Sample records for monitor slope failure

  1. 3D geodetic monitoring slope deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Gabriel


    Full Text Available For plenty of slope failures that can be found in Slovakia is necessary and very important their geodetic monitoring (because of their activity, reactivisations, checks. The paper gives new methodologies for these works, using 3D terrestrial survey technologies for measurements in convenient deformation networks. The design of an optimal type of deformation model for various kinds of landslides and their exact processing with an efficient testing procedure to determine the kinematics of the slope deformations are presented too.

  2. Storm-Induced Slope Failure Susceptibility Mapping (United States)


    A pilot study was conducted to characterize and map the areas susceptible to slope failure using state-wide available data. The objective was to determine whether it would be possible to provide slope-failure susceptibility mapping that could be used...

  3. Slope failure investigation management system. (United States)


    Highway slopes are exposed to a variety of environmental and climatic conditions, such as deforestation, cycles of : freezing and thawing weather, and heavy storms. Over time, these climatic conditions, in combination with other : factors such as geo...

  4. Centrifuge model test of rock slope failure caused by seismic excitation. Plane failure of dip slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Makoto; Kawai, Tadashi


    Recently, it is necessary to assess quantitatively seismic safety of critical facilities against the earthquake induced rock slope failure from the viewpoint of seismic PSA. Under these circumstances, it is essential to evaluate more accurately the possibilities of rock slope failure and the potential failure boundary, which are triggered by earthquake ground motions. The purpose of this study is to analyze dynamic failure characteristics of rock slopes by centrifuge model tests for verification and improvement of the analytical methods. We conducted a centrifuge model test using a dip slope model with discontinuities limitated by Teflon sheets. The centrifugal acceleration was 50G, and the acceleration amplitude of input sin waves increased gradually at every step. The test results were compared with safety factors of the stability analysis based on the limit equilibrium concept. Resultant conclusions are mainly as follows: (1) The slope model collapsed when it was excited by the sine wave of 400gal, which was converted to real field scale, (2) Artificial discontinuities were considerably concerned in the collapse, and the type of collapse was plane failure, (3) From response acceleration records observed at the slope model, we can say that tension cracks were generated near the top of the slope model during excitation, and that might be cause of the collapse, (4) By considering generation of the tension cracks in the stability analysis, correspondence of the analytical results and the experimental results improved. From the obtained results, we need to consider progressive failure in evaluating earthquake induced rock slope failure. (author)

  5. Radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtazaev, Kh.; Boboev, B.D.; Bolibekov, Sh.; Akhmedov, M.Z.


    Present article is devoted to radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau. The physicochemical properties of water of northern slopes of Mogoltau were studied. The radiation monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau was carried out during several years under various weather conditions. The exposure rate of human settlements of northern part of Mogoltau was defined.

  6. Heart failure - home monitoring (United States)

    ... this page: // Heart failure - home monitoring To use the sharing features on ... your high blood pressure Fast food tips Heart failure - discharge Heart failure - fluids and diuretics Heart failure - what to ...

  7. Slope stability radar for monitoring mine walls (United States)

    Reeves, Bryan; Noon, David A.; Stickley, Glen F.; Longstaff, Dennis


    Determining slope stability in a mining operation is an important task. This is especially true when the mine workings are close to a potentially unstable slope. A common technique to determine slope stability is to monitor the small precursory movements, which occur prior to collapse. The slope stability radar has been developed to remotely scan a rock slope to continuously monitor the spatial deformation of the face. Using differential radar interferometry, the system can detect deformation movements of a rough wall with sub-millimeter accuracy, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. The effects of atmospheric variations and spurious signals can be reduced via signal processing means. The advantage of radar over other monitoring techniques is that it provides full area coverage without the need for mounted reflectors or equipment on the wall. In addition, the radar waves adequately penetrate through rain, dust and smoke to give reliable measurements, twenty-four hours a day. The system has been trialed at three open-cut coal mines in Australia, which demonstrated the potential for real-time monitoring of slope stability during active mining operations.

  8. Dip-slope and Dip-slope Failures in Taiwan - a Review (United States)

    Lee, C.


    Taiwan is famous for dip-slope and dip-slope slides. Dip-slopes exist at many places in the fold-and-thrust belt of Taiwan. Under active cutting of stream channels and man-made excavations, a dip-slope may become unstable and susceptible for mass sliding. Daylight of a bedding parallel clay seam is the most dangerous type for dip-slope sliding. Buckling or shear-off features may also happen at toe of a long dip-slope. Besides, a dip-slope is also dangerous for shallow debris slides, if the slope angle is between 25 to 45 degrees and the debris (colluvium or slope wash) is thick (>1m). These unstable slopes may slide during a triggering event, earthquake or typhoon storm; or even slide without a triggering event, like the 2010 Tapu case. Initial buckling feature had been found in the dip-slope of the Feitsui arch dam abutment after detailed explorations. Shear-off feature have also been found in dip-slope located in right bank of the Nahua reservoir after field investigation and drilling. The Chiufengerhshan slide may also be shear-off type. On the other hand, the Tapu, the Tsaoling slides and others are of direct slide type. The Neihoo Bishan slide is a shallow debris slide on dip-slope. All these cases demonstrate the four different types of dip-slope slide. The hazard of a dip-slope should be investigated to cover these possible types of failure. The existence of bedding parallel clay seams is critical for the stability of a dip-slope, either for direct slide or buckling or shear-off type of failure, and is a hot point during investigation. Because, the stability of a dip-slope is changing with time, therefore, detailed explorations to including weathering and erosion rates are also very necessary to ensure the long-term stability of a dip-slope.

  9. Deformation and failure mechanism of slope in three dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfa Lu


    Full Text Available Understanding three-dimensional (3D slope deformation and failure mechanism and corresponding stability analyses are crucially important issues in geotechnical engineering. In this paper, the mechanisms of progressive failure with thrust-type and pull-type landslides are described in detail. It is considered that the post-failure stress state and the pre-peak stress state may occur at different regions of a landslide body with deformation development, and a critical stress state element (or the soil slice block exists between the post-failure stress state and the pre-peak stress state regions. In this regard, two sorts of failure modes are suggested for the thrust-type and three sorts for pull-type landslides, based on the characteristics of shear stress and strain (or tensile stress and strain. Accordingly, a new joint constitutive model (JCM is proposed based on the current stability analytical theories, and it can be used to describe the mechanical behaviors of geo-materials with softening properties. Five methods, i.e. CSRM (comprehensive sliding resistance method, MTM (main thrust method, CDM (comprehensive displacement method, SDM (surplus displacement method, and MPM (main pull method, for slope stability calculation are proposed. The S-shaped curve of monitored displacement vs. time is presented for different points on the sliding surface during progressive failure process of landslide, and the relationship between the displacement of different points on the sliding surface and height of landslide body is regarded as the parabolic curve. The comparisons between the predicted and observed load–displacement and displacement–time relations of the points on the sliding surface are conducted. The classification of stable/unstable displacement–time curves is proposed. The definition of the main sliding direction of a landslide is also suggested in such a way that the failure body of landslide (simplified as “collapse body” is only

  10. Slope failure investigation management system : [research summary]. (United States)


    Highway slopes are exposed to a variety of environmental and climatic conditions, : such as deforestation, cycles of freezing and thawing weather, and heavy storms. : Over time, these climatic conditions, in combination with other factors such as : g...

  11. Application of distinct element method of toppling failure of slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Ito, Hiroshi


    The authors have pointed out, in the latest report, that DEM (Distinct Element Method) seems to be a very helpful numerical method to examine the stability of fissured rock slopes, in which toppling failure would occur during earthquakes. In this report, the applicability of DEM for such rock slopes is examined through the following comparisons between theoretical results and DEM results, referring Voegele's works (1982): (1) Stability of one block on a slope. (2) Failure of a rock block column composed of 10 same size rectangular blocks. (3) Cable force required to make a slope stable. Through above 3 comparisons, it seems that DEM give the reasonable results. Considering that these problems may not be treated by the other numerical methods such as FEM and so on, so DEM seems to be a very useful method for fissured rock slope analysis. (author)

  12. Application of distinct element method to toppling failure of slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Asai, Yoshiyuki.


    Recently, the stability of slopes during earthquakes has become to be an important engineering problem, especially in case of the earthquake-proof design of nuclear power plants. But, for fissured rock slopes, some problems are remained unresolved, because they can not be treated as continua. The authors have been investigating toppling failure of slopes, from a point of view which regards a fissured rock mass as an assemblage of rigid blocks. DEM (Distinct Element Method) proposed by Cundall (1974) seems to be very helpful to such a investigation. So, in this paper, the applicability of DEM to toppling failure of slopes is examined through the comparison between DEM results and theoretical or experimental results using 3 simple models. (author)

  13. Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method (United States)

    Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson


    Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.

  14. Slope failure susceptibility zonation using integrated remote sensing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    In view of the above, hazard assessment was necessary to identify area with ... Singrauli coalfield and surrounding regions comprise of two distinct .... highwall slope failure susceptibility zonation was done using multi-layered ... iii) generation of false colour composites (band combinations and ratioing) iv) generation of.

  15. Submarine slope failures due to pipe structure formation. (United States)

    Elger, Judith; Berndt, Christian; Rüpke, Lars; Krastel, Sebastian; Gross, Felix; Geissler, Wolfram H


    There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability. Hydrates reduce sediment permeability and cause build-up of overpressure at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Resulting hydro-fracturing forms pipe structures as pathways for overpressured fluids to migrate upward. Where these pipe structures reach shallow permeable beds, this overpressure transfers laterally and destabilises the slope. This process reconciles the spatial correlation of submarine landslides and gas hydrate, and it is independent of environmental change and water depth.

  16. Forecasting slope failures from space-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements (United States)

    Wasowski, J.; Bovenga, F.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Chiaradia, M. T.; Tijani, K.; Morea, A.


    New space-borne radar sensors enable multi-scale monitoring of potentially unstable slopes thanks to wide-area coverage (tens of thousands km2), regular long-term image acquisition schedule with increasing re-visit frequency (weekly to daily), and high measurement precision (mm). In particular, the recent radar satellite missions e.g., COSMO-SkyMed (CSK), Sentinel-1 (S-1) and improved multi-temporal interferometry (MTI) processing techniques allow timely delivery of information on slow ground surface displacements. Here we use two case study examples to show that it is possible to capture pre-failure slope strains through long-term MTI-based monitoring. The first case is a retrospective investigation of a huge 500ML m3 landslide, which occurred in Sept. 2016 in a large, active open-cast coal mine in central Europe. We processed over 100 S-1 images acquired since Fall 2014. The MTI results showed that the slope that failed had been unstable at least since 2014. Importantly, we detected consistent displacement trends and trend changes, which can be used for slope failure forecasting. Specifically, we documented significant acceleration in slope surface displacement in the two months preceding the catastrophic failure. The second case of retrospectively captured pre-failure slope strains regards our earlier study of a small 50 m long landslide, which occurred on Jan. 2014 and caused the derailment of a train on the railway line connecting NW Italy to France. We processed 56 CSK images acquired from Fall 2008 to Spring 2014. The MTI results revealed pre-failure displacements of the engineering structures on the slope subsequently affected by the 2014 slide. The analysis of the MTI time series further showed that the displacements had been occurring since 2009. This information could have been used to forewarn the railway authority about the slope instability hazard. The above examples indicate that more frequent and consistent image acquisitions by the new radar

  17. Development of a GIS-based failure investigation system for highway soil slopes (United States)

    Ramanathan, Raghav; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Tanyu, Burak F.


    A framework for preparation of an early warning system was developed for Maryland, using a GIS database and a collective overlay of maps that highlight highway slopes susceptible to soil slides or slope failures in advance through spatial and statistical analysis. Data for existing soil slope failures was collected from geotechnical reports and field visits. A total of 48 slope failures were recorded and analyzed. Six factors, including event precipitation, geological formation, land cover, slope history, slope angle, and elevation were considered to affect highway soil slope stability. The observed trends indicate that precipitation and poor surface or subsurface drainage conditions are principal factors causing slope failures. 96% of the failed slopes have an open drainage section. A majority of the failed slopes lie in regions with relatively high event precipitation ( P>200 mm). 90% of the existing failures are surficial erosion type failures, and only 1 out of the 42 slope failures is deep rotational type failure. More than half of the analyzed slope failures have occurred in regions having low density land cover. 46% of failures are on slopes with slope angles between 20° and 30°. Influx of more data relating to failed slopes should give rise to more trends, and thus the developed slope management system will aid the state highway engineers in prudential budget allocation and prioritizing different remediation projects based on the literature reviewed on the principles, concepts, techniques, and methodology for slope instability evaluation (Leshchinsky et al., 2015).

  18. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... survey perspective on the typical problems that can be expected during slope monitoring using total station (also known as prism monitoring) and second, to suggest ways of mitigating such problems. The aim is to create awareness of the implications of incorrect use or negligence during slope monitoring surveys utilising ...

  19. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    implications of incorrect use or negligence during slope monitoring surveys ... Data collection, processing and the presentation of results in a concise format ..... There are several software packages on the market for total station error propagation, ..... Thomas, H.G., 2011, Slope stability prism monitoring: A guide for practising ...

  20. Monitoring System for Slope Stability under Rainfall by using MEMS Acceleration Sensor IC tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S; Dairaku, A; Komine, H; Saito, O; Sakai, N; Isizawa, T; Maruyama, I


    Real-time warning system for slope failure under rainfall is available to disaster prevention and mitigation. Monitoring of multi-point and wireless measurements is effective because it is difficult to conclude the most dangerous part in a slope. The purpose of this study is to propose a method of monitoring system with multi-point and wireless measurements for a slope stability using MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is an acceleration sensor microminiaturized by a technology of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems on board IC tag. Especially, low cost of the sensor will yield to the realization of the system. In order to investigate the applicability of the proposed system, a large-scale model test of artificial slope subjected to rainfall has been performed. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags has been located on the slope and ground acceleration caused by forced vibration has been measured until the model slope collapses. The experimental results show that the MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is comfortably available under rainfall, the characteristics of ground accelerations varies with changing the condition of the slope subjected to rainfall, and the proposed method can be applied to a real-time monitoring system for slope failure under rainfall.

  1. A hazard and risk classification system for catastrophic rock slope failures in Norway (United States)

    Hermanns, R.; Oppikofer, T.; Anda, E.; Blikra, L. H.; Böhme, M.; Bunkholt, H.; Dahle, H.; Devoli, G.; Eikenæs, O.; Fischer, L.; Harbitz, C. B.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Loew, S.; Yugsi Molina, F. X.


    The Geological Survey of Norway carries out systematic geologic mapping of potentially unstable rock slopes in Norway that can cause a catastrophic failure. As catastrophic failure we describe failures that involve substantial fragmentation of the rock mass during run-out and that impact an area larger than that of a rock fall (shadow angle of ca. 28-32° for rock falls). This includes therefore rock slope failures that lead to secondary effects, such as a displacement wave when impacting a water body or damming of a narrow valley. Our systematic mapping revealed more than 280 rock slopes with significant postglacial deformation, which might represent localities of large future rock slope failures. This large number necessitates prioritization of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic monitoring and permanent monitoring and early-warning. In the past hazard and risk were assessed qualitatively for some sites, however, in order to compare sites so that political and financial decisions can be taken, it was necessary to develop a quantitative hazard and risk classification system. A preliminary classification system was presented and discussed with an expert group of Norwegian and international experts and afterwards adapted following their recommendations. This contribution presents the concept of this final hazard and risk classification that should be used in Norway in the upcoming years. Historical experience and possible future rockslide scenarios in Norway indicate that hazard assessment of large rock slope failures must be scenario-based, because intensity of deformation and present displacement rates, as well as the geological structures activated by the sliding rock mass can vary significantly on a given slope. In addition, for each scenario the run-out of the rock mass has to be evaluated. This includes the secondary effects such as generation of displacement waves or landslide damming of valleys with the potential of later

  2. Laboratory and 3-D-distinct element analysis of failure mechanism of slope under external surcharge (United States)

    Li, N.; Cheng, Y. M.


    Landslide is a major disaster resulting in considerable loss of human lives and property damages in hilly terrain in Hong Kong, China and many other countries. The factor of safety and the critical slip surface for slope stabilization are the main considerations for slope stability analysis in the past, while the detailed post-failure conditions of the slopes have not been considered in sufficient details. There are however increasing interest on the consequences after the initiation of failure which includes the development and propagation of the failure surfaces, the amount of failed mass and runoff and the affected region. To assess the development of slope failure in more details and to consider the potential danger of slopes after failure has initiated, the slope stability problem under external surcharge is analyzed by the distinct element method (DEM) and laboratory model test in the present research. A more refined study about the development of failure, microcosmic failure mechanism and the post-failure mechanism of slope will be carried out. The numerical modeling method and the various findings from the present work can provide an alternate method of analysis of slope failure which can give additional information not available from the classical methods of analysis.

  3. A modified risk evaluation method of slope failure in a heavy rain. For application to slopes in widespread area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shiro; Kobayakawa, Hiroaki


    A risk evaluation method of slope failure has developed to combine gas-liquid two phase flow analysis as a rainfall infiltration analysis and elastic-plastic finite element analysis as a slope stability analysis and has applied to a slope field. This method, however, had a difficulty to apply to many slopes since it needed many parameters to calculate the risk of the slope failure. The method was simplified to lessen input parameters which included an inclination and length of a slope, a depth of bedrock and a rainfall pattern assuming that hydraulic properties and mechanical properties were similar for the same geological unit. The method was also modified to represent a water collection structure, a surface runoff, an existence of a forest road and a water level variation of a downward river / pond which could affect infiltration phenomena. Results of the simplification and the modification made it possible to enhance a prediction precision of the method and create a hazard map of slopes in widespread area. (author)

  4. Tracing the source of emerging seepage water at failure slope downstream, Kampung Bharu Bukit Tinggi, Bentong, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakam Mejus; Wan Zakaria Wan Mohd Tahir; Md Shahid Ayub; Jeremy Andy; Johari Latif


    This paper discusses method and monitoring result of the source of seepage water emerging (mud flow) at downstream toe of the failure slope at Kampung Bharu Bukit Tinggi, Bentong Pahang. In this investigation, a saline-tracer experiment was conducted by injecting its solution into a drain at an upstream section (old road to Janda Baik town) where a pipeline was found leaking in the vicinity of the roadside and flowing towards hill slopes. Some parts of flowing water was left undetected and seeped through the soil on its way to downstream area. Seepage water downstream was monitored by using a conductivity sensor hooked up to a CR10X data logger and optical back scattering conductivity probes. From the result, it is believed that the source of seepage water is related to the water from the leaking pipeline upstream. The travelling time for the leaking water to reach downstream slope failure was within 16-17 hours. Based on this preliminary investigation, one can conclude that seepage water is one of the main contributing factors that cause slope failure in the vicinity of the investigated hill slopes. Further investigation to understand the failure mechanism at this place by conducting multi-experimental approaches in different seasons, particularly during continuous rain storms. (Author)

  5. A model for predicting embankment slope failures in clay-rich soils; A Louisiana example (United States)

    Burns, S. F.


    A model for predicting embankment slope failures in clay-rich soils; A Louisiana example It is well known that smectite-rich soils significantly reduce the stability of slopes. The question is how much smectite in the soil causes slope failures. A study of over 100 sites in north and south Louisiana, USA, compared slopes that failed during a major El Nino winter (heavy rainfall) in 1982-1983 to similar slopes that did not fail. Soils in the slopes were tested for per cent clay, liquid limits, plasticity indices and semi-quantitative clay mineralogy. Slopes with the High Risk for failure (85-90% chance of failure in 8-15 years after construction) contained soils with a liquid limit > 54%, a plasticity index over 29%, and clay contents > 47%. Slopes with an Intermediate Risk (55-50% chance of failure in 8-15 years) contained soils with a liquid limit between 36-54%, plasticity index between 16-19%, and clay content between 32-47%. Slopes with a Low Risk chance of failure (soils with a liquid limit plasticity index soil characteristics before construction. If the soils fall into the Low Risk classification, construct the embankment normally. If the soils fall into the High Risk classification, one will need to use lime stabilization or heat treatments to prevent failures. Soils in the Intermediate Risk class will have to be evaluated on a case by case basis.

  6. Human-induced geomorphology: Modeling slope failure in Dominical, Costa Rica using Landsat imagery (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J.

    Unchecked human development has ravaged the region between Dominical and Uvita, Costa Rica. Much of the development transition has been driven by tourism and further foreign direct investment in residential, service and commercial enterprises. The resulting land-use/land-cover change has removed traditional forest cover in exchange for impervious surfaces, physical structures, and bare ground which is no longer mechanically supported by woody vegetation. Combined with a tropical climate, deeply weathered soils and lithography which are prone to erosion, land cover change has led to an increase in slope failure occurrences. Given the remoteness of the Dominical-Uvita region, its rate of growth and the lack of monitoring, new techniques for monitoring land use and slope failure susceptibility are needed. Two new indices are presented here that employ a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and widely available Landsat imagery to assist in this endeavor. The first index, or Vegetation Influenced Landslide Index (VILI), incorporates slope derived from a DEM and Lu et al.'s (2007) Surface Cover Index to quantify vegetative cover as a means of mechanical stabilization in landslide prone areas. The second index, or Slope Multiplier Index (SMI), uses individual Landsat data bands and basic Landsat band ratios as environmental proxies to replicate soil, vegetative and hydrologic properties. Both models achieve accuracy over 70% and rival results from more complicated published literature. The accuracy of the indices was assessed with the creation of a landslide inventory developed from field observations occurring in December 2007 and November 2008. The creation of these indices represents an efficient and accurate way of determining landslide susceptibility zonation in data poor areas where environmental protection practitioners may be overextended, under-trained or both.

  7. Seismic monitoring of the unstable rock slope at Aaknes, Norway (United States)

    Roth, M.; Blikra, L. H.


    The unstable rock slope at Aaknes has an estimated volume of about 70 million cubic meters, and parts of the slope are moving at a rate between 2-15 cm/year. Amongst many other direct monitoring systems we have installed a small-scale seismic network (8 three-component geophones over an area of 250 x 150 meters) in order to monitor microseismic events related to the movement of the slope. The network has been operational since November 2005 with only a few short-term outages. Seismic data are transferred in real-time from the site to NORSAR for automatic detection processing. The resulting detection lists and charts and the associated waveform are forwarded immediately to the early warning centre of the Municipality of Stranda. Furthermore, we make them available after a delay of about 10-15 minutes on our public project web page ( Seismic monitoring provides independent and complementary data to the more direct monitoring systems at Aaknes. We observe increased seismic activity in periods of heavy rain fall or snow melt, when laser ranging data and extensometer readings indicate temporary acceleration phases of the slope. The seismic network is too small and the velocity structure is too heterogeneous in order to obtain reliable localizations of the microseismic events. In summer 2009 we plan to install a high-sensitive broadband seismometer (60 s - 100 Hz) in the middle of the unstable slope. This will allow us to better constrain the locations of the microseismic events and to investigate potential low-frequency signals associated with the slope movement.

  8. Submarine slope failures along the convergent continental margin of the Middle America Trench (United States)

    Harders, Rieka; Ranero, CéSar R.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm; Behrmann, Jan H.


    We present the first comprehensive study of mass wasting processes in the continental slope of a convergent margin of a subduction zone where tectonic processes are dominated by subduction erosion. We have used multibeam bathymetry along ˜1300 km of the Middle America Trench of the Central America Subduction Zone and deep-towed side-scan sonar data. We found abundant evidence of large-scale slope failures that were mostly previously unmapped. The features are classified into a variety of slope failure types, creating an inventory of 147 slope failure structures. Their type distribution and abundance define a segmentation of the continental slope in six sectors. The segmentation in slope stability processes does not appear to be related to slope preconditioning due to changes in physical properties of sediment, presence/absence of gas hydrates, or apparent changes in the hydrogeological system. The segmentation appears to be better explained by changes in slope preconditioning due to variations in tectonic processes. The region is an optimal setting to study how tectonic processes related to variations in intensity of subduction erosion and changes in relief of the underthrusting plate affect mass wasting processes of the continental slope. The largest slope failures occur offshore Costa Rica. There, subducting ridges and seamounts produce failures with up to hundreds of meters high headwalls, with detachment planes that penetrate deep into the continental margin, in some cases reaching the plate boundary. Offshore northern Costa Rica a smooth oceanic seafloor underthrusts the least disturbed continental slope. Offshore Nicaragua, the ocean plate is ornamented with smaller seamounts and horst and graben topography of variable intensity. Here mass wasting structures are numerous and comparatively smaller, but when combined, they affect a large part of the margin segment. Farther north, offshore El Salvador and Guatemala the downgoing plate has no large seamounts but

  9. Physical and theoretical modeling of rock slopes against block-flexure toppling failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini


    Full Text Available Block-flexure is the most common mode of toppling failure in natural and excavated rock slopes. In such failure, some rock blocks break due to tensile stresses and some overturn under their own weights and then all of them topple together. In this paper, first, a brief review of previous studies on toppling failures is presented. Then, the physical and mechanical properties of experimental modeling materials are summarized. Next, the physical modeling results of rock slopes with the potential of block-flexural toppling failures are explained and a new analytical solution is proposed for the stability analysis of such slopes. The results of this method are compared with the outcomes of the experiments. The comparative studies show that the proposed analytical approach is appropriate for the stability analysis of rock slopes against block-flexure toppling failure. Finally, a real case study is used for the practical verification of the suggested method.

  10. Towards a geophysical decision-support system for monitoring and managing unstable slopes (United States)

    Chambers, J. E.; Meldrum, P.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Uhlemann, S.; Swift, R. T.; Inauen, C.; Gunn, D.; Kuras, O.; Whiteley, J.; Kendall, J. M.


    Conventional approaches for condition monitoring, such as walk over surveys, remote sensing or intrusive sampling, are often inadequate for predicting instabilities in natural and engineered slopes. Surface observations cannot detect the subsurface precursors to failure events; instead they can only identify failure once it has begun. On the other hand, intrusive investigations using boreholes only sample a very small volume of ground and hence small scale deterioration process in heterogeneous ground conditions can easily be missed. It is increasingly being recognised that geophysical techniques can complement conventional approaches by providing spatial subsurface information. Here we describe the development and testing of a new geophysical slope monitoring system. It is built around low-cost electrical resistivity tomography instrumentation, combined with integrated geotechnical logging capability, and coupled with data telemetry. An automated data processing and analysis workflow is being developed to streamline information delivery. The development of this approach has provided the basis of a decision-support tool for monitoring and managing unstable slopes. The hardware component of the system has been operational at a number of field sites associated with a range of natural and engineered slopes for up to two years. We report on the monitoring results from these sites, discuss the practicalities of installing and maintaining long-term geophysical monitoring infrastructure, and consider the requirements of a fully automated data processing and analysis workflow. We propose that the result of this development work is a practical decision-support tool that can provide near-real-time information relating to the internal condition of problematic slopes.

  11. Ambient vibration characterization and monitoring of a rock slope close to collapse (United States)

    Burjánek, Jan; Gischig, Valentin; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Fäh, Donat


    We analyse the ambient vibration response of Alpe di Roscioro (AdR), an incipient rock slope failure located above the village Preonzo in southern Switzerland. Following a major failure in May 2012 (volume ˜210 000 m3), the remaining unstable rock mass (˜140 000 m3) remains highly fractured and disrupted, and has been the subject of intensive monitoring. We deployed a small-aperture seismic array at the site shortly after the 2012 failure. The measured seismic response exhibited strong directional amplification (factors up to 35 at 3.5 Hz), higher than previously recorded on rock slopes. The dominant direction of ground motion was found to be parallel to the predominant direction of deformation and perpendicular to open fractures, reflecting subsurface structure of the slope. We then equipped the site with two semi-permanent seismic stations to monitor the seismic response with the goal of identifying changes caused by internal damage that may precede subsequent failure. Although failure has not yet occurred, our data reveal important variations in the seismic response. Amplification factors and resonant frequencies exhibit seasonal trends related (both directly and inversely) to temperature changes and are sensitive to freezing periods (resonant frequencies increase with temperature and during freezing). We attribute these effects to thermal expansion driving microcrack closure, in addition to ice formation, which increase fracture and bulk rock stiffness. We find the site response at AdR is linear over the measured range of weak input motions spanning two orders of magnitude. Our results further develop and refine ambient vibration methods used in rock slope hazard assessment.

  12. Dynamic stability and failure modes of slopes in discontinuous rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Aydan, O.; Ichikawa, Yasuaki; Kawamoto, Toshikazu.


    The stability of rock slopes during earthquakes are of great concern in rock engineering works such as highway, dam, and nuclear power station constructions. As rock mass in nature is usually discontinuous, the stability of rock slopes will be geverned by the spatial distribution of discontinuities in relation with the geometry of slope and their mechanical properties rather than the rock element. The authors have carried out some model tests on discontinuous rock slopes using three different model tests techniques in order to investigate the dynamic behaviour and failure modes of the slopes in discontinuous rock mass. This paper describes the findings and observations made on model rock slopes with various discontinuity patterns and slope geometry. In addition some stability criterions are developed and the calculated results are compared with those of experiments. (author)

  13. Real time monitoring of slope condition for transmission tower safety in Kenyir, Malaysia (United States)

    Omar, R. C.; Ismail, A.; Khalid, N. H. N.; Din, N. M.; Hussain, H.; Jamaludin, M. Z.; Abdullah, F.; Arazad, A. Z.; Yusop, H.


    The Malaysia national electricity grid traverses throughout the nation over urban and rural areas including mountainous terrain. A major number of the transmission towers have been in existence for over 40 years and some traversed through very remote and high altitude areas like the Titiwangsa range that forms the backbone of the Malay Peninsula. This paper describes the instrumentation and real time monitoring in a transmission tower site in Kenyir, a hilly terrain in the East Coast of Malaysia. The site itself which is between 300-500m above sea level is deep in the rainforest area of Kenyir. The site and surrounding areas has been identified with signs of slope failure. A design concern is the real time slope monitoring sensors reliability and data integrity from the remote area with potential interference to the electronics equipment from the power line. The monitoring system comprised of an automated system for collecting and reporting field monitoring data. The instruments collect readings and transmit real time through GSM to the monitoring office over designated intervals. This initiative is a part of a project on developing an early warning system for monitoring landslide hazards at selected transmission towers. This paper reviews the various instrumentation used and challenges faced and the output received for slope movement warnings.

  14. Real time monitoring of slope condition for transmission tower safety in Kenyir, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, R C; Ismail, A; Khalid, N H N; Din, N M; Hussain, H; Jamaludin, M Z; Abdullah, F; Arazad, A Z; Yusop, H


    The Malaysia national electricity grid traverses throughout the nation over urban and rural areas including mountainous terrain. A major number of the transmission towers have been in existence for over 40 years and some traversed through very remote and high altitude areas like the Titiwangsa range that forms the backbone of the Malay Peninsula. This paper describes the instrumentation and real time monitoring in a transmission tower site in Kenyir, a hilly terrain in the East Coast of Malaysia. The site itself which is between 300–500m above sea level is deep in the rainforest area of Kenyir. The site and surrounding areas has been identified with signs of slope failure. A design concern is the real time slope monitoring sensors reliability and data integrity from the remote area with potential interference to the electronics equipment from the power line. The monitoring system comprised of an automated system for collecting and reporting field monitoring data. The instruments collect readings and transmit real time through GSM to the monitoring office over designated intervals. This initiative is a part of a project on developing an early warning system for monitoring landslide hazards at selected transmission towers. This paper reviews the various instrumentation used and challenges faced and the output received for slope movement warnings.

  15. NEESROCK: A Physical and Numerical Modeling Investigation of Seismically Induced Rock-Slope Failure (United States)

    Applegate, K. N.; Wartman, J.; Keefer, D. K.; Maclaughlin, M.; Adams, S.; Arnold, L.; Gibson, M.; Smith, S.


    Worldwide, seismically induced rock-slope failures have been responsible for approximately 30% of the most significant landslide catastrophes of the past century. They are among the most common, dangerous, and still today, least understood of all seismic hazards. Seismically Induced Rock-Slope Failure: Mechanisms and Prediction (NEESROCK) is a major research initiative that fully integrates physical modeling (geotechnical centrifuge) and advanced numerical simulations (discrete element modeling) to investigate the fundamental mechanisms governing the stability of rock slopes during earthquakes. The research is part of the National Science Foundation-supported Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEES) program. With its focus on fractures and rock materials, the project represents a significant departure from the traditional use of the geotechnical centrifuge for studying soil, and pushes the boundaries of physical modeling in new directions. In addition to advancing the fundamental understanding of the rock-slope failure process under seismic conditions, the project is developing improved rock-slope failure assessment guidelines, analysis procedures, and predictive tools. Here, we provide an overview of the project, present experimental and numerical modeling results, discuss special considerations for the use of synthetic rock materials in physical modeling, and address the suitability of discrete element modeling for simulating the dynamic rock-slope failure process.

  16. Long term SAR interferometry monitoring for assessing changing levels of slope instability hazards (United States)

    Wasowski, J.; Ferretti, A.

    The population growth with increasing impact of man on the environment and urbanisation of areas susceptible to slope failures coupled with the ongoing change in climate patterns will require a shift in the approaches to landslide hazard reduction Indeed there is evidence that landslide activity and related socio-economic loss are increasing in both rich and less developed countries throughout the world Because of this and because the urbanisation of hillside and mountain slopes prone to failure will likely continue in the future the protection of new and pre-existing developed areas via traditional engineering stabilisation works and in situ monitoring is not considered economically feasible Furthermore in most cases the ground control systems are installed post-factum and for short term monitoring and hence their role in preventing disasters is limited Considering the global dimension of the slope instability problem a sustainable road to landslide hazard reduction seems to be via exploitation of EO systems with focus on early detection long term monitoring and early warning Thanks to the wide-area coverage regular schedule and improving resolution of space-borne sensors the EO can foster the auspicious shift from a culture of repair to a culture of awarness and prevention Under this scenario the space-borne synthetic aperture radar differential interferometry DInSAR is attractive because of its capability to provide both wide-area and spatially dense information on surface displacements Since the presence of movements represents a direct evidence of

  17. Slope failures in surface mines, methods of studying landslides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flisiak, J; Korman, S; Mazurek, J


    This paper presents a review of methods of measuring landslide fissures, displacement of ground surface points in the landslide area and of points inside the landslide. An analysis of the landslide process is given, stressing various stages and phases of a landslide. Studies carried out by the Institute of Mining Geomechanics of the Technical University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow are evaluated. The studies concentrated on the final state of slopes in brown coal surface mines after a landslide occurs. The necessity of developing an apparatus for continuous recording of displacements of points on a landslide surface is stressed. An apparatus developed by the Institute and used for continuous measuring and recording of displacements is described. The apparatus is used to measure displacements of points during the initial phase of a landslide and during the phase of the largest displacements. The principle of the system consists in locating a number of observation points on the ground and a slope. The points are connected among themselves by flexible connectors. The connectors are equipped with potentiometric transmitters which transform the relative displacements into electric pulses. These pulses are recorded by a conventional recording apparatus. (55 refs.) (In Polish)

  18. Efficient Meshfree Large Deformation Simulation of Rainfall Induced Soil Slope Failure (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Li, Ling


    An efficient Lagrangian Galerkin meshfree framework is presented for large deformation simulation of rainfall-induced soil slope failure. Detailed coupled soil-rainfall seepage equations are given for the proposed formulation. This nonlinear meshfree formulation is featured by the Lagrangian stabilized conforming nodal integration method where the low cost nature of nodal integration approach is kept and at the same time the numerical stability is maintained. The initiation and evolution of progressive failure in the soil slope is modeled by the coupled constitutive equations of isotropic damage and Drucker-Prager pressure-dependent plasticity. The gradient smoothing in the stabilized conforming integration also serves as a non-local regularization of material instability and consequently the present method is capable of effectively capture the shear band failure. The efficacy of the present method is demonstrated by simulating the rainfall-induced failure of two typical soil slopes.

  19. Challenges in monitoring and managing engineered slopes in a changing climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Paul N


    Full Text Available Geotechnical asset owners need to know which parts of their asset network are vulnerable to climate change induced failure in order to optimise future investment. Protecting these vulnerable slopes requires monitoring systems capable of identifying and alerting to asset operators changes in the internal conditions that precede failure. Current monitoring systems are heavily reliant on point sensors which can be difficult to interpret across slope scale. This paper presents challenges to producing such a system and research being carried out to address some of these using electrical resistance tomography (ERT. Experimental results show that whilst it is possible to measure soil water content indirectly via resistivity the relationship between resistivity and water content will change over time for a given slope. If geotechnical parameters such as pore water pressure are to be estimated using this method then ERT systems will require integrating with more conventional geotechnical instrumentation to ensure correct representative information is provided. The paper also presents examples of how such data can be processed and communicated to asset owners for the purposes of asset management.

  20. Application of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) in monitoring slope movements in Nainital, Uttarakhand Lesser Himalaya, India (United States)

    Yhokha, Akano; Goswami, Pradeep K.; Chang, Chung-Pai; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Ching, Kuo-En; Aruche, K. Manini


    Orogenic movements and sub-tropical climate have rendered the slopes of the Himalayan region intensely deformed and weathered. As a result, the incidences of slope failure are quite common all along the Himalayan region. The Lesser Himalayan terrane is particularly vulnerable to mass-movements owing to geological fragility, and many parts of it are bearing a high-risk of associated disaster owing to the high population density. An important step towards mitigation of such disasters is the monitoring of slope movement. Towards this, the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique can be applied. In the present study, the PSI technique is employed in Lesser Himalayan town of Nainital in Uttarakhand state of India to decipher and monitor slope movements. A total of 15 multi-date ENVISAT ASAR satellite images, acquired during August 2008 to August 2010 period, were subjected to PSI, which revealed a continuous creep movement along the hillslopes located towards the eastern side of the Nainital lake. The higher reaches of the hill seem to be experiencing accelerated creep of {˜ }21 mm/year, which decreases downslope to {˜ }5 mm/year. Based on spatial pattern of varying PSI Mean LOS Velocity (MLV) values, high (H), moderate (M), low (L) and very low (S) creeping zones have been delineated in the hillslopes. Given the long history of mass movements and continuously increasing anthropogenic activities in Nainital, these results call for immediate measures to avert any future disaster in the town.

  1. Detection of resistance mutations and CD4 slopes in individuals experiencing sustained virological failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Paredes, Roger; Sabin, Caroline


    during the episode were included. Mutations were identified using the IAS-US (2013) list, and were presumed to be present from detection until the end of an episode. Multivariable linear mixed models with a random intercept and slope adjusted for age, baseline CD4 count, hepatitis C, drug type, RNA (log...... mutations on CD4 slopes in patients undergoing episodes of viral failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients from the EuroSIDA and UK CHIC cohorts undergoing at least one episode of virological failure (>3 consecutive RNA measurements >500 on ART) with at least three CD4 measurements and a resistance test......-scale), risk group and subtype were used to estimate CD4 slopes. Individual mutations with a population prevalence of >10% were tested for their effect on the CD4 slope. RESULTS: A total of 2731 patients experiencing a median of 1 (range 1-4) episodes were included in this analysis. The prevalence of any...

  2. Capturing pre-failure signs of slope instability using multi-temporal interferometry and Sentinel-1 data (United States)

    Wasowski, Janusz; Bovenga, Fabio; Nitti, Davide Oscar; Tijani, Khalid; Morea, Alberto; Nutricato, Raffaele; Chiaradia, Maria Teresa


    The shorter repeat cycle (6 days since October 2016) and regularity of acquisitions of Sentinel-1A/B with respect to earlier European Space Agency (ESA) satellites with C-band sensors (ERS1/2, ENVISAT) represent the key advantages for the research-oriented and practical applications of multi-temporal interferometry (MTI). The applicability of the Interferometric Wide Swath acquisition mode of Sentinel-1 (images covering a 250 km swath on the ground) to regional scale slope instability detection through MTI has already been demonstrated, e.g., via studies of landslide-prone areas in Italy. Here we focus on the potential of Sentinel-1 data for local (site-specific), MTI-based monitoring and capturing pre-failure signs of slope instability, by exploiting the Persistent and Distributed Scatterers processing capability of the SPINUA algorithm. In particular, we present an example of a retrospective study of a large (over 2 km long) landslide, which took place in 2016 in an active open-cast coal mine in central Europe. This seemingly sudden failure caused destruction of the mining equipment, blocked the mining operations thereby resulting in significant economic losses. For the study, we exploited over 60 Sentinel-1A/B images acquired since November 2014. The MTI results furnished a valuable overview of the ground instability/stability conditions within and around the active mine, even though considerable spatial gaps in information were encountered due to surface disturbance by mining operations. Significantly, the ground surface displacement time series revealed that the 2016 slope failure was preceded by very slow (generally 1-3 cm/yr) creep-like deformations, already present in 2014. The MTI results also indicated that the slope experienced a phase of accelerated movement several weeks prior to the landslide event. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal analysis of interferometric coherence changes in the unstable area (mapped on Sentinel-2 Bottom Of Atmosphere reflectance

  3. Hydrological modelling of a slope covered with shallow pyroclastic deposits from field monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Greco


    Full Text Available A one-dimensional hydrological model of a slope covered with pyroclastic materials is proposed. The soil cover is constituted by layers of loose volcanic ashes and pumices, with a total thickness between 1.8 m and 2.5 m, lying upon a fractured limestone bedrock. The mean inclination of the slope is around 40°, slightly larger than the friction angle of the ashes. Thus, the equilibrium of the slope, significantly affected by the cohesive contribution exerted by soil suction in unsaturated conditions, may be altered by rainfall infiltration. The model assumes a single homogeneous soil layer occupying the entire depth of the cover, and takes into account seasonally variable canopy interception of precipitation and root water uptake by vegetation, mainly constituted by deciduous chestnut woods with a dense underbrush growing during late spring and summer. The bottom boundary condition links water potential at the soil–bedrock interface with the fluctuations of the water table of the aquifer located in the fractured limestone, which is conceptually modelled as a linear reservoir. Most of the model parameters have been assigned according to literature indications or from experimental data. Soil suction and water content data measured between 1 January 2011 and 20 July 2011 at a monitoring station installed along the slope allowed the remaining parameters to be identified. The calibrated model, which reproduced very closely the data of the calibration set, has been applied to the simulation of the hydrological response of the slope to the hourly precipitation record of 1999, when a large flow-like landslide was triggered close to the monitored location. The simulation results show that the lowest soil suction ever attained occurred just at the time the landslide was triggered, indicating that the model is capable of predicting slope failure conditions.

  4. The Effect of Rainfall Patterns on the Mechanisms of Shallow Slope Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Suradi


    Full Text Available This paper examines how rainfall patterns affect the mechanisms of shallow slope failure. Numerical modelling, utilising the commercial software SVFlux and SVSlope, was carried out for a coupled analysis of rainfall-induced slope seepage and instability, with reference to a shallow landslide took place in Jabiru, Northern Territory (NT Australia in 2007. Rainfall events were varied in terms of pattern in this analysis. The results revealed that slopes are sensitive to rainfall pattern when the rainfall intensity has a high degree of fluctuation at around the same value as that of saturated hydraulic conductivity. Average rainfall intensity at the beginning of a rainfall period plays a primary role in determining the rate of decrease in initial factor of safety (Fi towards minimum factor of safety (Fmin. The effect of rainfall events on the slope instability is attributed to the amount of rainwater infiltration into slope associated with rainfall pattern.

  5. An Analytical Solution for Block Toppling Failure of Rock Slopes during an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Guo


    Full Text Available Toppling failure is one of the most common failure types in the field. It always occurs in rock masses containing a group of dominant discontinuities dipping into the slope. Post-earthquake investigation has shown that many toppling rock slope failures have occurred during earthquakes. In this study, an analytical solution is presented on the basis of limit equilibrium analysis. The acceleration of seismic load as well as joint persistence within the block base, were considered in the analysis. The method was then applied into a shake table test of an anti-dip layered slope model. As predicted from the analytical method, blocks topple or slide from slope crest to toe progressively and the factor of safety decreases as the inputting acceleration increases. The results perfectly duplicate the deformation features and stability condition of the physical model under the shake table test. It is shown that the presented method is more universal than the original one and can be adopted to evaluate the stability of the slope with potential toppling failure under seismic loads.

  6. Freeze/Thaw-Induced Deformation Monitoring and Assessment of the Slope in Permafrost Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanner and GNSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Luo


    Full Text Available Most previous studies of the Qinghai-Tibet engineering corridor (QTEC have focused on the impacts of climate change on thaw-induced slope failures, whereas few have considered freeze-induced slope failures. Terrestrial laser scanning was used in combination with global navigation satellite systems to monitor three-dimensional surface changes between 2014 and 2015 on the slope of permafrost in the QTEC, which experienced two thawing periods and a freezing period. Soil temperature and moisture sensors were also deployed at 11 depths to reveal the hydrological–thermal dynamics of the active layer. We analyzed scanned surface changes in the slope based on comparisons of multi-temporal point cloud data to determine how the hydrological–thermal process affected active layer deformation during freeze–thaw cycles, thereby comprehensively quantifying the surface deformation. During the two thawing periods, the major structure of the slope exhibited subsidence trends, whereas the major structure of the slope had an uplift trend in the freezing period. The seasonal subsidence trend was caused by thaw settlement and the seasonal uplift trend was probably due to frost heaving. This occurred mainly because the active layer and the upper permafrost underwent a phase transition due to heat transfer. The ground movements occurred approximately in the soil temperature conduction direction between the top of the soil and the permafrost table. The elevation deformation range was mainly −0.20 m to 0.20 m. Surface volume increases with heaving after freezing could have compensated for the loss of thawing twice and still led to the upward swelling of the slope. Thus, this type of slope in permafrost is dominated by frost heave. Deformation characteristics of the slope will support enhanced decision making regarding the implementation of remote sensing and hydrological–thermal measurement technologies to monitor changes in the slopes in permafrost adjacent to

  7. Porosity determination from 2-D resistivity method in studying the slope failures (United States)

    Maslinda, Umi; Nordiana, M. M.; Bery, A. A.


    Slope failures have become the main focus for infrastructures development on hilly areas in Malaysia especially the development of tourism and residential. Lack of understanding and information of the subsoil conditions and geotechnical issues are the main cause of the slope failures. The failures happened are due to a combination of few factors such as topography, climate, geology and land use. 2-D resistivity method was conducted at the collapsed area in Selangor. The 2-D resistivity was done to study the instability of the area. The collapsed occurred because of the subsurface materials was unstable. Pole-dipole array was used with 5 m minimum electrode spacing for the 2-D resistivity method. The data was processed using Res2Dinv software and the porosity was calculated using Archie's law equation. The results show that the saturated zone (1-100 Ωm), alluvium or highly weathered rock (100-1000 Ωm), boulders (1600-7000 Ωm) and granitic bedrock (>7000 Ωm). Generally, the slope failures or landslides occur during the wet season or after rainfall. It is because of the water infiltrate to the slope and cause the saturation of the slope which can lead to landslides. Then, the porosity of saturated zone is usually high because of the water content. The area of alluvium or highly weathered rock and saturated zone have high porosity (>20%) and the high porosity also dominated at almost all the collapsed area which means that the materials with porosity >20% is potential to be saturated, unstable and might trigger slope failures.

  8. A Tilt, Soil Moisture, and Pore Water Pressure Sensor System for Slope Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanno de Dios


    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and characterization of a sensor network intended for monitoring of slope deformation and potential failures. The sensor network system consists of a tilt and moisture sensor column, a pore water pressure sensor column and a personal computer for data storage and processing. The tilt sensor column consists of several pipe segments containing tri-axial accelerometers and signal processing electronics. Each segment is joined together by flexible joints to allow for the column to deform and subsequently track underground movement. Capacitive-type sensors for soil moisture measurement are also included in the sensor column, which are used to measure the soil moisture at different depths. The measurements at each segment are transferred via a Controller Area Network (CAN bus, where the CAN master node is located at the top of the column above ground. The CAN master node transmits the collected data from the slave nodes via a wireless connection to a personal computer that performs data storage, processing and display via a Python-based graphical user interface (GUI. The entire system was deployed and characterized on a small-scale slope model. Slope failure was induced via water seepage and the system was demonstrated to ably measure the inclination and soil moisture content throughout the landslide event.

  9. Long term monitoring of landslide: observation gravitational slope cycles (United States)

    Palis, Edouard; Lebourg, Thomas; Vidal, Maurin


    Since several years of studies on landslides, we realized the role and subtle interactions that existed between the structural complexity, masses dynamics and complex internal circulation of fluids. Thus, to gain a better understanding of the processes taking place during the evolution of an unstable slope, an observational study is necessary. In this perspective, our team currently monitors slow moving landslide zones. The aim of such a monitoring is to gain a better knowledge of the links between external forcing (meteorological, seismological) and signals going out of the slope (kinematic, vibrations, electrical resistivity). In December 2000, a dramatic event affected the sandy/clayey landslide in the Southern Alpes Maritimes (France). A 10 meters high scarp appeared at the foot of the landslide and affected private yards nearby. This area then became a major concern for local authorities and understand the processes taking place, a scientific challenge. In order to understand the land-sliding reactivations and to quantify the natural cycles of deformations, we analyse the main factors of this complex system. After 10 years of observation we are now able to highlight some of the complex behaviours by the measurement of physical parameters (geophysical monitoring). A permanent 115 m ERT line (5 meters electrode spacing) has been installed and provides an acquisition daily since 2006. The daily acquisitions are now accompanied by continuous measurements from boreholes (thermometers, piezometers, tiltmeters) and pluviometry. We are able to control the whole monitoring from the lab, and all these data are transmitted in real time. The analysis of these large amounts of data over large time series allows the detection of seasonal cycles of surface activity. The deformation taking place can be assimilated to a near-elastic deformation and show a lateral decoupling on both sides of the fault cutting the landslide. These deformation cycles can be associated with the

  10. Significance of the actual nonlinear slope geometry for catastrophic failure in submarine landslides. (United States)

    Puzrin, Alexander M; Gray, Thomas E; Hill, Andrew J


    A simple approach to slope stability analysis of naturally occurring, mild nonlinear slopes is proposed through extension of shear band propagation (SBP) theory. An initial weak zone appears in the steepest part of the slope where the combined action of gravity and seismic loads overcomes the degraded peak shear resistance of the soil. If the length of this steepest part is larger than the critical length, the shear band will propagate into the quasi-stable parts of the slope, where the gravitational and seismically induced shear stresses are smaller than the peak but larger than the residual shear strength of the soil. Growth of a shear band is strongly dependent on the shape of the slope, seismic parameters and the strength of soil and less dependent on the slope inclination and the sensitivity of clay. For the slope surface with faster changing inclination, the criterion is more sensitive to the changes of the parameters. Accounting for the actual nonlinear slope geometry eliminates the main challenge of the SBP approach-determination of the length of the initial weak zone, because the slope geometry can be readily obtained from submarine site investigations. It also helps to identify conditions for the early arrest of the shear band, before failure in the sliding layer or a change in loading or excess pore water pressures occurs. The difference in the size of a landslide predicted by limiting equilibrium and SBP approaches can reach orders of magnitude, potentially providing an explanation for the immense dimensions of many observed submarine landslides that may be caused by local factors acting over a limited portion of the slope.

  11. Slope failure at Bukit Antarabangsa, Ampang, Selangor and its relationship to physical soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Barzani Gasim; Sahibin Abd Rahim; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Diyana Ishnin


    Slope failure which occurred on 6 December 2008 at Bukit Antarabangsa, Ampang Selangor has caused mortalities and loss of properties whereas more than 20 houses were flattened. Prior to slope failure, it was heavily down poured for a few hours that increased the soil saturation and plasticity properties. A total of 10 soil samples were randomly taken from stable and unstable slopes to determine physical soil properties, infiltration rate and their relationship to rainfall pattern. Soils were analyzed in terms of their physical properties; five years (2005-2009) of daily rainfalls were analyzed to determine their relationship to infiltration rate at each sampling station. Infiltration rate is determined by using infiltrometer double ring. Analysis of physical soils properties shows that soil texture was dominated by sandy soil with relatively high percentage of sand. Values of clay dispersion coefficient were relatively stable to very stable from 0.013 % to 11.85 % and organic content from 1.38 % to 2.74 %. Range of porosity was from 50.12 % to 62.31 %, while the average levels of hydraulic conductivity was from level 2 to 5 or relatively slow to fast. Percentage of soil aggregate stability was from 5.12 % to 48.42 % and this value indicates that relative strength of soil mechanical pressure is inversely proportional to the percentage of water content. Soil plasticity value was high to very high but characterized by inactive colloids. Distribution of monthly rainfall was from 38 mm to 427 mm. The infiltration rate during sampling time was from 3.0 cm/ hr to 7.0 cm/ hr; but it was expected from 10.94 cm/ hr to 915.05 cm/ hr during slope failures. Overall, it was interpreted that physical soil properties was closely interrelated with slope stability, structure of sandy soil will enhanced soil porosity stage and enhance the infiltration process during heavy rainfall, and finally triggering of slope failure. (author)

  12. Geological Aspect of Slope Failure and Mitigation Approach in Bireun - Takengon Main Road, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Rusydy


    Full Text Available A soil and rock slope assessment survey was conducted along Bireun – Takengon main road in Aceh Province, Indonesia. The slope assessment survey was carried out to determine the geological condition, verify and identify the potential areas of slope failure and to study what type of slope stability and protection method could be applied to the road. Several research methodologies were conducted in the field such as rock and soil identification, and slope assessment. The survey was conducted in four selected areas along Bireun – Takengon main road. In study area I, soil creep occurred because of a presence of montmorillonite clay. The mitigation methods to reduce soil creeping in this area are building a retaining wall and pile. The shotcrete, wire mesh, net rock bolting, and rock removal method is suitable to apply in study area II. The shotcrete and soil nails were used because the type of rocks in those areas is sedimentary rock such as shale, sandstone, siltstone, and a boulder of a volcanic rock. The same approach shall be applied in study area IV. study area III was the best spot to learn about the mitigation approach for slope stability and provides many lessons learned. Aceh Province experience active tectonic movement, high intensity of rain, geological structures, a high degree of weathering, and high intensity of earthquake,as primary factors which trigger landslides. The techonology of slope stabilizing and protection methods can be applied to mitigate landslides.

