space Weather Impacts to Conjunction Assessment: A NASA Robotic Orbital Safety Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrist, Richard; Ghrist, Richard; DeHart, Russel; Newman, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the risk of on-orbit collisions from other satellites and debris objects and has instituted a process to identify and react to close approaches. The charter of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) task is to protect NASA robotic (unmanned) assets from threats posed by other space objects. Monitoring for potential collisions requires formulating close-approach predictions a week or more in the future to determine analyze, and respond to orbital conjunction events of interest. These predictions require propagation of the latest state vector and covariance assuming a predicted atmospheric density and ballistic coefficient. Any differences between the predicted drag used for propagation and the actual drag experienced by the space objects can potentially affect the conjunction event. Therefore, the space environment itself, in particular how space weather impacts atmospheric drag, is an essential element to understand in order effectively to assess the risk of conjunction events. The focus of this research is to develop a better understanding of the impact of space weather on conjunction assessment activities: both accurately determining the current risk and assessing how that risk may change under dynamic space weather conditions. We are engaged in a data-- ]mining exercise to corroborate whether or not observed changes in a conjunction event's dynamics appear consistent with space weather changes and are interested in developing a framework to respond appropriately to uncertainty in predicted space weather. In particular, we use historical conjunction event data products to search for dynamical effects on satellite orbits from changing atmospheric drag. Increased drag is expected to lower the satellite specific energy and will result in the satellite's being 'later' than expected, which can affect satellite conjunctions in a number of ways depending on the two satellites' orbits

  19. Monitoring bioremediation of weathered diesel NAPL using oxygen depletion profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Johnston, C.D.; Patterson, B.M.; Barber, C.; Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Semicontinuous logging of oxygen concentrations at multiple depths has been used to evaluate the progress of an in situ bioremediation trial at a site contaminated by weathered diesel nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL). The evaluation trial consisted of periodic addition of nutrients and aeration of a 100-m 2 trial plot. During the bioremediation trial, aeration was stopped periodically, and decreases in dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations were monitored using data loggers attached to in situ oxygen sensors placed at multiple depths above and within a thin NAPL-contaminated zone. Oxygen usage rate coefficients were determined by fitting zero- and first-order rate equations to the oxygen depletion curves. For nutrient-amended sites within the trial plot, estimates of oxygen usage rate coefficients were significantly higher than estimates from unamended sites. These rates also converted to NPL degradation rates, comparable to those achieved in previous studies, despite the high concentrations and weathered state of the NAPL at this test site

  20. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  1. Operation of a Data Acquisition, Transfer, and Storage System for the Global Space-Weather Observation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nagatsuma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A system to optimize the management of global space-weather observation networks has been developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT. Named the WONM (Wide-area Observation Network Monitoring system, it enables data acquisition, transfer, and storage through connection to the NICT Science Cloud, and has been supplied to observatories for supporting space-weather forecast and research. This system provides us with easier management of data collection than our previously employed systems by means of autonomous system recovery, periodical state monitoring, and dynamic warning procedures. Operation of the WONM system is introduced in this report.

  2. Innovative Near Real-Time Data Dissemination Tools Developed by the Space Weather Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, R.; Maddox, M. M.; Berrios, D.; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Space weather affects virtually all of NASA's endeavors, from robotic missions to human exploration. Knowledge and prediction of space weather conditions are therefore essential to NASA operations. The diverse nature of currently available space environment measurements and modeling products compels the need for a single access point to such information. The Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) System provides this single point access along with the capability to collect and catalog a vast range of sources including both observational and model data. NASA Goddard Space Weather Research Center heavily utilizes the iSWA System daily for research, space weather model validation, and forecasting for NASA missions. iSWA provides the capabilities to view and analyze near real-time space weather data from any where in the world. This presentation will describe the technology behind the iSWA system and describe how to use the system for space weather research, forecasting, training, education, and sharing.

  3. Assessing the weather monitoring capabilities of cellular microwave link networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Martin; Vrzba, Miroslav; Rieckermann, Jörg; Bareš, Vojtěch

    2016-04-01

    Using of microwave links for rainfall monitoring was suggested already by (Atlas and Ulbrich, 1977). However, this technique attracted broader attention of scientific community only in the recent decade, with the extensive growth of cellular microwave link (CML) networks, which form the backbone of today's cellular telecommunication infrastructure. Several studies have already shown that CMLs can be conveniently used as weather sensors and have potential to provide near-ground path-integrated observations of rainfall but also humidity or fog. However, although research is still focusing on algorithms to improve the weather sensing capabilities (Fencl et al., 2015), it is not clear how to convince cellular operators to provide the power levels of their network. One step in this direction is to show in which regions or municipalities the networks are sufficiently dense to provide/develop good services. In this contribution we suggest a standardized approach to evaluate CML networks in terms of rainfall observation and to identify suitable regions for CML rainfall monitoring. We estimate precision of single CML based on its sensitivity to rainfall, i.e. as a function of frequency, polarization and path length. Capability of a network to capture rainfall spatial patterns is estimated from the CML coverage and path lengths considering that single CML provides path-integrated rain rates. We also search for suitable predictors for regions where no network topologies are available. We test our approach on several European networks and discuss the results. Our results show that CMLs are very dense in urban areas (> 1 CML/km2), but less in rural areas (online tool. In summary, our results demonstrate that CML represent promising environmental observation network, suitable especially for urban rainfall monitoring. The developed approach integrated into an open source online tool can be conveniently used e.g. by local operators or authorities to evaluate the suitability of

  4. Nanosatellites : A paradigm change for space weather studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Mathieu

    2016-04-01

    Nanosatellites are changing the paradigm of space exploration and engineering. The past 15 years have seen a growing activity in this field, with a marked acceleration in the last 3 years. Whereas the educational value of nanosatellites is well recognized, their scientific and technological use is potentially extremely rich but not fully explored. Conventional attitudes towards space engineering need to be reviewed in light of the capabilities and characteristics of these miniature devices that enable approaches and applications not possible with traditional satellite platforms. After an evaluation of the past and near future nanosatellites missions in the domain of space weather and from the example of the Zegrensat/ATISE mission, we will give some perspectives on the possibilities opened by these small satellites.

  5. A space weather forecasting system with multiple satellites based on a self-recognizing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumitsu, Masahiro; Ishida, Yoshiteru

    2014-05-05

    This paper proposes a space weather forecasting system at geostationary orbit for high-energy electron flux (>2 MeV). The forecasting model involves multiple sensors on multiple satellites. The sensors interconnect and evaluate each other to predict future conditions at geostationary orbit. The proposed forecasting model is constructed using a dynamic relational network for sensor diagnosis and event monitoring. The sensors of the proposed model are located at different positions in space. The satellites for solar monitoring equip with monitoring devices for the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed. The satellites orbit near the Earth monitoring high-energy electron flux. We investigate forecasting for typical two examples by comparing the performance of two models with different numbers of sensors. We demonstrate the prediction by the proposed model against coronal mass ejections and a coronal hole. This paper aims to investigate a possibility of space weather forecasting based on the satellite network with in-situ sensing.

  6. A Space Weather Forecasting System with Multiple Satellites Based on a Self-Recognizing Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tokumitsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a space weather forecasting system at geostationary orbit for high-energy electron flux (>2 MeV. The forecasting model involves multiple sensors on multiple satellites. The sensors interconnect and evaluate each other to predict future conditions at geostationary orbit. The proposed forecasting model is constructed using a dynamic relational network for sensor diagnosis and event monitoring. The sensors of the proposed model are located at different positions in space. The satellites for solar monitoring equip with monitoring devices for the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed. The satellites orbit near the Earth monitoring high-energy electron flux. We investigate forecasting for typical two examples by comparing the performance of two models with different numbers of sensors. We demonstrate the prediction by the proposed model against coronal mass ejections and a coronal hole. This paper aims to investigate a possibility of space weather forecasting based on the satellite network with in-situ sensing.

  7. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow

    2015-01-01

    advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D...... structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant...

  8. High resolution solar observations in the context of space weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo

    Space weather has a great impact on the Earth and human life. It is important to study and monitor active regions on the solar surface and ultimately to predict space weather based on the Sun's activity. In this study, a system that uses the full power of speckle masking imaging by parallel processing to obtain high-spatial resolution images of the solar surface in near real-time has been developed and built. The application of this system greatly improves the ability to monitor the evolution of solar active regions and to predict the adverse effects of space weather. The data obtained by this system have also been used to study fine structures on the solar surface and their effects on the upper solar atmosphere. A solar active region has been studied using high resolution data obtained by speckle masking imaging. Evolution of a pore in an active region presented. Formation of a rudimentary penumbra is studied. The effects of the change of the magnetic fields on the upper level atmosphere is discussed. Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) have a great impact on space weather. To study the relationship between CMEs and filament disappearance, a list of 431 filament and prominence disappearance events has been compiled. Comparison of this list with CME data obtained by satellite has shown that most filament disappearances seem to have no corresponding CME events. Even for the limb events, only thirty percent of filament disappearances are associated with CMEs. A CME event that was observed on March 20, 2000 has been studied in detail. This event did not show the three-parts structure of typical CMEs. The kinematical and morphological properties of this event were examined.

  9. Early Japanese contributions to space weather research (1945–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nishida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Major contributions by Japanese scientists in the period of 1945 to 1960 are reviewed. This was the period when the foundation of the space weather research was laid by ground-based observations and theoretical research. Important contributions were made on such subjects as equatorial ionosphere in quiet times, tidal wind system in the ionosphere, formation of the F2 layer, VLF propagation above the ionosphere, and precursory phenomena (type IV radio outburst and polar cap absorption to storms. At the IGY (1957, 1958, research efforts were intensified and new programs in space and Antarctica were initiated. Japanese scientists in this discipline held a tight network for communication and collaboration that has been kept to this day.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of the magnetosphere and space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. Surjalal

    1996-01-01

    The solar wind-magnetosphere system exhibits coherence on the global scale and such behavior can arise from nonlinearity on the dynamics. The observational time series data were used together with phase space reconstruction techniques to analyze the magnetospheric dynamics. Analysis of the solar wind, auroral electrojet and Dst indices showed low dimensionality of the dynamics and accurate prediction can be made with an input/output model. The predictability of the magnetosphere in spite of the apparent complexity arises from its dynamical synchronism with the solar wind. The electrodynamic coupling between different regions of the magnetosphere yields its coherent, low dimensional behavior. The data from multiple satellites and ground stations can be used to develop a spatio-temporal model that identifies the coupling between different regions. These nonlinear dynamical models provide space weather forecasting capabilities.

  11. Experts warn against cutting NOAA Space Weather Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    A well-timed congressional hearing, coming in the midst of fierce geomagnetic storms, could help to restore funding to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Space Environment Center (SEC).The center, which is the nation's official source of space weather alerts and warnings, currently is funded at $5.24 million for fiscal year 2003. That amount is $2 million less than it received the previous year. The Bush Administration has requested $8.02 million in funding. The appropriations bill, for the departments of Commerce, Justice, and State for fiscal year 2004, passed on 23 July by the House of Representatives, calls for funding the SEC at the $5.29 million level.

  12. Forecasting space weather: Can new econometric methods improve accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikard, Gordon

    2011-06-01

    Space weather forecasts are currently used in areas ranging from navigation and communication to electric power system operations. The relevant forecast horizons can range from as little as 24 h to several days. This paper analyzes the predictability of two major space weather measures using new time series methods, many of them derived from econometrics. The data sets are the A p geomagnetic index and the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm. The methods tested include nonlinear regressions, neural networks, frequency domain algorithms, GARCH models (which utilize the residual variance), state transition models, and models that combine elements of several techniques. While combined models are complex, they can be programmed using modern statistical software. The data frequency is daily, and forecasting experiments are run over horizons ranging from 1 to 7 days. Two major conclusions stand out. First, the frequency domain method forecasts the A p index more accurately than any time domain model, including both regressions and neural networks. This finding is very robust, and holds for all forecast horizons. Combining the frequency domain method with other techniques yields a further small improvement in accuracy. Second, the neural network forecasts the solar flux more accurately than any other method, although at short horizons (2 days or less) the regression and net yield similar results. The neural net does best when it includes measures of the long-term component in the data.

  13. Advanced Analysis and Visualization of Space Weather Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joshua J.

    As the world becomes more technologically reliant, the more susceptible society as a whole is to adverse interactions with the sun. This "space weather'' can produce significant effects on modern technology, from interrupting satellite service, to causing serious damage to Earth-side power grids. These concerns have, over the past several years, prompted an out-welling of research in an attempt to understand the processes governing, and to provide a means of forecasting, space weather events. The research presented in this thesis couples to current work aimed at understanding Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their influence on the evolution of Earth's magnetic field and associated Van Allen radiation belts. To aid in the analysis of how these solar wind transients affect Earth's magnetic field, a system named Geospace/Heliosphere Observation & Simulation Tool-kit (GHOSTkit), along with its python analysis tools, GHOSTpy, has been devised to calculate the adiabatic invariants of trapped particle motion within Earth's magnetic field. These invariants aid scientists in ordering observations of the radiation belts, providing a more natural presentation of data, but can be computationally expensive to calculate. The GHOSTpy system, in the phase presented here, is aimed at providing invariant calculations based on LFM magnetic field simulation data. This research first examines an ideal dipole application to gain understanding on system performance. Following this, the challenges of applying the algorithms to gridded LFM MHD data is examined. Performance profiles are then presented, followed by a real-world application of the system.

  14. Verification of space weather forecasts at the UK Met Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, S.; Sharpe, M.; Jackson, D.; Murray, S.

    2017-12-01

    The UK Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) has produced space weather guidance twice a day since its official opening in 2014. Guidance includes 4-day probabilistic forecasts of X-ray flares, geomagnetic storms, high-energy electron events and high-energy proton events. Evaluation of such forecasts is important to forecasters, stakeholders, model developers and users to understand the performance of these forecasts and also strengths and weaknesses to enable further development. Met Office terrestrial near real-time verification systems have been adapted to provide verification of X-ray flare and geomagnetic storm forecasts. Verification is updated daily to produce Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and Reliability diagrams, and rolling Ranked Probability Skill Scores (RPSSs) thus providing understanding of forecast performance and skill. Results suggest that the MOSWOC issued X-ray flare forecasts are usually not statistically significantly better than a benchmark climatological forecast (where the climatology is based on observations from the previous few months). By contrast, the issued geomagnetic storm activity forecast typically performs better against this climatological benchmark.

  15. Building resilience of the Global Positioning System to space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Genene; Kunches, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Almost every aspect of the global economy now depends on GPS. Worldwide, nations are working to create a robust Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), which will provide global positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT) services for applications such as aviation, electric power distribution, financial exchange, maritime navigation, and emergency management. The U.S. government is examining the vulnerabilities of GPS, and it is well known that space weather events, such as geomagnetic storms, contribute to errors in single-frequency GPS and are a significant factor for differential GPS. The GPS industry has lately begun to recognize that total electron content (TEC) signal delays, ionospheric scintillation, and solar radio bursts can also interfere with daily operations and that these threats grow with the approach of the next solar maximum, expected to occur in 2013. The key challenges raised by these circumstances are, first, to better understand the vulnerability of GPS technologies and services to space weather and, second, to develop policies that will build resilience and mitigate risk.

  16. Space Weather Research at the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, T.

    2015-12-01

    There is growing recognition that the space environment can have substantial, deleterious, impacts on society. Consequently, research enabling specification and forecasting of hazardous space effects has become of great importance and urgency. This research requires studying the entire Sun-Earth system to understand the coupling of regions all the way from the source of disturbances in the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The traditional, region-based structure of research programs in Solar and Space physics is ill suited to fully support the change in research directions that the problem of space weather dictates. On the observational side, dense, distributed networks of observations are required to capture the full large-scale dynamics of the space environment. However, the cost of implementing these is typically prohibitive, especially for measurements in space. Thus, by necessity, the implementation of such new capabilities needs to build on creative and unconventional solutions. A particularly powerful idea is the utilization of new developments in data engineering and informatics research (big data). These new technologies make it possible to build systems that can collect and process huge amounts of noisy and inaccurate data and extract from them useful information. The shift in emphasis towards system level science for geospace also necessitates the development of large-scale and multi-scale models. The development of large-scale models capable of capturing the global dynamics of the Earth's space environment requires investment in research team efforts that go beyond what can typically be funded under the traditional grants programs. This calls for effective interdisciplinary collaboration and efficient leveraging of resources both nationally and internationally. This presentation will provide an overview of current and planned initiatives, programs, and activities at the National Science Foundation pertaining to space weathe research.

  17. 2015 Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School Research Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chen, Yuxi [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Desai, Ravindra [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Hassan, Ehab [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Kalmoni, Nadine [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Lin, Dong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Depascuale, Sebastian [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Hughes, Randall Scott [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zhou, Hong [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-11-24

    The fifth Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School was held June 1st - July 24th, 2015, at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). With renewed support from the Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures (IGPPS) and additional support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, we hosted a new class of five students from various U.S. and foreign research institutions. The summer school curriculum includes a series of structured lectures as well as mentored research and practicum opportunities. Lecture topics including general and specialized topics in the field of space weather were given by a number of researchers affiliated with LANL. Students were given the opportunity to engage in research projects through a mentored practicum experience. Each student works with one or more LANL-affiliated mentors to execute a collaborative research project, typically linked with a larger ongoing research effort at LANL and/or the student’s PhD thesis research. This model provides a valuable learning experience for the student while developing the opportunity for future collaboration. This report includes a summary of the research efforts fostered and facilitated by the Space Weather Summer School. These reports should be viewed as work-in-progress as the short session typically only offers sufficient time for preliminary results. At the close of the summer school session, students present a summary of their research efforts. Titles of the papers included in this report are as follows: Full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of whistler wave generation, Hybrid simulations of the right-hand ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in a sub-Alfvénic plasma flow, A statistical ensemble for solar wind measurements, Observations and models of substorm injection dispersion patterns, Heavy ion effects on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: hybrid study, Simulating plasmaspheric electron densities with a two

  18. 2015 Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School Research Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowee, Misa; Chen, Yuxi; Desai, Ravindra; Hassan, Ehab; Kalmoni, Nadine; Lin, Dong; Depascuale, Sebastian; Hughes, Randall Scott; Zhou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The fifth Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School was held June 1st - July 24th, 2015, at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). With renewed support from the Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures (IGPPS) and additional support from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, we hosted a new class of five students from various U.S. and foreign research institutions. The summer school curriculum includes a series of structured lectures as well as mentored research and practicum opportunities. Lecture topics including general and specialized topics in the field of space weather were given by a number of researchers affiliated with LANL. Students were given the opportunity to engage in research projects through a mentored practicum experience. Each student works with one or more LANL-affiliated mentors to execute a collaborative research project, typically linked with a larger ongoing research effort at LANL and/or the student's PhD thesis research. This model provides a valuable learning experience for the student while developing the opportunity for future collaboration. This report includes a summary of the research efforts fostered and facilitated by the Space Weather Summer School. These reports should be viewed as work-in-progress as the short session typically only offers sufficient time for preliminary results. At the close of the summer school session, students present a summary of their research efforts. Titles of the papers included in this report are as follows: Full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of whistler wave generation, Hybrid simulations of the right-hand ion cyclotron anisotropy instability in a sub-Alfv@@nic plasma flow, A statistical ensemble for solar wind measurements, Observations and models of substorm injection dispersion patterns, Heavy ion effects on Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: hybrid study, Simulating plasmaspheric electron densities with a

  19. Understanding space weather with new physical, mathematical and philosophical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateev, Lachezar; Velinov, Peter; Tassev, Yordan

    2016-07-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. The development of these investigations can be considered also from another side. This is the philosophical and mathematical approach towards this physical reality. What does it constitute? We have a set of physical processes which occur in the Sun and interplanetary space. All these processes interact with each other and simultaneously participate in the general process which forms the space weather. Let us now consider the Leibniz's monads (G.W. von Leibniz, 1714, Monadologie, Wien; Id., 1710, Théodicée, Amsterdam) and use some of their properties. There are total 90 theses for monads in the Leibniz's work (1714), f.e. "(1) The Monad, of which we shall here speak, is nothing but a simple substance, which enters into compounds. By 'simple' is meant 'without parts'. (Theod. 10.); … (56) Now this connexion or adaptation of all created things to each and of each to all, means that each simple substance has relations which express all the others, and, consequently, that it is a perpetual living mirror of the universe. (Theod. 130, 360.); (59) … this universal harmony, according to which every substance exactly expresses all others through the relations it has with them. (63) … every Monad is, in its own way, a mirror of the universe, and the universe is ruled according to a perfect order. (Theod. 403.)", etc. Let us introduce in the properties of monads instead of the word "monad" the word "process". We obtain the following statement: Each process reflects all other processes and all other processes reflect this process. This analogy is not formal at all, it reflects accurately the relation between the physical processes and their unity. The category monad which in the Leibniz's Monadology reflects generally the philosophical sense is fully identical with the

  20. Magnetogram Forecast: An All-Clear Space Weather Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, Nasser; Falconer, David

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the drivers of severe space weather. Forecasting the probability of their occurrence is critical in improving space weather forecasts. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) currently uses the McIntosh active region category system, in which each active region on the disk is assigned to one of 60 categories, and uses the historical flare rates of that category to make an initial forecast that can then be adjusted by the NOAA forecaster. Flares and CMEs are caused by the sudden release of energy from the coronal magnetic field by magnetic reconnection. It is believed that the rate of flare and CME occurrence in an active region is correlated with the free energy of an active region. While the free energy cannot be measured directly with present observations, proxies of the free energy can instead be used to characterize the relative free energy of an active region. The Magnetogram Forecast (MAG4) (output is available at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center) was conceived and designed to be a databased, all-clear forecasting system to support the operational goals of NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group. The MAG4 system automatically downloads nearreal- time line-of-sight Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) magnetograms on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite, identifies active regions on the solar disk, measures a free-energy proxy, and then applies forecasting curves to convert the free-energy proxy into predicted event rates for X-class flares, M- and X-class flares, CMEs, fast CMEs, and solar energetic particle events (SPEs). The forecast curves themselves are derived from a sample of 40,000 magnetograms from 1,300 active region samples, observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager. Figure 1 is an example of MAG4 visual output

  1. Space Weather Research in the Equatorial Region: A Philosophical Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Victor; Odunaike, Rasaki; Laoye, John

    Investigations using radio waves reflected from the ionosphere, at high-and mid-latitudes indicate that ionospheric absorption can strongly increase following geomagnetic storms; which appears to suggest some definite relationship between ionospheric radio wave absorption and geomagnetic storms at these latitudes. However, corresponding earlier studies in the equatorial region did not appear to show any explicit relationship between ionospheric radio wave absorption and geomagnetic storm activity. This position appeared acceptable to the existing scientific paradigm, until in an act of paradigm shift, by a change of storm selection criteria, some more recent space weather investigations in the low latitudes showed that ionospheric radio wave absorption in the equatorial region clearly increases after intense storms. Given that these results in the equatorial region stood against the earlier results, this paper presently attempts to highlight their philosophical underpinning and posit that they constitute a scientific statement.

  2. SUVI Thematic Maps: A new tool for space weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. M.; Seaton, D. B.; Darnel, J.

    2017-12-01

    The new Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) instruments aboard NOAA's GOES-R series satellites collect continuous, high-quality imagery of the Sun in six wavelengths. SUVI imagers produce at least one image every 10 seconds, or 8,640 images per day, considerably more data than observers can digest in real time. Over the projected 20-year lifetime of the four GOES-R series spacecraft, SUVI will provide critical imagery for space weather forecasters and produce an extensive but unwieldy archive. In order to condense the database into a dynamic and searchable form we have developed solar thematic maps, maps of the Sun with key features, such as coronal holes, flares, bright regions, quiet corona, and filaments, identified. Thematic maps will be used in NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center to improve forecaster response time to solar events and generate several derivative products. Likewise, scientists use thematic maps to find observations of interest more easily. Using an expert-trained, naive Bayesian classifier to label each pixel, we create thematic maps in real-time. We created software to collect expert classifications of solar features based on SUVI images. Using this software, we compiled a database of expert classifications, from which we could characterize the distribution of pixels associated with each theme. Given new images, the classifier assigns each pixel the most appropriate label according to the trained distribution. Here we describe the software to collect expert training and the successes and limitations of the classifier. The algorithm excellently identifies coronal holes but fails to consistently detect filaments and prominences. We compare the Bayesian classifier to an artificial neural network, one of our attempts to overcome the aforementioned limitations. These results are very promising and encourage future research into an ensemble classification approach.

  3. The Sun/Earth System and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fox, Nicola; Lucid, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    Solar variability and solar activity are now seen as significant drivers with respect to the Earth and human technology systems. Observations over the last 10 years have significantly advanced our understanding of causes and effects in the Sun/Earth system. On a practical level the interactions between the Sun and Earth dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). This talk will be about the Sun/Earth system: how it changes with time, its magnetic interactions, flares, the solar wind, and how the Sun effects human systems. Data will be presented from some current spacecraft which show, for example, how we are able to currently give warnings to the scientific community, the Government and industry about space storms and how this data has improved our physical understanding of processes on the Sun and in the magnetosphere. The scientific advances provided by our current spacecraft has led to a new program in NASA to develop a 'Space Weather' system called 'Living With a Star'. The current plan for the 'Living With a Star' program will also be presented.

  4. Influence factor analysis of atmospheric electric field monitoring near ground under different weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Haojiang; Wei, Guanghui; Cui, Yaozhong; Chen, Yazhou

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric electric field near ground plays a critical role in atmospheric environment detecting and lightning warning. Different environmental conditions (e.g. buildings, plants, weather, etc.) have different influences on the data's coherence in an atmospheric electric field detection network. In order to study the main influence factors of atmospheric electric field monitoring under different weather conditions, with the combination of theoretical analysis and experiments, the electric field monitoring data on the ground and on the top of a building are compared in fair weather and thunderstorm weather respectively in this paper. The results show that: In fair weather, the field distortion due to the buildings is the main influence factor on the electric field monitoring. In thunderstorm weather, the corona ions produced from the ground, besides the field distortion due to the buildings, can also influence the electric field monitoring results.

  5. Space Weather Magnetometer Set with Automated AC Spacecraft Field Correction for GEO-KOMPSAT-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, U.; Magnes, W.; Delva, M.; Valavanoglou, A.; Leitner, S.; Hillenmaier, O.; Strauch, C.; Brown, P.; Whiteside, B.; Bendyk, M.; Hilgers, A.; Kraft, S.; Luntama, J. P.; Seon, J.

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring the solar wind conditions, in particular its magnetic field (interplanetary magnetic field) ahead of the Earth is essential in performing accurate and reliable space weather forecasting. The magnetic condition of the spacecraft itself is a key parameter for the successful performance of the magnetometer onboard. In practice a condition with negligible magnetic field of the spacecraft cannot always be fulfilled and magnetic sources on the spacecraft interfere with the natural magnetic field measured by the space magnetometer. The presented "ready-to-use" Service Oriented Spacecraft Magnetometer (SOSMAG) is developed for use on any satellite implemented without magnetic cleanliness programme. It enables detection of the spacecraft field AC variations on a proper time scale suitable to distinguish the magnetic field variations relevant to space weather phenomena, such as sudden increase in the interplanetary field or southward turning. This is achieved through the use of dual fluxgate magnetometers on a short boom (1m) and two additional AMR sensors on the spacecraft body, which monitor potential AC disturbers. The measurements of the latter sensors enable an automated correction of the AC signal contributions from the spacecraft in the final magnetic vector. After successful development and test of the EQM prototype, a flight model (FM) is being built for the Korean satellite Geo-Kompsat 2A, with launch foreseen in 2018.

  6. Space Weather Models and Their Validation and Verification at the CCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Community Coordinated l\\lodeling Center (CCMC) is a US multi-agency activity with a dual mission. With equal emphasis, CCMC strives to provide science support to the international space research community through the execution of advanced space plasma simulations, and it endeavors to support the space weather needs of the CS and partners. Space weather support involves a broad spectrum, from designing robust forecasting systems and transitioning them to forecasters, to providing space weather updates and forecasts to NASA's robotic mission operators. All of these activities have to rely on validation and verification of models and their products, so users and forecasters have the means to assign confidence levels to the space weather information. In this presentation, we provide an overview of space weather models resident at CCMC, as well as of validation and verification activities undertaken at CCMC or through the use of CCMC services.

  7. Taking Extreme Space Weather to the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. Dean

    2014-06-01

    Extreme Space Weather events are large solar flares or geomagnetic storms, which can cause economic damage that cost billions of dollars to recover from. We have few examples of such events; only the Carrington Event (the solar superstorm) has superlatives in three categories: size of solar flare, drop in Dst, and amplitude of aa. Kepler observations show that stars similar to the Sun can have flares releasing thousands of times more energy than an X-class flare. These flares would strongly affect the atmosphere surrounding a planet orbiting such a star. Particle and magnetic field outflows from these stars could also be present. We are investigating the level of solar activity that is necessary to strongly affect the atmosphere of terrestrial planets. We assume that a habitable planet requires an atmosphere with a temperature and composition that is stable in time. Can we then extrapolate results from our solar system to determine a space of stellar parameters in which habitable planets can exist?

  8. State of Art in space weather observational activities and data management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawska, Iwona

    One of the primary scientific and technical goals of space weather is to produce data in order to investigate the Sun impact on the Earth and its environment. Studies based on data mining philosophy yield increase the knowledge of space weather physical properties, modelling capabilities and gain applications of various procedures in space weather monitoring and forecasting. Exchanging tailored individually and/or jointly data between different entities, storing of the databases and making data accessible for the users is the most important task undertaken by investigators. National activities spread over Europe is currently consolidated pursuant to the terms of effectiveness and individual contributions embedded in joint integrated efforts. The role of COST 724 Action in animation of such a movement is essential. The paper focuses on the analysis of the European availability in the Internet near-real time and historical collections of the European ground based and satellite observations, operational indices and parameters. A detailed description of data delivered is included. The structure of the content is supplied according to the following selection: (1) observations, raw and/or corrected, updated data, (2) resolution, availability of real-time and historical data, (3) products, as the results of models and theory including (a) maps, forecasts and alerts, (b) resolution, availability of real-time and historical data, (4) platforms to deliver data. Characterization of the networking of stations, observatories and space related monitoring systems of data collections is integrated part of the paper. According to these provisions operational systems developed for these purposes is presented and analysed. It concerns measurements, observations and parameters from the theory and models referred to local, regional collections, European and worldwide networks. Techniques used by these organizations to generate the digital content are identified. As the reference pan

  9. The Critical Role of the Research Community in Space Weather Planning and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Robert M.; Behnke, Richard A.; Moretto, Therese

    2018-03-01

    The explosion of interest in space weather in the last 25 years has been due to a confluence of efforts all over the globe, motivated by the recognition that events on the Sun and the consequent conditions in interplanetary space and Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere can have serious impacts on vital technological systems. The fundamental research conducted at universities, government laboratories, and in the private sector has led to tremendous improvements in the ability to forecast space weather events and predict their impacts on human technology and health. The mobilization of the research community that made this progress possible was the result of a series of actions taken by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to build a national program aimed at space weather. The path forward for space weather is to build on those successes through continued involvement of the research community and support for programs aimed at strengthening basic research and education in academia, the private sector, and government laboratories. Investments in space weather are most effective when applied at the intersection of research and applications. Thus, to achieve the goals set forth originally by the National Space Weather Program, the research community must be fully engaged in the planning, implementation, and execution of space weather activities, currently being coordinated by the Space Weather Operations, Research, and Mitigation Subcommittee under the National Science and Technology Council.

  10. The Research-to-Operations-to-Research Cycle at NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    The provision of actionable space weather products and services by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center relies on observations, models and scientific understanding of our dynamic space environment. It also depends on a deep understanding of the systems and capabilities that are vulnerable to space weather, as well as national and international partnerships that bring together resources, skills and applications to support space weather forecasters and customers. While these activities have been evolving over many years, in October 2015, with the release of the National Space Weather Strategy and National Space Weather Action Plan (NSWAP) by National Science and Technology Council in the Executive Office of the President, there is a new coordinated focus on ensuring the Nation is prepared to respond to and recover from severe space weather storms. One activity highlighted in the NSWAP is the Operations to Research (O2R) and Research to Operations (R2O) process. In this presentation we will focus on current R2O and O2R activities that advance our ability to serve those affected by space weather and give a vision for future programs. We will also provide examples of recent research results that lead to improved operational capabilities, lessons learned in the transition of research to operations, and challenges for both the science and operations communities.

  11. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Miller, S.; Minow, J. I.; Wolk, S.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. D.; Swartz, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ("soft", 100-500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth's radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth's magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (real-time data provided by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center. This presentation will discuss radiation mitigation against proton damage, including models and real-time data sources used to protect the ACIS detector

  12. Effect of solar wind plasma parameters on space weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, Balveer S.; Gupta, Dinesh C.; Kaushik, Subhash C.

    2015-01-01

    Today's challenge for space weather research is to quantitatively predict the dynamics of the magnetosphere from measured solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Correlative studies between geomagnetic storms (GMSs) and the various interplanetary (IP) field/plasma parameters have been performed to search for the causes of geomagnetic activity and develop models for predicting the occurrence of GMSs, which are important for space weather predictions. We find a possible relation between GMSs and solar wind and IMF parameters in three different situations and also derived the linear relation for all parameters in three situations. On the basis of the present statistical study, we develop an empirical model. With the help of this model, we can predict all categories of GMSs. This model is based on the following fact: the total IMF B total can be used to trigger an alarm for GMSs, when sudden changes in total magnetic field B total occur. This is the first alarm condition for a storm's arrival. It is observed in the present study that the southward B z component of the IMF is an important factor for describing GMSs. A result of the paper is that the magnitude of B z is maximum neither during the initial phase (at the instant of the IP shock) nor during the main phase (at the instant of Disturbance storm time (Dst) minimum). It is seen in this study that there is a time delay between the maximum value of southward B z and the Dst minimum, and this time delay can be used in the prediction of the intensity of a magnetic storm two-three hours before the main phase of a GMS. A linear relation has been derived between the maximum value of the southward component of B z and the Dst, which is Dst = (−0.06) + (7.65) B z +t. Some auxiliary conditions should be fulfilled with this, for example the speed of the solar wind should, on average, be 350 km s −1 to 750 km s −1 , plasma β should be low and, most importantly, plasma temperature

  13. Impact of space weather on human heart rate during the years 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galata, E.; Ioannidou, S.; Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Paravolidakis, K.; Kouremeti, M.; Rentifis, L.; Simantirakis, E.; Trachanas, K.

    2017-08-01

    During the last years a possible link between different levels of solar and geomagnetic disturbances and human physiological parameters is suggested by several published studies. In this work the examination of the potential association between heart rate variations and specific space weather activities was performed. A total of 482 individuals treated at Hippocratio General Hospital in Athens, the Cardiology clinics of Nikaia General Hospital in Piraeus and the Heraklion University Hospital in Crete, Greece, were assessed from July 2011 to April 2013. The heart rate of the individuals was recorded by a Holter monitor on a n hourly basis, while the hourly variations of the cosmic ray intensity measured by the Neutron Monitor Station of the Athens University and of the geomagnetic index Dst provided by the Kyoto Observatory were used. The ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) and the Multiple Linear Regression analysis were used for analysis of these data. A statistically significant effect of both cosmic rays and geomagnetic activity on heart rate was observed, which may indicate that changes in space weather could be linked to heart rate variations.

  14. Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroid Space Weathering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominque, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Schriver, David; hide

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the composition of Mercury's crust is key to comprehending the formation of the planet. The regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered via a set of space weathering processes. These processes are the same set of mechanisms that work to form Mercury's exosphere, and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of an intrinsic planetary magnetic field. The alterations need to be understood in order to determine the initial crustal compositions. The complex interrelationships between Mercury's exospheric processes, the space environment, and surface composition are examined and reviewed. The processes are examined in the context of our understanding of these same processes on the lunar and asteroid regoliths. Keywords: Mercury (planet) Space weathering Surface processes Exosphere Surface composition Space environment 3

  15. Real Time Space Weather Support for Chandra X-Ray Observatory Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Minow, Joseph I.; Miller, J. Scott; Wolk, Scott J.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Spitzbart, Bradley D.; Swartz. Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA launched the Chandra X-ray Observatory in July 1999. Soon after first light in August 1999, however, degradation in the energy resolution and charge transfer efficiency of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) x-ray detectors was observed. The source of the degradation was quickly identified as radiation damage in the charge-transfer channel of the front-illuminated CCDs, by weakly penetrating ( soft , 100 500 keV) protons as Chandra passed through the Earth s radiation belts and ring currents. As soft protons were not considered a risk to spacecraft health before launch, the only on-board radiation monitoring system is the Electron, Proton, and Helium Instrument (EPHIN) which was included on Chandra with the primary purpose of monitoring energetic solar particle events. Further damage to the ACIS detector has been successfully mitigated through a combination of careful mission planning, autonomous on-board radiation protection, and manual intervention based upon real-time monitoring of the soft-proton environment. The AE-8 and AP-8 trapped radiation models and Chandra Radiation Models are used to schedule science operations in regions of low proton flux. EPHIN has been used as the primary autonomous in-situ radiation trigger; but, it is not sensitive to the soft protons that damage the front-illuminated CCDs. Monitoring of near-real-time space weather data sources provides critical information on the proton environment outside the Earth s magnetosphere due to solar proton events and other phenomena. The operations team uses data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to provide near-real-time monitoring of the proton environment; however, these data do not give a representative measure of the soft-proton (real-time data provided by NOAA s Space Weather Prediction Center. This presentation describes the radiation mitigation strategies to minimize the proton damage in the ACIS CCD detectors and the importance of real-time data

  16. Towards a Global Hub and a Network for Collaborative Advancing of Space Weather Predictive Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, M. M.; Heynderickz, D.; Grande, M.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    The COSPAR/ILWS roadmap on space weather published in 2015 (Advances in Space Research, 2015: DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2015.03.023) prioritizes steps to be taken to advance understanding of space environment phenomena and to improve space weather forecasting capabilities. General recommendations include development of a comprehensive space environment specification, assessment of the state of the field on a 5-yr basis, standardization of meta-data and product metrics. To facilitate progress towards roadmap goals there is a need for a global hub for collaborative space weather capabilities assessment and development that brings together research, engineering, operational, educational, and end-user communities. The COSPAR Panel on Space Weather is aiming to build upon past progress and to facilitate coordination of established and new international space weather research and development initiatives. Keys to the success include creating flexible, collaborative, inclusive environment and engaging motivated groups and individuals committed to active participation in international multi-disciplinary teams focused on topics addressing emerging needs and challenges in the rapidly growing field of space weather. Near term focus includes comprehensive assessment of the state of the field and establishing an internationally recognized process to quantify and track progress over time, development of a global network of distributed web-based resources and interconnected interactive services required for space weather research, analysis, forecasting and education.