  13. Editorial: Introduction to the Special Issue ;Slope Tectonics: Inherited Structures, Morphology of Deformation and Catastrophic Failure; (United States)

    Hermanns, R. L.; Oppikofer, T.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Clague, J. J.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.


    The "Conference on Slope Tectonics" has become an international scientific meeting point to present and discuss a variety of topics related to slope deformation and the deposits of related failures. The first conference took place on February 15-16, 2008 at University of Lausanne (Switzerland). It was followed by a second conference on September 6-10, 2011, in Austria (organized by the Geological Survey of Austria) and a third on September 8-12, 2014, in Norway (organized by the Geological Survey of Norway). The two later events included field trips. It has become a tradition that selected papers from these conference are published - papers from the first conference were published by the Geological Society as Special Publication 351 (Jaboyedoff, 2011), and those from the second conference were published in a special issue of Tectonophysics (Baron and Jaboyedoff, 2013). This special issue of Geomorphology is a collection of papers presented at the Norwegian Conference on Slope Tectonics. This collection of papers focuses on the role of tectonics in gravitationally induced rock-slope instabilities. The slopes either deform over long periods as deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD) or more rapidly as rockslides or rock avalanches. The reconstruction of slope deformation is an integral part of the studies captured in this special issue.

  14. Slope failures evaluation and landslides investigation using 2-D resistivity method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Nordiana


    Full Text Available Slope failure is a complex phenomenon that may caused to landslides. Buildings and infrastructure such as transportation facilities and pipelines located within the boundaries of a landslide can be damaged or destroyed. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. Six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. The 2-D resistivity results show that the subsurface consist of two main zones. The first zone was alluvium or highly weathered with resistivity value of 100–1000 Ω m and depth of >30 m. This zone consists of saturated area with resistivity value of 1–100 Ω m and boulders with resistivity value of 1200–7000 Ω m. The second zone with resistivity value of >7000 Ω m was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. This will cause to low strength of soil, debris flow and movement of earth. On the basis of the case examples described, 2-D resistivity method is categorized into desirable and useful method in determination of slope failure and future assessments. Keywords: Slope failure, Landslides, 2-D resistivity, Saturated, Boulders

  15. Laboratory and 3-D distinct element analysis of the failure mechanism of a slope under external surcharge (United States)

    Li, N.; Cheng, Y. M.


    Landslide is a major disaster resulting in considerable loss of human lives and property damages in hilly terrain in Hong Kong, China and many other countries. The factor of safety and the critical slip surface for slope stabilization are the main considerations for slope stability analysis in the past, while the detailed post-failure conditions of the slopes have not been considered in sufficient detail. There is however increasing interest in the consequences after the initiation of failure that includes the development and propagation of the failure surfaces, the amount of failed mass and runoff and the affected region. To assess the development of slope failure in more detail and to consider the potential danger of slopes after failure has initiated, the slope stability problem under external surcharge is analyzed by the distinct element method (DEM) and a laboratory model test in the present research. A more refined study about the development of failure, microcosmic failure mechanisms and the post-failure mechanisms of slopes will be carried out. The numerical modeling method and the various findings from the present work can provide an alternate method of analysis of slope failure, which can give additional information not available from the classical methods of analysis.

  16. Natural disasters in the Shikoku district. 2. ; Slope failures and rockfalls. Shikoku ni okeru shizen saigai. 2. ; Dosha saigai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, T [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Although landslide, slope failure, debris flow, rock fall, etc. are included in disasters caused by earth and sand, this report focuses only on slope failures. It is very difficult to discuss various soil engineering problems concerning earth and sand disasters in the Shikoku district from dynamic aspect. Therefore, this report is made focusing on perfunctory classification. As regards slope failures, there are natural and embankment (artificial) slope failures, but only natural slope failures are discussed in this report. The numbers of annually investigated areas in 4 prefectures in the Shikoku district and frequencies of failures for each geological group are tabulated for explanation. Transverse shape figure, longitudinal section, slope of ground level, land form where surface water and ground water tend to concentrate, etc. can be considered as factors for the occurrence of landslides. The relationship between those topographical factors and the frequency of failure occurrence is investigated. Failure of cut slope and the relation between rainfall and slope failure are outlined. Examples of rock fall disasters are introduced to point out the difficulty in predicting the occurrence of rock falls. 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Recent slope failures in the Dolomites (Northeastern Italian Alps) in a context of climate change (United States)

    Chiarle, Marta; Paranunzio, Roberta; Laio, Francesco; Nigrelli, Guido; Guzzetti, Fausto


    Climate change in the Greater Alpine Region is seriously affecting permafrost distribution, with relevant consequences on slope stability. In the Italian Alps, the number of failures from rockwalls at high elevation markedly increased in the last 20-30 years: the consistent temperature increase, which warmed twice than the global average, may have seriously influenced slope stability, in terms of glaciers retreat and permafrost degradation. Moreover, the growing number of tourists and activities in alpine regions (in particular in the Dolomites) made these areas particularly critical in relation to natural hazards. In this light, an integrated short-term geomorphological and climatic analysis was performed, in order to better comprehend the impact of main climate elements (especially temperature and precipitation) on slope failures in high mountain areas. In this contribution, we focus on three recent slope failures occurred at high elevation sites in the Dolomites (Northeastern Italian Alps), declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in August 2009. We describe here three important rock falls occurred in the autumn 2013: 1) the Sorapiss rock fall, on 30 September 2013; 2) the Monte Civetta rock fall, on 16 November 2013; 3) the Monte Antelao rock fall, on 22 November 2013. The Monte Civetta rock fall damaged some climbing routes, while the other two landslides did not cause any damage or injury. Despite the limited volume involved, these three events represent an important warning sign in the context of ongoing climate change. Geomorphological information about the rock fall sites were combined with the climatic data acquired from the meteorological stations surrounding the slope failure areas. A short-term climatic analysis was performed, with the aim of understanding the role of the main climatic elements in the triggering of natural instability events in this area and in the Alps in general.

  18. Centrifuge model tests of rainfall-induced slope failures for the investigation of the initiation conditions (United States)

    Matziaris, Vasileios; Marshall, Alec; Yu, Hai-Sui


    Rainfall-induced landslides are very common natural disasters which cause damage to properties and infrastructure and may result in the loss of human lives. These phenomena often take place in unsaturated soil slopes and are triggered by the saturation of the soil profile, due to rain infiltration, which leads to a loss of shear strength. The aim of this study is to determine rainfall thresholds for the initiation of landslides under different initial conditions. Model tests of rainfall-induced landslides are conducted in the Nottingham Centre for Geomechanics 50g-T geotechnical centrifuge. Initially unsaturated plane-strain slope models made with fine silica sand are prepared at varying densities at 1g and accommodated within a climatic chamber which provides controlled environmental conditions. During the centrifuge flight at 60g, rainfall events of varying intensity and duration are applied to the slope models causing the initiation of slope failure. The impact of soil state properties and rainfall characteristics on the landslide initiation process are discussed. The variation of pore water pressures within the slope before, during and after simulated rainfall events is recorded using miniature pore pressure transducers buried in the soil model. Slope deformation is determined by using a high-speed camera and digital image analysis techniques.

  19. Instrument failure monitoring in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.


    Methods of monitoring dynamic systems for instrument failures were developed and evaluated. In particular, application of these methods to nuclear power plant components is addressed. For a linear system, statistical tests on the innovations sequence of a Kalman filter driven by all system measurements provides a failure detection decision and identifies any failed sensor. This sequence (in an unfailed system) is zero-mean with calculable covariance; hence, any major deviation from these properties is assumed to be due to an instrument failure. Once a failure is identified, the failed instrument is replaced with an optimal estimate of the measured parameter. This failure accommodation is accomplished using optimally combined data from a bank of accommodation Kalman filters (one for each sensor), each driven by a single measurement. Using such a sensor replacement allows continued system operation under failed conditions and provides a system operator with information otherwise unavailable. To demonstrate monitor performance, a liner failure monitor was developed for the pressurizer in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor plant. LOFT is a small-scale pressurized water reactor (PWR) research facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. A linear, third-order model of the pressurizer dynamics was developed from first principles and validated. Using data from the LOFT L6 test series, numerous actual and simulated water level, pressure, and temperature sensor failures were employed to illustrate monitor capabilities. Failure monitor design was applied to nonlinear dynamic systems by replacing all monitor linear Kalman filters with extended Kalman filters. A nonlinear failure monitor was derived for LOFT reactor instrumentation. A sixth-order reactor model, including descriptions of reactor kinetics, fuel rod heat transfer, and core coolant dynamics, was obtained and verified with test data

  20. Gravity-driven groundwater flow and slope failure potential: 1. Elastic effective-stress model (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; Reid, Mark E.


    Hilly or mountainous topography influences gravity-driven groundwater flow and the consequent distribution of effective stress in shallow subsurface environments. Effective stress, in turn, influences the potential for slope failure. To evaluate these influences, we formulate a two-dimensional, steady state, poroelastic model. The governing equations incorporate groundwater effects as body forces, and they demonstrate that spatially uniform pore pressure changes do not influence effective stresses. We implement the model using two finite element codes. As an illustrative case, we calculate the groundwater flow field, total body force field, and effective stress field in a straight, homogeneous hillslope. The total body force and effective stress fields show that groundwater flow can influence shear stresses as well as effective normal stresses. In most parts of the hillslope, groundwater flow significantly increases the Coulomb failure potential Φ, which we define as the ratio of maximum shear stress to mean effective normal stress. Groundwater flow also shifts the locus of greatest failure potential toward the slope toe. However, the effects of groundwater flow on failure potential are less pronounced than might be anticipated on the basis of a simpler, one-dimensional, limit equilibrium analysis. This is a consequence of continuity, compatibility, and boundary constraints on the two-dimensional flow and stress fields, and it points to important differences between our elastic continuum model and limit equilibrium models commonly used to assess slope stability.

  1. Slope failures and timing of turbidity flows north of Puerto Rico (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Chaytor, Jason D.


    The submerged carbonate platform north of Puerto Rico terminates in a high (3,000–4,000 m) and in places steep (>45°) slope characterized by numerous landslide scarps including two 30–50 km-wide amphitheater-shaped features. The origin of the steep platform edge and the amphitheaters has been attributed to: (1) catastrophic failure, or (2) localized failures and progressive erosion. Determining which of the two mechanisms has shaped the platform edge is critically important in understanding landslide-generated tsunami hazards in the region. Multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection profiles, and a suite sediment cores from the Puerto Rico Trench and the slope between the trench and the platform edge were used to test these two hypotheses. Deposits within trench axis and at the base of the slope are predominantly composed of sandy carbonate turbidites and pelagic sediment with inter-fingering of chaotic debris units. Regionally-correlated turbidites within the upper 10 m of the trench sediments were dated between ∼25 and 22 kyrs and ∼18–19 kyrs for the penultimate and most recent events, respectively. Deposits on the slope are laterally discontinuous and vary from thin layers of fragmented carbonate platform material to thick pelagic layers. Large debris blocks or lobes are absent within the near-surface deposits at the trench axis and the base of slope basins. Progressive small-scale scalloping and self-erosion of the carbonate platform and underlying stratigraphy appears to be the most likely mechanism for recent development of the amphitheaters. These smaller scale failures may lead to the generation of tsunamis with local, rather than regional, impact.

  2. Stability charts for uniform slopes in soils with nonlinear failure envelopes


    Eid, Hisham T.


    Based on the results of an extensive parametric study, charts were developed for assessment of the stability of uniform slopes in soils with nonlinear shear strength failure envelopes. The study was conducted using envelopes formed to represent the realistic shapes of soil nonlinear drained strength envelopes and the associated different degrees of nonlinearity. The introduction of a simple methodology to describe the nonlinear envelopes and a stability parameter, the value of which depends o...

  3. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia (United States)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.


    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  4. A method to assess collision hazard of falling rock due to slope collapse application of DEM on modeling of earthquake triggered slope failure for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Hitoshi; Cao, Guoqiang; Tabei, Kazuto; Tochigi, Hitoshi; Matsushima, Takashi


    Risk evaluation of slope failure against nuclear power plants, which is induced by unexpectedly large earthquakes, has been urgent need for disaster prevention measures. Specially, for risk evaluation of slope failure, understanding of information such as traveling distances, collision velocities, and collision energies is very important. Discrete Element Method (DEM) such as particle simulation method contributes important role on predicting the detailed behavior of slope failure physics. In this study, instead of accurately predicting the complicated behavior of sliding and falling for each rock, we introduce the DEM modeling to evaluate the average traveling distance of collapsed rocks and its statistical variability. First, we conduct the validation test of the proposed DEM model on the basis of reconstruction of experiment results. Next, we conducted the parametric studies to examine sensitivities of important parameters. Finally, validity of the proposed method is evaluated and its applicability and technical assignments are also discussed. (author)

  5. Multimodal brain monitoring in fulminant hepatic failure (United States)

    Paschoal Jr, Fernando Mendes; Nogueira, Ricardo Carvalho; Ronconi, Karla De Almeida Lins; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson


    Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), embraces a spectrum of clinical entities characterized by acute liver injury, severe hepatocellular dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy. Cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension are common causes of mortality in patients with FHF. The management of patients who present acute liver failure starts with determining the cause and an initial evaluation of prognosis. Regardless of whether or not patients are listed for liver transplantation, they should still be monitored for recovery, death, or transplantation. In the past, neuromonitoring was restricted to serial clinical neurologic examination and, in some cases, intracranial pressure monitoring. Over the years, this monitoring has proven insufficient, as brain abnormalities were detected at late and irreversible stages. The need for real-time monitoring of brain functions to favor prompt treatment and avert irreversible brain injuries led to the concepts of multimodal monitoring and neurophysiological decision support. New monitoring techniques, such as brain tissue oxygen tension, continuous electroencephalogram, transcranial Doppler, and cerebral microdialysis, have been developed. These techniques enable early diagnosis of brain hemodynamic, electrical, and biochemical changes, allow brain anatomical and physiological monitoring-guided therapy, and have improved patient survival rates. The purpose of this review is to discuss the multimodality methods available for monitoring patients with FHF in the neurocritical care setting. PMID:27574545

  6. Can we use ice calving on glacier fronts as a proxy for rock slope failures? (United States)

    Abellan, Antonio; Penna, Ivanna; Daicz, Sergio; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Riquelme, Adrian; Tomas, Roberto


    Ice failures on glacier terminus show very similar fingerprints to rock-slope failure (RSF) processes, nevertheless, the investigation of gravity-driven instabilities that shape rock cliffs and glacier's fronts are currently dissociated research topics. Since both materials (ice and rocks) have very different rheological properties, the development of a progressive failure on mountain cliffs occurs at a much slower rate than that observed on glacier fronts, which leads the latter a good proxy for investigating RSF. We utilized a terrestrial Laser Scanner (Ilris-LR system from Optech) for acquiring successive 3D point clouds of one of the most impressive calving glacier fronts, the Perito Moreno glacier located in the Southern Patagonian Ice Fields (Argentina). We scanned the glacier terminus during five days (from 10th to 14th of March 2014) with very high accuracy (0.7cm standard deviation of the error at 100m) and a high density of information (200 points per square meter). Each data series was acquired at a mean interval of 20 minutes. The maximum attainable range for the utilized wavelength of the Ilris-LR system (1064 nm) was around 500 meters over massive ice (showing no-significant loss of information), being this distance considerably reduced on crystalline or wet ice short after the occurrence of calving events. As for the data treatment, we have adapted our innovative algorithms originally developed for the investigation of both precursory deformation and rockfalls to study calving events. By comparing successive three-dimensional datasets, we have investigated not only the magnitude and frequency of several ice failures at the glacier's terminus (ranging from one to thousands of cubic meters), but also the characteristic geometrical features of each failure. In addition, we were able to quantify a growing strain rate on several areas of the glacier's terminus shortly after their final collapse. For instance, we investigated the spatial extent of the

  7. Nonlinear assessment of time series from rock slope monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zvelebil, J.; Paluš, Milan


    Roč. 9 (2007), A-05649 ISSN 1029-7006. [General Asembly of the European Geophysical Society. 15.04.2007-20.04.2007, Vienna] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fractal * scaling * unstable rock slope * collapse prediction * engineering geology Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  8. Rock Slope Monitoring from 4D Time-Lapse Structure from Motion Analysis (United States)

    Kromer, Ryan; Abellan, Antonio; Chyz, Alex; Hutchinson, Jean


    Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry has become an important tool for studying earth surface processes because of its flexibility, ease of use, low cost and its capability of producing high quality 3-D surface models. A major benefit of SfM is that model accuracy is fit for purpose and surveys can be designed to meet a large range of spatial and temporal scales. In the Earth sciences, research in time-lapse SfM photogrammetry or videogrammetry is an area that is difficult to undertake due to complexities in acquiring, processing and managing large 4D datasets and represents an area with significant advancement potential (Eltner et al. 2016). In this study, we investigate the potential of 4D time-lapse SfM to monitor unstable rock slopes. We tested an array of statically mounted cameras collecting time-lapse photos of a limestone rock slope located along a highway in Canada. Our setup consisted of 8 DSLR cameras with 50 mm prime lenses spaced 2-3 m apart at a distance of 10 m from the slope. The portion of the rock slope monitored was 20 m wide and 6 m high. We collected data in four phases, each having 50 photographs taken simultaneously by each camera. The first phase of photographs was taken of the stable slope. In each successive phase, we gradually moved small, discrete blocks within the rock slope by 5-15 mm, simulating pre-failure deformation of rockfall. During the last phase we also removed discrete rock blocks, simulating rockfall. We used Agisoft Photoscan's 4D processing functionality and timeline tools to create 3D point clouds from the time-lapse photographs. These tools have the benefit of attaining better accuracy photo alignments as a greater number of photos are used. For change detection, we used the 4D filtering and calibration technique proposed by Kromer et al. (2015), which takes advantage of high degrees of spatial and temporal point redundancy to decrease measurement uncertainty. Preliminary results show that it is possible to attain

  9. Submarine slope failures in the Beaufort Sea; Influence of gas hydrate decomposition (United States)

    Grozic, J. L.; Dallimore, S.


    sediments without the presence of permafrost and gas hydrate, owing to the relative slope steepness compared to other submarine failures. Including the effects of the permafrost and gas hydrate in the sediments can result in an increase of the factor of safety under static conditions. However, modeling of the temporal effects of transgression of the Beaufort Shelf (considering change in pressure and temperature), indicates that, for a reasonable assumption of between 5-35% hydrate content, the factor of safety reduces to below unity and failure occurs.

  10. Remote patient monitoring in chronic heart failure. (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Mishkin, Aaron; Aronow, Wilbert S; Kalra, Ankur; Frishman, William H


    Heart failure (HF) poses a significant economic burden on our health-care resources with very high readmission rates. Remote monitoring has a substantial potential to improve the management and outcome of patients with HF. Readmission for decompensated HF is often preceded by a stage of subclinical hemodynamic decompensation, where therapeutic interventions would prevent subsequent clinical decompensation and hospitalization. Various methods of remote patient monitoring include structured telephone support, advanced telemonitoring technologies, remote monitoring of patients with implanted cardiac devices such as pacemakers and defibrillators, and implantable hemodynamic monitors. Current data examining the efficacy of remote monitoring technologies in improving outcomes have shown inconsistent results. Various medicolegal and financial issues need to be addressed before widespread implementation of this exciting technology can take place.

  11. Detailed analysis of the Valdes slide: a landward facing slope failure off Chile (United States)

    Anasetti, Andrea; Krastel, Sebastian; Weinrebe, Willy; Klaucke, Ingo; Bialas, Jorge


    The Chilean continental margin is a very active area interested by important tectonic movements and characterized by a fast morphological evolution. Geophysical data acquired during cruise JC 23, aboard RV JAMES COOK in March/April 2008 and previous cruises cover most of the active Chilean continental margin between 33° and 37° S. Integrated interpretation of multi-beam bathymetric, sub-bottom profiles, side-scan sonar and seismic data allowed the identification of a number of slope failures. The main topic of this project is the morphological and sedimentological analysis of the Valdes slide, a medium-sized submarine landslide offshore the city of Talcahuano (300 km south of Santiago). In contrast to most other slides along continental margins, the Valdes slide is located on the landward facing eastern slope of a submarine ridge. This setting has important implications for the associated tsunami wave field (first arrival of positive amplitude). We measured geometrical parameters of the failure and adjacent slope. The slide affected an area of 19 km2 between ~1060 m and >1700 m water depths. Its is ~ 6 km long, up to 3 km wide and involved a total sedimentary volume of about 0,8 km3. The failure process was characterized by a multiple-event and we assume its tsunami potential to be high. Using the high resolution bathymetric data and the seismic profiles along the slide deposit it was possible to reconstruct the original morphology of the area in order to understand the relation between the slide event and the structural evolution of the ridge. Through the analysis of the data and bibliographic information about the Chilean margin, we analyzed potential trigger mechanisms for the landslide. The Valdes slide is situated on a steep ridge flank. The ridge follows an elongated fault zone running app. parallel to the margin. This fault zone has a dextral component which in combination with the faults elongation results in a compressional regime that is superimposed on

  12. Tsunamis caused by submarine slope failures along western Great Bahama Bank. (United States)

    Schnyder, Jara S D; Eberli, Gregor P; Kirby, James T; Shi, Fengyan; Tehranirad, Babak; Mulder, Thierry; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wintersteller, Paul


    Submarine slope failures are a likely cause for tsunami generation along the East Coast of the United States. Among potential source areas for such tsunamis are submarine landslides and margin collapses of Bahamian platforms. Numerical models of past events, which have been identified using high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, reveal possible tsunami impact on Bimini, the Florida Keys, and northern Cuba. Tsunamis caused by slope failures with terminal landslide velocity of 20 ms -1 will either dissipate while traveling through the Straits of Florida, or generate a maximum wave of 1.5 m at the Florida coast. Modeling a worst-case scenario with a calculated terminal landslide velocity generates a wave of 4.5 m height. The modeled margin collapse in southwestern Great Bahama Bank potentially has a high impact on northern Cuba, with wave heights between 3.3 to 9.5 m depending on the collapse velocity. The short distance and travel time from the source areas to densely populated coastal areas would make the Florida Keys and Miami vulnerable to such low-probability but high-impact events.

  13. Assessing rockfall susceptibility in steep and overhanging slopes using three-dimensional analysis of failure mechanisms (United States)

    Matasci, Battista; Stock, Greg M.; Jaboyedoff, Michael; Carrea, Dario; Collins, Brian D.; Guérin, Antoine; Matasci, G.; Ravanel, L.


    Rockfalls strongly influence the evolution of steep rocky landscapes and represent a significant hazard in mountainous areas. Defining the most probable future rockfall source areas is of primary importance for both geomorphological investigations and hazard assessment. Thus, a need exists to understand which areas of a steep cliff are more likely to be affected by a rockfall. An important analytical gap exists between regional rockfall susceptibility studies and block-specific geomechanical calculations. Here we present methods for quantifying rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale, which is suitable for sub-regional hazard assessment (hundreds to thousands of square meters). Our methods use three-dimensional point clouds acquired by terrestrial laser scanning to quantify the fracture patterns and compute failure mechanisms for planar, wedge, and toppling failures on vertical and overhanging rock walls. As a part of this work, we developed a rockfall susceptibility index for each type of failure mechanism according to the interaction between the discontinuities and the local cliff orientation. The susceptibility for slope parallel exfoliation-type failures, which are generally hard to identify, is partly captured by planar and toppling susceptibility indexes. We tested the methods for detecting the most susceptible rockfall source areas on two famously steep landscapes, Yosemite Valley (California, USA) and the Drus in the Mont-Blanc massif (France). Our rockfall susceptibility models show good correspondence with active rockfall sources. The methods offer new tools for investigating rockfall hazard and improving our understanding of rockfall processes.

  14. Using street view imagery for 3-D survey of rock slope failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Voumard


    Full Text Available We discuss here different challenges and limitations of surveying rock slope failures using 3-D reconstruction from image sets acquired from street view imagery (SVI. We show how rock slope surveying can be performed using two or more image sets using online imagery with photographs from the same site but acquired at different instances. Three sites in the French alps were selected as pilot study areas: (1 a cliff beside a road where a protective wall collapsed, consisting of two image sets (60 and 50 images in each set captured within a 6-year time frame; (2 a large-scale active landslide located on a slope at 250 m from the road, using seven image sets (50 to 80 images per set from five different time periods with three image sets for one period; (3 a cliff over a tunnel which has collapsed, using two image sets captured in a 4-year time frame. The analysis include the use of different structure from motion (SfM programs and a comparison between the extracted photogrammetric point clouds and a lidar-derived mesh that was used as a ground truth. Results show that both landslide deformation and estimation of fallen volumes were clearly identified in the different point clouds. Results are site- and software-dependent, as a function of the image set and number of images, with model accuracies ranging between 0.2 and 3.8 m in the best and worst scenario, respectively. Although some limitations derived from the generation of 3-D models from SVI were observed, this approach allowed us to obtain preliminary 3-D models of an area without on-field images, allowing extraction of the pre-failure topography that would not be available otherwise.

  15. Time shift in slope failure prediction between unimodal and bimodal modeling approaches (United States)

    Ciervo, Fabio; Casini, Francesca; Nicolina Papa, Maria; Medina, Vicente


    within the Bishop stress theory framework (Ciervo et al., 2015). The proposed work tends to emphasize how a more accurate slope stability analysis that accounts dual-structure could be useful to reach a more accurate definition of the stability conditions. The effects in practical analysis may be significant. The highlighted discrepancies between the different approaches in describing the timing processes and strength contribution due to capillary forces may entail no negligible differences in slope stability predictions, especially in those cases where the possibility of a failure in unsaturated terrains is contemplated.

  16. Berm design to reduce risks of catastrophic slope failures at solid waste disposal sites. (United States)

    De Stefano, Matteo; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Clemmer, Ryan; Jahanfar, M Ali


    Existing waste disposal sites are being strained by exceeding their volumetric capacities because of exponentially increasing rates of municipal solid waste generation worldwide, especially in densely populated metropolises. Over the past 40 years, six well-documented and analyzed disposal sites experienced catastrophic failure. This research presents a novel analysis and design method for implementation of a series of in-situ earth berms to slow down the movement of waste material flow following a catastrophic failure. This is the first study of its kind that employs a dynamic landslide analysis model, DAN-W, and the Voellmy rheological model to approximate solid waste avalanche flow. A variety of single and multiple berm configuration scenarios were developed and tested to find an optimum configuration of the various earth berm geometries and number of berms to achieve desired energy dissipation and reduction in total waste material runout length. The case study application of the novel mitigation measure shows that by constructing a series of six relatively inexpensive 3 m high earth berms at an optimum distance of 250 m from the slope toe, the total runout length of 1000 m and associated fatalities of the Leuwigajah dumpsite catastrophic failure in Bandung, Indonesia, could have been reduced by half. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Fiber Bragg grating-based performance monitoring of a slope model subjected to seepage (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Yan, Jun-Fan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Bao-Jun


    In the past few years, fiber optic sensing technologies have played an increasingly important role in the health monitoring of civil infrastructures. These innovative sensing technologies have recently been successfully applied to the performance monitoring of a series of geotechnical structures. Fiber optic sensors have shown many unique advantages in comparison with conventional sensors, including immunity to electrical noise, higher precision and improved durability and embedding capabilities; fiber optic sensors are also smaller in size and lighter in weight. In order to explore the mechanism of seepage-induced slope instability, a small-scale 1 g model test of the soil slope has been performed in the laboratory. During the model’s construction, specially fabricated sensing fibers containing nine fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors connected in a series were horizontally and vertically embedded into the soil mass. The surcharge load was applied on the slope crest, and the groundwater level inside of the slope was subsequently varied using two water chambers installed besides the slope model. The fiber optic sensing data of the vertical and horizontal strains within the slope model were automatically recorded by an FBG interrogator and a computer during the test. The test results are presented and interpreted in detail. It is found that the gradually accumulated deformation of the slope model subjected to seepage can be accurately captured by the quasi-distributed FBG strain sensors. The test results also demonstrate that the slope stability is significantly affected by ground water seepage, which fits well with the results that were calculated using finite element and limit equilibrium methods. The relationship between the strain measurements and the safety factors is further analyzed, together with a discussion on the residual strains. The performance evaluation of a soil slope using fiber optic strain sensors is proved to be a potentially effective

  18. Fiber Bragg grating-based performance monitoring of a slope model subjected to seepage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hong-Hu; Shi, Bin; Yan, Jun-Fan; Zhang, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Bao-Jun; Zhang, Jie


    In the past few years, fiber optic sensing technologies have played an increasingly important role in the health monitoring of civil infrastructures. These innovative sensing technologies have recently been successfully applied to the performance monitoring of a series of geotechnical structures. Fiber optic sensors have shown many unique advantages in comparison with conventional sensors, including immunity to electrical noise, higher precision and improved durability and embedding capabilities; fiber optic sensors are also smaller in size and lighter in weight. In order to explore the mechanism of seepage-induced slope instability, a small-scale 1 g model test of the soil slope has been performed in the laboratory. During the model’s construction, specially fabricated sensing fibers containing nine fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors connected in a series were horizontally and vertically embedded into the soil mass. The surcharge load was applied on the slope crest, and the groundwater level inside of the slope was subsequently varied using two water chambers installed besides the slope model. The fiber optic sensing data of the vertical and horizontal strains within the slope model were automatically recorded by an FBG interrogator and a computer during the test. The test results are presented and interpreted in detail. It is found that the gradually accumulated deformation of the slope model subjected to seepage can be accurately captured by the quasi-distributed FBG strain sensors. The test results also demonstrate that the slope stability is significantly affected by ground water seepage, which fits well with the results that were calculated using finite element and limit equilibrium methods. The relationship between the strain measurements and the safety factors is further analyzed, together with a discussion on the residual strains. The performance evaluation of a soil slope using fiber optic strain sensors is proved to be a potentially effective

  19. Probabilistic Approach to Provide Scenarios of Earthquake-Induced Slope Failures (PARSIFAL Applied to the Alcoy Basin (South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Martino


    Full Text Available The PARSIFAL (Probabilistic Approach to pRovide Scenarios of earthquake-Induced slope FAiLures approach was applied in the basin of Alcoy (Alicante, South Spain, to provide a comprehensive scenario of earthquake-induced landslides. The basin of Alcoy is well known for several historical landslides, mainly represented by earth-slides, that involve urban settlement as well as infrastructures (i.e., roads, bridges. The PARSIFAL overcomes several limits existing in other approaches, allowing the concomitant analyses of: (i first-time landslides (due to both rock-slope failures and shallow earth-slides and reactivations of existing landslides; (ii slope stability analyses of different failure mechanisms; (iii comprehensive mapping of earthquake-induced landslide scenarios in terms of exceedance probability of critical threshold values of co-seismic displacements. Geotechnical data were used to constrain the slope stability analysis, while specific field surveys were carried out to measure jointing and strength conditions of rock masses and to inventory already existing landslides. GIS-based susceptibility analyses were performed to assess the proneness to shallow earth-slides as well as to verify kinematic compatibility to planar or wedge rock-slides and to topples. The experienced application of PARSIFAL to the Alcoy basin: (i confirms the suitability of the approach at a municipality scale, (ii outputs the main role of saturation in conditioning slope instabilities in this case study, (iii demonstrates the reliability of the obtained results respect to the historical data.

  20. Key indicator tools for shallow slope failure assessment using soil chemical property signatures and soil colour variables. (United States)

    Othman, Rashidi; Hasni, Shah Irani; Baharuddin, Zainul Mukrim; Hashim, Khairusy Syakirin Has-Yun; Mahamod, Lukman Hakim


    Slope failure has become a major concern in Malaysia due to the rapid development and urbanisation in the country. It poses severe threats to any highway construction industry, residential areas, natural resources and tourism activities. The extent of damages that resulted from this catastrophe can be lessened if a long-term early warning system to predict landslide prone areas is implemented. Thus, this study aims to characterise the relationship between Oxisols properties and soil colour variables to be manipulated as key indicators to forecast shallow slope failure. The concentration of each soil property in slope soil was evaluated from two different localities that consist of 120 soil samples from stable and unstable slopes located along the North-South Highway (PLUS) and East-West Highway (LPT). Analysis of variance established highly significant difference (P shallow slope failure were high value of L*(62), low values of c* (20) and h* (66), low concentration of iron (53 mg kg -1 ) and aluminium oxide (37 mg kg -1 ), low soil TOC (0.5%), low CEC (3.6 cmol/kg), slightly acidic soil pH (4.9), high amount of sand fraction (68%) and low amount of clay fraction (20%).

  1. Monitoring slope movement using time domain reflectometry (TDR) technology and early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir, Lakam Mejus; Johari Abd Latif


    Many options of electronic instrumentation are available for monitoring unstable and/or potentially unstable slopes. One of the tools is applying TDR technology which is now regarded as a cost effective and alternative means for locating the depth to a shear plane or zone in a landslide. TDR uses an electronic voltage pulse that is reflected like radar from a damaged or deformed location in a coaxial cable. To monitor slope movement, coaxial cables are grouted in boreholes and interrogated using a TDR cable tester, which is attached to a programmed data logger. Characteristic cable signatures can be stored and compared over time for any changes indicating slope movement. This paper describes a case study documenting TDR installation procedure, data acquisition system and on-site TDR data collection of an unstable hill slope in Kampong Bharu -Bukit Tinggi, Bentong. A possibility of using a remotely automated monitoring system (advanced telemetry and data logger) that can incorporate with other types of sensors (e.g. rain gauge, vibrating wire piezometer, in-place inclinometer) together with many TDR sensor cables as an integrated package for early-warning of potential unstable slope movement around the area was highlighted and proposed. (Author)

  2. Stability Evaluation of Volcanic Slope Subjected to Rainfall and Freeze-Thaw Action Based on Field Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kawamura


    Full Text Available Rainfall-induced failures of natural and artificial slopes such as cut slopes, which are subjected to freezing and thawing, have been frequently reported in Hokkaido, Japan. In particular, many failures occur intensively from spring to summer seasons. Despite numerous field studies, explanation of their mechanical behavior based on in situ data has not yet been completely achieved due to the difficulty in grasping failure conditions. This study aims at clarifying the aspects of in-situ volcanic slopes subjected to rainfall and freeze-thaw action. The changes in soil moisture, pore pressure, deformations, and temperatures in the slope were investigated using soil moisture meters, tensiometers, thermocouple sensors, clinometers, settlement gauges, an anemovane, a snow gauge, and a rainfall gauge. The data generated from these measures indicated deformation in the slope examined mainly proceeded during the drainage process according to changes in soil moisture. Based on this data, a prediction method for failures is discussed in detail.

  3. Large bedrock slope failures in a British Columbia, Canada fjord: first documented submarine sackungen (United States)

    Conway, Kim W.; Vaughn Barrie, J.


    Very large (>60×106 m3) sackungen or deep-seated gravitational slope deformations occur below sea level along a steep fjord wall in central Douglas Channel, British Columbia. The massive bedrock blocks were mobile between 13 and 11.5 thousand radiocarbon years BP (15,800 and 13,400 BP) immediately following deglaciation. Deformation of fjord sediments is apparent in sedimentary units overlying and adjacent to the blocks. Faults bound the edges of each block, cutting the glacial section but not the Holocene sediments. Retrogressive slides, small inset landslides as well as incipient and older slides are found on and around the large failure blocks. Lineations, fractures and faults parallel the coastline of Douglas Channel along the shoreline of the study area. Topographic data onshore indicate that faults and joints demarcate discrete rhomboid-shaped blocks which controlled the form, size and location of the sackungen. The described submarine sackungen share characteristic geomorphic features with many montane occurrences, such as uphill-facing scarps, foliated bedrock composition, largely vertical dislocation and a deglacial timing of development.

  4. Damage-Based Time-Dependent Modeling of Paraglacial to Postglacial Progressive Failure of Large Rock Slopes (United States)

    Riva, Federico; Agliardi, Federico; Amitrano, David; Crosta, Giovanni B.


    Large alpine rock slopes undergo long-term evolution in paraglacial to postglacial environments. Rock mass weakening and increased permeability associated with the progressive failure of deglaciated slopes promote the development of potentially catastrophic rockslides. We captured the entire life cycle of alpine slopes in one damage-based, time-dependent 2-D model of brittle creep, including deglaciation, damage-dependent fluid occurrence, and rock mass property upscaling. We applied the model to the Spriana rock slope (Central Alps), affected by long-term instability after Last Glacial Maximum and representing an active threat. We simulated the evolution of the slope from glaciated conditions to present day and calibrated the model using site investigation data and available temporal constraints. The model tracks the entire progressive failure path of the slope from deglaciation to rockslide development, without a priori assumptions on shear zone geometry and hydraulic conditions. Complete rockslide differentiation occurs through the transition from dilatant damage to a compacting basal shear zone, accounting for observed hydraulic barrier effects and perched aquifer formation. Our model investigates the mechanical role of deglaciation and damage-controlled fluid distribution in the development of alpine rockslides. The absolute simulated timing of rock slope instability development supports a very long "paraglacial" period of subcritical rock mass damage. After initial damage localization during the Lateglacial, rockslide nucleation initiates soon after the onset of Holocene, whereas full mechanical and hydraulic rockslide differentiation occurs during Mid-Holocene, supporting a key role of long-term damage in the reported occurrence of widespread rockslide clusters of these ages.

  5. Coastal cliffs, rock-slope failures and Late Quaternary transgressions of the Black Sea along southern Crimea (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Lenart, Jan; Hradecký, Jan; Hercman, Helena; Braucher, Règis; Šilhán, Karel; Škarpich, Václav


    Rock-slope failures represent a significant hazard along global coastlines, but their chronology remains poorly documented. Here, we focus on the geomorphology and chronology of giant rockslides affecting the Crimean Mountains along the Black Sea coast. Geomorphic evidence suggests that high (>100 m) limestone cliffs flanking the southern slopes of the Crimean Mountains are scarps of rockslides nested within larger deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs). Such pervasive slope failures originated due to lateral spreading of intensively faulted Late Jurassic carbonate blocks moving atop weak/plastic Late Triassic flysch and tuff layers. By introducing a dating strategy relying on the combination of the uranium-thorium dating (U-Th) of exposed calcareous speleothems covering the landslide scarps with the 36Cl exposure dating of rock walls, we are able to approximate the time interval between the origin of incipient crevices and the final collapse of limestone blocks that exposed the cliff faces. For the three representative large-scale rockslides between the towns of Foros and Yalta, the initiation of the DSGSDs as evidenced by the widening of crevices and the onset of speleothem accumulation was >300 ka BP, but the recent cliff morphology along the coast is the result of Late Pleistocene/Holocene failures spanning ∼20-0.5 ka BP. The exposures of rockslide scarps occurred mostly at ∼20-15, ∼8, ∼5-4 and ∼2-0.5 ka, which substantially coincide with the last major Black Sea transgressions and/or more humid Holocene intervals. Our study suggests that before ultimate fast and/or catastrophic slope failures, the relaxation of rock massifs correlative with karstification, cracks opening, and incipient sliding lasted on the order of 104-105 years. Rapid Late Glacial/Holocene transgressions of the Black Sea likely represented the last impulse for the collapse of limestone blocks and the origin of giant rockslides, simultaneously affecting the majority

  6. True Volumes of Slope Failure Estimated From a Quaternary Mass-Transport Deposit in the Northern South China Sea (United States)

    Sun, Qiliang; Alves, Tiago M.; Lu, Xiangyang; Chen, Chuanxu; Xie, Xinong


    Submarine slope failure can mobilize large amounts of seafloor sediment, as shown in varied offshore locations around the world. Submarine landslide volumes are usually estimated by mapping their tops and bases on seismic data. However, two essential components of the total volume of failed sediments are overlooked in most estimates: (a) the volume of subseismic turbidites generated during slope failure and (b) the volume of shear compaction occurring during the emplacement of failed sediment. In this study, the true volume of a large submarine landslide in the northern South China Sea is estimated using seismic, multibeam bathymetry and Ocean Drilling Program/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program well data. The submarine landslide was evacuated on the continental slope and deposited in an ocean basin connected to the slope through a narrow moat. This particular character of the sea floor provides an opportunity to estimate the amount of strata remobilized by slope instability. The imaged volume of the studied landslide is 1035 ± 64 km3, 406 ± 28 km3 on the slope and 629 ± 36 km3 in the ocean basin. The volume of subseismic turbidites is 86 km3 (median value), and the volume of shear compaction is 100 km3, which are 8.6% and 9.7% of the landslide volume imaged on seismic data, respectively. This study highlights that the original volume of the failed sediments is significantly larger than that estimated using seismic and bathymetric data. Volume loss related to the generation of landslide-related turbidites and shear compaction must be considered when estimating the total volume of failed strata in the submarine realm.

  7. Mapping basin-wide subaquatic slope failure susceptibility as a tool to assess regional seismic and tsunami hazards (United States)

    Strasser, Michael; Hilbe, Michael; Anselmetti, Flavio S.


    occurred. Comparison of reconstructed critical stability conditions with the known distribution of landslide deposits reveals minimum and maximum threshold conditions for slopes that failed or remained stable, respectively. The resulting correlations reveal good agreements and suggest that the slope stability model generally succeeds in reproducing past events. The basin-wide mapping of subaquatic slope failure susceptibility through time thus can also be considered as a promising paleoseismologic tool that allows quantification of past earthquake ground shaking intensities. Furthermore, it can be used to assess the present-day slope failure susceptibility allowing for identification of location and estimation of size of future, potentially tsunamigenic subaquatic landslides. The new approach presented in our comprehensive lake study and resulting conceptual ideas can be vital to improve our understanding of larger marine slope instabilities and related seismic and oceanic geohazards along formerly glaciated ocean margins and closed basins worldwide.

  8. Internet optical infrastructure issues on monitoring and failure restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Tapolcai, János; Babarczi, Péter; Rónyai, Lajos


    This book covers the issues of monitoring, failure localization, and restoration in the Internet optical backbone, and focuses on the progress of state-of-the-art in both industry standard and academic research. The authors summarize, categorize, and analyze the developed technology in the context of Internet fault management and failure recovery under the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS), via both aspects of network operations and theories. Examines monitoring, failure localization, and failure restoration in the Internet backbone Includes problem formulations based on combinatorial group testing and topology coding Covers state-of-the-art development for the Internet backbone fault management and failure recovery

  9. Remote monitoring of heart failure: benefits for therapeutic decision making. (United States)

    Martirosyan, Mihran; Caliskan, Kadir; Theuns, Dominic A M J; Szili-Torok, Tamas


    Chronic heart failure is a cardiovascular disorder with high prevalence and incidence worldwide. The course of heart failure is characterized by periods of stability and instability. Decompensation of heart failure is associated with frequent and prolonged hospitalizations and it worsens the prognosis for the disease and increases cardiovascular mortality among affected patients. It is therefore important to monitor these patients carefully to reveal changes in their condition. Remote monitoring has been designed to facilitate an early detection of adverse events and to minimize regular follow-up visits for heart failure patients. Several new devices have been developed and introduced to the daily practice of cardiology departments worldwide. Areas covered: Currently, special tools and techniques are available to perform remote monitoring. Concurrently there are a number of modern cardiac implantable electronic devices that incorporate a remote monitoring function. All the techniques that have a remote monitoring function are discussed in this paper in detail. All the major studies on this subject have been selected for review of the recent data on remote monitoring of HF patients and demonstrate the role of remote monitoring in the therapeutic decision making for heart failure patients. Expert commentary: Remote monitoring represents a novel intensified follow-up strategy of heart failure management. Overall, theoretically, remote monitoring may play a crucial role in the early detection of heart failure progression and may improve the outcome of patients.

  10. 3D modeling of surface quarries and deposits of mined materials and the monitoring of slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maňas


    Full Text Available The application of computer technology by simulating opencast mining and deposits of raw materials. The mathematic principles of three-dimensional probabilistic models of raw materials deposits and a familiarization with the user interface software GEOLOGICKY MODEL. The principles of the simulation of opencast mines, generation intersections with models of raw materials deposits, computation of mining materials with the quality scaling,and the design of advanced mining with the software BANSKY MODEL.The monitoring the potential of dynamic movements’ of unstable slopes with the automatic total station and a following interpretation in general time intervals by means of the software MONITORING.

  11. Distributed specific sediment yield estimations in Japan attributed to extreme-rainfall-induced slope failures under a changing climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ono


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the potential sediment yield distribution in Japan attributed to extreme-rainfall-induced slope failures in the future. For this purpose, a regression relationship between the slope failure probability and the subsequent sediment yield was developed by using sediment yield observations from 59 dams throughout Japan. The slope failure probability accounts for the effects of topography (as relief energy, geology and hydro-climate variations (hydraulic gradient changes due to extreme rainfall variations and determines the potential slope failure occurrence with a 1-km resolution. The applicability of the developed relationship was then validated by comparing the simulated and observed sediment yields in another 43 dams. To incorporate the effects of a changing climate, extreme rainfall variations were estimated by using two climate change scenarios (the MRI-RCM20 Ver.2 model A2 scenario and the MIROC A1B scenario for the future and by accounting for the slope failure probability through the effect of extreme rainfall on the hydraulic gradient. Finally, the developed slope failure hazard-sediment yield relationship was employed to estimate the potential sediment yield distribution under a changing climate in Japan.

    Time series analyses of annual sediment yields covering 15–20 years in 59 dams reveal that extreme sedimentation events have a high probability of occurring on average every 5–7 years. Therefore, the extreme-rainfall-induced slope failure probability with a five-year return period has a statistically robust relationship with specific sediment yield observations (with r2 = 0.65. The verification demonstrated that the model is effective for use in simulating specific sediment yields with r2 = 0.74. The results of the GCM scenarios suggest that the sediment yield issue will be critical in Japan in the future. When the spatially averaged sediment

  12. Influence of scale-dependent fracture intensity on block size distribution and rock slope failure mechanisms in a DFN framework (United States)

    Agliardi, Federico; Galletti, Laura; Riva, Federico; Zanchi, Andrea; Crosta, Giovanni B.


    An accurate characterization of the geometry and intensity of discontinuities in a rock mass is key to assess block size distribution and degree of freedom. These are the main controls on the magnitude and mechanisms of rock slope instabilities (structurally-controlled, step-path or mass failures) and rock mass strength and deformability. Nevertheless, the use of over-simplified discontinuity characterization approaches, unable to capture the stochastic nature of discontinuity features, often hampers a correct identification of dominant rock mass behaviour. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) modelling tools have provided new opportunities to overcome these caveats. Nevertheless, their ability to provide a representative picture of reality strongly depends on the quality and scale of field data collection. Here we used DFN modelling with FracmanTM to investigate the influence of fracture intensity, characterized on different scales and with different techniques, on the geometry and size distribution of generated blocks, in a rock slope stability perspective. We focused on a test site near Lecco (Southern Alps, Italy), where 600 m high cliffs in thickly-bedded limestones folded at the slope scale impend on the Lake Como. We characterized the 3D slope geometry by Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry (range: 150-1500m; point cloud density > 50 pts/m2). Since the nature and attributes of discontinuities are controlled by brittle failure processes associated to large-scale folding, we performed a field characterization of meso-structural features (faults and related kinematics, vein and joint associations) in different fold domains. We characterized the discontinuity populations identified by structural geology on different spatial scales ranging from outcrops (field surveys and photo-mapping) to large slope sectors (point cloud and photo-mapping). For each sampling domain, we characterized discontinuity orientation statistics and performed fracture mapping and circular

  13. Tsunami-hazard assessment based on subaquatic slope-failure susceptibility and tsunami-inundation modeling (United States)

    Anselmetti, Flavio; Hilbe, Michael; Strupler, Michael; Baumgartner, Christoph; Bolz, Markus; Braschler, Urs; Eberli, Josef; Liniger, Markus; Scheiwiller, Peter; Strasser, Michael


    Due to their smaller dimensions and confined bathymetry, lakes act as model oceans that may be used as analogues for the much larger oceans and their margins. Numerous studies in the perialpine lakes of Central Europe have shown that their shores were repeatedly struck by several-meters-high tsunami waves, which were caused by subaquatic slides usually triggered by earthquake shaking. A profound knowledge of these hazards, their intensities and recurrence rates is needed in order to perform thorough tsunami-hazard assessment for the usually densely populated lake shores. In this context, we present results of a study combining i) basinwide slope-stability analysis of subaquatic sediment-charged slopes with ii) identification of scenarios for subaquatic slides triggered by seismic shaking, iii) forward modeling of resulting tsunami waves and iv) mapping of intensity of onshore inundation in populated areas. Sedimentological, stratigraphical and geotechnical knowledge of the potentially unstable sediment drape on the slopes is required for slope-stability assessment. Together with critical ground accelerations calculated from already failed slopes and paleoseismic recurrence rates, scenarios for subaquatic sediment slides are established. Following a previously used approach, the slides are modeled as a Bingham plastic on a 2D grid. The effect on the water column and wave propagation are simulated using the shallow-water equations (GeoClaw code), which also provide data for tsunami inundation, including flow depth, flow velocity and momentum as key variables. Combining these parameters leads to so called «intensity maps» for flooding that provide a link to the established hazard mapping framework, which so far does not include these phenomena. The current versions of these maps consider a 'worst case' deterministic earthquake scenario, however, similar maps can be calculated using probabilistic earthquake recurrence rates, which are expressed in variable amounts of

  14. Integration of two-phase solid fluid equations in a catchment model for flashfloods, debris flows and shallow slope failures

    KAUST Repository

    Bout, B.


    An integrated, modeling method for shallow landslides, debris flows and catchment hydrology is developed and presented in this paper. Existing two-phase debris flow equations and an adaptation on the infinite slope method are coupled with a full hydrological catchment model. We test the approach on the 4 km2 Scaletta catchment, North-Eastern Sicily, where the 1-10-2009 convective storm caused debris flooding after 395 shallow landslides. Validation is done based on the landslide inventory and photographic evidence from the days after the event. Results show that the model can recreate the impact of both shallow landslides, debris flow runout, and debris floods with acceptable accuracy (91 percent inventory overlap with a 0.22 Cohens Kappa). General patterns in slope failure and runout are well-predicted, leading to a fully physically based prediction of rainfall induced debris flood behavior in the downstream areas, such as the creation of a debris fan at the coastal outlet.

  15. Locating Critical Circular and Unconstrained Failure Surface in Slope Stability Analysis with Tailored Genetic Algorithm (United States)

    Pasik, Tomasz; van der Meij, Raymond


    This article presents an efficient search method for representative circular and unconstrained slip surfaces with the use of the tailored genetic algorithm. Searches for unconstrained slip planes with rigid equilibrium methods are yet uncommon in engineering practice, and little publications regarding truly free slip planes exist. The proposed method presents an effective procedure being the result of the right combination of initial population type, selection, crossover and mutation method. The procedure needs little computational effort to find the optimum, unconstrained slip plane. The methodology described in this paper is implemented using Mathematica. The implementation, along with further explanations, is fully presented so the results can be reproduced. Sample slope stability calculations are performed for four cases, along with a detailed result interpretation. Two cases are compared with analyses described in earlier publications. The remaining two are practical cases of slope stability analyses of dikes in Netherlands. These four cases show the benefits of analyzing slope stability with a rigid equilibrium method combined with a genetic algorithm. The paper concludes by describing possibilities and limitations of using the genetic algorithm in the context of the slope stability problem.

  16. Shoreline Erosion and Slope Failure Detection over Southwest Lakeshore Michigan using Temporal Radar and Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    Sataer, G.; Sultan, M.; Yellich, J. A.; Becker, R.; Emil, M. K.; Palaseanu, M.


    Throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century, significant losses of residential, commercial and governmental property were reported along the shores of the Great Lakes region due to one or more of the following factors: high lake levels, wave actions, groundwater discharge. A collaborative effort (Western Michigan University, University of Toledo, Michigan Geological Survey [MGS], United States Geological Survey [USGS], National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA]) is underway to examine the temporal topographic variations along the shoreline and the adjacent bluff extending from the City of South Haven in the south to the City of Saugatuck in the north within the Allegan County. Our objectives include two main tasks: (1) identification of the timing of, and the areas, witnessing slope failure and shoreline erosion, and (2) investigating the factors causing the observed failures and erosion. This is being accomplished over the study area by: (1) detecting and measuring slope subsidence rates (velocities along line of site) and failures using radar interferometric persistent scatter (PS) techniques applied to ESA's European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellites, ERS-1 and -2 (spatial resolution: 25 m) that were acquired in 1995 to 2007, (2) extracting temporal high resolution (20 cm) digital elevation models (DEM) for the study area from temporal imagery acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and applying change detection techniques to the extracted DEMs, (3) detecting change in elevation and slope profiles extracted from two LIDAR Coastal National Elevation Database (CoNED) DEMs (spatial resolution: 0.5m), acquired on 2008 and 2012, and (4) spatial and temporal correlation of the detected changes in elevation with relevant data sets (e.g., lake levels, precipitation, groundwater levels) in search of causal effects.

  17. Using scenarios of North Slope energy and resource development to assess research and monitoring needs (United States)

    Payne, J. F.


    Significant Arctic environmental and socio-economic change has been observed on the North Slope of Alaska, presenting challenges for resident communities and management agencies that need to adapt to future changes that are difficult to model or predict. Continued climate change coupled with new or modified energy development could substantially alter the landscape and ecosystem in the future. The North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) recognized the value of using a participatory scenarios process to consider plausible future energy and resource development scenarios through the year 2040 to help identify and prioritize research and monitoring needs on the North Slope. The scenarios process engaged diverse stakeholders, including subject matter experts and local knowledge holders. Through identification and ranking of key drivers and uncertainties relevant to the focus of the study, a series of spatially explicit scenarios was developed, analyzed in terms of low, medium and high development activities. Climate change and economic factors were key drivers affecting plausible energy development scenarios. The implications from each of the scenarios were then used to identify important research and monitoring activities and their relevant spatial scales. The scenarios project identified over 40 research and monitoring needs. The top five research needs addressed data gaps and key concerns related to how the scenarios could affect: hunting and trapping on land, health and community well-being, permafrost and hydrology, marine mammal subsistence and potential marine oil spills. The use of a participatory scenarios process was essential for identifying a range of plausible energy and resource development scenarios using a framework that involved a systematic assessment of complex interacting drivers of change, consideration of key uncertainties, and transparency throughout the project.

  18. Triplexer Monitor Design for Failure Detection in FTTH System (United States)

    Fu, Minglei; Le, Zichun; Hu, Jinhua; Fei, Xia


    Triplexer was one of the key components in FTTH systems, which employed an analog overlay channel for video broadcasting in addition to bidirectional digital transmission. To enhance the survivability of triplexer as well as the robustness of FTTH system, a multi-ports device named triplexer monitor was designed and realized, by which failures at triplexer ports can be detected and localized. Triplexer monitor was composed of integrated circuits and its four input ports were connected with the beam splitter whose power division ratio was 95∶5. By means of detecting the sampled optical signal from the beam splitters, triplexer monitor tracked the status of the four ports in triplexer (e.g. 1310 nm, 1490 nm, 1550 nm and com ports). In this paper, the operation scenario of the triplexer monitor with external optical devices was addressed. And the integrated circuit structure of the triplexer monitor was also given. Furthermore, a failure localization algorithm was proposed, which based on the state transition diagram. In order to measure the failure detection and localization time under the circumstance of different failed ports, an experimental test-bed was built. Experiment results showed that the detection time for the failure at 1310 nm port by the triplexer monitor was less than 8.20 ms. For the failure at 1490 nm or 1550 nm port it was less than 8.20 ms and for the failure at com port it was less than 7.20 ms.

  19. Remote Sensing for Characterisation and Kinematic Analysis of Large Slope Failures: Debre Sina Landslide, Main Ethiopian Rift Escarpment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kropáček


    Full Text Available Frequently occurring landslides in Ethiopia endanger rapidly expanding settlements and infrastructure. We investigated a large landslide on the western escarpment of the Main Ethiopian Rift close to Debre Sina. To understand the extent and amplitude of the movements, we derived vectors of horizontal displacements by feature matching of very high resolution satellite images (VHR. The major movements occurred in two phases, after the rainy seasons in 2005 and 2006 reaching magnitudes of 48 ± 10.1 m and 114 ± 7.2 m, respectively. The results for the first phase were supported by amplitude tracking using two Envisat/ASAR scenes from the 31 July 2004 and the 29 October 2005. Surface changes in vertical direction were analyzed by subtraction of a pre-event digital elevation model (DEM from aerial photographs and post-event DEM from ALOS/PRISM triplet data. Furthermore, we derived elevation changes using satellite laser altimetry measurement acquired by the ICESat satellite. These analyses allowed us to delineate the main landslide, which covers an area of 6.5 km2, shallow landslides surrounding the main landslide body that increased the area to 8.5 km2, and the stable area in the lower part of the slope. We assume that the main triggering factor for such a large landslide was precipitation cumulated over several months and we suspect that the slope failure will progress towards the foot of the slope.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations across the Florida Panhandle continental shelf and slope after the BP MC 252 well failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Richard A.; Ederington-Hagy, Melissa; Hileman, Fredrick; Moss, Joseph A.; Amick, Lauren; Carruth, Rebecca; Head, Marie; Marks, Joel; Tominack, Sarah; Jeffrey, Wade H.


    Graphical abstract: The R/V Bellows, Florida Institute of Oceanography (FIO), with faculty and students from the University of West Florida (UWF), sampling mats of oil floating over the continental shelf south of Pensacola Florida during the BP MC 252 well failure. PAH concentrations in sediments on the shelf declined over time after the well was capped with a half life of ∼200 days. - Highlights: • PAHs concentrations were highest in slope sediments near the failed well site. • PAH concentrations in the shelf sediments were highest during the oil spill. • PAHs concentrations declined over time since the spill. - Abstract: The Florida Panhandle continental shelf environment was exposed to oil from the BP oil well failure in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010. Floating mats of oil were documented by satellite, but the distribution of dissolved components of the oil in this region was unknown. Shipek® grab samples of sediments were taken during repeated cruises between June 2010 and June 2012 to test for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as indicators of this contamination. Sediments were collected as composite samples, extracted using standard techniques, and PAHs were quantified by GC/MS-SIM. PAHs in samples from the continental slope in May 2011 were highest near to the failed well site and were reduced in samples taken one year later. PAHs from continental shelf sediments during the spill (June 2010) ranged from 10 to 165 ng g −1 . Subsequent cruises yielded variable and reduced amounts of PAHs across the shelf. The data suggest that PAHs were distributed widely across the shelf, and their subsequent loss to background levels suggests these compounds were of oil spill origin. PAH half-life estimates by regression were 70–122 days for slope and 201 days for shelf stations

  1. Walking on inclines: how do desert ants monitor slope and step length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl Tobias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During long-distance foraging in almost featureless habitats desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis employ path-integrating mechanisms (vector navigation. This navigational strategy requires an egocentric monitoring of the foraging path by incrementally integrating direction, distance, and inclination of the path. Monitoring the latter two parameters involves idiothetic cues and hence is tightly coupled to the ant's locomotor behavior. Results In a kinematic study of desert ant locomotion performed on differently inclined surfaces we aimed at pinpointing the relevant mechanisms of estimating step length and inclination. In a behavioral experiment with ants foraging on slippery surfaces we broke the otherwise tightly coupled relationship between stepping frequency and step length and examined the animals' ability to monitor distances covered even under those adverse conditions. We show that the ants' locomotor system is not influenced by inclined paths. After removing the effect of speed, slope had only marginal influence on kinematic parameters. Conclusion From the obtained data we infer that the previously proposed monitoring of angles of the thorax-coxa joint is not involved in inclinometry. Due to the tiny variations in cycle period, we also argue that an efference copy of the central pattern generator coding the step length in its output frequency will most likely not suffice for estimating step length and complementing the pedometer. Finally we propose that sensing forces acting on the ant's legs could provide the desired neuronal correlate employed in monitoring inclination and step length.

  2. Implantable sensors for heart failure monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shasha Liu


    Implantable sensors in the CRT device offer a unique opportunity for continuous monitoring of a patient's clinical HF status by measuring cardiac rhythm, intracardiac pressures, cardiac events, and physical activity, as well as detecting any device malfunction. Detecting early signs of a deteriorating clinical condition allows prompt preemptive medical intervention to optimize HF management. As a result, not only healthcare professionals will benefit from a reduction in hospitalizations and routine in-office follow-ups, but also patients will benefit from efficient management of their HF. This review highlights the latest available device-based remote monitoring systems and the most up-to-date evidence for the use of remote monitoring in CRT.

  3. Pump failure leads to alternative vertical pump condition monitoring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVilliers, Adriaan; Glandon, Kevin


    Condition monitoring and detecting early signs of potential failure mechanisms present particular problems in vertical pumps. Most often, the majority of the pump assembly is not readily accessible for visual or audible inspection or conventional vibration monitoring techniques using accelerometers and/or proximity sensors. The root cause failure analysis of a 2-stage vertical centrifugal service-water pump at a nuclear power generating facility in the USA is presented, highlighting this long standing challenge in condition monitoring of vertical pumps. This paper will summarize the major findings of the root cause analysis (RCA), highlight the limitations of traditional monitoring techniques, and present an expanded application of motor current monitoring as a means to gain insight into the mechanical performance and condition of a pump. The 'real-world' example of failure, monitoring and correlation of the monitoring technique to a detailed pump disassembly inspection is also presented. This paper will explain some of the reasons behind well known design principles requiring natural frequency separation from known forcing frequencies, as well as explore an unexpected submerged brittle fracture failure mechanism, and how such issues may be avoided. (author)

  4. Centrifuge model test of rock slope failure caused by seismic excitation. Applicability to the stability evaluation method of safety factors against sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Makoto; Kawai, Tadashi


    The purposes of this study are to analyze dynamic failure characteristics of slopes in discontinuous rock mass with brittle fracture by centrifuge model tests and to study applicability to the equivalent linear analysis against dynamic sliding failure of rock slopes. We conducted centrifuge model test using a dip slope model with discontinuities imitated by Teflon sheets. The centrifugal acceleration was 30G, and the acceleration amplitudes of input sin waves were increased gradually at every step. The test results were compared with safety factors of the sliding surface based on the equivalent linear analysis. The following results were obtained: (1) The slope model collapsed when it was excited by the sine wave of 350gal, which was converted to real field scale. (2) Artificial discontinuities considerably affected the collapse, and the type of collapse was plane failure. (3) From response displacement records measured at the slope model, the failure around toe of the slope model probably caused the collapse. (4) The evaluation of safety factors against sliding based on the equivalent linear analysis were conservative compared with the experimental results. (author)

  5. Large-scale slope failure and active erosion occurring in the southwest Ryukyu fore-arc area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matsumoto


    Full Text Available The southwestern Ryukyu area east of Taiwan Island is an arcuate boundary between Philippine Sea Plate and Eurasian Plate. The topographic features in the area are characterised by (1 a large-scale amphitheatre off Ishigaki Island, just on the estimated epicentre of the tsunamigenic earthquake in 1771, (2 lots of deep sea canyons located north of the amphitheatre, (3 15–20 km wide fore-arc basin, (4 15–20 km wide flat plane in the axial area of the trench, (5 E-W trending half grabens located on the fore-arc area, etc., which were revealed by several recent topographic survey expeditions. The diving survey by SHINKAI6500 in the fore-arc area on a spur located 120 km south of Ishigaki Island was carried out in 1992. The site is characterised dominantly by rough topography consisting of a series of steep slopes and escarpments. A part of the surface is eroded due to the weight of the sediment itself and consequently the basement layer is exposed. The site was covered with suspended particles during the diving, due to the present surface sliding and erosion. The same site was resurveyed in 1997 by ROV KAIKO, which confirmed the continuous slope failure taking place in the site. Another example that was observed by KAIKO expedition in 1997 is a largescale mud block on the southward dipping slope 80 km south of Ishigaki Island. This is apparently derived from the shallower part of the steep slope on the southern edge of the fan deposit south of Ishigaki Island. The topographic features suggest N-S or NE-SW tensional stress over the whole study area. In this sense, the relative motion between the two plates in this area is oblique to the plate boundary. So, the seaward migration of the plate boundary may occur due to the gravitational instability at the boundary of the two different lithospheric structures. This is evidenced by a lack of accretionary sediment on the fore-arc and the mechanism of a recent earthquake which occurred on 3 May 1998 in

  6. Rumblings and Rainfall, Rebels, Remittances and Roads- The complex landscape of slope failure in Nepal (United States)

    McAdoo, Brian G.; Sudmeier, Karen; Devkota, Sanjaya


    During the first monsoon season following the deadly 2015 Gorkha earthquake, 27 people were killed during two events in Nepal's Western Region due to debris flows triggered by a 24-hour, 315 mm cloudburst (Devkota et al. 2015). Both events were linked with roads: the first was caused by an accumulation of water on a newly constructed road above a steep, deforested slope, the second wiped out a major road and destroyed 10 houses. These deadly landslides were not triggered solely by extreme rainfall, but rather a complex combination of earthquakes, intensified rainfall associated with climate change and an explosion of unplanned rural road construction fueled by an increase in foreign investment, remittances and decentralisation of budgets and power from the central government to local villages. This complexity is explored through a trend data analysis on the number of landslides, landslide fatalities, rainfall intensity, and the road network in Nepal between 1980-2014 (McAdoo et al, submitted). Of most concern are the poorly constructed roads in Nepal's Middle Hill districts ( 1000-3000 m above sea level, humid, subtropical) as they are proliferating at an unprecedented pace without proper alignment, drainage, grading or maintenance. They are occurring in areas which frequently receive up to 4,000-5,000 mm of precipitation per year, causing considerable loss in lives, livelihoods and investment. Landslide fatalities increased from 88 on average for the period 1982-1995 to 130 deaths per year for the period 2007-2014 (Desinventar, 2016). Contrary to numerous studies which show a strong link between rainfall and landslides, our trend analysis demonstrates a decoupling of climate and the geomorphic drivers, pointing to other factors, namely the exponential road construction trend to explain the increase in landslide fatalities. Nepal has some of the oldest manuals and well-trained cadres in low-cost green engineering practices, yet these are rarely applied. To reverse

  7. Jointly reconstructing ground motion and resistivity for ERT-based slope stability monitoring (United States)

    Boyle, Alistair; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Adler, Andy


    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is increasingly being used to investigate unstable slopes and monitor the hydrogeological processes within. But movement of electrodes or incorrect placement of electrodes with respect to an assumed model can introduce significant resistivity artefacts into the reconstruction. In this work, we demonstrate a joint resistivity and electrode movement reconstruction algorithm within an iterative Gauss-Newton framework. We apply this to ERT monitoring data from an active slow-moving landslide in the UK. Results show fewer resistivity artefacts and suggest that electrode movement and resistivity can be reconstructed at the same time under certain conditions. A new 2.5-D formulation for the electrode position Jacobian is developed and is shown to give accurate numerical solutions when compared to the adjoint method on 3-D models. On large finite element meshes, the calculation time of the newly developed approach was also proven to be orders of magnitude faster than the 3-D adjoint method and addressed modelling errors in the 2-D perturbation and adjoint electrode position Jacobian.

  8. A new deflection solution and application of a fiber Bragg grating-based inclinometer for monitoring internal displacements in slopes (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Huang, Da; Shi, Lin


    Landslide monitoring is critical for predicting the stability of slopes to ensure the safety of life and property. Considering the potential advantages of fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to hostile environments, light weight, and high measurement precision and real time response, a self-designed, FBG-based in situ inclinometer combining a traditional inclinometer and FBG technology was designed to monitor the inner deformation of a slope. In practical landslide monitoring, the inclinometer can be regarded as a cantilever beam with one end fixed. Based on the deflection curve equation of a normal beam and the composite Simpson integral equation, a theoretical deflection equation of the FBG-based inclinometer versus longitudinal strain was established. A FBG-based inclinometer was fabricated and calibrated in the laboratory and a calibration strain sensitivity coefficient was obtained. The results of calibration tests show that the displacements measured by dial indicators are in good agreement with the theoretical displacements calculated using the proposed equation. A series of FBG-based inclinometers were installed into three vertical boreholes located at different points on the profile of an actual reinforced slope. The in situ monitoring results show that the FBG-based inclinometer can effectively capture the real-time internal displacements and potential sliding surface of the slope, proving the validity of the proposed theoretical equation as well the reliability and practicality of the proposed FBG-based inclinometer in engineering applications.

  9. Asymptotic failure rate of a continuously monitored system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grall, A.; Dieulle, L.; Berenguer, C.; Roussignol, M.


    This paper deals with a perfectly continuously monitored system which gradually and stochastically deteriorates. The system is renewed by a delayed maintenance operation, which is triggered when the measured deterioration level exceeds an alarm threshold. A mathematical model is developed to study the asymptotic behavior of the reliability function. A procedure is proposed which allows us to identify the asymptotic failure rate of the maintained system. Numerical experiments illustrate the efficiency of the proposed procedure and emphasize the relevance of the asymptotic failure rate as an interesting indicator for the evaluation of the control-limit preventive replacement policy

  10. Asymptotic failure rate of a continuously monitored system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grall, A. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Dieulle, L. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Berenguer, C. [Institut des Sciences et Technologies de l' Information de Troyes (CNRS-FRE 2732), Equipe de Modelisation et de Surete des Systemes, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Roussignol, M. [Laboratoire d' Analyse et de Mathematiques Appliquees, Universite de Marne la Vallee, 5 bd Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77454 Marne la Vallee, Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail:


    This paper deals with a perfectly continuously monitored system which gradually and stochastically deteriorates. The system is renewed by a delayed maintenance operation, which is triggered when the measured deterioration level exceeds an alarm threshold. A mathematical model is developed to study the asymptotic behavior of the reliability function. A procedure is proposed which allows us to identify the asymptotic failure rate of the maintained system. Numerical experiments illustrate the efficiency of the proposed procedure and emphasize the relevance of the asymptotic failure rate as an interesting indicator for the evaluation of the control-limit preventive replacement policy.

  11. Identifying hydrological pre-conditions and rainfall triggers of slope failures for 2014 storm events in the Ialomita Subcarpathians, Romania (United States)

    Chitu, Zenaida; Bogaard, Thom; Busuioc, Aristita; Burcea, Sorin; Adler, Mary-Jeanne; Sandric, Ionut


    Like in many parts of the world, in Romania, landslides represent recurrent phenomena that produce numerous damages to infrastructure every few years. Various studies on landslide occurrence in the Curvature Subcarpathians reveal that rainfall represents the most important triggering factor for landslides. Depending on rainfall characteristics and environmental factors different types of landslides were recorded in the Ialomita Subcarpathians: slumps, earthflows and complex landslides. This area, located in the western part of Curvature Subcarpathians, is characterized by a very complex geology whose main features are represented by the nappes system, the post tectonic covers, the diapirism phenomena and vertical faults. This work aims to investigate hydrological pre-conditions and rainfall characteristics which triggered slope failures in 2014 in the Ialomita Subcarpathians, Romania. Hydrological pre-conditions were investigated by means of water balance analysis and low flow techniques, while spatial and temporal patterns of rainfalls were estimated using radar data and six rain gauges. Additionally, six soil moisture stations that are fitted with volumetric soil moisture sensors and temperature soil sensors were used to estimate the antecedent soil moisture conditions.

  12. Analysis and assessment of Shortwave Angle and Slope Index for monitoring rice phenology and hydroperiod. (United States)

    Tornos, Lucía; Moyano, María Carmen; Huesca, Margarita; Cicuendez, Victor; Recuero, Laura; Domínguez, Jose Antonio; Palacios-Orueta, Alicia


    According to the United Nations, more than 50 percent of the world population depends on rice for about 80 percent of its food requirements. Besides, rice fields are important aquatic ecosystems, hosting a great variety of aquatic species. However, environmental issues such as water consumption and the emission of greenhouse gases, as well as the effects of climate change in crops, may endanger their sustainability. In this context, the determination of rice hydroperiod and phenology is necessary for rice monitoring and impact management, and is expected to become more relevant in the near future. The present study has explored the potential of Shortwave Angle Slope Index (SASI), based on the spectral data contained in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, to monitoring rice paddy fields under different water management practices. SASI is a spectral shape index (SSI), based on the angle formed in SWIR1 vertex with NIR and SWIR2 in the spectrum, and the slope of the line linking NIR and SWIR2 vertices. This index was developed to distinguish between dry soil, wet soil, dry vegetation and green vegetation. It takes large, positive values for dry soil and large, negative values for green vegetation. Two case studies in Spain, the Ebro Delta and Orellana are presented. The behaviour of the index in each zone for the period 2001-2012 has been evaluated to characterize the response of SASI index to phenological and flooding events in rice. The average values and standard deviation of the index for the period 2001-2012 were calculated to identify the significant points of SASI in coincidence with phenological and flooding field data. An algorithm for the detection of significant points was also applied to determine phenological metrics, based on the information obtained. SASI presented similar values for both zones during the rice growing period. Differences arose during the non-growing period when the Delta was flooded for environmental reasons (i

  13. Comparison of SUV and Patlak slope for monitoring of cancer therapy using serial PET scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Nanette M.T.; Sundaram, Senthil K.; Kurdziel, Karen; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Whatley, Millie; Carson, Joann M.; Sellers, David; Libutti, Steven K.; Yang, James C.; Bacharach, Stephen L.


    The standardized uptake value (SUV) and the slope of the Patlak plot (K) have both been proposed as indices to monitor the progress of disease during cancer therapy. Although a good correlation has been reported between SUV and K, they are not equivalent, and may not be equally affected by metabolic changes occurring during disease progression or therapy. We wished to compare changes in tumor SUV with changes in K during serial positron emission tomography (PET) scans for monitoring therapy. Thirteen patients enrolled in a protocol to treat renal cell carcinoma metastases were studied. Serial dynamic fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scans and computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans were performed once prior to treatment, once at 36±2 days after the start of treatment, and (in 7/13 subjects, 16/27 lesions) a third time at 92±9 days after the start of treatment. This resulted in a total of 33 scans, and 70 tumor Patlak and SUV values (one value for each lesion at each time point). SUV and K were measured over one to four predefined tumors/patient at each time point. The input function was obtained from regions of interest over the heart, combined, if necessary, with late blood samples. Over all tumors and scans, SUV and K correlated well (r=0.97, P<0.0001). However, change in SUV with treatment over all tumor scan pairs was much less well correlated with the corresponding change in K (r=0.73, P<0.0001). The absolute difference in % change was outside the 95% confidence limits expected from previous variability studies in 6 of 43 pairs of tumor scans, and greater than 50% in 2 of 43 tumor scan pairs. In four of the six cases, the two indices predicted opposing therapeutic outcomes. Similar results were obtained for SUV normalized by body weight or body surface area and for SUVs using mean or maximum count. Changes in CT and MR tumor cross-product dimensions correlated poorly with each other (r=0.47, P=NS), and so could not be used to determine the

  14. A development of an evaluation flow chart for seismic stability of rock slopes based on relations between safety factor and sliding failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Tadashi; Ishimaru, Makoto


    Recently, it is necessary to assess quantitatively seismic safety of critical facilities against the earthquake- induced rock slope failure from the viewpoint of seismic PSA. Under these circumstances, it is needed to evaluate the seismic stability of surrounding slopes against extremely strong ground motions. In order to evaluate the seismic stability of surrounding slopes, the most conventional method is to compare safety factors on an expected sliding surface, which is calculated from the stability analysis based on the limit equilibrium concept, to a critical value which judges stability or instability. The method is very effective to examine whether or not the sliding surface is safe. However, it does not mean that the sliding surface falls whenever the safety factor becomes smaller than the critical value during an earthquake. Therefore the authors develop a new evaluation flow chart for the seismic stability of rock slopes based on relations between safety factor and sliding failure. Furthermore, the developed flow chart was validated by comparing two kinds of safety factors calculated from a centrifuge test result concerned with a rock slope. (author)

  15. Remote Sensing and Geodetic Measurements for Volcanic Slope Monitoring: Surface Variations Measured at Northern Flank of La Fossa Cone (Vulcano Island, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonforte


    Full Text Available Results of recent monitoring activities on potentially unstable areas of the NW volcano flank of La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island, Italy are shown here. They are obtained by integration of data by aerial photogrammetry, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS and GPS taken in the 1996–2011 time span. A comparison between multi-temporal models built from remote sensing data (photogrammetry and TLS highlights areas characterized by ~7–10 cm/y positive differences (i.e., elevation increase in the upper crown of the slope. The GPS measurements confirm these results. Areas characterized by negative differences, related to both mass collapses or small surface lowering, also exist. The higher differences, positive and negative, are always observed in zones affected by higher fumarolic activity. In the 2010–2012 time span, ground motions in the northern part of the crater rim, immediately above the upper part of observed area, are also observed. The results show different trends for both vertical and horizontal displacements of points distributed along the rim, with a magnitude of some centimeters, thus revealing a complex kinematics. A slope stability analysis shows that the safety factors estimated from these data do not indicate evidence of possible imminent failures. Nevertheless, new time series are needed to detect possible changes with the time of the stability conditions, and the monitoring has to go on.

  16. Monitoring result analyses of high slope of five-step ship lock in the Three Gorges Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan


    Full Text Available The construction of the double-lane five-step ship lock of the Three Gorges Project (TGP was commenced in 1994, the excavation of the ship lock was completed by the end of 1999, and the ship lock was put in operation in June 2003. The side slopes of the ship lock are characterized by great height (170 m, steepness (70 m in height of upright slope, and great length (over 7000 m in total length. In association with the ship lock, the surrounding rocks in slope have a high potential to deform, with which the magnitude of deformation is restricted. Monitoring results show that the deformation of the five-step ship lock high slopes of the TGP primarily occurred in excavation period, and deformation tended to be stable and convergent during operation period, suggesting the allowable ranges of deformation. At present, the slopes and lock chambers are stable, and the ship lock works well under normal operation condition, enabling the social and economic benefits of the TGP.

  17. Fracture and slope stability monitoring at Puigcercós landslide (Catalonia, Spain) (United States)

    Khazaradze, Giorgi; Vasquez, Sebastian; López, Robert; Guinau, Guinau; Calvet, Jaume; Vilaplana, Joan Manuel; Blanch, Xabier; Tapia, Mar; Roig, Pere; Suriñach, Emma


    The village of Puigcercós ( 50 inhabitants) is located in the region of Pallars Jussà (Lleida) in Catalonia, several km south of the town of Tremp. In 1881 the entire village had to be moved from its historical location on top of the hill to its current location. This was caused by a series of landslides caused by continuing rainfall. The most important landslide occurred on January 13th 1881, which displaced more than 5 million cubic meters of sediments and rocks and created an impressive rock scar of approximately 25 m height and 150 m width. The area where the sediments were accumulated is extensive, reaching 8 hectares. During the last years, our group has chosen the site of Puigcercós to conduct pilot studies of landslides and rockfalls using multidisciplinary approach, involving Terrestrial Laser Scanner, Total Station, DGPS, seismic monitoring and geophysical techniques. The geophysical surveys of the zone of the sediment accumulation, can help determine the internal structure of the displaced sediments. The work presented here mainly concerns the deformation monitoring at the site using geodetic techniques. In July 2015, a network of 11 new geodetic points has been established and measured with GPS. The location of these points was chosen with the purpose of answering two important questions in the studies of the stability and geomorphological activity of the Puigcercós landslide: 1) As a result of combined analysis of the tape-meter, total station and GPS measurements, we hope to obtain absolute values of deformation in the upper part of the escarpment, controlling the stability of the escarpment front and the associated fractures near the coronation. For this purpose, two geodetic control points have been established at the hilltop, some 5 meters away from the escarpment itself. 2) Determine the slope stability of the depositional area, where we established nine geodetic points. As of today, these points have been measured twice, in 2015 and 2016

  18. Fuel failure monitoring system design approach for KALIMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Soon Ja; Hwang, I. K.; Kwon, Kee Choon


    Fuel Failure Monitoring System (FFMS) detects fission gas and locates failed fuels in Liquid Metal Reactor. This system comprises three subsystems; delayed neutron monitoring, cover gas monitoring, and gas tagging. The purpose of this system is to improve the integrity and availability of the liquid metal plant. In this paper, FFMS was analyzed on detection method and compared with various existing liquid metal plants. Sampling and detecting methods were classified with specific plant types. Several technologies of them was recognized and used in most liquid metal reactors. Detection technology and analysis performance, however, must be improved because of new technology when liquid metal plant is built, but the FFMS design scheme will not be changed. Thereby this paper suggests the design to implement KALIMER(Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) FFMS

  19. Geotechnical monitoring of a pipeline buried in slope; Monitoramento geotecnico de um duto enterrado em encosta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Lacerda, Willy Alvarenga; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Freitas, Nicolle Cruz de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    When a pipeline is installed inside a slope, it is subjected to stress variation due to slope movements, which could compromise its operation. On this paper it is presented a preliminary study of the behavior of a slope in which it was installed a pipeline, denominated ORBIG (Km 48 + 300 and Km 48 + 500), at Coroa Grande, Rio de Janeiro. The analysis of displacements and velocity of displacement and the comparison with rainfall data will provide a better understanding of the mechanics of the slope movements. The main objective is to analyze the risk of pipeline rupture and the environmental consequences, and to provide means to define actions for risk reduction on those areas. (author)

  20. Frequency and sources of basin floor turbidites in alfonso basin, Gulf of California, Mexico: Products of slope failures (United States)

    Gonzalez-Yajimovich, Oscar E.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Douglas, Robert G.


    Alfonso Basin is a small margin basin formed by extensional tectonics in the actively rifting, seismically active Gulf of California. The basin is centered at 24°40' N and 110° 38' W, and is a closed depression (maximum depth 420 m) with an effective sill depth of about 320 m (deepest sill), a width of 20 km and length of 25 km. Basin floor area below a depth of 350 m is about 260 km 2. The climate is arid to semiarid but was wetter during the early (ca. 10,000-7000 Calendar years Before Present [BP]) and middle Holocene (ca. 7000-4000 Cal. Years BP). Basin-wide turbidity currents reach the floor of Alfonso Basin at centennial to millennial intervals. The peninsular drainages tributary to the basin are small and have maximum flood discharges of the order of 10 4m 3. The basin-floor turbidites thicker than 1 cm have volumes of the order of 10 6m 3 to 10 8m 3 and require a much larger source. The largest turbidite seen in our cores is ca. 1 m thick in the central basin floor and was deposited 4900 Calendar Years Before Present (BP). Two smaller major events occurred about 1500 and 2800 Cal. Years BP. Seismicity over the past century of record shows a clustering of larger epicenters along faults forming the eastern Gulf side of Alfonso Basin. In that period there have been four earthquakes with magnitudes above 7.0 but all are distant from the basin. Frequency of such earthquakes in the basin vicinity is probably millennial. It is concluded that the basin-wide turbidites thicker than 1 cm must be generated by slope failures on the eastern side of the basin at roughly millennial intervals. The thin flood turbidites have a peninsular source at centennial frequencies.

  1. Predicting Plan Failure by Monitoring Action Sequences and Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Parente FARIAS


    Full Text Available An agent can attempt to achieve multiple goals and each goal can be achieved by applying various different plans. Anticipating failures in agent plan execution is important to enable an agent to develop strategies to avoid or circumvent such failures, allowing the agent to achieve its goal. Plan recognition can be used to infer which plans are being executed from observations of sequences of activities being performed by an agent. Symbolic Plan Recognition is an algorithm that represents knowledge about the agents under observation in the form of a plan library. In this work, we use this symbolic algorithm to find out which plan the agent is performing and we develop a failure prediction system, based on information available in the plan library and in a simplified calendar which manages the goals the agent has to achieve. This failure predictor is able to monitor the sequence of agent actions and detects if an action is taking too long or does not match the plan that the agent was expected to be performing. We have successfully employed this approach in a health-care prototype system.

  2. Development of evaluation methods for impact of earthquake-induced slope failure on nearby critical structures. Analysis of behavior of collapsed rock masses using 3-D distinct element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Makoto; Tochigi, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Masato; Shirai, Koji


    Recently, importance of evaluation for impact of earthquake-induced slope failure on nearby critical structures is increasing in order to evaluate seismic stability of the slope, in addition to evaluating the possibilities of slope failure. In this study, we presented an examination flow chart to evaluate the impact on structures after slope failure. In the examination flow chart, we assumed the following four considerations; (1) evaluation of the collapse region of the slope, (2) evaluation of behavior of the collapsed rock masses, (3) evaluation of the impact on the structures, (4) examination of the countermeasures. And, for the purpose of using three dimensional distinct element method (DEM) for evaluation of behavior of the collapsed rock masses, we firstly confirmed applicability of DEM to behavior of a mass hurtling down the slope by means of comparing with the model test results. Moreover, we clarified influence of initial position or restitution coefficient of rock masses on final traveling distance of collapsed rock masses. (author)

  3. Monitoring changes in soil water content on adjustable soil slopes of a soil column using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zakaria Wan Muhd Tahir; Lakam Anak Mejus; Johari Abdul Latif


    Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is one of non-destructive methods and widely used in hydrology and soil science for accurate and flexible measurement of soil water content The TDR technique is based on measuring the dielectric constant of soil from the propagation of an electromagnetic pulse traveling along installed probe rods (parallel wire transmission line). An adjustable soil column i.e., 80 cm (L) x 35 cm (H) x 44 cm (W) instrumented with six pairs of vertically installed CS615 reflectometer probes (TDR rods) was developed and wetted under a laboratory simulated rainfall and their sub-surface moisture variations as the slope changes were monitored using TDR method Soil samples for gravimetric determination of water content, converted to a volume basis were taken at selected times and locations after the final TDR reading for every slope change made of the soil column Comparisons of water contents by TDR with those from grawmetric samples at different slopes of soil column were examined. The accuracy was found to be comparable and to some extent dependent upon the variability of the soil. This study also suggests that the response of slope (above 20 degrees) to the gradual increase in water content profile may cause soil saturation faster and increased overland flow (runoff especially on weak soil conditions

  4. Integration of two-phase solid fluid equations in a catchment model for flashfloods, debris flows and shallow slope failures

    KAUST Repository

    Bout, B.; Lombardo, Luigi; van Westen, C.J.; Jetten, V.G.


    An integrated, modeling method for shallow landslides, debris flows and catchment hydrology is developed and presented in this paper. Existing two-phase debris flow equations and an adaptation on the infinite slope method are coupled with a full

  5. Real Time Fire Reconnaissance Satellite Monitoring System Failure Model (United States)

    Nino Prieto, Omar Ariosto; Colmenares Guillen, Luis Enrique


    In this paper the Real Time Fire Reconnaissance Satellite Monitoring System is presented. This architecture is a legacy of the Detection System for Real-Time Physical Variables which is undergoing a patent process in Mexico. The methodologies for this design are the Structured Analysis for Real Time (SA- RT) [8], and the software is carried out by LACATRE (Langage d'aide à la Conception d'Application multitâche Temps Réel) [9,10] Real Time formal language. The system failures model is analyzed and the proposal is based on the formal language for the design of critical systems and Risk Assessment; AltaRica. This formal architecture uses satellites as input sensors and it was adapted from the original model which is a design pattern for physical variation detection in Real Time. The original design, whose task is to monitor events such as natural disasters and health related applications, or actual sickness monitoring and prevention, as the Real Time Diabetes Monitoring System, among others. Some related work has been presented on the Mexican Space Agency (AEM) Creation and Consultation Forums (2010-2011), and throughout the International Mexican Aerospace Science and Technology Society (SOMECYTA) international congress held in San Luis Potosí, México (2012). This Architecture will allow a Real Time Fire Satellite Monitoring, which will reduce the damage and danger caused by fires which consumes the forests and tropical forests of Mexico. This new proposal, permits having a new system that impacts on disaster prevention, by combining national and international technologies and cooperation for the benefit of humankind.

  6. GB-InSAR monitoring of slope deformations in a mountainous area affected by debris flow events (United States)

    Frodella, William; Salvatici, Teresa; Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Fanti, Riccardo


    Diffuse and severe slope instabilities affected the whole Veneto region (north-eastern Italy) between 31 October and 2 November 2010, following a period of heavy and persistent rainfall. In this context, on 4 November 2010 a large detrital mass detached from the cover of the Mt. Rotolon deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD), located in the upper Agno River valley, channelizing within the Rotolon Creek riverbed and evolving into a highly mobile debris flow. The latter phenomena damaged many hydraulic works, also threatening bridges, local roads, and the residents of the Maltaure, Turcati, and Parlati villages located along the creek banks and the town of Recoaro Terme. From the beginning of the emergency phase, the civil protection system was activated, involving the National Civil Protection Department, Veneto Region, and local administrations' personnel and technicians, as well as scientific institutions. On 8 December 2010 a local-scale monitoring system, based on a ground-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (GB-InSAR), was implemented in order to evaluate the slope deformation pattern evolution in correspondence of the debris flow detachment sector, with the final aim of assessing the landslide residual risk and managing the emergency phase. This paper describes the results of a 2-year GB-InSAR monitoring campaign (December 2010-December 2012) and its application for monitoring, mapping, and emergency management activities in order to provide a rapid and easy communication of the results to the involved technicians and civil protection personnel, for a better understanding of the landslide phenomena and the decision-making process in a critical landslide scenario.

  7. GB-InSAR monitoring of slope deformations in a mountainous area affected by debris flow events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Frodella


    Full Text Available Diffuse and severe slope instabilities affected the whole Veneto region (north-eastern Italy between 31 October and 2 November 2010, following a period of heavy and persistent rainfall. In this context, on 4 November 2010 a large detrital mass detached from the cover of the Mt. Rotolon deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DSGSD, located in the upper Agno River valley, channelizing within the Rotolon Creek riverbed and evolving into a highly mobile debris flow. The latter phenomena damaged many hydraulic works, also threatening bridges, local roads, and the residents of the Maltaure, Turcati, and Parlati villages located along the creek banks and the town of Recoaro Terme. From the beginning of the emergency phase, the civil protection system was activated, involving the National Civil Protection Department, Veneto Region, and local administrations' personnel and technicians, as well as scientific institutions. On 8 December 2010 a local-scale monitoring system, based on a ground-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (GB-InSAR, was implemented in order to evaluate the slope deformation pattern evolution in correspondence of the debris flow detachment sector, with the final aim of assessing the landslide residual risk and managing the emergency phase. This paper describes the results of a 2-year GB-InSAR monitoring campaign (December 2010–December 2012 and its application for monitoring, mapping, and emergency management activities in order to provide a rapid and easy communication of the results to the involved technicians and civil protection personnel, for a better understanding of the landslide phenomena and the decision-making process in a critical landslide scenario.

  8. Groundwater monitoring of an open-pit limestone quarry: groundwater characteristics, evolution and their connections to rock slopes. (United States)

    Eang, Khy Eam; Igarashi, Toshifumi; Fujinaga, Ryota; Kondo, Megumi; Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar


    Groundwater flow and its geochemical evolution in mines are important not only in the study of contaminant migration but also in the effective planning of excavation. The effects of groundwater on the stability of rock slopes and other mine constructions especially in limestone quarries are crucial because calcite, the major mineral component of limestone, is moderately soluble in water. In this study, evolution of groundwater in a limestone quarry located in Chichibu city was monitored to understand the geochemical processes occurring within the rock strata of the quarry and changes in the chemistry of groundwater, which suggests zones of deformations that may affect the stability of rock slopes. There are three distinct geological formations in the quarry: limestone layer, interbedded layer of limestone and slaty greenstone, and slaty greenstone layer as basement rock. Although the hydrochemical facies of all groundwater samples were Ca-HCO 3 type water, changes in the geochemical properties of groundwater from the three geological formations were observed. In particular, significant changes in the chemical properties of several groundwater samples along the interbedded layer were observed, which could be attributed to the mixing of groundwater from the limestone and slaty greenstone layers. On the rainy day, the concentrations of Ca 2+ and HCO 3 - in the groundwater fluctuated notably, and the groundwater flowing along the interbedded layer was dominated by groundwater from the limestone layer. These suggest that groundwater along the interbedded layer may affect the stability of rock slopes.

  9. Process analysis of deep slope failures in České středohoří neovolcanites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybář, Jan; Vilímek, V.; Cílek, Václav

    8(115) (2000), s. 39-46 ISSN 1212-1576 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/98/1551 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : deep slope deformations * creep * landsliding Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Laboratory Experiments on Steady State Seepage-Induced Landslides Using Slope Models and Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra G. Catane


    Full Text Available A thorough understanding of the failure initiation process is crucial in the development of physicallybased early warning system for landslides and slope failures. Laboratory-scale slope models were constructed and subjected to instability through simulated groundwater infiltration. This is done by progressively increasing the water level in the upslope tank and allowing water to infiltrate laterally towards the toe of the slope. Physical changes in the slope models were recorded by tilt sensors and video cameras. When the model slope was destabilized, the chronology of events occurred in the following sequence: (1 bulging at the toe, (2 seepage at the toe, (3 initial failure of soil mass, (4 piping, (5 retrogressive failure, (6 formation of tension cracks and (7 major failure of soil mass. Tension cracks, piping and eventual failure are manifestations of differential settlements due to variations in void ratio. Finite element analysis indicates that instability and subsequent failures in the model slope were induced primarily by high hydraulic gradients in the toe area. Seepage, initial deformation and subsequent failures were manifested in the toe area prior to failure, providing a maximum of 36 min lead time. Similar lead times are expected in slopes of the same material as shown in many case studies of dam failure. The potential of having a longer lead time is high for natural slopes made of materials with higher shear strength thus evacuation is possible. The tilt sensors were able to detect the initial changes before visual changes manifested, indicating the importance of instrumental monitoring.

  11. Influence of weathering and pre-existing large scale fractures on gravitational slope failure: insights from 3-D physical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bachmann


    Full Text Available Using a new 3-D physical modelling technique we investigated the initiation and evolution of large scale landslides in presence of pre-existing large scale fractures and taking into account the slope material weakening due to the alteration/weathering. The modelling technique is based on the specially developed properly scaled analogue materials, as well as on the original vertical accelerator device enabling increases in the 'gravity acceleration' up to a factor 50. The weathering primarily affects the uppermost layers through the water circulation. We simulated the effect of this process by making models of two parts. The shallower one represents the zone subject to homogeneous weathering and is made of low strength material of compressive strength σl. The deeper (core part of the model is stronger and simulates intact rocks. Deformation of such a model subjected to the gravity force occurred only in its upper (low strength layer. In another set of experiments, low strength (σw narrow planar zones sub-parallel to the slope surface (σwl were introduced into the model's superficial low strength layer to simulate localized highly weathered zones. In this configuration landslides were initiated much easier (at lower 'gravity force', were shallower and had smaller horizontal size largely defined by the weak zone size. Pre-existing fractures were introduced into the model by cutting it along a given plan. They have proved to be of small influence on the slope stability, except when they were associated to highly weathered zones. In this latter case the fractures laterally limited the slides. Deep seated rockslides initiation is thus directly defined by the mechanical structure of the hillslope's uppermost levels and especially by the presence of the weak zones due to the weathering. The large scale fractures play a more passive role and can only influence the shape and the volume of the sliding units.

  12. FFTF fuel failure detection and characterization by cover gas monitoring. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.C.; Holt, F.E.


    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will include a Fuel Failure Monitoring (FFM) System designed to detect, characterize, and locate fuel and absorber pin failures (i.e., cladding breaches) using a combination of delayed neutron detection, cover gas radioisotope monitoring, and gas tagging. During the past several years the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory has been involved in the development, design, procurement, and installation of this integrated system. The paper describes one portion of the FFM System, the Cover Gas Monitoring System (CGMS), which has the primary function of fuel failure detection and characterization in the FFTF. By monitoring the various radioisotopes in the cover gas, the CGMS will both detect fuel and absorber pin failures and characterize those failures as to magnitude and severity

  13. Exploring topographic methods for monitoring morphological changes in mountain channels of different size and slope (United States)

    Theule, Joshua; Bertoldi, Gabriele; Comiti, Francesco; Macconi, Pierpaolo; Mazzorana, Bruno


    High resolution digital elevation models (DEM) can easily be obtained using either laser scanning technology or photogrammetry with structure from motion (SFM). The scale, resolution, and accuracy can vary according to how the data is acquired, such as by helicopter, drone, or extendable pole. In the Autonomous Province of Bozen-Bolzano (Northern Italy), we had the opportunity to compare several of these techniques at different scales in mountain streams ranging from low-gradient braided rivers to steep debris flow channels. The main objective is to develop protocols for efficient monitoring of morphologic changes in different parts of the river systems. For SFM methods, we used the software "Photoscan Professional" (Agisoft) to generate densified point clouds. Both artificial and natural targets were used to georeference them. In some cases, targets were not even necessary and point clouds could be aligned with older point clouds by using the iterative closest point algorithm in the freeware "CloudCompare". At the Mareit/Mareta River, a restored braided river, an airborne laser scan survey (2011) was compared to a SFM DEM derived from a helicopter photo survey (2014) carried out (by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano) at approximately 100 m above ground. Photogrammetry point clouds had an alignment error of 1.5 cm and had three times more data coverage than laser scanning. Indeed, the large spacing and clustering of 2011 ALS swaths led to areas of no data when a 10-cm grid is developed. In the Gadria basin, a debris flow monitoring catchment, we used a sediment retention basin to compare debris flow volumes resulting from i) a drone (by the "Mavtech" company) survey at 10 m above ground (with GoPro camera), ii) a 5-m pole-mounted camera (with Canon EOS 700D) and iii) a 3-m pole-mounted camera (with GoPro Hero Silver3+) to a iv) TLS survey. As the drone had limited load capacity (especially at high elevations) we used the lightweight GoPro Hero 3+, but due to the

  14. Comparison between monitored and modeled pore water pressure and safety factor in a slope susceptible to shallow landslides (United States)

    Bordoni, Massimiliano; Meisina, Claudia; Zizioli, Davide; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Chersich, Silvia


    Shallow landslides can be defined as slope movements affecting superficial deposits of small thicknesses which are usually triggered due to extreme rainfall events, also very concentrated in time. Shallow landslides are hazardous phenomena: in particular, if they happen close to urbanized areas they could cause significant damages to cultivations, structures, infrastructures and, sometimes, human losses. The triggering mechanism of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is strictly linked with the hydrological and mechanical responses of usually unsaturated soils to rainfall events. For this reason, it is fundamental knowing the intrinsic hydro-mechanical properties of the soils in order to assess both susceptibility and hazard of shallow landslide and to develop early-warning systems at large scale. The hydrological data collected by a 20 months monitoring on a slope susceptible to shallow landslides in an area of the North -Eastern Oltrepo Pavese (Northern Apennines, Italy) were used to identify the hydrological behaviors of the investigated soils towards rainfall events. Field conditions under different rainfall trends have also been modeled by using both hydrological and physically-based stability models for the evaluation of the slope safety factor . The main objectives of this research are: (a) to compare the field measured pore water pressures at different depths with results of hydrological models, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the tested models and to determine how precipitations affect pore pressure development; (b) to compare the time trends of the safety factor that have been obtained by applying different stability models; (c) to evaluate, through a sensitivity analysis, the effects of soil hydrological properties on modeling pore water pressure and safety factor. The test site slope where field measurements were acquired is representative of other sites in Northern Apennines affected by shallow landslides and is characterized by medium

  15. Age evaluation and causation of rock-slope failures along the western margin of the Antrim Lava Group (ALG), Northern Ireland, based on cosmogenic isotope (36Cl) surface exposure dating (United States)

    Southall, David W.; Wilson, Peter; Dunlop, Paul; Schnabel, Christoph; Rodés, Ángel; Gulliver, Pauline; Xu, Sheng


    The temporal pattern of postglacial rock-slope failure in a glaciated upland area of Ireland (the western margin of the Antrim Lava Group) was evaluated using both 36Cl exposure dating of surface boulders on run-out debris and 14C dating of basal organic soils from depressions on the debris. The majority of the 36Cl ages ( 21-15 ka) indicate that major failures occurred during or immediately following local deglaciation ( 18-17 ka). Other ages ( 14-9 ka) suggest some later, smaller-scale failures during the Lateglacial and/or early Holocene. The 14C ages (2.36-0.15 cal ka BP) indicate the very late onset of organic accumulation and do not provide close limiting age constraints. Rock-slope failure during or immediately following local deglaciation was probably in response to some combination of glacial debuttressing, slope steepening and paraglacial stress release. Later failures may have been triggered by seismic activity associated with glacio-isostatic crustal uplift and/or permafrost degradation consequent upon climate change. The 36Cl ages support the findings of previous studies that show the deglacial - Lateglacial period in northwest Ireland and Scotland to have been one of enhanced rock-slope failure. Table S2 Concentrations of main elements (as oxides) etc.

  16. Slope Failure Hazards at Basalt Geomorphosites: A Comparative Analysis of the Giant's Causeway World Heritage Site, UK and Penghu Marine Geopark, Taiwan. (United States)

    Gruendemann, Ciaran; Chung Lin, Jiun; Smith, Bernard


    Columnar basalt landscapes hold a fascination that transcends geographical and cultural boundaries. It is because of this that they feature so prominently on the global register of significant geomorphosites. Arguably the most iconic of these basalt landscapes is the Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland, a status recognized by its inscription as a World Heritage Site. Recognition at this level invariably brings visitor pressure, and with it concern as to the impact they exert on site integrity. Rarely, however, is the same overt concern expressed for the risks that such sites pose to the visitors - or not at least until disaster strikes. Yet, the very features that make these sites attractive - tall, exposed, largely unconstrained columns - render many of them intrinsically unstable, prone to catastrophic collapse and potentially hazardous to visitors. In this presentation we highlight the nature of these slope instability issues through a comparative analysis of two geographically contrasting basalt geomorphosites. Investigations of slope hazard at the Giant's Causeway have shown that many are linked to the distinctive structural characteristics and weathering patterns of flood basalts. Typically, individual flows comprise a columnar ‘colonnade', topped by a blocky ‘entablature' and separated from the flows above and below it by a structurally weaker, but often less-permeable, palaeosol that formed during periods of volcanic quiescence. The collapse of columns is often facilitated by a combination of weathering along ever-widening joints and wedging outwards by debris that falls into them. This gradual distortion of the colonnade makes columns increasingly susceptible to collapse. Often this is triggered by intense rainfall (perhaps following a dry spell) that rapidly infiltrates joints and is ponded on the underlying palaeosol. The precise nature of the failure (toppling or outwards rotation of the column base) is largely dictated by the nature of the

  17. Temporal behavior of deep-seated gravitational slope deformations: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, T.; Klimeš, Jan


    Roč. 156, MAY (2016), s. 14-38 ISSN 0012-8252 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : deep-seated gravitational slope deformations * catastrophic slope failures * deformation rates * dating * monitoring Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 7.051, year: 2016

  18. Renal function monitoring in heart failure - what is the optimal frequency? A narrative review. (United States)

    Al-Naher, Ahmed; Wright, David; Devonald, Mark Alexander John; Pirmohamed, Munir


    The second most common cause of hospitalization due to adverse drug reactions in the UK is renal dysfunction due to diuretics, particularly in patients with heart failure, where diuretic therapy is a mainstay of treatment regimens. Therefore, the optimal frequency for monitoring renal function in these patients is an important consideration for preventing renal failure and hospitalization. This review looks at the current evidence for optimal monitoring practices of renal function in patients with heart failure according to national and international guidelines on the management of heart failure (AHA/NICE/ESC/SIGN). Current guidance of renal function monitoring is in large part based on expert opinion, with a lack of clinical studies that have specifically evaluated the optimal frequency of renal function monitoring in patients with heart failure. Furthermore, there is variability between guidelines, and recommendations are typically nonspecific. Safer prescribing of diuretics in combination with other antiheart failure treatments requires better evidence for frequency of renal function monitoring. We suggest developing more personalized monitoring rather than from the current medication-based guidance. Such flexible clinical guidelines could be implemented using intelligent clinical decision support systems. Personalized renal function monitoring would be more effective in preventing renal decline, rather than reacting to it. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability (United States)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.


    the consequence. Its geometrical configuration and timing is different from submarine slides on other glaciated continental margins. Thus, it raises the question whether slope stability within the Arctic Ocean is governed by processes specific to this environment. The extraordinary thick slabs (up to 1600 m) that were moved translationally during sliding rise the question on the nature of the weak layers associated with this process. Especially theories involving higher pore pressure are being challenged by this observation, because either extreme pore pressures or alternative explanations (e.g. mineralogical and/or textural) can be considered. To assess the actual submarine slope stability and failure potential in the Arctic Ocean, we propose to drill and recover weak layer material of the HYM from the adjacent intact strata by deep drilling under the framework of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. This is the only method to recover weak layer material from the HYM, because the strata are too thick. We further propose to drill into the adjacent deforming slope to identify material properties of the layers acting as detachment and monitor the deformation.

  20. Slope movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.


    On this poster some reasons of slope movements on the territory of the Slovak Republic are presented. Slope movements induced deterioration of land and forests, endangering of towns villages, and communications as well as hydro-engineering structures. Methods of preventing and stabilisation of slope movements are presented.