  17. Cause and Properties of the Extreme Space Weather Event of 2012 July 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Kajdic, P.; Kilpua, E.; Lugaz, N.; Nitta, N.; Lavraud, B.; Bale, S. D.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme space weather refers to extreme conditions in space driven by solar eruptions and subsequent disturbances in interplanetary space, or otherwise called solar superstorms. Understanding extreme space weather events is becoming ever more vital, as the vulnerability of our society and its technological infrastructure to space weather has increased dramatically. Instances of extreme space weather, however, are very rare by definition and therefore are difficult to study. Here we report and investigate an extreme event, which occurred on 2012 July 23 with a maximum speed of about 3050 km/s near the Sun. This event, with complete modern remote sensing and in situ observations from multiple vantage points, provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the cause and consequences of extreme space weather. It produced a superfast shock with a peak solar wind speed of 2246 km/s and a superstrong magnetic cloud with a peak magnetic field of 109 nT observed near 1 AU at STEREO A. The record solar wind speed and magnetic field would produce a record geomagnetic storm since the space era with a minimum Dst of -1200 - -600 nT, if this event hit the Earth. We demonstrate how successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can be enhanced into a solar superstorm as they interact en route from the Sun to 1 AU. These results not only provide a benchmark for studies of extreme space weather, but also present a new view of how an extreme space weather event can be generated from usual solar eruptions.

  18. How severe space weather can disrupt global supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte in den Bäumen, H.; Moran, D.; Lenzen, M.; Cairns, I.; Steenge, A.

    2014-10-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) strong enough to create electromagnetic effects at latitudes below the auroral oval are frequent events that could soon have substantial impacts on electrical grids. Modern society's heavy reliance on these domestic and international networks increases our susceptibility to such a severe space-weather event. Using a new high-resolution model of the global economy, we simulate the economic impact of strong CMEs for three different planetary orientations. We account for the economic impacts within the countries directly affected, as well as the post-disaster economic shock in partner economies linked by international trade. For a 1989 Quebec-like event, the global economic impacts would range from USD 2.4 to 3.4 trillion over a year. Of this total economic shock, about 50% would be felt in countries outside the zone of direct impact, leading to a loss in global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of 3.9 to 5.6%. The global economic damage is of the same order as wars, extreme financial crisis and estimated for future climate change.

  19. Space weather at Low Latitudes: Considerations to improve its forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. L.; Goncharenko, L.; Valladares, C. E.; Milla, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we present a summary of space weather events that are unique to low-latitude regions. Special emphasis will be devoted to events that occur during so-called quiet (magnetically) conditions. One of these events is the occurrence of nighttime F-region irregularities, also known Equatorial Spread F (ESF). When such irregularities occur navigation and communications systems get disrupted or perturbed. After more than 70 years of studies, many features of ESF irregularities (climatology, physical mechanisms, longitudinal dependence, time dependence, etc.) are well known, but so far they cannot be forecast on time scales of minutes to hours. We present a summary of some of these features and some of the efforts being conducted to contribute to their forecasting. In addition to ESF, we have recently identified a clear connection between lower atmospheric forcing and the low latitude variability, particularly during the so-called sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. During SSW events and magnetically quiet conditions, we have observed changes in total electron content (TEC) that are comparable to changes that occur during strong magnetically disturbed conditions. We present results from recent events as well as outline potential efforts to forecast the ionospheric effects during these events.

  20. Effects of space weather on high-latitude ground systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Risto

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological systems, such as power grids, pipelines, cables and railways, are a ground manifestation of space weather. The first GIC observations were already made in early telegraph equipment more than 150 years ago. In power networks, GIC may saturate transformers with possible harmful consequences extending even to a collapse of the whole system or to permanent damage of transformers. In pipelines, GIC and the associated pipe-to-soil voltages may enhance corrosion or disturb surveys associated with corrosion control. GIC are driven by the geoelectric field induced by a geomagnetic variation at the Earth’s surface. The electric and magnetic fields are primarily produced by ionospheric currents and secondarily affected by the ground conductivity. Of great importance is the auroral electrojet with other rapidly varying currents indicating that GIC are a particular high-latitude problem. In this paper, we summarize the GIC research done in Finland during about 25 years, and discuss the calculation of GIC in a given network. Special attention is paid to modelling a power system. It is shown that, when considering GIC at a site, it is usually sufficient to take account for a smaller grid in the vicinity of the particular site. Modelling GIC also provides a basis for developing forecasting and warning methods of GIC.

  1. NASA SDO - Solar & Space Weather Education via Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durscher, Romeo; Wawro, Martha

    2012-03-01

    NASA has embraced social media as a valuable tool to communicate the activities of the agency in fulfillment of its mission. Team SDO continues to be on the forefront of using social media in a very engaging and interactive way and share mission information, solar images and space weather updates via a variety of social media platforms and outlets. We will present the impact SDO's social media strategy has made, including follower, friends and fan statistics from Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Google+ and other outlets. We will discuss the various social media outlets and the techniques we use for reaching and engaging our audience. Effectiveness is measured through the use of various automatically-gathered statistics and level of public engagement. Of key importance to effective social media use is having access to scientists who can quickly respond to questions and express their answers in meaningful ways to the public. Our presentation will highlight the importance of scientist involvement and suggest ways for encouraging more scientists to support these efforts. We will present some of the social media plans for 2012 and discuss how we can continue to educate, inform, engage and inspire.

  2. Space Weather Impacts on Spacecraft Operations: Identifying and Establishing High-Priority Operational Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G.; Reid, S.; Tranquille, C.; Evans, H.

    2013-12-01

    Space Weather is a multi-disciplinary and cross-domain system defined as, 'The physical and phenomenological state of natural space environments. The associated discipline aims, through observation, monitoring, analysis and modelling, at understanding and predicting the state of the Sun, the interplanetary and planetary environments, and the solar and non-solar driven perturbations that affect them, and also at forecasting and nowcasting the potential impacts on biological and technological systems'. National and Agency-level efforts to provide services addressing the myriad problems, such as ESA's SSA programme are therefore typically complex and ambitious undertakings to introduce a comprehensive suite of services aimed at a large number and broad range of end users. We focus on some of the particular threats and risks that Space Weather events pose to the Spacecraft Operations community, and the resulting implications in terms of User Requirements. We describe some of the highest-priority service elements identified as being needed by the Operations community, and outline some service components that are presently available, or under development. The particular threats and risks often vary according to orbit, so the particular User Needs for Operators at LEO, MEO and GEO are elaborated. The inter-relationship between these needed service elements and existing service components within the broader Space Weather domain is explored. Some high-priority service elements and potential correlation with Space Weather drivers include: solar array degradation and energetic proton storms; single event upsets at GEO and solar proton events and galactic cosmic rays; surface charging and deep dielectric charging at MEO and radiation belt dynamics; SEUs at LEO and the South Atlantic Anomaly and its variability. We examine the current capability to provide operational services addressing such threats and identify some advances that the Operations community can expect to benefit

  3. Saving a Unique Data Set for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, D.; Benson, R. F.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Canadian/US International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) program included the four satellites Alouette 1 and 2, ISIS 1 and 2 launched in 1962, 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively and in operation for 10, 10, 21, and 19 years, respectively. The core experiment on these satellites was a topside sounder that could determine the ionospheric electron density from the orbit altitude down to about 250-500 km near where the ionosphere reaches its point of highest density, the F-peak. The mission was long lasting and highly successful, producing a wealth of information about the topside ionosphere in the form of analog ionosphere soundings on 7-track tapes. The analysis process required a tedious manual scaling of ionogram traces that could then, with appropriate software, be converted into electron density profiles. Even with the combined effort involving ionospheric groups from many countries only a relatively small percentage of the huge volume of recorded ionograms could be converted to electron density profiles. Even with this limited number significant new insights were achieved documented by the many Alouette/ISIS-related papers published in the 1960s and 1970s. Recognizing the importance of this unique data set for space weather research a new effort was undertaken in the late Nineties to analyze more of the Alouette/ISIS ionograms. The immediate cause for action was the threat to the more than 100,000 analog telemetry tapes in storage in Canada because of space limitations and storage costs. We were able to have nearly 20,000 tapes shipped to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for analog-to-digital conversion and succeeded in developing software that automatically scales and converts the ionograms to electron density profiles. This rescue effort is still ongoing and has already produced a significant increase in the information available for the topside ionosphere and has resulted in numerous publications. The data have led to improvements of the

  4. Discover Space Weather and Sun's Superpowers: Using CCMC's innovative tools and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, A. M. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Chulaki, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Mullinix, R.; Weigand, C.; Boblitt, J.; Taktakishvili, A.; MacNeice, P. J.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Pembroke, A. D.; Mays, M. L.; Zheng, Y.; Shim, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has developed a comprehensive set of tools and applications that are directly applicable to space weather and space science education. These tools, some of which were developed by our student interns, are capable of serving a wide range of student audiences, from middle school to postgraduate research. They include a web-based point of access to sophisticated space physics models and visualizations, and a powerful space weather information dissemination system, available on the web and as a mobile app. In this demonstration, we will use CCMC's innovative tools to engage the audience in real-time space weather analysis and forecasting and will share some of our interns' hands-on experiences while being trained as junior space weather forecasters. The main portals to CCMC's educational material are ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov and iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov

  5. Space Weather Effects on Current and Future Electric Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, D.; Dutta, O.; Tandoi, C.; Brandauer, W.; Mohamed, A.; Damas, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    This work addresses the effects of Geomagnetic Disturbances (GMDs) on the present bulk power system as well as the future smart grid, and discusses the mitigation of these geomagnetic impacts, so as to reduce the vulnerabilities of the electric power network to large space weather events. Solar storm characterized by electromagnetic radiation generates geo-electric fields that result in the flow of Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) through the transmission lines, followed by transformers and the ground. As the ground conductivity and the power network topology significantly vary with the region, it becomes imperative to estimate of the magnitude of GICs for different places. In this paper, the magnitude of GIC has been calculated for New York State (NYS) with the help of extensive modelling of the whole NYS electricity transmission network using real data. Although GIC affects only high voltage levels, e.g. above 300 kV, the presence of coastline in NYS makes the low voltage transmission lines also susceptible to GIC. Besides this, the encroachment of technologies pertaining to smart grid implementation, such as Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs), Microgrids, Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS), and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have been analyzed for GMD impacts. Inaccurate PMU results due to scintillation of GPS signals that are affected by electromagnetic interference of solar storm, presence of renewable energy resources in coastal areas that are more vulnerable to GMD, the ability of FACTS devices to either block or pave new path for GICs and so on, shed some light on impacts of GMD on smart grid technologies.

  6. Modeling extreme (Carrington-type) space weather events using three-dimensional MHD code simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, C. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Glocer, A.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure and systems. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made towards the modeling of space weather events. Three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, and have played a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for existing global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events that have a ground footprint comparable (or larger) to the Carrington superstorm. Results are presented for an initial simulation run with ``very extreme'' constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated ground induced geoelectric field to such extreme driving conditions. We also discuss the results and what they might mean for the accuracy of the simulations. The model is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in earth conductors such as power transmission grids.

  7. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  8. The Space Physics of Life: Searching for Biosignatures on Habitable Icy Worlds Affected by Space Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Accessible surfaces of the most likely astrobiological habitats (Mars, Europa, Titan) in the solar system beyond Earth are exposed to various chemical and hydrologic weathering processes directly or indirectly induced by interaction with the overlying space environment. These processes can be both beneficial, through provision of chemical compounds and energy, and destructive, through chemical dissociation or burial, to detectable presence of biosignatures. Orbital, suborbital, and surface platforms carrying astrobiological instrumentation must survive, and preferably exploit, space environment interactions to reach these habitats and search for evidence of life or its precursors. Experience from Mars suggests that any detection of biosignatures must be accompanied by characterization of the local chemical environment and energy sources including irradiation by solar ultraviolet photons and energetic particles from the space environment. Orbital and suborbital surveys of surface chemistry and astrobiological potential in the context of the space environment should precede targeted in-situ measurements to maximize probability of biosignature detection through site selection. The Space Physics of Life (SPOL) investigation has recently been proposed to the NASA Astrobiology Institute and is briefly described in this presentation. SPOL is the astrobiologically relevant study of the interactions and relationships of potentially? or previously inhabited, bodies of the solar system with the surrounding environments. This requires an interdisciplinary effort in space physics, planetary science, and radiation biology. The proposed investigation addresses the search for habitable environments, chemical resources to support life, and techniques for detection of organic and inorganic signs of life in the context of the space environment.

  9. Space Weather Influence on the Earth wheat markets: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustil'Nik, Lev

    We consider problem of a possible influence of unfavorable states of the space weather on agriculture market through chain of connections: "space weather"-"earth weather"-"agriculture crops"-"price reaction". We show that new manifestations of "space weather"-"earth weather" relations discovered in the last time allow to revise wide field of expected solar-terrestrial connections. In the previous works we proposed possible mechanisms of wheat market reaction in the form of price bursts on the specific unfavorable states of space weather. We show that implementation of considered "price reaction scenarios" is possible only for condition of simultaneous realization of several necessary conditions: high sensitivity of local earth weather in selected region to space weather; state of "high risk agriculture" in selected agriculture zone; high sensitivity of agricultural market to possible deficit of supply. Results of previous works (I, II) included application of this approach to wheat market in Medieval England and to modern USA durum market showed that real connection between wheat price bursts and space weather state is observed with high confidence level. The aim of present work is answer on the question, why wheat markets in one region are sensitive to space weather factor, while another regional wheat markets demonstrate absolute indifferent reaction on this factor. For this aim we consider distribution of sensitivity of wheat markets in Europe to space weather as function of localization in different climatic zones. We analyze giant database of 95 European wheat markets from 14 countries during about 600-year period (1260-1912). We show that observed sensitivity of wheat market to space weather effects controlled, first of all, by type of predominant climate in different zones of agriculture. Wheat markets in the North and part of Central Europe (England, Iceland, Holland) shows reliable sensitivity to space weather in minimum states of solar activity with low

  10. Ion Irradiation Experiments on the Murchison CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrite: Simulating Space Weathering of Primitive Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.; Rahman, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing observations show that space weathering processes affect all airless bodies in the Solar System to some degree. Sample analyses and lab experiments provide insights into the chemical, spectroscopic and mineralogic effects of space weathering and aid in the interpretation of remote- sensing data. For example, analyses of particles returned from the S-type asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission revealed that space-weathering on that body was dominated by interactions with the solar wind acting on LL ordinary chondrite-like materials [1, 2]. Understanding and predicting how the surface regoliths of primitive carbonaceous asteroids respond to space weathering processes is important for future sample return missions (Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS-REx) that are targeting objects of this type. Here, we report the results of our preliminary ion irradiation experiments on a hydrated carbonaceous chondrite with emphasis on microstructural and infrared spectral changes.

  11. Exploring Space Weathering on Mercury Using Global UV-VIS Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, N. R.; Denevi, B. W.

    2018-05-01

    We apply UV analysis methods used on lunar LROC data to Mercury to explore space weathering maturity and possibly evidence of shocked minerals. What says the UV // about shock, maturity // on dear Mercury?

  12. GSFC contamination monitors for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosso, P. A.; Tveekrem, J. L.; Coopersmith, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Work Package 3 activities in the area of neutral contamination monitoring for the Space Station. Goddard Space Flight Center's responsibilities include the development of the Attached Payload Accommodations Equipment (APAE), the Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). GSFC will also develop the Customer Servicing Facility (CSF) in Phase 2 of the Space Station.

  13. Near real-time geomagnetic data for space weather applications in the European sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, M. G.; Hansen, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    Tromsø Geophysical Observatory (TGO) is responsible for making and maintaining long time-series of geomagnetic measurements in Norway. TGO is currently operating 3 geomagnetic observatories and 11 variometer stations from southern Norway to Svalbard . Data from these 14 locations are acquired, processed and made available for the user community in near real-time. TGO is participating in several European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA) space weather related projects where both near real-time data and derived products are provided. In addition the petroleum industry is benefiting from our real-time data services for directional drilling. Near real-time data from TGO is freely available for non-commercial purposes. TGO is exchanging data in near real-time with several institutions, enabling the presentation of near real-time geomagnetic data from more than 40 different locations in Fennoscandia and Greenland. The open exchange of non real-time geomagnetic data has been successfully going on for many years through services such as the world data center in Kyoto, SuperMAG, IMAGE and SPIDR. TGO's vision is to take this one step further and make the exchange of near real-time geomagnetic data equally available for the whole community. This presentation contains an overview of TGO, our activities and future aims. We will show how our near real-time data are presented. Our contribution to the space weather forecasting and nowcasting effort in the EU and ESA will be presented with emphasis on our real-time auroral activity index and brand new auroral activity monitor and electrojet tracker.

  14. Space Weather Influence on the Earth Climate: Possible Manifestations in Wheat Markets Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, Lev; Yom Din, Gregory; Zagnetko, Alexander

    We consider problem of a possible influence of unfavorable states of the space weather on agri-culture market through chain of connections: "space weather"-"earth weather"-"agriculture crops"-"price reaction". We show that new manifestations of "space weather"-"earth weather" relations discovered in the last time allow to revise wide field of expected solar-terrestrial con-nections. In the previous works we proposed possible mechanisms of wheat market reaction in the form of price bursts on the specific unfavorable states of space weather. We show that implementation of considered "price reaction scenarios" is possible only for condition of simul-taneous realization of several necessary conditions: high sensitivity of local earth weather in selected region to space weather; state of "high risk agriculture" in selected agriculture zone; high sensitivity of agricultural market to possible deficit of supply. Results of previous works included application of this approach to wheat market in Medieval England and to modern USA durum market showed that real connection between wheat price bursts and space weather state is observed with high confidence level. The aim of present work is answer on the ques-tion, why wheat markets in one region are sensitive to space weather factor, while another regional wheat markets demonstrate absolute indifferent reaction on this factor. For this aim we consider distribution of sensitivity of wheat markets in Europe to space weather as function of localization in different climatic zones. We analyze giant database of 95 European wheat markets from 14 countries during about 600-year period (1260-1912). We show that observed sensitivity of wheat market to space weather effects controlled, first of all, by type of predomi-nant climate in different zones of agriculture. Wheat markets in the North and part of Central Europe (England, Iceland, Holland) shows reliable sensitivity to space weather in minimum states of solar activity with low

  15. Challenges for Transitioning Science Knowledge to an Operational Environment for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James

    2012-01-01

    Effectively transitioning science knowledge to an operational environment relevant to space weather is critical to meet the civilian and defense needs, especially considering how technologies are advancing and present evolving susceptibilities to space weather impacts. The effort to transition scientific knowledge to a useful application is not a research task nor is an operational activity, but an effort that bridges the two. Successful transitioning must be an intentional effort that has a clear goal for all parties and measureable outcome and deliverable. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective for terrestrial weather and disaster relief efforts, and how those methodologies can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  16. The near coastal environment monitored from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekielda, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    The optical information required for monitoring the marine environment from space is discussed and applied for the near coastal area. By categorizing coastal features it is possible to recognize coastal regions to a high degree and to indentify water masses derived from land sources and sewage dumping sites. It is concluded that monitoring from space can be used as a tool in environmental planning. (orig.) [de

  17. Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report - Extended Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The effects of space weather on modern technological systems are well documented in both the technical literature and popular accounts. Most often cited perhaps is the collapse within 90 seconds of northeastern Canada's Hydro-Quebec power grid during the great geomagnetic storm of March 1989, which left millions of people without electricity for up to 9 hours. This event exemplifies the dramatic impact that severe space weather can have on a technology upon which modern society critically depends. Nearly two decades have passed since the March 1989 event. During that time, awareness of the risks of severe space weather has increased among the affected industries, mitigation strategies have been developed, new sources of data have become available, new models of the space environment have been created, and a national space weather infrastructure has evolved to provide data, alerts, and forecasts to an increasing number of users. Now, 20 years later and approaching a new interval of increased solar activity, how well equipped are we to manage the effects of space weather? Have recent technological developments made our critical technologies more or less vulnerable? How well do we understand the broader societal and economic impacts of severe space weather events? Are our institutions prepared to cope with the effects of a 'space weather Katrina,' a rare, but according to the historical record, not inconceivable eventuality? On May 22 and 23, 2008, a one-and-a-half-day workshop held in Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board brought together representatives of industry, the federal government, and the social science community to explore these and related questions. The key themes, ideas, and insights that emerged during the presentations and discussions are summarized in 'Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report' (The National Academies Press, Washington, D

  18. Modeling extreme "Carrington-type" space weather events using three-dimensional global MHD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Glocer, Alex

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made toward the first-principles modeling of space weather events, and three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, thereby playing a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for the modern global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events with a Dst footprint comparable to the Carrington superstorm of September 1859 based on the estimate by Tsurutani et. al. (2003). Results are presented for a simulation run with "very extreme" constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated induced geoelectric field on the ground to such extreme driving conditions. The model setup is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event of Halloween storm October 2003 to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw additional guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model setup is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in ground-based conductor systems such as power transmission grids. Therefore, our ultimate goal is to explore the level of geoelectric fields that can be induced from an assumed storm of the reported magnitude, i.e., Dst˜=-1600 nT.

  19. Arduino Based Weather Monitoring Telemetry System Using NRF24L01+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidqi, Rafi; Rio Rynaldo, Bagus; Hadi Suroso, Satya; Firmansyah, Rifqi

    2018-04-01

    Abstract-Weather is an important part of the natural environment, thus knowing weather information is needed before doing activity. The main purpose of this research was to develop a weather monitoring system which capable to transmit weather data via radio frequency by using nRF24L01+ 2,4GHz radio module. This research implement Arduino UNO as the main controller of the system which send data wirelessly using the radio module and received by a receiver system. Received data then logged and displayed using a Graphical User Interface on a personal computer. Test and experiment result show that the system was able to transmit weather data via radio wave with maximum transmitting range of 32 meters.

  20. Review on the solar spectral variability in the EUV for space weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lilensten

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The solar XUV-EUV flux is the main energy source in the terrestrial diurnal thermosphere: it produces ionization, dissociation, excitation and heating. Accurate knowledge of this flux is of prime importance for space weather. We first list the space weather applications that require nowcasting and forecasting of the solar XUV-EUV flux. We then review present models and discuss how they account for the variability of the solar spectrum. We show why the measurement of the full spectrum is difficult, and why it is illusory to retrieve it from its atmospheric effects. We then address the problem of determining a set of observations that are adapted for space weather purposes, in the frame of ionospheric studies. Finally, we review the existing and future space experiments that are devoted to the observation of the solar XUV-EUV spectrum.

  1. Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott Lee

    2014-01-01

    This presentation is an update from the 2011 and 2012 talks given to Teachers in Space. These slides include some recent space weather issues that are hot topics, including the adding our USEWX and USEWX partners, and information relevant to GSFC researchers.

  2. Mitigating Aviation Communication and Satellite Orbit Operations Surprises from Adverse Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2008-01-01

    Adverse space weather affects operational activities in aviation and satellite systems. For example, large solar flares create highly variable enhanced neutral atmosphere and ionosphere electron density regions. These regions impact aviation communication frequencies as well as precision orbit determination. The natural space environment, with its dynamic space weather variability, is additionally changed by human activity. The increase in orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO), combined with lower atmosphere CO2 that rises into the lower thermosphere and causes increased cooling that results in increased debris lifetime, adds to the environmental hazards of navigating in near-Earth space. This is at a time when commercial space endeavors are posed to begin more missions to LEO during the rise of the solar activity cycle toward the next maximum (2012). For satellite and aviation operators, adverse space weather results in greater expenses for orbit management, more communication outages or aviation and ground-based high frequency radio used, and an inability to effectively plan missions or service customers with space-based communication, imagery, and data transferal during time-critical activities. Examples of some revenue-impacting conditions and solutions for mitigating adverse space weather are offered.

  3. Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) for Space Shuttle Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Rajkumar, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) is a critical module of the Virtual Test Bed development to support 'go/no go' decisions for Space Shuttle operations in the Intelligent Launch and Range Operations program of NASA. The weather rules characterize certain aspects of the environment related to the launching or landing site, the time of the day or night, the pad or runway conditions, the mission durations, the runway equipment and landing type. Expert system rules are derived from weather contingency rules, which were developed over years by NASA. Backward chaining, a goal-directed inference method is adopted, because a particular consequence or goal clause is evaluated first, and then chained backward through the rules. Once a rule is satisfied or true, then that particular rule is fired and the decision is expressed. The expert system is continuously verifying the rules against the past one-hour weather conditions and the decisions are made. The normal procedure of operations requires a formal pre-launch weather briefing held on Launch minus 1 day, which is a specific weather briefing for all areas of Space Shuttle launch operations. In this paper, the Web-based Weather Expert System of the Intelligent Launch and range Operations program is presented.

  4. An Examination of the Space Weathering Patina of Lunar Rock 76015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S.; Chrisoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. Rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain and thus record a longer history of exposure. By studying the weathering products which have built up on a rock surface, we can gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative importance of various weathering components. The weathered coating, or patina, of the lunar rock 76015 has been previously studied under SEM and also by TEM using ultramicrotome sample preparation methods. However, to really understand the products involved in creating these coatings, it is helpful to examine the patina in cross section, something which is now possible though the use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) sample prep techniques, which allows us to preserve intact the delicate stratigraphy of the patina coating and provides a unique cross-sectional view of the space weathering process. Several samples have been prepared from the rock and the coatings are found to be quite variable in thickness and composition from one sample to the next.

  5. Extreme events monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Yann; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mahmoodi, Ali; Richaume, Philippe; Al-Yaari, Amen; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite was successfully launched in November 2009. This ESA led mission for Earth Observation is dedicated to provide soil moisture over continental surface (with an accuracy goal of 0.04 m3/m3), vegetation water content over land, and ocean salinity. These geophysical features are important as they control the energy balance between the surface and the atmosphere. Their knowledge at a global scale is of interest for climatic and weather researches, and in particular in improving model forecasts. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission has now been collecting data for 6 years. The whole data set has just been reprocessed (Version 620 for levels 1 and 2 and version 3 for level 3 CATDS). After 6 years it seems important to start using data for having a look at anomalies and see how they can relate to large scale events The purpose of this communication is to present the mission results after more than six years in orbit in a climatic trend perspective, as through such a period anomalies can be detected. Thereby we benefit from consistent datasets provided through the latest reprocessing using most recent algorithm enhancements. Using the above mentioned products it is possible to follow large events such as the evolution of the droughts in North America, or water fraction evolution over the Amazonian basin. In this occasion we will focus on the analysis of SMOS and ancillary products anomalies to reveal two climatic trends, the temporal evolution of water storage over the Indian continent in relation to rainfall anomalies, and the global impact of El Nino types of events on the general water storage distribution. This presentation shows in detail the use of long term data sets of L-band microwave radiometry in two specific cases, namely droughts and water budget over a large basin. Several other analyses are under way currently. Obviously, vegetation water content, but also dielectric constant, are carrying a wealth

  6. Space weathering trends on carbonaceous asteroids: A possible explanation for Bennu's blue slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, C.; Binzel, R. P.; DeMeo, F. E.

    2018-03-01

    We compare primitive near-Earth asteroid spectral properties to the irradiated carbonaceous chondrite samples of Lantz et al. (2017) in order to assess how space weathering processes might influence taxonomic classification. Using the same eigenvectors from the asteroid taxonomy by DeMeo et al. (2009), we calculate the principal components for fresh and irradiated meteorites and find that change in spectral slope (blueing or reddening) causes a corresponding shift in the two first principal components along the same line that the C- and X-complexes track. Using a sample of B-, C-, X-, and D-type NEOs with visible and near-infrared spectral data, we further investigated the correlation between prinicipal components and the spectral curvature for the primitive asteroids. We find that space weathering effects are not just slope and albedo, but also include spectral curvature. We show how, through space weathering, surfaces having an original "C-type" reflectance can thus turn into a redder P-type or a bluer B-type, and that space weathering can also decrease (and disguise) the D-type population. Finally we take a look at the case of OSIRIS-REx target (101955) Bennu and propose an explanation for the blue and possibly red spectra that were previously observed on different locations of its surface: parts of Bennu's surface could have become blue due to space weathering, while fresher areas are redder. No clear prediction can be made on Hayabusa-2 target (162173) Ryugu.

  7. Assessing and Adapting Scientific Results for Space Weather Research to Operations (R2O)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Friedl, L.; Halford, A. J.; Mays, M. L.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Singer, H. J.; Stehr, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Why doesn't a solid scientific paper necessarily result in a tangible improvement in space weather capability? A well-known challenge in space weather forecasting is investing effort to turn the results of basic scientific research into operational knowledge. This process is commonly known as "Research to Operations," abbreviated R2O. There are several aspects of this process: 1) How relevant is the scientific result to a particular space weather process? 2) If fully utilized, how much will that result improve the reliability of the forecast for the associated process? 3) How much effort will this transition require? Is it already in a relatively usable form, or will it require a great deal of adaptation? 4) How much burden will be placed on forecasters? Is it "plug-and-play" or will it require effort to operate? 5) How can robust space weather forecasting identify challenges for new research? This presentation will cover several approaches that have potential utility in assessing scientific results for use in space weather research. The demonstration of utility is the first step, relating to the establishment of metrics to ensure that there will be a clear benefit to the end user. The presentation will then move to means of determining cost vs. benefit, (where cost involves the full effort required to transition the science to forecasting, and benefit concerns the improvement of forecast reliability), and conclude with a discussion of the role of end users and forecasters in driving further innovation via "O2R."

  8. Quantifying the daily economic impact of extreme space weather due to failure in electricity transmission infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Edward J.; Skelton, Andrew; Horne, Richard B.; Thomson, Alan W. P.; Gaunt, Charles T.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme space weather due to coronal mass ejections has the potential to cause considerable disruption to the global economy by damaging the transformers required to operate electricity transmission infrastructure. However, expert opinion is split between the potential outcome being one of a temporary regional blackout and of a more prolonged event. The temporary blackout scenario proposed by some is expected to last the length of the disturbance, with normal operations resuming after a couple of days. On the other hand, others have predicted widespread equipment damage with blackout scenarios lasting months. In this paper we explore the potential costs associated with failure in the electricity transmission infrastructure in the U.S. due to extreme space weather, focusing on daily economic loss. This provides insight into the direct and indirect economic consequences of how an extreme space weather event may affect domestic production, as well as other nations, via supply chain linkages. By exploring the sensitivity of the blackout zone, we show that on average the direct economic cost incurred from disruption to electricity represents only 49% of the total potential macroeconomic cost. Therefore, if indirect supply chain costs are not considered when undertaking cost-benefit analysis of space weather forecasting and mitigation investment, the total potential macroeconomic cost is not correctly represented. The paper contributes to our understanding of the economic impact of space weather, as well as making a number of key methodological contributions relevant for future work. Further economic impact assessment of this threat must consider multiday, multiregional events.

  9. Space Solar Patrol data and changes in weather and climate, including global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, S V; Leonov, N B; Voronin, N A; Baranova, L A; Savinov, E P

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the results obtained during the execution of several ISTC projects are presented. The general aim of these projects has been the study of global changes in the environment, connected with solar activity. A brief description of the optical apparatus of the Space Solar Patrol (SSP) developed and built in the framework of the ISTC projects 385, 385.2, 1523 and 2500 is given. The SSP is intended for permanent monitoring of spectra and absolute fluxes of soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (x-ray/EUV) radiation from the full disk of the Sun which ionizes the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Permanent solar monitoring in the main part of the ionizing radiation spectra 0.8–115 (119) nm does not exist. The apparatus of the SSP was developed in the years 1996–2005 with multiyear experience of developing such apparatus in S I Vavilov State Optical Institute. The basis of this apparatus is the use of unique detectors of ionizing radiation—open secondary electron multipliers, which are 'solar blind' to near UV, visible and IR radiation from the Sun, and new methodology of these solar spectroradiometric absolute measurements. The prospects are discussed of using the SSP data for the investigation and forecast of the influence of solar variability on the weather and climate including global warming and also on the biosphere including human beings (proposal 3878)

  10. Under the Weather: Space Weather. The Magnetic Field of the Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Aaron; Goldstein, Melvyn

    2000-01-01

    Normally, only people in the far north can enjoy the dancing beauty of the aurora borealis; however, an intense collision of charged solar particles with the Earth's magnetic field can magnify the Northern Lights so much that they are visible in the southern United States. Behind the light show lies enough flux of energetic particles carried by solar wind to render our planet uninhabitable. The Earth's magnetic field, also known as the magnetosphere, is the only thing that shields us from the Sun. Even the magnetosphere cannot fully guard us from the wrath of the Sun. In March 1989, a powerful solar flare hit Earth with such energy that it burned out transformers in Quebec's electrical grid, plunging Quebec and the eastern United States into darkness for more than 9 hours. Northern lights and energy grid overloads are not the only ways that a solar wind can affect us. A solar storm in July 1999 interrupted radio broadcasts. Solar activity can disorient radars and satellite sensors, break up cell phone connections, and threaten the safety of astronauts. A large bombardment of solar particles can even reduce the amount of ozone in the upper atmosphere. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the study of magnetic fields in magnetized plasmas, can help scientists predict, and therefore prepare for, the harmful side effects of solar weather in the magnetosphere.

  11. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Space Weather Operational Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Trichas, M.

    2015-12-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) have carried out a study for an operational L5 space weather mission, in collaboration with RAL, the UK Met Office, UCL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for operational forecasting needs. The study focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a US mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 offers the greatest benefit for SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to address all MOSWOC/SWPC priorities using UK/US instruments, consisting of: a heliospheric imager, coronagraph, EUV imager, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform is based on extensive re-use from Airbus' past missions to minimize the cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could occur in 2020, assuming Phase A KO in 2015. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  12. Planetary Space Weather Service: Part of the the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Manuel; Andre, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Over the next four years the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure will set up an entirely new European Planetary Space Weather service (PSWS). Europlanet RI is a part of of Horizon 2020 (EPN2020-RI, http://www.europlanet-2020-ri.eu). The Virtual Access Service, WP5 VA1 "Planetary Space Weather Services" will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. VA1 will make five entirely new 'toolkits' accessible to the research community and to industrial partners planning for space missions: a general planetary space weather toolkit, as well as three toolkits dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support ExoMars), comets (building on the expected success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUICE mission to be launched in 2022). This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. It will also create a novel event-diary toolkit aiming at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. So WP10 JRA4 "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. The overall objectives of this Joint Research Aactivities will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools

  13. Physical Origins of Space Weather Impacts: Open Physics Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Beginning with the era of development of electrical telegraph systems in the early 19th century, physical processes in the space environment on the Sun, in the interplanetary medium, and around Earth have influenced the design and operations of ever-increasing and sophisticated technical systems, both in space and on the ground. Understanding of Earth's space environment has increased enormously in the last century and one-half. Nevertheless, many of the physical processes that produced effects on early cable and wireless technologies continue to plague modern-day systems. And as new technologies are developed for improved communications, surveillance, navigation, and conditions for human space flight, the solar-terrestrial environment often offers surprises to their safe, secure and uninterrupted operations. This talk will address some of the challenges that I see to the successful operations of some modern-day technical systems that are posed by significant deficiencies of understanding of physical processes operating from the Sun to the Earth.

  14. Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroidal Space Weathering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark. R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Schriver, David; Travnicek, Pavel M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Mercury's regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered by a set of space weathering processes. Before we can interpret crustal composition, it is necessary to understand the nature of these surface alterations. The processes that space weather the surface are the same as those that form Mercury's exosphere (micrometeoroid flux and solar wind interactions) and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of a global magnetic field. To comprehend how space weathering acts on Mercury's regolith, an understanding is needed of how contributing processes act as an interactive system. As no direct information (e.g., from returned samples) is available about how the system of space weathering affects Mercury's regolith, we use as a basis for comparison the current understanding of these same processes on lunar and asteroidal regoliths as well as laboratory simulations. These comparisons suggest that Mercury's regolith is overturned more frequently (though the characteristic surface time for a grain is unknown even relative to the lunar case), more than an order of magnitude more melt and vapor per unit time and unit area is produced by impact processes than on the Moon (creating a higher glass content via grain coatings and agglutinates), the degree of surface irradiation is comparable to or greater than that on the Moon, and photon irradiation is up to an order of magnitude greater (creating amorphous grain rims, chemically reducing the upper layers of grains to produce nanometer scale particles of metallic iron, and depleting surface grains in volatile elements and alkali metals). The processes that chemically reduce the surface and produce nanometer-scale particles on Mercury are suggested to be more effective than similar processes on the Moon. Estimated abundances of nanometer-scale particles can account for Mercury's dark surface relative to that of the Moon without requiring macroscopic grains of opaque minerals. The presence of

  15. Engaging Undergraduate Students in Space Weather Research at a 2- Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, M. C.