  1. Small scale tests on the progressive retreat of soil slopes (United States)

    Voulgari, Chrysoula; Utili, Stefano; Castellanza, Riccardo


    In this paper, the influence due to the presence of cracks on the morphologic evolution of natural cliffs subject to progressive retreat induced by weathering is investigated through small scale laboratory tests. Weathering turns hard rocks into soft rocks that maintain the structure of the intact rocks, but are characterised by higher void ratios and reduced bond strengths; soft rocks are transformed into granular soils generally called residual soils. A number of landslides develop in slopes due to weathering which results in the progressive retrogression of the slope face and the further degradation within the weathering zone. Cracks, that are widely present, can be a result of weathering and they can cause a significant decrease in their stability, as they provide preferential flow channels which increase the soil permeability and decrease the soil strength. The geological models employed until now are mainly empirical. Several researchers have tried to study the stability of slopes through experimental procedures. Centrifuge modelling is widely used to investigate the failure of slopes. Small scale tests are also an important approach, in order to study the behaviour of a slope under certain conditions, such as the existence of water, as they allow the observation of the infiltration processes, the movement of the weathering front, deformation and failure. However, the deformation response of a slope subject to weathering is not yet thoroughly clarified. In this work, a set of experiments were conducted to investigate weathering induced successive landslides. Weathering was applied to the slope model by wetting the slope crest through a rainfall simulator device. The moisture content of the soil during the tests was monitored by soil moisture sensors that were buried inside the slope model. High resolution cameras were recording the behaviour of the slope model. GeoPIV was used to analyse the frames and obtain the deformations of the slope model during the

  2. Microbiologically influenced corrosion monitoring: Real world failures and how to avoid them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.J.B.


    Monitoring for microbiologically influenced corrosion in industry commonly is practiced, but too often has failed to predict corrosion damage. Reports of failed monitoring seldom appear in the published literature, but hands-on experience and word-of-mouth communication indicate that the problem is widespread. The question of why so many monitoring programs are unsuccessful is investigated, and remedies for common problems are suggested. Failures can be attributed to three main causes: confusion over the goals of the monitoring program, inappropriate monitoring methods, and inadequate execution of the monitoring program.

  3. A Bivariate return period for levee failure monitoring (United States)

    Isola, M.; Caporali, E.


    Levee breaches are strongly linked with the interaction processes among water, soil and structure, thus many are the factors that affect the breach development. One of the main is the hydraulic load, characterized by intensity and duration, i.e. by the flood event hydrograph. On the magnitude of the hydraulic load is based the levee design, generally without considering the fatigue failure due to the load duration. Moreover, many are the cases in which the levee breach are characterized by flood of magnitude lower than the design one. In order to implement the strategies of flood risk management, we built here a procedure based on a multivariate statistical analysis of flood peak and volume together with the analysis of the past levee failure events. Particularly, in order to define the probability of occurrence of the hydraulic load on a levee, a bivariate copula model is used to obtain the bivariate joint distribution of flood peak and volume. Flood peak is the expression of the load magnitude, while the volume is the expression of the stress over time. We consider the annual flood peak and the relative volume. The volume is given by the hydrograph area between the beginning and the end of event. The beginning of the event is identified as an abrupt rise of the discharge by more than 20%. The end is identified as the point from which the receding limb is characterized by the baseflow, using a nonlinear reservoir algorithm as baseflow separation technique. By this, with the aim to define warning thresholds we consider the past levee failure events and the relative bivariate return period (BTr) compared with the estimation of a traditional univariate model. The discharge data of 30 hydrometric stations of Arno River in Tuscany, Italy, in the period 1995-2016 are analysed. The database of levee failure events, considering for each event the location as well as the failure mode, is also created. The events were registered in the period 2000-2014 by EEA

  4. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment failure detection depends on monitoring interval and microbiological method (United States)

    White, Richard A.; Lu, Chunling; Rodriguez, Carly A.; Bayona, Jaime; Becerra, Mercedes C.; Burgos, Marcos; Centis, Rosella; Cohen, Theodore; Cox, Helen; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Danilovitz, Manfred; Falzon, Dennis; Gelmanova, Irina Y.; Gler, Maria T.; Grinsdale, Jennifer A.; Holtz, Timothy H.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Leimane, Vaira; Menzies, Dick; Milstein, Meredith B.; Mishustin, Sergey P.; Pagano, Marcello; Quelapio, Maria I.; Shean, Karen; Shin, Sonya S.; Tolman, Arielle W.; van der Walt, Martha L.; Van Deun, Armand; Viiklepp, Piret


    Debate persists about monitoring method (culture or smear) and interval (monthly or less frequently) during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We analysed existing data and estimated the effect of monitoring strategies on timing of failure detection. We identified studies reporting microbiological response to MDR-TB treatment and solicited individual patient data from authors. Frailty survival models were used to estimate pooled relative risk of failure detection in the last 12 months of treatment; hazard of failure using monthly culture was the reference. Data were obtained for 5410 patients across 12 observational studies. During the last 12 months of treatment, failure detection occurred in a median of 3 months by monthly culture; failure detection was delayed by 2, 7, and 9 months relying on bimonthly culture, monthly smear and bimonthly smear, respectively. Risk (95% CI) of failure detection delay resulting from monthly smear relative to culture is 0.38 (0.34–0.42) for all patients and 0.33 (0.25–0.42) for HIV-co-infected patients. Failure detection is delayed by reducing the sensitivity and frequency of the monitoring method. Monthly monitoring of sputum cultures from patients receiving MDR-TB treatment is recommended. Expanded laboratory capacity is needed for high-quality culture, and for smear microscopy and rapid molecular tests. PMID:27587552

  5. On possibilities of using global monitoring in effective prevention of tailings storage facilities failures. (United States)

    Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Wróżyńska, Magdalena


    Protection of common natural goods is one of the greatest challenges man faces every day. Extracting and processing natural resources such as mineral deposits contributes to the transformation of the natural environment. The number of activities designed to keep balance are undertaken in accordance with the concept of integrated order. One of them is the use of comprehensive systems of tailings storage facility monitoring. Despite the monitoring, system failures still occur. The quantitative aspect of the failures illustrates both the scale of the problem and the quantitative aspect of the consequences of tailings storage facility failures. The paper presents vast possibilities provided by the global monitoring in the effective prevention of these failures. Particular attention is drawn to the potential of using multidirectional monitoring, including technical and environmental monitoring by the example of one of the world's biggest hydrotechnical constructions-Żelazny Most Tailings Storage Facility (TSF), Poland. Analysis of monitoring data allows to take preventive action against construction failures of facility dams, which can have devastating effects on human life and the natural environment.

  6. Automatic Monitoring System Design and Failure Probability Analysis for River Dikes on Steep Channel (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Lung; Lin, Yi-Jun; Tung, Yeou-Koung


    The purposes of this study includes: (1) design an automatic monitoring system for river dike; and (2) develop a framework which enables the determination of dike failure probabilities for various failure modes during a rainstorm. The historical dike failure data collected in this study indicate that most dikes in Taiwan collapsed under the 20-years return period discharge, which means the probability of dike failure is much higher than that of overtopping. We installed the dike monitoring system on the Chiu-She Dike which located on the middle stream of Dajia River, Taiwan. The system includes: (1) vertical distributed pore water pressure sensors in front of and behind the dike; (2) Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) to measure the displacement of dike; (3) wireless floating device to measure the scouring depth at the toe of dike; and (4) water level gauge. The monitoring system recorded the variation of pore pressure inside the Chiu-She Dike and the scouring depth during Typhoon Megi. The recorded data showed that the highest groundwater level insides the dike occurred 15 hours after the peak discharge. We developed a framework which accounts for the uncertainties from return period discharge, Manning's n, scouring depth, soil cohesion, and friction angle and enables the determination of dike failure probabilities for various failure modes such as overtopping, surface erosion, mass failure, toe sliding and overturning. The framework was applied to Chiu-She, Feng-Chou, and Ke-Chuang Dikes on Dajia River. The results indicate that the toe sliding or overturning has the highest probability than other failure modes. Furthermore, the overall failure probability (integrate different failure modes) reaches 50% under 10-years return period flood which agrees with the historical failure data for the study reaches.

  7. Continuous ECG Monitoring in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome or Heart Failure: EASI Versus Gold Standard. (United States)

    Lancia, Loreto; Toccaceli, Andrea; Petrucci, Cristina; Romano, Silvio; Penco, Maria


    The purpose of the study was to compare the EASI system with the standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) for the accuracy in detecting the main electrocardiographic parameters (J point, PR, QT, and QRS) commonly monitored in patients with acute coronary syndromes or heart failure. In this observational comparative study, 253 patients who were consecutively admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure were evaluated. In all patients, two complete 12-lead ECGs were acquired simultaneously. A total of 6,072 electrocardiographic leads were compared (3,036 standard and 3,036 EASI). No significant differences were found between the investigate parameters of the two measurement methods, either in patients with acute coronary syndrome or in those with heart failure. This study confirmed the accuracy of the EASI system in monitoring the main ECG parameters in patients admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure.

  8. Permafrost in vegetated scree slopes below the timberline - characterization of thermal properties and permafrost conditions by temperature measurements and geoelectrical monitoring (United States)

    Schwindt, Daniel; Kneisel, Christof


    Discontinuous alpine permafrost is expected to exist at altitudes above 2400m a.s.l. at mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) of less than -1°C. Below timberline only a few sites are known, where sporadic permafrost exists in vegetated talus slopes with positive MAAT. Aim of the study is to characterize permafrost-humus interaction, the thermal regime and its influence on temporal and spatial permafrost variability. Results of geophysical and thermal measurements from three talus slopes, located in the Swiss Alps (Engadin, Appenzell) at elevations between 1200 and 1800m a.s.l. with MAAT between 2.8°C and 5.5°C are presented. Parent rock-material of the slopes are granite (Bever Valley, Engadin) and dolomite (Susauna Valley, Engadin; Brüeltobel, Appenzell). Joint application of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismic tomography (RST) is used to detect and characterize permafrost. To observe temporal and spatial variability in ice content and characteristics year-around geoelectrical monitoring and quasi-3D ERT are used. A forward modeling approach has been applied to validate the results of geoelectrical monitoring. A number of temperature data loggers were installed in different depth of the humus layer and in different positions of the slope to monitor the ground thermal regime. Isolated permafrost has been detected by the combination of ERT and RST in the lower parts of the investigated talus slopes. Results from geophysical measurements and monitoring indicate a high spatial and temporal variability in ice content and ice characteristics (temperature, density, content of unfrozen water) for all sites. A distinct rise of resistivities between November and December indicates a decrease of unfrozen water content, caused by a pronounced cooling in the lower parts of the slope. Decreasing ice content and extent of the permafrost lenses can be observed in decreasing seismic velocities from 2600m/sec in spring to only 1500m/sec in October. Ice

  9. Water sampling device for fuel rod failure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogami, Hideaki; Echigoya, Hironori; Matsuoka, Tesshi.


    The device of the present invention accurately samples coolants in a channel box as sampling water even if the upper end of the channel box of a fuel assembly is positioned at the same height or lower than the upper end of an upper lattice plate. An existent device comprises an outer cap, an inner cap, an air supply pipe and a water sampling tube. In addition, the device of the present invention comprises a sealing material disposed at the end of the outer cap for keeping liquid sealing with the upper lattice plate and a water level monitoring pipe extended to lower than the inner cap passing through the liquid sealing of the outer cap for sucking the atmosphere in the outer cap. Pressurized air is sent through the air supply pipe, to lower the water level of the coolants in the outer cap and the water level monitoring pipe sucks the pressurized air, by which the inside and the outside of the channel box are partitioned. Subsequently, if the sample water is sampled by a sampling tube, sampling water which enables accurate evaluation for radioactivity concentration in the fuel assembly can be obtained. (I.S.)

  10. Effect of hydraulic hysteresis on the stability of infinite slopes under steady infiltration (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.


    Hydraulic hysteresis, including capillary soil water retention (SWR), air entrapment SWR, and hydraulic conductivity, is a common phenomenon in unsaturated soils. However, the influence of hydraulic hysteresis on suction stress, and subsequently slope stability, is generally ignored. This paper examines the influence of each of these three types of hysteresis on slope stability using an infinite slope stability analysis under steady infiltration conditions. First, hypothetical slopes for representative silty and sandy soils are examined. Then a monitored hillslope in the San Francisco Bay Area, California is assessed, using observed rainfall conditions and measured hydraulic and geotechnical properties of the colluvial soil. Results show that profiles of suction stress and the corresponding factor of safety are generally strongly affected by hydraulic hysteresis. Results suggest that each of the three types of hydraulic hysteresis may play a major role in the occurrence of slope failure, indicating that ignoring hydraulic hysteresis will likely lead to underestimates of failure potential and hence to inaccurate slope stability analysis.

  11. Is age a factor in the success or failure of remote monitoring in heart failure? Telemonitoring and structured telephone support in elderly heart failure patients. (United States)

    Inglis, Sally C; Conway, Aaron; Cleland, John Gf; Clark, Robyn A


    There are few data regarding the effectiveness of remote monitoring for older people with heart failure. We conducted a post-hoc sub-analysis of a previously published large Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials to determine whether structured telephone support and telemonitoring were effective in this population. A post hoc sub-analysis of a systematic review and meta-analysis that applied the Cochrane methodology was conducted. Meta-analyses of all-cause mortality, all-cause hospitalizations and heart failure-related hospitalizations were performed for studies where the mean or median age of participants was 70 or more years. The mean or median age of participants was 70 or more years in eight of the 16 (n=2659/5613; 47%) structured telephone support studies and four of the 11 (n=894/2710; 33%) telemonitoring studies. Structured telephone support (RR 0.80; 95% CI=0.63-1.00) and telemonitoring (RR 0.56; 95% CI=0.41-0.76) interventions reduced mortality. Structured telephone support interventions reduced heart failure-related hospitalizations (RR 0.81; 95% CI=0.67-0.99). Despite a systematic bias towards recruitment of individuals younger than the epidemiological average into the randomized controlled trials, older people with heart failure did benefit from structured telephone support and telemonitoring. These post-hoc sub-analysis results were similar to overall effects observed in the main meta-analysis. While further research is required to confirm these observational findings, the evidence at hand indicates that discrimination by age alone may be not be appropriate when inviting participation in a remote monitoring service for heart failure. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  12. The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yufeng; Pan Jiayong; Zhu Guogen; Wang Fei


    GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

  13. Detection of gaseous fission products in water - a method of monitoring fuel sheathing failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnicliffe, P. R.; Whittier, A. C.


    The gaseous activities stripped from samples of effluent coolant from the NRU fuel elements tested in the central thimble of the NRX reactor (NRU loop) and from the NRX main effluent have been investigated. The activities obtained from the NRU loop can be attributed to gaseous fission products only. Design data have been obtained for a 'Gaseous Fission Product Monitor' to be installed for use with the NRU reactor. It is expected that this monitor will have high sensitivity to activity indicative of an incipient fuel element sheath failure. No qualitative determination of the various gaseous activities obtained from the NRX effluent has been made. A strong component of 25 {+-}1 seconds half-life is not consistent with O-19. Limited information concerning sheath failures in NRX was obtained. Of six failures observed in parallel with the installed delayed neutron monitors, three of these gave pre-warnings and in each case the gaseous fission product monitor showed a substantially greater sensitivity. An experiment in which small samples of uranium, inserted into the NRX reactor, could be exposed at will to a stream of water showed the behaviour of the two types of monitors to be similar. However, a number of signals were detected only by the gaseous fission product monitor. These can be attributed to its sensitivity to relatively long lived fission products. (author)

  14. Heart Failure Patients Monitored With Telemedicine : Patient Satisfaction, a Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraai, Imke H.; Luttik, Marie Louise; de Jong, Richard M.; de Vries, Arjen E.; van Dijk, Rene B.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Hillige, Hand L.

    Background: Remote monitoring of the clinical status of heart failure patients has developed rapidly and is the subject of several trials. Patient satisfaction is an important outcome, as recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to use in clinical research, and should be included in

  15. Estimating changes in cardiac output using an implanted hemodynamic monitor in heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Marcus; Damgaard, Morten; Ersgård, David


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate an algorithm that estimates changes in cardiac output (CO) from right ventricular (RV) pressure waveforms derived from an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) in heart failure patients. DESIGN: Twelve heart failure patients (NYHA II-III, EF 32......%) with an implantable hemodynamic monitor (Chronicle) were included in this study. Changes in cardiac output were provoked by body position change at rest (left lateral supine, horizontal supine, sitting, and standing) and a steady state bicycle exercise at 20 watts. Estimated CO derived from the IHM (CO...... was -0.39 L/min (11%). Limits of agreement were +/-1.56 L/min and relative error was 21%. CONCLUSIONS: A simple algorithm based on RV pressure wave form characteristics derived from an IHM can be used to estimate changes in CO in heart failure patients. These findings encourage further research aiming...

  16. Remote Monitoring of Near-Surface Soil Moisture Dynamics In Unstable Slopes Using a Low-Power Autonomous Resistivity Imaging System (United States)

    Chambers, J. E.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Uhlemann, S.; Swift, R. T.; Kuras, O.; Inauen, C.; Hutchinson, D.; Butler, S.


    ERT monitoring has been demonstrated in numerous studies as an effective means of imaging near surface processes for applications as diverse as permafrost studies and contaminated land assessment. A limiting factor in applying time-lapse ERT for long-term studies in remote locations has been the availability of cost-effective ERT measurement systems designed specifically for monitoring applications. Typically, monitoring is undertaken using repeated manual data collection, or by building conventional survey instruments into a monitoring setup. The latter often requires high power and is therefore difficult to operate remotely without access to mains electricity. We describe the development of a low-power resistivity imaging system designed specifically for remote monitoring, taking advantage of, e.g., solar power and data telemetry. Here, we present the results of two field deployments. The system has been installed on an active railway cutting to provide insights into the effect of vegetation on the moisture dynamics in unstable infrastructure slopes and to gather subsurface information for pro-active remediation measures. The system, comprising 255 electrodes, acquires 4596 reciprocal measurement pairs twice daily during standard operation. In case of severe weather events, the measurement schedule is reactively changed, to gather high temporal resolution data to image rainfall infiltration processes. The system has also been installed along a leaking and marginally stable canal embankment; a less favourable location for remote monitoring, with limited solar power and poor mobile reception. Nevertheless, the acquired data indicated the effectiveness of remedial actions on the canal. The ERT results showed that one leak was caused by the canal and fixed during remediation, while two other "leaks" were shown to be effects of groundwater dynamics. The availability of cost-effective, low-power ERT monitoring instrumentation, combined with an automated workflow of

  17. Rock slope instabilities in Norway: First systematic hazard and risk classification of 22 unstable rock slopes (United States)

    Böhme, Martina; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Oppikofer, Thierry; Penna, Ivanna


    Unstable rock slopes that can cause large failures of the rock-avalanche type have been mapped in Norway for almost two decades. Four sites have earlier been characterized as high-risk objects based on expertise of few researchers. This resulted in installing continuous monitoring systems and set-up of an early-warning system for those four sites. Other unstable rock slopes have not been ranked related to their hazard or risk. There are ca. 300 other sites known of which 70 sites were installed for periodic deformation measurements using multiple techniques (Global Navigation Satellite Systems, extensometers, measurement bolts, and others). In 2012 a systematic hazard and risk classification system for unstable rock slopes was established in Norway and the mapping approach adapted to that in 2013. Now, the first 22 sites were classified for hazard, consequences and risk using this classification system. The selection of the first group of sites to be classified was based on an assumed high hazard or risk and importance given to the sites by Norwegian media and the public. Nine of the classified 22 unstable rock slopes are large sites that deform inhomogeneously or are strongly broken up in individual blocks. This suggests that different failure scenarios are possible that need to be analyzed individually. A total of 35 failure scenarios for those nine unstable rock slopes were considered. The hazard analyses were based on 9 geological parameters defined in the classification system. The classification system will be presented based on the Gamanjunni unstable rock slope. This slope has a well developed back scarp that exposes 150 m preceding displacement. The lateral limits of the unstable slope are clearly visible in the morphology and InSAR displacement data. There have been no single structures observed that allow sliding kinematically. The lower extend of the displacing rock mass is clearly defined in InSAR data and by a zone of higher rock fall activity. Yearly

  18. assessment of slope stability around gilgel gibe-ii hydroelectric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    1 Gilgel-Gibe II Hydroelectric Project, Fofa Town, Ethiopia ... Key words/phrases: Factor of safety, plane failure, slope design, slope .... condition of potential unstable slopes along the road between Fofa town and Gilgel-Gibe Hydro- power II.

  19. Safety Evaluation of an Automated Remote Monitoring System for Heart Failure in an Urban, Indigent Population. (United States)

    Gross-Schulman, Sandra; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Hertz, Crystal Coyazo; Guterman, Jeffrey J


    Heart Failure (HF) is the most expensive preventable condition, regardless of patient ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, sex, and insurance status. Remote telemonitoring with timely outpatient care can significantly reduce avoidable HF hospitalizations. Human outreach, the traditional method used for remote monitoring, is effective but costly. Automated systems can potentially provide positive clinical, fiscal, and satisfaction outcomes in chronic disease monitoring. The authors implemented a telephonic HF automated remote monitoring system that utilizes deterministic decision tree logic to identify patients who are at risk of clinical decompensation. This safety study evaluated the degree of clinical concordance between the automated system and traditional human monitoring. This study focused on a broad underserved population and demonstrated a safe, reliable, and inexpensive method of monitoring patients with HF.

  20. Diagnostic value of different adherence measures using electronic monitoring and virologic failure as reference standards. (United States)

    Deschamps, Ann E; De Geest, Sabina; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Bobbaers, Herman; Peetermans, Willy E; Van Wijngaerden, Eric


    Nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy is a substantial problem in HIV and jeopardizes the success of treatment. Accurate measurement of nonadherence is therefore imperative for good clinical management but no gold standard has been agreed on yet. In a single-center prospective study nonadherence was assessed by electronic monitoring: percentage of doses missed and drug holidays and by three self reports: (1) a visual analogue scale (VAS): percentage of overall doses taken; (2) the Swiss HIV Cohort Study Adherence Questionnaire (SHCS-AQ): percentage of overall doses missed and drug holidays and (3) the European HIV Treatment Questionnaire (EHTQ): percentage of doses missed and drug holidays for each antiretroviral drug separately. Virologic failure prospectively assessed during 1 year, and electronic monitoring were used as reference standards. Using virologic failure as reference standard, the best results were for (1) the SHCS-AQ after electronic monitoring (sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 78.6%); (2) electronic monitoring (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 85.6%), and (3) the VAS combined with the SHCS-AQ before electronic monitoring (sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 58.6%). The sensitivity of the complex EHTQ was less than 50%. Asking simple questions about doses taken or missed is more sensitive than complex questioning about each drug separately. Combining the VAS with the SHCS-AQ seems a feasible nonadherence measure for daily clinical practice. Self-reports perform better after electronic monitoring: their diagnostic value could be lower when given independently.

  1. Personnel reliability impact on petrochemical facilities monitoring system's failure skipping probability (United States)

    Kostyukov, V. N.; Naumenko, A. P.


    The paper dwells upon urgent issues of evaluating impact of actions conducted by complex technological systems operators on their safe operation considering application of condition monitoring systems for elements and sub-systems of petrochemical production facilities. The main task for the research is to distinguish factors and criteria of monitoring system properties description, which would allow to evaluate impact of errors made by personnel on operation of real-time condition monitoring and diagnostic systems for machinery of petrochemical facilities, and find and objective criteria for monitoring system class, considering a human factor. On the basis of real-time condition monitoring concepts of sudden failure skipping risk, static and dynamic error, monitoring systems, one may solve a task of evaluation of impact that personnel's qualification has on monitoring system operation in terms of error in personnel or operators' actions while receiving information from monitoring systems and operating a technological system. Operator is considered as a part of the technological system. Although, personnel's behavior is usually a combination of the following parameters: input signal - information perceiving, reaction - decision making, response - decision implementing. Based on several researches on behavior of nuclear powers station operators in USA, Italy and other countries, as well as on researches conducted by Russian scientists, required data on operator's reliability were selected for analysis of operator's behavior at technological facilities diagnostics and monitoring systems. The calculations revealed that for the monitoring system selected as an example, the failure skipping risk for the set values of static (less than 0.01) and dynamic (less than 0.001) errors considering all related factors of data on reliability of information perception, decision-making, and reaction fulfilled is 0.037, in case when all the facilities and error probability are under

  2. Evaluation of the Use of Sub-Pixel Offset Tracking Techniques to Monitor Landslides in Densely Vegetated Steeply Sloped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyi Sun


    Full Text Available Sub-Pixel Offset Tracking (sPOT is applied to derive high-resolution centimetre-level landslide rates in the Three Gorges Region of China using TerraSAR-X Hi-resolution Spotlight (TSX HS space-borne SAR images. These results contrast sharply with previous use of conventional differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR techniques in areas with steep slopes, dense vegetation and large variability in water vapour which indicated around 12% phase coherent coverage. By contrast, sPOT is capable of measuring two dimensional deformation of large gradient over steeply sloped areas covered in dense vegetation. Previous applications of sPOT in this region relies on corner reflectors (CRs, (high coherence features to obtain reliable measurements. However, CRs are expensive and difficult to install, especially in remote areas; and other potential high coherence features comparable with CRs are very few and outside the landslide boundary. The resultant sub-pixel level deformation field can be statistically analysed to yield multi-modal maps of deformation regions. This approach is shown to have a significant impact when compared with previous offset tracking measurements of landslide deformation, as it is demonstrated that sPOT can be applied even in densely vegetated terrain without relying on high-contrast surface features or requiring any de-noising process.

  3. Green technologies for reducing slope erosion. (United States)


    As climate change alters precipitation patterns, departments of transportation will increasingly face the problem of : slope failures, which already cost California millions of dollars in repair work annually. Caltrans hopes to prevent : these failur...

  4. Fission product release modelling for application of fuel-failure monitoring and detection - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Chan, P.K.; El-Jaby, A. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Iglesias, F.C.; Fitchett, A. [Candesco Division of Kinectrics Inc., 26 Wellington Street East, 3rd Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5E 1S2 (Canada)


    A review of fission product release theory is presented in support of fuel-failure monitoring analysis for the characterization and location of defective fuel. This work is used to describe: (i) the development of the steady-state Visual-DETECT code for coolant activity analysis to characterize failures in the core and the amount of tramp uranium; (ii) a generalization of this model in the STAR code for prediction of the time-dependent release of iodine and noble gas fission products to the coolant during reactor start-up, steady-state, shutdown, and bundle-shifting manoeuvres; (iii) an extension of the model to account for the release of fission products that are delayed-neutron precursors for assessment of fuel-failure location; and (iv) a simplification of the steady-state model to assess the methodology proposed by WANO for a fuel reliability indicator for water-cooled reactors.

  5. Portable Sleep Monitoring for Diagnosing Sleep Apnea in Hospitalized Patients With Heart Failure. (United States)

    Aurora, R Nisha; Patil, Susheel P; Punjabi, Naresh M


    Sleep apnea is an underdiagnosed condition in patients with heart failure. Efficient identification of sleep apnea is needed, as treatment may improve heart failure-related outcomes. Currently, use of portable sleep monitoring in hospitalized patients and those at risk for central sleep apnea is discouraged. This study examined whether portable sleep monitoring with respiratory polygraphy can accurately diagnose sleep apnea in patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure. Hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure underwent concurrent respiratory polygraphy and polysomnography. Both recordings were scored for obstructive and central disordered breathing events in a blinded fashion, using standard criteria, and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was determined. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine the concordance among the overall, obstructive, and central AHI values derived by respiratory polygraphy and polysomnography. The sample consisted of 53 patients (47% women) with a mean age of 59.0 years. The correlation coefficient for the overall AHI from the two diagnostic methods was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.89-0.96). The average difference in AHI between the two methods was 3.6 events/h. Analyses of the central and obstructive AHI values showed strong concordance between the two methods, with correlation coefficients of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.96-0.99) and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95), respectively. Complete agreement in the classification of sleep apnea severity between the two methods was seen in 89% of the sample. Portable sleep monitoring can accurately diagnose sleep apnea in hospitalized patients with heart failure and may promote early initiation of treatment. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A web-based GPS system for displacement monitoring and failure mechanism analysis of reservoir landslide. (United States)

    Li, Yuanyao; Huang, Jinsong; Jiang, Shui-Hua; Huang, Faming; Chang, Zhilu


    It is important to monitor the displacement time series and to explore the failure mechanism of reservoir landslide for early warning. Traditionally, it is a challenge to monitor the landslide displacements real-timely and automatically. Globe Position System (GPS) is considered as the best real-time monitoring technology, however, the accuracies of the landslide displacements monitored by GPS are not assessed effectively. A web-based GPS system is developed to monitor the landslide displacements real-timely and automatically in this study. And the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is proposed to assess the accuracy of the GPS monitoring displacements. Wangmiao landslide in Three Gorges Reservoir area in China is used as case study. The results show that the web-based GPS system has advantages of high precision, real-time, remote control and automation for landslide monitoring; the Root Mean Square Errors of the monitoring landslide displacements are less than 5 mm. Meanwhile, the results also show that a rapidly falling reservoir water level can trigger the reactivation of Wangmiao landslide. Heavy rainfall is also an important factor, but not a crucial component.

  7. A seismic monitoring system for response and failure of structures with intentionally reduced seismic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, Koichi; Ohi, Kenichi


    A group of steel and reinforced concrete scaled structures with intentionally reduced seismic strength to 1/3 to 1/2 were constructed in 1983 for long term observation in order to collect precise data of earthquake response and grasp failure mechanisms during earthquakes. A monitoring system was installed in the structures as well as in the surrounding soil. Some reliable data have been successfully recorded since then, which can be available for verification of analytical models. (author)

  8. Comprehensive in-hospital monitoring in acute heart failure: applications for clinical practice and future directions for research. A statement from the Acute Heart Failure Committee of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). (United States)

    Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Parissis, John; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Čelutkienė, Jelena; Chioncel, Ovidiu; Collins, Sean P; De Backer, Daniel; Filippatos, Gerasimos S; Gayat, Etienne; Hill, Loreena; Lainscak, Mitja; Lassus, Johan; Masip, Josep; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Miró, Òscar; Mortara, Andrea; Mueller, Christian; Mullens, Wilfried; Nieminen, Markku S; Rudiger, Alain; Ruschitzka, Frank; Seferovic, Petar M; Sionis, Alessandro; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Weinstein, Jean Marc; de Boer, Rudolf A; Crespo Leiro, Maria G; Piepoli, Massimo; Riley, Jillian P


    This paper provides a practical clinical application of guideline recommendations relating to the inpatient monitoring of patients with acute heart failure, through the evaluation of various clinical, biomarker, imaging, invasive and non-invasive approaches. Comprehensive inpatient monitoring is crucial to the optimal management of acute heart failure patients. The European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines provide recommendations for the inpatient monitoring of acute heart failure, but the level of evidence underpinning most recommendations is limited. Many tools are available for the in-hospital monitoring of patients with acute heart failure, and each plays a role at various points throughout the patient's treatment course, including the emergency department, intensive care or coronary care unit, and the general ward. Clinical judgment is the preeminent factor guiding application of inpatient monitoring tools, as the various techniques have different patient population targets. When applied appropriately, these techniques enable decision making. However, there is limited evidence demonstrating that implementation of these tools improves patient outcome. Research priorities are identified to address these gaps in evidence. Future research initiatives should aim to identify the optimal in-hospital monitoring strategies that decrease morbidity and prolong survival in patients with acute heart failure. © 2018 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2018 European Society of Cardiology.

  9. The Alaska North Slope spill analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Leslie; Robertson, Tim L.; DeCola, Elise; Rosen, Ira


    This paper reports Alaska North Slope crude oil spills, provides information to help operators identify risks and presents recommendations for future risk reduction and mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency and severity of future spills from piping infrastructure integrity loss. The North Slope spills analysis project was conducted during 2010 by compiling available spill data, and analyzing the cause of past spills in wells and associated piping, flowlines, process centers with their associated piping and above ground storage tanks, and crude oil transmission pipelines. An expert panel, established to provide independent review of this analysis and the presented data, identified seven recommendations on measures, programs, and practices to monitor and address common causes of failures while considering information provided from regulators and operators. These recommendations must be evaluated by the State of Alaska which will consider implementation options to move forward. Based on the study observations, future analyses may show changes to some of the observed trends.

  10. Can individualized weight monitoring using the HeartPhone algorithm improve sensitivity for clinical deterioration of heart failure?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ledwidge, Mark T


    Previous studies have demonstrated poor sensitivity of guideline weight monitoring in predicting clinical deterioration of heart failure (HF). This study aimed to evaluate patterns of remotely transmitted daily weights in a high-risk HF population and also to compare guideline weight monitoring and an individualized weight monitoring algorithm.

  11. Attitudes of heart failure patients and health care providers towards mobile phone-based remote monitoring. (United States)

    Seto, Emily; Leonard, Kevin J; Masino, Caterina; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Barnsley, Jan; Ross, Heather J


    Mobile phone-based remote patient monitoring systems have been proposed for heart failure management because they are relatively inexpensive and enable patients to be monitored anywhere. However, little is known about whether patients and their health care providers are willing and able to use this technology. The objective of our study was to assess the attitudes of heart failure patients and their health care providers from a heart function clinic in a large urban teaching hospital toward the use of mobile phone-based remote monitoring. A questionnaire regarding attitudes toward home monitoring and technology was administered to 100 heart failure patients (94/100 returned a completed questionnaire). Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 20 heart failure patients and 16 clinicians to determine the perceived benefits and barriers to using mobile phone-based remote monitoring, as well as their willingness and ability to use the technology. The survey results indicated that the patients were very comfortable using mobile phones (mean rating 4.5, SD 0.6, on a five-point Likert scale), even more so than with using computers (mean 4.1, SD 1.1). The difference in comfort level between mobile phones and computers was statistically significant (Pmobile phones to view health information (mean 4.4, SD 0.9). Patients and clinicians were willing to use the system as long as several conditions were met, including providing a system that was easy to use with clear tangible benefits, maintaining good patient-provider communication, and not increasing clinical workload. Clinicians cited several barriers to implementation of such a system, including lack of remuneration for telephone interactions with patients and medicolegal implications. Patients and clinicians want to use mobile phone-based remote monitoring and believe that they would be able to use the technology. However, they have several reservations, such as potential increased clinical workload, medicolegal

  12. Continuous monitoring of intracranial pressure after endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the management of CSF shunt failure. (United States)

    Elgamal, E A


    The effectiveness of continuous intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in the adaptation period, after endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), and removal of the failed shunt in the management of CSF shunt failure is assessed. Nine patients with active hydrocephalus presenting with CSF shunt obstruction or infection were managed by ETV, removal of the shunt and insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) containing an ICP sensor for the purpose of postoperative monitoring of the ICP, and intermittent drainage of CSF. Patient ages ranged from 8 months to 24 years, and six of them were females. Hydrocephalus was obstructive in seven patients, and multiloculated in two. Six patients had an ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS), one with a bilateral VPS, one patient had a ventriculoatrial shunt, and one had a VPS and cystoperitoneal shunt (CPS). Shunt failure was caused by obstruction in six patients and infection in three. The post-operative ICP monitoring period ranged from 1-7 days. Intracranial hypertension was persistent in the first day after ETV in 3 patients, and up to 110 mL of CSF were drained to improve its symptoms. ETV was successful in six patients and 3 had permanent VPS. Post-operative continuous ICP monitoring and EVD insertion were very useful in the treatment of CSF shunt failure with ETV. This procedure allowed intermittent CSF drainage, relieving symptoms of elevated ICP, and provided accurate assessment of the success of the ETV and patency of the stoma in the early postoperative days by CT ventriculography and can also be used to install antibiotics in cases of infection.

  13. Tools for in service monitoring and testing of riser to prevent failure and extend service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Haakon; Bondevik, Jon Olav; Skjerve, Haavard; Tveit, Oeyvind [SeaFlex AS, Asker (Norway)


    Exploration and development of new oil and gas fields is heavily dependant on use of flexible pipes and many field developments would not have been possible without them. The number of flexible risers in service is constantly increasing since relatively few offshore projects have reached the estimated operational life and the operational lifetime of several fields in-service has been extended due to new and improved technology. Many risers have been in service over a large number of years. Some risers have been operated under demanding conditions such as severe dynamic loads, high pressure and temperatures. One may in some cases find that risers actually have shorter service life than estimated in the design phase due to the severe operational conditions. In order to extend the use of the riser, some risers may have to be modified and re-terminated and prepared for a new and less demanding application. In order to operate risers safely, it is important to re-assess the fatigue life in order to prevent potential riser failure. The operator should implement methods and tools for in-service monitoring and testing. This paper addresses efficient and reliable methods and tools for monitoring of critical operational parameters as well as in-service riser testing. A brief description of structural failure modes will also be given in order to understand how to interpret test results in view of potential failure modes. (author)

  14. Biological variation of the natriuretic peptides and their role in monitoring patients with heart failure. (United States)

    Wu, Alan H B; Smith, Andrew


    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the inactive metabolite NT-proBNP are proven tests for diagnosis and staging of severity for patients with heart failure. However, the utility of these biomarkers for monitoring the success of drug therapy remains to be determined. Results of longitudinal studies on serial blood testing must be linked to overall patient morbidity and mortality outcomes. We previously determined the 8-week biological variability (BV) of BNP and NT-proBNP assays in healthy subjects and the 1-day BV for BNP alone in patients with compensated and stable heart failure. From these studies, the percent statistical change in serial samples of approximately 100% difference was estimated (95% confidence). We applied the biological variability concepts to the serial results of BNP and NT-proBNP collected from patients with heart failure and compared the performance of these two markers. While there are minor differences in the results between the assays from one time period to another, the overall interpretation of results are essentially identical. Moreover, the majority of individual serial time points are not significantly different from the previous value. Frequent testing (e.g. daily) for BNP and NT-proBNP to monitor therapy for patients with CHF is not indicated, as overall changes require several days to become evident.

  15. Implant experience with an implantable hemodynamic monitor for the management of symptomatic heart failure. (United States)

    Steinhaus, David; Reynolds, Dwight W; Gadler, Fredrik; Kay, G Neal; Hess, Mike F; Bennett, Tom


    Management of congestive heart failure is a serious public health problem. The use of implantable hemodynamic monitors (IHMs) may assist in this management by providing continuous ambulatory filling pressure status for optimal volume management. The Chronicle system includes an implanted monitor, a pressure sensor lead with passive fixation, an external pressure reference (EPR), and data retrieval and viewing components. The tip of the lead is placed near the right ventricular outflow tract to minimize risk of sensor tissue encapsulation. Implant technique and lead placement is similar to that of a permanent pacemaker. After the system had been successfully implanted in 148 patients, the type and frequency of implant-related adverse events were similar to a single-chamber pacemaker implant. R-wave amplitude was 15.2 +/- 6.7 mV and the pressure waveform signal was acceptable in all but two patients in whom presence of artifacts required lead repositioning. Implant procedure time was not influenced by experience, remaining constant throughout the study. Based on this evaluation, permanent placement of an IHM in symptomatic heart failure patients is technically feasible. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the use of the continuous hemodynamic data in management of heart failure patients.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Implantable Pulmonary Artery Pressure Monitoring in Chronic Heart Failure. (United States)

    Sandhu, Alexander T; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Owens, Douglas K; Turakhia, Mintu P; Kaiser, Daniel W; Heidenreich, Paul A


    This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the CardioMEMS (CardioMEMS Heart Failure System, St Jude Medical Inc, Atlanta, Georgia) device in patients with chronic heart failure. The CardioMEMS device, an implantable pulmonary artery pressure monitor, was shown to reduce hospitalizations for heart failure and improve quality of life in the CHAMPION (CardioMEMS Heart Sensor Allows Monitoring of Pressure to Improve Outcomes in NYHA Class III Heart Failure Patients) trial. We developed a Markov model to determine the hospitalization, survival, quality of life, cost, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CardioMEMS implantation compared with usual care among a CHAMPION trial cohort of patients with heart failure. We obtained event rates and utilities from published trial data; we used costs from literature estimates and Medicare reimbursement data. We performed subgroup analyses of preserved and reduced ejection fraction and an exploratory analysis in a lower-risk cohort on the basis of the CHARM (Candesartan in Heart failure: Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity) trials. CardioMEMS reduced lifetime hospitalizations (2.18 vs. 3.12), increased quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (2.74 vs. 2.46), and increased costs ($176,648 vs. $156,569), thus yielding a cost of $71,462 per QALY gained and $48,054 per life-year gained. The cost per QALY gained was $82,301 in patients with reduced ejection fraction and $47,768 in those with preserved ejection fraction. In the lower-risk CHARM cohort, the device would need to reduce hospitalizations for heart failure by 41% to cost cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to the device's durability. In populations similar to that of the CHAMPION trial, the CardioMEMS device is cost-effective if the trial effectiveness is sustained over long periods. Post-marketing surveillance data on durability will further clarify its value. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Central hemodynamic responses during serial exercise tests in heart failure patients using implantable hemodynamic monitors. (United States)

    Ohlsson, A; Steinhaus, D; Kjellström, B; Ryden, L; Bennett, T


    Exercise testing is commonly used in patients with congestive heart failure for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Such testing may be even more valuable if invasive hemodynamics are acquired. However, this will make the test more complex and expensive and only provides information from isolated moments. We studied serial exercise tests in heart failure patients with implanted hemodynamic monitors allowing recording of central hemodynamics. Twenty-one NYHA Class II-III heart failure patients underwent maximal exercise tests and submaximal bike or 6-min hall walk tests to quantify their hemodynamic responses and to study the feasibility of conducting exercise tests in patients with such devices. Patients were followed for 2-3 years with serial exercise tests. During maximal tests (n=70), heart rate increased by 52+/-19 bpm while S(v)O(2) decreased by 35+/-10% saturation units. RV systolic and diastolic pressure increased 29+/-11 and 11+/-6 mmHg, respectively, while pulmonary artery diastolic pressure increased 21+/-8 mmHg. Submaximal bike (n=196) and hall walk tests (n=172) resulted in S(v)O(2) changes of 80 and 91% of the maximal tests, while RV pressures ranged from 72 to 79% of maximal responses. An added potential value of implantable hemodynamic monitors in heart failure patients may be to quantitatively determine the true hemodynamic profile during standard non-invasive clinical exercise tests and to compare that to hemodynamic effects of regular exercise during daily living. It would be of interest to study whether such information could improve the ability to predict changes in a patient's clinical condition and to improve tailoring patient management.

  18. NASA Prototype All Composite Tank Cryogenic Pressure Tests to Failure with Structural Health Monitoring (United States)

    Werlink, Rudolph J.; Pena, Francisco


    This Paper will describe the results of pressurization to failure of 100 gallon composite tanks using liquid nitrogen. Advanced methods of health monitoring will be compared as will the experimental data to a finite element model. The testing is wholly under NASA including unique PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) based active vibration technology. Other technologies include fiber optics strain based systems including NASA AFRC technology, Acoustic Emission, Acellent smart sensor, this work is expected to lead to a practical in-Sutu system for composite tanks.

  19. Slope earthquake stability

    CERN Document Server

    Changwei, Yang; Jing, Lian; Wenying, Yu; Jianjing, Zhang


    This book begins with the dynamic characteristics of the covering layerbedrock type slope, containing monitoring data of the seismic array, shaking table tests, numerical analysis and theoretical derivation. Then it focuses on the landslide mechanism and assessment method. It also proposes a model that assessing the hazard area based on the field investigations. Many questions, exercises and solutions are given. Researchers and engineers in the field of Geotechnical Engineering and Anti-seismic Engineering can benefit from it.

  20. A web application for self-monitoring improves symptoms in chronic systolic heart failure. (United States)

    Dorsch, Michael P; Farris, Karen B; Bleske, Barry E; Koelling, Todd M


    The objective of this study was to determine if a Web application that promoted mindfulness of the progress of the chronic disease through self-monitoring improved quality of life in heart failure. This was a prospective single-center single-group study. Participants were instructed how to use the Web application and to perform self-monitoring daily for 12 weeks. A comprehensive physical exam, assessment of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), and an evaluation of self-management were performed in person at baseline and at 12 weeks. Participants consisted of older (mean, 59 years), predominantly female (63%) adults with NYHA class II or III symptoms. NYHA classification (preintervention versus postintervention, 2.5±0.13 versus 2.0±0.13; p=0.0032) and MLHFQ score (55.7±4.6 versus 42.6±5.1, respectively; p=0.0078) improved over 12 weeks of self-monitoring. A trend toward improvement was also demonstrated in weight (preintervention versus postintervention, 209±9.6 pounds versus 207±9.4 pounds; by paired t test, p=0.389), number of times exercised per week (1.29±0.5 versus 2.5±0.6, respectively; p=0.3), and walk distance (572±147 yards versus 845±187 yards, respectively; p=0.119). Jugular venous distention (preintervention versus postintervention, 8.1±0.6 cm versus 6.7±0.3 cm; p=0.083) and peripheral edema (29.2% versus 16.7%, respectively; p=0.375) decreased after 12 weeks of self-monitoring via the Web application. A Web application for self-monitoring heart failure over 12 weeks improved both NYHA classification and MLHFQ score. The trend in improved physical activity and physical exam support these outcomes. The number of patients reporting a sodium-restricted diet increased over the 12 weeks, which may have led to the positive findings.

  1. METAL:LIC target failure diagnostics by means of liquid metal loop vibrations monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dementjevs, S.; Barbagallo, F.; Wohlmuther, M.; Thomsen, K.; Zik, A.; Nikoluskins, R.


    A target mock-up, developed as an European Spallation Source comparative solution, (METAL:LIC) has been tested in a dedicated lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) loop in the Institute of Physics at the University of Latvia. In particular, the feasibility of diagnostic vibration monitoring has been investigated. The loop parameters were: operation temperature 300°C; tubing ∅100 mm, overall length 8 m; electromagnetic pump based on permanent magnets, flow rate 180 kg/s. With sufficient static pressure of a few bars, cavitation was avoided. The vibrations in the loop were measured and analyzed. Several vibrational characteristics of the set-up were derived including resonance frequencies and the dependence of excited vibrations on flow conditions and the pump rotation speed. A high sensitivity to obstructions in the loop has been confirmed, and several indicators for target failure diagnostics were tested and compared. A problem in the electromagnetic pump's gear box has been detected in a very early state long before it manifested itself in the operation of the loop. The vibration monitoring has been demonstrated as a sensitive and reliable probe for the target failure diagnostics. (author)

  2. Failure Monitoring and Condition Assessment of Steel-Concrete Adhesive Connection Using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rucka


    Full Text Available Adhesive bonding is increasingly being incorporated into civil engineering applications. Recently, the use of structural adhesives in steel-concrete composite systems is of particular interest. The aim of the study is an experimental investigation of the damage assessment of the connection between steel and concrete during mechanical degradation. Nine specimens consisted of a concrete cube and two adhesively bonded steel plates were examined. The inspection was based on the ultrasound monitoring during push-out tests. Ultrasonic waves were excited and registered by means of piezoelectric transducers every two seconds until the specimen failure. To determine the slip between the steel and concrete a photogrammetric method was applied. The procedure of damage evaluation is based on the monitoring of the changes in the amplitude and phase shift of signals measured during subsequent phases of degradation. To quantify discrepancies between the reference signal and other registered signals, the Sprague and Gears metric was applied. The results showed the possibilities and limitations of the proposed approach in diagnostics of adhesive connections between steel and concrete depending on the failure modes.

  3. Reducing unidentified MOV failures: An innovative approach to thermal overload monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.; Watson, M.E.; Ali, H.S.; Schlesinger, R.


    Historically the failure of motor-operated valves to actuate on demand has caused plant transients, reduced safety system reliability, and lost plant availability. The typical control and indication circuit design uses thermal overload contacts in the control circuit only. This has been recognized as a significant unidentified valve failure mode that may prevent the valve from performing its safety function when required. Different approaches have been evaluated to alert operations personnel to this thermal overload condition, but no cost-effective solution has provided indication of the thermal overload while maintaining valve position indication. Iowa Electric Light and Power Company's Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC) is utilizing a nuclear-qualified thermal overload monitor in valve control and indication circuits. This innovative approach has proven economical as no new cabling or indicating devices are required. Indication is provided using existing valve position indicating lights. The monitor is engineered to provide indication of a thermal overload trip as well as continuous indication of valve position, consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.97 and guidance provided by Generic Letter 89-10

  4. Therapeutic drug monitoring of digoxin in cardiac heart failure outpatients: comparisons of two analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Medeiros Barros


    Full Text Available Objective: To compare two analytical techniques used in the determination of plasma digoxin (LC-MS/MS and immunoassay and to verify which one better answer the need of the clinical monitoring routine of patients with cardiac heart failure. Method: The clinical findings in 15 cardiac heart failure (CHF outpatients of the Cardiac Heart Service of the Goias Federal University Clinical Hospital were investigated. Blood samples of the patients were collected and analysed by Immunoassay and by Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Results: The results of the statistic test (Student p = 0,05 showed a significant difference between the analytical methods: immunoassay concentrations were higher than the concentrations determined by LCMS/ MS. The explanation may be because immunoassay method measures digoxin plus other metabolites and endogenous substances, while the LC-MS/MS method measures only the digoxin molecule. None of the patients, showed relevant clinical data suggestive of digitalis intoxication, even several drugs with potential interaction were associated with treatment. Conclusion: It was concluded, therefore, that LC-MS/MS me thod is safer, more selective and specific than immunoassay, being an option for therapeutic drug monitoring of digoxin, since the reference values would be obtain for digoxinemia by LC-MS/MS.

  5. Heart failure patients monitored with telemedicine: patient satisfaction, a review of the literature. (United States)

    Kraai, I H; Luttik, M L A; de Jong, R M; Jaarsma, T; Hillege, H L


    Remote monitoring of the clinical status of heart failure patients has developed rapidly and is the subject of several trials. Patient satisfaction is an important outcome, as recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to use in clinical research, and should be included in studies concerning remote monitoring. The objective of this review is to describe the current state of the literature on patient satisfaction with noninvasive telemedicine, regarding definition, measurement, and overall level of patient satisfaction with telemedicine. The Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and Cinahl databases were searched using heart failure-, satisfaction-, and telemedicine-related search terms. The literature search identified 193 publications, which were reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. Fourteen articles were included. None of the articles described a clear definition or concept of patient satisfaction with telemedicine. Patient satisfaction with telemedicine was measured with self-developed questionnaires or face-to-face or telephonic interviews. None of the articles used the same questionnaire or telephonic survey to measure patient satisfaction. Only one questionnaire was assessed for validity and reliability. In general, patients seemed to be satisfied or very satisfied with the use of telemedicine. Measurement of patient satisfaction is still underexposed in telemedicine research and the measurement of patient satisfaction with telemedicine underappreciated with poorly constructed questionnaires. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. On-Line Fuel Failure Monitor for Fuel Testing and Monitoring of Gas Cooled Very High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawari, Ayman I.; Bourham, Mohamed A.


    Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) utilize the TRISO microsphere as the fundamental fuel unit in the core. The TRISO microsphere (∼ 1-mm diameter) is composed of a UO2 kernel surrounded by a porous pyrolytic graphite buffer, an inner pyrolytic graphite layer, a silicon carbide (SiC) coating, and an outer pyrolytic graphite layer. The U-235 enrichment of the fuel is expected to range from 4%-10% (higher enrichments are also being considered). The layer/coating system that surrounds the UO2 kernel acts as the containment and main barrier against the environmental release of radioactivity. To understand better the behavior of this fuel under in-core conditions (e.g., high temperature, intense fast neutron flux, etc.), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is launching a fuel testing program that will take place at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). During this project North Carolina State University (NCSU) researchers will collaborate with INL staff for establishing an optimized system for fuel monitoring for the ATR tests. In addition, it is expected that the developed system and methods will be of general use for fuel failure monitoring in gas cooled VHTRs.

  7. Case studies of slope stability radar used in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noon, D. [GroundProbe Pty Ltd., South Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)


    This paper presents case studies about how the Slope Stability Radar (SSR) system provided adequate warning to safeguard people and equipment prior to highwall and low wall failure at two Australian coal mines. At Drayton mine, the SSR was able to provide the mine with sufficient warning to move the shovel and trucks away from the highwall, while personnel safely watched 50,000 tonnes of bulk material coming down from the wall. At Mt Owen mine, the SSR alarm allowed the mine to evacuate equipment and personnel four hours prior to a 30,000,000 tonne low wall failure. These two case studies demonstrate how the SSR system was able to continuously monitor the stability of these critical slopes, enabling greater mine productivity whilst maintaining the highest quality of safety. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Monitoring burst (M-burst) — A novel framework of failure localization in all-optical mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Mohammed L.; Ho, Pin-Han; Wu, Bin; Tapolcai, Janos; Shihada, Basem


    Achieving instantaneous and precise failure localization in all-optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks has been an attractive feature of network fault management systems, and is particularly important when failure-dependent protection is employed. The paper introduces a novel framework of real-time failure localization in all-optical WDM mesh networks, called monitoring-burst (m-burst), which aims to initiate a graceful compromise between consumed monitoring resources and monitoring delay. Different from any previously reported solution, the proposed m-burst framework has a single monitoring node (MN) which launches optical bursts along a set of pre-defined close-loop routes, called monitoring cycles (m-cycles), to probe the links along the m-cycles. Bursts along different m-cycles are kept non-overlapping through any link of the network. By identifying the lost bursts due to single link failure events only, the MN can unambiguously localize the failed link in at least 3-connected networks. We will justify the feasibility and applicability of the proposed m-burst framework in the scenario of interest. To avoid possible collision among optical bursts launched by the MN, we define the problem of collision-free scheduling and formulate it into an integer linear program (ILP) in order to minimize the monitoring delay. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework and the proposed solution.