    2017-07-01

    The Queensborough Community College (QCC) of the City University of New York (CUNY), a Hispanic and minority-serving institution, has been very successful at engaging undergraduate students in space weather research for the past ten years. Recently, it received two awards to support student research and education in solar and atmospheric physics under the umbrella discipline of space weather. Through these awards, students receive stipends during the academic year and summer to engage in scientific research. Students also have the opportunity to complete a summer internship at NASA and at other partner institutions. Funding also supports the development of course materials and tools in space weather. Educational materials development and the challenges of engaging students in research as early as their first year will be discussed. Once funding is over, how is the program sustained? Sustaining such a program, as well as how to implement it at other universities will also be discussed.

  16. Satellite navigation—Amazing technology but insidious risk: Why everyone needs to understand space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapgood, Mike

    2017-04-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are one of the technological wonders of the modern world. Popularly known as satellite navigation, these systems have provided global access to precision location and timing services and have thereby stimulated advances in industry and consumer services, including all forms of transport, telecommunications, financial trading, and even the synchronization of power grids. But this wonderful technology is at risk from natural phenomena in the form of space weather. GNSS signals experience a slight delay as they pass through the ionosphere. This delay varies with space weather conditions and is the most significant source of error for GNSS. Scientific efforts to correct these errors have stimulated billions of dollars of investment in systems that provide accurate correction data for suitably equipped GNSS receivers in a growing number of regions around the world. This accuracy is essential for GNSS use by aircraft and ships. Space weather also provides a further occasional but severe risk to GNSS: an extreme space weather event may deny access to GNSS as ionospheric scintillation scrambles the radio signals from satellites, and rapid ionospheric changes outstrip the ability of error correction systems to supply accurate corrections. It is vital that GNSS users have a backup for such occasions, even if it is only to hunker down and weather the storm.

  17. In Memoriam: Jules Aarons (1921-2008): Space Weather Pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendillo, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Prior to the use of the phrase “space weather” to summarize all possible effects of solar-terrestrial physics upon technological systems, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) created and maintained active programs in the application aspects of space physics. The person arguably most associated with those efforts was Jules Aarons, who died on 21 November 2008 at age 87 at his home in Newton, Mass. Jules was a research professor of astronomy and space physics at Boston University from 1981 to 2005, but it was as a civilian scientist at the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (AFCRL) from 1946 to 1981 that Jules emerged as a true leader in studies of how the ionosphere can affect radio communications. He specialized in scintillations, those serious fluctuations of radio signal amplitudes and phases that cause dropouts in otherwise reliable communications links.

  18. Using Science Data and Models for Space Weather Forecasting - Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Pulkkinen, Antti; Zheng, Yihua; Maddox, Marlo; Berrios, David; Taktakishvili, Sandro; Kuznetsova, Masha; Chulaki, Anna; Lee, Hyesook; Mullinix, Rick; hide

    2012-01-01

    Space research, and, consequently, space weather forecasting are immature disciplines. Scientific knowledge is accumulated frequently, which changes our understanding or how solar eruptions occur, and of how they impact targets near or on the Earth, or targets throughout the heliosphere. Along with continuous progress in understanding, space research and forecasting models are advancing rapidly in capability, often providing substantially increases in space weather value over time scales of less than a year. Furthermore, the majority of space environment information available today is, particularly in the solar and heliospheric domains, derived from research missions. An optimal forecasting environment needs to be flexible enough to benefit from this rapid development, and flexible enough to adapt to evolving data sources, many of which may also stem from non-US entities. This presentation will analyze the experiences obtained by developing and operating both a forecasting service for NASA, and an experimental forecasting system for Geomagnetically Induced Currents.

  19. Low-Frequency Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio phenomena are due to the presence of nonthermal electrons in the interplanetary (IP) medium. Understanding these phenomena is important in characterizing the space environment near Earth and other destinations in the solar system. Substantial progress has been made in the past two decades, because of the continuous and uniform data sets available from space-based radio and white-light instrumentation. This paper highlights some recent results obtained on IP radio phenomena. In particular, the source of type IV radio bursts, the behavior of type III storms, shock propagation in the IP medium, and the solar-cycle variation of type II radio bursts are considered. All these phenomena are closely related to solar eruptions and active region evolution. The results presented were obtained by combining data from the Wind and SOHO missions.

  20. Space Weather: Linking Stellar Explosions to the Human Endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipp, Delores

    2017-06-01

    Arguably humans have flourished as a result of stellar explosions; we are, after all, stardust. Nonetheless, rapid technology advances of the last 200 years sometimes put society and individuals on a collision course with the natural variability of stellar and solar atmospheres. Human space exploration, routine satellite navigation system applications, aviation safety, and electric power grids are examples of such vulnerable endeavors. In this presentation I will outline how global society relies on ‘normal’ solar and stellar emissions, yet becomes susceptible to extremes of these emissions. The imprints of these astronomical-terrestrial interactions abound. In particular, I will highlight ways in which stellar/solar bursts link with our space-atmosphere-interaction region, producing multi-year patterns in cosmic ray detection, gorgeous aurora, and deep concern for good order and function of global community.

  1. Cosmic rays and space weather: effects on global climate change

    OpenAIRE

    L. I. Dorman; L. I. Dorman

    2012-01-01

    We consider possible effects of cosmic rays and some other space factors on the Earth's climate change. It is well known that the system of internal and external factors formatting the climate is very unstable; decreasing planetary temperature leads to an increase of snow surface, and decrease of the total solar energy input into the system decreases the planetary temperature even more, etc. From this it follows that even energetically small factors may have a big influence ...

  2. Application of the idea of morphism in solar-terrestrial physics and space weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateev, Lachezar; Tassev, Yordan; Velinov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The actual problems of solar-terrestrial physics, in particular of space weather are related to the prediction of the space environment state and are solved by means of different analyses and models. In the present work we introduce a new mathematical approach to the study of physical processes in the system Sun-Earth. For example, in the ionization of the ionosphere and atmosphere under the influence of cosmic rays a model is used that applies the principle of homomorphism. When calculating the parameters of space weather such as solar wind, interplanetary magnetic fields, Earth’s magnetosphere, geomagnetic storms and others, the introduction and application of mathematical objects is appropriate: morphisms, groups, categories, monads, functors, natural transformations and others. Such an approach takes into account the general laws of physical processes in the system Sun – Earth and helps in their testing and calculation. It is useful for such complex systems and processes as these in the solar-terrestrial physics and space weather. Some methods for algebraic structures can be introduced. These methods give the possibility for axiomatization of the physical data reality and the application of algebraic methods for their processing. Here we give the base for the transformation from the algebraic theory of categories and morphisms to the physical structure of concepts and data. Such problems are principally considered in the proposed work. Key words: pace weather, space radiation environment, solar effects, forecasting, energetic solar particles, cosmic rays

  3. Nanosatellite standardization and modularization as an asset to space weather measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, D.; Carssow, D.; Fritz, T. A.; Voss, H. D.

    2009-12-01

    The continuity of measurements from satellites in the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere is essential for the space weather community as pointed out by the US National Space Weather Program. Challenges to space budgets and the growing dependence upon space weather prediction have opened the door for extremely small satellites to play a large role in making these measurements. Standardization allows for modularity and the ability to lower satellite cost by reusing instrumentation and satellite systems without redesigning interfaces. Use of nanosatellites gives a designer the freedom to depart from the customary larger satellite design by deploying standardized interfaces throughout the spacecraft bus. Examples from the Boston University Student Satellite for Application and Training (BUSAT), the Thunderstorms and Effects Scientific and Technology nanosatellite (TEST), and the Loss Cone Imaging Instrument (LCI) will be provided. BUSAT is a five instrument nanosatellite with a nine pixel Imaging Electron Spectrometer, a Magnetometer, an Auroral Imager, a Very Low Frequency receiver, and a Langmuir Plasma Probe. Its purpose is to further the understanding of the coupling between energetic particles originating in the magnetosphere and their subsequent effects on the Ionosphere. In addition to their space weather science objective, BUSAT’s subsystems are based on the Cubesat concept and have been standardized, enabling them to be stacked in any orientation. Subsystems are not limited in size to the basic 1U cube, but are able to be any multiple of that size in any direction.

  4. Space Weathering in Houston: A Role for the Experimental Impact Laboratory at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintala, M. J.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Hoerz, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effective investigation of space weathering demands an interdisciplinary approach that is at least as diversified as any other in planetary science. Because it is a macroscopic process affecting all bodies in the solar system, impact and its resulting shock effects must be given detailed attention in this regard. Direct observation of the effects of impact is most readily done for the Moon, but it still remains difficult for other bodies in the solar system. Analyses of meteorites and precious returned samples provide clues for space weathering on asteroids, but many deductions arising from those studies must still be considered circumstantial. Theoretical work is also indispensable, but it can only go as far as the sometimes meager data allow. Experimentation, however, can permit near real-time study of myriad processes that could contribute to space weathering. This contribution describes some of the capabilities of the Johnson Space Center's Experimental Impact Laboratory (EIL) and how they might help in understanding the space weathering process.

  5. Cosmic rays and space weather: effects on global climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider possible effects of cosmic rays and some other space factors on the Earth's climate change. It is well known that the system of internal and external factors formatting the climate is very unstable; decreasing planetary temperature leads to an increase of snow surface, and decrease of the total solar energy input into the system decreases the planetary temperature even more, etc. From this it follows that even energetically small factors may have a big influence on climate change. In our opinion, the most important of these factors are cosmic rays and cosmic dust through their influence on clouds, and thus, on climate.

  6. Cosmic rays and space weather. Effects on global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, L.I.; Israel Space Agency; Russian Academy of Sciences

    2012-01-01

    We consider possible effects of cosmic rays and some other space factors on the Earth's climate change. It is well known that the system of internal and external factors formatting the climate is very unstable; decreasing planetary temperature leads to an increase of snow surface, and decrease of the total solar energy input into the system decreases the planetary temperature even more, etc. From this it follows that even energetically small factors may have a big influence on climate change. In our opinion, the most important of these factors are cosmic rays and cosmic dust through their influence on clouds, and thus, on climate. (orig.)

  7. Solar radio bursts as a tool for space weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Matamoros, Carolina Salas; Zucca, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    The solar corona and its activity induce disturbances that may affect the space environment of the Earth. Noticeable disturbances come from coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are large-scale ejections of plasma and magnetic fields from the solar corona, and solar energetic particles (SEPs). These particles are accelerated during the explosive variation of the coronal magnetic field or at the shock wave driven by a fast CME. In this contribution, it is illustrated how full Sun microwave observations can lead to (1) an estimate of CME speeds and of the arrival time of the CME at the Earth, (2) the prediction of SEP events attaining the Earth. xml:lang="fr"

  8. Effects of Space Weathering on Reflectance Spectra of Ureilites: First Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Gillis-Davis, J.; Cloutis, E.; Applin, D.; Takir, D.; Hibbitts, C.; Christoffersen, R.; Fries, M.; Klima, R.; Decker, S.

    2018-01-01

    Ureilites are differentiated meteorites (ultramafic rocks interpreted to be mantle residues) that contain as much carbon as the most carbon-rich carbonaceous chondrites (CCs). Reflectance spectra of ureilites are similar to those of some CCs. Hence, ureilitic asteroids may accidentally be categorized as primitive because their spectra could resemble those of C-complex asteroids, which are thought to be CC-like. We began spectral studies of progressively laser-weathered ureilites with the goals of predicting UV-VIS-IR spectra of ureilitic asteroids, and identifying features that could distinguish differentiated from primitive dark asteroids. Space weathering has not previously been studied for ureilites, and, based on space weathering studies of CCs and other C-rich materials, it could significantly alter their reflectance spectra.

  9. Large surface scintillators as base of impact point detectors and their application in Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Sindulfo; Medina, José; Gómez-Herrero, Raul; José Blanco, Juan; García-Tejedor, Ignacio; García-Población, Oscar; Díaz-Romeral, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    The use of a pile of two 100 cm x 100 cm x 5 cm BC-400 organic scintillators is proposed as ground-based cosmic ray detector able to provide directional information on the incident muons. The challenge is to get in real time the muon impact point on the scintillator and its arrival direction using as few Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) as possible. The instrument is based on the dependence of attenuation of light with the traversed distance in each scintillator. For the time being, four photomultiplier tubes gather the light through the lateral faces (100 cm x 5 cm) of the scintillator. Several experiments have already been carried out. The results show how data contain information about the muon trajectory through the scintillator. This information can be extracted using the pulse heights collected by the PMTs working in coincidence mode. Reliability and accuracy of results strongly depend on the number of PMTs used and mainly on their appropriate geometrical arrangement with regard to the scintillator. In order to determine the optimal position and the minimum number of PMTs required, a Montecarlo simulation code has been developed. Preliminary experimental and simulation results are presented and the potential of the system for space weather monitoring is discussed.

  10. Observatory data as a proxy of space weather parameters: The importance of historical archives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 20, Č. 2 (2016), s. 47-53 ISSN 0257-7968 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geomagnetic observatory * geomagnetic indices * sunspot members * space weather Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography

  11. Space Weather Influence on Relative Motion Control using the Touchless Electrostatic Tractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Erik A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2016-09-01

    With recent interest in the use of electrostatic forces for contactless tugging and attitude control of noncooperative objects for orbital servicing and active debris mitigation, the need for a method of remote charge control arises. In this paper, the use of a directed electron beam for remote charge control is considered in conjunction with the relative motion control. A tug vehicle emits an electron beam onto a deputy object, charging it negatively. At the same time, the tug is charged positively due to beam emission, resulting in an attractive electrostatic force. The relative position feedback control between the tug and the passive debris object is studied subject to the charging being created through an electron beam. Employing the nominal variations of the GEO space weather conditions across longitude slots, two electrostatic tugging strategies are considered. First, the electron beam current is adjusted throughout the orbit in order to maximize this resulting electrostatic force. This open-loop control strategy compensates for changes in the nominally expected local space weather environment in the GEO region to adjust for fluctuations in the local plasma return currents. Second, the performance impact of using a fixed electron beam current on the electrostatic tractor is studied if the same natural space weather variations are assumed. The fixed electron beam current shows a minor performance penalty (<5 %) while providing a much simpler implementation that does not require any knowledge of local space weather conditions.

  12. Fostering research aptitude among high school students through space weather competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Majid, R. A.; Bais, B.; Bahri, N. S.; Asillam, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    Cultivating research culture at an early stage is important for capacity building in a community. The high school level is the appropriate stage for research to be introduced because of students' competitive nature. Participation in the space weather competition is one of the ways in which research aptitude can be fostered in high school students in Malaysia. Accordingly, this paper presents how research elements were introduced to the students at the high school level through their participation in the space weather competition. The competition required the students to build a system to detect the presence of solar flares by utilizing VLF signals reflected from the ionosphere. The space weather competition started off with proposal writing for the space weather related project where the students were required to execute extensive literature review on the given topic. Additionally, the students were also required to conduct the experiments and analyse the data. Results obtained from data analysis were then validated by the students through various other observations that they had to carry out. At the end of the competition, students were expected to write a comprehensive technical report. Through this competition, the students learnt how to conduct research in accordance to the guidelines provided through the step by step approach exposed to them. Ultimately, this project revealed that the students were able to conduct research on their own with minimal guidance and that participation in the competition not only generated enjoyment in learning but also their interest in science and research.

  13. Can We Distinguish Between Shock-Darkened and Space-Weathered Asteroids?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Penttilä, A.; Gritsevich, M.; Britt, D.; Reddy, V.; Mann, P.; Haloda, J.; Halodová, P.; Grokhovsky, V.; Yakovlev, G.; Čuda, J.; Filip, J.; Muinonen, K.; Zbořil, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2014), s. 225-226 ISSN 0002-7537. [Annual Meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences /46./. 09.11.2014-14.11.2014, Tuscon] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : space weathering * reflectance spectra * olivine * asteroid * Moon Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  14. Transformative Advances in DDDAS with Application to Space Weather Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    in [66], which applies the ensemble code DART to GITM, since the main goal of RCAISE is to estimate the unknown input rather than obtain estimates of...all model states. Since RCAISE is not an ensemble code, it is highly computationally efficient compared to DART , but, unlike DART , it provides best...Spring- mann was the winner of the Student Paper Competition at the AIAA 2013 Small Satellite Conference for [90]. Jeremy Castaing received honorable

  15. Parameters of electromagnetic weather in near-terrestrial space determining the effects on biosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oraevskij, V.N.; Golyshev, S.A.; Levitin, A.E.; Breus, T.K.; Ivanova, S.V.; Komarov, F.I.; Rapoport, S.I.

    1995-01-01

    Space and time distribution of the electric and magnetic fields and current systems in the near terrestrial space (electromagnetic weather) were studied in connection with ambulance calls in Moscow, Russia, related to the cardia-vascular diseases. The some examples of the correlations between the solar activity parameters and geomagnetic variations and the events of the extreme number of ambulance calls were presented. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Utilizing Weather RADAR for Rapid Location of Meteorite Falls and Space Debris Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc D.

    2016-01-01

    This activity utilizes existing NOAA weather RADAR imagery to locate meteorite falls and space debris falls. The near-real-time availability and spatial accuracy of these data allow rapid recovery of material from both meteorite falls and space debris re-entry events. To date, at least 22 meteorite fall recoveries have benefitted from RADAR detection and fall modeling, and multiple debris re-entry events over the United States have been observed in unprecedented detail.

  17. Virtual Planetary Space Weather Services offered by the Europlanet H2020 Research Infrastructure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    André, N.; Grande, M.; Achilleos, N.; Barthélémy, M.; Bouchemit, M.; Benson, K.; Blelly, P. L.; Budnik, E.; Caussarieu, S.; Cecconi, B.; Cook, T.; Génot, V.; Guio, P.; Goutenoir, A.; Grison, Benjamin; Hueso, R.; Indurain, M.; Jones, G. H.; Lilensten, J.; Marchaudon, A.; Matthiä, D.; Opitz, A.; Rouillard, A.; Stanislawska, I.; Souček, Jan; Tao, C.; Tomasik, L.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 150, SI (2018), s. 50-59 ISSN 0032-0633 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654208 - EPN2020-RI Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : virtual observatory * space weather * planets * comets * solar wind * meteor showers Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 1.892, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032063316304706

  18. Space Solar Patrol data and changes in weather and climate, including global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avakyan, S. V.; Baranova, L. A.; Leonov, N. B.; Savinov, E. P.; Voronin, N. A.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, the results obtained during the execution of several ISTC projects are presented. The general aim of these projects has been the study of global changes in the environment, connected with solar activity. A brief description of the optical apparatus of the Space Solar Patrol (SSP) developed and built in the framework of the ISTC projects 385, 385.2, 1523 and 2500 is given. The SSP is intended for permanent monitoring of spectra and absolute fluxes of soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet (x-ray/EUV) radiation from the full disk of the Sun which ionizes the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Permanent solar monitoring in the main part of the ionizing radiation spectra 0.8-115 (119) nm does not exist. The apparatus of the SSP was developed in the years 1996-2005 with multiyear experience of developing such apparatus in S I Vavilov State Optical Institute. The basis of this apparatus is the use of unique detectors of ionizing radiation—open secondary electron multipliers, which are 'solar blind' to near UV, visible and IR radiation from the Sun, and new methodology of these solar spectroradiometric absolute measurements. The prospects are discussed of using the SSP data for the investigation and forecast of the influence of solar variability on the weather and climate including global warming and also on the biosphere including human beings (proposal 3878). This article was originally submitted for inclusion with the papers from the 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009), published in the May 2010 issue.

  19. Space weather effects on drilling accuracy in the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Reay

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The oil industry uses geomagnetic field information to aid directional drilling operations when drilling for oil and gas offshore. These operations involve continuous monitoring of the azimuth and inclination of the well path to ensure the target is reached and, for safety reasons, to avoid collisions with existing wells. Although the most accurate method of achieving this is through a gyroscopic survey, this can be time consuming and expensive. An alternative method is a magnetic survey, where measurements while drilling (MWD are made along the well by magnetometers housed in a tool within the drill string. These MWD magnetic surveys require estimates of the Earth's magnetic field at the drilling location to correct the downhole magnetometer readings. The most accurate corrections are obtained if all sources of the Earth's magnetic field are considered. Estimates of the main field generated in the core and the local crustal field can be obtained using mathematical models derived from suitable data sets. In order to quantify the external field, an analysis of UK observatory data from 1983 to 2004 has been carried out. By accounting for the external field, the directional error associated with estimated field values at a mid-latitude oil well (55° N in the North Sea is shown to be reduced by the order of 20%. This improvement varies with latitude, local time, season and phase of the geomagnetic activity cycle. By accounting for all sources of the field, using a technique called Interpolation In-Field Referencing (IIFR, directional drillers have access to data from a "virtual" magnetic observatory at the drill site. This leads to an error reduction in positional accuracy that is close to matching that of the gyroscopic survey method and provides a valuable independent technique for quality control purposes.

  20. Characterization of Atmospheric Infrasound for Improved Weather Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatt, Arnesha; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUD MAP) is a multi-university collaboration focused on development and implementation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and integration with sensors for atmospheric measurements. A primary objective for this project is to create and demonstrate UAS capabilities needed to support UAS operating in extreme conditions, such as a tornado producing storm system. These storm systems emit infrasound (acoustic signals below human hearing, <20 Hz) up to 2 hours before tornadogenesis. Due to an acoustic ceiling and weak atmospheric absorption, infrasound can be detected from distances in excess of 300 miles. Thus infrasound could be used for long-range, passive monitoring and detection of tornadogenesis as well as directing UAS resources to high-decision-value-information. To achieve this the infrasonic signals with and without severe storms must be understood. This presentation will report findings from the first CLOUD MAP field demonstration, which acquired infrasonic signals while simultaneously sampling the atmosphere with UAS. Infrasonic spectra will be shown from a typical calm day, a continuous source (pulsed gas-combustion torch), singular events, and UAS flights as well as localization results from a controlled source and multiple microphones. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1539070: CLOUD MAP - Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics.

  1. Can Weather Radars Help Monitoring and Forecasting Wind Power Fluctuations at Large Offshore Wind Farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The substantial impact of wind power fluctuations at large offshore wind farms calls for the development of dedicated monitoring and prediction approaches. Based on recent findings, a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) was installed at Horns Rev with the aim of improving predictability, controlability...... and potentially maintenance planning. Additional images are available from a Doppler radar covering the same area. The parallel analysis of rain events detection and of regime sequences in wind (and power) fluctuations demonstrates the interest of employing weather radars for a better operation and management...... of offshore wind farms....

  2. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiakakis Chrysanthos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions.

  3. High-Speed Monitoring of Multiple Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Array Configurations and Supplementary Weather Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Three grid-connected monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic arrays have been instrumented with research-grade sensors on the Gaithersburg, MD campus of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). These arrays range from 73 kW to 271 kW and have different tilts, orientations, and configurations. Irradiance, temperature, wind, and electrical measurements at the arrays are recorded, and images are taken of the arrays to monitor shading and capture any anomalies. A weather station has also been constructed that includes research-grade instrumentation to measure all standard meteorological quantities plus additional solar irradiance spectral bands, full spectrum curves, and directional components using multiple irradiance sensor technologies. Reference photovoltaic (PV) modules are also monitored to provide comprehensive baseline measurements for the PV arrays. Images of the whole sky are captured, along with images of the instrumentation and reference modules to document any obstructions or anomalies. Nearly, all measurements at the arrays and weather station are sampled and saved every 1s, with monitoring having started on Aug. 1, 2014. This report describes the instrumentation approach used to monitor the performance of these photovoltaic systems, measure the meteorological quantities, and acquire the images for use in PV performance and weather monitoring and computer model validation.

  4. Development and Application of integrated monitoring platform for the Doppler Weather SA-BAND Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Sun, J.; Zhao, C. C.; Chen, H. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The doppler weather SA-band radar is an important part of modern meteorological observation methods, monitoring the running status of radar and the data transmission is important.This paper introduced the composition of radar system and classification of radar data,analysed the characteristics and laws of the radar when is normal or abnormal. Using Macromedia Dreamweaver and PHP, developed the integrated monitoring platform for the doppler weather SA-band radar which could monitor the real-time radar system running status and important performance indicators such as radar power,status parameters and others on Web page,and when the status is abnormal it will trigger the audio alarm.

  5. Space-weathering processes and products on volatile-rich asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, D.; Schelling, P.; Consolmagno, G.; Bradley, T.

    2014-07-01

    Space weathering is a generic term for the effects on atmosphereless solid bodies in the solar system from a range of processes associated with direct exposure to the space environment. These include impact processes (shock, vaporization, fragmentation, heating, melting, and ejecta formation), radiation damage (from galactic and solar cosmic rays), solar-wind effects (irradiation, ion implantation, and sputtering), and the chemical reactions driven by these processes. The classic example of space weathering is the formation of the lunar spectral red slope associated with the production of nanophase Fe (npFe0) in the dusty lunar regolith (C.R. Chapman, 2004, Annual Review of Earth & Planet. Sci. 32, C.M. Pieters, 2000, MAPS 35). Similar npFe0 has been recovered from asteroid (25143) Itokawa and some asteroid classes do exhibit modest spectral red slopes (T. Noguchi, 2011, Science 333). Space weathering can be thought of as driven by a combination of the chemical environment of space (hard vacuum, low oxygen fugacity, solar-wind implantation of hydrogen) along with thermal energy supplied by micrometeorite impacts. The forward modeling of space weathering as thermodynamically-driven decomposition of common rock-forming minerals suggests the production of a range of daughter products: (1) The silicate products typically lose oxygen, other volatile elements (i.e., sulfur and sodium), and metallic cations, producing minerals that are typically more disordered and less optically active than the original parent materials. (2) The decomposed metallic cations form in nano-sized blebs including npFe0, on the surfaces or in condensing rims of mineral grains. This creates a powerful optical component as seen in the lunar red slope. Surfaces with exposed npFe0 are an ideal environment for catalyzing further reactions. (3) The liberated volatile elements and gases (O, S, Na) may form an observable exosphere (e.g., Moon and Mercury) and can either escape from the body or

  6. Virtual Planetary Space Weather Services offered by the Europlanet H2020 Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, N.; Grande, M.; Achilleos, N.; Barthélémy, M.; Bouchemit, M.; Benson, K.; Blelly, P.-L.; Budnik, E.; Caussarieu, S.; Cecconi, B.; Cook, T.; Génot, V.; Guio, P.; Goutenoir, A.; Grison, B.; Hueso, R.; Indurain, M.; Jones, G. H.; Lilensten, J.; Marchaudon, A.; Matthiä, D.; Opitz, A.; Rouillard, A.; Stanislawska, I.; Soucek, J.; Tao, C.; Tomasik, L.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2018-01-01

    Under Horizon 2020, the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI) will include an entirely new Virtual Access Service, "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) that will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. PSWS will make twelve new services accessible to the research community, space agencies, and industrial partners planning for space missions. These services will in particular be dedicated to the following key planetary environments: Mars (in support of the NASA MAVEN and European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express and ExoMars missions), comets (building on the outstanding success of the ESA Rosetta mission), and outer planets (in preparation for the ESA JUpiter ICy moon Explorer mission), and one of these services will aim at predicting and detecting planetary events like meteor showers and impacts in the Solar System. This will give the European planetary science community new methods, interfaces, functionalities and/or plugins dedicated to planetary space weather as well as to space situational awareness in the tools and models available within the partner institutes. A variety of tools (in the form of web applications, standalone software, or numerical models in various degrees of implementation) are available for tracing propagation of planetary and/or solar events through the Solar System and modelling the response of the planetary environment (surfaces, atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres) to those events. But these tools were not originally designed for planetary event prediction and space weather applications. PSWS will provide the additional research and tailoring required to apply them for these purposes. PSWS will be to review, test, improve and adapt methods and tools available within the partner institutes in order to make prototype planetary event and space weather services operational in Europe at the end

  7. Developing Space Weather products and services in Europe – Preface to the Special Issue on COST Action ES0803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belehaki Anna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available COST Action ES0803 “Developing Space Weather products and services in Europe” primarily aimed at forming an interdisciplinary network among European scientists dealing with different issues relevant to Geospace as well as warning system developers and operators in order to assess existing Space Weather products and recommend new ones. The work that has been implemented from 2008 to 2012 resulted in advances in modeling and predicting Space Weather, in recommendations for the validation of Space Weather models, in proposals for new Space Weather products and services, and in dissemination, training, and outreach activities. This preface summarizes the most important achievements of this European activity that are detailed in this special issue by the key scientists who participated in COST Action ES0803.

  8. The NASA Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) Next Generation Space Weather Data Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, M. M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Zheng, Y.; Rastaetter, L.; Chulaki, A.; Pembroke, A. D.; Wiegand, C.; Mullinix, R.; Boblitt, J.; Mendoza, A. M. M.; Swindell, M. J., IV; Bakshi, S. S.; Mays, M. L.; Shim, J. S.; Hesse, M.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; MacNeice, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables, supports, and performs research and development for next generation space science and space weather models. The CCMC currently hosts a large and expanding collection of state-or-the-art, physics-based space weather models that have been developed by the international research community. There are many tools and services provided by the CCMC that are currently available world-wide, along with the ongoing development of new innovative systems and software for research, discovery, validation, visualization, and forecasting. Over the history of the CCMC's existence, there has been one constant engineering challenge - describing, managing, and disseminating data. To address the challenges that accompany an ever-expanding number of models to support, along with a growing catalog of simulation output - the CCMC is currently developing a flexible and extensible space weather data warehouse to support both internal and external systems and applications. This paper intends to chronicle the evolution and future of the CCMC's data infrastructure, and the current infrastructure re-engineering activities that seek to leverage existing community data model standards like SPASE and the IMPEx Simulation Data Model.

  9. Global Positioning System Energetic Particle Data: The Next Space Weather Data Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipp, Delores J.; Giles, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has revolutionized the process of getting from point A to point Band so much more. A large fraction of the worlds population relies on GPS (and its counterparts from other nations) for precision timing, location, and navigation. Most GPS users are unaware that the spacecraft providing the signals they rely on are operating in a very harsh space environment the radiation belts where energetic particles trapped in Earths magnetic field dash about at nearly the speed of light. These subatomic particles relentlessly pummel GPS satellites. So by design, every GPS satellite and its sensors are radiation hardened. Each spacecraft carries particle detectors that provide health and status data to system operators. Although these data reveal much about the state of the space radiation environment, heretofore they have been available only to system operators and supporting scientists. Research scientists have long sought a policy shift to allow more general access. With the release of the National Space Weather Strategy and Action Plan organized by the White House Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) a sample of these data have been made available to space weather researchers. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the National Center for Environmental Information released a months worth of GPS energetic particle data from an interval of heightened space weather activity in early 2014 with the hope of stimulating integration of these data sets into the research arena. Even before the public data release GPS support scientists from LANL showed the extraordinary promise of these data.

  10. Design of remote weather monitor system based on embedded web database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jiugang; Zhuang Along

    2010-01-01

    The remote weather monitoring system is designed by employing the embedded Web database technology and the S3C2410 microprocessor as the core. The monitoring system can simultaneously monitor the multi-channel sensor signals, and can give a dynamic Web pages display of various types of meteorological information on the remote computer. It gives a elaborated introduction of the construction and application of the Web database under the embedded Linux. Test results show that the client access the Web page via the GPRS or the Internet, acquires data and uses an intuitive graphical way to display the value of various types of meteorological information. (authors)

  11. A new technique for observationally derived boundary conditions for space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Paolo; Mackay, Duncan Hendry; Yeates, Anthony Robinson

    2018-04-01

    Context. In recent years, space weather research has focused on developing modelling techniques to predict the arrival time and properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Earth. The aim of this paper is to propose a new modelling technique suitable for the next generation of Space Weather predictive tools that is both efficient and accurate. The aim of the new approach is to provide interplanetary space weather forecasting models with accurate time dependent boundary conditions of erupting magnetic flux ropes in the upper solar corona. Methods: To produce boundary conditions, we couple two different modelling techniques, MHD simulations and a quasi-static non-potential evolution model. Both are applied on a spatial domain that covers the entire solar surface, although they extend over a different radial distance. The non-potential model uses a time series of observed synoptic magnetograms to drive the non-potential quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field. This allows us to follow the formation and loss of equilibrium of magnetic flux ropes. Following this a MHD simulation captures the dynamic evolution of the erupting flux rope, when it is ejected into interplanetary space. Results.The present paper focuses on the MHD simulations that follow the ejection of magnetic flux ropes to 4 R⊙. We first propose a technique for specifying the pre-eruptive plasma properties in the corona. Next, time dependent MHD simulations describe the ejection of two magnetic flux ropes, that produce time dependent boundary conditions for the magnetic field and plasma at 4 R⊙ that in future may be applied to interplanetary space weather prediction models. Conclusions: In the present paper, we show that the dual use of quasi-static non-potential magnetic field simulations and full time dependent MHD simulations can produce realistic inhomogeneous boundary conditions for space weather forecasting tools. Before a fully operational model can be produced there are a

  12. The Planeterrella: an Analog Model for Teaching About the Invisible Electromagnetic Processes Driving Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masongsong, E. V.; Glesener, G. B.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lilensten, J.; Bingley, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Planeterrella can be used as an analog to help students visualize and understand the electromagnetic processes driving space weather that affect our daily lives. Solar storms and solar wind charged particles (plasma) cause "space weather" via their interaction with Earth's protective magnetic shield, the magnetosphere. The Planeterrella uses magnetized spheres in a vacuum chamber to demonstrate solar wind energy transfer to Earth and planets, with polar localization of aurora due to charged particles traveling along geomagnetic field lines. The Planeterrella provides a unique opportunity to experience and manipulate plasma, the dominant form of matter in our universe, yet seldom observable on Earth. Severe space weather events produce spectacular auroral displays as well as devastating consequences: radiation exposure to air and space travelers, prolonged radio blackouts, and damage to critical GPS and communications satellites. We will (1) discuss ways in which the Planeterrella may be most useful in classroom settings, including large lecture halls, laboratories, and small discussion sessions; (2) provide information on how instructors can produce their own Planeterrella for their courses; and (3) invite meeting attendees to engage in a discussion on how we might be able to improve on the current design of the Planeterrella, and how to reach students in more parts of the world.

  13. Environmental Impact Specification for Direct Space Weathering of Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2010-01-01

    The Direct Space Weathering Project of NASA's Outer Planets Research Program addresses specification of the plasma and energetic particle environments for irradiation and surface chemical processing of icy bodies in the outer solar system and the local interstellar medium. Knowledge of the radiation environments is being expanded by ongoing penetration of the twin Voyager spacecraft into the heliosheath boundary region of the outer heliosphere and expected emergence within the next decade into the very local interstellar medium. The Voyager measurements are being supplemented by remote sensing from Earth orbit of energetic neutral atom emission from this boundary region by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Although the Voyagers long ago passed the region of the Classical Kuiper Belt, the New Horizons spacecraft will encounter Pluto in 2015 and thereafter explore one or more KBOs, meanwhile providing updated measurements of the heliospheric radiation environment in this region. Modeling of ion transport within the heliosphere allows specification of time-integrated irradiation effects while the combination of Voyager and IBEX data supports projection of the in-situ measurements into interstellar space beyond the heliosheath. Transformation of model ion flux distributions into surface sputtering and volume ionization profiles provides a multi-layer perspective for space weathering impact on the affected icy bodies and may account for some aspects of color and compositional diversity. Other important related factors may include surface erosion and gardening by meteoritic impacts and surface renewal by cryovolcanism. Chemical products of space weathering may contribute to energy resources for the latter.

  14. I Love My Sun: An Educational Space Weather Outreach Tool for Children and Senior People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunay, Yurdanur; Tulunay, Ersin

    2014-05-01

    In the present day society, there is a vital need for setting up education and outreach activities in the Space Weather field for creating a healthy environment for the proper development of Space Weather markets along with the fundamental and applied research activities. It is important to educate children about the important role that the Sun has in their lives. This presentation gives an educational outreach tool entitled "I Love My Sun" that has been developed for school children in the approximate age group 7 through 11 years. Its main objective is to make children aware of space weather, the Sun, Sun-Earth relations and how they, the children, are part of this global picture. Children are given a lecture about the Sun; this is preceded and followed by the children drawing a picture of the Sun. The activity was initiated by Y. Tulunay in Ankara, Turkey as national project in the context of the 50th anniversary of Space Age and IHY activities. Since then it has been extended into a spatial (Europe) and temporal dimensions. A metric has been developed to facilitate an objective evaluation of the outcomes of the Events. In this presentation, the background behind the "I Love My Sun" initiative is given and it is described how to perform an "I Love My Sun" event. Impressions and main results from the case studies are given. As a new extension, preliminary examples are also given concerning senior people.

  15. Space weathering and the color indexes of minor bodies in the outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňuchová, Zuzana; Brunetto, Rosario; Melita, Mario; Strazzulla, Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    The surfaces of small bodies in the outer Solar System are rich in organic compounds and carbonaceous refractories mixed with ices and silicates. As made clear by dedicated laboratory experiments space weathering (e.g. energetic ion bombardment) can produce red colored materials starting from bright and spectrally flat ices. In a classical scenario, the space weathering processes “nurture” alter the small bodies surface spectra but are in competition with resurfacing agents that restore the original colors, and the result of these competing processes continuously modifying the surfaces is supposed to be responsible for the observed spectral variety of those small bodies. However an alternative point of view is that the different colors are due to “nature” i.e. to the different primordial composition of different objects. In this paper we present a model, based on laboratory results, that gives an original contribution to the “nature” vs. “nurture” debate by addressing the case of surfaces showing different fractions of rejuvenated vs. space weathered surface, and calculating the corresponding color variations. We will show how a combination of increasing dose coupled to different resurfacing can reproduce the whole range of observations of small outer Solar System bodies. Here we demonstrate, for the first time that objects having a fully weathered material turn back in the color-color diagrams. At the same time, object with the different ratio of pristine and weathered surface areas lay on specific lines in color-color diagrams, if exposed to the same amount of irradiation.

  16. Latest Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) services and innovative tools supporting the space weather research and operational communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, A. M. M.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Shim, J. S.; MacNeice, P. J.; Taktakishvili, A.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Weigand, C.; Zheng, Y.; Mullinix, R.; Patel, K.; Pembroke, A. D.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Boblitt, J. M.; Bakshi, S. S.; Tsui, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), with the fundamental goal of aiding the transition of modern space science models into space weather forecasting while supporting space science research, has been serving as an integral hub for over 15 years, providing invaluable resources to both space weather scientific and operational communities. CCMC has developed and provided innovative web-based point of access tools varying from: Runs-On-Request System - providing unprecedented global access to the largest collection of state-of-the-art solar and space physics models, Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) - a powerful dissemination system for space weather information, Advanced Online Visualization and Analysis tools for more accurate interpretation of model results, Standard Data formats for Simulation Data downloads, and Mobile apps to view space weather data anywhere to the scientific community. In addition to supporting research and performing model evaluations, CCMC also supports space science education by hosting summer students through local universities. In this poster, we will showcase CCMC's latest innovative tools and services, and CCMC's tools that revolutionized the way we do research and improve our operational space weather capabilities. CCMC's free tools and resources are all publicly available online (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov).

  17. Space Weather Forecasting Operational Needs: A view from NOAA/SWPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Onsager, T. G.; Rutledge, R.

    2017-12-01

    The gaps in space weather forecasting are many. From long lead time forecasts, to accurate warnings with lead time to take action, there is plenty of room for improvement. Significant numbers of new observations would improve this picture, but it's also important to recognize the value of numerical modeling. The obvious interplanetary mission concepts that would be ideal would be 1) to measure the in-situ solar wind along the entire Sun-Earth line from as near to the Sun as possible all the way to Earth 2) a string of spacecraft in 1 AU heliocentric orbits making in-situ measurements as well as remote-sensing observations of the Sun, corona, and heliosphere. Even partially achieving these ideals would benefit space weather services, improving lead time and providing greater accuracy further into the future. The observations alone would improve forecasting. However, integrating these data into numerical models, as boundary conditions or via data assimilation, would provide the greatest improvements.

  18. Understanding space weather to shield society: A global road map for 2015-2025 commissioned by COSPAR and ILWS

    OpenAIRE

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Kauristie, Kirsti; Aylward, Alan D.; Denardini, Clezio M.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Glover, Alexi; Gopalswamy, Nat; Grande, Manuel; Hapgood, Mike; Heynderickx, Daniel; Jakowski, Norbert; Kalegaev, Vladimir V.; Lapenta, Giovanni; Linker, Jon A.; Liu, Siqing

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation that the environmental conditions that we call space weather impact the technological infrastructure that powers the coupled economies around the world. With that comes the need to better shield society against space weather by improving forecasts, environmental specifications, and infrastructure design. We recognize that much progress has been made and continues to be made with a powerful suite of research observatories on the ground and in space, forming the ...

  19. A Transmission Electron Microscope Investigation of Space Weathering Effects in Hayabusa Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Berger, Eve L.

    2014-01-01

    The Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa successfully returned the first direct samples of the regolith from the surface of an asteroid. The Hayabusa samples thus present a special opportunity to directly investigate the evolution of asteroidal surfaces, from the development of the regolith to the study of the more complex effects of space weathering. Here we describe the mineralogy, microstructure and composition of three Hayabusa mission particles using transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques

  20. Capacity Building in Space Weather in the context of the ISWI program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmer, Nicole; Amory, Christine

    2012-07-01

    In the context of the International Space Weather Initiative program, we organized a school on solar-terrestrial physics for French- speaking professors and PhD students from African countries. The school was organized in Rabat (Morocco) in December 2011. We shall present here the goals of the school, our program and our funding. We shall also comment on the feedback of the school and on the potential organization of a similar school in Algeria in 2013.

  1. Space weather: Why are magnetospheric physicists interested in solar explosive phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, H. E. J.; Pulkkinen, T. I.

    That solar activity drives magnetospheric dynamics has for a long time been the basis of solar-terrestrial physics. Numerous statistical studies correlating sunspots, 10.7 cm radiation, solar flares, etc., with various magnetospheric and geomagnetic parameters have been performed. However, in studies of magnetospheric dynamics the role of the Sun has often remained in the background and only the actual solar wind impinging the magnetosphere has gained most of the attention. During the last few years a new applied field of solar-terrestrial physics, space weather, has emerged. The term refers to variable particle and field conditions in our space environment, which may be hazardous to space-borne or ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life and health. When the modern society is becoming increasingly dependent on space technology, the need for better modelling and also forecasting of space weather becomes urgent. While for post analysis of magnetospheric phenomena it is quite sufficient to include observations from the magnetospheric boundaries out to L1 where SOHO is located, these observations do not provide enough lead-time to run space weather forecasting models and to distribute the forecasts to potential customers. For such purposes we need improved physical understanding and models to predict which active processes on the Sun will impact the magnetosphere and what their expected consequences are. An important change of view on the role of the Sun as the origin of magnetospheric disturbances has taken place during last 10--20 years. For a long time, the solar flares were thought to be the most geoeffective solar phenomena. Now the attention has shifted much more towards coronal mass ejections and the SOHO coronal observations seem to have turned the epoch irreversibly. However, we are not yet ready to make reliable perdictions of the terrestrial environment based on CME observations. From the space weather viewpoint, the key questions are

  2. A contribution towards establishing more comfortable space weather to cope with increased human space passengers for ISS shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A.

    Space Weather is a specialized scienctific descipline in Meteorology which has recently emerged from man's continued research efforts to create a familiar spacecraft environment which is physiologically stable and life sustaining for astronauts and human passengers in distant space travels. As the population of human passengers in space shuttles rapidly increases, corresponding research on sustained micro-climate of spacecrafts is considered necessary and timely. This is because existing information is not meant for a large population in spacecrafts. The paper therefore discusses the role of meteorology (specifically micrometeorology) in relation to internal communication, spacecraft instrumentation and physiologic comfort of astronauts and space passengers (the later may not necessarily be trained astronauts, but merely business men or tourist space travellers for business transactions in the International Space Station (ISS)). It is recognized that me eorology which is a fundamental science amongt multidiscplinary sciences has been found to be vital in space travels and communication. Space weather therefore appears in slightly different format where temperature and humidity changes and variability within the spacecraft exert very significant influences on the efficiency of astronauts and the effectiveness of the various delicate instrument gadgets aimed at reducing the frequency of computer failures and malfunction of other instruments on which safety of the spacecraft depends. Apart from the engineering and technological problems which space scientists must have to overcome when human population in space shuttles increases as we now expect, based on evidence from successful missions to ISS, the maint enace of physiologic comfort state of astronauts, which, as far as scientifically possible, should be as near as possible to their Earth-Atmosphere condition. This is one of the most important and also most difficult conditions to attain. It demands a mor e

  3. Assessing Space Weather Applications and Understanding: IMF Bz at L1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, P.; Savani, N.; Mays, M. L.; Austin, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    The CCMC - International (CCMC-I) is designed as a self-organizing informal forum for facilitating novel global initiatives on space weather research, development, forecasting and education. Here we capitalize on CCMC'AGUs experience in providing highly utilized web-based services, leadership and trusted relationships with space weather model developers. One of the CCMC-I initiatives is the International Forum for Space Weather Capabilities Assessment. As part of this initiative, within the solar and heliosphere domain, we focus our community discussion on forecasting the magnetic structure of interplanetary CMEs and the ambient solar wind. During the International CCMC-LWS Working Meeting in April 2017 the group instigated open communication to agree upon a standardized process by which all current and future models can be compared under an unbiased test. In this poster, we present our initial findings how we expect different models will move forward with validating and forecasting the magnetic vectors of the solar wind at L1. We also present a new IMF Bz Score-board which will be used to assist in the transitioning of research models into more operational settings.

  4. Space weather and human deaths distribution: 25 years' observation (Lithuania, 1989-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliyahu G; Petrauskiene, Jadvyga; Kalediene, Ramune; Sauliune, Skirmante; Abramson, Evgeny; Shochat, Tzippy

    2015-09-01

    Human health is affected by space weather component [solar (SA), geomagnetic (GMA), cosmic ray (CRA) - neutrons, space proton flux] activity levels. The aim of this study was to check possible links between timing of human (both genders) monthly deaths distribution and space weather activity. Human deaths distribution in the Republic of Lithuania from 1989 to 2013 (25 years, i.e., 300 consecutive months) was studied, which included 1,050,503 deaths (549,764 male, 500,739 female). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and their probabilities (p) were obtained for years: months 1-12, sunspot number, smoothed sunspot number, solar flux (2800 MGH, 10.7 cm), adjusted solar flux for SA; A, C indices of GMA; neutron activity at the earth's surface (imp/min) for CRA. The cosmophysical data were obtained from space science institutions in the USA, Russia and Finland. The mentioned physical parameters were compared with the total number of deaths, deaths from ischemic heart disease (n=376,074), stroke (n=132,020), non-cardiovascular causes (n=542,409), accidents (n=98,805), traffic accidents (n=21,261), oncology (n=193,017), diabetes mellitus (n=6631) and suicide (n=33,072). Space factors were interrelated as follows for the considered period: CRA was inversely related to SA and GMA, CRA/SA (r=-0.86, p>0.0001), CRA/GMA (r=-0.70, pweather component activity. Extreme levels of activities of both groups (SA, GMA, and opposite CRA - neutron) are related to some health risks. In the considered period, there were relatively few GMA storms and low GMA was dominating, accompanied by higher CRA (neutron) activity. The ways of action of the components of space weather on the human body need additional studies. There is a special need for the prevention of rising cerebral vascular accidents and oncology malignancies as the causes of death.

  5. The GOES-16 Energetic Heavy Ion Instrument Proton and Helium Fluxes for Space Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) was built by the University of New Hampshire, subcontracted to Assurance Technology Corporation, as part of the Space Environmental In-Situ Suite (SEISS) on the new GOES-16 satellite, in geostationary Earth orbit. The EHIS measures energetic ions in space over the range 10-200 MeV for protons, and energy ranges for heavy ions corresponding to the same stopping range. Though an operational satellite instrument, EHIS will supply high quality data for scientific studies. For the GOES Level 1-B and Level 2 data products, protons and helium are distinguished in the EHIS using discriminator trigger logic. Measurements are provided in five energy bands. The instrumental cadence of these rates is 3 seconds. However, the primary Level 1-B proton and helium data products are 1-minute and 5-minute averages. The data latency is 1 minute, so data products can be used for real-time predictions as well as general science studies. Protons and helium, comprising approximately 99% of all energetic ions in space are of great importance for Space Weather predictions. We discuss the preliminary EHIS proton and helium data results and their application to Space Weather. The EHIS instrument development project was funded by NASA under contract NNG06HX01C.

  6. Sensitivity of Earth Wheat Markets to Space Weather: Comparative Analysis based on data from Medieval European Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustil'Nik, Lev

    We consider a problem of the possible influence of unfavorable states of the space weather on agriculture markets through the chain of connections: "space weather"-"earth weather"- "agriculture crops"-"price reaction". We show that new manifestations of "space weather"- "earth weather" relations discovered in the recent time allow revising a wide range of the expected solar-terrestrial connections. In the previous works we proposed possible mechanisms of wheat market reaction on the specific unfavorable states of space weather in the form of price bursts and price asymmetry. We point out that implementation of considered "price reaction scenarios" is possible only for the case of simultaneous realization of several necessary conditions: high sensitivity of local earth weather in the selected region to space weather; the state of "high risk agriculture" in the selected agriculture zone; high sensitivity of agricultural market to a possible deficit of yield. Results of our previous works (I, II), including application of this approach to the Medieval England wheat market (1250-1700) and to the modern USA durum market (1910-1992), showed that connection between wheat price bursts and space weather state in these cases was absolutely real. The aim of the present work is to answer the question why wheat markets in one selected region may be sensitive to a space weather factor, while in other regions wheat markets demonstrate absolutely indifferent reaction on the space weather. For this aim, we consider dependence of sensitivity of wheat markets to space weather as a function of their location in different climatic zones of Europe. We analyze a database of 95 European wheat markets from 14 countries for the 600-year period (1260-1912). We show that the observed sensitivity of wheat markets to space weather effects is controlled, first of all, by a type of predominant climate in different zones of agricultural production. Wheat markets in the Northern and, partly, in

  7. The Art and Science of Long-Range Space Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Long-range space weather forecasts are akin to seasonal forecasts of terrestrial weather. We don t expect to forecast individual events but we do hope to forecast the underlying level of activity important for satellite operations and mission pl&g. Forecasting space weather conditions years or decades into the future has traditionally been based on empirical models of the solar cycle. Models for the shape of the cycle as a function of its amplitude become reliable once the amplitude is well determined - usually two to three years after minimum. Forecasting the amplitude of a cycle well before that time has been more of an art than a science - usually based on cycle statistics and trends. Recent developments in dynamo theory -the theory explaining the generation of the Sun s magnetic field and the solar activity cycle - have now produced models with predictive capabilities. Testing these models with historical sunspot cycle data indicates that these predictions may be highly reliable one, or even two, cycles into the future.

  8. A new open-source Python-based Space Weather data access, visualization, and analysis toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larquier, S.; Ribeiro, A.; Frissell, N. A.; Spaleta, J.; Kunduri, B.; Thomas, E. G.; Ruohoniemi, J.; Baker, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Space weather research relies heavily on combining and comparing data from multiple observational platforms. Current frameworks exist to aggregate some of the data sources, most based on file downloads via web or ftp interfaces. Empirical models are mostly fortran based and lack interfaces with more useful scripting languages. In an effort to improve data and model access, the SuperDARN community has been developing a Python-based Space Science Data Visualization Toolkit (DaViTpy). At the center of this development was a redesign of how our data (from 30 years of SuperDARN radars) was made available. Several access solutions are now wrapped into one convenient Python interface which probes local directories, a new remote NoSQL database, and an FTP server to retrieve the requested data based on availability. Motivated by the efficiency of this interface and the inherent need for data from multiple instruments, we implemented similar modules for other space science datasets (POES, OMNI, Kp, AE...), and also included fundamental empirical models with Python interfaces to enhance data analysis (IRI, HWM, MSIS...). All these modules and more are gathered in a single convenient toolkit, which is collaboratively developed and distributed using Github and continues to grow. While still in its early stages, we expect this toolkit will facilitate multi-instrument space weather research and improve scientific productivity.

  9. An Investigation of Interplanetary Structures for Solar Cycles 23 and 24 and their Space Weather Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, M. S.; Jules, A.; Marchese, P.; Damas, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    It is crucial to study space weather because severe interplanetary conditions can cause geomagnetic storms that may damage both space- and ground-based technological systems such as satellites, communication systems, and power grids. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are the primary drivers of geomagnetic storms. As they travel through interplanetary space and reach geospace, their spatial structures change which can result in various geomagnetic effects. Therefore, studying these drivers and their structures is essential in order to better understand and mitigate their impact on technological systems, as well as to forecast geomagnetic storms. In this study, over 150 storms were cross-checked for both solar cycles (SC) 23 and 24. This data has revealed the most common interplanetary structures, i.e., sheath (Sh); magnetic cloud following a shock front (sMC); sheath region and magnetic cloud (Sh/MC); and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). Furthermore, plasma parameters as well as variation in the intensity and duration of storms resulting from different interplanetary structures are studied for their effect on geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), as well as for their effect on power grids. Although preliminary results for SC 23 indicate that storm intensity may play a dominant role for GICs, duration might also be a factor, albeit smaller. Results from both SC 23 and 24 are analyzed and compared, and should lead to an enhanced understanding of space weather consequences of interplanetary structures and their possible forecasting.

  10. Ionospheric effects during severe space weather events seen in ionospheric service data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowski, Norbert; Danielides, Michael; Mayer, Christoph; Borries, Claudia

    Space weather effects are closely related to complex perturbation processes in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere systems, initiated by enhanced solar energy input. To understand and model complex space weather processes, different views on the same subject are helpful. One of the ionosphere key parameters is the Total Electron Content (TEC) which provides a first or-der approximation of the ionospheric range error in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) applications. Additionally, horizontal gradients and time rate of change of TEC are important for estimating the perturbation degree of the ionosphere. TEC maps can effectively be gener-ated using ground based GNSS measurements from global receiver networks. Whereas ground based GNSS measurements provide good horizontal resolution, space based radio occultation measurements can complete the view by providing information on the vertical plasma density distribution. The combination of ground based TEC and vertical sounding measurements pro-vide essential information on the shape of the vertical electron density profile by computing the equivalent slab thickness at the ionosonde station site. Since radio beacon measurements at 150/400 MHz are well suited to trace the horizontal structure of Travelling Ionospheric Dis-turbances (TIDs), these data products essentially complete GNSS based TEC mapping results. Radio scintillation data products, characterising small scale irregularities in the ionosphere, are useful to estimate the continuity and availability of transionospheric radio signals. The different data products are addressed while discussing severe space weather events in the ionosphere e.g. events in October/November 2003. The complementary view of different near real time service data products is helpful to better understand the complex dynamics of ionospheric perturbation processes and to forecast the development of parameters customers are interested in.

  11. Space weathering on near-Earth objects investigated by neutral-particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plainaki, C.; Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Mura, A.; de Angelis, E.; di Lellis, A. M.; Dotto, E.; Livi, S.; Mangano, V.; Palumbo, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    The ion-sputtering (IS) process is active in many planetary environments in the solar system where plasma precipitates directly on the surface (for instance, Mercury, Moon and Europa). In particular, solar wind sputtering is one of the most important agents for the surface erosion of a near-Earth object (NEO), acting together with other surface release processes, such as photon stimulated desorption (PSD), thermal desorption (TD) and micrometeoroid impact vaporization (MIV). The energy distribution of the IS-released neutrals peaks at a few eVs and extends up to hundreds of eVs. Since all other release processes produce particles of lower energies, the presence of neutral atoms in the energy range above 10 eV and below a few keVs (sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA)) identifies the IS process. SHEA easily escape from the NEO, due to NEO's extremely weak gravity. Detection and analysis of SHEA will give important information on surface-loss processes as well as on surface elemental composition. The investigation of the active release processes, as a function of the external conditions and the NEO surface properties, is crucial for obtaining a clear view of the body's present loss rate as well as for getting clues on its evolution, which depends significantly on space weather. In this work, an attempt to analyze processes that take place on the surface of these small airless bodies, as a result of their exposure to the space environment, has been realized. For this reason, a new space weathering model (space weathering on NEO-SPAWN) is presented. Moreover, an instrument concept of a neutral-particle analyzer specifically designed for the measurement of neutral density and the detection of SHEA from a NEO is proposed.

  12. What can the annual 10Be solar activity reconstructions tell us about historic space weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Luke; McCracken, Ken G.; Owens, Mat J.; Lockwood, Mike

    2018-04-01

    Context: Cosmogenic isotopes provide useful estimates of past solar magnetic activity, constraining past space climate with reasonable uncertainty. Much less is known about past space weather conditions. Recent advances in the analysis of 10Be by McCracken & Beer (2015, Sol Phys 290: 305-3069) (MB15) suggest that annually resolved 10Be can be significantly affected by solar energetic particle (SEP) fluxes. This poses a problem, and presents an opportunity, as the accurate quantification of past solar magnetic activity requires the SEP effects to be determined and isolated, whilst doing so might provide a valuable record of past SEP fluxes. Aims: We compare the MB15 reconstruction of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF), with two independent estimates of the HMF derived from sunspot records and geomagnetic variability. We aim to quantify the differences between the HMF reconstructions, and speculate on the origin of these differences. We test whether the differences between the reconstructions appear to depend on known significant space weather events. Methods: We analyse the distributions of the differences between the HMF reconstructions. We consider how the differences vary as a function of solar cycle phase, and, using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we compare the distributions under the two conditions of whether or not large space weather events were known to have occurred. Results: We find that the MB15 reconstructions are generally marginally smaller in magnitude than the sunspot and geomagnetic HMF reconstructions. This bias varies as a function of solar cycle phase, and is largest in the declining phase of the solar cycle. We find that MB15's excision of the years with very large ground level enhancement (GLE) improves the agreement of the 10Be HMF estimate with the sunspot and geomagnetic reconstructions. We find no statistical evidence that GLEs, in general, affect the MB15 reconstruction, but this analysis is limited by having too few samples. We do find

  13. Visualizing Space Weather: The Planeterrella Auroral Simulator as a Heliophysics Public Outreach Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masongsong, E. V.; Lilensten, J.; Booth, M. J.; Suri, G.; Heflinger, T. G.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA THEMIS and ARTEMIS satellite missions study "space weather," which describes the solar wind influence on Earth's protective magnetic shield, the magnetosphere. Space weather is important to study and predict because it can damage critical GPS and communications satellites, harm space travelers, and even disable our global electrical grid. The Planeterrella is an innovative heliophysics outreach demonstration, expanding public awareness of space weather by visualizing the sun-Earth connection up close and in-person. Using a glass vacuum chamber, two magnetized spheres and a 1kV power supply, the device can simulate plasma configurations of the solar corona, solar wind, Van Allen radiation belts, and auroral ovals, all of which are observable only by satellites. This "aurora in a bottle" is a modernized version of the original Terrella built by Kristian Birkeland in the 1890s to show that the aurora are electrical in nature. Adapted from plans by Lilensten et al. at CNRS-IPAG, the UCLA Planeterrella was completed in Nov. 2013, the second device of its kind in the U.S., and the centerpiece of the THEMIS/ARTEMIS mobile public outreach exhibit. In combination with captivating posters, 3D magnetic field models, dazzling aurora videos and magnetosphere animations, the Planeterrella has already introduced over 1200 people to the electrical link between our sun and the planets. Most visitors had seen solar flare images in the news, however the Planeterrella experience enhanced their appreciation of the dynamic solar wind and its effects on Earth's invisible magnetic field. Most importantly, visitors young and old realized that magnets are not just cool toys or only for powering hybrid car motors and MRIs, they are a fundamental aspect of ongoing life on Earth and are key to the formation and evolution of planets, moons, and stars, extending far beyond our galaxy to other planetary systems throughout the universe. Novel visualizations such as the Planeterrella can

  14. Asteroid age distributions determined by space weathering and collisional evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willman, Mark; Jedicke, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We provide evidence of consistency between the dynamical evolution of main belt asteroids and their color evolution due to space weathering. The dynamical age of an asteroid's surface (Bottke, W.F., Durda, D.D., Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H. [2005]. Icarus 175 (1), 111-140; Nesvorný, D., Jedicke, R., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž. [2005]. Icarus 173, 132-152) is the time since its last catastrophic disruption event which is a function of the object's diameter. The age of an S-complex asteroid's surface may also be determined from its color using a space weathering model (e.g. Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Moskovitz, N., Nesvorný, D., Vokrouhlický, D., Mothé-Diniz, T. [2010]. Icarus 208, 758-772; Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezić, Ž., Jurić, M. [2004]. Nature 429, 275-277; Willman, M., Jedicke, R., Nesvorny, D., Moskovitz, N., Ivezić, Ž., Fevig, R. [2008]. Icarus 195, 663-673. We used a sample of 95 S-complex asteroids from SMASS and obtained their absolute magnitudes and u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes from SDSS. The absolute magnitudes yield a size-derived age distribution. The u, g, r, i, z filter magnitudes lead to the principal component color which yields a color-derived age distribution by inverting our color-age relationship, an enhanced version of the 'dual τ' space weathering model of Willman et al. (2010). We fit the size-age distribution to the enhanced dual τ model and found characteristic weathering and gardening times of τw = 2050 ± 80 Myr and τg=4400-500+700Myr respectively. The fit also suggests an initial principal component color of -0.05 ± 0.01 for fresh asteroid surface with a maximum possible change of the probable color due to weathering of Δ PC = 1.34 ± 0.04. Our predicted color of fresh asteroid surface matches the color of fresh ordinary chondritic surface of PC1 = 0.17 ± 0.39.

  15. Recent Weather Technologies Delivered to America's Space Program by the Applied Meteorology Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, WIlliam, H., III; Crawford, Winifred

    2009-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) is a unique joint venture of NASA, the Air Force and the National Weather Service (NWS) and has been supporting the Space Program for nearly two decades. The AMU acts as a bridge between the meteorological research community and operational forecasters by developing, evaluating and transitioning new technology and techniques to improve weather support to spaceport operations at the Eastern Range (ER) and Kennedy Space Center. Its primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), the Spaceflight Meteorology Group at Johnson Space Center and the National Weather Service Office in Melbourne, FL. Its products are used to support NASA's Shuttle and ELV programs as well as Department of Defense and commercial launches from the ER. Shuttle support includes landing sites beyond the ER. The AMU is co-located with the Air Force operational forecasters at CCAFS to facilitate continuous two-way interaction between the AMU and its operational customers. It is operated under a NASA, Air Force, and NWS Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) by a competitively-selected contractor. The contract, which is funded and managed by NASA, provides five full time professionals with degrees in meteorology or related fields, some of whom also have operational experience. NASA provides a Ph.D.- level NASA civil service scientist as Chief of the AMU. The AMU is tasked by its customers through a unique, nationally recognized process. The tasks are limited to development, evaluation and operational transition of technology to improve weather support to spaceport operations and providing expert advice to the customers. The MOU expressly forbids using the AMU resources to conduct operations or do basic research. The presentation will provide a brief overview of the AMU and how it is tasked by its customers to provide high priority products and services. The balance of the presentation will cover a sampling of products

  16. Motivating and Facilitating Advancements in Space Weather Real-Time Data Availability: Factors, Data, and Access Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, C. K.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Elkington, S. R.; Baltzer, T.; Sanchez, F.

    2017-12-01

    Society's growing reliance on complex and highly interconnected technological systems makes us increasingly vulnerable to the effects of space weather events - maybe more than for any other natural hazard. An extreme solar storm today could conceivably impact hundreds of the more than 1400 operating Earth satellites. Such an extreme storm could cause collapse of the electrical grid on continental scales. The effects on navigation, communication, and remote sensing of our home planet could be devastating to our social functioning. Thus, it is imperative that the scientific community address the question of just how severe events might become. At least as importantly, it is crucial that policy makers and public safety officials be informed by the facts on what might happen during extreme conditions. This requires essentially real-time alerts, warnings, and also forecasts of severe space weather events, which in turn demands measurements, models, and associated data products to be available via the most effective data discovery and access methods possible. Similarly, advancement in the fundamental scientific understanding of space weather processes is also vital, requiring that researchers have convenient and effective access to a wide variety of data sets and models from multiple sources. The space weather research community, as with many scientific communities, must access data from dispersed and often uncoordinated data repositories to acquire the data necessary for the analysis and modeling efforts that advance our understanding of solar influences and space physics on the Earth's environment. The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), as a leading institution in both producing data products and advancing the state of scientific understanding of space weather processes, is well positioned to address many of these issues. In this presentation, we will outline the motivating factors for effective space weather data access, summarize the various data

  17. Space Weather at Mars: MAVEN and MSL/RAD Observations of CME and SEP Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. O.; Ehresmann, B.; Lillis, R. J.; Dunn, P.; Rahmati, A.; Larson, D. E.; Guo, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Luhmann, J. G.; Halekas, J. S.; Espley, J. R.; Thiemann, E.; Hassler, D.

    2017-12-01

    While MAVEN have been observing the space weather conditions driven by ICMEs and SEPs in orbit around Mars, MSL/RAD have been measuring the surface radiation environment due to E > 150 MeV/nuc SEPs and the higher-energy galactic cosmic rays. The suite of MAVEN instruments measuring the particles (SEP), plasma (SWIA) and fields (MAG) information provides detailed local space weather information regarding the solar activity-related fluctuations in the measured surface dose rates. At the same time, the related enhancements in the RAD surface dose rates indicate the degree to which the SEPs affect the lower atmosphere and surface. We will present an overview of the MAVEN observations together with the MSL/RAD measurements and focus our discussion on a number of space weather events driven by CMEs and SEPs. During the March 2015 solar storm period, a succession of CMEs produced intense SEP proton fluxes that were detected by MAVEN/SEP in the 20 keV to 6 MeV detected energy channels. At higher energies, MAVEN/SEP record `FTO' SEP events that were triggered by > 13 MeV energetic protons passing through all three silicon detector layers (Front, Thick, and Open). Using the detector response matrix for an FTO event (incident energy vs detected energy), the minimum incident energy of the SEP protons observed in March 2015 was inferred to be > 40 MeV. The lack of any notable enhancements in the surface dose rate by MSL/RAD suggests that the highest incident energies of the SEP protons were 150 MeV SEP protons impacted the Martian atmosphere and surface. The source of the October 2015 SEP event was probably the CME that erupted near the solar west limb with respect to the Sun-Mars line. As part of the discussion, we will also show solar-heliospheric observations from near-Earth assets together with WSA-Enlil-cone results for some global heliospheric context.

  18. Decision Making and Risk Evaluation Frameworks for Extreme Space Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritskaya, O.; Robinson, R. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme Space Weather events (ESWE) are in the spotlight nowadays because they can produce a significant impact not only due to their intensity and broad geographical scope, but also because of the widespread levels and the multiple sectors of the economy that could be involved. In the task of evaluation of the ESWE consequences, the most problematic and vulnerable aspect is the determination and calculation of the probability of statistically infrequent events and the subsequent assessment of the economic risks. In this work, we conduct a detailed analysis of the available frameworks of the general Decision-Making Theory in the presence of uncertainty, in the context of their applicability for the numerical estimation of the risks and losses associated with ESWE. The results of our study demonstrate that, unlike the Multiple-criteria decision analysis or Minimax approach to modeling of the possible scenarios for the ESWE effects, which prevail in the literature, the most suitable concept is the Games Against Nature (GAN). It enables an evaluation of every economically relevant aspect of space weather conditions and obtain more detailed results. Choosing the appropriate methods for solving GAN models, i.e. determining the most optimal strategy with a given level of uncertainty, requires estimating the conditional probabilities of Space Weather events for each outcome of possible scenarios of this natural disaster. Due to the specifics of complex natural and economic systems, with which we are dealing in this case, this problem remains unsolved, mainly because of inevitable loss of information at every stage of the decision-making process. The analysis is illustrated by deregulated electricity markets of the USA and Canada, whose power grid systems are known to be perceptive to ESWE. The GAN model is more appropriate in identifying potential risks in economic systems. The proposed approach, when applied to the existing database of Space Weather observations and

  19. Monitoring the impacts of weather and climate extremes on global agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Johansson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB, under the direction of the Department of Agriculture's Office of the Chief Economist, employs a staff of agricultural meteorologists whose mission is to monitor and assess the impacts of weather and climate on crops in key growing areas throughout the world. The results of those analyses contribute to the deliberations conducted by the Interagency Commodity Estimates Committees (ICEC led by analysts at the World Agricultural Outlook Board. The results of those deliberations can be found in the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE report, one of the designated Principle Federal Economic Indicators issued monthly by the Federal Government (White House (Office of Management and Budget, 2015. The process used to develop those estimates each month requires the integration of an assessment of the current climatic conditions with knowledge of the agricultural practices and market conditions of a particular country. Weather and climate data are used in conjunction with information on when and where crops are planted, production practices including irrigation, which varieties are best suited for that particular climate, and what naturally occurring hazards can be expected in any given year. Being able to closely compare current conditions to historic observations of weather and realized output on a fine scale, temporally and geographically, is a key component of the international estimates in the WASDE process.

  20. Operational Planetary Space Weather Services for the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Nicolas; Grande, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Under Horizon 2020, the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI, http://www.europlanet-2020-ri.eu) includes an entirely new Virtual Access Service, "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) that will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. PSWS will provide at the end of 2017 12 services distributed over 4 different service domains - 1) Prediction, 2) Detection, 3) Modelling, 4) Alerts. These services include 1.1) A 1D MHD solar wind prediction tool, 1.2) Extensions of a Propagation Tool, 1.3) A meteor showers prediction tool, 1.4) A cometary tail crossing prediction tool, 2.1) Detection of lunar impacts, 2.2) Detection of giant planet fireballs, 2.3) Detection of cometary tail events, 3.1) A Transplanet model of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, 3.2) A model of the Mars radiation environment, 3.3.) A model of giant planet magnetodisc, 3.4) A model of Jupiter's thermosphere, 4) A VO-event based alert system. We will detail in the present paper some of these services with a particular emphasis on those already operational at the time of the presentation (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.2, 3.1, 4). The proposed Planetary Space Weather Services will be accessible to the research community, amateur astronomers as well as to industrial partners planning for space missions dedicated in particular to the following key planetary environments: Mars, in support of ESA's ExoMars missions; comets, building on the success of the ESA Rosetta mission; and outer planets, in preparation for the ESA JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). These services will also be augmented by the future Solar Orbiter and BepiColombo observations. This new facility will not only have an impact on planetary space missions but will also allow the hardness of spacecraft and their components to be evaluated under variety of known conditions, particularly radiation conditions, extending

  1. Enhancing the Awareness of the Interaction of the Space Weather and Public: Some Case Studies in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunay, Y.; Tulunay, E.; Kocabas, Z.; Altuntas, E.; Yapici, T.; Senalp, E. T.; Hippler, R.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather has important effects on many systems and peripherals that human interacts with. However, most of the people are not aware of those interactions. During the FP6 SWEETS, COST 724 and the ‘I love my Sun' activities it was aimed to create basis to bring together academicians from universities, experts from industry, scientific institutes, and the public, especially the school children of age 7-11, in order to enhance the awareness of space weather effects and to discuss appropriate countermeasures by different education and promotion methods including non-technical ones. This work mentions the activities performed in Turkey within the framework. Since 1990, a small group at METU has been developing data driven models in order to forecast some critical system parameters related with the near-Earth space processes. With the background on the subject the group feels responsible to organise activities in Turkey to inform public on enhancing the awareness of space weather effects. In order to inform and educate public on their interaction with the Space Weather, distinct social activities which take quick and strong attention were organised. Those include art shows and workshops, quizes, movies and entertainments, special programs for school children of age 7-11 under the ‘I love my Sun' activities, press releases, audio-visual media including webpages [Tulunay, 2007]. The impact of the activities can be evaluated considering the before and after activity record materials of the participants. For instance, under the ‘I love my Sun' activities, the school children drew pictures related with Sun before and after the informative programs. The performance of reaching the school children on the subject is very promising. Sub-activities conducted under the action are: 1. Space Weather Dance Show "Sonnensturm" 2. Web Quiz all over Europe: In Türkiye 3. Space Weather / Sun / Heliospheric Public Science Festivals in 27 Countries: In Türkiye 4. Space Weather on

  2. Permanent radiation and weather monitoring systems at the Posiva nuclear waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laukkanen, J.; Palomaeki, M.; Viitanen, P.; Kumpula, L.

    2012-12-01

    Posiva Oy is planning to build a complex of two nuclear waste facilities in Olkiluoto. The facilities will encapsulate and dispose the spent nuclear fuel from the nuclear power plants operated by Posiva's owners into Olkiluoto bedrock. The spent fuel is strongly radioactive, so the radiation safety of the facilities and their processes for its users and the environment must be ensured. This paper deals with of the stationary radiation and weather measurement systems designed for the monitoring of Posiva's nuclear waste facilities and their processes. The systems are used for monitoring the encapsulation and disposal facilities and processes, as well as the emissions to the environment. The document collects also the system design basis and other requirements to be considered in the design of these systems at this early stage. (orig.)

  3. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Apostolou, Evangelia; Papavgeri, Georgia; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles

    2016-01-01

    The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions. This paper presents an integrated data management system which was developed over a number of years as well as the advantages through a specific application. The presented case study illustrates how the high production slopes of a mine that exceed depths of 100-120 m were successfully mined with an average displacement rate of 10- 20 mm/day, approaching an almost slow to moderate landslide velocity. Monitoring data of the past four years are included in the database and can be analyzed to produce valuable results. Time-series data correlations of movements, precipitation records, etc. are evaluated and presented in this case study. The results can be used to successfully manage mine operations and ensure the safety of the mine and the workforce.