  9. Monitoring burst (M-burst) — A novel framework of failure localization in all-optical mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Mohammed L.


    Achieving instantaneous and precise failure localization in all-optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks has been an attractive feature of network fault management systems, and is particularly important when failure-dependent protection is employed. The paper introduces a novel framework of real-time failure localization in all-optical WDM mesh networks, called monitoring-burst (m-burst), which aims to initiate a graceful compromise between consumed monitoring resources and monitoring delay. Different from any previously reported solution, the proposed m-burst framework has a single monitoring node (MN) which launches optical bursts along a set of pre-defined close-loop routes, called monitoring cycles (m-cycles), to probe the links along the m-cycles. Bursts along different m-cycles are kept non-overlapping through any link of the network. By identifying the lost bursts due to single link failure events only, the MN can unambiguously localize the failed link in at least 3-connected networks. We will justify the feasibility and applicability of the proposed m-burst framework in the scenario of interest. To avoid possible collision among optical bursts launched by the MN, we define the problem of collision-free scheduling and formulate it into an integer linear program (ILP) in order to minimize the monitoring delay. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework and the proposed solution.

  10. In vivo monitoring of skeletal aluminium burden in patients with renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Kelleher, S.; Raciti, A.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.


    In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to examine the total body and partial body (hand) aluminium levels in patients with end-stage renal failure. Patients maintained on chronic hemodialysis had higher mean body burdens of aluminium than did those clinically managed without dialysis. Approximately 70% of the patients examined indicated elevated levels of body or skeletal aluminium. A significant correlation was observed between the in vivo aluminium/calcium ratio obtained for the hand measurement and the increase in serum aluminium levels following a disferroxamine infusion test. The direct in vivo monitoring of hand Al/Ca values in patients may provide an alternate choice to bone biopsy for the detection of aluminium intoxication. (author) 15 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Miller


    Full Text Available Road and rail networks are essential components of national infrastructures, underpinning the economy, and facilitating the mobility of goods and the human workforce. Earthwork slopes such as cuttings and embankments are primary components, and their reliability is of fundamental importance. However, instability and failure can occur, through processes such as landslides. Monitoring the condition of earthworks is a costly and continuous process for network operators, and currently, geospatial data is largely underutilised. The research presented here addresses this by combining airborne laser scanning and multispectral aerial imagery to develop a methodology for assessing landslide hazard. This is based on the extraction of key slope stability variables from the remotely sensed data. The methodology is implemented through numerical modelling, which is parameterised with the slope stability information, simulated climate conditions, and geotechnical properties. This allows determination of slope stability (expressed through the factor of safety for a range of simulated scenarios. Regression analysis is then performed in order to develop a functional model relating slope stability to the input variables. The remotely sensed raster datasets are robustly re-sampled to two-dimensional cross-sections to facilitate meaningful interpretation of slope behaviour and mapping of landslide hazard. Results are stored in a geodatabase for spatial analysis within a GIS environment. For a test site located in England, UK, results have shown the utility of the approach in deriving practical hazard assessment information. Outcomes were compared to the network operator’s hazard grading data, and show general agreement. The utility of the slope information was also assessed with respect to auto-population of slope geometry, and found to deliver significant improvements over the network operator’s existing field-based approaches.

  12. Milrinone in advanced heart failure: dose and therapeutic monitor outside intensive care unit. (United States)

    Charisopoulou, Dafni; Leaver, Neil; Banner, Nicholas R


    Advanced chronic heart failure (ACHF) patients often require inotropes before transplantation or ventricular assist device implantation. Milrinone, an inotrope and vasodilator, may accumulate in cardiorenal syndrome with serious adverse effects. We investigated the potential for therapeutic drug monitoring of milrinone levels using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS). 22 ACHF patients (15 males, 49±9 years) received milrinone 50 µg/kg intravenously (i.v.) during heart catheterization. Milrinone levels were 216±71 ng/ml (within the reported therapeutic range: 100-300 ng/ml), followed by improvements in cardiac index, pulmonary artery and wedge pressures (p milrinone (5-26 days) at 0.1-0.2 µg/kg/min, titrated according to plasma milrinone levels. No adverse events occurred. Therapeutic levels were achieved with doses of 0.2±0.06 µg/Kg/min, below those recommended in Summary of Product Characteristics. Milrinone therapy can be noninvasively monitored by HPLC-MS, while avoiding toxicity in ACHF.

  13. Failure mode analysis of preliminary design of ITER divertor impurity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, Sin-iti; Ogawa, Hiroaki


    Highlights: • Divertor impurity influx monitor for ITER (DIM) is procured by JADA. • DIM is designed to observe light from nuclear fusion plasma directly. • DIM is under preliminary design phase. • Failure mode of DIM was prepared for RAMI analysis. • RAMI analysis on DIM was performed to reduce technical risks. - Abstract: The objective of the divertor impurity influx monitor (DIM) for ITER is to measure the parameters of impurities and hydrogen isotopes (tritium, deuterium, and hydrogen) in divertor plasma using visible and UV spectroscopic techniques in the 200–1000 nm wavelength range. In ITER, special provisions are required to ensure accuracy and full functionality of the diagnostic components under harsh conditions (high temperature, high magnetic field, high vacuum condition, and high radiation field). Japan Domestic Agency is preparing the preliminary design of the ITER DIM system, which will be installed in the upper, equatorial and lower ports. The optical and mechanical designs of the DIM are conducted to fit ITER’s requirements. The optical and mechanical designs meet the requirements of spatial resolution. Some auxiliary systems were examined via prototyping. The preliminary design of the ITER DIM system was evaluated by RAMI analysis. The availability of the designed system is adequately high to satisfy the project requirements. However, some equipment does not have certain designs, and this may cause potential technical risks. The preliminary design should be modified to reduce technical risks and to prepare the final design.

  14. Natural dam failure in the eastern slope of the Central Andes of Argentina. Numerical modelling of the 2005 Santa Cruz river outburst flood (United States)

    Penna, I.; Daicz, S.; Zlotnik, S.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.


    In the Central Andes of Argentina, ephemeral river blockage due to landslides deposition are common phenomena. During the first fortnight of January 2005, 11.5 * 106m3 of rock collapsed from the east slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina). The rock mass displaced from 4300 m a.s.l., down to the valley bottom, at 2900 m a.s.l., and ran up the opposite flank of the valley. This produced the blockage of the Santa Cruz river and generated the Los Erizos lake. The rapid snow melting during the spring season caused the increase of the water level of the reservoir, leading to a process of overtopping on November 12th of 2005. 30 * 106m3 of water were released from the reservoir and the consequent outburst flood displaced along 250 km. From local reports of arrival times, we estimated that the outburst flood reduced its velocity from around 40 km/h near the source area to 6 km/h in its distal section. A road, bridges, and a mining post where destroyed. 75 tourists had to be rescued from the mountains using helicopters, and people from two localities had to be evacuated. Near its distal part, the flood damaged the facilities of the Caracoles power dam, which was under construction, and its inauguration had to be delayed one year due to the damage. The outburst flood produced changes in the morphology of the valley floor along almost all its path (erosion of alluvial fans, talus and terraces, and deposition of boulders). The most significant changes occurred in the first 70 km, especially upstream narrow sections, showing the importance of the backwater effects due to hydraulic ponding. In this work we carried out numerical simulations to obtain the velocity patterns of the flood, and compared them with those obtained from local reports. Furthermore, we analyze the relationship between the dynamics of the flood with the patterns of erosion and deposition near the source area.

  15. Heart failure - tests (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  16. Post-discharge heart failure monitoring program in Turkey: Hit-PoinT (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Zoghi, Mehdi; Eren, Mehmet; Bozçalı, Evin; Kozdağ, Güliz; Şentürk, Tunay; Alicik, Güray; Soylu, Korhan; Sarı, İbrahim; Berilgen, Rida; Temizhan, Ahmet; Gencer, Erkan; Orhan, Ahmet Lütfü; Polat, Veli; Kaderli, Aysel Aydın; Aktoz, Meryem; Zengin, Halit; Aksoy, Mehmet; Selçuk, Mehmet Timur; Ergene, Oktay; Soran, Özlem


    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and feasibility of an enhanced heart failure (HF) education with a 6-month telephone follow- up program in post-discharge ambulatory HF patients. Methods: The Hit-Point trial was a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of enhanced HF education with a 6-month telephone follow-up program (EHFP) vs routine care (RC) in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction. A total of 248 patients from 10 centers in various geographical areas were randomized: 125 to EHFP and 123 to RC. Education included information on adherence to treatment, symptom recognition, diet and fluid intake, weight monitoring, activity and exercise training. Patients were contacted by telephone after 1, 3, and 6 months. The primary study endpoint was cardiovascular death. Results: Although all-cause mortality didn’t differ between the EHFP and RC groups (p=NS), the percentage of cardiovascular deaths in the EHFP group was significantly lower than in the RC group at the 6-month follow up (5.6% vs. 8.9%, p=0.04). The median number of emergency room visits was one and the median number of all cause hospitalizations and heart failure hospitalizations were zero. Twenty-tree percent of the EHFP group and 35% of the RC group had more than a median number of emergency room visits (p=0.05). There was no significant difference regarding the median number of all–cause or heart failure hospitalizations. At baseline, 60% of patients in EHFP and 61% in RC were in NYHA Class III or IV, while at the 6-month follow up only 12% in EHFP and 32% in RC were in NYHA Class III or IV (p=0.001). Conclusion: These results demonstrate the potential clinical benefits of an enhanced HF education and follow up program led by a cardiologist in reducing cardiovascular deaths and number of emergency room visits with an improvement in functional capacity at 6 months in post-discharge ambulatory HF patients. PMID:27488754

  17. A more general model for the analysis of the rock slope stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    slope stability analysis, the joint surfaces are assumed to be continuous along the potential ... of rock slope stability has many applications in the design of rock slopes, roofs and walls of .... cases the wedge failure analysis can be applied.

  18. Monitoring and Follow-up of Chronic Heart Failure: a Literature Review of eHealth Applications and Systems. (United States)

    de la Torre Díez, Isabel; Garcia-Zapirain, Begoña; Méndez-Zorrilla, Amaia; López-Coronado, Miguel


    In developed countries heart failure is one of the most important causes of death, followed closely by strokes and other cerebrovascular diseases. It is one of the major healthcare issues in terms of increasing number of patients, rate of hospitalizations and costs. The main aim of this paper is to present telemedicine applications for monitoring and follow-up of heart failure and to show how these systems can help reduce costs of administering heart failure. The search for e-health applications and systems in the field of telemonitoring of heart failure was pursued in IEEE Xplore, Science Direct, PubMed and Scopus systems between 2005 and the present time. This search was conducted between May and June 2015, and the articles deemed to be of most interest about treatment, prevention, self-empowerment and stabilization of patients were selected. Over 100 articles about telemonitoring of heart failure have been found in the literature reviewed since 2005, although the most interesting ones have been selected from the scientific standpoint. Many of them show that telemonitoring of patients with a high risk of heart failure is a measure that might help to reduce the risk of suffering from the disease. Following the review conducted, in can be stated that via the research articles analysed that telemonitoring systems can help to reduce the costs of administering heart failure and result in less re-hospitalization of patients.

  19. Time-dependent evolution of rock slopes by a multi-modelling approach (United States)

    Bozzano, F.; Della Seta, M.; Martino, S.


    This paper presents a multi-modelling approach that incorporates contributions from morpho-evolutionary modelling, detailed engineering-geological modelling and time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling to analyse the rheological evolution of a river valley slope over approximately 102 kyr. The slope is located in a transient, tectonically active landscape in southwestern Tyrrhenian Calabria (Italy), where gravitational processes drive failures in rock slopes. Constraints on the valley profile development were provided by a morpho-evolutionary model based on the correlation of marine and river strath terraces. Rock mass classes were identified through geomechanical parameters that were derived from engineering-geological surveys and outputs of a multi-sensor slope monitoring system. The rock mass classes were associated to lithotechnical units to obtain a high-resolution engineering-geological model along a cross section of the valley. Time-dependent stress-strain numerical modelling reproduced the main morpho-evolutionary stages of the valley slopes. The findings demonstrate that a complex combination of eustatism, uplift and Mass Rock Creep (MRC) deformations can lead to first-time failures of rock slopes when unstable conditions are encountered up to the generation of stress-controlled shear zones. The multi-modelling approach enabled us to determine that such complex combinations may have been sufficient for the first-time failure of the S. Giovanni slope at approximately 140 ka (MIS 7), even without invoking any trigger. Conversely, further reactivations of the landslide must be related to triggers such as earthquakes, rainfall and anthropogenic activities. This failure involved a portion of the slope where a plasticity zone resulted from mass rock creep that evolved with a maximum strain rate of 40% per thousand years, after the formation of a river strath terrace. This study demonstrates that the multi-modelling approach presented herein is a useful

  20. Monitoring and Failure Analysis of Corroded Bridge Cables under Fatigue Loading Using Acoustic Emission Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li


    Full Text Available Cables play an important role in cable-stayed systems, but are vulnerable to corrosion and fatigue damage. There is a dearth of studies on the fatigue damage evolution of corroded cable. In the present study, the acoustic emission (AE technology is adopted to monitor the fatigue damage evolution process. First, the relationship between stress and strain is determined through a tensile test for corroded and non-corroded steel wires. Results show that the mechanical performance of corroded cables is changed considerably. The AE characteristic parameters for fatigue damage are then established. AE energy cumulative parameters can accurately describe the fatigue damage evolution of corroded cables. The failure modes in each phase as well as the type of acoustic emission source are determined based on the results of scanning electron microscopy. The waveform characteristics, damage types, and frequency distribution of the corroded cable at different damage phases are collected. Finally, the number of broken wires and breakage time of the cables are determined according to the variation in the margin index.

  1. Ambient seismic noise monitoring of a clay landslide: Toward failure prediction (United States)

    Mainsant, Guénolé; Larose, Eric; Brönnimann, Cornelia; Jongmans, Denis; Michoud, Clément; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    Given that clay-rich landslides may become mobilized, leading to rapid mass movements (earthflows and debris flows), they pose critical problems in risk management worldwide. The most widely proposed mechanism leading to such flow-like movements is the increase in water pore pressure in the sliding mass, generating partial or complete liquefaction. This solid-to-liquid transition results in a dramatic reduction of mechanical rigidity in the liquefied zones, which could be detected by monitoring shear wave velocity variations. With this purpose in mind, the ambient seismic noise correlation technique has been applied to measure the variation in the seismic surface wave velocity in the Pont Bourquin landslide (Swiss Alps). This small but active composite earthslide-earthflow was equipped with continuously recording seismic sensors during spring and summer 2010. An earthslide of a few thousand cubic meters was triggered in mid-August 2010, after a rainy period. This article shows that the seismic velocity of the sliding material, measured from daily noise correlograms, decreased continuously and rapidly for several days prior to the catastrophic event. From a spectral analysis of the velocity decrease, it was possible to determine the location of the change at the base of the sliding layer. These results demonstrate that ambient seismic noise can be used to detect rigidity variations before failure and could potentially be used to predict landslides.

  2. Use of Remote Monitoring to Improve Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure: A Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Kulshreshtha


    Full Text Available Remote monitoring (RM of homebound heart failure (HF patients has previously been shown to reduce hospital admissions. We conducted a pilot trial of ambulatory, non-homebound patients recently hospitalized for HF to determine whether RM could be successfully implemented in the ambulatory setting. Eligible patients from Massachusetts General Hospital (=150 were randomized to a control group (=68 or to a group that was offered RM (=82. The participants transmitted vital signs data to a nurse who coordinated care with the physician over the course of the 6-month study. Participants in the RM program had a lower all-cause per person readmission rate (mean=0.64, SD±0.87 compared to the usual care group (mean=0.73, SD±1.51; -value=.75 although the difference was not statistically significant. HF-related readmission rate was similarly reduced in participants. This pilot study demonstrates that RM can be successfully implemented in non-homebound HF patients and may reduce readmission rates.

  3. Monitoring and Failure Analysis of Corroded Bridge Cables under Fatigue Loading Using Acoustic Emission Sensors (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping; Lan, Chengming; Li, Hui


    Cables play an important role in cable-stayed systems, but are vulnerable to corrosion and fatigue damage. There is a dearth of studies on the fatigue damage evolution of corroded cable. In the present study, the acoustic emission (AE) technology is adopted to monitor the fatigue damage evolution process. First, the relationship between stress and strain is determined through a tensile test for corroded and non-corroded steel wires. Results show that the mechanical performance of corroded cables is changed considerably. The AE characteristic parameters for fatigue damage are then established. AE energy cumulative parameters can accurately describe the fatigue damage evolution of corroded cables. The failure modes in each phase as well as the type of acoustic emission source are determined based on the results of scanning electron microscopy. The waveform characteristics, damage types, and frequency distribution of the corroded cable at different damage phases are collected. Finally, the number of broken wires and breakage time of the cables are determined according to the variation in the margin index. PMID:22666009

  4. Using Controlled Landslide Initiation Experiments to Test Limit-Equilibrium Analyses of Slope Stability (United States)

    Reid, M. E.; Iverson, R. M.; Brien, D. L.; Iverson, N. R.; Lahusen, R. G.; Logan, M.


    Most studies of landslide initiation employ limit equilibrium analyses of slope stability. Owing to a lack of detailed data, however, few studies have tested limit-equilibrium predictions against physical measurements of slope failure. We have conducted a series of field-scale, highly controlled landslide initiation experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume in Oregon; these experiments provide exceptional data to test limit equilibrium methods. In each of seven experiments, we attempted to induce failure in a 0.65m thick, 2m wide, 6m3 prism of loamy sand placed behind a retaining wall in the 31° sloping flume. We systematically investigated triggering of sliding by groundwater injection, by prolonged moderate-intensity sprinkling, and by bursts of high intensity sprinkling. We also used vibratory compaction to control soil porosity and thereby investigate differences in failure behavior of dense and loose soils. About 50 sensors were monitored at 20 Hz during the experiments, including nests of tiltmeters buried at 7 cm spacing to define subsurface failure geometry, and nests of tensiometers and pore-pressure sensors to define evolving pore-pressure fields. In addition, we performed ancillary laboratory tests to measure soil porosity, shear strength, hydraulic conductivity, and compressibility. In loose soils (porosity of 0.52 to 0.55), abrupt failure typically occurred along the flume bed after substantial soil deformation. In denser soils (porosity of 0.41 to 0.44), gradual failure occurred within the soil prism. All failure surfaces had a maximum length to depth ratio of about 7. In even denser soil (porosity of 0.39), we could not induce failure by sprinkling. The internal friction angle of the soils varied from 28° to 40° with decreasing porosity. We analyzed stability at failure, given the observed pore-pressure conditions just prior to large movement, using a 1-D infinite-slope method and a more complete 2-D Janbu method. Each method provides a static

  5. Development of an invasively monitored porcine model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howie Forbes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of effective therapies for acute liver failure (ALF is limited by our knowledge of the pathophysiology of this condition, and the lack of suitable large animal models of acetaminophen toxicity. Our aim was to develop a reproducible invasively-monitored porcine model of acetaminophen-induced ALF. Method 35kg pigs were maintained under general anaesthesia and invasively monitored. Control pigs received a saline infusion, whereas ALF pigs received acetaminophen intravenously for 12 hours to maintain blood concentrations between 200-300 mg/l. Animals surviving 28 hours were euthanased. Results Cytochrome p450 levels in phenobarbital pre-treated animals were significantly higher than non pre-treated animals (300 vs 100 pmol/mg protein. Control pigs (n = 4 survived 28-hour anaesthesia without incident. Of nine pigs that received acetaminophen, four survived 20 hours and two survived 28 hours. Injured animals developed hypotension (mean arterial pressure; 40.8 +/- 5.9 vs 59 +/- 2.0 mmHg, increased cardiac output (7.26 +/- 1.86 vs 3.30 +/- 0.40 l/min and decreased systemic vascular resistance (8.48 +/- 2.75 vs 16.2 +/- 1.76 mPa/s/m3. Dyspnoea developed as liver injury progressed and the increased pulmonary vascular resistance (636 +/- 95 vs 301 +/- 26.9 mPa/s/m3 observed may reflect the development of respiratory distress syndrome. Liver damage was confirmed by deterioration in pH (7.23 +/- 0.05 vs 7.45 +/- 0.02 and prothrombin time (36 +/- 2 vs 8.9 +/- 0.3 seconds compared with controls. Factor V and VII levels were reduced to 9.3 and 15.5% of starting values in injured animals. A marked increase in serum AST (471.5 +/- 210 vs 42 +/- 8.14 coincided with a marked reduction in serum albumin (11.5 +/- 1.71 vs 25 +/- 1 g/dL in injured animals. Animals displayed evidence of renal impairment; mean creatinine levels 280.2 +/- 36.5 vs 131.6 +/- 9.33 μmol/l. Liver histology revealed evidence of severe centrilobular necrosis

  6. Analysis of arrhythmic events is useful to detect lead failure earlier in patients followed by remote monitoring. (United States)

    Nishii, Nobuhiro; Miyoshi, Akihito; Kubo, Motoki; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Morimoto, Yoshimasa; Kawada, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Watanabe, Atsuyuki; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Morita, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroshi


    Remote monitoring (RM) has been advocated as the new standard of care for patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). RM has allowed the early detection of adverse clinical events, such as arrhythmia, lead failure, and battery depletion. However, lead failure was often identified only by arrhythmic events, but not impedance abnormalities. To compare the usefulness of arrhythmic events with conventional impedance abnormalities for identifying lead failure in CIED patients followed by RM. CIED patients in 12 hospitals have been followed by the RM center in Okayama University Hospital. All transmitted data have been analyzed and summarized. From April 2009 to March 2016, 1,873 patients have been followed by the RM center. During the mean follow-up period of 775 days, 42 lead failure events (atrial lead 22, right ventricular pacemaker lead 5, implantable cardioverter defibrillator [ICD] lead 15) were detected. The proportion of lead failures detected only by arrhythmic events, which were not detected by conventional impedance abnormalities, was significantly higher than that detected by impedance abnormalities (arrhythmic event 76.2%, 95% CI: 60.5-87.9%; impedance abnormalities 23.8%, 95% CI: 12.1-39.5%). Twenty-seven events (64.7%) were detected without any alert. Of 15 patients with ICD lead failure, none has experienced inappropriate therapy. RM can detect lead failure earlier, before clinical adverse events. However, CIEDs often diagnose lead failure as just arrhythmic events without any warning. Thus, to detect lead failure earlier, careful human analysis of arrhythmic events is useful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Slope failure of chalk channel margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.; Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn


    provide evidence for recurring margin collapse of a long-lived Campanian channel. Compressionally deformed and thrust chalk hardgrounds are correlated to thicker, non-cemented chalk beds that form a broad, gentle anticline. These chalks represent a slump complex with a roll-over anticline of expanded, non......-cemented chalk in the head region and a culmination of condensed hardgrounds in the toe region. Observations strongly suggest that the slumping represents collapse of a channel margin. Farther northwards, the contemporaneous succession shows evidence of small-scale penecontemporaneous normal faulting towards...

  8. Modified Stability Charts for Rock Slopes Based on the Hoek-Brown Failure Criterion / Zmodyfikowane Diagramy Stabilności Skalistych Zboczy Otrzymane W Oparciu O Warunek Wytrzymałości Hoeka-Browna (United States)

    Nekouei, Mahdi; Ahangari, Kaveh


    Only an article rendered by Lia et al. in 2008 has represented charts based on Hoek-Brown criterion for rock slopes, however, these charts are not precise and efficient. Because of this problem, a modification is suggested for the mentioned charts in this study. The new charts are calculated according to four methods. Among the methods, one relates to finite element method using Phase2 software. The other three methods are Janbu, Bishop and Fellenius that belong to limit equilibrium method by using Slide software. For each slope angle, the method having high correlation coefficient is selected as the best one. Then, final charts are rendered according to the selected method and its specific equations. Among forty equations, twenty-five ones or 62.5% relate to numerical method and Phase2 software, six ones or 15% belong to Fellenius limit equilibrium, six ones or 15% relate to Bishop limit equilibrium, and three ones or 7.5% belong to Janbu limit equilibrium. In order to validate new charts, slope stability analysis is carried out for several sections of Chadormalu iron ore open pit mine, Iran. The error percentage of new charts in limit equilibrium method using Slide software and in Bishop method for slopes of Chadormalu iron ore mine are rendered and compared. The charts on a basis of Hoek-Brown failure criterion for rock slopes show less than ±4% error. This indicates that these charts are appropriate tools and their safety factor is optimal for rock slopes. Diagramy stabilności skalistych zboczy otrzymane w oparciu o warunek wytrzymałości Hoeka- Browna znaleźć można jedynie w pracy Lia et al. (2008), choć wykresy te nie są absolutnie dokładne i jasne. Dlatego też w niniejszym artykule zaproponowano pewną modyfikację diagramów. Nowe wykresu sporządzono w oparciu o cztery metody. Jedna z metod opiera się na metodzie elementów skończonych i wykorzystuje oprogramowanie Phase2. Pozostałe trzy podejścia to metody Janbu, Bishopa i Felleniusa bazuj

  9. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning (United States)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.


    simple empirical models [Versace et al., 2003] based on correlation between some features of rainfall records (cumulated height, duration, season etc.) and the correspondent observed landslides. Laboratory experiments on instrumented small scale slope models represent an effective way to provide data sets [Eckersley, 1990; Wang and Sassa, 2001] useful for building up more complex models of landslide triggering prediction. At the Geotechnical Laboratory of C.I.R.I.AM. an instrumented flume to investigate on the mechanics of landslides in unsaturated deposits of granular soils is available [Olivares et al. 2003; Damiano, 2004; Olivares et al., 2007]. In the flume a model slope is reconstituted by a moist-tamping technique and subjected to an artificial uniform rainfall since failure happens. The state of stress and strain of the slope is monitored during the entire test starting from the infiltration process since the early post-failure stage: the monitoring system is constituted by several mini-tensiometers placed at different locations and depths, to measure suction, mini-transducers to measure positive pore pressures, laser sensors, to measure settlements of the ground surface, and high definition video-cameras to obtain, through a software (PIV) appositely dedicated, the overall horizontal displacement field. Besides, TDR sensors, used with an innovative technique [Greco, 2006], allow to reconstruct the water content profile of soil along the entire thickness of the investigated deposit and to monitor its continuous changes during infiltration. In this paper a series of laboratory tests carried out on model slopes in granular pyroclastic soils taken in the mountainous area north-eastern of Napoli, are presented. The experimental results demonstrate the completeness of information provided by the various sensors installed. In particular, very useful information is given by the coupled measurements of soil water content by TDR and suction by tensiometers. Knowledge of

  10. Rock slopes and reservoirs - lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.P.


    Lessons learned about slope stability in the course of four decades of monitoring, and in some cases stabilizing, slopes along British Columbia's hydroelectric reservoirs are discussed. The lessons are illustrated by short case histories of some of the more important slopes such as Little Chief Slide, Dutchman's Ridge, Downie Slide, Checkerboard Creek and Wahleach. Information derived from the monitoring and other investigations are compared with early interpretations of geology and slope performance. The comparison serves as an indicator of progress in slope stability determination and as a measure of the value of accumulated experience in terms of the potential consequences to safety and cost savings over the long life-span of hydroelectric projects.14 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs

  11. Monitoring failure rates of commercial implant brands; substantial equivalence in question? (United States)

    Hujoel, Philippe; Becker, William; Becker, Burton


    The aim of this study was to report on the failure rates of two distinct dental implant systems in a clinical practice setting. Date of implant placement and loss were entered prospectively in a data registry system. Failure rates of two commercially pure titanium implants, one with a porous oxydized surface (POS) and the other with a chemically altered surface (CAS), were assessed using a quality control chart and survival analyses. A total of 860 POS and 759 CAS implants were placed. A warning of an increased failure rate of the CAS implant was identified by means of the quality control chart. Survival analyses indicated that the CAS implant failure rate was twice that of the POS implant (Hazard Ratio: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.33-3.28, P-value POS implant was associated with a non-significant 64% drop in the implant failure rate within less than a year (HR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.12-1.14; P-value POS implant and an 8% failure with the CAS implant appears inconsistent with the assumption of substantial equivalence. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Size Constraints on Late Miocene to Pliocene Submarine Slope Failures along the Colombian Caribbean Subduction Margin as a Basis for Assessing Circum-Caribbean Impact of Future Tsunami Events (United States)

    Leslie, S.; Mann, P.


    The Colombian Caribbean margin provides an ideal setting for the formation of large mass transport deposits (MTDs): 1) the Caribbean Plate is slowly subducting at rates of 20 mm/yr with infrequent large thrust earthquakes and a complete lack of subduction events in the 400-year-long historical record; 2) the margin is a broad zone of active faults including a ~50 km-wide accretionary prism and strike-slip faults landward of the prism; 3) the active margin is draped by the Magdalena delta and submarine fan fed by the Magdalena River, the 26th largest in the world; and 4) the margin is over-steepened to slopes of up to 7° from the combination of tectonic activity and rapid rates of deltaic progradation. Using seismic data we have identified three late Miocene-Pliocene MTDs, the largest of which is between 4500 and 6000 km3, comparable in size to the well-studied Storegga slide of Norway. The tsunamigenic potential of future, analog MTD events are modeled using GeoWave tsunami modeling software. The largest and youngest of these MTDs, the Santa Marta slide, is used as an analog to infer the location and input parameters for the tsunami model. The event is modeled as a translational slide ~46 km long and ~37 km wide with the center of the slide located ~57 km W/NW from the mouth of the present day Magdalena River in water depths of 1500 m. The volume for the initial failure is conservatively estimated at ~680 km3 of material. The resulting tsunami wave from such an event has an initial maximum trough amplitude of -65.8 m and a peak amplitude of 19.2 m. The impact of such a tsunami would include: 1) Kingston, Jamaica (population 938K), tsunami height 7.5 m, peak arrival at 60 min.; 2) Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (population 965K, height 6 m, peak arrival at 80 min.); and 3) Cartagena, Colombia (population 845K, height 21 m, peak arrival at 34 min.). A number of parameters to the model are varied to analyze sensitivity of modeling results to changes in slide depth

  13. Dynamic and Static Combination Analysis Method of Slope Stability Analysis during Earthquake


    Liang Lu; Zongjian Wang; Xiaoyuan Huang; Bin Zheng; Katsuhiko Arai


    The results of laboratory model tests for simulating the slope failure due to vibration, including unreinforced slope and the slope reinforced by using geotextile, show that the slope failure occurs when a cumulative plastic displacement exceeds a certain critical value. To overcome the defects of conventional stability analysis, which evaluates the slope characteristics only by its strength parameters, a numerical procedure considering the stiffness and deformation of materials and geosynthe...

  14. Slope Superficial Displacement Monitoring by Small Baseline SAR Interferometry Using Data from L-band ALOS PALSAR and X-band TerraSAR: A Case Study of Hong Kong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulong Chen


    Full Text Available Owing to the development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR platforms, and in particular the increase in the availability of multi-source (multi-band and multi-resolution data, it is now feasible to design a surface displacement monitoring application using multi-temporal SAR interferometry (MT-InSAR. Landslides have high socio-economic impacts in many countries because of potential geo-hazards and heavy casualties. In this study, taking into account the merits of ALOS PALSAR (L-band, good coherence preservation and TerraSAR (X-band, high resolution and short revisit times data, we applied an improved small baseline InSAR (SB-InSAR with 3-D phase unwrapping approach, to monitor slope superficial displacement in Hong Kong, China, a mountainous subtropical zone city influenced by over-urbanization and heavy monsoonal rains. Results revealed that the synergistic use of PALSAR and TerraSAR data produces different outcomes in relation to data reliability and spatial-temporal resolution, and hence could be of significant value for a comprehensive understanding and monitoring of unstable slopes.

  15. Vigilance impossible: Diligence, distraction, and daydreaming all lead to failures in a practical monitoring task. (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M; Schooler, Jonathan W


    In laboratory studies of vigilance, participants watch for unusual events in a "sit and stare" fashion as their performance typically declines over time. But watch keepers in practical settings seldom approach monitoring in such simplistic ways and controlled environments. We observed airline pilots performing routine monitoring duties in the cockpit. Unlike laboratory studies, pilots' monitoring did not deteriorate amidst prolonged vigils. Monitoring was frequently interrupted by other pop-up tasks and misses followed. However, when free from these distractions, pilots reported copious mind wandering. Pilots often confined their mind wandering to times in which their monitoring performance would not conspicuously suffer. But when no convenient times were available, pilots mind wandered anyway and misses ensued. Real-world monitors may be caught between a continuous vigilance approach that is doomed to fail, a dynamic environment that cannot be fully controlled, and what may be an irresistible urge to let one's thoughts drift. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Stability of infinite slopes under transient partially saturated seepage conditions (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; ŞEner-Kaya, BaşAk; Lu, Ning; Baum, Rex L.


    Prediction of the location and timing of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is desired by organizations responsible for hazard management and warnings. However, hydrologic and mechanical processes in the vadose zone complicate such predictions. Infiltrating rainfall must typically pass through an unsaturated layer before reaching the irregular and usually discontinuous shallow water table. This process is dynamic and a function of precipitation intensity and duration, the initial moisture conditions and hydrologic properties of the hillside materials, and the geometry, stratigraphy, and vegetation of the hillslope. As a result, pore water pressures, volumetric water content, effective stress, and thus the propensity for landsliding vary over seasonal and shorter time scales. We apply a general framework for assessing the stability of infinite slopes under transient variably saturated conditions. The framework includes profiles of pressure head and volumetric water content combined with a general effective stress for slope stability analysis. The general effective stress, or suction stress, provides a means for rigorous quantification of stress changes due to rainfall and infiltration and thus the analysis of slope stability over the range of volumetric water contents and pressure heads relevant to shallow landslide initiation. We present results using an analytical solution for transient infiltration for a range of soil texture and hydrological properties typical of landslide-prone hillslopes and show the effect of these properties on the timing and depth of slope failure. We follow by analyzing field-monitoring data acquired prior to shallow landslide failure of a hillside near Seattle, Washington, and show that the timing of the slide was predictable using measured pressure head and volumetric water content and show how the approach can be used in a forward manner using a numerical model for transient infiltration.

  17. CD4 count-based failure criteria combined with viral load monitoring may trigger worse switch decisions than viral load monitoring alone. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christopher J; Maritz, Jean; van Zyl, Gert U


    CD4 count decline often triggers antiretroviral regimen switches in resource-limited settings, even when viral load testing is available. We therefore compared CD4 failure and CD4 trends in patients with viraemia with or without antiretroviral resistance. Retrospective cohort study investigating the association of HIV drug resistance with CD4 failure or CD4 trends in patients on first-line antiretroviral regimens during viraemia. Patients with viraemia (HIV RNA >1000 copies/ml) from two HIV treatment programmes in South Africa (n = 350) were included. We investigated the association of M184V and NNRTI resistance with WHO immunological failure criteria and CD4 count trends, using chi-square tests and linear mixed models. Fewer patients with the M184V mutation reached immunologic failure criteria than those without: 51 of 151(34%) vs. 90 of 199 (45%) (P = 0.03). Similarly, 79 of 220 (36%) patients, who had major NNRTI resistance, had immunological failure, whereas 62 of 130 (48%) without (chi-square P = 0.03) did. The CD4 count decline among patients with the M184V mutation was 2.5 cells/mm(3) /year, whereas in those without M184V it was 14 cells/mm(3) /year (P = 0.1), but the difference in CD4 count decline with and without NNRTI resistance was marginal. Our data suggest that CD4 count monitoring may lead to inappropriate delayed therapy switches for patients with HIV drug resistance. Conversely, patients with viraemia but no drug resistance are more likely to have a CD4 count decline and thus may be more likely to be switched to a second-line regimen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Model tests of geosynthetic reinforced slopes in a geotechnical centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aklik, P.


    Geosynthetic-reinforced slopes and walls became very popular in recent years because of their financial, technical, and ecological advantages. Centrifuge modelling is a powerful tool for physical modelling of reinforced slopes and offers the advantage to observe the failure mechanisms of the slopes. In order to replicate the gravity induced stresses of a prototype structure in a geometrically 1/N reduced model, it is necessary to test the model in a gravitational field N times larger than that of the prototype structure. In this dissertation, geotextile-reinforced slope models were tested in a geotechnical centrifuge to identify the possible failure mechanisms. Slope models were tested by varying slope inclination, tensile strengths of the geotextiles, and overlapping lengths. Photographs of the geotextile reinforced slope models in flight were taken with a digital camera and the soil deformations of geotextile reinforced slopes were evaluated with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experimental results showed that failure of the centrifuge models initiated at midheight of the slope, and occurred due to geotextile breakage instead of pullout. The location of the shear surface is independent of the tensile strength of the geotextile; it is dependent on the shear strength of the soil. It is logical to see that the required acceleration of the centrifuge at slope failure was decreased with increasing slope inclination. An important contribution to the stability of the slope models was provided by the overlapping of the geotextile layers. It has a secondary reinforcement effect when it was prolonged and passed through the shear surface. Moreover, the location of the shear surface observed with PIV analysis exactly matches the tears of the retrieved geotextiles measured carefully after the centrifuge testing. It is concluded that PIV is an efficient tool to instrument the slope failures in a geotechnical centrifuge.(author) [de

  19. Evaluating the Effect of Rainfall Infiltration on the Slope Stability of T16 tower of Taipei Mao-kong Gondola by Numerical Methods (United States)

    RUNG, J.


    In this study, a series of rainfall-stability analyses were performed to simulate the failure mechanism and the function of remediation works of the down slope of T-16 tower pier, Mao-Kong gondola (or T-16 Slope) at the hillside of Taipei City using two-dimensional finite element method. The failure mechanism of T-16 Slope was simulated using the rainfall hyetograph of Jang-Mi typhoon in 2008 based on the field investigation data, monitoring data, soil/rock mechanical testing data and detail design plots of remediation works. Eventually, the numerical procedures and various input parameters in the analysis were verified by comparing the numerical results with the field observations. In addition, 48 hrs design rainfalls corresponding to 5, 10, 25 and 50 years return periods were prepared using the 20 years rainfall data of Mu-Zha rainfall observation station, Central Weather Bureau for the rainfall-stability analyses of T-16 Slope to inspect the effect of the compound stabilization works on the overall stability of the slope. At T-16 Slope, without considering the longitudinal and transverse drainages on the ground surface, there totally 4 types of stabilization works were installed to stabilize the slope. From the slope top to the slope toe, the stabilization works of T-16 Slope consists of RC-retaining wall with micro-pile foundation at the up-segment, earth anchor at the up-middle-segment, soil nailing at the middle-segment and retaining pile at the down-segment of the slope. The effect of each individual stabilization work on the slope stability under rainfall condition was examined and evaluated by raising field groundwater level.

  20. Investigations of slope stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonveiller, E.


    The dynamics of slope slides and parameters for calculating slope stability is discussed. Two types of slides are outlined: rotation slide and translation slide. Slide dynamics are analyzed according to A. Heim. A calculation example of a slide which occurred at Vajont, Yugoslavia is presented. Calculation results differ from those presented by Ciabatti. For investigation of slope stability the calculation methods of A.W. Bishop (1955), N. Morgenstern and M. Maksimovic are discussed. 12 references

  1. Assessment of Slope Stability of Various Cut Slopes with Effects of Weathering by Using Slope Stability Probability Classification (SSPC) (United States)

    Ersöz, Timur; Topal, Tamer


    Rocks containing pore spaces, fractures, joints, bedding planes and faults are prone to weathering due to temperature differences, wetting-drying, chemistry of solutions absorbed, and other physical and chemical agents. Especially cut slopes are very sensitive to weathering activities because of disturbed rock mass and topographical condition by excavation. During and right after an excavation process of a cut slope, weathering and erosion may act on this newly exposed rock material. These acting on the material may degrade and change its properties and the stability of the cut slope in its engineering lifetime. In this study, the effect of physical and chemical weathering agents on shear strength parameters of the rocks are investigated in order to observe the differences between weathered and unweathered rocks. Also, slope stability assessment of cut slopes affected by these weathering agents which may disturb the parameters like strength, cohesion, internal friction angle, unit weight, water absorption and porosity are studied. In order to compare the condition of the rock materials and analyze the slope stability, the parameters of weathered and fresh rock materials are found with in-situ tests such as Schmidt hammer and laboratory tests like uniaxial compressive strength, point load and direct shear. Moreover, slake durability and methylene blue tests are applied to investigate the response of the rock to weathering and presence of clays in rock materials, respectively. In addition to these studies, both rock strength parameters and any kind of failure mechanism are determined by probabilistic approach with the help of SSPC system. With these observations, the performances of the weathered and fresh zones of the cut slopes are evaluated and 2-D slope stability analysis are modeled with further recommendations for the cut slopes. Keywords: 2-D Modeling, Rock Strength, Slope Stability, SSPC, Weathering

  2. Monitoring the efficacy of antimalarial medicines in India via sentinel sites: Outcomes and risk factors for treatment failure. (United States)

    Mishra, Neelima; Srivastava, Bina; Bharti, Ram Suresh; Rana, Roma; Kaitholia, Kamlesh; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Das, Manoj Kumar; Ghosh, Susanta K; Bhatt, Rajendra M; Tyagi, Prajesh K; Dev, Vas; Phookan, Sobhan; Wattal, Suman Lata; Sonal, Gagan Singh; Dhariwal, Akshay Chand; Valecha, Neena


    To combat the problem of antimalarial drug resistance, monitoring the changes in drug efficacy over time through periodic surveillance is essential. Since 2009, systematic and continuous monitoring is being done through nationwide sentinel site system. Potential early warning signs like partner drug resistance markers were also monitored in the clinical samples from the study areas. A total of 1864 patients with acute uncomplicated malaria were enrolled in therapeutic efficacy studies of artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) for Plasmodium falciparum; those infected with P. vivax were given chloroquine (CQ). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to distinguish post-treatment reinfection from treatment failures. Isolates of P. falciparum were also analysed for dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene mutations. Overall, 1687 (91.7%) patients completed the follow-up. In most of the falciparum patients the parasitaemia was cleared within 24 h of treatment, except 12 patients who remained parasite positive after 72 h. Presence of dhfr and dhps quintuple mutation was observed predominantly in treatment failure samples. A daily dose of artesunate of 95% cases in all the sentinel sites except in Northeastern region (NE). Chloroquine remained 100% efficacious in case of P. vivax infections. Till 2012, India's national antimalarial drug resistance monitoring system proved highly efficacious and safe towards first-line antimalarials used in the country, except in Northeastern region where a decline in efficacy of AS+SP has been observed. This led to change in first-line treatment for P. falciparum to artemether-lumefantrine in Northeastern region.

  3. Slippery Slope Arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, W.; Chadwick, R.F.


    Slippery slope arguments hold that one should not take some action (which in itself may be innocuous or even laudable) in order to prevent one from being dragged down a slope towards some clearly undesirable situation. Their typical purpose is to prevent changes in the status quo and, therefore,

  4. Surveillance and monitoring experiences of chemical water-steam cycle in combined-cycle power plants (CCCs in Spanish acronyms) for early diagnosis of failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaolalla losada, E.


    In the present work is made a brief comparative review of the treatments effected in water of the cycle, their purpose, types, monitoring and tracking. Moreover, are described the most important failure mechanisms that can be related to the chemistry of cycle with the aim to establish monitoring guidelines to increase the reliability of the power plant and enable an early diagnosis. (Author)

  5. A Critical Review of Landslide Failure Mechanisms (United States)

    Stead, D.; Wolter, A.; Clague, J. J.


    During the last ten years several comprehensive geotechnical studies have been completed on major historic landslides including Randa in Switzerland, Frank in Canada, Aknes in Norway, La Clapiere in France and Vaiont in Italy. In addition, numerous researchers have documented deep-seated gravitational deformations and a wide variety of large prehistoric rock slope failures. The information provided by these studies is evidence of the significant advances made in our ability to map, monitor and model landslides. Over the same period, the mining industry has developed large open pits with slope heights exceeding 1000 m that provide important analogues to high mountain slopes. In this paper we analyse data from the literature to illustrate the importance of brittle fracture, 3D controls, anisotropy, overburden stress, geomorphic processes, groundwater and temperature in major landslides and provide some indicators as to the research required to further understand the complexity of rock slope failure mechanisms. The nature of the landslide failure surface has received inadequate attention in the past, with failure surfaces typically considered in 2D and simulated as discrete, smooth and often planar features. Current work shows that failure surfaces are inherently three-dimensional and have much structural variability across the area of the landslide scarp, reflecting complex structural histories. Such anisotropy and variations may result in multiple events or distinct blocks that move at different rates. Just as most failure surfaces vary spatially, they may also change with depth and thus should more realistically be considered failure zones rather than discrete surfaces. The increasing recognition of the importance of step-path failures, internal dilation and brittle fracture are indicative of the complexity in slope failure surfaces. Related to the variation in failure surface characteristics is the importance of 3D rotational displacements and both the

  6. Slope stability and erosion control: Ecotechnological solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.


    This book is designed to assist the civil and geotechnical engineer, geomorphologist, forester, landscape architect or ecologist in choosing ecotechnological solutions for slopes that are prone to a variety of mass movements e.g. shallow failure or erosion. Within this book, the 'engineer' is used

  7. An alternative soil nailing system for slope stabilization: Akarpiles (United States)

    Lim, Chun-Lan; Chan, Chee-Ming


    This research proposes an innovative solution for slope stabilization with less environmental footprint: AKARPILES. In Malaysia, landslide has become common civil and environmental problems that cause impacts to the economy, safety and environment. Therefore, effective slope stabilization method helps to improve the safety of public and protect the environment. This study focused on stabilizing surfacial slope failure. The idea of AKARPILES was generated from the tree roots system in slope stabilization. After the piles are installed in the slope and intercepting the slip plane, grout was pumped in and discharged through holes on the piles. The grout then filled the pores in the soil with random flow within the slip zone. SKW mixture was used to simulate the soil slope. There were two designs being proposed in this study and the prototypes were produced by a 3D printer. Trial mix of the grout was carried out to obtain the optimum mixing ratio of bentonite: cement: water. A series of tests were conducted on the single-pile-reinforced slope under vertical slope crest loading condition considering different slope gradients and nail designs. Parameters such as ultimate load, failure time and failure strain were recorded and compared. As comparison with the unreinforced slope, both designs of AKARPILES showed better but different performances in the model tests.

  8. Monitoring the Damage State of Fiber Reinforced Composites Using an FBG Network for Failure Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Selim Kocaman


    Full Text Available A structural health monitoring (SHM study of biaxial glass fibre-reinforced epoxy matrix composites under a constant, high strain uniaxial fatigue loading is performed using fibre Bragg grating (FBG optical sensors embedded in composites at various locations to monitor the evolution of local strains, thereby understanding the damage mechanisms. Concurrently, the temperature changes of the samples during the fatigue test have also been monitored at the same locations. Close to fracture, significant variations in local temperatures and strains are observed, and it is shown that the variations in temperature and strain can be used to predict imminent fracture. It is noted that the latter information cannot be obtained using external strain gages, which underlines the importance of the tracking of local strains internally.

  9. Monitoring of temperature fatigue failure mechanism for polyvinyl alcohol fiber concrete using acoustic emission sensors. (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Cao, Hai


    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) techniques to monitor the mechanism of evolution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber concrete damage under temperature fatigue loading is investigated. Using the temperature fatigue test, real-time AE monitoring data of PVA fiber concrete is achieved. Based on the AE signal characteristics of the whole test process and comparison of AE signals of PVA fiber concretes with different fiber contents, the damage evolution process of PVA fiber concrete is analyzed. Finally, a qualitative evaluation of the damage degree is obtained using the kurtosis index and b-value of AE characteristic parameters. The results obtained using both methods are discussed.

  10. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin


    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  11. Preliminary Slope Stability Study Using Slope/ W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazran Harun; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Muzamil Mohd Hashim; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin


    Analyzing the stability of earth structures is the oldest type of numerical analysis in geotechnical engineering. Limit equilibrium types of analyses for assessing the stability of earth slopes have been in use in geotechnical engineering for many decades. Modern limit equilibrium software is making it possible to handle ever-increasing complexity within an analysis. It is being considered as the potential method in dealing with complex stratigraphy, highly irregular pore-water pressure conditions, various linear and nonlinear shear strength models and almost any kind of slip surface shape. It allows rapid decision making by providing an early indication of the potential suitability of sites based on slope stability analysis. Hence, a preliminary slope stability study has been developed to improve the capacity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in assessing potential sites for Borehole Disposal for Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources. The results showed that geometry of cross section A-A ' , B-B ' , C-C ' and D-D ' achieved the factor of safety not less than 1.4 and these are deemed acceptable. (author)

  12. Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Symptom Monitoring Application for Heart Failure. (United States)

    Wakefield, Bonnie; Pham, Kassie; Scherubel, Melody


    Symptom recognition and reporting by patients with heart failure are critical to avoid hospitalization. This project evaluated a patient symptom tracking application. Fourteen end users (nine patients, five clinicians) from a Midwestern Veterans Affairs Medical Center evaluated the website using a think aloud protocol. A structured observation protocol was used to assess success or failure for each task. Measures included task time, success, and satisfaction. Patients had a mean age of 70 years; clinicians averaged 42 years in age. Patients took 9.3 min and clinicians took less than 3 min per scenario. Most patients needed some assistance, but few patients were completely unable to complete some tasks. Clinicians demonstrated few problems navigating the site. Patient System Usability Scale item scores ranged from 2.0 to 3.6; clinician item scores ranged from 1.8 to 4.0. Further work is needed to determine whether using the web-based tool improves symptom recognition and reporting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Design of Rock Slope Reinforcement: An Himalayan Case Study (United States)

    Tiwari, Gaurav; Latha, Gali Madhavi


    The stability analysis of the two abutment slopes of a railway bridge proposed at about 359 m above the ground level, crossing a river and connecting two hill faces in the Himalayas, India, is presented. The bridge is located in a zone of high seismic activity. The rock slopes are composed of a heavily jointed rock mass and the spacing, dip and dip direction of joint sets are varying at different locations. Geological mapping was carried out to characterize all discontinuities present along the slopes. Laboratory and field investigations were conducted to assess the geotechnical properties of the intact rock, rock mass and joint infill. Stability analyses of these rock slopes were carried out using numerical programmes. Loads from the foundations resting on the slopes and seismic accelerations estimated from site-specific ground response analysis were considered. The proposed slope profile with several berms between successive foundations was simulated in the numerical model. An equivalent continuum approach with Hoek and Brown failure criterion was initially used in a finite element model to assess the global stability of the slope abutments. In the second stage, finite element analysis of rock slopes with all joint sets with their orientations, spacing and properties explicitly incorporated into the numerical model was taken up using continuum with joints approach. It was observed that the continuum with joints approach was able to capture the local failures in some of the slope sections, which were verified using wedge failure analysis and stereographic projections. Based on the slope deformations and failure patterns observed from the numerical analyses, rock anchors were designed to achieve the target factors of safety against failure while keeping the deformations within the permissible limits. Detailed design of rock anchors and comparison of the stability of slopes with and without reinforcement are presented.

  14. Heart failure analysis dashboard for patient's remote monitoring combining multiple artificial intelligence technologies. (United States)

    Guidi, G; Pettenati, M C; Miniati, R; Iadanza, E


    In this paper we describe an Heart Failure analysis Dashboard that, combined with a handy device for the automatic acquisition of a set of patient's clinical parameters, allows to support telemonitoring functions. The Dashboard's intelligent core is a Computer Decision Support System designed to assist the clinical decision of non-specialist caring personnel, and it is based on three functional parts: Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Follow-up management. Four Artificial Intelligence-based techniques are compared for providing diagnosis function: a Neural Network, a Support Vector Machine, a Classification Tree and a Fuzzy Expert System whose rules are produced by a Genetic Algorithm. State of the art algorithms are used to support a score-based prognosis function. The patient's Follow-up is used to refine the diagnosis.