  4. Extremely Severe Space Weather and Geomagnetically Induced Currents in Regions with Locally Heterogeneous Ground Resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigeru; Kataoka, Ryuho; Pulkkinen, Antti; Watari, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Large geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) triggered by extreme space weather events are now regarded as one of the serious natural threats to the modern electrified society. The risk is described in detail in High-Impact, Low-Frequency Event Risk, A Jointly-Commissioned Summary Report of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and the US Department of Energy's November 2009 Workshop, June 2010. For example, the March 13-14,1989 storm caused a large-scale blackout affecting about 6 million people in Quebec, Canada, and resulting in substantial economic losses in Canada and the USA (Bolduc 2002). Therefore, European and North American nations have invested in GIC research such as the Solar Shield project in the USA (Pulkkinen et al. 2009, 2015a). In 2015, the Japanese government (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, METI) acknowledged the importance of GIC research in Japan. After reviewing the serious damages caused by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, METI recognized the potential risk to the electric power grid posed by extreme space weather. During extreme events, GICs can be concerning even in mid- and low-latitude countries and have become a global issue.

  5. Solar activity during the space weather incident of Nov 4., 2015 - Complex data and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenoorth, Hermann; Pulkkinen, Antti; Buchert, Stephan; Monstein, Christian; Klein, Karl Ludwig; Marqué, Christophe; Krucker, Säm

    2016-04-01

    During the afternoon of November 4, 2015 most southern Swedish aviation radar systems experienced heavy disturbances, which eventually forced an outing of the majority of the radars. In consequence the entire southern Swedish aerospace had to be closed for incoming and leaving air traffic for about 2 hours. Immediately after the incident space weather anomalies were made responsible for the radar disturbances, but it took a very thorough investigation to differentiate disturbances from an ongoing magnetic storm caused by earlier solar activity, which had no disturbing effects on the flight radars, from a new and, indeed, extreme radio-burst on the Sun, which caused the Swedish radar anomalies. Other systems in various European countries also experienced major radio-disturbances during this extreme event, but they were not of the gravity as experienced in Sweden, or at least not causing a similar damage. One of the problems in reaching the right conclusions about the incident was that the extreme radio-burst around 1400 UT on Nov 4 (more than 50000 SFU at GHz frequencies), emerged from a medium size M3.7 Flare on the Sun, which did not trigger any immediate warnings. We will report about the analysis leading to the improved understanding of this extreme space weather event, evaluate the importance of solar radio observations, and discuss possible mitigation strategies for future events of similar nature.

  6. All-sky-imaging capabilities for ionospheric space weather research using geomagnetic conjugate point observing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, C.; Baumgardner, J.; Wroten, J.; Mendillo, M.

    2018-04-01

    Optical signatures of ionospheric disturbances exist at all latitudes on Earth-the most well known case being visible aurora at high latitudes. Sub-visual emissions occur equatorward of the auroral zones that also indicate periods and locations of severe Space Weather effects. These fall into three magnetic latitude domains in each hemisphere: (1) sub-auroral latitudes ∼40-60°, (2) mid-latitudes (20-40°) and (3) equatorial-to-low latitudes (0-20°). Boston University has established a network of all-sky-imagers (ASIs) with sites at opposite ends of the same geomagnetic field lines in each hemisphere-called geomagnetic conjugate points. Our ASIs are autonomous instruments that operate in mini-observatories situated at four conjugate pairs in North and South America, plus one pair linking Europe and South Africa. In this paper, we describe instrument design, data-taking protocols, data transfer and archiving issues, image processing, science objectives and early results for each latitude domain. This unique capability addresses how a single source of disturbance is transformed into similar or different effects based on the unique "receptor" conditions (seasonal effects) found in each hemisphere. Applying optical conjugate point observations to Space Weather problems offers a new diagnostic approach for understanding the global system response functions operating in the Earth's upper atmosphere.

  7. Kameleon Live: An Interactive Cloud Based Analysis and Visualization Platform for Space Weather Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembroke, A. D.; Colbert, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) provides hosting for many of the simulations used by the space weather community of scientists, educators, and forecasters. CCMC users may submit model runs through the Runs on Request system, which produces static visualizations of model output in the browser, while further analysis may be performed off-line via Kameleon, CCMC's cross-language access and interpolation library. Off-line analysis may be suitable for power-users, but storage and coding requirements present a barrier to entry for non-experts. Moreover, a lack of a consistent framework for analysis hinders reproducibility of scientific findings. To that end, we have developed Kameleon Live, a cloud based interactive analysis and visualization platform. Kameleon Live allows users to create scientific studies built around selected runs from the Runs on Request database, perform analysis on those runs, collaborate with other users, and disseminate their findings among the space weather community. In addition to showcasing these novel collaborative analysis features, we invite feedback from CCMC users as we seek to advance and improve on the new platform.

  8. Aurorasaurus Database of Real-Time, Soft-Sensor Sourced Aurora Data for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, B.; MacDonald, E.; Heavner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Aurorasaurus is an innovative citizen science project focused on two fundamental objectives i.e., collecting real-time, ground-based signals of auroral visibility from citizen scientists (soft-sensors) and incorporating this new type of data into scientific investigations pertaining to aurora. The project has been live since the Fall of 2014, and as of Summer 2017, the database compiled approximately 12,000 observations (5295 direct reports and 6413 verified tweets). In this presentation, we will focus on demonstrating the utility of this robust science quality data for space weather research needs. These data scale with the size of the event and are well-suited to capture the largest, rarest events. Emerging state-of-the-art computational methods based on statistical inference such as machine learning frameworks and data-model integration methods can offer new insights that could potentially lead to better real-time assessment and space weather prediction when citizen science data are combined with traditional sources.

  9. Space Weather effects on airline communications in the high latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honary, Farideh

    2014-05-01

    Efficient air traffic management depends on reliable communications between aircraft and the air traffic control centres at all times. At high latitudes, and especially on polar routing, VHF ground infrastructure does not exist and the aircraft have to rely on HF radio for communications. HF relies on reflections from the ionosphere to achieve long distance communications. Unfortunately the high latitude ionosphere is affected by space weather events. During such events HF radio communication can be severely disrupted and aircraft are forced to use longer low latitude routes with consequent increased flight time, fuel consumption and cost. This presentation describes a new research programme at the University of Lancaster in collaboration with the University of Leicester, Solar Metrics Ltd and Natural Resources Canada for the development of a nowcasting and forecasting HF communications tool designed for the particular needs of civilian airlines. This project funded by EPSRC will access a wide variety of solar and interplanetary measurements to derive a complete picture of space weather disturbances affecting radio absorption and reflection

  10. Space environment monitoring by low-altitude operational satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroehl, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The primary task of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is the acquisition of meteorological data in the visual and infrared spectral regions. The Air Weather Service operates two satellites in low-altitude, sun-synchronous, polar orbits at 850 km altitude, 98.7 deg inclination, 101.5 minute period and dawn-dusk or noon-midnight equatorial crossing times. Special DMSP sensors of interest to the space science community are the precipitating electron spectrometer, the terrestrial noise receiver, and the topside ionosphere plasma monitor. Data from low-altitude, meteorological satellites can be used to build empirical models of precipitating electron characteristics of the auroral zone and polar cap. The Tiros-NOAA satellite program complements the DMSP program. The orbital elements are the same as DMSP's, except for the times of equatorial crossing, and the tilt of the orbital plane. The Tiros-NOAA program meets the civilian community's needs for meteorological data as the DMSP program does for the military

  11. The role of MEXART in the National Space Weather Laboratory of Mexico: Detection of solar wind, CMEs, ionosphere, active regions and flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Ambriz, J.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; De la Luz, V.; Villanueva-Hernandez, P.; Andrade, E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Chang, O.; Romero Hernandez, E.; Sergeeva, M. A.; Perez Alanis, C. A.; Reyes-Marin, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The National Space Weather Laboratory - Laboratorio Nacional de Clima Espacial (LANCE) - of Mexico has different ground based instruments to study and monitor the space weather. One of these instruments is the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) which is principally dedicated to remote sensing the solar wind and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at 140 MHz, the instrument can detect solar wind densities and speeds from about 0.4 to 1 AU by modeling observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS). MEXART is also able to detect ionospheric disturbances associated with transient space weather events by the analysis of ionospheric scintillation (IONS) . Additionally, MEXART has followed the Sun since the beginning of the current Solar Cycle 24 with records of 8 minutes per day, and occasionally, has partially detected the process of strong solar flares. Here we show the contributions of MEXART to the LANCE by reporting recent detections of CMEs by IPS, the arrive of transient events at Earth by IONS, the influence of active regions in the flux of the Sun at 140 MHz and the detection of a M6.5 class flare. Furthermore we report the status of a near real time analysis of IPS data for forecast purposes and the potential contribution to the Worldwide IPS Stations network (WIPSS), which is an effort to achieve a better coverage of the solar wind observations in the inner heliosphere.

  12. Femtosecond laser irradiation of olivine single crystals: Experimental simulation of space weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, A.; Harries, D.; Matthäus, G.; Mutschke, H.; Nolte, S.; Langenhorst, F.

    2018-01-01

    Space weathering is one of the most common surface process occurring on atmosphere-free bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. It is caused mainly by solar wind irradiation and the impact of micrometeoroids. In order to simulate space weathering effects, in particular those produced by hypervelocity impacts, we produced microcraters via ultra-short (∼100 fs) laser irradiation of crystallographically oriented slices of forsterite-rich (Fo94.7) olivine. The main advantages of the application of a femtosecond laser radiation to reproduce the space weathering effects are (1) the high peak irradiance (1015 W cm-2), which generates the propagation of the shock wave at the nanosecond timescale (i.e., timescale of the micrometeoroid impacts); (2) the rapid transfer of energy to the target material, which avoids the interaction of laser light with the developing vapor plume; (3) a small laser beam, which allows the effects of a single impact to be simulated. The results of our spectroscopic and electron microscopic investigation validate this approach: the samples show strong darkening and reddening of the reflectance spectra and structural damages similar to the natural microcraters found on regolith grains of the Moon and asteroid 25143 Itokawa. Detailed investigations of several microcrater cross-sections by transmission electron microscopy allowed the detection of shock-induced defect microstructures. From the top to the bottom of the grain, the shock wave causes evaporation, melting, solid-state recrystallization, misorientation, fracturing, and the propagation of dislocations with Burgers vectors parallel to [001]. The formation of a short-lived vapor plume causes the kinetic fractionation of the gas and the preferential loss of lighter elements, mostly magnesium and oxygen. The high temperatures within the melt layer and the kinetic loss of oxygen promote the thermal reduction of iron and nickel, which leads to the formation of metallic nanoparticles (npFe0). The

  13. Weather radar performance monitoring using a metallic-grid ground-scatterer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconi, Marta Tecla; Montopoli, Mario; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca

    2017-10-01

    The use of ground return signals is investigated for checks on the calibration of power measurements of a polarimetric C-band radar. To this aim, a peculiar permanent single scatterer (PSS) consisting of a big metallic roof with a periodic mesh grid structure and having a hemisphere-like shape is considered. The latter is positioned in the near-field region of the weather radar and its use, as a reference calibrator, shows fairly good results in terms of reflectivity and differential reflectivity monitoring. In addition, the use of PSS indirectly allows to check for the radar antenna de-pointing which is another issue usually underestimated when dealing with weather radars. Because of the periodic structure of the considered PSS, simulations of its electromagnetic behavior were relatively easy to perform. To this goal, we used an electromagnetic Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) with an ad-hoc numerical implementation of a full-wave solution to model our PSS in terms of reflectivity and differential reflectivity factor. Comparison of model results and experimental measurements are then shown in this work. Our preliminary investigation can pave the way for future studies aiming at characterizing ground-clutter returns in a more accurate way for radar calibration purposes.

  14. Fire monitoring from space: from research to operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Nicola; Filizzola, Carolina; Corrado, Rosita; Coviello, Irina; lacava, Teodosio; Marchese, Francesco; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Paciello, Rossana; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2013-04-01

    Each summer fires rage through European forests, burning hundreds of thousands of hectares per year, as a result of the many (up to 60000) forest fires that usually occur annually in Europe. Fires can threaten public health and safety, destroy property and cause economic damages. Despite of their medium extension (the average burnt area is less than 6 ha), much smaller if compared with other regions like the USA and Canada, the number of simultaneous active fires in Europe can be very high, fomented by weather conditions that, especially in summer times and for countries of South Europe, are particularly favourable to a rapid and dramatic development of flames. Fires still are not only a social problem, but also an environmental emergency, producing a continuous impoverishment of forests and possibly indirectly triggering other natural hazards (e.g. making slopes, without the trees action, more prone to landslides). Additionally, there is a general concern about the loss of biodiversity and the contribution to land degradation that fires may cause. Earth Observation satellite systems have been largely tested for fire detection and monitoring from space. Their spectral capability, synoptic view and revisit times can offer an added value in the operational use not only in real time, during fires fighting activities, but also in near-real or delay time during the phases of risk management and mitigation. However, the practice of an actual operational use of satellite products by end-users is still not usual at European level. This work is based on the experience carried out jointly by CNR-IMAA and the National Civil Protection Department (DPC), in the framework of a five-year agreement in which the operational use of an Earth observation satellite system for fires spotting and monitoring is tested. Satellite-based products, developed not only for detecting fires but also for continuously monitoring their evolution in time domain, have been provided to Civil Protection

  15. Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids by Space Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Dehant, V.; Gross, R. S.; Ray, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.; Watkins, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since its establishment on 1/1/1998 by the International Earth Rotation Service, the Coordinating Center for Monitoring Global Geophysical Fluids (MGGF) and its seven Special Bureaus have engaged in an effort to support and facilitate the understanding of the geophysical fluids in global geodynamics research. Mass transports in the atmosphere-hydrosphere-solid Earth-core system (the "global geophysical fluids") will cause the following geodynamic effects on a broad time scale: (1) variations in the solid Earth's rotation (in length-of-day and polar motion/nutation) via the conservation of angular momentum and effected by torques at the fluid-solid Earth interface; (2) changes in the global gravitational field according to Newton's gravitational law; and (3) motion in the center of mass of the solid Earth relative to that of the whole Earth ("geocenter") via the conservation of linear momentum. These minute signals have become observable by space geodetic techniques, primarily VLBI, SLR, GPS, and DORIS, with ever increasing precision/accuracy and temporal/spatial resolution. Each of the seven Special Bureaus within MGGF is responsible for calculations related to a specific Earth component or aspect -- Atmosphere, Ocean, Hydrology, Ocean Tides, Mantle, Core, and Gravity/Geocenter. Angular momenta and torques, gravitational coefficients, and geocenter shift will be computed for geophysical fluids based on global observational data, and from state-of-the-art models, some of which assimilate such data. The computed quantities, algorithm and data formats are standardized. The results are archived and made available to the scientific research community. This paper reports the status of the MGGF activities and current results.

  16. Space weather at planet Venus during the forthcoming BepiColombo flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Jackson, B.; Odstrcil, D.

    2018-03-01

    The BepiColombo (BC) Mission which will be launched in 2018, will include during its Cruise Phase two flybys of Venus and five Mercury flybys. It will then enter a one Earth year orbit about Mercury (with a possible one-year extension) during which two spacecraft, one provided by ESA (MPO) and one provided by JAXA (MMO), will perform both autonomous and coordinated observations of the Hermean environment at various separations. The measurements will take place during the minimum of solar cycle 24 and the rise of solar cycle 25. At the start of the minimum of solar cycle 23, four major flares, each associated with the production of MeV particle radiation and CME activity occurred. Predictions of the HAFv.2 model of the arrival of particle radiation and a travelling shock at Venus on 6 December 2006 were verified by in-situ measurements made aboard Venus Express (VEX) by the ASPERA 4 instrument. Interplanetary scintillation observations, as well as the ENLIL 3-D MHD model when employed separately or in combination, enable the making of predictions of the solar wind density and speed at various locations in the inner heliosphere. Both methods, which outdate HAFv.2, are utilized in the present paper to predict (retrospectively) the arrival of the flare related, interplanetary propagating shock recorded at Venus on 6 December 2006 aboard VEX with a view to putting in place the facility to make very reliable space weather predictions for BC during both its Cruise Phase and when in the Hermean environment itself. The successful matching of the December 2006 predictions with in-situ signatures recorded aboard Venus Express provide confidence that the predictive methodology to be adopted will be appropriate to provide space weather predictions for BepiColombo during its Venus flybys and throughout the mission.

  17. Nurturing Soft Skills Among High School Students Through Space Weather Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mardina; Abd Majid, Rosadah; Bais, Badariah; Syaidah Bahri, Nor

    2016-07-01

    Soft skills fulfill an important role in shaping an individual's personality. It is of high importance for every student to acquire adequate skills beyond academic or technical knowledge. The objective of this project was to foster students' enthusiasm in space science and develop their soft skills such as; interpersonal communication, critical thinking and problem-solving, team work, lifelong learning and information management, and leadership skills. This is a qualitative study and the data was collected via group interviews. Soft skills development among high school students were nurtured through space weather competition in solar flare detection. High school students (16 to 17 years old) were guided by mentors consisting of science teachers to carry out this project based on a module developed by UKM's researchers. Students had to acquire knowledge on antenna development and construct the antenna with recyclable materials. They had to capture graphs and identify peaks that indicate solar flare. Their findings were compared to satellite data for verification. They also presented their work and their findings to the panel of judges. After observation, it can be seen that students' soft skills and interest in learning space science had become more positive after being involved in this project.

  18. NCU-SWIP Space Weather Instrumentation Payload - Intelligent Sensors On Efficient Real-Time Distributed LUTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Tse-Liang; Dmitriev, Alexei; Chu, Yen-Hsyang; Jiang, Shyh-Biau; Chen, Li-Wu

    The NCU-SWIP - Space Weather Instrumentation Payload is developed for simultaneous in-situ and remote measurement of space weather parameters for cross verifications. The measurements include in-situ electron density, electron temperature, magnetic field, the deceleration of satellite due to neutral wind, and remotely the linear cumulative intensities of oxygen ion air-glows at 135.6nm and 630.0nm along the flight path in forward, nader, and backward directions for tomographic reconstruction of the electron density distribution underneath. This instrument package is suitable for micro satellite constellation to establish nominal space weather profiles and, thus, to detect abnormal variations as the signs of ionospheric disturbances induced by severe atmospheric weather, or earth quake - mantle movement through their Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Mechanism. NCU-SWIP is constructed with intelligent sensor modules connected by common bus with their functionalities managed by an efficient distributed real-time system LUTOS. The same hierarchy can be applied to the level of satellite constellation. For example SWIP's in a constellation in coordination with the GNSS Occultation Experiment TriG planned for the Formosa-7 constellation, data can be cross correlated for verification and refinement for real-time, stable and reliable measurements. A SWIP will be contributed to the construction of a MAI Micro Satellite for verification. The SWIP consists of two separate modules: the SWIP main control module and the SWIP-PMTomo sensor module. They are respectively a 1.5kg W120xL120xH100 (in mm) box with forward facing 120mmPhi circular disk probe on a boom top edged at 470mm height and a 7.2kg W126xL590x372H (in mm) slab containing 3 legs looking downwards along the flight path, while consuming the maximum electricity of 10W and 12W. The sensors are 1) ETPEDP measuring 16bits floating potentials for electron temperature range of 1000K to 3000K and 24bits electron

  19. Modelling the perception of weather conditions by users of outdoor public spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, H.; Oliveira, S.; Alcoforado, M.-J.

    2009-09-01

    Outdoor public spaces play an important role for the quality of life in urban areas. Their usage depends, among other factors, on the bioclimatic comfort of the users. Climate change can modify the uses of outdoor spaces, by changing temperature and rainfall patterns. Understanding the way people perceive the microclimatic conditions is an important tool to the design of more comfortable outdoor spaces and in anticipating future needs to cope with climate change impacts. The perception of bioclimatic comfort by users of two different outdoor spaces was studied in Lisbon. A survey of about one thousand inquires was carried out simultaneously with weather measurements (air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar and long wave radiation), during the years 2006 and 2007. The aim was to assess the relationships between weather variables, the individual characteristics of people (such as age and gender, among others) and their bioclimatic comfort. The perception of comfort was evaluated through the preference votes of the interviewees, which consisted on their answers concerning the desire to decrease, maintain or increase the values of the different weather parameters, in order to improve their comfort at the moment of the interview. The perception of the atmospheric conditions and of the bioclimatic comfort are highly influenced by subjective factors, which are difficult to integrate in a model. Nonetheless, the use of the multiple logistic regression allows the definition of patterns in the quantitative relation between preference votes and environmental and personal parameters. The thermal preference depends largely on the season and is associated with wind speed. Comfort in relation to wind depends not only on the speed but also on turbulence: a high variability in wind speed is generally perceived as uncomfortable. It was also found that the acceptability of warmer conditions is higher than for cooler conditions and the majority of people declared

  20. Monitoring of Space and Earth electromagnetic environment by MAGDAS project: Collaboration with IKIR - Introduction to ICSWSE/MAGDAS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikawa Akimasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For study of coupling processes in the Solar-Terrestrial System, International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE, Kyushu University has developed a real time magnetic data acquisition system (the MAGDAS project around the world. The number of observational sites is increasing every year with the collaboration of host countries. Now at this time, the MAGDAS Project has installed 78 real time magnetometers – so it is the largest magnetometer array in the world. The history of global observation at Kyushu University is over 30 years and number of developed observational sites is over 140. Especially, Collaboration between IKIR is extended back to 1990's. Now a time, we are operating Flux-gate magnetometer and FM-CW Radar. It is one of most important collaboration for space weather monitoring. By using MAGDAS data, ICSWSE produces many types of space weather index, such as EE-index (for monitoring long tern and shot term variation of equatorial electrojet, Pc5 index (for monitoring solar-wind velocity and high energy electron flux, Sq-index (for monitoring global change of ionospheric low and middle latitudinal current system, and Pc3 index (for monitoring of plasma density variation at low latitudes. In this report, we will introduce recent development of MAGDAS/ICSWSE Indexes project and topics for new open policy for MAGDAS data will be also discussed.

  1. Monitoring of Space and Earth electromagnetic environment by MAGDAS project: Collaboration with IKIR - Introduction to ICSWSE/MAGDAS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akimasa; Fujimoto, Akiko; Ikeda, Akihiro; Uozumi, Teiji; Abe, Shuji

    2017-10-01

    For study of coupling processes in the Solar-Terrestrial System, International Center for Space Weather Science and Education (ICSWSE), Kyushu University has developed a real time magnetic data acquisition system (the MAGDAS project) around the world. The number of observational sites is increasing every year with the collaboration of host countries. Now at this time, the MAGDAS Project has installed 78 real time magnetometers - so it is the largest magnetometer array in the world. The history of global observation at Kyushu University is over 30 years and number of developed observational sites is over 140. Especially, Collaboration between IKIR is extended back to 1990's. Now a time, we are operating Flux-gate magnetometer and FM-CW Radar. It is one of most important collaboration for space weather monitoring. By using MAGDAS data, ICSWSE produces many types of space weather index, such as EE-index (for monitoring long tern and shot term variation of equatorial electrojet), Pc5 index (for monitoring solar-wind velocity and high energy electron flux), Sq-index (for monitoring global change of ionospheric low and middle latitudinal current system), and Pc3 index (for monitoring of plasma density variation at low latitudes). In this report, we will introduce recent development of MAGDAS/ICSWSE Indexes project and topics for new open policy for MAGDAS data will be also discussed.

  2. The Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School: Career and Research Benefits to Students and Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowee, M.; Woodroffe, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    In 2016 we held the 6th Los Alamos Space Weather Summer School. This 8-week long program is designed for mid-career graduate students in related fields to come to LANL, receive lectures on space physics and space environment topics, and carry out a research project under the mentorship of LANL staff members. We accept typically 6-8 students via competitive admissions to the program, with a strong applicant pool to choose from. This type of summer school program is relatively unique in the space physics community—there are several other summer schools but they are of shorter duration and do not include the mentor-research project aspect which builds a strong one-on-one connection between the summer student and his/her LANL mentor(s). From the LANL perspective, this program was intended to have several benefits including building collaborations between LANL staff and universities and recruitment of potential postdocs. From the student perspective, this program is not only an educational opportunity but a strong networking opportunity and a chance to enhance their professional skills and publication record. Students are permitted to work on projects directly related to their thesis or on projects in areas that are completely new to them. At the end of the summer school, the students also develop their presentation skills by preparing and giving AGU-style presentations on their research projects to the research group. Over the past five years the summer school has increased in popularity, and the feedback from the student participants has been very positive. Alumni of the program have continued collaborations with their mentors, resulting in publications and conference presentations, and three postdoc hires to date.

  3. Blood troponin levels in acute cardiac events depends on space weather activity components (a correlative study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliiyahu; Radishauskas, Richardas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Tamoshiunas, Abdonas; Virvichiute, Daiva

    2018-02-05

    Many biological processes are influenced by space weather activity components such as solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA) and cosmic ray activity (CRA). Examples are total mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke (cerebrovascular accident), sudden cardiac death, some congenital maladies (congenital heart disease and Down syndrome), many events in neonatology, ophtalmology, blood pressure regulation, blood coagulation, inflammation, etc. The aim of this study was to check if the level of blood troponins (Tns) - markers of myocardial damage and recognized components of modern description of AMI - is connected with the mentioned space weather parameters. Patients admitted to a 3000-bed tertiary university hospital in Kaunas, Lithuania, with suspected AMI were the object of the study. Data for the time between 2008 and 2013 - 72 consecutive months - were studied. Of the patients, 1896 (1398 male, 498 female) had elevated troponin I (Tn I) or troponin T (Tn T, sensitive Tn) levels. Normal values were 0.00-0.03 ng/mL for Tn I and 0.00-14.00 ng/mL for Tn T. Monthly means and standard deviation of Tn I and Tn T were compared with monthly markers of SA, GMA and CRA. Pearson correlation coefficients and their probabilities were established (in addition to the consecutive graphs of both comparing physical and biological data). The cosmophysical data came from space service institutions in the United States, Russia and Finland. AMI was diagnosed in 1188 patients (62.66%), and intermediate coronary syndrome in 698 patients (36.81%). There were significant links of the Tn blood levels with four SA indices and CRA (neutron activity in imp/min); there was no significant correlation with GMA indices Ap and Cp (p=0.27 and p=0.235). Tn T levels significantly correlated with the GMA indices and not with the SA and CRA levels (Ap: r=0.77, p=0.0021; Cp: r=0.729, p=0.0047). First, the monthly level of blood Tn I in ACS is significantly correlated with the indices

  4. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment: A successful student-run scientific spacecraft mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Q.; Li, X.; Palo, S. E.; Blum, L. W.; Gerhardt, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment is a spacecraft mission developed and operated by students at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The 3U CubeSat was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in September 2012. The massively successful mission far outlived its 4 month estimated lifetime and stopped transmitting data after over two years in orbit in December 2014. CSSWE has contributed to 15 scientific or engineering peer-reviewed journal publications. During the course of the project, over 65 undergraduate and graduate students from CU's Computer Science, Aerospace, and Mechanical Engineering Departments, as well as the Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences Department participated. The students were responsible for the design, development, build, integration, testing, and operations from component- to system-level. The variety of backgrounds on this unique project gave the students valuable experience in their own focus area, but also cross-discipline and system-level involvement. However, though the perseverance of the students brought the mission to fruition, it was only possible through the mentoring and support of professionals in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department and CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics.

  5. Effects of Space Weather on Geosynchronous Electromagnetic Spacecraft Perturbations Using Statistical Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.; Schaub, H.

    2017-12-01

    Spacecraft can charge to very negative voltages at GEO due to interactions with the space plasma. This can cause arcing which can damage spacecraft electronics or solar panels. Recently, it has been suggested that spacecraft charging may lead to orbital perturbations which change the orbits of lightweight uncontrolled debris orbits significantly. The motions of High Area to Mass Ratio objects are not well explained with just perturbations from Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) and earth, moon, and sun gravity. A charged spacecraft will experience a Lorentz force as the spacecraft moves relative to Earth's magnetic field, as well as a Lorentz torque and eddy current torques if the object is rotating. Prior work assuming a constant "worst case" voltage has shown that Lorentz and eddy torques can cause quite large orbital changes by rotating the object to experience more or less SRP. For some objects, including or neglecting these electromagnetic torques can lead to differences of thousands of kilometers after only two orbits. This paper will further investigate the effects of electromagnetic perturbations by using a charging model that uses measured flux distributions to better simulate natural charging. This differs from prior work which used a constant voltage or Maxwellian distributions. This is done to a calm space weather case of Kp = 2 and a stormy case where Kp = 8. Preliminary analysis suggests that electrostatics will still cause large orbital changes even with the more realistic charging model.

  6. Space weather and dangerous phenomena on the Earth: principles of great geomagnetic storms forcasting by online cosmic ray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available According to NOAA space weather scales, geomagnetic storms of scales G5 (3-h index of geomagnetic activity Kp=9, G4 (Kp=8 and G3 (Kp=7 are dangerous for satellites, aircrafts, and even for technology on the ground (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others. We show on the basis of statistical data, that these geomagnetic storms, mostly accompanied by cosmic ray (CR Forbush-decreases, are also dangerous for people's health on spacecraft and on the ground (increasing the rate of myocardial infarctions, brain strokes and car accident road traumas. To prevent these serious damages it is very important to forecast dangerous geomagnetic storms. Here we consider the principles of using CR measurements for this aim: to forecast at least 10-15h before the sudden commencement of great geomagnetic storms accompanied by Forbush-decreases, by using neutron monitor muon telescope worldwide network online hourly data. We show that for this forecast one may use the following features of CR intensity variations connected with geomagnetic storms accompanied by Forbush-decreases: 1 CR pre-increase, 2 CR pre-decrease, 3 CR fluctuations, 4 change in the 3-D CR anisotropy.

  7. Development of laser weld monitoring system for PWR space grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    1998-06-01

    The laser welding monitoring system was developed to inspect PWR space grid welding for KNFC. The demands for this optical monitoring system were applied to Q.C. and process control in space grid welding. The thermal radiation signal from weld pool can be get the variation of weld pool size. The weld pool size and depth are verified by analyzed wavelength signals from weld pool. Applied this monitoring system in space grid weld, improved the weld productivity. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  8. Confronting data requirements and data provision in Space Weather: The Contribution of Long Term Archives. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Alexi; Heynderickx, Daniel

    Operational space weather services rely heavily on reliable data streams from spacecraft and ground-based facilities, as well as from services providing processed data products. This event focuses on an unusual solar maximum viewed from several different perspectives, and as such highlights the important contribution of long term archives in supporting space weather studies and services. We invite the space weather community to contribute to a discussion on the key topics listed below, with the aim of formulating recommendations and guidelines for policy makers, stakeholders, data and service providers: - facilitating access to and awareness of existing data resources - establishing clear guidelines for space weather data archives including data quality, interoperability and metadata standards - ensuring data ownership and terms of (re)use are clearly identified such that this information can be taken into account when (potentially commercial) services are developed based on data provided without charge for scientific purposes only All participants are invited to submit input for the discussion to the authors ahead of the Assembly. The outcome of the session will be formulated as a set of proposed panel recommendations.

  9. Confronting data requirements and data provision in Space Weather: The Contribution of Long Term Archives. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heynderickx, Daniel; Glover, Alexi

    Operational space weather services rely heavily on reliable data streams from spacecraft and ground-based facilities, as well as from services providing processed data products. This event focuses on an unusual solar maximum viewed from several different perspectives, and as such highlights the important contribution of long term archives in supporting space weather studies and services. We invite the space weather community to contribute to a discussion on the key topics listed below, with the aim of formulating recommendations and guidelines for policy makers, stakeholders, data and service providers: - facilitating access to and awareness of existing data resources - establishing clear guidelines for space weather data archives including data quality, interoperability and metadata standards - ensuring data ownership and terms of (re)use are clearly identified such that this information can be taken into account when (potentially commercial) services are developed based on data provided without charge for scientific purposes only All participants are invited to submit input for the discussion to the authors ahead of the Assembly. The outcome of the session will be formulated as a set of proposed panel recommendations.

  10. Short-Term Changes in Weather and Space Weather Conditions and Emergency Ambulance Calls for Elevated Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jone Vencloviene

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythm influences the physiology of the cardiovascular system, inducing diurnal variation of blood pressure. We investigated the association between daily emergency ambulance calls (EACs for elevated arterial blood pressure during the time intervals of 8:00–13:59, 14:00–21:59, and 22:00–7:59 and weekly fluctuations of air temperature (T, barometric pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, geomagnetic activity (GMA, and high-speed solar wind (HSSW. We used the Poisson regression to explore the association between the risk of EACs and weather variables, adjusting for seasonality and exposure to CO, PM10, and ozone. An increase of 10 °C when T > 1 °C on the day of the call was associated with a decrease in the risk of EACs during the time periods of 14:00–21:59 (RR (rate ratio = 0.78; p < 0.001 and 22:00–7:59 (RR = 0.88; p = 0.35. During the time period of 8:00–13:59, the risk of EACs was positively associated with T above 1 °C with a lag of 5–7 days (RR = 1.18; p = 0.03. An elevated risk was associated during 8:00–13:59 with active-stormy GMA (RR = 1.22; p = 0.003; during 14:00–21:59 with very low GMA (RR = 1.07; p = 0.008 and HSSW (RR = 1.17; p = 0.014; and during 22:00–7:59 with HSSW occurring after active-stormy days (RR = 1.32; p = 0.019. The associations of environmental variables with the exacerbation of essential hypertension may be analyzed depending on the time of the event.

  11. Phase-dependent space weathering effects and spectroscopic identification of retained helium in a lunar soil grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, K. D.; Stroud, R. M.

    2018-03-01

    The solar wind is an important driver of space weathering on airless bodies. Over time, solar wind exposure alters the physical, chemical, and optical properties of exposed materials and can also impart a significant amount of helium into the surfaces of these bodies. However, common materials on the surface of the Moon, such as glass, crystalline silicates, and oxides, have highly variable responses to solar wind irradiation. We used scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to examine the morphology and chemistry of a single grain of lunar soil that includes silicate glass, chromite and ilmenite, all present and exposed along the same surface. The exposure of the silicate glass and oxides to the same space weathering conditions allows for direct comparisons of the responses of natural materials to the complex lunar surface environment. The silicate glass shows minimal effects of solar wind irradiation, whereas both the chromite and ilmenite exhibit defect-rich rims that currently contain trapped helium. Only the weathered rim in ilmenite is rich in nanophase metallic iron (npFe0) and larger vesicles that retain helium at a range of internal pressures. The multiple exposed surfaces of the single grain of ilmenite demonstrate strong crystallographic controls of planar defects and non-spherical npFe0. The direct spectroscopic identification of helium in the vesicles and planar defects in the oxides provides additional evidence of the central role of solar wind irradiation in the formation of some common space weathering features.

  12. Training Educators to Teach the Sun and Space Weather Using a Kit of Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesee, A. M.; Ensign, T.

    2014-12-01

    NASA provides a wealth of data from Heliospheric missions to the public, but educators face several challenges to using such data in the classroom. These include the knowledge of what is available and how to use it, a full understanding of the science concepts the data demonstrate, ability to obtain and maintain products to access data, and access to technology (such as computer labs) for anything other than testing. To surmount these challenges, the Educator Resource Center at the NASA Independent Validation and Verification (IV&V) Center in Fairmont, WV has developed an operational model that focuses on housing, maintaining, and lending out kits of necessary equipment along with training educators in the science concepts and use of kit materials. Following this model, we have developed a Sun and Space Weather kit and an educator professional development course that we have presented several times. The kit includes a classroom set of iPads utilized to access data from NASA missions and other sources as well as create video reports for project based outcomes, a set of telescopes for safe solar viewing, and materials to explore magnetic fields and the electromagnetic spectrum. We will present an overview of the training course, the kit materials, and lessons learned.

  13. The origin of SEP events: New research collaboration and network on space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miteva, Rositsa; Kashapova, Larisa; Myagkova, Irina; Meshalkina, Nataliia; Petrov, Nikola; Bogomolov, Andrey; Myshyakov, Ivan; Tsvetkov, Tsvetan; Danov, Dimitar; Zdanov, Dmitriy

    2017-11-01

    A new project on the solar energetic particles (SEPs) and their solar origins (flares and coronal mass ejections) is described here. The main aim of this project is to answer the question - whether the SEPs observed in situ are driven by flares, by CMEs or both accelerators contribute to an extent which varies from event to event - by deducing a quantitative measure of the flare vs. CME contribution, duration and efficiency. New observations (SONG/Koronas-F, Relec/Vernov) and new approaches of analysis will be utilized (e.g., magnetic topology of active regions using 3D extrapolation techniques of detailed case studies together with statistical analysis of the phenomena). In addition, the identification of the uncertainty limits of SEP injection, onset time and testing the validity of assumptions often taken for granted (association procedures, solar activity longitudinal effects, correlation analysis, etc.) are planned. The project outcomes have the capacity to contribute to other research fields for improvement of modeling schemes and forecasting methods of space weather events.

  14. Cosmic rays and other space weather effects influenced on satellite operation, technologies, biosphere and people health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Satellite anomalies (or malfunctions), including total distortion of electronics and loose of some satellites cost for Insurance Companies billions dollars per year. During especially active periods the probability of big satellite anomalies and their loosing increased very much. Now, when a great number of civil and military satellites are continuously worked for our practice life, the problem of satellite anomalies became very important. Many years ago about half of satellite anomalies were caused by technical reasons (for example, for Russian satellites Kosmos), but with time with increasing of production quality, this part became smaller and smaller. The other part, which now is dominated, caused by different space weather effects (energetic particles of CR and generated/trapped in the magnetosphere, and so on). We consider only satellite anomalies not caused by technical reasons: the total number of such anomalies about 6000 events, and separately for high and low altitude orbit satellites (5000 and about 800 events, correspondingly for high and low altitude satellites). No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and solar proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (railway operation (possible, through induction currents), catastrophes in long-distance electric power lines and transformators, and in other ground technologies.

  15. Space Weather Action Plan Solar Radio Burst Phase 1 Benchmarks and the Steps to Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, D. A.; White, S. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Black, C.; Love, J. J.; Pierson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Solar radio bursts, when at the right frequency and when strong enough, can interfere with radar, communication, and tracking signals. In severe cases, radio bursts can inhibit the successful use of radio communications and disrupt a wide range of systems that are reliant on Position, Navigation, and Timing services on timescales ranging from minutes to hours across wide areas on the dayside of Earth. The White House's Space Weather Action Plan asked for solar radio burst intensity benchmarks for an event occurrence frequency of 1 in 100 years and also a theoretical maximum intensity benchmark. The benchmark team has developed preliminary (phase 1) benchmarks for the VHF (30-300 MHz), UHF (300-3000 MHz), GPS (1176-1602 MHz), F10.7 (2800 MHz), and Microwave (4000-20000) bands. The preliminary benchmarks were derived based on previously published work. Limitations in the published work will be addressed in phase 2 of the benchmark process. In addition, deriving theoretical maxima requires additional work, where it is even possible to, in order to meet the Action Plan objectives. In this presentation, we will present the phase 1 benchmarks, the basis used to derive them, and the limitations of that work. We will also discuss the work that needs to be done to complete the phase 2 benchmarks.

  16. Space Weathering of Super-Earths: Model Simulations of Exospheric Sodium Escape from 61 Virgo b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M.; Berdyugina, S.; Kuhn, J. [Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics, Schöneckstraße 6, 79104 Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    Rocky exoplanets are expected to be eroded by space weather in a similar way as in the solar system. In particular, Mercury is one of the dramatically eroded planets whose material continuously escapes into its exosphere and further into space. This escape is well traced by sodium atoms scattering sunlight. Due to solar wind impact, micrometeorite impacts, photo-stimulated desorption and thermal desorption, sodium atoms are released from surface regolith. Some of these released sodium atoms are escaping from Mercury’s gravitational-sphere. They are dragged anti-Sun-ward and form a tail structure. We expect similar phenomena on exoplanets. The hot super-Earth 61 Vir b orbiting a G3V star at only 0.05 au may show a similar structure. Because of its small separation from the star, the sodium release mechanisms may be working more efficiently on hot super-Earths than on Mercury, although the strong gravitational force of Earth-sized or even more massive planets may be keeping sodium atoms from escaping from the planet. Here, we performed model simulations for Mercury (to verify our model) and 61 Vir b as a representative super-Earth. We have found that sodium atoms can escape from this exoplanet due to stellar wind sputtering and micrometeorite impacts, to form a sodium tail. However, in contrast to Mercury, the tail on this hot super-Earth is strongly aligned with the anti-starward direction because of higher light pressure. Our model suggests that 61 Vir b seems to have an exo-base atmosphere like that of Mercury.

  17. Space Weathering of Super-Earths: Model Simulations of Exospheric Sodium Escape from 61 Virgo b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, M.; Berdyugina, S.; Kuhn, J.

    2017-01-01

    Rocky exoplanets are expected to be eroded by space weather in a similar way as in the solar system. In particular, Mercury is one of the dramatically eroded planets whose material continuously escapes into its exosphere and further into space. This escape is well traced by sodium atoms scattering sunlight. Due to solar wind impact, micrometeorite impacts, photo-stimulated desorption and thermal desorption, sodium atoms are released from surface regolith. Some of these released sodium atoms are escaping from Mercury’s gravitational-sphere. They are dragged anti-Sun-ward and form a tail structure. We expect similar phenomena on exoplanets. The hot super-Earth 61 Vir b orbiting a G3V star at only 0.05 au may show a similar structure. Because of its small separation from the star, the sodium release mechanisms may be working more efficiently on hot super-Earths than on Mercury, although the strong gravitational force of Earth-sized or even more massive planets may be keeping sodium atoms from escaping from the planet. Here, we performed model simulations for Mercury (to verify our model) and 61 Vir b as a representative super-Earth. We have found that sodium atoms can escape from this exoplanet due to stellar wind sputtering and micrometeorite impacts, to form a sodium tail. However, in contrast to Mercury, the tail on this hot super-Earth is strongly aligned with the anti-starward direction because of higher light pressure. Our model suggests that 61 Vir b seems to have an exo-base atmosphere like that of Mercury.

  18. New advanced netted ground based and topside radio diagnostics for Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Krankowski, Andrzej; Morawski, Marek; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii

    2014-05-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. All they will be connected via PIONIER dedicated links to Poznan. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). They will most time work as a part of European network, however, when less charged, they can operate as a national network The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the RELEC satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. In order to improve and validate the large scales and small scales ionospheric structures we will used the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN network employed to reconstruct diurnal variations of TEC using all satellite passes over individual GPS stations and the

  19. Distributed Space Missions for Earth System Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A key addition to Springer's Space Technology Library series, this edited volume features the work of dozens of authors and offers a wealth of perspectives on distributed Earth observation missions. In sum, it is an eloquent synthesis of the fullest possible range of current approaches to a fast-developing field characterized by growing membership of the 'space club' to include nations formerly regarded as part of the Third World. The volume's four discrete sections focus on the topic's various aspects, including the key theoretical and technical issues arising from the division of payloads onto different satellites. The first is devoted to analyzing distributed synthetic aperture radars, with bi- and multi-static radars receiving separate treatment. This is followed by a full discussion of relative dynamics, guidance, navigation and control. Here, the separate topics of design; establishment, maintenance and control; and measurements are developed with relative trajectory as a reference point, while the dis...

  20. Understanding space weather to shield society: A global road map for 2015-2025 commissioned by COSPAR and ILWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Kauristie, Kirsti; Aylward, Alan D.; Denardini, Clezio M.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Glover, Alexi; Gopalswamy, Nat; Grande, Manuel; Hapgood, Mike; Heynderickx, Daniel; Jakowski, Norbert; Kalegaev, Vladimir V.; Lapenta, Giovanni; Linker, Jon A.; Liu, Siqing; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Mann, Ian R.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Nandy, Dibyendu; Obara, Takahiro; Paul O'Brien, T.; Onsager, Terrance; Opgenoorth, Hermann J.; Terkildsen, Michael; Valladares, Cesar E.; Vilmer, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing appreciation that the environmental conditions that we call space weather impact the technological infrastructure that powers the coupled economies around the world. With that comes the need to better shield society against space weather by improving forecasts, environmental specifications, and infrastructure design. We recognize that much progress has been made and continues to be made with a powerful suite of research observatories on the ground and in space, forming the basis of a Sun-Earth system observatory. But the domain of space weather is vast - extending from deep within the Sun to far outside the planetary orbits - and the physics complex - including couplings between various types of physical processes that link scales and domains from the microscopic to large parts of the solar system. Consequently, advanced understanding of space weather requires a coordinated international approach to effectively provide awareness of the processes within the Sun-Earth system through observation-driven models. This roadmap prioritizes the scientific focus areas and research infrastructure that are needed to significantly advance our understanding of space weather of all intensities and of its implications for society. Advancement of the existing system observatory through the addition of small to moderate state-of-the-art capabilities designed to fill observational gaps will enable significant advances. Such a strategy requires urgent action: key instrumentation needs to be sustained, and action needs to be taken before core capabilities are lost in the aging ensemble. We recommend advances through priority focus (1) on observation-based modeling throughout the Sun-Earth system, (2) on forecasts more than 12 h ahead of the magnetic structure of incoming coronal mass ejections, (3) on understanding the geospace response to variable solar-wind stresses that lead to intense geomagnetically-induced currents and ionospheric and radiation storms, and (4

  1. Considering space weather forces interaction on human health: the equilibrium paradigm in clinical cosmobiology - is it equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliyahu

    2015-03-01

    We are constantly affected by changes in space weather. The principal "players" are solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA) and antagonistic to them, cosmic ray activity (CRA) and high energy proton flux. CRA is measured by neutron activity on the earth's surface in imp/min. SA and GMA are linked and serve as a shield for the earth from CRA. For a long time SA and GMA were the main areas of studies. The aim of this study was to compare some effects of the mentioned forces and discuss the temporal distribution of both groups of space weather, in relation to their effects on humans. The time distribution of GMA storms (daily) was compared with quiet (low) GMA, with higher CRA (neutron activity). Space weather data were obtained from the USA, Russia and Finland. A total of 4383 days were analyzed in the years 2000-2012. A total of 71 days (1.62%) of geomagnetic storms (GS) and 2753 days (63.8%) of quiet (I0) GMA were registered. A second study was provided including the years 1983-2007 (9131 days); here 3800 days (41.62%) were quiet GMA days and 400 storm days (4.38%). According to publications in the medical literature, many phenomena are connected with the extremes of space weather. Despite a great number of publications and the significant role of GS, it is a relatively rare event and most medical emergencies and deaths occur on days of low GMA, accompanied by higher CRA (neutron activity). High neutron activity deserves more attention when analyzing space effects on human health and their mechanism of action.

  2. Space weather effects on airline communications in the high latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Alan; Siddle, Dave; Warrington, Mike; Honary, Farideh; Zaalov, Nikolay; Homam, Mariyam; Boteler, David; Danskin, Donald; de Franceschi, Georgiana; Ascaneus, Svend

    2013-04-01

    In the polar regions, ground-based VHF facilities for air-traffic control are lacking (and non-existent on the Russian side of the pole) and satellite communication systems either not available or expensive to retrofit to current aircraft and hence there remains a need for HF communication systems. Unfortunately, at these latitudes space weather can significantly affect the propagation of HF radio signals and the forecasting techniques currently employed by the airline industry are somewhat crude. In this paper, a new project that aims to provide forecasting of HF propagation characteristics for use by civilian airlines operating over polar routes will be described and preliminary results presented. Previous work in this area [e.g. Stocker et al., 2007] has focussed on taking HF signal measurements (e.g. SNR, delay and Doppler spread, and direction of arrival) on a limited number of propagation paths and developing an ionospheric model that incorporates high latitude features (e.g. polar patches and arcs) which, when combined with raytracing, allows the broad characteristics of the observations to be reproduced [Warrington et al., 2012]. The new project will greatly extend this work and consists of a number of stages. Firstly, HF measurements from an extensive network of purpose built transmitters and receivers spanning the Arctic regions will be collected and analysed. In order to test a wide variety of scenarios, the propagation paths will have different characteristics, e.g. different lengths and covering different parts of the northern ionosphere (i.e. polar cap paths where both terminals are in the polar cap, trans-auroral paths, and sub-auroral paths) and observations will be taken at a range of HF frequencies for a period covering the current (so far weak) solar maximum and part of the declining phase. Simultaneously, high latitude absorption measurements utilising the Global Riometer Array (GLORIA) will be collected and analysed. Next, the observations of

  3. Modelling natural electromagnetic interference in man-made conductors for space weather applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichtchenko, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    Power transmission lines above the ground, cables and pipelines in the ground and under the sea, and in general all man-made long grounded conductors are exposed to the variations of the natural electromagnetic field. The resulting currents in the networks (commonly named geomagnetically induced currents, GIC), are produced by the conductive and/or inductive coupling and can compromise or even disrupt system operations and, in extreme cases, cause power blackouts, railway signalling mis-operation, or interfere with pipeline corrosion protection systems. To properly model the GIC in order to mitigate their impacts it is necessary to know the frequency dependence of the response of these systems to the geomagnetic variations which naturally span a wide frequency range. For that, the general equations of the electromagnetic induction in a multi-layered infinitely long cylinder (representing cable, power line wire, rail or pipeline) embedded in uniform media have been solved utilising methods widely used in geophysics. The derived electromagnetic fields and currents include the effects of the electromagnetic properties of each layer and of the different types of the surrounding media. This exact solution then has been used to examine the electromagnetic response of particular samples of long conducting structures to the external electromagnetic wave for a wide range of frequencies. Because the exact solution has a rather complicated structure, simple approximate analytical formulas have been proposed, analysed and compared with the results from the exact model. These approximate formulas show good coincidence in the frequency range spanning from geomagnetic storms (less than mHz) to pulsations (mHz to Hz) to atmospherics (kHz) and above, and can be recommended for use in space weather applications.

  4. Storm time dynamics of auroral electrojets: CHAMP observation and the Space Weather Modeling Framework comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variations of the location and intensity of auroral currents during two magnetic storm periods based on magnetic field measurements from CHAMP separately for both hemispheres, as well as for the dayside and nightside. The corresponding auroral electrojet current densities are on average enhanced by about a factor of 7 compared to the quiet time current strengths. The nightside westward current densities are on average 1.8 (2.2 times larger than the dayside eastward current densities in the Northern (Southern Hemisphere. Both eastward and westward currents are present during the storm periods with the most intense electrojets appearing during the main phase of the storm, before the ring current maximizes in strength. The eastward and westward electrojet centers can expand to 55° MLat during intense storms, as is observed on 31 March 2001 with Dst=−387 nT. The equatorward shift of auroral currents on the dayside is closely controlled by the southward IMF, while the latitudinal variations on the nightside are better described by the variations of the Dst index. However, the equatorward and poleward motion of the nightside auroral currents occur earlier than the Dst variations. The Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF can capture the general dynamics of the storm time current variations. Both the model and the actual data show that the currents tend to saturate when the merging electric field is larger than 10 mV/m. However, the exact prediction of the temporal development of the currents is still not satisfactory.

  5. Storm time dynamics of auroral electrojets: CHAMP observation and the Space Weather Modeling Framework comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate variations of the location and intensity of auroral currents during two magnetic storm periods based on magnetic field measurements from CHAMP separately for both hemispheres, as well as for the dayside and nightside. The corresponding auroral electrojet current densities are on average enhanced by about a factor of 7 compared to the quiet time current strengths. The nightside westward current densities are on average 1.8 (2.2 times larger than the dayside eastward current densities in the Northern (Southern Hemisphere. Both eastward and westward currents are present during the storm periods with the most intense electrojets appearing during the main phase of the storm, before the ring current maximizes in strength. The eastward and westward electrojet centers can expand to 55° MLat during intense storms, as is observed on 31 March 2001 with Dst=−387 nT. The equatorward shift of auroral currents on the dayside is closely controlled by the southward IMF, while the latitudinal variations on the nightside are better described by the variations of the Dst index. However, the equatorward and poleward motion of the nightside auroral currents occur earlier than the Dst variations. The Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF can capture the general dynamics of the storm time current variations. Both the model and the actual data show that the currents tend to saturate when the merging electric field is larger than 10 mV/m. However, the exact prediction of the temporal development of the currents is still not satisfactory.

  6. Ensemble downscaling in coupled solar wind-magnetosphere modeling for space weather forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M J; Horbury, T S; Wicks, R T; McGregor, S L; Savani, N P; Xiong, M

    2014-06-01

    Advanced forecasting of space weather requires simulation of the whole Sun-to-Earth system, which necessitates driving magnetospheric models with the outputs from solar wind models. This presents a fundamental difficulty, as the magnetosphere is sensitive to both large-scale solar wind structures, which can be captured by solar wind models, and small-scale solar wind "noise," which is far below typical solar wind model resolution and results primarily from stochastic processes. Following similar approaches in terrestrial climate modeling, we propose statistical "downscaling" of solar wind model results prior to their use as input to a magnetospheric model. As magnetospheric response can be highly nonlinear, this is preferable to downscaling the results of magnetospheric modeling. To demonstrate the benefit of this approach, we first approximate solar wind model output by smoothing solar wind observations with an 8 h filter, then add small-scale structure back in through the addition of random noise with the observed spectral characteristics. Here we use a very simple parameterization of noise based upon the observed probability distribution functions of solar wind parameters, but more sophisticated methods will be developed in the future. An ensemble of results from the simple downscaling scheme are tested using a model-independent method and shown to add value to the magnetospheric forecast, both improving the best estimate and quantifying the uncertainty. We suggest a number of features desirable in an operational solar wind downscaling scheme. Solar wind models must be downscaled in order to drive magnetospheric models Ensemble downscaling is more effective than deterministic downscaling The magnetosphere responds nonlinearly to small-scale solar wind fluctuations.

  7. Dropouts, spreading, and squeezing of solar particle distributions and space weather variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Seripienlert, A.; Tooprakai, P.; Chuychai, P.

    2015-12-01

    In the past 15 years, observations and theories concerning dropouts of solar energetic particles have made it clear that the lateral spread of field lines and particles from a given location near the Sun is not a purely diffusive process. Particles of low energy from impulsive solar events exhibit abrupt changes in flux (dropouts) due to filamentation of magnetic connection from the Sun, indicating that magnetic flux tube-like structures at least partially persist to Earth orbit. Our simulations based on a corresponding spherical two-component model of Alfvénic (slab) and 2D magnetic fluctuations indicate that such particles mostly follow field lines, which spread over ˜25° at Earth orbit, and exhibit dropout features. On the other hand, gradual solar events are of practical interest because they can produce greatly enhanced high-energy ion fluxes, which can cause radiation damage to satellites, spacecraft, and astronauts. While gradual events do not exhibit dropouts in the above sense, we show that the distribution of high-energy (E≥1 GeV) protons is squeezed toward magnetic flux tube-like structures with a specific polarity due to the structures' conical shape. Since it is difficult to observationally determine what polarity of flux structure the Earth is in at a given time, this transport phenomenon contributes to event-to-event variability in ground level enhancements of GeV-range ions from solar storms, presenting a fundamental uncertainty in space weather prediction. Partially supported by the Thailand Research Fund (Grant BRG5880009), a Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, a Research Fellowship from the Faculty of Science at Mahidol University, the U.S. NSF (AGS-1063439 and SHINE AGS-1156094), NASA (Heliophysics Theory NNX14AI63G, and LWS NNX15AB88G), and the Solar Probe Plus/ISIS project (D99031L).

  8. Problems at the Leading Edge of Space Weathering as Revealed by TEM Combined with Surface Science Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Both transmission electron micros-copy (TEM) and surface analysis techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were instrumen-tal in making the first characterizations of material generated by space weathering in lunar samples [1,2]. Without them, the nature of nanophase metallic Fe (npFe0) correlated with the surface of lunar regolith grains would have taken much longer to become rec-ognized and understood. Our groups at JSC and UVa have been using both techniques in a cross-correlated way to investigate how the solar wind contributes to space weathering [e.g., 3]. These efforts have identified a number of ongoing problems and knowledge gaps. Key insights made by UVa group leader Raul Barag-iola during this work are gratefully remembered.

  9. Assessment of the Space Weather Effect on Human Health in the Arctic Zone Using the Example of Tiksi Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena A. Strekalovskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the space weather effect on the well-being and health of people with cardiovascular pathology in Arctic conditions, we carried out the processing and analysis of space weather parameters and the electronic database of patients with cardiovascular diseases at the Central District Hospital in Tiksi settlement (the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia (RS(Y. Patients visited the polyclinic or requested an ambulance because their health had deteriorated. As a result of our research, we found some conjunctions of trends in the change in geomagnetic disturbances (Kp-index and the number of patients' visits to medical institutions for arterial hypertension (AH in 2015, 2016 and 2017. It can therefore be concluded that geomagnetic disturbances have an impact on the cardiovascular system of a person living at high latitudes.

  10. Free Space Optics – Monitoring Setup for Experimental Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Tóth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with advanced Free Space Optics communication technology. Two FSO nodes are needed in order to make a connection. Laser diodes are used as light sources. Simple OOK modulation is involved in this technology. FSO system offers multiple advantages indeed. However, a direct visibility is required in order to set up a communication link. This fact yields perhaps the most significant weakness of this technology. Obviously, there is no a chance to fight the weather phenomena like fog, heavy rain, dust and many other particles which are naturally present in the atmosphere. That’s why there is a key task to find a suitable solution to keep FSO link working with high reliability and availability. It turns out that it’s necessary to have knowledge about weather situation when FSO link operates (liquid water content - LWC, geographical location, particle size distribution, average particle diameter, temperature, humidity, wind conditions, pressure and many other variable weather parameters. It’s obvious that having most of mentioned parameter’s values stored in database (implicitly in charts would be really beneficial. This paper presents some of mentioned indicators continuously gathered from several sensors located close to one of FSO nodes.

  11. Physics-based Space Weather Forecasting in the Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, K.

    2016-12-01

    Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP) is a Japanese nation-wide research collaboration, which was recently launched. PSTEP aims to develop a synergistic interaction between predictive and scientific studies of the solar-terrestrial environment and to establish the basis for next-generation space weather forecasting using the state-of-the-art observation systems and the physics-based models. For this project, we coordinate the four research groups, which develop (1) the integration of space weather forecast system, (2) the physics-based solar storm prediction, (3) the predictive models of magnetosphere and ionosphere dynamics, and (4) the model of solar cycle activity and its impact on climate, respectively. In this project, we will build the coordinated physics-based model to answer the fundamental questions concerning the onset of solar eruptions and the mechanism for radiation belt dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. In this paper, we will show the strategy of PSTEP, and discuss about the role and prospect of the physics-based space weather forecasting system being developed by PSTEP.

  12. Testing Realistic Disaster Scenarios for Space Weather: The Economic Impacts of Electricity Transmission Infrastructure Failure in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M.; Oughton, E. J.; Hapgood, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The socio-economic impacts of space weather have been under-researched, despite this threat featuring on the UK's National Risk Register. In this paper, a range of Realistic Disaster Scenarios due to failure in electricity transmission infrastructure are tested. We use regional Geomagnetically Induced Current (GIC) studies to identify areas in the UK high-voltage power system deemed to be high-risk. The potential level of disruption arising from a large geomagnetic disturbance in these `hot spots' on local economic activity is explored. Electricity is a necessary factor of production without which businesses cannot operate, so even short term power loss can cause significant loss of value. We utilise a spatially disaggregated approach that focuses on quantifying employment disruption by industrial sector, and relating this to direct Gross Value Added loss. We then aggregate this direct loss into a set of shocks to undertake macroeconomic modelling of different scenarios, to obtain the total economic impact which includes both direct and indirect supply chain disruption effects. These results are reported for a range of temporal periods, with the minimum increment being a one-hour blackout. This work furthers our understanding of the economic impacts of space weather, and can inform future reviews of the UK's National Risk Register. The key contribution of the paper is that the results can be used in the future cost-benefit analysis of investment in space weather forecasting.

  13. Atmosphere and water quality monitoring on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, William

    1990-01-01

    In Space Station Freedom air and water will be supplied in closed loop systems. The monitoring of air and water qualities will ensure the crew health for the long mission duration. The Atmosphere Composition Monitor consists of the following major instruments: (1) a single focusing mass spectrometer to monitor major air constituents and control the oxygen/nitrogen addition for the Space Station; (2) a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to detect trace contaminants; (3) a non-dispersive infrared spectrometer to determine carbon monoxide concentration; and (4) a laser particle counter for measuring particulates in the air. An overview of the design and development concepts for the air and water quality monitors is presented.

  14. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  15. The Equatorial Scintillations and Space Weather Effects on its Generation during Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktash, Lilia

    Great diversity of the ionospheric phenomena leads to a variety of irregularity types with spatial size from many thousands of kilometers to few centimeters and lifetimes from days to fractions of second. Since the ionosphere strongly influences the propagation of radio waves, signal distortions caused by these irregularities affect short-wave transmissions on Earth, transiono-spheric satellite communications and navigation. In this work the solar wind and the equatorial ionosphere parameters, Kp, Dst, AU, AL indices characterized contribution of different mag-netospheric and ionospheric currents to the H-component of geomagnetic field are examined to test the space weather effect on the generation of ionospheric irregularities producing VLF scintillations. According to the results of the current statistical studies, one can predict scintil-lations from Aarons' criteria using the Dst index, which mainly depicts the magnetospheric ring current field. To amplify Aarons' criteria or to propose new criteria for predicting scintillation characteristics is the question. In the present phase of the experimental investigations of elec-tron density irregularities in the ionosphere new ways are opened up because observations in the interaction between the solar wind -magnetosphere -ionosphere during magnetic storms have progressed greatly. We have examined scintillation relation to magnetospheric and ionospheric currents and show that the factor, which presents during magnetic storms to fully inhibit scin-tillation, is the positive Bz-component of the IMF. During the positive Bz IMF F layer cannot raise altitude where scintillations are formed. The auroral indices and Kp do better for the prediction of the ionospheric scintillations at the equator. The interplanetary magnetic field data and models can be used to explain the relationship between the equatorial ionospheric parameters, h'F, foF2, and the equatorial geomagnetic variations with the polar ionosphere cur-rents and

  16. Equatorial secondary cosmic ray observatory to study space weather and terrestrial events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichare, Geeta; Bhaskar, Ankush; Datar, Gauri; Raghav, Anil; Nair, K. U.; Selvaraj, C.; Ananthi, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Paranjape, M.; Gawade, T.; Anil Kumar, C. P.; Panneerselvam, C.; Sathishkumar, S.; Gurubaran, S.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, equatorial secondary cosmic ray observatory has been established at Equatorial Geophysical Research Laboratory (EGRL), Tirunelveli, (Geographic Coordinates: 8.71°N, 77.76°E), to study secondary cosmic rays (SCR) produced due to the interaction of primary cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. EGRL is a regional center of Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (IIG), located near the equator in the Southern part of India. Two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors are installed inside the temperature controlled environment. One detector is cylindrical in shape of size 7.62 cm × 7.62 cm and another one is rectangular cuboid of 10.16 cm × 10.16 cm × 40.64 cm size. Besides NaI(Tl) detectors, various other research facilities such as the Geomagnetic observatory, Medium Frequency Radar System, Digital Ionosonde, All-sky airglow imager, Atmospheric electricity laboratory to measure the near-Earth atmospheric electric fields are also available at EGRL. With the accessibility of multi- instrument facilities, the objective is set to understand the relationship between SCR and various atmospheric and ionospheric processes, during space weather and terrestrial events. For gamma-ray spectroscopy, it is important to test the performance of the NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors and to calibrate the gamma-ray spectrum in terms of energy. The present article describes the details of the experimental setup installed near the equator to study cosmic rays, along with the performance testing and calibration of the detectors under various conditions. A systematic shift in the gain is observed with varying temperature of the detector system. It is found that the detector's response to the variations in the temperature is not just linear or non-linear type, but it depends on the history of the variation, indicating temperature hysteresis effects on NaI detector and PMT system. This signifies the importance of isothermal environment while studying SCR flux using NaI(Tl) detectors

  17. Frost Monitoring and Forecasting Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and a Numerical Weather Prediction Model Forecasts for Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuchanga, Eric; Flores, Africa; Malaso, Susan; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Shaka, Ayub; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Frost is a major challenge across Eastern Africa, severely impacting agricultural farms. Frost damages have wide ranging economic implications on tea and coffee farms, which represent a major economic sector. Early monitoring and forecasting will enable farmers to take preventive actions to minimize the losses. Although clearly important, timely information on when to protect crops from freezing is relatively limited. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data, derived from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and 72-hr weather forecasts from the Kenya Meteorological Service's operational Weather Research Forecast model are enabling the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to provide timely information to farmers in the region. This presentation will highlight an ongoing collaboration among the Kenya Meteorological Service, RCMRD, and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to identify frost events and provide farmers with potential frost forecasts in Eastern Africa.

  18. Modelling of 10 Gbps Free Space Optics Communication Link Using Array of Receivers in Moderate and Harsh Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Shaina, Nagpal

    2017-08-01

    Intersymbol interference and attenuation of signal are two major parameters affecting the quality of transmission in Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication link. In this paper, the impact of these parameters on FSO communication link is analysed for delivering high-quality data transmission. The performance of the link is investigated under the influence of amplifier in the link. The performance parameters of the link like minimum bit error rate, received signal power and Quality factor are examined by employing erbium-doped fibre amplifier in the link. The effects of amplifier are visualized with the amount of received power. Further, the link is simulated for moderate weather conditions at various attenuation levels on transmitted signal. Finally, the designed link is analysed in adverse weather conditions by using high-power laser source for optimum performance.

  19. A Sounding-based Severe Weather Tool to Support Daily Operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H.; Roeder, William P.

    2014-01-01

    People and property at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) are at risk when severe weather occurs. Strong winds, hail and tornadoes can injure individuals and cause costly damage to structures if not properly protected. NASA's Launch Services Program and Ground Systems Development and Operations Program and other KSC programs use the daily and weekly severe weather forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) to determine if they need to limit an activity such as working on gantries, or protect property such as a vehicle on a pad. The 45 WS requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a warm season (May-September) severe weather tool for use in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) based on the late morning, 1500 UTC (1100 local time), CCAFS (XMR) sounding. The 45 WS frequently makes decisions to issue a severe weather watch and other severe weather warning support products to NASA and the 45th Space Wing in the late morning, after the 1500 UTC sounding. The results of this work indicate that certain stability indices based on the late morning XMR soundings can depict differences between days with reported severe weather and days with no reported severe weather. The AMU determined a frequency of reported severe weather for the stability indices and implemented an operational tool in MIDDS.

  20. Environmental monitors in the Midcourse Space Experiments (MSX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) is an SDIO sponsored space based sensor experiment with a full complement of optical sensors. Because of the possible deleterious effect of both molecular and particulate contamination on these sensors, a suite of environmental monitoring instruments are also being flown with the spacecraft. These instruments are the Total Pressure Sensor based on the cold-cathode gauge, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a Bennett-type ion mass spectrometer, a cryogenic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), four temperature-controlled QCM's, and a Xenon and Krypton Flash Lamp Experiment. These instruments have been fully space-qualified, are compact and low cost, and are possible candidate sensors for near-term planetary and atmospheric monitoring. The philosophy adopted during design and fabrication, calibration and ground testing, and modeling will be discussed .

  1. Electromagnetic weather in the near-earth space in dependence on solar wind parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, B.A.; Burtsev, Yu.A.; Dremukhina, L.A.; Papitashvili, V.O.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of modern models of electrical and magnetic fields, electrical current and plasma convection is carried out with the purpose of quantitative description of the near-earth electrodynamic parameters. Possibility of utilizing such models simultaneously with radar and geomagnetic observations for continuous real time control of electromagnetic weather in the earth magnetosphere is considered. Refs. 24, refs. 3

  2. The Nature of Mercury's Hollows, and Space Weathering Close to the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, D. T.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.

    2018-05-01

    Hollows are a landform that appear to form by loss of a volatile-bearing phase from silicate rock. Hollows are very young and are likely to be forming in the present day. Hollows may be an analog for extreme weathering on near-Sun asteroids.

  3. Exploring the future change space for fire weather in southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Hamish; Evans, Jason P.

    2018-05-01

    High-resolution projections of climate change impacts on fire weather conditions in southeast Australia out to 2080 are presented. Fire weather is represented by the McArthur Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI), calculated from an objectively designed regional climate model ensemble. Changes in annual cumulative FFDI vary widely, from - 337 (- 21%) to + 657 (+ 24%) in coastal areas and - 237 (- 12%) to + 1143 (+ 26%) in inland areas. A similar spread is projected in extreme FFDI values. In coastal regions, the number of prescribed burning days is projected to change from - 11 to + 10 in autumn and - 10 to + 3 in spring. Across the ensemble, the most significant increases in fire weather and decreases in prescribed burn windows are projected to take place in spring. Partial bias correction of FFDI leads to similar projections but with a greater spread, particularly in extreme values. The partially bias-corrected FFDI performs similarly to uncorrected FFDI compared to the observed annual cumulative FFDI (ensemble root mean square error spans 540 to 1583 for uncorrected output and 695 to 1398 for corrected) but is generally worse for FFDI values above 50. This emphasizes the need to consider inter-variable relationships when bias-correcting for complex phenomena such as fire weather. There is considerable uncertainty in the future trajectory of fire weather in southeast Australia, including the potential for less prescribed burning days and substantially greater fire danger in spring. Selecting climate models on the basis of multiple criteria can lead to more informative projections and allow an explicit exploration of uncertainty.

  4. Space weather and the Earth ionosphere from auroral zone to equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktash, L.

    2007-08-01

    Space weather conditions, geomagnetic variations, virtual ionospheric height and the critical frequency foF2 data during the geomagnetic storms are studied to demonstrate relationships between these phenomena. We examine the solar wind conditions and the auroral equatorial ionosphere response to illustrate what kind of solar wind parameters during the geomagnetic storms leads to short-term variations of the critical frequency foF2 and virtual height at the Earth ionosphere from the auroral zone to the equator. Model simulations as disturbed ionospheric wind dynamo do not allow explaining a significant part of the experimental data. Additional investigations of the ionospheric characteristics are required to clear up the origin of the short-term equatorial ionospheric variations. The critical frequency foF2 and virtual heights observed by the ionosondes are good indicators of the true layer heights and electron concentration and may provide information about the equatorial ionosphere dynamics. Intensive magnetospheric and ionospheric currents during geomagnetic storms disturb the quiet ionosphere and cause the observed short-term variations of the ionospheric characteristics. The ionosheric wind dynamo is considered as an important and the main mechanism in generation of ionospheric electric currents and fields. The disturbed ionospheric wind dynamo can be the generator of the equatorial ionospheric electric currents during geomagnetic storms in the aftermath of strong auroral heating. The magnetospheric electric field directly penetrating into the low-latitude ionosphere can be another source of electric field. During disturbed space weather conditions magnetospheric electric fields disturb the auroral ionosphere forming auroral electrojets and by the high-latitude electric field and termospheric disturbances can penetrate to the equatorial ionosphere. That is the reason the equatorial ionospheric electric field variations like geomagnetic variations are complex

  5. Comparison of EISCAT and ionosonde electron densities: application to a ground-based ionospheric segment of a space weather programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lilensten

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Space weather applications require real-time data and wide area observations from both ground- and space-based instrumentation. From space, the global navigation satellite system - GPS - is an important tool. From the ground the incoherent scatter (IS radar technique permits a direct measurement up to the topside region, while ionosondes give good measurements of the lower part of the ionosphere. An important issue is the intercalibration of these various instruments. In this paper, we address the intercomparison of the EISCAT IS radar and two ionosondes located at Tromsø (Norway, at times when GPS measurements were also available. We show that even EISCAT data calibrated using ionosonde data can lead to different values of total electron content (TEC when compared to that obtained from GPS.

  6. Possible links between extreme levels of space weather changes and human health state in middle latitudes: direct and indirect indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin

    The Sun is the main driver of space weather. The possibility that solar activity variations and related changes in the Earth's magnetosphere can affect human life and health has been debated for many decades. This problem is being studied extensively in the late 20th and early 21st centuries and it is still being contradictory in some cases. The relations between space weather changes and the human health have global implications, but they are especially significant for habitants living at high geomagnetic latitudes where the geomagnetic disturbances have larger amplitudes. Nevertheless, the relevant researches are also important for humans living at any geomagnetic latitudes with different levels of geomagnetic activity; recent researches show that weak geomagnetic disturbances can also have adverse effects. Unfortunately, limited comparison of results of investigations on possible effects to humans from geomagnetic activity exists between studies conducted in high, middle and low latitudes. Knowledge about the relationship between solar and geomagnetic activity and the human health would allow to get better prepared beforehand for any future geomagnetic event and its impacts anywhere. For these purposes there are conducted collaborative (jointly with scientists from Israel, Bulgaria, Russia and Belgium) and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences for revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems in different phases of solar cycle 23. This paper describes some recently obtained results of the complex (theoretical, experimental and statistical) studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray activities upon human cardio-health state as well as human physiological and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe

  7. Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS – a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferencz Csaba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service (http://popdat.cbk.waw.pl offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

  8. Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) - a problem-oriented tool in ionosphere and Space Weather research produced by POPDAT project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferencz, Csaba; Lizunov, Georgii; Crespon, François; Price, Ivan; Bankov, Ludmil; Przepiórka, Dorota; Brieß, Klaus; Dudkin, Denis; Girenko, Andrey; Korepanov, Valery; Kuzmych, Andrii; Skorokhod, Tetiana; Marinov, Pencho; Piankova, Olena; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Shtus, Tetyana; Steinbach, Péter; Lichtenberger, János; Sterenharz, Arnold; Vassileva, Any

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service (IWS) has been developed and opened for public access by ionosphere experts. IWS is forming a database, derived from archived ionospheric wave records to assist the ionosphere and Space Weather research, and to answer the following questions: How can the data of earlier ionospheric missions be reprocessed with current algorithms to gain more profitable results? How could the scientific community be provided with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a specific and unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogs that characterize a huge number of recorded occurrences of Whistler-like Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena, Atmosphere Gravity Waves, and Traveling Ionosphere Disturbances. IWS online service (http://popdat.cbk.waw.pl) offers end users to query optional set of predefined wave phenomena, their detailed characteristics. These were collected by target specific event detection algorithms in selected satellite records during database buildup phase. Result of performed wave processing thus represents useful information on statistical or comparative investigations of wave types, listed in a detailed catalog of ionospheric wave phenomena. The IWS provides wave event characteristics, extracted by specific software systems from data records of the selected satellite missions. The end-user can access targets by making specific searches and use statistical modules within the service in their field of interest. Therefore the IWS opens a new way in ionosphere and Space Weather research. The scientific applications covered by IWS concern beyond Space Weather also other fields like earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations.