  15. Monitoring of Failure Mechanisms in a Composite Bending Actuator during Cyclic Loading by Acoustic Emission (United States)

    Woo, Sung-Choong; Goo, Nam Seo

    The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of electromechanical cyclic loading on the performance of a bending piezoelectric composite actuator. We have analyzed the fatigue damage mechanisms in terms of the behavior of the AE event rate. It was found that whether the actuators are subjected to purely electric loading or electromechanical loading, the initial fatigue damage of the bending piezoelectric composite actuator was caused by the transgranular fracture in the PZT ceramic layer; the final failure was caused only in the case of PCAWB under electromechanical loading by a local discharge, which critically affected the performance reduction of the actuators. As the number of cycles increased, a large reduction in displacement performance coincided with a high AE event rate, which was identified via microscopic observations.

  16. Effect of rainfall on the reliability of an infinite slope


    Yuan, J.; Papaioannou, I.; Mok, C. M.; Straub, D.


    Rainfall is one of the most common factors triggering landslides, since infiltration of water into the soil has a significant impact on pore water pressure buildup that affects slope stability. In this study, the influence of the wetting front development on the reliability of an infinite slope is analyzed. The failure condition of the slope is expressed in terms of the factor of safety. Rainfall infiltration is simulated by a time-dependent model, based on the Green and Ampt assumptions. The...

  17. Unstable slope management program. (United States)


    This Rapid Response Project gathered information on existing unstable slope management programs, with a : focus on asset management practices in the United States and overseas. On the basis of this study, the research : team summarized and recommende...

  18. Rock slope design guide. (United States)


    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  19. Rock Slope Design Criteria (United States)


    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  20. A Novel Thermal-Mechanical Detection System for Reactor Pressure Vessel Bottom Failure Monitoring in Severe Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Daowei; Bu, Jiangtao; Xu, Dongling


    Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan, there is an increased need of enhanced capabilities for severe accident management (SAM) program. Among others, a reliable method for detecting reactor pressure vessel (RPV) bottom failure has been evaluated as imperative by many utility owners. Though radiation and/or temperature measurement are potential solutions by tradition, there are some limitations for them to function desirably in such severe accident as that in Japan. To provide reliable information for assessment of accident progress in SAM program, in this paper we propose a novel thermal-mechanical detection system (TMDS) for RPV bottom failure monitoring in severe accidents. The main components of TMDS include thermally sensitive element, metallic cables, tension controlled switch and main control room annunciation device. With TMDS installed, there shall be a reliable means of keeping SAM decision-makers informed whether the RPV bottom has indeed failed. Such assurance definitely guarantees enhancement of severe accident management performance and significantly improve nuclear safety and thus protect the society and people. (authors)

  1. Ongoing right ventricular hemodynamics in heart failure: clinical value of measurements derived from an implantable monitoring system. (United States)

    Adamson, Philip B; Magalski, Anthony; Braunschweig, Frieder; Böhm, Michael; Reynolds, Dwight; Steinhaus, David; Luby, Allyson; Linde, Cecilia; Ryden, Lars; Cremers, Bodo; Takle, Teri; Bennett, Tom


    This study examined the characteristics of continuously measured right ventricular (RV) hemodynamic information derived from an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) in heart failure patients. Hemodynamic monitoring might improve the day-to-day management of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Little is known about the characteristics of long-term hemodynamic information in patients with CHF or how such information relates to meaningful clinical events. Thirty-two patients with CHF received a permanent RV IHM system similar to a single-lead pacemaker. Right ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures, heart rate, and pressure derivatives were continuously measured for nine months without using the data for clinical decision-making or management of patients. Data were then made available to clinical providers, and the patients were followed up for 17 months. Pressure characteristics during optimal volume, clinically determined volume-overload exacerbations, and volume depletion events were examined. The effect of IHM on hospitalizations was examined using the patients' historical controls. Long-term RV pressure measurements had either marked variability or minimal time-related changes. During 36 volume-overload events, RV systolic pressures increased by 25 +/- 4% (p < 0.05) and heart rate increased by 11 +/- 2% (p < 0.05). Pressure increases occurred in 9 of 12 events 4 +/- 2 days before the exacerbations requiring hospitalization. Hospitalizations before using IHM data for clinical management averaged 1.08 per patient year and decreased to 0.47 per patient-year (57% reduction, p < 0.01) after hemodynamic data were used. Long-term ambulatory pressure measurements from an IHM may be helpful in guiding day-to-day clinical management, with a potentially favorable impact on CHF hospitalizations.

  2. Terrestrial laser scanning point clouds time series for the monitoring of slope movements: displacement measurement using image correlation and 3D feature tracking (United States)

    Bornemann, Pierrick; Jean-Philippe, Malet; André, Stumpf; Anne, Puissant; Julien, Travelletti


    Dense multi-temporal point clouds acquired with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) have proved useful for the study of structure and kinematics of slope movements. Most of the existing deformation analysis methods rely on the use of interpolated data. Approaches that use multiscale image correlation provide a precise and robust estimation of the observed movements; however, for non-rigid motion patterns, these methods tend to underestimate all the components of the movement. Further, for rugged surface topography, interpolated data introduce a bias and a loss of information in some local places where the point cloud information is not sufficiently dense. Those limits can be overcome by using deformation analysis exploiting directly the original 3D point clouds assuming some hypotheses on the deformation (e.g. the classic ICP algorithm requires an initial guess by the user of the expected displacement patterns). The objective of this work is therefore to propose a deformation analysis method applied to a series of 20 3D point clouds covering the period October 2007 - October 2015 at the Super-Sauze landslide (South East French Alps). The dense point clouds have been acquired with a terrestrial long-range Optech ILRIS-3D laser scanning device from the same base station. The time series are analyzed using two approaches: 1) a method of correlation of gradient images, and 2) a method of feature tracking in the raw 3D point clouds. The estimated surface displacements are then compared with GNSS surveys on reference targets. Preliminary results tend to show that the image correlation method provides a good estimation of the displacement fields at first order, but shows limitations such as the inability to track some deformation patterns, and the use of a perspective projection that does not maintain original angles and distances in the correlated images. Results obtained with 3D point clouds comparison algorithms (C2C, ICP, M3C2) bring additional information on the

  3. High Resolution Monitoring of River Bluff Erosion Reveals Failure Mechanisms and Geomorphically Effective Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ann Kelly


    Full Text Available Using a combination of Structure from Motion and time lapse photogrammetry, we document rapid river bluff erosion occurring in the Greater Blue Earth River (GBER basin, a muddy tributary to the sediment-impaired Minnesota River in south central Minnesota. Our datasets elucidated dominant bluff failure mechanisms and rates of bluff retreat in a transient system responding to ongoing streamflow increases and glacial legacy impacts. Specifically, we document the importance of fluvial scour, freeze–thaw, as well as other drivers of bluff erosion. We find that even small flows, a mere 30% of the two-year recurrence interval flow, are capable of causing bluff erosion. During our study period (2014–2017, the most erosion was associated with two large flood events with 13- and 25-year return periods. However, based on the frequency of floods and magnitude of bluff face erosion associated with floods over the last 78 years, the 1.2-year return interval flood has likely accomplished the most cumulative erosion, and is thus more geomorphically effective than larger magnitude floods. Flows in the GBER basin are nonstationary, increasing across the full range of return intervals. We find that management implications differ considerably depending on whether the bluff erosion-runoff power law exponent, γ, is greater than, equal to, or less than 1. Previous research has recommended installation of water retention sites in tributaries to the Minnesota River in order to reduce flows and sediment loading from river bluffs. Our findings support the notion that water retention would be an effective practice to reduce sediment loading and highlight the importance of managing for both runoff frequency and magnitude.

  4. Study on the response of unsaturated soil slope based on the effects of rainfall intensity and slope angle (United States)

    Ismail, Mohd Ashraf Mohamad; Hamzah, Nur Hasliza


    Rainfall has been considered as the major cause of the slope failure. The mechanism leading to slope failures included the infiltration process, surface runoff, volumetric water content and pore-water pressure of the soil. This paper describes a study in which simulated rainfall events were used with 2-dimensional soil column to study the response of unsaturated soil behavior based on different slope angle. The 2-dimensional soil column is used in order to demonstrate the mechanism of the slope failure. These unsaturated soil were tested with four different slope (15°, 25°, 35° and 45°) and subjected to three different rainfall intensities (maximum, mean and minimum). The following key results were obtained: (1) the stability of unsaturated soil decrease as the rainwater infiltrates into the soil. Soil that initially in unsaturated state will start to reach saturated state when rainwater seeps into the soil. Infiltration of rainwater will reduce the matric suction in the soil. Matric suction acts in controlling soil shear strength. Reduction in matric suction affects the decrease in effective normal stress, which in turn diminishes the available shear strength to a point where equilibrium can no longer be sustained in the slope. (2) The infiltration rate of rainwater decreases while surface runoff increase when the soil nearly achieve saturated state. These situations cause the soil erosion and lead to slope failure. (3) The steepness of the soil is not a major factor but also contribute to slope failures. For steep slopes, rainwater that fall on the soil surface will become surface runoff within a short time compare to the water that infiltrate into the soil. While for gentle slopes, water that becomes surface runoff will move slowly and these increase the water that infiltrate into the soil.

  5. Runoff from armored slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.


    Models exist for calculating overland flow on hillsides but no models have been found which explicitly deal with runoff from armored slopes. Flow on armored slopes differs from overland flow, because substantial flow occurs beneath the surface of the rock layer at low runnoff, and both above and below the surface for high runoff. In addition to the lack of a suitable model, no estimates of the PMP exist for such small areas and for very short durations. This paper develops a model for calculating runoff from armored embankments. The model considers the effect of slope, drainage area and ''flow concentration'' caused by irregular grading or slumping. A rainfall-duration curve based on the PMP is presented which is suitable for very small drainage areas. The development of the runoff model and rainfall-duration curve is presented below, along with a demonstration of the model on the design of a hypothetical tailings embankment

  6. Monitoring of slope-instabilities and deformations with Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in wireless ad-hoc Sensor Networks (United States)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernández-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.


    In most mountainous regions, landslides represent a major threat to human life, properties and infrastructures. Nowadays existing landslide monitoring systems are often characterized by high efforts in terms of purchase, installation, maintenance, manpower and material. In addition (or because of this) only small areas or selective points of the endangered zone can be observed by the system. Therefore the improvement of existing and the development of new monitoring and warning systems are of high relevance. The joint project "Sensor based Landslide Early Warning Systems" (SLEWS) deals with the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides using low-cost micro-sensors (MEMS) integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Modern so called Ad-Hoc, Multi-Hop wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized by a self organizing and self-healing capacity of the system (autonomous systems). The network consists of numerous individual and own energy-supply operating sensor nodes, that can send data packages from their measuring devices (here: MEMS) over other nodes (Multi-Hop) to a collection point (gateway). The gateway provides the interface to central processing and data retrieval units (PC, Laptop or server) outside the network. In order to detect and monitor the different landslide processes (like fall, topple, spreading or sliding) 3D MEMS capacitive sensors made from single silicon crystals and glass were chosen to measure acceleration, tilting and altitude changes. Based on the so called MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, the sensors combine very small mechanical and electronic units, sensing elements and transducers on a small microchip. The mass production of such type of sensors allows low cost applications in different areas (like automobile industries, medicine, and automation technology). Apart from the small and so space saving size and the low costs another advantage is the energy

  7. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra


    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  8. Review and Analysis of Existing Mobile Phone Apps to Support Heart Failure Symptom Monitoring and Self-Care Management Using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). (United States)

    Masterson Creber, Ruth M; Maurer, Mathew S; Reading, Meghan; Hiraldo, Grenny; Hickey, Kathleen T; Iribarren, Sarah


    Heart failure is the most common cause of hospital readmissions among Medicare beneficiaries and these hospitalizations are often driven by exacerbations in common heart failure symptoms. Patient collaboration with health care providers and decision making is a core component of increasing symptom monitoring and decreasing hospital use. Mobile phone apps offer a potentially cost-effective solution for symptom monitoring and self-care management at the point of need. The purpose of this review of commercially available apps was to identify and assess the functionalities of patient-facing mobile health apps targeted toward supporting heart failure symptom monitoring and self-care management. We searched 3 Web-based mobile app stores using multiple terms and combinations (eg, "heart failure," "cardiology," "heart failure and self-management"). Apps meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS), IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics functionality scores, and Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) guidelines for nonpharmacologic management. Apps were downloaded and assessed independently by 2-4 reviewers, interclass correlations between reviewers were calculated, and consensus was met by discussion. Of 3636 potentially relevant apps searched, 34 met inclusion criteria. Most apps were excluded because they were unrelated to heart failure, not in English or Spanish, or were games. Interrater reliability between reviewers was high. AskMD app had the highest average MARS total (4.9/5). More than half of the apps (23/34, 68%) had acceptable MARS scores (>3.0). Heart Failure Health Storylines (4.6) and AskMD (4.5) had the highest scores for behavior change. Factoring MARS, functionality, and HFSA guideline scores, the highest performing apps included Heart Failure Health Storylines, Symple, ContinuousCare Health App, WebMD, and AskMD. Peer-reviewed publications were identified for only 3 of the 34 apps. This review suggests

  9. Western Slope Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epis, R.C.; Callender, J.F.


    A conference on the geology and geologic resources of the Western Slope of western Colorado and eastern Utah is presented. Fourteen papers from the conference have been abstracted and indexed for the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. These papers covered such topics as uranium resources, oil shale deposits, coal resources, oil and gas resources, and geothermal resources of the area

  10. Monitoring burst (M-burst) — A novel framework of failure localization in all-optical mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Mohammed L.; Ho, Pin-Han; Wu, Bin; Tapolcai, Janos; Shihada, Basem


    Achieving instantaneous and precise failure localization in all-optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks has been an attractive feature of network fault management systems, and is particularly important when failure

  11. Protocol-driven remote monitoring of cardiac resynchronization therapy as part of a heart failure disease management strategy. (United States)

    Smeets, Christophe J P; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Vranken, Julie; Van der Auwera, Jo; Mullens, Wilfried; Dupont, Matthias; Grieten, Lars; De Cannière, Hélène; Lanssens, Dorien; Vandenberk, Thijs; Storms, Valerie; Thijs, Inge M; Vandervoort, Pieter


    Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction. CRT devices are equipped with remote monitoring functions, which are pivotal in the detection of device problems, but may also facilitate disease management. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical interventions taken based on remote monitoring. This is a single centre observational study of consecutive CRT patients (n = 192) participating in protocol-driven remote follow-up. Incoming technical- and disease-related alerts were analysed together with subsequently triggered interventions. During 34 ± 13 months of follow-up, 1372 alert-containing notifications were received (2.53 per patient-year of follow-up), comprising 1696 unique alerts (3.12 per patient-year of follow-up). In 60%, notifications resulted in a phone contact. Technical alerts constituted 8% of incoming alerts (0.23 per patient-year of follow-up). Rhythm (1.43 per patient-year of follow-up) and bioimpedance alerts (0.98 per patient-year of follow-up) were the most frequent disease-related alerts. Notifications included a rhythm alert in 39%, which triggered referral to the emergency room (4%), outpatient cardiology clinic (36%) or general practitioner (7%), or resulted in medication changes (13%). Sole bioimpedance notifications resulted in a telephone contact in 91%, which triggered outpatient evaluation in 8% versus medication changes in 10%. Clinical outcome was excellent with 97% 1-year survival. Remote CRT follow-up resulted in 0.23 technical- versus 2.64 disease-related alerts annually. Rhythm and bioimpedance notifications constituted the majority of incoming notifications which triggered an actual intervention in 22% and 15% of cases, respectively.

  12. Intracranial pressure monitoring in pediatric and adult patients with hydrocephalus and tentative shunt failure: a single-center experience over 10 years in 146 patients. (United States)

    Sæhle, Terje; Eide, Per Kristian


    OBJECT In patients with hydrocephalus and shunts, lasting symptoms such as headache and dizziness may be indicative of shunt failure, which may necessitate shunt revision. In cases of doubt, the authors monitor intracranial pressure (ICP) to determine the presence of over- or underdrainage of CSF to tailor management. In this study, the authors reviewed their experience of ICP monitoring in shunt failure. The aims of the study were to identify the complications and impact of ICP monitoring, as well as to determine the mean ICP and characteristics of the cardiac-induced ICP waves in pediatric versus adult over- and underdrainage. METHODS The study population included all pediatric and adult patients with hydrocephalus and shunts undergoing diagnostic ICP monitoring for tentative shunt failure during the 10-year period from 2002 to 2011. The patients were allocated into 3 groups depending on how they were managed following ICP monitoring: no drainage failure, overdrainage, or underdrainage. While patients with no drainage failure were managed conservatively without further actions, over- or underdrainage cases were managed with shunt revision or shunt valve adjustment. The ICP and ICP wave scores were determined from the continuous ICP waveforms. RESULTS The study population included 71 pediatric and 75 adult patients. There were no major complications related to ICP monitoring, but 1 patient was treated for a postoperative superficial wound infection and another experienced a minor bleed at the tip of the ICP sensor. Following ICP monitoring, shunt revision was performed in 74 (51%) of 146 patients, while valve adjustment was conducted in 17 (12%) and conservative measures without any actions in 55 (38%). Overdrainage was characterized by a higher percentage of episodes with negative mean ICP less than -5 to -10 mm Hg. The ICP wave scores, in particular the mean ICP wave amplitude (MWA), best differentiated underdrainage. Neither mean ICP nor MWA levels showed any

  13. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola


    the 30 December 2002 landslide, which involved the lava delta and its surrounding areas. InSAR data provided the post-effusive deformation field after the 2007 and 2014 flank eruptions, whereas LEM results highlighted that the accumulation of lava flows on the prone-to-failure SdF submarine slope is the main cause of the detected lava delta deformation. Lava delta instability, measured also at Pico Island (Azores) and Kilauea volcano (Hawaii), is evidence of the broader spectrum of instability phenomena that take place in the coastal or submarine area of the flanks of the volcanoes. At Kilauea, past lava deltas have moved faster than the surrounding slope and the recorded movements relate only to the collapses of the deltas themselves, producing rapid mass wasting near the coasts. In contrast, at Stromboli and Pico, lava deltas move at the same velocity as the surrounding slope. In these cases, the displacement at lava deltas can be considered as a proxy for the deformation of submarine slides. There are very few studies dealing with lava delta deformation, thus, the analysis presented in this work will benefit the monitoring of submarine slopes in other prone-to-failure coastal or island volcanic systems which have the potential to generate tsunamis.

  14. Precursor slope distress leading up to the 2010 Mount Meager landslide, British Columbia (United States)

    Roberti, Gioachino; Ward, Brent; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Friele, Pierre; Clague, John; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco


    Volcanoes are highly prone to landslides, in part due to erosion of the flanks by glaciers and streams. Mount Meager (British Columbia, Canada) is a glacier-clad volcano that is one of the most landslide-prone areas in Canada, due in part to glacial erosion. In 2010, the south flank of the volcano failed catastrophically, generating one of the largest (˜50 x 106 m 3) landslides in Canadian history. We document the evolution of the edifice up to the time of this failure using an archive of historic aerial photographs spanning the period from 1948 to 2006. Oblique digital photos taken after the landslide yielded information on the geology and internal structure of the volcano. All photos were processed with Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry. We used the SfM products to produce pre-and post-failure geomorphic maps that document glacier and edifice changes. The maps show that a glacier below the 2010 landslide source area re-advanced in the 1980s, then rapidly retreated up to the present. Our photographic reconstruction documents 60 years of progressive development of tension cracks, bulging, and precursor failures (1998, 2009) at the toe of the 2010 failure zone. The final 2010 collapse was conditioned by glacial debuttressing and triggered by hot summer weather accompanied by ice and snow melt. Meltwater increased porewater pressures in fragmented and fractured material at the base of the 2010 failure zone, causing it to mobilize, which in turn triggered several secondary failures controlled by lithology and faults. The landslide retrogressed from the base of the slope to near the peak of Mount Meager and involved basement rock and the overlying volcanic sequence. Elsewhere on the flanks of Mount Meager, large fractures have developed in recently deglaciated areas, conditioning these slopes for collapse and debris avalanches. Potential failures in these areas have larger volumes than the 2010 landslide. Atmospheric warming over the next several decades will

  15. A multidisciplinary methodological approach for slope stability assessment of an area prone to shallow landslides (United States)

    Bordoni, Massimiliano; Meisina, Claudia; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Vercesi, Alberto; Chersich, Silvia; Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria


    Rainfall-induced shallow landslides are widespread slope instabilities phenomena in several hilly and mountainous contexts all over the world. Due to their high density of diffusion also in small areas, they can provoke important damages to terrains, infrastructures, buildings, and, sometimes, loss of human lives. Shallow landslides affect superficial soils of limited thickness (generally lower than 2 m), located above weathered or not bedrock levels. Their triggering mechanism is strictly linked to the hydrological response of the soils to rainfall events. Thus, it becomes fundamental a comprehensive analysis of the soil properties which can influence the susceptibility of a slope to shallow landslides. In this study, a multidisciplinary approach was followed for the characterization of the soils and the individuation of the triggering conditions in an area particularly prone to shallow failures, for slope stability assessment. This area corresponded to the hilly sector of North-Eastern Oltrepò Pavese (Lombardy Region, Northern Italy), where the density of shallow landslides is really high, reaching more than 36 landslides per km2. The soils of the study area were analyzed through a multidisciplinary characterization, which took into account for the main geotechnical, mechanical and mineralogical parameters and also for the main pedological features of the materials. This approach allowed for identifying the main features and the horizons which could influence the soil behavior in relation to the conditions that are preparatory to shallow landslides development. In a test-site slope, representative of the main geomorphological, geological and landslides distribution characteristics typical of the study area, a continuous in time monitoring of meteorological (rainfall amount, air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, net solar radiation, wind speed and direction) and hydrological (soil water content, pore water pressure) parameters was implemented. In

  16. Comparing Potential Unstable Sites and Stable Sites on Revegetated Cut-Slopes of Mountainous Terrain in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Kil


    Full Text Available This study employs a diverse set of variables to explain slope stabilization on stable versus failure-prone revegetated cut-slopes in Korea. A field survey was conducted at potential unstable sites and stable sites using 23 variables. Through a non-parametric test of the field survey results, 15 variables were identified as primary determinants of slope failure. Of these variables, one described physical characteristics (elapsed year; four variables described vegetation properties (plant community, vegetation coverage rate, number of trees, and number of herbs; and 10 variables represented soil properties (porosity, soil hardness, water content, sand ratio and silt ratio of soil texture, tensile strength, permeability coefficient, soil depth, soil acidity, salt concentration, and organic matter. Slope angle, which was mainly considered in previous studies, of variables in physical characteristics was not statistically selected as one of the 15 variables because most of sites were located on steep slopes. The vegetation community, vegetation coverage, and number of trees influence slope stabilization. Vegetation coverage is highly correlated with other soil and vegetation variables, making it a major indicator of slope stabilization. All soil variables were related to slope failure such that subsequent slope failure was related to the method of slope revegetation rather than the environmental condition of the slope. Slope failure did not occur in revegetated slopes that matched the characteristics of the surrounding landscape and contained a large number of native trees. Most soil and vegetation variables showed differing values for whether a revegetated slope is potentially unstable or stable.

  17. The Q-Slope Method for Rock Slope Engineering (United States)

    Bar, Neil; Barton, Nick


    Q-slope is an empirical rock slope engineering method for assessing the stability of excavated rock slopes in the field. Intended for use in reinforcement-free road or railway cuttings or in opencast mines, Q-slope allows geotechnical engineers to make potential adjustments to slope angles as rock mass conditions become apparent during construction. Through case studies across Asia, Australia, Central America, and Europe, a simple correlation between Q-slope and long-term stable slopes was established. Q-slope is designed such that it suggests stable, maintenance-free bench-face slope angles of, for instance, 40°-45°, 60°-65°, and 80°-85° with respective Q-slope values of approximately 0.1, 1.0, and 10. Q-slope was developed by supplementing the Q-system which has been extensively used for characterizing rock exposures, drill-core, and tunnels under construction for the last 40 years. The Q' parameters (RQD, J n, J a, and J r) remain unchanged in Q-slope. However, a new method for applying J r/ J a ratios to both sides of potential wedges is used, with relative orientation weightings for each side. The term J w, which is now termed J wice, takes into account long-term exposure to various climatic and environmental conditions such as intense erosive rainfall and ice-wedging effects. Slope-relevant SRF categories for slope surface conditions, stress-strength ratios, and major discontinuities such as faults, weakness zones, or joint swarms have also been incorporated. This paper discusses the applicability of the Q-slope method to slopes ranging from less than 5 m to more than 250 m in height in both civil and mining engineering projects.

  18. Reliability-Based Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes Using Numerical Analysis and Response Surface Method (United States)

    Dadashzadeh, N.; Duzgun, H. S. B.; Yesiloglu-Gultekin, N.


    While advanced numerical techniques in slope stability analysis are successfully used in deterministic studies, they have so far found limited use in probabilistic analyses due to their high computation cost. The first-order reliability method (FORM) is one of the most efficient probabilistic techniques to perform probabilistic stability analysis by considering the associated uncertainties in the analysis parameters. However, it is not possible to directly use FORM in numerical slope stability evaluations as it requires definition of a limit state performance function. In this study, an integrated methodology for probabilistic numerical modeling of rock slope stability is proposed. The methodology is based on response surface method, where FORM is used to develop an explicit performance function from the results of numerical simulations. The implementation of the proposed methodology is performed by considering a large potential rock wedge in Sumela Monastery, Turkey. The accuracy of the developed performance function to truly represent the limit state surface is evaluated by monitoring the slope behavior. The calculated probability of failure is compared with Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. The proposed methodology is found to be 72% more efficient than MCS, while the accuracy is decreased with an error of 24%.

  19. Some considerations on the seismic stability of large slopes surrounding the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Imaide, Hiroshi


    As a part of the researches with regard to the seismic stability of large scale slope, the authors have carried out the model test, in which the static failure has been generated by inclining the slope model. In this report, the results of static inclination tests of slope model are described and discussions are done from viewpoints of, 1. the mechanical behaviours and failure state of slope during the inclination test, 2. comparison between the results obtained by the static failure test (that is, inclination test) and those of another report with regard to the dynamic failure test which had been performed using the shaking table, and the relationship between an equivalent seismic coefficient obtained by static failure test and acceleration by dynamic failure test, 3. relationship between the failure state of inclination test and the factor of convensional circular arc slip method. (author)

  20. Effects of grapevine root density and reinforcement on slopes prone to shallow slope instability (United States)

    Meisina, Claudia; Bordoni, Massimiliano; Bischetti, Gianbattista; Vercesi, Alberto; Chiaradia, Enrico; Cislaghi, Alessio; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Vergani, Chiara; Chersich, Silvia; Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria; Comolli, Roberto


    Slope erosion and shallow slope instabilities are the major factors of soil losses in cultivated steep terrains. These phenomena also cause loss of organic matter and plants nutrients, together with the partial or total destruction of the structures, such as the row tillage pattern of the vineyards, which allow for the plants cultivation. Vegetation has long been used as an effective tool to decrease the susceptibility of a slope to erosion and to shallow landslides. In particular, the scientific research focused on the role played by the plant roots, because the belowground biomass has the major control on the potential development of soil erosion and of shallow failures. Instead, a comprehensive study that analyzes the effects of the roots of agricultural plants on both soil erosion and slope instability has not been carried out yet. This aspect should be fundamental where sloped terrains are cultivated with plants of great economical relevance, as grapevine. To contribute to fill this gap, in this study the features of root density in the soil profile have been analyzed in slopes cultivated with vineyards, located on a sample hilly area of Oltrepò Pavese (northern Italy). In this area, the viticulture is the most important branch of the local economy. Moreover, several events of rainfall-induced slope erosion and shallow landslides have occurred in this area in the last 6 years, causing several economical damages linked to the destruction of the vineyards and the loss of high productivity soils. Grapevine root distribution have been measured in different test-site slopes, representative of the main geological, geomorphological, pedological, landslides distribution, agricultural features, in order to identify particular patterns on root density that can influence the development of slope instabilities. Roots have been sampled in each test-site for characterizing their strength, in terms of the relation between root diameter and root force at rupture. Root

  1. Correlation between pulmonary artery pressure and thoracic impedance: Insights from daily monitoring through an implanted device in chronic heart failure. (United States)

    Perego, Giovanni Battista; Oldani, Matteo; Pellegrini, Dario; Brasca, Francesco Maria Angelo; Malfatto, Gabriella; Villani, Alessandra; Brambilla, Roberto; Rella, Valeria; Parati, Gianfranco


    Thoracic impedance (TI) decrease and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) elevation precede acute decompensation in congestive heart failure (HF). However, the relationship between TI and PAP has been studied only in the context of acute decompensation. This prospective, observational study enrolled subjects with reduced ejection fraction HF, previously implanted with an ICD capable of measuring TI. Patients underwent implantation of a sensor for direct measurement of PAP (CardioMEMs™). Both TI and PAP were remotely monitored daily during follow up. Investigators were blinded to PAP values during the first three months, then PAP was used as a guide to therapy. Ten patients were followed up for 405±141days (3720 patient-days). During hemodynamic guided therapy, diastolic PAP (dPAP) decreased from 27.8±10.2mmHg to 24.0±8.0mmHg (p<0.001); non-significant variations of TI were observed. A significant negative correlation was found between the variations of TI and PAP vs. baseline (p<0.001). Episodes of sustained increase of PAP preceded subsequent periods of TI decrease by 5.6±3.9days, but the former were poor predictors of the latter (sensitivity 0.37). Our study confirms the strict correlation that exists between left ventricular filling pressures and lung water content, estimated by dPAP and TI, respectively. However, dPAP acute variation analysis showed a limited value in predicting subsequent episodes of TI decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Failure Detection Strategy for Intrafraction Prostate Motion Monitoring With On-Board Imagers for Fixed-Gantry IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wu; Luxton, Gary; Xing Lei


    Purpose: To develop methods to monitor prostate intrafraction motion during fixed-gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy using MV treatment beam imaging together with minimal kV imaging for a failure detection strategy that ensures prompt detection when target displacement exceeds a preset threshold. Methods and Materials: Real-time two-dimensional (2D) marker position in the MV image plane was obtained by analyzing cine-MV images. The marker's in-line movement, and thus its time-varying three-dimensional (3D) position, was estimated by combining the 2D projection data with a previously established correlative relationship between the directional components of prostate motion. A confirmation request for more accurate localization using MV-kV triangulation was triggered when the estimated prostate displacement based on the cine-MV data was greater than 3 mm. An interventional action alert followed on positive MV-kV confirmation. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method, simulation studies of conventional-fraction intensity-modulated radiotherapy sessions were done using 536 Calypso-measured prostate trajectories from 17 radiotherapy patients. Results: A technique for intrafraction prostate motion management has been developed. The technique, using 'freely available' cine-MV images and minimum on-board kV imaging (on average 2.5 images/fraction), successfully limited 3D prostate movement to within a range of 3 mm relative to the MV beam for 99.4% of the total treatment time. On average, only approximately one intervention/fraction was needed to achieve this level of accuracy. Conclusion: Instead of seeking to accurately and continuously localize the prostate target as existing motion tracking systems do, the present technique effectively uses cine-MV data to provide a clinically valuable way to minimize kV usage, while maintaining high targeting accuracy.

  3. Tiltmeter Indicates Sense of Slope (United States)

    Lonborg, J. O.


    Tiltmeter indicates sense and magnitude of slope used in locations where incline not visible to operator. Use of direct rather than alternating current greatly simplifies design of instrument capable of indicating sense of slope.

  4. Study of the Rock Mass Failure Process and Mechanisms During the Transformation from Open-Pit to Underground Mining Based on Microseismic Monitoring (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Yang, Tianhong; Bohnhoff, Marco; Zhang, Penghai; Yu, Qinglei; Zhou, Jingren; Liu, Feiyue


    To quantitatively understand the failure process and failure mechanism of a rock mass during the transformation from open-pit mining to underground mining, the Shirengou Iron Mine was selected as an engineering project case study. The study area was determined using the rock mass basic quality classification method and the kinematic analysis method. Based on the analysis of the variations in apparent stress and apparent volume over time, the rock mass failure process was analyzed. According to the recent research on the temporal and spatial change of microseismic events in location, energy, apparent stress, and displacement, the migration characteristics of rock mass damage were studied. A hybrid moment tensor inversion method was used to determine the rock mass fracture source mechanisms, the fracture orientations, and fracture scales. The fracture area can be divided into three zones: Zone A, Zone B, and Zone C. A statistical analysis of the orientation information of the fracture planes orientations was carried out, and four dominant fracture planes were obtained. Finally, the slip tendency analysis method was employed, and the unstable fracture planes were obtained. The results show: (1) The microseismic monitoring and hybrid moment tensor analysis can effectively analyze the failure process and failure mechanism of rock mass, (2) during the transformation from open-pit to underground mining, the failure type of rock mass is mainly shear failure and the tensile failure is mostly concentrated in the roof of goafs, and (3) the rock mass of the pit bottom and the upper of goaf No. 18 have the possibility of further damage.

  5. A Hybrid FEM-ANN Approach for Slope Instability Prediction (United States)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, T. N.; Chauhan, Nikhil Kumar; Sarkar, K.


    Assessment of slope stability is one of the most critical aspects for the life of a slope. In any slope vulnerability appraisal, Factor Of Safety (FOS) is the widely accepted index to understand, how close or far a slope from the failure. In this work, an attempt has been made to simulate a road cut slope in a landslide prone area in Rudrapryag, Uttarakhand, India which lies near Himalayan geodynamic mountain belt. A combination of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been adopted to predict FOS of the slope. In ANN, a three layer, feed- forward back-propagation neural network with one input layer and one hidden layer with three neurons and one output layer has been considered and trained using datasets generated from numerical analysis of the slope and validated with new set of field slope data. Mean absolute percentage error estimated as 1.04 with coefficient of correlation between the FOS of FEM and ANN as 0.973, which indicates that the system is very vigorous and fast to predict FOS for any slope.

  6. Interesting insights into instability of slopes and rock fall in the morphodynamic Himalayan terrane (United States)

    Singh, T. N.; Vishal, V.; Pradhan, S. P.


    Himalayan mountain ranges are tectonically and seismically very active and experience many disastrous events with time due to slope failure. Frequent failures of rock cut slopes cause obstruction in traffic and often lead to fatalities. In recent years, the number of tragedies has increased when associated with regional phenomena such at the Kedarnath tragedy of 2013 and the Gorkha earthquake of 2015. The influence of such phenomena on the stability of slopes along important national highways and key settlement areas only raise the risk to lives and property. We conducted a multi-approach investigation for some key slopes along the National Highway 58 in Uttarakhand Himalaya, India. A very detailed field work was conducted to identify the unstable slopes and those with some history of failure. The pertinent geomechanical characteristics of the representative rock samples were determined in the laboratory. Based on the structural data, kinematic analysis was carried out. Finally the slopes were simulated using FDM based simulator, Flac/Slope for analysing the health of the slopes and Rockfall 4.0 to investigate the phenomenon of rockfall along the Highway. It was found that few slopes were weak due to the inherent weak rock materials while few slopes made up of high strength rocks were effectively weak due to prone-to-failure orientation of the joints. Quantification of bounce-height of rock blocks during fall, their energy, velocity and displacement along the slope was also done. Using 3-D simulations, few critically-stable slopes that appear to be stable, were identified. Little ground movement could be capable of triggering a large scale failure in the area. Slopes in the studied region are under threat to failure and need immediate proper planning using the suggested remedial measures.

  7. Perceptions of seniors with heart failure regarding autonomous zero-effort monitoring of physiological parameters in the smart-home environment. (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L; Taherzadeh, Golnoush; Jae Chang, Isaac Sung; Boger, Jennifer; Arcelus, Amaya; Mak, Susanna; Chessex, Caroline; Mihailidis, Alex

    Technological advances are leading to the ability to autonomously monitor patient's health status in their own homes, to enable aging-in-place. To understand the perceptions of seniors with heart failure (HF) regarding smart-home systems to monitor their physiological parameters. In this qualitative study, HF outpatients were invited to a smart-home lab, where they completed a sequence of activities, during which the capacity of 5 autonomous sensing modalities was compared to gold standard measures. Afterwards, a semi-structured interview was undertaken. These were transcribed and analyzed using an interpretive-descriptive approach. Five themes emerged from the 26 interviews: (1) perceptions of technology, (2) perceived benefits of autonomous health monitoring, (3) disadvantages of autonomous monitoring, (4) lack of perceived need for continuous health monitoring, and (5) preferences for autonomous monitoring. Patient perception towards autonomous monitoring devices was positive, lending credence to zero-effort technology as a viable and promising approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The internal model: A study of the relative contribution of proprioception and visual information to failure detection in dynamic systems. [sensitivity of operators versus monitors to failures (United States)

    Kessel, C.; Wickens, C. D.


    The development of the internal model as it pertains to the detection of step changes in the order of control dynamics is investigated for two modes of participation: whether the subjects are actively controlling those dynamics or are monitoring an autopilot controlling them. A transfer of training design was used to evaluate the relative contribution of proprioception and visual information to the overall accuracy of the internal model. Sixteen subjects either tracked or monitored the system dynamics as a 2-dimensional pursuit display under single task conditions and concurrently with a sub-critical tracking task at two difficulty levels. Detection performance was faster and more accurate in the manual as opposed to the autopilot mode. The concurrent tracking task produced a decrement in detection performance for all conditions though this was more marked for the manual mode. The development of an internal model in the manual mode transferred positively to the automatic mode producing enhanced detection performance. There was no transfer from the internal model developed in the automatic mode to the manual mode.

  9. Geotechnical characterization and finite element pipe/soil interaction modeling of a pipeline installed in an actively moving, permafrost slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidwell, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Calgary, AB (Canada); Sen, M.; Pederson, I. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Yoosef-Ghodsi, N. [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    This paper discussed a pipeline integrity analysis for a buried crude-oil pipeline at a site characterized by unstable permafrost slopes. Data collected from piezometers, inclinometers, and thermistor cables installed as part of a comprehensive geotechnical monitoring program were used to determine the geotechnical character of the site and model pipe/soil interactions. A finite element pipe/soil interaction model was developed to estimate the potential strain to the pipeline capacity in a worst-case scenario involving mass soil movement. The purpose was to determine the necessity of costly mitigation measures. The model showed that the pipeline strain capacity is unlikely to be exceeded in the event of a sudden ground movement at the slope. The soil, permafrost, and slope movement conditions at the site were described along with the methodology and results of the pipe/soil interaction model. The model, in which the pipeline is considered as a continuous structural beam, was used to analyze both the estimated current slope movement and the worst case large magnitude slope movement. To assess the pipeline integrity in the event of mass slope movement, the expected strain demand was compared to the strain capacity, taking into account whether the pipe is heavy wall, line pipe, or containing girth welds. The analysis indicated that the risk of pipeline failure is low in the event of a large magnitude slope movement. The pipe strain measurements were found to be within the design limits for the pipeline. The analysis is relevant to other northern pipeline and linear infrastructure developments. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Assessing slope stability in unplanned settlements in developing countries. (United States)

    Anderson, Malcolm G; Holcombe, Liz; Renaud, Jean-Philippe


    Unplanned housing in developing countries is often located on steep slopes. Frequently no building code is enforced for such housing and mains water is provided with no drainage provision. Both of these factors can be particularly significant in terms of landslide risk if, as is so often the case, such slopes lack any planned drainage provision. There is thus a need to develop a model that facilitates the assessment of slope stability in an holistic context, incorporating a wide range of factors (including surface cover, soil water topographic convergence, slope loading and point source water leakage) in order that appropriate advice can be given as to the general controls on slope stability in such circumstances. This paper outlines a model configured for this specific purpose and describes an application to a site in St. Lucia, West Indies, where there is active slope movement in an unplanned housing development on relatively steep topography. The model findings are in accord with the nature of the current failure at the site, provide guidance as to the significance of slope drainage and correspond to inferences drawn from an application of resistance envelope methods to the site. In being able to scenario test a uniquely wide range of combinations of factors, the model structure is shown to be highly valuable in assessing dominant slope stability process controls in such complex environments.

  11. Mapping on Slope Seepage Problem using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Nizam, Z. M.; Aziman, M.; Dan, M. F. Md; Shaylinda, M. Z. N.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Aishah, M. A. N.; Ambak, K.; Rosli, S.; Rais, Y.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Alel, M. N. A.


    The stability of slope may influenced by several factors such as its geomaterial properties, geometry and environmental factors. Problematic slope due to seepage phenomenon will influenced the slope strength thus promoting to its failure. In the past, slope seepage mapping suffer from several limitation due to cost, time and data coverage. Conventional engineering tools to detect or mapped the seepage on slope experienced those problems involving large and high elevation of slope design. As a result, this study introduced geophysical tools for slope seepage mapping based on electrical resistivity method. Two spread lines of electrical resistivity imaging were performed on the slope crest using ABEM SAS 4000 equipment. Data acquisition configuration was based on long and short arrangement, schlumberger array and 2.5 m of equal electrode spacing interval. Raw data obtained from data acquisition was analyzed using RES2DINV software. Both of the resistivity results show that the slope studied consists of three different anomalies representing top soil (200 – 1000 Ωm), perched water (10 – 100 Ωm) and hard/dry layer (> 200 Ωm). It was found that seepage problem on slope studied was derived from perched water zones with electrical resistivity value of 10 – 100 Ωm. Perched water zone has been detected at 6 m depth from the ground level with varying thickness at 5 m and over. Resistivity results have shown some good similarity output with reference to borehole data, geological map and site observation thus verified the resistivity results interpretation. Hence, this study has shown that the electrical resistivity imaging was applicable in slope seepage mapping which consider efficient in term of cost, time, data coverage and sustainability.

  12. [Analysis of related factors of slope plant hyperspectral remote sensing]. (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Tu, Lin-Ling


    In the present paper, the slope gradient, aspect, detection zenith angle and plant types were analyzed. In order to strengthen the theoretical discussion, the research was under laboratory condition, and modeled uniform slope for slope plant. Through experiments we found that these factors indeed have influence on plant hyperspectral remote sensing. When choosing slope gradient as the variate, the blade reflection first increases and then decreases as the slope gradient changes from 0° to 36°; When keeping other factors constant, and only detection zenith angle increasing from 0° to 60°, the spectral characteristic of slope plants do not change significantly in visible light band, but decreases gradually in near infrared band; With only slope aspect changing, when the dome meets the light direction, the blade reflectance gets maximum, and when the dome meets the backlit direction, the blade reflectance gets minimum, furthermore, setting the line of vertical intersection of incidence plane and the dome as an axis, the reflectance on the axis's both sides shows symmetric distribution; In addition, spectral curves of different plant types have a lot differences between each other, which means that the plant types also affect hyperspectral remote sensing results of slope plants. This research breaks through the limitations of the traditional vertical remote sensing data collection and uses the multi-angle and hyperspectral information to analyze spectral characteristics of slope plants. So this research has theoretical significance to the development of quantitative remote sensing, and has application value to the plant remote sensing monitoring.

  13. Advance in prediction of soil slope instabilities (United States)

    Sigarán-Loría, C.; Hack, R.; Nieuwenhuis, J. D.


    Six generic soils (clays and sands) were systematically modeled with plane-strain finite elements (FE) at varying heights and inclinations. A dataset was generated in order to develop predictive relations of soil slope instabilities, in terms of co-seismic displacements (u), under strong motions with a linear multiple regression. For simplicity, the seismic loads are monochromatic artificial sinusoidal functions at four frequencies: 1, 2, 4, and 6 Hz, and the slope failure criterion used corresponds to near 10% Cartesian shear strains along a continuous region comparable to a slip surface. The generated dataset comprises variables from the slope geometry and site conditions: height, H, inclination, i, shear wave velocity from the upper 30 m, vs30, site period, Ts; as well as the input strong motion: yield acceleration, ay (equal to peak ground acceleration, PGA in this research), frequency, f; and in some cases moment magnitude, M, and Arias intensity, Ia, assumed from empirical correlations. Different datasets or scenarios were created: "Magnitude-independent", "Magnitude-dependent", and "Soil-dependent", and the data was statistically explored and analyzed with varying mathematical forms. Qualitative relations show that the permanent deformations are highly related to the soil class for the clay slopes, but not for the sand slopes. Furthermore, the slope height does not constrain the variability in the co-seismic displacements. The input frequency decreases the variability of the co-seismic displacements for the "Magnitude-dependent" and "Soil-dependent" datasets. The empirical models were developed with two and three predictors. For the sands it was not possible because they could not satisfy the constrains from the statistical method. For the clays, the best models with the smallest errors coincided with the simple general form of multiple regression with three predictors (e.g. near 0.16 and 0.21 standard error, S.E. and 0.75 and 0.55 R2 for the "M

  14. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiakakis Chrysanthos


    Full Text Available The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions.

  15. 16 determination of posterior tibia slope and slope deterioration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    normal slope and mechanical axis of the knee (7). The slope is reported to deepen in osteoarthritis; meaning increased articular surface contact and increased tibial translation (8). Total knee replacement aims to restore the mechanical axis of the natural knee joint. This axis will be changed by an altered PTS; yet after.

  16. Constraints on mechanisms for the growth of gully alcoves in Gasa crater, Mars, from two-dimensional stability assessments of rock slopes (United States)

    Okubo, C.H.; Tornabene, L.L.; Lanza, N.L.


    The value of slope stability analyses for gaining insight into the geologic conditions that would facilitate the growth of gully alcoves on Mars is demonstrated in Gasa crater. Two-dimensional limit equilibrium methods are used in conjunction with high-resolution topography derived from stereo High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery. These analyses reveal three conditions that may produce observed alcove morphologies through slope failure: (1) a ca >10m thick surface layer that is either saturated with H2O ground ice or contains no groundwater/ice at all, above a zone of melting H2O ice or groundwater and under dynamic loading (i.e., seismicity), (2) a 1-10m thick surface layer that is saturated with either melting H2O ice or groundwater and under dynamic loading, or (3) a >100m thick surface layer that is saturated with either melting H2O ice or groundwater and under static loading. This finding of three plausible scenarios for slope failure demonstrates how the triggering mechanisms and characteristics of future alcove growth would be affected by prevailing environmental conditions. HiRISE images also reveal normal faults and other fractures tangential to the crowns of some gully alcoves that are interpreted to be the result of slope instability, which may facilitate future slope movement. Stability analyses show that the most failure-prone slopes in this area are found in alcoves that are adjacent to crown fractures. Accordingly, crown fractures appear to be a useful indicator of those alcoves that should be monitored for future landslide activity. ?? 2010.

  17. Safety and feasibility of pulmonary artery pressure-guided heart failure therapy: rationale and design of the prospective CardioMEMS Monitoring Study for Heart Failure (MEMS-HF). (United States)

    Angermann, Christiane E; Assmus, Birgit; Anker, Stefan D; Brachmann, Johannes; Ertl, Georg; Köhler, Friedrich; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Tschöpe, Carsten; Adamson, Philip B; Böhm, Michael


    Wireless monitoring of pulmonary artery (PA) pressures with the CardioMEMS HF™ system is indicated in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III heart failure (HF). Randomized and observational trials have shown a reduction in HF-related hospitalizations and improved quality of life in patients using this device in the United States. MEMS-HF is a prospective, non-randomized, open-label, multicenter study to characterize safety and feasibility of using remote PA pressure monitoring in a real-world setting in Germany, The Netherlands and Ireland. After informed consent, adult patients with NYHA class III HF and a recent HF-related hospitalization are evaluated for suitability for permanent implantation of a CardioMEMS™ sensor. Participation in MEMS-HF is open to qualifying subjects regardless of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Patients with reduced ejection fraction must be on stable guideline-directed pharmacotherapy as tolerated. The study will enroll 230 patients in approximately 35 centers. Expected duration is 36 months (24-month enrolment plus ≥ 12-month follow-up). Primary endpoints are freedom from device/system-related complications and freedom from pressure sensor failure at 12-month post-implant. Secondary endpoints include the annualized rate of HF-related hospitalization at 12 months versus the rate over the 12 months preceding implant, and health-related quality of life. Endpoints will be evaluated using data obtained after each subject's 12-month visit. The MEMS-HF study will provide robust evidence on the clinical safety and feasibility of implementing haemodynamic monitoring as a novel disease management tool in routine out-patient care in selected European healthcare systems.; NCT02693691.

  18. A preliminary pit slope stability study Kvanefjeld, South Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvig, P.


    On the basis of 1300 field measurements of joint planes, four individual structural regions have been outlined in the Kvanefjeld area. Potential failure planes and planes which are unlikely to be involved in slope failures are identified. Failures seem, not likely to occur on walls dipping SW or NE respectively, but may occur on walls dipping NM. The factors of safety for each region are calculated in order to determine the sensibility of the overall slope to different overall slope angles. The factors of safety does only exceed the required factor of safety of 1.5 in one of the structural regions. Changing the overall pit slope inclination from 55deg to 45deg improves the security, but even still not satisfactorily for two of the regions. At 45deg overall pit slope in parts of the pit implies additional 14.3 x 10 6 tonnes of non-mineralized material to be mined, thus resulting in a total mineralized- to non-mineralized material ratio about 1.0: 1.7. (author)

  19. Numerical Modelling of Seismic Slope Stability (United States)

    Bourdeau, Céline; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Fleurisson, Jean-Alain; Grandjean, Gilles

    Earthquake ground-motions recorded worldwide have shown that many morphological and geological structures (topography, sedimentary basin) are prone to amplify the seismic shaking (San Fernando, 1971 [Davis and West 1973] Irpinia, 1980 [Del Pezzo et al. 1983]). This phenomenon, called site effects, was again recently observed in El Salvador when, on the 13th of January 2001, the country was struck by a M = 7.6 earthquake. Indeed, while horizontal accelerations on a rock site at Berlin, 80 km from the epicentre, did not exceed 0.23 g, they reached 0.6 g at Armenia, 110 km from the epicentre. Armenia is located on a small hill underlaid by a few meters thick pyroclastic deposits. Both the local topography and the presence of surface layers are likely to have caused the observed amplification effects, which are supposed to have contributed to the triggering of some of the hundreds of landslides related to this seismic event (Murphy et al. 2002). In order to better characterize the way site effects may influence the triggering of landslides along slopes, 2D numerical elastic and elasto-plastic models were developed. Various geometrical, geological and seismic conditions were analysed and the dynamic behaviour of the slope under these con- ditions was studied in terms of creation and location of a sliding surface. Preliminary results suggest that the size of modelled slope failures is dependent on site effects.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis


    Full Text Available The paroxysmal phases of Krakatau's volcanic activity on August 26-27, 1883, included numerous submarine Surtsean (phreatomagmatic eruptions, three sub air Plinian eruptions from the three main craters of Krakatau on Rakata island, followed by a fourth gigantic, sub air, Ultra-Plinian explosion. Landslides, flank failures, subsidences and a multiphase massive caldera collapse of the volcano - beginning near the Perbowetan crater on the northern portion of Rakata and followed by a collapse of the Danan crater - occurred over a period of at least 10 hours. The first of the three violent explosions occurred at 17: 07 Greenwich time (GMT on August 26.The second and third eruptions occurred at 05:30 GMT and at 06:44 GMT on August 27. Each of these events, as well as expanding gases from the submarine phreatomagmatic eruptions, lifted the water surrounding the island into domes or truncated cones that must have been about 100 meters or more in height. The height of the resulting waves attenuated rapidly away from the source because of their short periods and wavelengths. It was the fourth colossal explosion (VEI=6 and the subsequent massive f lank failure and caldera collapse of two thirds of Rakata Island, at 10:02 a.m., on August 27 that generated the most formidable of the destructive tsunami waves. A smaller fifth explosion, which occurred at 10:52 a.m., must have generated another large water cone and sizable waves. The final collapse of a still standing wall of Krakatau - which occurred several hours later at 16:38, generated additional waves.The near field effects of the main tsunami along the Sunda Strait in Western Java and Southern Sumatra, were devastating. Within an hour after the fourth explosion/caldera collapse, waves reaching heights of up to 37 m (120 feet destroyed 295 towns and villages and drowned a total of 36,417 people. Because of their short period and wavelength, the wave heights attenuated rapidly with distance away from the

  1. 75 FR 65366 - Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities (United States)


    ...] Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities AGENCY: Federal... the final Recovery Policy RP9524.2, Landslides and Slope Stability Related to Public Facilities, which... facilities threatened by landslides or slope failures; as well as the eligibility of permanent repairs to...

  2. A comparative study of a new wireless continuous cardiorespiratory monitor for the diagnosis and management of patients with congestive heart failure at home. (United States)

    Andrews, D; Gouda, M S; Higgins, S; Johnson, P; Williams, A; Vandenburg, M


    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major and increasing chronic disease in Western society, with a high mortality, morbidity and cost for unplanned hospital admissions. Continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring is required to detect Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). We have tested a new wireless monitoring system and compared it with polysomnography (PSG) and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) in six CHF patients with CSR in a sleep laboratory. The wireless system compared well with RIP for the detection of CSR but less well with PSG, which had unexpected but significant respiratory sensing errors that led to misclassification of the respiratory disorder present. The wireless system could be used to select CHF patients for better-customized treatment at home as part of a specialist-supported community telemedicine programme.