  9. The capacity of radar, crowdsourced personal weather stations and commercial microwave links to monitor small scale urban rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijlenhoet, R.; de Vos, L. W.; Leijnse, H.; Overeem, A.; Raupach, T. H.; Berne, A.

    2017-12-01

    For the purpose of urban rainfall monitoring high resolution rainfall measurements are desirable. Typically C-band radar can provide rainfall intensities at km grid cells every 5 minutes. Opportunistic sensing with commercial microwave links yields rainfall intensities over link paths within cities. Additionally, recent developments have made it possible to obtain large amounts of urban in situ measurements from weather amateurs in near real-time. With a known high resolution simulated rainfall event the accuracy of these three techniques is evaluated, taking into account their respective existing layouts and sampling methods. Under ideal measurement conditions, the weather station networks proves to be most promising. For accurate estimation with radar, an appropriate choice for Z-R relationship is vital. Though both the microwave links and the weather station networks are quite dense, both techniques will underestimate rainfall if not at least one link path / station captures the high intensity rainfall peak. The accuracy of each technique improves when considering rainfall at larger scales, especially by increasing time intervals, with the steepest improvements found in microwave links.

  10. Anomalous effects of radioactive decay rates and capacitance values measured inside a modified Faraday cage: Correlations with space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholkmann, F.; Milián-Sánchez, V.; Mocholí-Salcedo, A.; Milián, C.; Kolombet, V. A.; Verdú, G.

    2017-03-01

    Recently we reported (Milián-Sánchez V. et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A, 828 (2016) 210) our experimental results involving 226Ra decay rate and capacitance measurements inside a modified Faraday cage. Our measurements exhibited anomalous effects of unknown origin. In this letter we report new results regarding our investigation into the origins of the observed effects. We report preliminary findings of a correlation analysis between the radioactive decay rates and capacitance time series and space weather related variables (geomagnetic field disturbances and cosmic-ray neutron counts). A significant correlation was observed for specific data sets. The results are presented and possible implications for future work discussed.

  11. Approach to Integrate Global-Sun Models of Magnetic Flux Emergence and Transport for Space Weather Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nagi N.; Wray, Alan A.; Mehrotra, Piyush; Henney, Carl; Arge, Nick; Godinez, H.; Manchester, Ward; Koller, J.; Kosovichev, A.; Scherrer, P.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Sun lies at the center of space weather and is the source of its variability. The primary input to coronal and solar wind models is the activity of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere. Recent advancements in solar observations and numerical simulations provide a basis for developing physics-based models for the dynamics of the magnetic field from the deep convection zone of the Sun to the corona with the goal of providing robust near real-time boundary conditions at the base of space weather forecast models. The goal is to develop new strategic capabilities that enable characterization and prediction of the magnetic field structure and flow dynamics of the Sun by assimilating data from helioseismology and magnetic field observations into physics-based realistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. The integration of first-principle modeling of solar magnetism and flow dynamics with real-time observational data via advanced data assimilation methods is a new, transformative step in space weather research and prediction. This approach will substantially enhance an existing model of magnetic flux distribution and transport developed by the Air Force Research Lab. The development plan is to use the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to develop Coupled Models for Emerging flux Simulations (CMES) that couples three existing models: (1) an MHD formulation with the anelastic approximation to simulate the deep convection zone (FSAM code), (2) an MHD formulation with full compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a detailed description of radiative transfer and thermodynamics to simulate near-surface convection and the photosphere (Stagger code), and (3) an MHD formulation with full, compressible Navier-Stokes equations and an approximate description of radiative transfer and heating to simulate the corona (Module in BATS-R-US). CMES will enable simulations of the emergence of magnetic structures from the deep convection zone to the corona. Finally, a plan

  12. Algorithms for the mitigation of space weather threats at low latitudes, contributing to the extension of EGNOS over Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forte, B.; Da Dalt, F.; Panicciari, T.

    GNSS is already a technology that pervades modern lifestyles and over the last decade has become integral to many of our transport systems. One of the major barriers to the development of GNSS for safety-critical services such as aviation comes from the unknown threats from Space Weather.In order...... of the function of an SBAS system is to map 2the ionised regions of the upper atmosphere (the ionosphere) to enable specialist aviation GNSS receivers to make corrections for the ionospheric delay and hence to achieve a more accurate position. This is very important but more critical still is the capability...

  13. A new system to quantify uncertainties in LEO satellite position determination due to space weather events

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new system for quantitative assessment of uncertainties in LEO satellite position caused by storm time changes in space environmental...

  14. General Purpose Data-Driven Monitoring for Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, David L.; Martin, Rodney A.; Schwabacher, Mark A.; Spirkovska, Liljana; Taylor, William McCaa; Castle, Joseph P.; Mackey, Ryan M.

    2009-01-01

    As modern space propulsion and exploration systems improve in capability and efficiency, their designs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Determining the health state of these systems, using traditional parameter limit checking, model-based, or rule-based methods, is becoming more difficult as the number of sensors and component interactions grow. Data-driven monitoring techniques have been developed to address these issues by analyzing system operations data to automatically characterize normal system behavior. System health can be monitored by comparing real-time operating data with these nominal characterizations, providing detection of anomalous data signatures indicative of system faults or failures. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a data-driven system health monitoring software tool that has been successfully applied to several aerospace applications. IMS uses a data mining technique called clustering to analyze archived system data and characterize normal interactions between parameters. The scope of IMS based data-driven monitoring applications continues to expand with current development activities. Successful IMS deployment in the International Space Station (ISS) flight control room to monitor ISS attitude control systems has led to applications in other ISS flight control disciplines, such as thermal control. It has also generated interest in data-driven monitoring capability for Constellation, NASA's program to replace the Space Shuttle with new launch vehicles and spacecraft capable of returning astronauts to the moon, and then on to Mars. Several projects are currently underway to evaluate and mature the IMS technology and complementary tools for use in the Constellation program. These include an experiment on board the Air Force TacSat-3 satellite, and ground systems monitoring for NASA's Ares I-X and Ares I launch vehicles. The TacSat-3 Vehicle System Management (TVSM) project is a software experiment to integrate fault

  15. Seawater and Detrital Marine Pb Isotopes as Monitors of Antarctic Weathering Following Ice Sheet Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, C.; Martin, E. E.; Basak, C.

    2011-12-01

    Comparisons of seawater and detrital Pb isotopes from sites proximal to Antarctica at the Eocene/Oligocene transition (EOT) are being used to understand variations in continental weathering associated with the development of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Previous work has shown that seawater and detrital archives yield similar isotopic values during Eocene warmth, which is interpreted to record congruent chemical weathering of the continent. In contrast, distinct isotopic values for the two phases at the EOT represents increased incongruent mechanical weathering during growth of the ice sheet. For this study we expanded beyond the initial glaciation at the EOT to determine whether less dramatic changes in ice volume and climate also produce variations in weathering and intensity that are recorded by seawater and detrital Pb isotopes. We collected Nd and Pb isotope data from extractions of Fe-Mn oxide coatings of bulk decarbonated marine sediments, which preserve seawater isotopic values, and from complete dissolutions of the remaining silicate fraction for Ocean Drilling Program Site 748 on Kerguelen Plateau (1300 m modern water depth). The data spans an interval of deglaciation from ~23.5-27 Ma documented by δ18O that has been equated to a ~30% decrease in ice volume on Antarctica (Pekar and Christie-Blick, 2008, Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol.). Initial results from Site 748 include the first ɛNd values for intermediate waters in the Oligocene Southern Ocean and reveal a value of ~-8 over the entire 3.5 my interval, which is consistent with values reported for deep Indian Ocean sites at this time and similar to deeper Southern Ocean sites. Corresponding detrital ɛNd values are less radiogenic and decrease from -9 to -13 during the study interval. Detrital 206Pb/204Pb values also decrease during the warming interval, while seawater 206Pb/204Pb values increase. The decrease in detrital values indicates the composition of source materials entering

  16. Influence of local calibration on the quality of online wet weather discharge monitoring: feedback from five international case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradot, Nicolas; Sonnenberg, Hauke; Rouault, Pascale; Gruber, Günter; Hofer, Thomas; Torres, Andres; Pesci, Maria; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports about experiences gathered from five online monitoring campaigns in the sewer systems of Berlin (Germany), Graz (Austria), Lyon (France) and Bogota (Colombia) using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrometers and turbidimeters. Online probes are useful for the measurement of highly dynamic processes, e.g. combined sewer overflows (CSO), storm events, and river impacts. The influence of local calibration on the quality of online chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements of wet weather discharges has been assessed. Results underline the need to establish local calibration functions for both UV-VIS spectrometers and turbidimeters. It is suggested that practitioners calibrate locally their probes using at least 15-20 samples. However, these samples should be collected over several events and cover most of the natural variability of the measured concentration. For this reason, the use of automatic peristaltic samplers in parallel to online monitoring is recommended with short representative sampling campaigns during wet weather discharges. Using reliable calibration functions, COD loads of CSO and storm events can be estimated with a relative uncertainty of approximately 20%. If no local calibration is established, concentrations and loads are estimated with a high error rate, questioning the reliability and meaning of the online measurement. Similar results have been obtained for total suspended solids measurements.

  17. Simulation of the 23 July 2012 Extreme Space Weather Event: What if This Extremely Rare CME Was Earth Directed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Mays, M. Leila; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, Kristin; Baker, Daniel N.; Li, Xinlin; Zheng, Yihua; Glocer, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Extreme space weather events are known to cause adverse impacts on critical modern day technological infrastructure such as high-voltage electric power transmission grids. On 23 July 2012, NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead (STEREO-A) spacecraft observed in situ an extremely fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that traveled 0.96 astronomical units (approx. 1 AU) in about 19 h. Here we use the SpaceWeather Modeling Framework (SWMF) to perform a simulation of this rare CME.We consider STEREO-A in situ observations to represent the upstream L1 solar wind boundary conditions. The goal of this study is to examine what would have happened if this Rare-type CME was Earth-bound. Global SWMF-generated ground geomagnetic field perturbations are used to compute the simulated induced geoelectric field at specific ground-based active INTERMAGNET magnetometer sites. Simulation results show that while modeled global SYM-H index, a high-resolution equivalent of the Dst index, was comparable to previously observed severe geomagnetic storms such as the Halloween 2003 storm, the 23 July CME would have produced some of the largest geomagnetically induced electric fields, making it very geoeffective. These results have important practical applications for risk management of electrical power grids.

  18. Space weather events in July 1982 and October 2003 and the effects of geomagnetically induced currents on Swedish technical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse in detail two famous space weather events; a railway problem on 13–14 July 1982 and a power blackout on 30 October 2003. Both occurred in Sweden during very intensive space weather storms and each of them a few years after the sunspot maximum. This paper provides a description of the conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind leading to the two GIC events on the ground. By applying modelling techniques introduced and developed in our previous paper, we also calculate the horizontal geoelectric field at the Earth's surface in southern Sweden during the two storms as well as GIC flowing in the southern Swedish 400 kV power grid during the event in October 2003. The results from the calculations agree with all measured data available. In the July-1982 storm, the geomagnetic field variation, ΔBx, reached values up to ~2500 nT/min and the geoelectric field reached values in the order of several volts per kilometer. In the October-2003 storm, the geomagnetic field fluctuations were smaller. However, GIC of some hundreds of amperes flowed in the power grid during the October-2003 event. Technological issues related to the railway signalling in July 1982 and to the power network equipment in October 2003 are also discussed.

  19. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions

  20. Quantifying the VNIR Effects of Nanophase Iron Generated through the Space Weathering of Silicates: Reconciling Modeled Data with Laboratory Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legett, C., IV; Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weathering is a diverse set of processes that occur on the surfaces of airless bodies due to exposure to the space environment. One of the effects of space weathering is the generation of nanophase iron particles in glassy rims on mineral grains due to sputtering of iron-bearing minerals. These particles have a size-dependent effect on visible and near infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with smaller diameter particles (behavior), while larger particles (> 300 nm) darken without reddening. Between these two sizes, a gradual shift between these two behaviors occurs. In this work, we present results from the Multiple Sphere T-Matrix (MSTM) scattering model in combination with Hapke theory to explore the particle size and iron content parameter spaces with respect to VNIR (700-1700 nm) spectral slope. Previous work has shown that the MSTM-Hapke hybrid model offers improvements over Mie-Hapke models. Virtual particles are constructed out of an arbitrary number of spheres, and each sphere is assigned a refractive index and extinction coefficient for each wavelength of interest. The model then directly solves Maxwell's Equations at every wave-particle interface to predict the scattering, extinction and absorption efficiencies. These are then put into a simplified Hapke bidirectional reflectance model that yields a predicted reflectance. Preliminary results show an area of maximum slopes for iron particle diameters planned to better refine the extent of this region. Companion laboratory work using mixtures of powdered aerogel and nanophase iron particles provides a point of comparison to modeling efforts. The effects on reflectance and emissivity values due to particle size in a nearly ideal scatterer (aerogel) are also observed with comparisons to model data.

  1. Developing Dual Polarization Applications For 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) New Weather Radar: A Cooperative Project With The National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, W.P.; Peterson, W.A.; Carey, L.D.; Deierling, W.; McNamara, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new weather radar is being acquired for use in support of America s space program at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA Kennedy Space Center, and Patrick AFB on the east coast of central Florida. This new radar includes dual polarization capability, which has not been available to 45 WS previously. The 45 WS has teamed with NSSTC with funding from NASA Marshall Spaceflight Flight Center to improve their use of this new dual polarization capability when it is implemented operationally. The project goals include developing a temperature profile adaptive scan strategy, developing training materials, and developing forecast techniques and tools using dual polarization products. The temperature profile adaptive scan strategy will provide the scan angles that provide the optimal compromise between volume scan rate, vertical resolution, phenomena detection, data quality, and reduced cone-of-silence for the 45 WS mission. The mission requirements include outstanding detection of low level boundaries for thunderstorm prediction, excellent vertical resolution in the atmosphere electrification layer between 0 C and -20 C for lightning forecasting and Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, good detection of anvil clouds for Lightning Launch Commit Criteria evaluation, reduced cone-of-silence, fast volume scans, and many samples per pulse for good data quality. The training materials will emphasize the appropriate applications most important to the 45 WS mission. These include forecasting the onset and cessation of lightning, forecasting convective winds, and hopefully the inference of electrical fields in clouds. The training materials will focus on annotated radar imagery based on products available to the 45 WS. Other examples will include time sequenced radar products without annotation to simulate radar operations. This will reinforce the forecast concepts and also allow testing of the forecasters. The new dual polarization techniques and tools will focus on

  2. Challenges in Teaching Space Physics to Different Target Groups From Space Weather Forecasters to Heavy-weight Theorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plasma physics as the backbone of space physics is difficult and thus the space physics students need to have strong foundations in general physics, in particular in classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, and master the basic mathematical tools for physicists. In many universities the number of students specializing in space physics at Master's and Doctoral levels is rather small and the students may have quite different preferences ranging from experimental approach to hard-core space plasma theory. This poses challenges in building up a study program that has both the variety and depth needed to motivate the best students to choose this field. At the University of Helsinki we require all beginning space physics students, regardless whether they enter the field as Master's or Doctoral degree students, to take a one-semester package consisting of plasma physics and its space applications. However, some compromises are necessary. For example, it is not at all clear, how thoroughly Landau damping should be taught at the first run or how deeply should the intricacies of collisionless reconnection be discussed. In both cases we have left the details to an optional course in advanced space physics, even with the risk that the student's appreciation of, e.g., reconnection may remain at the level of a magic wand. For learning experimental work, data analysis or computer simulations we have actively pursued arrangements for the Master's degree students to get a summer employments in active research groups, which usually lead to the Master's theses. All doctoral students are members of research groups and participate in experimental work, data analysis, simulation studies or theory development, or any combination of these. We emphasize strongly "learning by doing" all the way from the weekly home exercises during the lecture courses to the PhD theses which in Finland consist typically of 4-6 peer-reviewed articles with a comprehensive introductory part.

  3. Using Citizen Science and Crowdsourcing via Aurorasaurus as a Near Real Time Data Source for Space Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, E.; Heavner, M.; Hall, M.; Tapia, A.; Lalone, N.; Clayon, J.; Case, N.

    2014-12-01

    Aurorasaurus is on the cutting edge of space science, citizen science, and computer science simultaneously with the broad goals to develop a real-time citizen science network, educate the general public about the northern lights, and revolutionize real-time space weather nowcasting of the aurora for the public. We are currently in the first solar maximum with social media, which enables the technological roots to connect users, citizen scientists, and professionals around a shared global, rare interest. We will introduce the project which has been in a prototype mode since 2012 and recently relaunched with a new mobile and web presence and active campaigns. We will showcase the interdisciplinary advancements which include a more educated public, disaster warning system applications, and improved real-time ground truth data including photographs and observations of the Northern Lights. We will preview new data which validates the proof of concept for significant improvements in real-time space weather nowcasting. Our aim is to provide better real-time notifications of the visibility of the Northern Lights to the interested public via the combination of noisy crowd-sourced ground truth with noisy satellite-based predictions. The latter data are available now but are often delivered with significant jargon and uncertainty, thus reliable, timely interpretation of such forecasts by the public are problematic. The former data show real-time characteristic significant rises (in tweets for instance) that correlate with other non-real-time indices of auroral activity (like the Kp index). We will discuss the source of 'noise' in each data source. Using citizen science as a platform to provide a basis for deeper understanding is one goal; secondly we want to improve understanding of and appreciation for the dynamics and beauty of the Northern Lights by the public and scientists alike.

  4. Scientists and Educators in Sync: Exploring the Strengths of Each through a Collaborative Educational "Umbrella" on Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Singer, H. J.

    2003-12-01

    Scientists and educators have much to offer formal and informal science education forums (and each other) when brought together in balanced collaboration. New educational opportunities from NASA and NSF have made it easier to develop these collaborations, effectively allowing for the establishment of educational "umbrellas" whereby several separately funded programs focused on a single theme are overseen by a single working group. Here, we explore one such collaboration on space weather developed by CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, in collaboration with NOAA's Space Environment Center, the Fiske Planetarium, the Space Science Institute and teachers from local school districts. The goal of the collaboration is to develop a new planetarium show, associated curricula and teacher workshops and guidebooks, as well as distance learning programming through the NASA Center for Distance Learning. One hallmark of this collaboration is the recognition that both scientists and educators bring important research-based perspectives to the table - Scientists are primarily responsible for the scientific integrity of the programming; Educators offer effective (tested) educational models for implementing student and teacher experiences. Both bring creativity, ingenuity and innovation to this dynamic environment. Sustainability is enhanced by integrating components and activities into a cogent whole, and efforts are perceived as even more worthwhile since most aspects of this program will be available for national distribution over the next several years.

  5. Status and development trends of the National Space Monitoring System of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultangazin, U.M.; Spivak, L.F.

    2005-01-01

    Principles of construction and architecture of space monitoring of Kazakhstan are presented, structure and specifications of space and ground segments are described, top-priority tasks of monitoring are determined. (author)

  6. A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.B.; Anderson, M.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Ralph, F.M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Hartman, R.K.; Reynolds, D.W.; Johnson, L.E.; Schneider, T.L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S.I.; King, C.W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P.E.; Walls, C.; Mann, Dorte; Gottas, D.J.; Coleman, T.

    2013-01-01

    During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

  7. Solar Atmosphere to Earth's Surface: Long Lead Time dB/dt Predictions with the Space Weather Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Manchester, W.; Savani, N.; Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Jin, M.; Toth, G.; Liemohn, M. W.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    The future of space weather prediction depends on the community's ability to predict L1 values from observations of the solar atmosphere, which can yield hours of lead time. While both empirical and physics-based L1 forecast methods exist, it is not yet known if this nascent capability can translate to skilled dB/dt forecasts at the Earth's surface. This paper shows results for the first forecast-quality, solar-atmosphere-to-Earth's-surface dB/dt predictions. Two methods are used to predict solar wind and IMF conditions at L1 for several real-world coronal mass ejection events. The first method is an empirical and observationally based system to estimate the plasma characteristics. The magnetic field predictions are based on the Bz4Cast system which assumes that the CME has a cylindrical flux rope geometry locally around Earth's trajectory. The remaining plasma parameters of density, temperature and velocity are estimated from white-light coronagraphs via a variety of triangulation methods and forward based modelling. The second is a first-principles-based approach that combines the Eruptive Event Generator using Gibson-Low configuration (EEGGL) model with the Alfven Wave Solar Model (AWSoM). EEGGL specifies parameters for the Gibson-Low flux rope such that it erupts, driving a CME in the coronal model that reproduces coronagraph observations and propagates to 1AU. The resulting solar wind predictions are used to drive the operational Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) for geospace. Following the configuration used by NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center, this setup couples the BATS-R-US global magnetohydromagnetic model to the Rice Convection Model (RCM) ring current model and a height-integrated ionosphere electrodynamics model. The long lead time predictions of dB/dt are compared to model results that are driven by L1 solar wind observations. Both are compared to real-world observations from surface magnetometers at a variety of geomagnetic latitudes

  8. A space satellite perspective to monitor water quality using ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good water quality is important for human health, economic development, and the health of our environment. Across the country, we face the challenge of degraded water quality in many of our rivers, lakes, coastal regions and oceans. The EPA National Rivers and Stream Assessment report found that more than half - 55 percent - of our rivers and streams are in poor condition for aquatic life. Likewise, the EPA Lakes Assessment found that 22 percent of our lakes are in poor condition for aquatic life. The reasons for unhealthy water quality are vast. Likewise, poor water quality has numerous impacts to ecosystems. One indicator, which trends during warm weather months, is the duration and frequency of harmful algal blooms. A healthy environment includes good water quality to support a rich and varied ecosystem, economic growth, and protects the health of the people in the community who rely on that water. Having the ability to monitor and provide timely response to harmful algal blooms would be one step in protecting the benefits people receive from good water quality (U.S. EPA 2010 and 2013). Published in the North American Lake Management Society-LakeLine Magazine.

  9. Alamos: An International Collaboration to Provide a Space Based Environmental Monitoring Solution for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, S. O.; Dunn, A.; Lecomte, J.; Buchheim, K.; Johansson, E.; Berger, T.

    2018-02-01

    This abstract proposes the advantages of an externally mounted instrument in support of the human physiology, space biology, and human health and performance key science area. Alamos provides Space-Based Environmental Monitoring capabilities.

  10. Space weather modeling using artificial neural network. (Slovak Title: Modelovanie kozmického počasia umelou neurónovou sietou)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, F.; Revallo, M.; Hejda, P.; Bochníček, J.

    2010-12-01

    Our modern society with its advanced technology is becoming increasingly vulnerable to the Earth's system disorders originating in explosive processes on the Sun. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) blasted into interplanetary space as gigantic clouds of ionized gas can hit Earth within a few hours or days and cause, among other effects, geomagnetic storms - perhaps the best known manifestation of solar wind interaction with Earth's magnetosphere. Solar energetic particles (SEP), accelerated to near relativistic energy during large solar storms, arrive at the Earth's orbit even in few minutes and pose serious risk to astronauts traveling through the interplanetary space. These and many other threats are the reason why experts pay increasing attention to space weather and its predictability. For research on space weather, it is typically necessary to examine a large number of parameters which are interrelated in a complex non-linear way. One way to cope with such a task is to use an artificial neural network for space weather modeling, a tool originally developed for artificial intelligence. In our contribution, we focus on practical aspects of the neural networks application to modeling and forecasting selected space weather parameters.

  11. Validating data quality during wet weather monitoring of wastewater treatment plant influents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alferes, Janelcy; Lynggaard-Jensen, Anders; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas

    Efficient monitoring of water systems and proper use of the collected data in further applications such as modelling, forecasting influent water quality and real-time control depends on careful data quality control. Given the size of the data sets produced nowadays in online water quality...... monitoring schemes, automated data validation is the only feasible option. In this paper, software tools for automatic data quality assessment with a practical orientation are presented. The developments from three organizations ranging from simple to more complex methods for automated data validation...

  12. The DMSP Space Weather Sensors Data Archive Listing (1982-2013) and File Formats Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    environment sensors including the auroral particle spectrometer (SSJ), the fluxgate magnetometer (SSM), the topside thermal plasma monitor (SSIES... Fluxgate Magnetometer (SSM) for the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D-2, Flight 7, Instrument Papers, AFGL-TR-84-0225; ADA155229...Flux) SSM The fluxgate magnetometer . (Special Sensor, Magnetometer ) SSULI The ultraviolet limb imager SSUSI The ultraviolet spectrographic imager

  13. An Analysis of 20 Years of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Lederer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980, with the last launch occurring in 2003. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth-facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20-year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band, near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  14. Innovative Approaches for the Dissemination of Near Real-time Geostationary Satellite Data for Terrestrial and Space Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, G.; McGrath, K.; Meyer, P. J.; Berndt, E.

    2017-12-01

    A GOES-R series receiving station has been installed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support GOES-16 transition-to-operations projects of NASA's Earth science program and provide a community portal for GOES-16 data access. This receiving station is comprised of a 6.5-meter dish; motor-driven positioners; Quorum feed and demodulator; and three Linux workstations for ingest, processing, display, and subsequent product generation. The Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP) is used to process GOES Rebroadcast data from the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensors (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) into Level 1b and Level 2 files. GeoTIFFs of the imagery from several of these instruments are ingested into an Esri Arc Enterprise Web Map Service (WMS) server with tiled imagery displayable through a web browser interface or by connecting directly to the WMS with a Geographic Information System software package. These data also drive a basic web interface where users can manually zoom to and animate regions of interest or acquire similar results using a published Application Program Interface. While not as interactive as a WMS-driven interface, this system is much more expeditious with generating and distributing requested imagery. The legacy web capability enacted for the predecessor GOES Imager currently supports approximately 500,000 unique visitors each month. Dissemination capabilities have been refined to support a significantly larger number of anticipated users. The receiving station also supports NASA's Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition Center's (SPoRT) project activities to dissemination near real-time ABI RGB products to National Weather Service National Centers, including the Satellite Analysis Branch, National Hurricane Center, Ocean Prediction Center, and Weather Prediction Center, where they

  15. Nanobarcode gene expression monitoring system for potential miniaturized space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Weiming; Eastman, P. Scott; Cooke, Patrick A.; Park, Jennifer S.; Chu, Julia S. F.; Gray, Joe W.; Li, Song; Chen, Fanqing Frank

    Manned mission to space has been threatened by various cosmos risks including radiation, mirogravity, vacuum, confinement, etc., which may cause genetic variations of astronauts and eventually lead to damages of their health. Thus, the development of small biomedical devices, which can monitor astronaut gene expression changes, is useful for future long-term space missions. Using magnetic microbeads packed with nanocrystal quantum dots at controlled ratios, we were able to generate highly multiplexed nanobarcodes, which can encode a flexible panel of genes. Also, by using a reporter quantum dot, this nanobarcode platform can monitor and quantify gene expression level with improved speed and sensitivity. As a comparison, we studied TGF-β1 induced transcription changes in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with both the nanobarcode microbead system and the Affymetrix GeneChip ® HTA system, which is currently considered as the industrial standard. Though using only 1/20 of the sample RNA, the nanobarcode system showed sensitivity equivalent to Affymetrix GeneChip ® system. The coefficient of variation, dynamic range, and accuracy of the nanobarcodes measurement is equivalent to that of the GeneChip ® HTA system. Therefore, this newly invented nanobarcode microbead platform is thought to be sensitive, flexible, cost-effective and accurate in a level equivalent to the conventional methods. As an extension of the use of this new platform, spacecrafts may carry this miniaturized system as a diagnostic tool for the astronauts.

  16. Overview of Global Monitoring of Terrestrial Chlorophyll Fluorescence from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Kohler, Philipp; Walther, Sophia; Frankenberg, Christian; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Despite the critical importance of photosynthesis for the Earth system, understanding how it is influenced by factors such as climate variability, disturbance history, and water or nutrient availability remains a challenge because of the complex interactions and the lack of GPP measurements at various temporal and spatial scales. Space observations of the sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) electromagnetic signal emitted by plants in the 650-850nm spectral range hold the promise of providing a new view of vegetation photosynthesis on a global basis. Global retrievals of SIF from space have recently been achieved from a number of spaceborne spectrometers originally intended for atmospheric research. Despite not having been designed for land applications, such instruments have turned out to provide the necessary spectral and radiometric sensitivity for SIF retrieval from space. The first global measurements of SIF were achieved in 2011 from spectra acquired by the Japanese GOSAT mission launched in 2009. The retrieval takes advantage of the high spectral resolution provided by GOSATs Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) which allows the evaluation of the in-filling of solar Fraunhofer lines by SIF. Unfortunately, GOSAT only provides a sparse spatial sampling with individual soundings separated by several hundred kilometers. Complementary, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instruments onboard MetOp-A and MetOp-B enable SIF retrievals since 2007 with a continuous and global spatial coverage. GOME-2 measures in the red and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm and a pixel size of up to 40x40 km2. Most recently, another global and spatially continuous data set of SIF retrievals at 740 nm spanning the 2003-2012 time frame has been produced from ENVISATSCIAMACHY. This observational scenario has been completed by the first fluorescence data from the NASA-JPL OCO-2 mission (launched in July 2014) and the upcoming

  17. Characterization of the weathering of the Auriat granite (Creuse). Study of its porous space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leca, D.

    1990-05-01

    Our aim has been to characterize the alterations of the Auriat granite (Creuse - France) from a deep drilling. The two main parts of this memoir are : alterations prospecting and the analysis of the porous medium. After bibliographic review, we have characterized the Auriat granite and its alterations with classical methods: visual study, optical microscopy, MEB, Vickers micro-hardness, chemical analyses (scales of rock and grain), uniaxial compression and seismic velocities measurement in laboratory. We have defined alteration facies starting from the feldspar colors (rubefaction) that correspond to a physico-chemical reality. The second part of the memoir starts with the measurement of the granite porous volume. We have developed a technique adapted to the measurement of very low porosities (less than 2 %). The distribution of the porosities in relation with the facies shows that fresh granite has very low porosity (less than 1%) and weathered (rubefied) granite is slightly more porous (from about 0 to 2%). The decomposition of the global porosity in 'pore porosity' and 'crack porosity' shows that the fresh facies is affected by a set of open cracks. The rubefied facies presents widely clogged micro-cracks. We have taken up the mercury injection porosimetry test from the calculi used in the physic of high pressure. The study of porosimetry curves shows the existence of an infra-porosity (from 0.001 to 0.01 microns) for the rubefied facies. We have measured the gas permeability of the granite, then we have computed specific areas starting from porosity and permeability. Finally, we have presented a synthesis and the envisaged prospects. (author)

  18. SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENT MONITORED BY KITSAT-1 AND KITSAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Shin

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of space radiation experiments carried out on board the first two Korean technology demonstration microsatellites are presented in this paper. The first satellite, KITSAT-1, launched in August 1992, carries a radiation monitoring payload called cosmic ray experiment(CRE for characterizing the low-earth orbit(LEO radiation environment. The CRE consists of two sub-systems: the cosmic particle experiment (CPE and the total dose experiment(TDE. In addition, single event upset(SEUrates of the program memory and the RAM disk are also monitored. The second satellite, KITSAT-2, launched in September 1993, carries a newly developed 32-bit on-board computer(OBC, KASCOM(KAIST satellite computer in addition to OBC186. SEUs ocurred in the KASCOM, as well as in the program memory and RAM disk memory, have been monitored since the beginning of the satellite operation. These two satellites, which are very similar in structures but different in orbits, provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of the radiation environment characterized by the orbit.

  19. Low-Impact Space Weather Sensors and the U.S. National Security Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    for deep space missions), also needs to orient its solar arrays toward the sun, none of which can be accomplished without the ability to control the...Spacecraft Thermal Control Handbook: Cryogenics. El Segundo, CA: The Aerospace Press. ESA and NASA. 2015. “ Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Home Page...Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Incorporating inexpensive low-impact targeted surface charging

  20. Monitoring Space Radiation Hazards with the Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercially Hosted (REACH) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, J. E.; Guild, T. B.; Crain, W.; Crain, S.; Holker, D.; Quintana, S.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Kelly, M. A.; Barnes, R. J.; Sotirelis, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercial Hosting (REACH) project uses radiation dosimeters on a commercial satellite constellation in low Earth orbit to provide unprecedented spatial and time sampling of space weather radiation hazards. The spatial and time scales of natural space radiation environments coupled with constraints for the hosting accommodation drove the instrumentation requirements and the plan for the final orbital constellation. The project has delivered a total of thirty two radiation dosimeter instruments for launch with each instrument containing two dosimeters with different passive shielding and electronic thresholds to address proton-induced single-event effects, vehicle charging, and total ionizing dose. There are two REACH instruments currently operating with four more planned for launch by the time of the 2017 meeting. Our aim is to field a long-lived system of highly-capable radiation detectors to monitor the hazards of single-event effects, total ionizing dose, and spacecraft charging with maximized spatial coverage and with minimal time latency. We combined a robust detection technology with a commercial satellite hosting to produce a new demonstration for satellite situational awareness and for other engineering and science applications.

  1. Flood and Weather Monitoring Using Real-time Twitter Data Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Sit, M. A.; Sermet, M. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Social media data is a widely used source to making inference within public crisis periods and events in disaster times. Specifically, since Twitter provides large-scale data publicly in real-time, it is one of the most extensive resources with location information. This abstract provides an overview of a real-time Twitter analysis system to support flood preparedness and response using a comprehensive information-centric flood ontology and natural language processing. Within the scope of this project, we deal with acquisition and processing of real-time Twitter data streams. System fetches the tweets with specified keywords and classifies them as related to flooding or heavy weather conditions. The system uses machine learning algorithms to discover patterns using the correlation between tweets and Iowa Flood Information System's (IFIS) extensive resources. The system uses these patterns to forecast the formation and progress of a potential future flood event. While fetching tweets, predefined hashtags are used for filtering and enhancing the relevancy for selected tweets. With this project, tweets can also be used as an alternative data source where other data sources are not sufficient for specific tasks. During the disasters, the photos that people upload alongside their tweets can be collected and placed to appropriate locations on a mapping system. This allows decision making authorities and communities to see the most recent outlook of the disaster interactively. In case of an emergency, concentration of tweets can help the authorities to determine a strategy on how to reach people most efficiently while providing them the supplies they need. Thanks to the extendable nature of the flood ontology and framework, results from this project will be a guide for other natural disasters, and will be shared with the community.

  2. Connecting the Pioneers, Current Leaders and the Nature and History of Space Weather with K-12 Classrooms and the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C.; Thompson, B. J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Barbier, B.; Odenwald, S.; Spadaccini, J.; James, N.; Stephenson, B.; Davis, H. B.; Major, E. R.; Space Weather Living History

    2011-12-01

    The Space Weather Living History program will explore and share the breakthrough new science and captivating stories of space environments and space weather by interviewing space physics pioneers and leaders active from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to the present. Our multi-mission project will capture, document and preserve the living history of space weather utilizing original historical materials (primary sources). The resulting products will allow us to tell the stories of those involved in interactive new media to address important STEM needs, inspire the next generation of explorers, and feature women as role models. The project is divided into several stages, and the first stage, which began in mid-2011, focuses on resource gathering. The goal is to capture not just anecdotes, but the careful analogies and insights of researchers and historians associated with the programs and events. The Space Weather Living History Program has a Scientific Advisory Board, and with the Board's input our team will determine the chronology, key researchers, events, missions and discoveries for interviews. Education activities will be designed to utilize autobiographies, newspapers, interviews, research reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, dissertations, websites, diaries, letters, and artworks. With the help of a multimedia firm, we will use some of these materials to develop an interactive timeline on the web, and as a downloadable application in a kiosk and on tablet computers. In summary, our project augments the existing historical records with education technologies, connect the pioneers, current leaders and the nature and history of space weather with K-12 classrooms and the general public, covering all areas of studies in Heliophysics. The project is supported by NASA award NNX11AJ61G.

  3. Radiation Environment at LEO in the frame of Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University - recent, current and future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkova, Irina; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Svertilov, Sergey; Bogomolov, Vitaly; Bogomolov, Andrey; Barinova, Vera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Radiation Environment of Near-Earth space is one of the most important factors of space weather. Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University provides operational control of radiation conditions at Low Earth's Orbits (LEO) of the near-Earth space using data of recent (Vernov, CORONAS series), current (Meteor-M, Electro-L series) and future (Lomonosov) space missions. Internet portal of Space Monitoring Data Center of Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ provides possibilities to control and analyze the space radiation conditions in the real time mode together with the geomagnetic and solar activity including hard X-ray and gamma- emission of solar flares. Operational data obtained from space missions at L1, GEO and LEO and from the Earth's magnetic stations are used to represent radiation and geomagnetic state of near-Earth environment. The models of space environment that use space measurements from different orbits were created. Interactive analysis and operational neural network forecast services are based on these models. These systems can automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons of outer Earth's radiation belt using data from GEO and LEO as input. As an example of LEO data we consider data from Vernov mission, which was launched into solar-synchronous orbit (altitude 640 - 83 0 km, inclination 98.4°, orbital period about 100 min) on July 8, 2014 and began to receive scientific information since July 20, 2014. Vernov mission have provided studies of the Earth's radiation belt relativistic electron precipitation and its possible connection with atmosphere transient luminous events, as well as the solar hard X-ray and gamma-emission measurements. Radiation and electromagnetic environment monitoring in the near-Earth Space, which is very important for space weather study, was also realised

  4. Sun-Burned: Space Weather’s Impact On U.S. National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    named a distinguished graduate of the Air Command and Staff College just prior to attending the School of Advanced Air and Space Studies. For his...across the globe collaborate on papers that endeavor to better represent solar features via mathematical algorithms. In turn, these help to feed the...his syllabus , “be alive to the fact that [Clausewitz’s] discussion of the term ‘center(s) of gravity’” is “a valid translation, but not the only

  5. Observations of interplanetary scintillation and their application to the space weather forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Masayoshi; Kakinuma, Takakiyo

    1989-01-01

    The interplanetary scintillation (IPS) method using natural radio sources can observe the solar wind near the sun and at high latitudes that have never been accessible to any spacecraft. Therefore, the IPS has been the most powerful method to observe the solar wind in three-dimensional space. Although the IPS method cannot predict when a flare will occur or when a filament will disappear, it can be used to forecast the propagation of interplanetary disturbances and to warn when they will attack the earth. Thus, the IPS method can be used to forecast recurrent interplanetary phenomena as well as transient phenomena. (author)

  6. Space Weather Action Plan Ionizing Radiation Benchmarks: Phase 1 update and plans for Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, E. R.; Kozyra, J.; Onsager, T. G.; Posner, A.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Black, C.; Christian, E. R.; Copeland, K.; Fry, D. J.; Johnston, W. R.; Kanekal, S. G.; Mertens, C. J.; Minow, J. I.; Pierson, J.; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E.; Sibeck, D. G.; St Cyr, O. C.; Xapsos, M.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the near-Earth radiation environment can affect satellite operations, astronauts in space, commercial space activities, and the radiation environment on aircraft at relevant latitudes or altitudes. Understanding the diverse effects of increased radiation is challenging, but producing ionizing radiation benchmarks will help address these effects. The following areas have been considered in addressing the near-Earth radiation environment: the Earth's trapped radiation belts, the galactic cosmic ray background, and solar energetic-particle events. The radiation benchmarks attempt to account for any change in the near-Earth radiation environment, which, under extreme cases, could present a significant risk to critical infrastructure operations or human health. The goal of these ionizing radiation benchmarks and associated confidence levels will define at least the radiation intensity as a function of time, particle type, and energy for an occurrence frequency of 1 in 100 years and an intensity level at the theoretical maximum for the event. In this paper, we present the benchmarks that address radiation levels at all applicable altitudes and latitudes in the near-Earth environment, the assumptions made and the associated uncertainties, and the next steps planned for updating the benchmarks.

  7. Wave and plasma measurements and GPS diagnostics of the main ionospheric trough as a hybrid method used for Space Weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rothkaehl

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves.

    Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.

  8. Wave and plasma measurements and GPS diagnostics of the main ionospheric trough as a hybrid method used for Space Weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rothkaehl

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves. Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.

  9. Observations of Heliospheric Faraday Rotation (FR) and Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR): Steps Towards Improving Space-Weather Forecasting Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Sobey, C.; Eftekhari, T.; Jensen, E. A.; Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Odstrcil, D.; Tokumaru, M.

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of space weather - analogous to terrestrial weather which describes the changing pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity conditions on Earth - is essentially a description of the changes in velocity, density, magnetic field, high-energy particles, and radiation in the near-Earth space environment including the effects of such changes on the Earth's magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere, and thermosphere. Space weather can be considered to have two main strands: (i) scientific research, and (ii) applications. The former is self-explanatory, but the latter covers operational aspects which includes its forecasting. Understanding and forecasting space weather in the near-Earth environment is vitally important to protecting our modern-day reliance (militarily and commercially) on satellites, global-communication and navigation networks, high-altitude air travel (radiation concerns particularly on polar routes), long-distance power/oil/gas lines and piping, and for any future human exploration of space to list but a few. Two ground-based radio-observing remote-sensing techniques that can aid our understanding and forecasting of heliospheric space weather are those of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and heliospheric Faraday rotation (FR). The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a next-generation 'software' radio telescope centered in The Netherlands with international stations spread across central and northwest Europe. For several years, scientific observations of IPS on LOFAR have been undertaken on a campaign basis and the experiment is now well developed. More recently, LOFAR has been used to attempt scientific heliospheric FR observations aimed at remotely sensing the magnetic field of the plasma traversing the inner heliosphere. We present our latest progress using these two radio heliospheric-imaging remote-sensing techniques including the use of three-dimensional (3-D) modeling and reconstruction techniques using other, additional data as input

  10. Statistical Analysis of Model Data for Operational Space Launch Weather Support at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale (NAM) model (MesoNAM) is used by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to support space launch weather operations. The 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit to conduct an objective statistics-based analysis of MesoNAM output compared to wind tower mesonet observations and then develop a an operational tool to display the results. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction began running the current version of the MesoNAM in mid-August 2006. The period of record for the dataset was 1 September 2006 - 31 January 2010. The AMU evaluated MesoNAM hourly forecasts from 0 to 84 hours based on model initialization times of 00, 06, 12 and 18 UTC. The MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point were compared to the observed values of these parameters from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. The data sets were stratified by model initialization time, month and onshore/offshore flow for each wind tower. Statistics computed included bias (mean difference), standard deviation of the bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and a hypothesis test for bias = O. Twelve wind towers located in close proximity to key launch complexes were used for the statistical analysis with the sensors on the towers positioned at varying heights to include 6 ft, 30 ft, 54 ft, 60 ft, 90 ft, 162 ft, 204 ft and 230 ft depending on the launch vehicle and associated weather launch commit criteria being evaluated. These twelve wind towers support activities for the Space Shuttle (launch and landing), Delta IV, Atlas V and Falcon 9 launch vehicles. For all twelve towers, the results indicate a diurnal signal in the bias of temperature (T) and weaker but discernable diurnal signal in the bias of dewpoint temperature (T(sub d)) in the MesoNAM forecasts. Also, the standard deviation of the bias and RMSE of T, T(sub d), wind speed and wind

  11. AI mass spectrometers for space shuttle health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The facility Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a mass spectrometer based gas analyzer. Two instruments make up the HGDS, which is installed in a prime/backup arrangement, with the option of using both analyzers on the same sample line, or on two different lines simultaneously. It is used for monitoring the Shuttle during fuel loading, countdown, and drainback, if necessary. The use of complex instruments, operated over many shifts, has caused problems in tracking the status of the ground support equipment (GSE) and the vehicle. A requirement for overall system reliability has been a major force in the development of Shuttle GSE, and is the ultimate driver in the choice to pursue artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for Shuttle and Advanced Launch System (ALS) mass spectrometer systems. Shuttle applications of AI are detailed.

  12. DOC/WSNSO [Department of Commerce/Weather Service Nuclear Support Office] operational support to Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.

    1989-01-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the Department of Commerce. The NWS has hundreds of weather offices throughout the United States. The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) is a highly specialized unit of NWS that provides direct support to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) underground nuclear testing program. The WSNSO has been associated with the DOE for >33 yr. As a result of the unique relationship with the DOE, all WSNSO emergency response meteorologists and meteorological technicians are allowed access to classified material. Meteorological phenomena play a significant role during a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) event, and WSNSO meteorologists provide direct support to ARAC. The marriage of state-of-the-art computer systems together with proven technology provides the on-scene WSNSO meteorologist with essentially a portable fully equipped, fully functional, advanced NWS weather station. The WSNSO's emergency response personnel and hardware are at the ready and can be mobilized within 2 h. WSNSO can provide on-scene weather forecasts and critical weather data collection whenever and wherever necessary

  13. A small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J. C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; Pinto, R.; Auchere, F.; Harrison, R. A.; Eyles, C.; Gan, W.; Lamy, P.; Xia, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kong, L.; Wang, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zhang, S.; Zong, Q.; Souček, Jan; An, J.; Přech, J.; Zhang, A.; Rochus, P.; Bothmer, V.; Janvier, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Escoubet, C. P.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Tappin, J.; Vainio, R.; Poedts, S.; Dunlop, M. W.; Savani, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Bale, S. D.; Howard, T.; DeForest, C.; Webb, D.; Lugaz, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; Dalmasse, K.; Tallineau, J.; Vranken, D.; Fernández, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 146, August (2016), s. 171-185 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : space mission * coronal mass ejections * instrumentation * space weather Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682616301456

  14. Progress in Space Weather Modeling and Observations Needed to Improve the Operational NAIRAS Model Aircraft Radiation Exposure Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Tobiska, W.; Xu, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. Addressing these science questions require improvements in both space weather modeling and observations. The focus of this talk is to present these science questions, the proposed methodologies for addressing these science questions, and the anticipated improvements to the operational predictions of atmospheric radiation exposure. The overarching goal of this work is to provide a decision support tool for the aviation industry that will enable an optimal balance to be achieved between minimizing health risks to passengers and aircrew while simultaneously minimizing costs to the airline companies.

  15. An Integrative Approach to Improving an Introductory Weather & Climate Course and Developing an Allied NASA Earth & Space Science Certificate Program for Pre-service Secondary Teachers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Martin-Hansen, L.; Diem, J.; Elliott, W.

    2009-12-01

    An Atlanta-based partnership made up of leaders in science, education, and Georgia’s state-wide STEM Education Initiative are creating an enduring legacy of climate science education for pre-service and in-service teachers in Georgia as well as for underrepresented high school students who participate in an "Early College" program with Georgia State University (GSU). The core elements of our NASA-funded program are to infuse NASA global climate change resources and best pedagogical practice into a popular 4-credit lecture/lab course called “Introduction to Weather & Climate” (GEOG 1112) at GSU, and to establish a sustainable academic program for pre-service teachers in the College of Education called the NASA Earth & Space Science (ESS) Teacher Certificate. The NASA ESS Certificate will require candidates to accomplish the following as part of (or in addition to) standard degree and licensure requirements: 1. successfully complete a graduate section of “Introduction to Weather and Climate” (GEOG 7112), which requires lesson planning related to course content and engagement with GSU's new CO2 monitoring station whose research-quality data will provide unique hands-on opportunities for Metro Atlanta students and teachers; 2) complete an additional advanced course in climate change (GEOG 6784) plus elective hours in physical science disciplines (e.g. astronomy and physics); 3) serve as a lab teaching assistant for GEOG 1112 and a coach for a cadre of Carver Early College students who are taking the course; 4) make at least one of two teaching practica at a Georgia-based NASA Explorer School; and 5) participate or co-present in a week-long, residential, field-based, Summer Institute in Earth & Space Science intended to increase the interest, knowledge, and ability of in-service secondary science educators to fulfill climate-related standards in Earth Science and Earth Systems Science. We will evaluate, document, and disseminate (to the University System of

  16. Monitoring the change of coastal zones from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Le Cozannet, G.; Benveniste, J.; Woodworth, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The world's coastal zones, where an important fraction of the world population is currently living, are under serious threat because of coastal erosion, cyclones, storms, and salinization of estuaries and coastal aquifers. In the future, these hazards are expected to increase due to the combined effects of sea level rise, climate change, human activities and population increase. The response of coastal environments to natural and anthropogenic forcing factors (including climate change) depends on the characteristics of the forcing agents, as well as on the internal properties of the coastal systems, that remain poorly known and mostly un-surveyed at global scale. To better understand changes affecting coastal zones and to provide useful information to decision makers, various types of observations with global coverage need to be collected and analysed. Observations from space appear as an important complement to existing in situ observing systems (e.g., regional tide gauge networks). In this presentation, we discuss the benefit of systematic coastal monitoring from space, addressing both observations of forcing agents and of the coastal response. We highlight the need for a global coastal sea level data set based on retracked nadir altimetry missions and new SAR technology.

  17. Historical space weather monitoring of prolonged aurora activities in Japan and in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Isobe, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Hisashi; Tamazawa, Harufumi; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Miyahara, Hiroko; Iwahashi, Kiyomi; Yamamoto, Kazuaki; Takei, Masako; Terashima, Tsuneyo; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Fujiwara, Yasunori; Nakamura, Takuji

    2017-02-01

    Great magnetic storms are recorded as aurora sightings in historical documents. The earliest known example of "prolonged" aurora sightings, with aurora persistent for two or more nights within a 7 day interval at low latitudes, in Japan was documented on 21-23 February 1204 in Meigetsuki, when a big sunspot was also recorded in China. We have searched for prolonged events over the 600 year interval since 620 in Japan based on the catalogue of Kanda and over the 700 year interval since 581 in China based on the catalogues of Tamazawa et al. (2017) and Hayakawa et al. (2015). Before the Meigetsuki event, a significant fraction of the 200 possible aurora sightings in Sòng dynasty (960-1279) of China was detected at least twice within a 7 day interval and sometimes recurred with approximately the solar rotation period of 27 days. The majority of prolonged aurora activity events occurred around the maximum phase of solar cycles rather than around the minimum, as estimated from the 14C analysis of tree rings. They were not reported during the Oort Minimum (1010-1050). We hypothesize that the prolonged aurora sightings are associated with great magnetic storms resulting from multiple coronal mass ejections from the same active region. The historical documents therefore provide useful information to support estimation of great magnetic storm frequency, which are often associated with power outages and other societal concerns.

  18. The Importance of Reconnection at Sector Boundaries: Another Space Weather Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Y.; Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Sector Boundaries are interfaces between nearly oppositely directed magnetic flux in the solar wind. When the leading solar wind stream is moving more slowly than the following stream a high-pressure ridge appears at the interface, that compresses the plasma sometimes leading to a forward and reverse shock pair that slows the fast stream and accelerate the slow stream. If reconnection at the interface between the streams occurs part of the magnetic flux will be annihilated but the plasma once associated with that magnetic flux remains near the interface causing a sometimes significant short-lived dynamic pressure increase. The declining phase of solar cycle 24 exhibits several examples of the phenomenon with densities reaching over 80 protons cm-3 at speed of about 400 km sec-1. We examine the solar wind context of the phenomenon and the consequences at the magnetosphere using space-based and ground-based observations and comment on their possible generation of geomagnetically-induced currents.

  19. Space Technology for Reduction of Desert Areas on Earth and Weather Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SANDU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In precedent papers the authors presented the idea of a space system composed of two opposite parabolic mirrors (large and small having the same focal point. This system is able to concentrate solar power in a strong light beam having irradiance of hundreds or thousands of times stronger than the solar irradiance on Earth's orbit. The system can be placed on a Sun synchronous orbit around the Earth or on the Earth’s orbit around the Sun at a distance of several hundred km from ground. When the concentrated light beam is directed toward the Earth surface it can locally melt, vaporize or decomposes tones of ground in its elements. This is happening because when the ground is hit by the light beam, ground temperature can reach thousands of degrees Celsius. At such temperatures the matter is decomposed into constitutive elements. For example, the silicate oxides which are frequently found in the composition of desert ground are decomposed into oxygen and silicon. Similarly, other oxides release oxygen and other type of oxides or constitutive elements. A network of deep and large channels can be dug in this way in hot deserts as Sahara. When these channels are connected with the seas & oceans, a network of water channels is created in those deserts. In this way, the local climate of deserts will change because channel water is vaporized during daytime when air temperature reaches 50ºC and condenses during nighttime when air temperature is around 0ºC. Presence of clouds over the hot deserts can lead to a reduction of ground temperature and rain follows. The channel water can be desalinized for producing drinking water and for irrigation using simple equipment. In addition to these advantages, channel deserts can be a solution for melting of polar ice calottes and flooding of seaside areas that are inhabited areas. On the other hand, the system composed of two opposite mirrors can be used for strength decreasing or deviation of hurricanes and

  20. Space weather and HF propagation along different paths of the Russian chirp sounders network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, V. I.; Litovkin, G. I.; Matyushonok, S. M.; Vertogradov, G. G.; Ivanov, V. A.; Poddelsky, I. N.; Rozanov, S. V.; Uryadov, V. P.

    This paper presents experimental data obtained on long paths (from 2200 km to 5700 km range) of Russian frequency modulated continues wave (chirp) sounders network for the period from 1998 to 2003. Four transmitters (near Magadan, Khabarovsk, Irkutsk, Norilsk) and four receivers (near Irkutsk, Yoshkar-Ola, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov-on-Don) were combined into single network to investigate a influence of geomagnetic storms and substorms on HF propagation in Asian region of Russia. In this region the geographic latitudes are in greatest excess of magnetic latitudes. As a consequence, elements of the large-scale structure, such as the main ionospheric trough, and the zone of auroral ionization, are produced in the ionosphere at the background of a low electron ionization. Coordinated experiments were carried out using 3-day Solar-Geophysical activity forecast presented by NOAA Space Environment Center in Internet. Sounding operations were conducted in the frequency band 4 -- 30 MHz on a round-the-clock basis at 15-min intervals. Oblique-incidence sounding (OIS) ionograms were recorded during 5-7 days every season for some years. The comparison between experimental data and simulation of OIS ionograms using International Reference Ionospheric model (IRI-2001) allowed to estimate the forecast of HF propagation errors both under quiet condition and during geomagnetic disturbances. Strong deviations from median values of maximum observed frequencies on mid-latitude paths in daytime present a real challenge to ionospheric forecast. Subauroral and mid-latitude chirp-sounding paths run, respectively, near the northward and southward walls of the main ionospheric trough. This make sit possible to study the dynamics of the trough's boundaries under different geophysical conditions and assess the influence of ionization gradients and small-scale turbulence on HF signal characteristics. The signals off-great circle propagation were registered over a wide frequency range and for

  1. The electronic Space Weather upper atmosphere (eSWua project at INGV: advancements and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The eSWua project is based on measurements performed by all the instruments installed by the upper atmosphere physics group of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy and on all the related studies. The aim is the realization of a hardware-software system to standardize historical and real-time observations for different instruments.

    An interactive Web site, supported by a well organized database, can be a powerful tool for the scientific and technological community in the field of telecommunications and space weather. The most common and useful database type for our purposes is the relational one, in which data are organized in tables for petabytes data archiving and the complete flexibility in data retrieving.

    The project started in June 2005 and will last till August 2007. In the first phase the major effort has been focused on the design of hardware and database architecture. The first two databases related to the DPS4 digisonde and GISTM measurements are complete concerning populating, tests and output procedures. Details on the structure and Web tools concerning these two databases are presented, as well as the general description of the project and technical features.

  2. The electronic Space Weather upper atmosphere (eSWua project at INGV: advancements and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The eSWua project is based on measurements performed by all the instruments installed by the upper atmosphere physics group of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy and on all the related studies. The aim is the realization of a hardware-software system to standardize historical and real-time observations for different instruments. An interactive Web site, supported by a well organized database, can be a powerful tool for the scientific and technological community in the field of telecommunications and space weather. The most common and useful database type for our purposes is the relational one, in which data are organized in tables for petabytes data archiving and the complete flexibility in data retrieving. The project started in June 2005 and will last till August 2007. In the first phase the major effort has been focused on the design of hardware and database architecture. The first two databases related to the DPS4 digisonde and GISTM measurements are complete concerning populating, tests and output procedures. Details on the structure and Web tools concerning these two databases are presented, as well as the general description of the project and technical features.

  3. An Overview of Scientific and Space Weather Results from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; de la Beaujardiere, O.; Hunton, D.; Heelis, R.; Earle, G.; Strauss, P.; Bernhardt, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission of the Air Force Research Laboratory is described. C/NOFS science objectives may be organized into three categories: (1) to understand physical processes active in the background ionosphere and thermosphere in which plasma instabilities grow; (2) to identify mechanisms that trigger or quench the plasma irregularities responsible for signal degradation; and (3) to determine how the plasma irregularities affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves. The satellite was launched in April, 2008 into a low inclination (13 deg), elliptical (400 x 850 km) orbit. The satellite sensors measure the following parameters in situ: ambient and fluctuating electron densities, AC and DC electric and magnetic fields, ion drifts and large scale ion composition, ion and electron temperatures, and neutral winds. C/NOFS is also equipped with a GPS occultation receiver and a radio beacon. In addition to the satellite sensors, complementary ground-based measurements, theory, and advanced modeling techniques are also important parts of the mission. We report scientific and space weather highlights of the mission after nearly four years in orbit

  4. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and its Contributions to Space Weather Research, the Flare Energy Budget, and Instrument Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) is an empirical model of the solar irradiance spectrum from 0.1 to 190 nm at 1 nm spectral resolution and on a 1-minute time cadence. The goal of FISM is to provide accurate solar spectral irradiances over the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV: 0-200 nm) range as input for ionospheric and thermospheric models. The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the FISM model, and also how the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) will contribute to improving FISM. Some current studies will then be presented that use FISM estimations of the solar VUV irradiance to quantify the contributions of the increased irradiance from flares to Earth's increased thermospheric and ionospheric densites. Initial results will also be presented from a study looking at the electron density increases in the Martian atmosphere during a solar flare. Results will also be shown quantifying the VUV contributions to the total flare energy budget for both the impulsive and gradual phases of solar flares. Lastly, an example of how FISM can be used to simplify the design of future solar VUV irradiance instruments will be discussed, using the future NOAA GOES-R Extreme Ultraviolet and X-Ray Sensors (EXIS) space weather instrument.

  5. Assessing the impact of space weather on the electric power grid based on insurance claims for industrial electrical equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Dobbins, R.; Murtagh, W.; Petrinec, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents are known to induce disturbances in the electric power grid. Here we perform a statistical analysis of 11,242 insurance claims from 2000 through 2010 for equipment losses and related business interruptions in North American commercial organizations that are associated with damage to, or malfunction of, electrical and electronic equipment. We find that claim rates are elevated on days with elevated geomagnetic activity by approximately 20% for the top 5% and by about 10% for the top third of most active days ranked by daily maximum variability of the geomagnetic field. When focusing on the claims explicitly attributed to electrical surges (amounting to more than half the total sample), we find that the dependence of claim rates on geomagnetic activity mirrors that of major disturbances in the U.S. high-voltage electric power grid. The claim statistics thus reveal that large-scale geomagnetic variability couples into the low-voltage power distribution network and that related power-quality variations can cause malfunctions and failures in electrical and electronic devices that, in turn, lead to an estimated 500 claims per average year within North America. We discuss the possible magnitude of the full economic impact associated with quality variations in electrical power associated with space weather.

  6. Far-UV Spectral Mapping of Lunar Composition, Porosity, and Space Weathering: LRO Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Mandt, K.; Gladstone, R.; Liu, Y.; Hendrix, A. R.; Hurley, D.; Cahill, J. T.; Stickle, A. M.; Egan, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Grava, C.; Pryor, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    Far ultraviolet reflectance measurements of the Moon, icy satellites, comets, and asteroids obtained within the last decade have ushered in a new era of scientific advancement for UV surface investigations. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) has demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, putting a new light on permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and other features on the Moon. Dayside far-UV albedo maps complement the nightside data, and LRO's polar orbit and high data downlink capabilities enable searches for diurnal variations in spectral signals. We'll discuss the strengths of the far-UV reflectance imaging spectroscopy technique with respect to several new LAMP results. Detections of water frost and hydration signatures near 165 nm, for example, provide constraints on composition that complement infrared spectroscopy, visible imaging, neutron spectroscopy, radar, and other techniques. At far-UV wavelengths a relatively blue spectral slope is diagnostic of space weathering, which is opposite of the spectral reddening indicator of maturity at wavelengths longward of 180 nm. By utilizing natural diffuse illumination sources on the nightside the far-UV technique is able to identify relative increases in porosity within the PSRs, and provides an additional tool for determining relative surface ages. Prospects for future studies are further enabled by a new, more sensitive dayside operating mode enacted during the present LRO mission extension.

  7. Utilization of Solar Dynamics Observatory space weather digital image data for comparative analysis with application to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoyan, V.; Dehipawala, S.; Liu, Ernest; Tulsee, Vivek; Armendariz, R.; Tremberger, G.; Holden, T.; Marchese, P.; Cheung, T.

    2012-10-01

    Digital solar image data is available to users with access to standard, mass-market software. Many scientific projects utilize the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format, which requires specialized software typically used in astrophysical research. Data in the FITS format includes photometric and spatial calibration information, which may not be useful to researchers working with self-calibrated, comparative approaches. This project examines the advantages of using mass-market software with readily downloadable image data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for comparative analysis over with the use of specialized software capable of reading data in the FITS format. Comparative analyses of brightness statistics that describe the solar disk in the study of magnetic energy using algorithms included in mass-market software have been shown to give results similar to analyses using FITS data. The entanglement of magnetic energy associated with solar eruptions, as well as the development of such eruptions, has been characterized successfully using mass-market software. The proposed algorithm would help to establish a publicly accessible, computing network that could assist in exploratory studies of all FITS data. The advances in computer, cell phone and tablet technology could incorporate such an approach readily for the enhancement of high school and first-year college space weather education on a global scale. Application to ground based data such as that contained in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey is discussed.

  8. A Small Mission Concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 Point for Innovative Solar, Heliospheric and Space Weather Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J.-C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  9. Preliminary results of a test of a longitudinal phase-space monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikutani, Eiji; Funakoshi, Yoshihiro; Kawamoto, Takashi; Mimashi, Toshihiro

    1994-01-01

    A prototype of a longitudinal phase-space monitor has been developed in TRISTAN Main Ring at KEK. The principle of the monitor and its basic components are explained. Also a result of a preliminary beam test is given. (author)

  10. Linking carbon and hydrologic fluxes in the critical zone: Observations from high-frequency monitoring of a weathered bedrock vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tune, A. K.; Druhan, J. L.; Wang, J.; Cargill, S.; Murphy, C.; Rempe, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    A principle challenge in quantifying feedbacks between continental weathering and atmospheric CO2 is to improve understanding of how biogeochemical processes in the critical zone influence the distribution and mobility of organic and inorganic carbon. In particular, in landscapes characterized by thin soils and heterogeneous weathered and fractured bedrock, little data exist to inform and constrain predictive models for carbon dynamics. Here, we present the results of an intensive water and gas sampling campaign across an 18 m thick, variably saturated argillite weathering profile in the Eel River CZO. We monitor water content in situ and regularly collect samples of freely-draining water, tightly-held water, and gas through wet and dry seasons using a novel Vadose-zone Monitoring System (VMS) consisting of sensors and samplers distributed across a 20 m long inclined borehole. This novel approach facilitates the interception of gas and water during transport across the entire variably saturated weathering profile. The data demonstrate that seasonal changes in saturation control the vertical distribution and mobility of carbon in the fractured critical zone. Concentrations of gaseous CO2, O2, and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon fluctuate significantly and repeatably with seasonal additions of water infiltrating the weathered bedrock. A persistent vertical structure in the concentrations of dissolved phases and gas concentrations broadly corresponds to depths associated with unsaturated, seasonally saturated, and chronically saturated zones. Associated variations in the vertical structure of mineralogy and elemental composition, including solid phase organic carbon content, are observed in core obtained during drilling. Together, our observations indicate significant respiration of organic carbon at depths greater than the base of the soil, and thus motivate further investigation of the role of heterogeneous weathered, bedrock environments, which are needed to

  11. Space Qualified Non-Destructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring Technology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen Aeronautics is proposing an innovative space qualified non-destructive evaluation and health monitoring technology. The technology is built on concepts...

  12. General Purpose Data-Driven System Monitoring for Space Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern space propulsion and exploration system designs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Determining the health state of these systems using...

  13. Scalable Continuous Range Monitoring of Moving Objects in Symbolic Indoor Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Lu, Hua; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    Indoor spaces accommodate large populations of individuals. The continuous range monitoring of such objects can be used as a foundation for a wide variety of applications, e.g., space planning, way finding, and security. Indoor space differs from outdoor space in that symbolic locations, e...

  14. Development of a New Analysis Tool for Evaluating and Correcting for Weather Conditions that Constrain Radiation Portal Monitor Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzardo, T.; Livesay, J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) for the continuous measurement of environmental radionuclide decay. AMRAP is a completely open source visualization and analysis package capable of combining a variety of data streams into an array of real-time plots. Once acquired, data streams are analyzed to store static images and extract data based on previously defined thresholds. AMRAP is currently used at ORNL to combine data streams from an Ortec Detective high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a TSA Systems radiation portal monitor (RPM), and an Orion weather station. The combined data are used to study the rain-induced increase in RPM background radiation levels. RPMs experience an increase in background radiation during precipitation due to the deposition of atmospheric radionuclides on the ground. Using AMRAP results in a real-time analysis workstation specifically dedicated to the study of RPM background radiation levels. By means of an editable library of common inputs, AMRAP is adaptable to remote monitoring applications that would benefit from the real-time visualization and analysis of radiation measurements. To study rain-induced increases in background radiation levels observed in radiation portal monitors (RPMs), researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a software package that allows data with different formats to be analyzed and plotted in near real time. The Adaptable, Multiplatform, Real-Time Analysis Package (AMRAP) was developed to operate in the background and capture plots of important data based on previously defined thresholds. After executing AMRAP, segments of a data stream can be captured without additional post-processing. AMRAP can also display previously recorded data to facilitate a detailed offline analysis. Without access to these capabilities in a single software package, analyzing multiple continuously recorded data streams with

  15. Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures for Structural Health Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubacz, Jacob A [ORNL; Chmielewski, Hana T [ORNL; Pape, Alexander E [ORNL; Depersio, Andrew J [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Boone, Shane [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    A novel method for structural health monitoring (SHM), known as the Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures (PSDM) approach, is proposed and developed. The patented PSDM approach has already been developed and demonstrated for a variety of equipment and biomedical applications. Here, we investigate SHM of bridges via analysis of time serial accelerometer measurements. This work has four aspects. The first is algorithm scalability, which was found to scale linearly from one processing core to four cores. Second, the same data are analyzed to determine how the use of the PSDM approach affects sensor placement. We found that a relatively low-density placement sufficiently captures the dynamics of the structure. Third, the same data are analyzed by unique combinations of accelerometer axes (vertical, longitudinal, and lateral with respect to the bridge) to determine how the choice of axes affects the analysis. The vertical axis is found to provide satisfactory SHM data. Fourth, statistical methods were investigated to validate the PSDM approach for this application, yielding statistically significant results.

  16. Bio monitoring: lead concentration in Asuncion space characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochmann, S.; Doncel, F.; Ortiz, M.; Insaurralde, A.; Barua de Souberlich, G.

    2001-01-01

    When air has polluting agents, a injurious effects potential to the health exists. Most of Lead, one of the most important pollutants due to the great damage that it causes to the human sort and other living organisms by his extensive diffusion; one is in the Asuncion urban atmosphere, probably located on particle suspended originating of the transmission of automotive vehicles; the same ones, by their greater surface of aggregation, increase the viability of toxic compound adsorption and the dissolution or absorption of gaseous polluting agents. One takes ahead to a preliminary program of Bio monitoring using plants, to establish the relative levels of the polluting agent, in places where the detailed knowledge of the concentration of the same one is not fundamental. In front of direct studies this one is an accessible alternative by its relative low cost and its generalisation possibility. The sampling is made in nucleus Zones selected randomly in Asuncion, taking in consideration the prevalence from movable sources and the continuous and gradual vehicle park increase and its conditions, with the consequent increase of transmissions in the atmosphere. Tillandsia sp. is used and X-rays Fluorescence for the measurements, jointly with the application of suitable statistical tools, since for the characterisation of plans of elements that are in particulate matter, allow to the simultaneous determination of interest elements and correlations significant establishment, applicable to environmental studies. With the collected data it is made the interpolation and extrapolation, with the objective to space characterise the Lead concentration in Asuncion

  17. The Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This presentation outlines a brief description of the Living With a Star (LWS) Program missions and detailed information about the Space Environment Testbed (SET) payload consisting of a space weather monitor and carrier containing 4 board experiments.

  18. UniSat-5: a space-based optical system for space debris monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Roberto, Riccardo; Cappelletti, Chantal

    2012-07-01

    commercially available RF equipment, allows for an affordable, stand-alone system for digital imaging in space. The space debris observation will work in pair with the attitude determination system, as well as the orbit determination system. UniSat-5 micro-satellite will be launched during Q4 2012 by a Kosmotras DNEPR LV, and it will be injected in a Sun Synchronous Orbit. UniSat-5 will be a the first university satellite for space debris monitoring, and it will test the technology for the future design of a formation flight for on orbit optical debris detection. This paper deals with the space debris observation system boarded on UniSat-5 and the observation strategies adopted considering the mission proposed.

  19. Space Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    prominence eruptions and the ensuing coronal mass ejections. The ProMag is a spectro - polarimeter, consisting of a dual-beam polarization modulation unit...feeding a visible camera and an infrared camera. The instrument is designed to measure magnetic fields in solar prominences by simultaneous spectro ...as a result of coronal hole regions, we expect to improve UV predictions by incorporating an estimate of the Earth-side coronal hole regions. 5

  20. Kilometer-Spaced GNSS Array for Ionospheric Irregularity Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang

    This dissertation presents automated, systematic data collection, processing, and analysis methods for studying the spatial-temporal properties of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) scintillations produced by ionospheric irregularities at high latitudes using a closely spaced multi-receiver array deployed in the northern auroral zone. The main contributions include 1) automated scintillation monitoring, 2) estimation of drift and anisotropy of the irregularities, 3) error analysis of the drift estimates, and 4) multi-instrument study of the ionosphere. A radio wave propagating through the ionosphere, consisting of ionized plasma, may suffer from rapid signal amplitude and/or phase fluctuations known as scintillation. Caused by non-uniform structures in the ionosphere, intense scintillation can lead to GNSS navigation and high-frequency (HF) communication failures. With specialized GNSS receivers, scintillation can be studied to better understand the structure and dynamics of the ionospheric irregularities, which can be parameterized by altitude, drift motion, anisotropy of the shape, horizontal spatial extent and their time evolution. To study the structuring and motion of ionospheric irregularities at the sub-kilometer scale sizes that produce L-band scintillations, a closely-spaced GNSS array has been established in the auroral zone at Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska to investigate high latitude scintillation and irregularities. Routinely collecting low-rate scintillation statistics, the array database also provides 100 Hz power and phase data for each channel at L1/L2C frequency. In this work, a survey of seasonal and hourly dependence of L1 scintillation events over the course of a year is discussed. To efficiently and systematically study scintillation events, an automated low-rate scintillation detection routine is established and performed for each day by screening the phase scintillation index. The spaced-receiver technique is applied to cross

  1. Data-Model and Inter-Model Comparisons of the GEM Outflow Events Using the Space Weather Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Eccles, J. V.; Barakat, A. R.; Kistler, L. M.; Haaland, S.; Schunk, R. W.; Chappell, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Two storm periods were selected by the Geospace Environment Modeling Ionospheric Outflow focus group for community collaborative study because of its high magnetospheric activity and extensive data coverage: the September 27 - October 4, 2002 corotating interaction region event and the October 22 - 29 coronal mass ejection event. During both events, the FAST, Polar, Cluster, and other missions made key observations, creating prime periods for data-model comparison. The GEM community has come together to simulate this period using many different methods in order to evaluate models, compare results, and expand our knowledge of ionospheric outflow and its effects on global dynamics. This paper presents Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) simulations of these important periods compared against observations from the Polar TIDE, Cluster CODIF and EFW instruments. Emphasis will be given to the second event. Density and velocity of oxygen and hydrogen throughout the lobes, plasma sheet, and inner magnetosphere will be the focus of these comparisons. For these simulations, the SWMF couples the multifluid version of BATS-R-US MHD to a variety of ionospheric outflow models of varying complexity. The simplest is outflow arising from constant MHD inner boundary conditions. Two first-principles-based models are also leveraged: the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM), a fluid treatment of outflow dynamics, and the Generalized Polar Wind (GPW) model, which combines fluid and particle-in-cell approaches. Each model is capable of capturing a different set of energization mechanisms, yielding different outflow results. The data-model comparisons will illustrate how well each approach captures reality and which energization mechanisms are most important. Inter-model comparisons will illustrate how the different outflow specifications affect the magnetosphere. Specifically, it is found that the GPW provides increased heavy ion outflow over a broader spatial range than the alternative

  2. LRO Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Far-UV Investigations of Lunar Composition, Porosity, and Space Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Mandt, K. E.; Gladstone, R.; Hendrix, A.; Cahill, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Grava, C.; Hurley, D.; Egan, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Raut, U.; Byron, B. D.; Magana, L. O.; Stickle, A. M.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Pryor, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Far ultraviolet reflectance measurements of the Moon, icy satellites, comets, and asteroids have proven surprisingly useful for advancing our understanding of planetary surfaces. This new appreciation for planetary far-UV imaging spectroscopy is provided in large part thanks to nearly a decade of investigations with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP). LAMP has demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, putting a new light on permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and other features on the Moon. Dayside far-UV albedo maps complement the nightside data, enabling comparisons of direct and hemispheric (diffuse) illumination derived albedos. We'll discuss the strengths of the far-UV reflectance imaging spectroscopy technique with respect to several new LAMP results. Detections of water frost and hydration signatures near 165 nm, for example, provide constraints on composition that complement infrared spectroscopy, visible imaging, neutron spectroscopy, radar, and other techniques. LRO's polar orbit and high data downlink capabilities enable searches for diurnal variations in spectral signals. At far-UV wavelengths a relatively blue spectral slope is diagnostic of space weathering, which is opposite of the spectral reddening indicator of maturity at wavelengths longward of 180 nm. By utilizing natural diffuse illumination sources on the nightside the far-UV technique is able to identify relative increases in porosity within the PSRs, and provides an additional tool for determining relative surface ages. On