  3. Geological hazards investigation - relative slope stability map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Suk; Kim, Won Young; Yu, Il Hyon; Kim, Kyeong Su; Lee, Sa Ro; Choi, Young Sup [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Republic of Korea is a mountainous country; the mountains occupy about three quarters of her land area, an increasing urban development being taken place along the mountainside. For the reason, planners as well as developers and others must realize that some of the urban areas may be threaten by geologic hazards such as landslides and accelerated soil and rock creeps. For the purpose of environmental land-use planning, a mapping project on relative slope-stability was established in 1996. The selected area encompasses about 5,900 km{sup 2} including the topographic maps of Ulsan, Yongchon, Kyongju, Pulguksa, and Kampo, all at a scale of 1:50,000. Many disturbed and undisturbed soil samples, which were collected from the ares of the landslides and unstable slopes, were tested for their physical properties and shear strength. They were classified as GC, SP, SC, SM, SP-SM, SC-SM, CL, ML, and MH according to the Unified Soil Classification System, their liquid limit and plasticity index ranging from 25.3% to as high as 81.3% and from 4.1% to 41.5%, respectively. X-ray analysis revealed that many of the soils contained a certain amount of montmorillonite. Based on the available information as well as both field and laboratory investigation, it was found out that the most common types of slope failures in the study area were both debris and mud flows induced by the heavy rainfalls during the period of rainy season; the flows mostly occurred in the colluvial deposits at the middle and foot of mountains. Thus the deposits generally appear to be the most unstable slope forming materials in the study area. Produced for the study area were six different maps consisting of slope classification map, soil classification map, lineament density map, landslide distribution map, zonal map of rainfall, and geology map, most of them being stored as data base. Using the first four maps and GIS, two sheets of relative slope-stability maps were constructed, each at a scale of 1

  4. Delayed Recognition of Deterioration of Patients in General Wards Is Mostly Caused by Human Related Monitoring Failures: A Root Cause Analysis of Unplanned ICU Admissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise S van Galen

    Full Text Available An unplanned ICU admission of an inpatient is a serious adverse event (SAE. So far, no in depth-study has been performed to systematically analyse the root causes of unplanned ICU-admissions. The primary aim of this study was to identify the healthcare worker-, organisational-, technical,- disease- and patient- related causes that contribute to acute unplanned ICU admissions from general wards using a Root-Cause Analysis Tool called PRISMA-medical. Although a Track and Trigger System (MEWS was introduced in our hospital a few years ago, it was implemented without a clear protocol. Therefore, the secondary aim was to assess the adherence to a Track and Trigger system to identify deterioration on general hospital wards in patients eventually transferred to the ICU.Retrospective observational study in 49 consecutive adult patients acutely admitted to the Intensive Care Unit from a general nursing ward. 1. PRISMA-analysis on root causes of unplanned ICU admissions 2. Assessment of protocol adherence to the early warning score system.Out of 49 cases, 156 root causes were identified. The most frequent root causes were healthcare worker related (46%, which were mainly failures in monitoring the patient. They were followed by disease-related (45%, patient-related causes (7, 5%, and organisational root causes (3%. In only 40% of the patients vital parameters were monitored as was instructed by the doctor. 477 vital parameter sets were found in the 48 hours before ICU admission, in only 1% a correct MEWS was explicitly documented in the record.This in-depth analysis demonstrates that almost half of the unplanned ICU admissions from the general ward had healthcare worker related root causes, mostly due to monitoring failures in clinically deteriorating patients. In order to reduce unplanned ICU admissions, improving the monitoring of patients is therefore warranted.

  5. New Electric Online Oil Condition Monitoring Sensor – an Innovation in Early Failure Detection of Industrial Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Mauntz


    Full Text Available A new online diagnostics system for the continuous condition monitoring of lubricating oils in industrial gearboxes is presented. Characteristic features of emerging component damage, such as wear, contamination or chemical aging, are identified in an early stage. The OilQSens® sensor effectively controls the proper operation conditions of bearings and cogwheels in gears. Also, the condition of insulating oils in transformers can be monitored. The online diagnostics system measures components of the specific complex impedance of oils. For instance, metal abrasion due to wear debris, broken oil molecules, forming acids or oil soaps result in an increase of the electrical conductivity, which directly correlates with the degree of contamination in the oil. The dielectrical properties of the oils are particularly determined by the water content that becomes accessible via an additional accurate measurement of the dielectric constant. For additivated oils, statements on the degradation of additives can also be derived from changes in the dielectric constant. For an efficient machine utilization and targeted damage prevention, the new OilQSens® online condition monitoring sensor system allows for timely preventative maintenance on demand rather than in rigid inspection intervals. The determination of impurities or reduction in the quality of the oil and the quasi continuous evaluation of wear and chemical aging follow the holistic approach of a real-time monitoring of a change in the condition of the oil-machine system. Once the oil condition monitoring sensors are installed on the plants, the measuring data can be displayed and evaluated elsewhere. The measuring signals are transmitted to a web-based condition monitoring system via LAN, WLAN or serial interfaces of the sensor system. Monitoring of the damage mechanisms during proper operation below the tolerance limits of the components enables specific preventive maintenance independent of rigid

  6. Numerical Analysis of Slopes Stability and Shallow Foundations Behavior at Crest under Real Seismic Loading - Reinforcement Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekdash, H.; Hage Chehade, F.; Sadek, M.; Abdel Massih, D.; El Hachem, E.; Youssef, E.


    The aim of this paper is to analyze the slopes stability under seismic loading using a global numerical dynamic approach. This approach allows important parameters that are generally ignored by traditional engineering methods such as the soil deformability, the dynamic amplification, non linear soil behavior, the spatial and temporal variability of the seismic loading and the reinforcement element. The present study is conducted by using measures recorded during real earthquakes (Turkey, 1999) and (Lebanon, 2008). Elastoplastic soil behavior analysis leads to monitor the evolution of the slope state after an earthquake and to clarify the most probable failure circles. A parametric study according to the reinforcement length, position, inclination and the number of elements has been studied in order to define the optimal reinforcement scheme for slopes under seismic loading. This study contains also the stability analysis of an existing foundation near the slope's crest. It will focus on the reinforcement in order to give recommendation for the most appropriate scheme that minimize the settlement of the foundation due to earthquake effect. (author)

  7. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  8. A real-world cohort study on the quality of potassium and creatinine monitoring during initiation of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with heart failure. (United States)

    Nilsson, Erik; De Deco, Pietro; Trevisan, Marco; Bellocco, Rino; Lindholm, Bengt; Lund, Lars H; Coresh, Josef; Carrero, Juan J


    Clinical heart failure (HF) guidelines recommend monitoring of creatinine and potassium throughout the initial weeks of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) therapy. We here assessed the extent to which this occurs in our healthcare. Observational study in 2007-2010 HF patients starting MRA therapy in Stockholm, Sweden. Outcomes included potassium and creatinine laboratory testing before MRA initiation and in the early (days 1-10) and extended (days 11-90) post-initiation periods. Exclusion criteria considered death/hospitalization within 90 days, and lack of a second MRA dispense. Of 4,036 HF patients starting on MRA, 45% were initiated from a hospital, 24% from a primary care center and 30% from other private centers. Overall, 89% underwent pre-initiation testing, being more common among hospital (97%) than for primary care (74%) initiations. Only 24% were adequately monitored in all three recommended intervals, being again more frequent following hospital (33%) than private (21%) or primary care (17%) initiations. In multivariable analyses, adequate monitoring was more likely for hospital [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval; 2.85, 2.34-3.56] initiations, and for patients with chronic kidney disease (OR 1.79, 1.30-2.43) and concomitant use of ACE (OR 1.27, 1.05-1.52), ARBs (OR 1.19, 1.01-1.40) or beta blockers (OR 1.65, 1.22-2.26). Age, sex and prescribing center explained a small portion of adequate monitoring (c-statistic, 0.63). Addition of comorbidities and medications improved prediction marginally (c-statistic, 0.65). Although serum potassium and creatinine monitoring before MRA initiation for HF is frequent, rates of post-initiation monitoring remain suboptimal, especially among primary care centers.

  9. Life cycle strain monitoring in glass fibre reinforced polymer laminates using embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors from manufacturing to failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Høgh, Jacob Herold


    A holistic approach to strain monitoring in fibre-reinforced polymer composites is presented using embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors. Internal strains are monitored in unidirectional E-glass/epoxy laminate beams during vacuum infusion, curing, post-curing and subsequent loading in flexure until...... of the different cure temperatures and tool/part interfaces used. Substantial internal process-induced strains develop in the transverse fibre direction, which should be taken into consideration when designing fibre-reinforced polymer laminates. Flexure tests indicate no significant difference in the mechanical...

  10. Slope Safety Calculation With A Non-Linear Mohr Criterion Using Finite Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars


    Safety factors for soil slopes are calculated using a non-linear Mohr envelope. The often used linear Mohr-Coulomb envelope tends to overestimate the safety as the material parameters are usually determined at much higher stress levels, than those present at slope failure. Experimental data...

  11. Characterization of Unstable Rock Slopes Through Passive Seismic Measurements (United States)

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjanek, J.; Fäh, D.


    Catastrophic rock slope failures have high social impact, causing significant damage to infrastructure and many casualties throughout the world each year. Both detection and characterization of rock instabilities are therefore of key importance. An analysis of ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes might be a new alternative to the already existing methods, e.g. geotechnical displacement measurements. Systematic measurements have been performed recently in Switzerland to study the seismic response of potential rockslides concerning a broad class of slope failure mechanisms and material conditions. Small aperture seismic arrays were deployed at sites of interest for a short period of time (several hours) in order to record ambient vibrations. Each measurement setup included a reference station, which was installed on a stable part close to the instability. Recorded ground motion is highly directional in the unstable parts of the rock slope, and significantly amplified with respect to stable areas. These effects are strongest at certain frequencies, which were identified as eigenfrequencies of the unstable rock mass. In most cases the directions of maximum amplification are perpendicular to open cracks and in good agreement with the deformation directions obtained by geodetic measurements. Such unique signatures might improve our understanding of slope structure and stability. Thus we link observed vibration characteristics with available results of detailed geological characterization. This is supported by numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media with complex topography.For example, a potential relation between eigenfrequencies and unstable rock mass volume is investigated.

  12. Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Godt, Jonathan W.


    We present a generalized framework for the stability of infinite slopes under steady unsaturated seepage conditions. The analytical framework allows the water table to be located at any depth below the ground surface and variation of soil suction and moisture content above the water table under steady infiltration conditions. The framework also explicitly considers the effect of weathering and porosity increase near the ground surface on changes in the friction angle of the soil. The factor of safety is conceptualized as a function of the depth within the vadose zone and can be reduced to the classical analytical solution for subaerial infinite slopes in the saturated zone. Slope stability analyses with hypothetical sandy and silty soils are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the framework. These analyses indicate that for hillslopes of both sandy and silty soils, failure can occur above the water table under steady infiltration conditions, which is consistent with some field observations that cannot be predicted by the classical infinite slope theory. A case study of shallow slope failures of sandy colluvium on steep coastal hillslopes near Seattle, Washington, is presented to examine the predictive utility of the proposed framework.

  13. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  14. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi 2 (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives

  15. A new design equation for drained stability of conical slopes in cohesive-frictional soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonchai Ukritchon


    Full Text Available New plasticity solutions to the drained stability of conical slopes in homogeneous cohesive-frictional soils were investigated by axisymmetric finite element limit analysis. Three parameters were studied, i.e. excavated height ratios, slope inclination angles, and soil friction angles. The influences of these parameters on the stability factor and predicted failure mechanism of conical slopes were discussed. A new design equation developed from a nonlinear regression of the lower bound solution was proposed for drained stability analyses of a conical slope in practice. Numerical examples were given to demonstrate a practical application of the proposed equation to stability evaluations of conical slopes with both associated and non-associated flow rules. Keywords: Limit analysis, Slope stability, Conical slope, Unsupported excavation, Cohesive-frictional soils

  16. Slope, Scarp and Sea Cliff Instability Susceptibility Mapping for Planning Regulations in Almada County, Portugal (United States)

    Marques, Fernando; Queiroz, Sónia; Gouveia, Luís; Vasconcelos, Manuel


    In Portugal, the modifications introduced in 2008 and 2012 in the National Ecological Reserve law (REN) included the mandatory study of slope instability, including slopes, natural scarps, and sea cliffs, at municipal or regional scale, with the purpose of avoiding the use of hazardous zones with buildings and other structures. The law also indicates specific methods to perform these studies, with different approaches for slope instability, natural scarps and sea cliffs. The methods used to produce the maps required by REN law, with modifications and improvements to the law specified methods, were applied to the 71 km2 territory of Almada County, and included: 1) Slope instability mapping using the statistically based Information Value method validated with the landslide inventory using ROC curves, which provided an AAC=0.964, with the higher susceptibility zones which cover at least 80% of the landslides of the inventory to be included in REN map. The map was object of a generalization process to overcome the inconveniences of the use of a pixel based approach. 2) Natural scarp mapping including setback areas near the top, defined according to the law and setback areas near the toe defined by the application of the shadow angle calibrated with the major rockfalls which occurred in the study area; 3) Sea cliffs mapping including two levels of setback zones near the top, and one setback zone at the cliffs toe, which were based on systematic inventories of cliff failures occurred between 1947 and 2010 in a large scale regional littoral monitoring project. In the paper are described the methods used and the results obtained in this study, which correspond to the final maps of areas to include in REN. The results obtained in this study may be considered as an example of good practice of the municipal authorities in terms of solid, technical and scientifically supported regulation definitions, hazard prevention and safe and sustainable land use management.

  17. Slope failure as an upslope source of stream wood (United States)

    Daniel. Miller


    Large woody debris is recognized as an important component of stream geomorphology and stream ecosystem function, and forest-land management is recognized as an important control on the quantity (and size and species distributions) of wood available for recruitment to streams. Much of the wood present in streams comes from adjacent forests, and riparian management...

  18. Remote monitoring improves outcome after ICD implantation: the clinical efficacy in the management of heart failure (EFFECT) study. (United States)

    De Simone, Antonio; Leoni, Loira; Luzi, Mario; Amellone, Claudia; Stabile, Giuseppe; La Rocca, Vincenzo; Capucci, Alessandro; D'onofrio, Antonio; Ammendola, Ernesto; Accardi, Francesco; Valsecchi, Sergio; Buja, Gianfranco


    Internet-based remote interrogation systems have been shown to reduce emergency department and in-office visits in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), resulting in increased efficiency for healthcare providers. Nonetheless, studies sized to demonstrate the impact of remote monitoring on patients' outcome have been lacking. The EFFECT study was a multicentre clinical trial aimed at measuring and comparing the outcome of ICD patients conventionally followed-up by means of in-clinic visits (Standard arm) or by remote monitoring (Remote arm) in the clinical practice of 25 Italian centres. From 2011 to 2013, 987 consecutive patients were enrolled and followed up for at least 12 months. The primary endpoint was the rate of death and cardiovascular hospitalizations. Remote monitoring was adopted by 499 patients. Patients in the Standard and Remote arms did not differ significantly in terms of baseline clinical characteristics, except for a more frequent use of ICD with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D) in the Remote arm (48 vs. 36%, P Remote arm (incident rate ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.73; P Remote arms were 0.27 and 0.08 events/year, respectively, among CRT-D recipients (P Remote arm. Compared with the standard follow-up through in-office visits, remote monitoring is associated with reduced death and cardiovascular hospitalizations in patients with ICD in clinical practice. URL: Identifier: NCT01723865. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:

  19. Spatial and temporal analyses for multiscale monitoring of landslides: Examples from Northern Ireland (United States)

    Bell, Andrew; McKinley, Jennifer; Hughes, David


    Landslides in the form of debris flows, large scale rotational features and composite mudflows impact transport corridors cutting off local communities and in some instances result in loss of life. This study presents landslide monitoring methods used for predicting and characterising landslide activity along transport corridors. A variety of approaches are discussed: desk based risk assessment of slopes using Geographical Information Systems (GIS); Aerial LiDAR surveys and Terrestrial LiDAR monitoring and field instrumentation of selected sites. A GIS based case study is discussed which provides risk assessment for the potential of slope stability issues. Layers incorporated within the system include Digital Elevation Model (DEM), slope, aspect, solid and drift geology and groundwater conditions. Additional datasets include consequence of failure. These are combined within a risk model, presented as likelihoods of failure. This integrated spatial approach for slope risk assessment provides the user with a preliminary risk assessment of sites. An innovative "Flexviewer" web-based server interface allows users to view data without needing advanced GIS techniques to gather information about selected areas. On a macro landscape scale, Aerial LiDAR (ALS) surveys are used for the characterisation of landslides from the surrounding terrain. DEMs are generated along with terrain derivatives: slope, curvature and various measures of terrain roughness. Spatial analysis of terrain morphological parameters allow characterisation of slope stability issues and are used to predict areas of potential failure or recently failure terrain. On a local scale ground monitoring approaches are employed for the monitoring of changes in selected slopes using ALS and risk assessment approaches. Results are shown from on-going bimonthly Terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) monitoring of the slope within a site specific geodectically referenced network. This has allowed a classification of changes in the

  20. Overpressure, Flow Focusing, Compaction and Slope Stability on the continental slope: Insights from IODP Expedition 308 (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.


    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expepedition 308 used direct measurements of pore pressure, analysis of hydromechanical properties, and geological analysis to illuminate how sedimentation, flow focusing, overpressure, and slope stability couple beneath the seafloor on the deepwater continental slope in the Gulf of Mexico. We used pore pressure penetrometers to measure severe overpressures (60% of the difference between lithostatic stress and hydrostatic pressure) that extend from the seafloor for 100’s of meters. We ran uniaxial consolidation experiments on whole core and found that although permeability is relatively high near the seafloor, the sediments are highly compressible. As a result, the coefficient of consolidation (the hydraulic diffusivity) is remarkably constant over a large range of effective stresses. This behavior accounts for the high overpressure that begins near the seafloor and extends to depth. Forward modeling suggests that flow is driven laterally along a permeable unit called the Blue Unit. Calculations suggest that soon after deposition, lateral flow lowered the effective stress and triggered the submarine landslides that we observe. Later in the evolution of this system, overpressure may have pre-conditioned the slope to failure by earthquakes. Results from IODP Expedition 308 illustrate how pore pressure and sedimentation control the large-scale form of continental margins, how submarine landslides form, and provide strategies for designing stable drilling programs.

  1. Monitoring human and organizational factors influencing common-cause failures of safety-instrumented system during the operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Maryam; Rausand, Marvin


    Safety-instrumented systems (SISs) are important safety barriers in many technical systems in the process industry. Reliability requirements for SISs are specified as a safety integrity level (SIL) with reference to the standard IEC 61508. The SIS reliability is often threatened by common-cause failures (CCFs), and the beta-factor model is the most commonly used model for incorporating the effects of CCFs. In the design phase, the beta-factor, β, is determined by answering a set of questions that is given in part 6 of IEC 61508. During the operational phase, there are several factors that influence β, such that the actual β differs from what was predicted in the design phase, and therefore the required reliability may not be maintained. Among the factors influencing β in the operational phase are human and organizational factors (HOFs). A number of studies within industries that require highly reliable products have shown that HOFs have significant influence on CCFs and therefore on β in the operational phase, but this has been neglected in the process industry. HOFs are difficult to predict, and susceptible to be changed during the operational phase. Without proper management, changing HOFs may cause the SIS reliability to drift out of its required value. The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of HOFs in estimation of β for SISs, and also to propose a framework to follow the HOFs effects and to manage them such that the reliability requirement can be maintained

  2. Evolution of strain localization in variable-width three-dimensional unsaturated laboratory-scale cut slopes (United States)

    Morse, Michael S.; Lu, Ning; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.


    To experimentally validate a recently developed theory for predicting the stability of cut slopes under unsaturated conditions, the authors measured increasing strain localization in unsaturated slope cuts prior to abrupt failure. Cut slope width and moisture content were controlled and varied in a laboratory, and a sliding door that extended the height of the free face of the slope was lowered until the cut slope failed. A particle image velocimetry tool was used to quantify soil displacement in the x-y">x-y (horizontal) and x-z">x-z (vertical) planes, and strain was calculated from the displacement. Areas of maximum strain localization prior to failure were shown to coincide with the location of the eventual failure plane. Experimental failure heights agreed with the recently developed stability theory for unsaturated cut slopes (within 14.3% relative error) for a range of saturation and cut slope widths. A theoretical threshold for sidewall influence on cut slope failures was also proposed to quantify the relationship between normalized sidewall width and critical height. The proposed relationship was consistent with the cut slope experiment results, and is intended for consideration in future geotechnical experiment design. The experimental data of evolution of strain localization presented herein provide a physical basis from which future numerical models of strain localization can be validated.

  3. Identification and characterization of rock slope instabilities in Val Canaria (TI, Switzerland) based on field and DEM analyses (United States)

    Ponzio, Maria; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Matasci, Battista; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    In Alpine areas rockslides and rock avalanches represent common gravitational hazards that potentially constitute a danger for people and infrastructures. The aim of this study is to characterize and understand the different factors influencing the distribution of large slope instabilities affecting the Val Canaria (southern Switzerland). In particular the importance of the tectonic and lithological settings as well as the impact of the groundwater circulations are investigated in detail. Val Canaria is a SW-NE trending lateral valley that displays potential large rock slope failure. Located just above one of the main N-S communication way (Highway, Railway) through the Alps, the development of large instabilities in the Val Canaria might have dramatic consequences for the main valley downstream. The dominant geological structure of the study area is the presence of a major tectonic boundary separating two basement nappes, constituted by gneissic lithologies, i.e. the Gotthard massif and the Lucomagno nappe that are located in the northern and southern part of the valley respectively. The basement units are separated by meta-sediments of Piora syncline composed by gypsum, dolomitic breccia and fractured calc-mica schists. Along with detailed geological mapping, the use of remote sensing techniques (Aerial and Terrestrial Laser Scanning) allows us to propose a multi-disciplinary approach that combines geological mapping and interpretation with periodic monitoring of the most active rockslide areas. A large array of TLS point cloud datasets (first acquisition in 2006) constitute a notable input, for monitoring purposes, and also for structural, rock mass characterization and failure mechanism interpretations. The analyses highlighted that both valley flanks are affected by deep-seated gravitational slope deformation covering a total area of about 8 km2 (corresponding to 40% of the catchment area). The most active area corresponds to the lower part of the valley

  4. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills. (United States)

    Gharabaghi, B; Singh, M K; Inkratas, C; Fleming, I R; McBean, E


    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use "generic" published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability

  5. Displacement of Pile-Reinforced Slopes with a Weak Layer Subjected to Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haizuo Zhou


    Full Text Available The presence of a weak layer in a slope requires special attention because it has a negative impact on slope stability. However, limited insight into the seismic stability of slopes with a weak layer exists. In this study, the seismic stability of a pile-reinforced slope with a weak thin layer is investigated. Based on the limit analysis theory, a translational failure mechanism for an earth slope is developed. The rotational rigid blocks in the previous rotational-translational failure mechanism are replaced by continuous deformation regions, which consist of a sequence of n rigid triangles. The predicted static factor of safety and collapse mechanism in two typical examples of slopes with a weak layer compare well with the results obtained from the available literature and by using the Discontinuity Layout Optimization (DLO technique. The lateral forces provided by the stabilizing piles are evaluated using the theory of plastic deformation. An analytical solution for estimating the critical yield acceleration coefficient for the pile-reinforced slopes is derived. Based on the proposed translational failure mechanism and the corresponding critical yield acceleration coefficient, Newmark’s analytical procedure is employed to evaluate the cumulative displacement. Considering different real earthquake acceleration records as input motion, the effect of stabilizing piles and varying the spacing of piles on the cumulative displacement of slopes with a weak layer is investigated.

  6. Slope stability and rockfall assessment of volcanic tuffs using RPAS with 2-D FEM slope modelling (United States)

    Török, Ákos; Barsi, Árpád; Bögöly, Gyula; Lovas, Tamás; Somogyi, Árpád; Görög, Péter


    Steep, hardly accessible cliffs of rhyolite tuff in NE Hungary are prone to rockfalls, endangering visitors of a castle. Remote sensing techniques were employed to obtain data on terrain morphology and to provide slope geometry for assessing the stability of these rock walls. A RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System) was used to collect images which were processed by Pix4D mapper (structure from motion technology) to generate a point cloud and mesh. The georeferencing was made by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) with the use of seven ground control points. The obtained digital surface model (DSM) was processed (vegetation removal) and the derived digital terrain model (DTM) allowed cross sections to be drawn and a joint system to be detected. Joint and discontinuity system was also verified by field measurements. On-site tests as well as laboratory tests provided additional engineering geological data for slope modelling. Stability of cliffs was assessed by 2-D FEM (finite element method). Global analyses of cross sections show that weak intercalating tuff layers may serve as potential slip surfaces. However, at present the greatest hazard is related to planar failure along ENE-WSW joints and to wedge failure. The paper demonstrates that RPAS is a rapid and useful tool for generating a reliable terrain model of hardly accessible cliff faces. It also emphasizes the efficiency of RPAS in rockfall hazard assessment in comparison with other remote sensing techniques such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS).

  7. Slope stability and rockfall assessment of volcanic tuffs using RPAS with 2-D FEM slope modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Török


    Full Text Available Steep, hardly accessible cliffs of rhyolite tuff in NE Hungary are prone to rockfalls, endangering visitors of a castle. Remote sensing techniques were employed to obtain data on terrain morphology and to provide slope geometry for assessing the stability of these rock walls. A RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System was used to collect images which were processed by Pix4D mapper (structure from motion technology to generate a point cloud and mesh. The georeferencing was made by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS with the use of seven ground control points. The obtained digital surface model (DSM was processed (vegetation removal and the derived digital terrain model (DTM allowed cross sections to be drawn and a joint system to be detected. Joint and discontinuity system was also verified by field measurements. On-site tests as well as laboratory tests provided additional engineering geological data for slope modelling. Stability of cliffs was assessed by 2-D FEM (finite element method. Global analyses of cross sections show that weak intercalating tuff layers may serve as potential slip surfaces. However, at present the greatest hazard is related to planar failure along ENE–WSW joints and to wedge failure. The paper demonstrates that RPAS is a rapid and useful tool for generating a reliable terrain model of hardly accessible cliff faces. It also emphasizes the efficiency of RPAS in rockfall hazard assessment in comparison with other remote sensing techniques such as terrestrial laser scanning (TLS.

  8. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Incipient Failure in Journal Bearings( III ) - Development of AE Diagnosis System for Journal Bearings -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Min Hwa; Cho, Yong Sang; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kwon, Oh Yang


    For the condition monitoring of the journal bearing in rotating machinery, a system for their diagnosis by acoustic emission(AE) was developed. AE has been used to detect abnormal conditions in the bearing system. It was found from the field application study as well as the laboratory experiment using a simulated journal bearing system that AE RMS voltage was the most efficient parameter for the purpose of current study. Based on the above results, algorithms and judgement criteria for the diagnosis system was established. The system is composed of four parts as follows: the sensing part including AE sensor and preamplifier, the signal processing part for RMS-to-DC conversion to measure AE ms voltage, the interface part for transferring RMS voltage data into PC using A/D converter, and the software part including the graphic display of bearing conditions and the diagnosis program

  9. Consequentialism and the slippery slope: a response to Clark. (United States)

    Hughes, J


    Michael Clark has recently argued that the slippery slope argument against voluntary euthanasia is 'entirely consequentialist' and that its use to justify continued prohibition of voluntary euthanasia involves a failure to treat patients who request assistance in ending their lives as ends in themselves. This article argues that in fact the slippery slope is consistent with most forms of deontology, and that it need not involve any violation of the principle that people should be treated as ends, depending upon how that principle is construed. It is concluded that supporters of voluntary euthanasia cannot dismiss the slippery slope argument on the basis of deontological principles but must take seriously the consequences that it postulates and engage in factual argument about their likely extent and about the likely effectiveness of any proposed safeguards.

  10. Extensive feedwater quality control and monitoring concept for preventing chemistry-related failures of boiler tubes in a subcritical thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidojkovic, Sonja; Onjia, Antonije; Matovic, Branko; Grahovac, Nebojsa; Maksimovic, Vesna; Nastasovic, Aleksandra


    Prevention and minimizing corrosion processes on steam generating equipment is highly important in the thermal power industry. The maintenance of feedwater quality at a level corresponding to the standards of technological designing, followed by timely respond to the fluctuation of measured parameters, has a decisive role in corrosion prevention. In this study, the comprehensive chemical control of feedwater quality in 210 MW Thermal Power Plant (TPP) was carried out in order to evaluate its potentiality to assure reliable function of the boiler and discover possible irregularity that might be responsible for frequent boiler tube failures. Sensitive on-line and off-line analytical instruments were used for measuring key and diagnostic parameters considered to be crucial for boiler safety and performances. Obtained results provided evidences for exceeded levels of oxygen, silica, sodium, chloride, sulfate, copper, and conductivity what distinctly demonstrated necessity of feedwater control improvement. Consequently, more effective feedwater quality monitoring concept was recommended. In this paper, the explanation of presumable root causes of corrosive contaminants was given including basic directions for their maintenance in proscribed limits. -- Highlights: • Feedwater quality monitoring practice in a thermal power plant has been evaluated. • The more efficient feedwater quality control have been applied. • Analysis of feedwater quality parameters has been performed. • Exceeded levels of corrosive contaminants were found. • Recommendations for their maintenance at proscribed values were given

  11. Design and stabilization works of the km 767 slope of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline; Projeto e obra de estabilizacao do talude do km 767 do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hudson R.; Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline starts at Santa Cruz de La Sierra city, in Bolivia, and goes until Canoas City (RS) in Brazil, with a total extent of 3,150 km. The pipeline crosses in the 2,593 km established in Brazilian soil, the most diverse types of geology and geomorphology. Along the line, the right-of-way (ROW) also crosses a lot of roads, railways, rivers and lakes. During a routine inspection (foot patrol), signs of instability were detected at an embankment slope of a highway of the Santa Catarina state, at the pipeline crossing. An eventual failure of this slope could put the pipeline at risk. The aim of this paper is to present the aspects of the stabilizations phases, since field investigation, design, works, instrumentation, until monitoring. Emphasis is given to the design criteria to pipeline safety. The solution adopted is composite by soil nailing, a changing of slope inclination and superficial drainage system. (author)

  12. Imaging assessment of a portable hemodialysis device: detection of possible failure modes and monitoring of functional performance. (United States)

    Olorunsola, Olufoladare G; Kim, Steven H; Chang, Ryan; Kuo, Yuo-Chen; Hetts, Steven W; Heller, Alex; Kant, Rishi; Saeed, Maythem; Fissell, William H; Roy, Shuvo; Wilson, Mark W


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility and limitations of various imaging modalities in the noninvasive assessment of a novel compact hemodialyzer under development for renal replacement therapy, with specific aim towards monitoring its functional performance. The prototype is a 4×3×6 cm aluminum cartridge housing "blood" and "dialysate" flow paths arranged in parallel. A sheet of semipermeable silicon nanopore membranes forms the blood-dialysate interface, allowing passage of small molecules. Blood flow was simulated using a peristaltic pump to instill iodinated contrast through the blood compartment, while de-ionized water was instilled through the dialysate compartment at a matched rate in the countercurrent direction. Images were acquired under these flow conditions using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), fluoroscopy, high-resolution quantitative computed tomography (HR-QCT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MDCT was used to monitor contrast diffusion efficiency by plotting contrast density as a function of position along the path of flow through the cartridge during steady state infusion at 1 and 20 mL/min. Both linear and exponential regressions were used to model contrast decay along the flow path. Both linear and exponential models of contrast decay appeared to be reasonable approximations, yielding similar results for contrast diffusion during a single pass through the cartridge. There was no measurable difference in contrast diffusion when comparing 1 mL/min and 20 mL/min flow rates. Fluoroscopy allowed a gross qualitative assessment of flow within the device, and revealed flow inhomogeneity within the corner of the cartridge opposite the blood inlet port. MRI and HR-QCT were both severely limited due to the paramagnetic properties and high atomic number of the target material, respectively. During testing, we encountered several causes of device malfunction, including leak formation, trapped gas, and contrast

  13. Slope stability probability classification, Waikato Coal Measures, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, P.; Gillard, G.R.; Moore, T.A. [CRL Energy, PO Box 29-415, Christchurch (New Zealand); Campbell, R.N.; Fergusson, D.A. [Solid Energy North, Private Bag 502, Huntly (New Zealand)


    Ferm classified lithological units have been identified and described in the Waikato Coal Measures in open pits in the Waikato coal region. These lithological units have been classified geotechnically by mechanical tests and discontinuity measurements. Using these measurements slope stability probability classifications (SSPC) have been quantified based on an adaptation of Hack's [Slope Stability Probability Classification, ITC Delft Publication, Enschede, Netherlands, vol. 43, 1998, 273 pp.] SSPC system, which places less influence on rock quality designation and unconfined compressive strength than previous slope/rock mass rating systems. The Hack weathering susceptibility rating has been modified by using chemical index of alteration values determined from XRF major element analyses. Slaking is an important parameter in slope stability in the Waikato Coal Measures lithologies and hence, a non-subjective method of assessing slaking in relation to the chemical index of alteration has been introduced. Another major component of this adapted SSPC system is the inclusion of rock moisture content effects on slope stability. The main modifications of Hack's SSPC system are the introduction of rock intact strength derived from the modified Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, which has been adapted for varying moisture content, weathering state and confining pressure. It is suggested that the subjectivity in assessing intact rock strength within broad bands in the initial SSPC system is a major weakness of the initial system. Initial results indicate a close relationship between rock mass strength values, calculated from rock mass friction angles and rock mass cohesion values derived from two established rock mass classification methods (modified Hoek-Brown failure criteria and MRMR) and the adapted SSPC system. The advantage of the modified SSPC system is that slope stability probabilities based on discontinuity-independent and discontinuity-dependent data and a

  14. Study on Geotechnique and Geohydrology in Failure Areas, P2PLR-BATAN, Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heri-Syaeful; Suharji; Sartapa; Suparjo-AS


    Failures in reverse side of 50 and 52 building, first en occurred in early 2002, temporary treatment on slope failure which conducted in the middle of the year 2002 has not solved the problem, because it did not consider the aspect of geo technique and geohydrology that causing the failure. Geo technique and geohydrology study in failure area covered field work, laboratory work and geo technic/geohydrology analysis. Field works includes topographic mapping, core drilling, hand auger, groundwater level monitoring, standard penetration test and undisturbed sampling. Laboratory work includes index properties and engineering properties test. Studio works covered geotechnical analysis for the calculation of safety factor, while geohydrology analysis to understand the groundwater system. Slope stability analysis resulting the small number of safety factor, between 0,305-1,637 on normal condition, 0,293-1,597 on saturated condition and 0,205-1,075 on earthquake condition. From the geohydrology analysis, concluded that water clogging still occurs in several areas of slope, causing the excess of pore water pressure and decreasing the value of soil shear strength. (author)

  15. Diabetes Mellitus, Microalbuminuria, and Subclinical Cardiac Disease: Identification and Monitoring of Individuals at Risk of Heart Failure. (United States)

    Swoboda, Peter P; McDiarmid, Adam K; Erhayiem, Bara; Ripley, David P; Dobson, Laura E; Garg, Pankaj; Musa, Tarique A; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Mark T; Barth, Julian H; Ajjan, Ramzi; Greenwood, John P; Plein, Sven


    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) have increased risk of heart failure. We hypothesized this was because of cardiac tissue changes rather than silent coronary artery disease. In a case-controlled observational study 130 subjects including 50 ACR+ve diabetes mellitus patients with persistent microalbuminuria (ACR >2.5 mg/mol in males and >3.5 mg/mol in females, ≥2 measurements, no previous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone therapy, 50 ACR-ve diabetes mellitus patients and 30 controls underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance for investigation of myocardial fibrosis, ischemia and infarction, and echocardiography. Thirty ACR+ve patients underwent further testing after 1-year treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade. Cardiac extracellular volume fraction, a measure of diffuse fibrosis, was higher in diabetes mellitus patients than controls (26.1±3.4% and 23.3±3.0% P =0.0002) and in ACR+ve than ACR-ve diabetes mellitus patients (27.2±4.1% versus 25.1±2.9%, P =0.004). ACR+ve patients also had lower E' measured by echocardiography (8.2±1.9 cm/s versus 8.9±1.9 cm/s, P =0.04) and elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T 18% versus 4% ≥14 ng/L ( P =0.05). Rate of silent myocardial ischemia or infarction were not influenced by ACR status. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade was associated with increased left ventricular ejection fraction (59.3±7.8 to 61.5±8.7%, P =0.03) and decreased extracellular volume fraction (26.5±3.6 to 25.2±3.1, P =0.01) but no changes in diastolic function or high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T levels. Asymptomatic diabetes mellitus patients with persistent microalbuminuria have markers of diffuse cardiac fibrosis including elevated extracellular volume fraction, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, and diastolic dysfunction, which may in part be reversible by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade. Increased risk in these patients may be mediated by

  16. Antecedent topography and morphological controls on sediment accumulation and slope stability of the U.S. Atlantic margin (United States)

    Hill, J. C.; Brothers, D. S.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Andrews, B. D.


    The U.S. Atlantic margin encompasses a wide variety of slope failure processes, ranging from small canyon-confined failures on the upper slope to large, open slope landslides originating in deeper water. Here we used a suite of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and detailed multichannel seismic data coverage to investigate the relationship between modern seafloor morphology, pre-existing stratigraphy and sediment accumulation patterns. We suggest that a combination of sediment supply and antecedent margin physiography, whereby variations in margin evolution during the Miocene have influenced the modern seafloor morphology, controls both the location of slope sediment accumulation and the style of slope failure. Oversteepened margins with angular shelf breaks and steep upper slopes, referred to as oblique margins, are characterized by downslope mass transport and densely-spaced canyon formation. These margins are most likely the locus of canyon-confined failures and smaller lower slope fan-apron failures (e.g., much of the Mid-Atlantic). Sigmoidal margins with prograded slopes, a rounded shelf edge, and a low gradient slope morphology can support significant sediment accumulation across a broad area, with limited canyon development. These margins are often associated with high sediment supply and are prone to large, upper slope slab-style failures (e.g., the Hudson Apron, southwestern New England, the Currituck and Cape Fear Slide complexes). Areas with morphologies in between these two end members are characterized by limited shelf-edge accommodation space and large-scale lower slope accumulation and onlap, representing transitional stages of equilibrium slope adjustment. Large failures along these intermediate-type margins tend to develop lower on the slope where thick wedges of onlapping sediment are found (e.g., around Washington Canyon, Cape Lookout and southeastern New England). As antecedent topography and sediment loading appear to play an important role

  17. Research on RCP400-TB50 type reactor coolant pump shaft seal failure analysis and monitoring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Chaolian; Shen Yuxian; Wang Chuan; Du Pengcheng


    Mechanical seal is widely applied in mechanical devices of nuclear power plant. 3-stages mechanical seal applied in reactor coolant pump (abbreviate to RCP) is a kind of product with top technology and manufacture difficulty. As the only running machine in primary loop of nuclear power plant, RCP is designed with high security, reliability and perform ability. So performance of its key component, 3-stages mechanical seal, could directly decide whether units can operate safely and reliably. In this paper mechanical seal used in RCP400-TB50 type RCP which in designed and manufactured by Andritz AG is selected as a typical example of dynamic pressure type mechanical seal applied in second generation NPP. Its structure and working principle is expounded. Engineering fluid mechanics theory is used to establish the mathematical model using for analyzing status of mechanical seal and deducing the theoretical formula. Its correctness is verified by compare with the test data. So that research result can be used as the theoretical basis for analysis of RCP400-TB50 RCP shaft seal's working condition. According to the shaft seal operation characteristic we can establish a suitable RCP shaft seal monitoring method and interlock protection setting for NPP operation. (authors)

  18. Continuous ambulatory right heart pressure measurements with an implantable hemodynamic monitor: a multicenter, 12-month follow-up study of patients with chronic heart failure. (United States)

    Magalski, Anthony; Adamson, Philip; Gadler, Frederick; Böehm, Michael; Steinhaus, David; Reynolds, Dwight; Vlach, Kathryn; Linde, Cecilia; Cremers, Bodo; Sparks, Brandon; Bennett, Tom


    We describe the performance of an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) that allows continuous recording of heart rate, patient activity levels, and right ventricular systolic, right ventricular diastolic, and estimated pulmonary artery diastolic pressures. Pressure parameters derived from the implantable monitor were correlated to measurements made with a balloon-tipped catheter to establish accuracy and reproducibility over time in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). IHM devices were implanted in 32 patients with CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction, 29% +/- 11%; range, 14%-62%) and were tested with right heart catheterization at implantation and 3, 6, and 12 months later. Hemodynamic variables were digitally recorded simultaneously from the IHM and catheter. Values were recorded during supine rest, peak response of Valsalva maneuver, sitting, peak of a 2-stage (25-50 W) bicycle exercise test, and final rest period. The median of 21 paired beat-to-beat cardiac cycles was analyzed for each intervention. A total of 217 paired data values from all maneuvers were analyzed for 32 patients at implantation and 129 paired data values for 20 patients at 1 year. The IHM and catheter values were not different at baseline or at 1 year (P >.05). Combining all interventions, correlation coefficients were 0.96 and 0.94 for right ventricular systolic pressure, 0.96 and 0.83 for right ventricular diastolic pressure, and 0.87 and 0.87 for estimated pulmonary artery diastolic pressure at implantation and 1 year, respectively. The IHM and a standard reference pressure system recorded comparable right heart pressure values in patients with CHF. This implantable pressure transducer is accurate over time and provides a means to precisely monitor the hemodynamic condition of patients with CHF in a continuous fashion.

  19. Impact of Rain Water Infiltration on the Stability of Earth Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq Ahmed


    Full Text Available Slope failure occurs very often in natural and man-made slopes which are subjected to frequent changes in ground water level, rapid drawdown, rainfall and earthquakes. The current study discusses the significance of water infiltration, pore water pressure and degree of saturation that affect the stability of earth slopes. Rainwater infiltration not only mechanically reduces the shear strength of a slope material, but also chemically alters the mineral composition of the soil matrix. It results in the alteration of macro structures which in turn decreases the factor of safety. A few case studies are discussed in this paper to quantitatively observe the variation in factor of safety (FOS of various earth slopes by changing the degree of saturation. The results showed that most of the earth slopes get failed or become critical when the degree of saturation approaches to 50 % or more.

  20. Landform Degradation and Slope Processes on Io: The Galileo View (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Chuang, Frank C.; Head, James W., III; McEwen, Alfred S.; Milazzo, Moses P.; Nixon, Brian E.; Pappalardo, Robert T.; Schenk, Paul M.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; hide


    The Galileo mission has revealed remarkable evidence of mass movement and landform degradation on Io. We recognize four major slope types observed on a number of intermediate resolution (250 m/pixel) images and several additional textures on very high resolution (10 m/pixel) images. Slopes and scarps on Io often show evidence of erosion, seen in the simplest form as alcove-carving slumps and slides at all scales. Many of the mass movement deposits on Io are probably mostly the consequence of block release and brittle slope failure. Sputtering plays no significant role. Sapping as envisioned by McCauley et al. remains viable. We speculate that alcove-lined canyons seen in one observation and lobed deposits seen along the bases of scarps in several locations may reflect the plastic deformation and 'glacial' flow of interstitial volatiles (e.g., SO2) heated by locally high geothermal energy to mobilize the volatile. The appearance of some slopes and near-slope surface textures seen in very high resolution images is consistent with erosion from sublimation-degradation. However, a suitable volatile (e.g., H2S) that can sublimate fast enough to alter Io's youthful surface has not been identified. Disaggregation from chemical decomposition of solid S2O and other polysulfur oxides may conceivably operate on Io. This mechanism could degrade landforms in a manner that resembles degradation from sublimation, and at a rate that can compete with resurfacing.

  1. Physical Analysis Work for Slope Stability at Shah Alam, Selangor (United States)

    Ishak, M. F.; Zaini, M. S. I.


    Slope stability analysis is performed to assess the equilibrium conditions and the safe design of a human-made or natural slope to find the endangered areas. Investigation of potential failure and determination of the slope sensitivity with regard to safety, reliability and economics were parts of this study. Ground anchor is designed to support a structure in this study. Ground anchor were implemented at the Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) wall along Anak Persiaran Jubli Perak to overcome the further cracking of pavement parking, concrete deck and building of the Apartments. A result from the laboratory testing of soil sample such as index test and shear strength test were applied to the Slope/W software with regard to the ground anchors that were implemented. The ground anchors were implemented to increase the value of the factor of safety (FOS) of the MSE Wall. The value of the factor of safety (FOS) before implementing the ground anchor was 0.800 and after the ground anchor was implemented the value increase to 1.555. The increase percentage of factor of safety by implementing on stability of slope was 94.38%.

  2. Effects of slope smoothing in river channel modeling (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Liu, Frank; Hodges, Ben R.


    In extending dynamic river modeling with the 1D Saint-Venant equations from a single reach to a large watershed there are critical questions as to how much bathymetric knowledge is necessary and how it should be represented parsimoniously. The ideal model will include the detail necessary to provide realism, but not include extraneous detail that should not exert a control on a 1D (cross-section averaged) solution. In a Saint-Venant model, the overall complexity of the river channel morphometry is typically abstracted into metrics for the channel slope, cross-sectional area, hydraulic radius, and roughness. In stream segments where cross-section surveys are closely spaced, it is not uncommon to have sharp changes in slope or even negative values (where a positive slope is the downstream direction). However, solving river flow with the Saint-Venant equations requires a degree of smoothness in the equation parameters or the equation set with the directly measured channel slopes may not be Lipschitz continuous. The results of non-smoothness are typically extended computational time to converge solutions (or complete failure to converge) and/or numerical instabilities under transient conditions. We have investigated using cubic splines to smooth the bottom slope and ensure always positive reference slopes within a 1D model. This method has been implemented in the Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) and is compared to the standard HEC-RAS river solver. It is shown that the reformulation of the reference slope is both in keeping with the underlying derivation of the Saint-Venant equations and provides practical numerical stability without altering the realism of the simulation. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  3. Experimental test of theory for the stability of partially saturated vertical cut slopes (United States)

    Morse, Michael M.; Lu, N.; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.; Take, W.A.


    This paper extends Culmann's vertical-cut analysis to unsaturated soils. To test the extended theory, unsaturated sand was compacted to a uniform porosity and moisture content in a laboratory apparatus. A sliding door that extended the height of the free face of the slope was lowered until the vertical cut failed. Digital images of the slope cross section and upper surface were acquired concurrently. A recently developed particle image velocimetry (PIV) tool was used to quantify soil displacement. The PIV analysis showed strain localization at varying distances from the sliding door prior to failure. The areas of localized strain were coincident with the location of the slope crest after failure. Shear-strength and soil-water-characteristic parameters of the sand were independently tested for use in extended analyses of the vertical-cut stability and of the failure plane angle. Experimental failure heights were within 22.3% of the heights predicted using the extended theory.

  4. Inverter ratio failure detector (United States)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (Inventor)


    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  5. Informing the Design of "Lifestyle Monitoring" Technology for the Detection of Health Deterioration in Long-Term Conditions: A Qualitative Study of People Living With Heart Failure. (United States)

    Hargreaves, Sarah; Hawley, Mark S; Haywood, Annette; Enderby, Pamela M


    Health technologies are being developed to help people living at home manage long-term conditions. One such technology is "lifestyle monitoring" (LM), a telecare technology based on the idea that home activities may be monitored unobtrusively via sensors to give an indication of changes in health-state. However, questions remain about LM technology: how home activities change when participants experience differing health-states; and how sensors might capture clinically important changes to inform timely interventions. The objective of this paper was to report the findings of a study aimed at identifying changes in activity indicative of important changes in health in people with long-term conditions, particularly changes indicative of exacerbation, by exploring the relationship between home activities and health among people with heart failure (HF). We aimed to add to the knowledge base informing the development of home monitoring technologies designed to detect health deterioration in order to facilitate early intervention and avoid hospital admissions. This qualitative study utilized semistructured interviews to explore everyday activities undertaken during the three health-states of HF: normal days, bad days, and exacerbations. Potential recruits were identified by specialist nurses and attendees at an HF support group. The sample was purposively selected to include a range of experience of living with HF. The sample comprised a total of 20 people with HF aged 50 years and above, and 11 spouses or partners of the individuals with HF. All resided in Northern England. Participant accounts revealed that home activities are in part shaped by the degree of intrusion from HF symptoms. During an exacerbation, participants undertook activities specifically to ease symptoms, and detailed activity changes were identified. Everyday activity was also influenced by a range of factors other than health. The study highlights the importance of careful development of LM

  6. Experimental study on slope sliding and debris flow evolution with and without barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-kun Zhao


    Full Text Available A constitutive model on the evolution of debris flow with and without a barrier was established based on the theory of the Bingham model. A certain area of the Laoshan Mountain in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, in China was chosen for experimental study, and the slope sliding and debris flow detection system was utilized. The change curve of the soil moisture content was attained, demonstrating that the moisture content of the shallow soil layer increases faster than that of the deep soil layer, and that the growth rate of the soil moisture content of the steep slope is large under the first weak rainfall, and that of the gentle slope is significantly affected by the second heavy rainfall. For the steep slope, slope sliding first occurs on the upper slope surface under heavy rainfall and further develops along the top platform and lower slope surface, while under weak rainfall the soil moisture content at the lower part of the slope first increases because of the high runoff velocity, meaning that failure occurring there is more serious. When a barrier was placed at a high position on a slope, debris flow was separated and distributed early and had less ability to carry solids, and the variation of the greatest depth of erosion pits on soil slopes was not significant.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ŞENSOY, Şahin PALTA


    Full Text Available Water is one of the most important erosive forces. A great number of factors also play a role in erosion process and slope characteristic is also one of them. The steepness and length of the slope are important factors for runoff and soil erosion. Another slope factor that has an effect on erosion is the shape of the slope. Generally, different erosion and runoff characteristics exist in different slopes which can be classified as uniform, concave, convex and complex shape. In this study, the effects of slope shape on erosion are stated and emphasized by taking similar researches into consideration.

  8. Influence of filling-drawdown cycles of the Vajont reservoir on Mt. Toc slope stability (United States)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Rigo, Elia; Bolla, Alberto


    In the present work, the 1963 Vajont landslide has been back-analyzed in detail to examine the influence of reservoir operations (filling and drawdown) on Mt. Toc slope stability. The combined seepage-slope stability analyses carried out show that the main destabilizing factor that favored the 1963 Vajont landslide was the reservoir-induced water table that formed as a consequence of rapid seepage inflow within the submerged toe of the slope — decrease in the factor of safety (FOS) up to 12% compared to the initial slope stability condition, i.e., in the absence of the Vajont reservoir. Rainfall would only have been a decisive factor if the initial stability condition of the Mt. Toc slope had already been very close to failure (decrease in FOS caused by heavy or prolonged rainfall is about 3-4%, for the worst case scenario analyzed). The permeability of the shear zone material occurring at the base of the prehistoric Vajont rockslide has been evaluated at 5 × 10- 4 m/s, and back-calculated values of the friction angles Φ range from 17.5° to 27.5°. When considering mountain reservoirs, slope failures can occur during both filling and drawdown phases. In the Vajont case, owing to the highly permeable materials of the shear zone, slope stability decreased during filling and increased during drawdown. Another displacement-dependent phenomenon of a mechanical nature - progressive failure of the NE landslide constraint - has to be considered to understand the slope collapse that occurred during the last drawdown (26 September-9 October 1963). The results of the combined seepage-slope stability models indicate that permeability of bank-forming material and filling-drawdown rates of reservoirs can strongly influence slope stability. Slow lowering of the reservoir level is a necessary measure to reduce the occurrence of very dangerous transient negative peaks of FOS.

  9. The Stability Analysis Method of the Cohesive Granular Slope on the Basis of Graph Theory. (United States)

    Guan, Yanpeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Wang, Enzhi; Wang, Sijing


    This paper attempted to provide a method to calculate progressive failure of the cohesivefrictional granular geomaterial and the spatial distribution of the stability of the cohesive granular slope. The methodology can be divided into two parts: the characterization method of macro-contact and the analysis of the slope stability. Based on the graph theory, the vertexes, the edges and the edge sequences are abstracted out to characterize the voids, the particle contact and the macro-contact, respectively, bridging the gap between the mesoscopic and macro scales of granular materials. This paper adopts this characterization method to extract a graph from a granular slope and characterize the macro sliding surface, then the weighted graph is analyzed to calculate the slope safety factor. Each edge has three weights representing the sliding moment, the anti-sliding moment and the braking index of contact-bond, respectively, . The safety factor of the slope is calculated by presupposing a certain number of sliding routes and reducing Weight repeatedly and counting the mesoscopic failure of the edge. It is a kind of slope analysis method from mesoscopic perspective so it can present more detail of the mesoscopic property of the granular slope. In the respect of macro scale, the spatial distribution of the stability of the granular slope is in agreement with the theoretical solution.

  10. Cross-slope Movement Patterns in Landslides (United States)

    Petley, D.; Murphy, W.; Bulmer, M. H.; Keefer, D.


    There is growing evidence that there is a significant element of cross-slope movement in many large landslide systems. These movements may result in changing states of stress between landslide blocks that can establish complex displacement patterns. Such motions, which are not considered in traditional two-dimensional limit-equilibrium analyses, are important in the investigation of a variety of landslide types, such as those triggered by earthquakes. In addition, these movements may introduce considerable errors into the interpretation of strain patterns as derived from InSAR studies. Finally, even traditional interpretation techniques may lead to the amount of total displacement being underestimated. These observations suggest that a three dimensional form of analysis may be more appropriate for large landslide complexes. The significance of such cross-slope movements are being investigated using a detailed investigation of the Lishan landslide complex in Central Taiwan. This landslide system, which was reactivated in 1990 related to the construction of a hotel. The total recorded movements have been approximately 1.5 m over an area of sliding that is estimated to be 450 m wide and 200 m long. Extensive damage has been caused to roads and buildings within the town. Remediation work has resulted largely in the stabilization of the landslide complex. Detailed geomorphological mapping has revealed that the landslide complex is composed of two main components. The first, immediately upslope of the hotel construction site, is a relatively shallow earthflow. The second, which has formed a large headscarp upslope from the main road in the centre of the town, is a deeper translational slide. Both appear to have been reactivations of previous failures. While the displacement patterns of the earthflow indicate a relatively simple downslope movement, the vectors derived from kinematic analysis of surface features have indicated that the movement of the deeper

  11. Fluid status monitoring with a wireless network to reduce cardiovascular-related hospitalizations and mortality in heart failure: rationale and design of the OptiLink HF Study (Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink) (United States)

    Brachmann, Johannes; Böhm, Michael; Rybak, Karin; Klein, Gunnar; Butter, Christian; Klemm, Hanno; Schomburg, Rolf; Siebermair, Johannes; Israel, Carsten; Sinha, Anil-Martin; Drexler, Helmut


    Aims The Optimization of Heart Failure Management using OptiVol Fluid Status Monitoring and CareLink (OptiLink HF) study is designed to investigate whether OptiVol fluid status monitoring with an automatically generated wireless CareAlert notification via the CareLink Network can reduce all-cause death and cardiovascular hospitalizations in an HF population, compared with standard clinical assessment. Methods Patients with newly implanted or replacement cardioverter-defibrillator devices with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy, who have chronic HF in New York Heart Association class II or III and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% will be eligible to participate. Following device implantation, patients are randomized to either OptiVol fluid status monitoring through CareAlert notification or regular care (OptiLink ‘on' vs. ‘off'). The primary endpoint is a composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization. It is estimated that 1000 patients will be required to demonstrate superiority of the intervention group to reduce the primary outcome by 30% with 80% power. Conclusion The OptiLink HF study is designed to investigate whether early detection of congestion reduces mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization in patients with chronic HF. The study is expected to close recruitment in September 2012 and to report first results in May 2014. Identifier: NCT00769457 PMID:21555324

  12. Slope Stability Analysis for Shallow Landslides using TRIGRS: A Case Study for Sta. Cruz, Zambales, Philippines (United States)

    Mendoza, J. P. A.


    The Philippines, being located in the circum-Pacific, bounded by multiple subduction zones, open seas and ocean, is one of the most hazard-prone countries in the world (Benson, 1997). This widespread recurrence of natural hazards in the country requires much attention for disaster management (Aurelio, 2006). On the average, 21 typhoons enter the Philippine area of responsibility annually with 6-9 making a landfall. Several rainfall-induced landslide events are reported annually particularly during and after the inundation of major typhoons which imposes hazards to communities and causes destruction of properties due to the moving mass and possible flash floods it may induce. Shallow landslides are the most commonly observed failure involving soil-mantled slopes and are considered major geohazards, often causing property damage and other economic loss. Hence numerous studies on landslide susceptibility including numerical models based on infinite slope equation are used in order to identify slopes prone to occurrences of shallow landslides. The study aims to determine the relationships between the slope and elevation to the factor of safety for laterite-mantled topography by incorporating precipitation values in the determination of landslide susceptibility. Using a DEM, flow direction map and slope map of the Sta Cruz (Zambales, Philippines), the FORTRAN based program TRIGRS, was used to generate the values for the factors of safety in the study area. Overlays with a generated slope map and elevation map were used to determine relationships of the mentioned factors and the factors of safety. A slope in a topography mantled with lateritic soil will fail at a slope angle higher than 20 degrees. Generally, the factor of safety decreases as the slope angle increases; this increases the probability and risk of slope failure. Elevation has no bearing on the computation for the factor of safety. The factor of safety is heavily dependent on the slope angle. The value of

  13. Slope Stability Analysis of Mountainous/Hilly regions of Nepal: A case study of Bhotekoshi Hydropower site (United States)

    Acharya, A.; Gautam, S.; Kafle, K. R.


    Nepal is a mountainous, developing country that straddles the boundary between the Indian and Himalayan tectonic plates. In Nepal, landslides represent a major constraint on development, causing high levels of economic loss and substantial number of fatalities each year. There is a general consensus that the impacts of landslides in mountainous countries such as Nepal are increasing with time due to unstable slopes. The present study deals with the field investigation of slope stability in mountainous/hilly region of Nepal. Among the natural hazards that occur in regularly in Nepal, flood and landslides due to unstable slopes are by far the serious ones. They claim many human lives every year and cause other damages such as destruction and blockage of highway, destruction of hydropower, losses of livestock, crops and agricultural land. Slope Mass Rating system and stereographic projection has been carried out for analysis of slope stability using standard formats and parameters. It has been found that there are few major discontinuities that play the role for the rock/soil slides around the area. The major discontinuities are 235°/67°. These joint sets play the main role to the plane as well as wedge failures around the area. The rock mass rating of the slope has been found to be 27 and the slope mass rating has been found to be 37.8. The obtained slope mass rating value lies on IV class (Bad) that represents unstable slope having planner or big wedge failure and needs to be corrective measures in the slope. From stereographic projection, wedge failure of the slope has been seen according to the conditions of slope failure.

  14. Predictors of sudden death and death from pump failure in congestive heart failure are different. Analysis of 24 h Holter monitoring, clinical variables, blood chemistry, exercise test and radionuclide angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Rasmussen, Verner; Hansen, J F


    Association class II and 44% in III. Total mortality after 1 year was 21%, after 2 years 32%. Of 60 deaths, 33% were sudden and 49% due to pump failure. Multivariate analyses identified totally different risk factors for sudden death: ventricular tachycardia, s-sodium ....6 mmol/l, s-potassium sudden death and for death from progressive pump failure........80 mmol/l, s-creatinine > 121 mumol/l, and maximal change in heart rate during exercise death from progressive pump failure: New York Heart Association class III + IV, delta heart rate over 24 h 7...

  15. Stability Analysis Method for Rock Slope with an Irregular Shear Plane Based on Interface Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Qi


    Full Text Available Landslide developed in rock mass usually has irregular shear plane. An approach for calculating distributed factor of safety of the irregular shear plane was put forward in this paper. The presented method can obtain not only the detailed stability status at any grid node of a complex shear plane but also the global safety of the slope. Thus, it is helpful to thoroughly understand the mechanism of slope failure. Comparing with the result obtained through the limit equilibrium method, the presented method was proved to be more accurate and suitable for stability analysis of rock slope with a thin shear plane. The stability of a potentially unstable rock slope was analyzed based on the presented method at the end of this paper. The detailed local stability, global stability, and the potential failure mechanism were provided.

  16. Some considerations on the seismic stability of large slopes surrounding the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki


    As a series of the research on the seismic stabilities of a large scale slope surrounding the Nuclear Power Plant, the numerical simulation and analytical stability calculation are conducted in order to clarify the applicability of static stability evaluation method (conventional circular arc slip method, static non-linear F.E. analysis) and dynamic one (2-dimensional dynamic F.E. analysis). The discussions on these slope stability methods are done and the followings are clarified, i) The results of numerical simulation by dynamic F.E. analysis concerning the response property and the failure mode are qualitatively corresponded with the behaviour of dynamic failure test. ii) From the results of static and dynamic stability analysis, it is concluded that the conventional circular arc slip method gives the severest evaluation for slope stability. iii) It is proposed that the seismic coefficient for static slope stability analysis should be used the value of the equivalent instant acceleration. (author)

  17. A 5000km2 data set along western Great Bahama Bank illustrates the dynamics of carbonate slope deposition (United States)

    Schnyder, Jara S. D.; Jo, Andrew; Eberli, Gregor P.; Betzler, Christian; Lindhorst, Sebastian; Schiebel, Linda; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wintersteller, Paul; Mulder, Thierry; Principaud, Melanie


    An approximately 5000km2 hydroacoustic and seismic data set provides the high-resolution bathymetry map of along the western slope of Great Bahama Bank, the world's largest isolated carbonate platform. This large data set in combination with core and sediment samples, provides and unprecedented insight into the variability of carbonate slope morphology and the processes affecting the platform margin and the slope. This complete dataset documents how the interplay of platform derived sedimentation, distribution by ocean currents, and local slope and margin failure produce a slope-parallel facies distribution that is not governed by downslope gradients. Platform-derived sediments produce a basinward thinning sediment wedge that is modified by currents that change directions and strength depending on water depth and location. As a result, winnowing and deposition change with water depth and distance from the margin. Morphological features like the plunge pool and migrating antidunes are the result of currents flowing from the banktop, while the ocean currents produce contourites and drifts. These continuous processes are punctuated by submarine slope failures of various sizes. The largest of these slope failures produce several hundred of km2 of mass transport complexes and could generate tsunamis. Closer to the Cuban fold and thrust belt, large margin collapses pose an equal threat for tsunami generation. However, the debris from margin and slope failure is the foundation for a teeming community of cold-water corals.

  18. An emerging methodology of slope hazard assessment for natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z.J.; O' Neil, G.; Rizkalla, M. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    A new slope assessment methodology has been developed by TransCanada PipeLines Ltd. in an effort to switch from a reactive to a proactive hazard management approach and to optimize maintenance expenditure. The company operates 37,000 km of natural gas gathering and transmission pipelines, portions of which traverse slopes and stream crossings. The newly developed rainfall-ground movement model provides site-specific ground movement predictions for approximately 1100 slopes and establishes a risk-ranked list of slopes upon which maintenance decisions can be based. The input to the predictive model is derived from internal and public information regarding site conditions. This information serves as input to a pipe-soil interaction model to determine the probability of pipeline failure for each slope. The ground movement for this model is limited to creep-type which is typically less than 100 mm per year. Landslides are not addressed in this paper. A system-wide database has been constructed for slopes to prioritize the slope movement hazards. The slope information includes geotechnical data such as bedrock geology, surficial geology, slope details, precipitation and erosion potential. Information related to the pipeline includes the location, age, size, as well as design pressure and temperature. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  19. A nomogram for interpreting slope stability of fine-grained deposits in modern and ancient-marine environments. (United States)

    Booth, J.S.; Sangrey, D.A.; Fugate, J.K.


    This nomogram was designed to aid in interpreting the causes of mass movement in modern and ancient settings, to provide a basis for evaluating and predicting slope stability under given conditions and to further the understanding of the relationships among the several key factors that control slope stability. Design of the nomogram is based on effective stress and combines consolidation theory as applicable to depositional environments with the infinite-slope model of slope-stability analysis. If infinite-slope conditions are assumed to exist, the effective overburden stress can be used to derive a factor of safety against static slope failure by using the angle of internal friction and the slope angle. -from Authors

  20. Effect of variations in rainfall intensity on slope stability in Singapore


    Christofer Kristo; Harianto Rahardjo; Alfrendo Satyanaga


    Numerous scientific evidence has given credence to the true existence and deleterious impacts of climate change. One aspect of climate change is the variations in rainfall patterns, which affect the flux boundary condition across ground surface. A possible disastrous consequence of this change is the occurrence of rainfall-induced slope failures. This paper aims to investigate the variations in rainfall patterns in Singapore and its effect on slope stability. Singapore's historical rainfall d...

  1. Comparison study between traditional and finite element methods for slopes under heavy rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rabie


    Moreover, slope stability concerning rainfall and infiltration is analyzed. Specially, two kinds of infiltrations (saturated and unsaturated are considered. Many slopes become saturated during periods of intense rainfall or snowmelt, with the water table rising to the ground surface, and water flowing essentially parallel to the direction of the “slope” and “Influence” of the change in shear strength, density, pore-water pressure and seepage force in soil slices on the slope stability is explained. Finally, it is found that classical limit equilibrium methods are highly conservative compared to the finite element approach. For assessment the factor of safety for slope using the later technique, no assumption needs to be made in advance about the shape or location of the failure surface, slice side forces and their directions. This document outlines the capabilities of the finite element method in the analysis of slope stability problems.

  2. Intraparenchymal intracranial pressure monitoring in patients with acute liver failure Monitoreo intraparenquimatoso de presión intracraneana en pacientes con falla hepática aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra T. Rabadán


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP is a common cause of death in acute liver failure (ALF and is determinant for decision-making regarding the timing of liver transplantation. The recommended type ICP monitoring device is controversial in ALF patients. Epidural devices had less risk of hemorrhagic complications, but they are less reliable than intraparenchymal ones. METHOD: Twenty-three patients with ALF were treated, and 19 of them received a liver transplant. Seventeen patients had ICP monitoring because of grade III-IV encephalopathy. All patients received fresh plasma (2-3 units before and during placing the intraparenchymal device. RESULTS: Eleven cases (64.7% had elevated ICP, and 6 patients (35.2% had normal values. One patient (5.9% had an asymptomatic small intraparenchymal haemorrhage ANTECEDENTES: La presión intracraneana elevada (PIC es una causa frecuente de muerte en la falla hepática aguda (FHA y es determinante para la toma de decisiones respecto del momento del transplante hepático. El tipo de dispositivo para el monitoreo de OIC es controversial em los pacientes em FHA. Los dispositivos epidurales tienen menos riesgo de complicaciones hemorrágicas, pero son menos confiables que los intraparenquimatosos. MÉTODO: Veintitrés pacientes con FHA fueron tratados, y 19 de ellos recibieron un transplante hepático. diecisiete pacientes tuvieron monitoreo de PIC debido a encefalopatía grado III-IV. Todos los pacientes recibieron plasma fresco (2-3 unidades antes y durante la colocación de la fibra intraparenquimatosa. RESULTADOS: Once casos (64.7% tuvieron PIC elevada, y 6 pacientes (35.2% tuvieron valores normales. Un paciente (5.9% tuvo una pequeña hemorragia intraparenquimatosa asintomática <1cm³ en TAC, la cual no impidió el transplante hepático. CONCLUSIÓN: En nuestra experiencia, el monitoreo intraparenquimatoso de presión intracraneana en pacientes con FHA parece ser un método preciso y con bajo riesgo

  3. Instability risk assessment of construction waste pile slope based on fuzzy entropy (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Xing, Huige; Yang, Mao; Nie, Tingting


    Considering the nature and characteristics of construction waste piles, this paper analyzed the factors affecting the stability of the slope of construction waste piles, and established the system of the assessment indexes for the slope failure risks of construction waste piles. Based on the basic principles and methods of fuzzy mathematics, the factor set and the remark set were established. The membership grade of continuous factor indexes is determined using the "ridge row distribution" function, while that for the discrete factor indexes was determined by the Delphi Method. For the weight of factors, the subjective weight was determined by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and objective weight by the entropy weight method. And the distance function was introduced to determine the combination coefficient. This paper established a fuzzy comprehensive assessment model of slope failure risks of construction waste piles, and assessed pile slopes in the two dimensions of hazard and vulnerability. The root mean square of the hazard assessment result and vulnerability assessment result was the final assessment result. The paper then used a certain construction waste pile slope as the example for analysis, assessed the risks of the four stages of a landfill, verified the assessment model and analyzed the slope's failure risks and preventive measures against a slide.

  4. Numerical modelling of hydrologically-driven slope instability by means of porous media mechanics (United States)

    Kakogiannou, Evanthia; Sanavia, Lorenzo; Lora, Marco; Schrefler, Bernhard


    Heavy rainfall can trigger slope failure which generally involves shallow soil deposit of different grading and origin usually in a state of partial saturation. In this case of slope instability, the behaviour of the soil slope is closely related not only to the distribution of pore-water pressure but also to the stress state during rainfall infiltration involving both mechanical and hydrological processes. In order to understand better these physical key processes, in this research work, the modelling of rainfall induced slope failure is considered as a coupled variably saturated hydro-mechanical problem. Therefore, the geometrically linear finite element code Comes-Geo for non-isothermal elasto-plastic multiphase solid porous materials is used, as developed by B.A. Schrefler and his co-workers. In this context, a detailed numerical analysis of an experimental slope stability test due to rainfall infiltration is presented. The main goals of this work are to understand the triggering mechanisms during the progressive failure, the effect of using different constitutive models of the mechanical soil behavior on the numerical results and the use of the second order work criterion on the detection of slope instability.

  5. Slope Safety Factor Calculations With Non-Linear Yield Criterion Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars


    The factor of safety for a slope is calculated with the finite element method using a non-linear yield criterion of the Hoek-Brown type. The parameters of the Hoek-Brown criterion are found from triaxial test data. Parameters of the linear Mohr-Coulomb criterion are calibrated to the same triaxial...... are carried out at much higher stress levels than present in a slope failure, this leads to the conclusion that the use of the non-linear criterion leads to a safer slope design...

  6. Forecasting giant, catastrophic slope collapse: lessons from Vajont, Northern Italy (United States)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Petley, David N.


    Rapid, giant landslides, or sturzstroms, are among the most powerful natural hazards on Earth. They have minimum volumes of ˜10 6-10 7 m 3 and, normally preceded by prolonged intervals of accelerating creep, are produced by catastrophic and deep-seated slope collapse (loads ˜1-10 MPa). Conventional analyses attribute rapid collapse to unusual mechanisms, such as the vaporization of ground water during sliding. Here, catastrophic collapse is related to self-accelerating rock fracture, common in crustal rocks at loads ˜1-10 MPa and readily catalysed by circulating fluids. Fracturing produces an abrupt drop in resisting stress. Measured stress drops in crustal rock account for minimum sturzstrom volumes and rapid collapse accelerations. Fracturing also provides a physical basis for quantitatively forecasting catastrophic slope failure.

  7. Nutrition in Heart Failure


    Reci Meseri


    Heart failure is defined as decreased ability of heart due to various reasons. It%u2019s seen 2-3% but the prevalence increases sharply after the age of seventy. The objectives of nutrition therapy in heart failure are to prevent from water retention and edema, to avoid from hard digestion and to offer a balanced diet. In order to avoid fluid retention and edema, daily sodium and fluid intake must be monitored carefully. Main dilemma of the heart failure patients is the obesity-cachexia dilem...

  8. Respiratory Failure (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  9. Heart Failure (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  10. Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for Early Detection of Rocky Slopes Movements (United States)

    Minardo, Aldo; Picarelli, Luciano; Coscetta, Agnese; Zeni, Giovanni; Esposito, Giuseppe; Sacchi, Marco; Matano, Fabio; Caccavale, Mauro; Luigi, Zeni


    Distributed optical fiber sensors have in recent years gained considerable attention in structural and environmental monitoring due to specific advantages that, apart from the classical advantages common to all optical fiber sensors such as immunity to electromagnetic interferences, high sensitivity, small size and possibility to be embedded into the structures, multiplexing and remote interrogation capabilities [1], offer the unique feature of allowing the exploitation of a telecommunication grade optical fiber cable as the sensing element to measure deformation and temperature profiles over very long distances. In particular, distributed optical fiber sensors based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) through the so-called Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis (BOTDA), allow to measure strain and temperature profiles up to tens of kilometers with a strain accuracy of ±10µɛ and a temperature accuracy of ±1°C [2]. They have already been successfully employed in the monitoring of large civil and geotechnical structures such as bridges, tunnels, dams, pipelines allowing to identify and localize any kind of failures that can occur during their construction and operation [3,4]. In this paper we present the application of BOTDA to the monitoring of movements in a rocky slope, showing how the sensing optical fiber cable is able to detect the formation and follow the growth of fractures, and to identify their location along the slope, as well. The experimental results have been achieved on a test field located in the area of Naples (Italy), where a single mode optical fiber sensing cable has been deployed along a yellow tuffs slope, by spot gluing the cable with epoxy adhesive. In order to assess the validity of the proposed approach, a few existing cracks have been artificially enlarged and the magnitude and location of the induced strain peaks have been clearly identified by the sensing device. It should be emphasized that, due to the distributed nature of the

  11. Analysis of rainfall-induced slope instability using a field of local factor of safety (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Şener-Kaya, Başak; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.


    Slope-stability analyses are mostly conducted by identifying or assuming a potential failure surface and assessing the factor of safety (FS) of that surface. This approach of assigning a single FS to a potentially unstable slope provides little insight on where the failure initiates or the ultimate geometry and location of a landslide rupture surface. We describe a method to quantify a scalar field of FS based on the concept of the Coulomb stress and the shift in the state of stress toward failure that results from rainfall infiltration. The FS at each point within a hillslope is called the local factor of safety (LFS) and is defined as the ratio of the Coulomb stress at the current state of stress to the Coulomb stress of the potential failure state under the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. Comparative assessment with limit-equilibrium and hybrid finite element limit-equilibrium methods show that the proposed LFS is consistent with these approaches and yields additional insight into the geometry and location of the potential failure surface and how instability may initiate and evolve with changes in pore water conditions. Quantitative assessments applying the new LFS field method to slopes under infiltration conditions demonstrate that the LFS has the potential to overcome several major limitations in the classical FS methodologies such as the shape of the failure surface and the inherent underestimation of slope instability. Comparison with infinite-slope methods, including a recent extension to variably saturated conditions, shows further enhancement in assessing shallow landslide occurrence using the LFS methodology. Although we use only a linear elastic solution for the state of stress with no post-failure analysis that require more sophisticated elastoplastic or other theories, the LFS provides a new means to quantify the potential instability zones in hillslopes under variably saturated conditions using stress-field based methods.

  12. The Hydromechanics of Vegetation for Slope Stabilization (United States)

    Mulyono, A.; Subardja, A.; Ekasari, I.; Lailati, M.; Sudirja, R.; Ningrum, W.


    Vegetation is one of the alternative technologies in the prevention of shallow landslide prevention that occurs mostly during the rainy season. The application of plant for slope stabilization is known as bioengineering. Knowledge of the vegetative contribution that can be considered in bioengineering was the hydrological and mechanical aspects (hydromechanical). Hydrological effect of the plant on slope stability is to reduce soil water content through transpiration, interception, and evapotranspiration. The mechanical impact of vegetation on slope stability is to stabilize the slope with mechanical reinforcement of soils through roots. Vegetation water consumption varies depending on the age and density, rainfall factors and soil types. Vegetation with high ability to absorb water from the soil and release into the atmosphere through a transpiration process will reduce the pore water stress and increase slope stability, and vegetation with deep root anchoring and strong root binding was potentially more significant to maintain the stability of the slope.

  13. Controls on shallow landslide initiation: Diverse hydrologic pathways, 3D failure geometries, and unsaturated soil suctions (United States)

    Reid, Mark; Iverson, Richard; Brien, Dianne; Iverson, Neal; LaHusen, Richard; Logan, Matthew


    Shallow landslides and ensuing debris flows are a common hazard worldwide, yet forecasting their initiation at a specific site is challenging. These challenges arise, in part, from diverse near-surface hydrologic pathways under different wetting conditions, 3D failure geometries, and the effects of suction in partially saturated soils. Simplistic hydrologic models typically used for regional hazard assessment disregard these complexities. As an alterative to field studies where the effects of these governing factors can be difficult to isolate, we used the USGS debris-flow flume to conduct controlled, field-scale landslide initiation experiments. Using overhead sprinklers or groundwater injectors on the flume bed, we triggered failures using three different wetting conditions: groundwater inflow from below, prolonged moderate-intensity precipitation, and bursts of high-intensity precipitation. Failures occurred in 6 m3 (0.65-m thick and 2-m wide) prisms of loamy sand on a 31° slope; these field-scale failures enabled realistic incorporation of nonlinear scale-dependent effects such as soil suction. During the experiments, we monitored soil deformation, variably saturated pore pressures, and moisture changes using ˜50 sensors sampling at 20 Hz. From ancillary laboratory tests, we determined shear strength, saturated hydraulic conductivities, and unsaturated moisture retention characteristics. The three different wetting conditions noted above led to different hydrologic pathways and influenced instrumental responses and failure timing. During groundwater injection, pore-water pressures increased from the bed of the flume upwards into the sediment, whereas prolonged moderate infiltration wet the sediment from the ground surface downward. In both cases, pore pressures acting on the impending failure surface slowly rose until abrupt failure. In contrast, a burst of intense sprinkling caused rapid failure without precursory development of widespread positive pore

  14. Recent and future warm extreme events and high-mountain slope stability. (United States)

    Huggel, C; Salzmann, N; Allen, S; Caplan-Auerbach, J; Fischer, L; Haeberli, W; Larsen, C; Schneider, D; Wessels, R


    The number of large slope failures in some high-mountain regions such as the European Alps has increased during the past two to three decades. There is concern that recent climate change is driving this increase in slope failures, thus possibly further exacerbating the hazard in the future. Although the effects of a gradual temperature rise on glaciers and permafrost have been extensively studied, the impacts of short-term, unusually warm temperature increases on slope stability in high mountains remain largely unexplored. We describe several large slope failures in rock and ice in recent years in Alaska, New Zealand and the European Alps, and analyse weather patterns in the days and weeks before the failures. Although we did not find one general temperature pattern, all the failures were preceded by unusually warm periods; some happened immediately after temperatures suddenly dropped to freezing. We assessed the frequency of warm extremes in the future by analysing eight regional climate models from the recently completed European Union programme ENSEMBLES for the central Swiss Alps. The models show an increase in the higher frequency of high-temperature events for the period 2001-2050 compared with a 1951-2000 reference period. Warm events lasting 5, 10 and 30 days are projected to increase by about 1.5-4 times by 2050 and in some models by up to 10 times. Warm extremes can trigger large landslides in temperature-sensitive high mountains by enhancing the production of water by melt of snow and ice, and by rapid thaw. Although these processes reduce slope strength, they must be considered within the local geological, glaciological and topographic context of a slope.

  15. Slope Estimation from ICESat/GLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Mahoney


    Full Text Available We present a novel technique to infer ground slope angle from waveform LiDAR, known as the independent slope method (ISM. The technique is applied to large footprint waveforms (\\(\\sim\\ mean diameter from the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS to produce a slope dataset of near-global coverage at \\(0.5^{\\circ} \\times 0.5^{\\circ}\\ resolution. ISM slope estimates are compared against high resolution airborne LiDAR slope measurements for nine sites across three continents. ISM slope estimates compare better with the aircraft data (R\\(^{2}=0.87\\ and RMSE\\(=5.16^{\\circ}\\ than the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model (SRTM DEM inferred slopes (R\\(^{2}=0.71\\ and RMSE\\(=8.69^{\\circ}\\ ISM slope estimates are concurrent with GLAS waveforms and can be used to correct biophysical parameters, such as tree height and biomass. They can also be fused with other DEMs, such as SRTM, to improve slope estimates.

  16. Slope Stability Problems and Back Analysis in Heavily Jointed Rock Mass: A Case Study from Manisa, Turkey (United States)

    Akin, Mutluhan


    This paper presents a case study regarding slope stability problems and the remedial slope stabilization work executed during the construction of two reinforced concrete water storage tanks on a steep hill in Manisa, Turkey. Water storage tanks of different capacities were planned to be constructed, one under the other, on closely jointed and deformed shale and sandstone units. The tank on the upper elevation was constructed first and an approximately 20-m cut slope with two benches was excavated in front of this upper tank before the construction of the lower tank. The cut slope failed after a week and the failure threatened the stability of the upper water tank. In addition to re-sloping, a 15.6-m deep contiguous retaining pile wall without anchoring was built to support both the cut slope and the upper tank. Despite the construction of a retaining pile wall, a maximum of 10 mm of displacement was observed by inclinometer measurements due to the re-failure of the slope on the existing slip surface. Permanent stability was achieved after the placement of a granular fill buttress on the slope. Back analysis based on the non-linear (Hoek-Brown) failure criterion indicated that the geological strength index (GSI) value of the slope-forming material is around 21 and is compatible with the in situ-determined GSI value (24). The calculated normal-shear stress plots are also consistent with the Hoek-Brown failure envelope of the rock mass, indicating that the location of the sliding surface, GSI value estimated by back analysis, and the rock mass parameters are well defined. The long-term stability analysis illustrates a safe slope design after the placement of a permanent toe buttress.

  17. Slope of the Slope Derivative Surface used to characterize the complexity of the seafloor around St. John, USVI (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope of slope was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell by applying the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst 'Slope' Tool to a previously created slope...

  18. Hydrologic design for riprap on embankment slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.


    Waste impoundments for uranium tailings and other hazardous substances are often protected by compacted earth and clay, covered with a layer of loose rock (riprap). The report outlines procedures that could be followed to design riprap to withstand forces caused by runoff resulting from extreme rainfall directly on the embankment. The Probable Maximum Precipitation for very small areas is developed from considerations of severe storms of short duration at mid-latitudes. A two-dimensional finite difference model is then used to calculate the runoff from severe rainfall events. The procedure takes into account flow both beneath and above the rock layer and approximates the concentration in flow which could be caused by a non-level or slumped embankment. The sensitivity to various assumptions, such as the shape and size of the rock, the thickness of the layer, and the shape of the embankment, suggests that peak runoff from an armored slope could be attenuated with proper design. Frictional relationships for complex flow regimes are developed on the basis of flow through rock-filled dams and in mountain streams. These relationships are tested against experimental data collected in laboratory flumes; the tests provide excellent results. The resulting runoff is then used in either the Stephenson or safety factor method to find the stable rock diameter. The rock sizes determined by this procedure for a given flow have been compared with data on the failure of rock layers in experimental flumes, again with excellent results. Computer programs are included for implementing the method. 15 refs., 21 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Rapid evolution of the paraglacial Moosfluh rock slope instability (Swiss Alps) captured by Sentinel-1 (United States)

    Manconi, Andrea; Glueer, Franziska; Loew, Simon


    of the most active area, and to define a strategy for the installation of additional in-situ monitoring targets. Thus, we have improved our capability to monitor in near-real-time the evolution of surface displacement, as well as to provide a better interpretation of the ongoing critical phase and to define evolutionary scenarios. Space borne DInSAR for the analysis of unstable slopes is experiencing a new Era. In former times, the combination of poor temporal sampling and rapid evolution of surface displacements has hindered this technique from performing analysis on landslides during critical acceleration phases. Indeed, the time spanning between the acquisition of a robust SAR dataset and the availability of reliable results were in the order months or, in some cases, even years. Nowadays, by leveraging the unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage provided by the ESA Sentinel-1 A and B, the time spanning from data acquisition to the generation of ground displacements has been reduced to weeks or, in some cases, days. Thus, we can now obtain information current stage of the slope instability and also to catch the rapid evolution towards a potential catastrophic failure.

  20. Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings near Slopes Using Lower Bound Limit Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Mofidi rouchi


    Full Text Available Stability of foundations near slopes is one of the important and complicated problems in geotechnical engineering, which has been investigated by various methods such as limit equilibrium, limit analysis, slip-line, finite element and discrete element. The complexity of this problem is resulted from the combination of two probable failures: foundation failure and overall slope failure. The current paper describes a lower bound solution for estimation of bearing capacity of strip footings near slopes. The solution is based on the finite element formulation and linear programming technique, which lead to a collapse load throughout a statically admissible stress field. Three-nodded triangular stress elements are used for meshing the domain of the problem, and stress discontinuities occur at common edges of adjacent elements. The Mohr-Coulomb yield function and an associated flow rule are adopted for the soil behavior. In this paper, the average limit pressure of strip footings, which are adjacent to slopes, is considered as a function of dimensionless parameters affecting the stability of the footing-on-slope system. These parameters, particularly the friction angle of the soil, are investigated separately and relevant charts are presented consequently. The results are compared to some other solutions that are available in the literature in order to verify the suitability of the methodology used in this research.

  1. Analysing hydro-mechanical behaviour of reinforced slopes through centrifuge modelling (United States)

    Veenhof, Rick; Wu, Wei


    Every year, slope instability is causing casualties and damage to properties and the environment. The behaviour of slopes during and after these kind of events is complex and depends on meteorological conditions, slope geometry, hydro-mechanical soil properties, boundary conditions and the initial state of the soils. This study describes the effects of adding reinforcement, consisting of randomly distributed polyolefin monofilament fibres or Ryegrass (Lolium), on the behaviour of medium-fine sand in loose and medium dense conditions. Direct shear tests were performed on sand specimens with different void ratios, water content and fibre or root density, respectively. To simulate the stress state of real scale field situations, centrifuge model tests were conducted on sand specimens with different slope angles, thickness of the reinforced layer, fibre density, void ratio and water content. An increase in peak shear strength is observed in all reinforced cases. Centrifuge tests show that for slopes that are reinforced the period until failure is extended. The location of shear band formation and patch displacement behaviour indicate that the design of slope reinforcement has a significant effect on the failure behaviour. Future research will focus on the effect of plant water uptake on soil cohesion.

  2. Application of FBG Sensing Technology in Stability Analysis of Geogrid-Reinforced Slope. (United States)

    Sun, Yijie; Xu, Hongzhong; Gu, Peng; Hu, Wenjie


    By installing FBG sensors on the geogrids, smart geogrids can both reinforce and monitor the stability for geogrid-reinforced slopes. In this paper, a geogrid-reinforced sand slope model test is conducted in the laboratory and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing technology is used to measure the strain distribution of the geogrid. Based on the model test, the performance of the reinforced soil slope is simulated by finite element software Midas-GTS, and the stability of the reinforced soil slope is analyzed by strength reduction method. The relationship between the geogrid strain and the factor of safety is set up. The results indicate that the measured strain and calculated results agree very well. The geogrid strain measured by FBG sensor can be applied to evaluate the stability of geogrid-reinforced sand slopes.

  3. Contraceptive failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    Most studies focusing on contraceptive failure in relation to pregnancy have focused on contraceptive failure among women having induced abortions, thereby neglecting those women who, despite contraceptive failure, accept the pregnancy and intend to carry the fetus to term. To get a more complete...... picture of the problem of contraceptive failure, this study focuses on contraceptive failure among women with diverse pregnancy outcomes. In all, 3520 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital were included: 373 had induced abortions, 435 had spontaneous abortions, 97 had ectopic pregnancies......, and 2614 received antenatal care. The variables studied comprise age, partner relationship, number of births, occupational and economical situation, and contraceptive use.Contraceptive failure, defined as contraceptive use (condom, diaphragm, IUD, oral contraception, or another modern method...

  4. Assessment and mapping of slope stability based on slope units: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shallow landslide; infinite slope stability equation; return period precipitation; assessment; slope unit. ... 2010), logistic regression ... model to assess the hazard of shallow landslides ..... grating a fuzzy k-means classification and a Bayesian.

  5. Heart Failure


    McMurray, John; Ponikowski, Piotr


    Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure.

  6. Internal waves and temperature fronts on slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Thorpe

    Full Text Available Time series measurements from an array of temperature miniloggers in a line at constant depth along the sloping boundary of a lake are used to describe the `internal surf zone' where internal waves interact with the sloping boundary. More small positive temperature time derivatives are recorded than negative, but there are more large negative values than positive, giving the overall distribution of temperature time derivatives a small negative skewness. This is consistent with the internal wave dynamics; fronts form during the up-slope phase of the motion, bringing cold water up the slope, and the return flow may become unstable, leading to small advecting billows and weak warm fronts. The data are analysed to detect `events', periods in which the temperature derivatives exceed a set threshold. The speed and distance travelled by `events' are described. The motion along the slope may be a consequence of (a instabilities advected by the flow (b internal waves propagating along-slope or (c internal waves approaching the slope from oblique directions. The propagation of several of the observed 'events' can only be explained by (c, evidence that the internal surf zone has some, but possibly not all, the characteristics of the conventional 'surface wave' surf zone, with waves steepening as they approach the slope at oblique angles.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (benthic boundary layers; limnology, Oceanography: physical (internal and inertial waves

  7. Slope Stability. CEGS Programs Publication Number 15. (United States)

    Pestrong, Raymond

    Slope Stability is one in a series of single-topic problem modules intended for use in undergraduate and earth science courses. The module, also appropriate for use in undergraduate civil engineering and engineering geology courses, is a self-standing introduction to studies of slope stability. It has been designed to supplement standard…

  8. Air pocket removal from downward sloping pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.


    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in water pipelines and hydropower tunnels. Water pipelines and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket accumulation in downward sloping reaches, such as inverted siphons or terrain slopes. Air pockets cause energy losses and an

  9. Research on the stability evaluation of slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In order to create the guideline corresponding to a new regulatory standard, such as criteria in the ground-slope stability evaluation method, we have conducted an analysis and discussion of the shaking table test results using a large slope model. As a result, it was found that in that phase of the vertical motion and the horizontal motion affects the amplification characteristics of the ground motion, need to be considered in assessing the safety of the slope and the influence of the phase difference amplification or local. We also conduct a study on countermeasure construction slope by shaking table test, the effect of the countermeasure construction of pile and anchors deterrence could be confirmed. Focusing on the new method can reproduce the behavior of large deformation and discontinuity, with respect to the advancement of slope analysis, we identify issues on the maintenance and code applicability of each analysis method. (author)

  10. Sedimentary dynamics and high-frequency sequence stratigraphy of the southwestern slope of Great Bahama Bank (United States)

    Wunsch, Marco; Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor P.; Lindhorst, Sebastian; Lüdmann, Thomas; Reijmer, John J. G.


    New geophysical data from the leeward slope of Great Bahama Bank show how contour currents shape the slope and induce re-sedimentation processes. Along slope segments with high current control, drift migration and current winnowing at the toe of slope form a deep moat. Here, the slope progradation is inhibited by large channel incisions and the accumulation of large mass transport complexes, triggered by current winnowing. In areas where the slope is bathed by weaker currents, the accumulation of mass transport complexes and channel incision is rather controlled by the position of the sea level. Large slope failures were triggered during the Mid-Pleistocene transition and Mid-Brunhes event, both periods characterized by changes in the cyclicity or the amplitude of sea-level fluctuations. Within the seismic stratigraphic framework of third order sequences, four sequences of higher order were identified in the succession of the upper Pleistocene. These higher order sequences also show clear differences in function of the slope exposure to contour currents. Two stochastic models emphasize the role of the contour currents and slope morphology in the facies distribution in the upper Pleistocene sequences. In areas of high current influence the interplay of erosional and depositional processes form a complex facies pattern with downslope and along strike facies alterations. In zones with lower current influence, major facies alternations occur predominately in downslope direction, and a layer-cake pattern characterizes the along strike direction. Therefore, this study highlights that contour currents are an underestimated driver for the sediment distribution and architecture of carbonate slopes.

  11. Prediction of slope stability using artificial neural network (case study: Noabad, Mazandaran, Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choobbasti, A J; Farrokhzad, F; Barari, A


    Investigations of failures of soil masses are subjects touching both geology and engineering. These investigations call the joint efforts of engineering geologists and geotechnical engineers. Geotechnical engineers have to pay particular attention to geology, ground water, and shear strength of soils in assessing slope stability. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are very sophisticated modeling techniques, capable of modeling extremely complex functions. In particular, neural networks are nonlinear. In this research, with respect to the above advantages, ANN systems consisting of multilayer perceptron networks are developed to predict slope stability in a specified location, based on the available site investigation data from Noabad, Mazandaran, Iran. Several important parameters, including total stress, effective stress, angle of slope, coefficient of cohesion, internal friction angle, and horizontal coefficient of earthquake, were used as the input parameters, while the slope stability was the output parameter. The results are compared with the classical methods of limit equilibrium to check the ANN model's validity. (author)

  12. Slope-scale dynamic states of rockfalls (United States)

    Agliardi, F.; Crosta, G. B.


    Rockfalls are common earth surface phenomena characterised by complex dynamics at the slope scale, depending on local block kinematics and slope geometry. We investigated the nature of this slope-scale dynamics by parametric 3D numerical modelling of rockfalls over synthetic slopes with different inclination, roughness and spatial resolution. Simulations were performed through an original code specifically designed for rockfall modeling, incorporating kinematic and hybrid algorithms with different damping functions available to model local energy loss by impact and pure rolling. Modelling results in terms of average velocity profiles suggest that three dynamic regimes (i.e. decelerating, steady-state and accelerating), previously recognized in the literature through laboratory experiments on granular flows, can set up at the slope scale depending on slope average inclination and roughness. Sharp changes in rock fall kinematics, including motion type and lateral dispersion of trajectories, are associated to the transition among different regimes. Associated threshold conditions, portrayed in "phase diagrams" as slope-roughness critical lines, were analysed depending on block size, impact/rebound angles, velocity and energy, and model spatial resolution. Motion in regime B (i.e. steady state) is governed by a slope-scale "viscous friction" with average velocity linearly related to the sine of slope inclination. This suggest an analogy between rockfall motion in regime B and newtonian flow, whereas in regime C (i.e. accelerating) an analogy with a dilatant flow was observed. Thus, although local behavior of single falling blocks is well described by rigid body dynamics, the slope scale dynamics of rockfalls seem to statistically approach that of granular media. Possible outcomes of these findings include a discussion of the transition from rockfall to granular flow, the evaluation of the reliability of predictive models, and the implementation of criteria for a

  13. Does less frequent routine monitoring of patients on a stable, fully suppressed cART regimen lead to an increased risk of treatment failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda; Sambatakou, Helen


    SIDA study who maintained a stable and fully suppressed cART regimen for 1 year were included in the analysis. METHODS: Risk of treatment failure, defined by viral rebound, fall in CD4 cell count, development of new AIDS-defining illness, serious opportunistic infection or death, in the 12 months following...... interval (CI) 0.1-0.5], 2.2% (95% CI 1.6-2.8) and 6.0% (95% CI 5.0-7.0) risk of treatment failure, respectively. Patients who spent more than 80% of their time on cART with fully suppressed viraemia prior to baseline had a 38% reduced risk of treatment failure, hazard ratio 0.62 (95% CI 0.42-0.90, P = 0...

  14. Comparison of the results of different scale hydrogeological models on a terraced slope of Valtellina (Northern Italy) (United States)

    Camera, C.; Apuani, T.; Masetti, M.; Mele, M.


    The aim of this work was to understand and reproduce the hydrological dynamics of a slope that is terraced by dry-stone retaining walls. At first, the processes of interest were analyzed with a classical 2D unsaturated-saturated finite elements analysis, reproducing the geometry of a single terrace. In a second moment, a raster analysis at the slope scale was performed. The studied slope is located in Valtellina (Northern Italy), near the village of Tresenda, and in the last 30 years it experienced several soil slip/debris flow events that in 1983 caused 18 victims. Direct observation of the events of 1983 permitted to recognize the principal triggering cause of these events in the formation of an overpressure at the base of a dry-stone wall, that caused its failure. Using field tests and monitoring activity as input and calibration data respectively, the 2D model is able to explain the mechanisms of rainfall infiltration that can lead to the formation and evolution of a perched groundwater table at the contact between the bedrock and the walls backfill soil. Once calibrated and validated the model has been used to investigate the influence of different parameters on the studied processes, such as walls height, bedrock slope angle, and changes of both isotropic and anisotropic saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil and wall. From this sensitivity analysis, one of the most interesting results is the ability of the model to well differentiate the behaviour of a well maintained wall with an higher hydraulic conductivity than soil, from a poorly maintained wall that has lost part of its drainage capacity. In fact, only in this latter circumstance significant pore-water pressures can form at the base of the retaining structure. Moving the problem to the slope scale, although the used raster-model takes into account both the unsaturated and saturated components of flux as the 2D model, it is less precise in the description of the processes involved in the formation of

  15. Three-dimensional modelling of slope stability using the Local Factor of Safety concept (United States)

    Moradi, Shirin; Huisman, Sander; Beck, Martin; Vereecken, Harry; Class, Holger


    Slope stability is governed by coupled hydrological and mechanical processes. The slope stability depends on the effective stress, which in turn depends on the weight of the soil and the matrix potential. Therefore, changes in water content and matrix potential associated with infiltration will affect slope stability. Most available models describing these coupled hydro-mechanical processes either rely on a one- or two-dimensional representation of hydrological and mechanical properties and processes, which obviously is a strong simplification in many applications. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop a three-dimensional hydro-mechanical model that is able to capture the effect of spatial and temporal variability of both mechanical and hydrological parameters on slope stability. For this, we rely on DuMux, which is a free and open-source simulator for flow and transport processes in porous media that facilitates coupling of different model approaches and offers flexibility for model development. We use the Richards equation to model unsaturated water flow. The simulated water content and matrix potential distribution is used to calculate the effective stress. We only consider linear elasticity and solve for statically admissible fields of stress and displacement without invoking failure or the redistribution of post-failure stress or displacement. The Local Factor of Safety concept is used to evaluate slope stability in order to overcome some of the main limitations of commonly used methods based on limit equilibrium considerations. In a first step, we compared our model implementation with a 2D benchmark model that was implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics. In a second step, we present in-silico experiments with the newly developed 3D model to show the effect of slope morphology, spatial variability in hydraulic and mechanical material properties, and spatially variable soil depth on simulated slope stability. It is expected that this improved physically

  16. GIS-based seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily (Central Mediterranean) (United States)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco


    Earthquakes often represent very dangerouses natural events in terms of human life and economic losses and their damage effects are amplified by the synchronous occurrence of seismically-induced ground-shaking failures in wide regions around the seismogenic source. In fact, the shaking associated with big earthquakes triggers extensive landsliding, sometimes at distances of more than 100 km from the epicenter. The active tectonics and the geomorphic/morphodinamic pattern of the regions affected by earthquakes contribute to the slopes instability tendency. In fact, earthquake-induced groun-motion loading determines inertial forces activation within slopes that, combined with the intrinsic pre-existing static forces, reduces the slope stability towards its failure. Basically, under zero-shear stress reversals conditions, a catastrophic failure will take place if the earthquake-induced shear displacement exceeds the critical level of undrained shear strength to a value equal to the gravitational shear stress. However, seismic stability analyses carried out for various infinite slopes by using the existing Newmark-like methods reveal that estimated permanent displacements smaller than the critical value should also be regarded as dangerous for the post-earthquake slope safety, in terms of human activities use. Earthquake-induced (often high-speed) landslides are among the most destructive phenomena related to slopes failure during earthquakes. In fact, damage from earthquake-induced landslides (and other ground-failures), sometimes exceeds the buildings/infrastructures damage directly related to ground-shaking for fault breaking. For this matter, several hearthquakes-related slope failures methods have been developed, for the evaluation of the combined hazard types represented by seismically ground-motion landslides. The methodologies of analysis of the engineering seismic risk related to the slopes instability processes is often achieved through the evaluation of the

  17. Wave run-up on sandbag slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamnoon Rasmeemasmuang


    Full Text Available On occasions, sandbag revetments are temporarily applied to armour sandy beaches from erosion. Nevertheless, an empirical formula to determine the wave run -up height on sandbag slopes has not been available heretofore. In this study a wave run-up formula which considers the roughness of slope surfaces is proposed for the case of sandbag slopes. A series of laboratory experiments on the wave run -up on smooth slopes and sandbag slopes were conducted in a regular-wave flume, leading to the finding of empirical parameters for the formula. The proposed empirical formula is applicable to wave steepness ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 and to the thickness of placed sandbags relative to the wave height ranging from 0.17 to 3.0. The study shows that the wave run-up height computed by the formula for the sandbag slopes is 26-40% lower than that computed by the formula for the smooth slopes.

  18. in monitoring slope movements in Nainital, Uttarakhand Lesser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akano Yhokha


    Feb 14, 2018 ... Map showing spatial distribution of PSI MLV values in Nainital town, during August 2008–August 2010. The values are given in ... denial to the very fact that the rainfall-induced ... activities, public service utilities, infrastructure.

  19. Slope Monitoring using Total Station: What are the Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions, pillar beacons (for transfer and ... for example, a solar energy (as shown in figure 4a) or a standby generator. ... If the point is not too high for a hydraulic water hose to reach, the prism can be ...

  20. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report updates a study to examine the cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies. The project was initiated in 1994 to acquire accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of the study is used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers monitored 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers worked with representatives from Husky Oil and Rigel Energy on the development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over eight years indicates that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered thus far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears suffer from high mortality, and the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The research concluded in November 2001 provides sufficient information to accurately asses the status of the grizzly bear population and habitat. The data will be analyzed and integrated in 2002 into models that reflect the variables affecting grizzly bears and a final report will be published.

  1. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition. Volume 2: Mechanics of rolling sphere-soil slope interaction (United States)

    Hovland, H. J.; Mitchell, J. K.


    The soil deformation mode under the action of a rolling sphere (boulder) was determined, and a theory based on actual soil failure mechanism was developed which provides a remote reconnaissance technique for study of soil conditions using boulder track observations. The failure mechanism was investigated by using models and by testing an instrumented spherical wheel. The wheel was specifically designed to measure contact pressure, but it also provided information on the failure mechanism. Further tests included rolling some 200 spheres down sand slopes. Films were taken of the rolling spheres, and the tracks were measured. Implications of the results and reevaluation of the lunar boulder tracks are discussed.

  2. Characterising weak layers that accommodate submarine landslides on the Northwest African continental slope (United States)

    Urlaub, M.; Krastel, S.; Geersen, J.; Schwenk, T.


    Numerous studies invoke weak layers to explain the occurrence of large submarine landslides (>100 km³), in particular those on very gentle slopes (translational, such that failure takes place along bedding-parallel surfaces at different stratigraphic depths. This suggests that failure occurs along weak layers, which are deposited repeatedly over time. Using high resolution seismic reflection data we trace several failure surfaces of the Cap Blanc Slide complex offshore Northwest Africa to ODP-Site 658. Core-seismic integration shows that the failure surfaces coincide with diatom oozes that are topped by clay. Along Northwest Africa diatom-rich sediments are typically deposited at the end of glacial periods. In the seismic data these oozes show up as distinct high amplitude reflectors due to their characteristic low densities. Similar high-amplitude reflectors embedded into low-reflective seismic units are commonly observed in shallow sediments (<100 m below seafloor) along the entire Northwest African continental slope. The failure surfaces of at least three large landslides coincide with such reflectors. As the most recent Pleistocene glacial periods likely influenced sediment deposition along the entire Northwest African margin in a similar manner we hypothesize that diatom oozes play a critical role for the generation of submarine landslides off Northwest Africa as well as globally within subtropical regions. An initiative to drill the Northwest African continental slope with IODP is ongoing, within which this hypothesis shall be tested.

  3. A risk-adjusted O-E CUSUM with monitoring bands for monitoring medical outcomes. (United States)

    Sun, Rena Jie; Kalbfleisch, John D


    In order to monitor a medical center's survival outcomes using simple plots, we introduce a risk-adjusted Observed-Expected (O-E) Cumulative SUM (CUSUM) along with monitoring bands as decision criterion.The proposed monitoring bands can be used in place of a more traditional but complicated V-shaped mask or the simultaneous use of two one-sided CUSUMs. The resulting plot is designed to simultaneously monitor for failure time outcomes that are "worse than expected" or "better than expected." The slopes of the O-E CUSUM provide direct estimates of the relative risk (as compared to a standard or expected failure rate) for the data being monitored. Appropriate rejection regions are obtained by controlling the false alarm rate (type I error) over a period of given length. Simulation studies are conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. A case study is carried out for 58 liver transplant centers. The use of CUSUM methods for quality improvement is stressed. Copyright © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  4. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  5. Rock Slope Design Criteria : Executive Summary Report (United States)


    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, and siltstones that...

  6. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  7. Slope activity in Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.; McEwen, Alfred S.


    High-resolution repeat imaging of Aeolis Mons, the central mound in Gale crater, reveals active slope processes within tens of kilometers of the Curiosity rover. At one location near the base of northeastern Aeolis Mons, dozens of transient narrow lineae were observed, resembling features (Recurring Slope Lineae) that are potentially due to liquid water. However, the lineae faded and have not recurred in subsequent Mars years. Other small-scale slope activity is common, but has different spatial and temporal characteristics. We have not identified confirmed RSL, which Rummel et al. (Rummel, J.D. et al. [2014]. Astrobiology 14, 887–968) recommended be treated as potential special regions for planetary protection. Repeat images acquired as Curiosity approaches the base of Aeolis Mons could detect changes due to active slope processes, which could enable the rover to examine recently exposed material.

  8. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  9. Percent Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Clearing land for agriculture tends to increase soil erosion. The amount of erosion is related to the steepness of the slope, farming methods used and soil type....

  10. Heart Failure (United States)

    ... Other diseases. Chronic diseases — such as diabetes, HIV, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or a buildup of iron (hemochromatosis) or ... transplantation or support with a ventricular assist device. Prevention The key to preventing heart failure is to ...

  11. Assessment of ground-based monitoring techniques applied to landslide investigations (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Smith, A.; Chambers, J.; Dixon, N.; Dijkstra, T.; Haslam, E.; Meldrum, P.; Merritt, A.; Gunn, D.; Mackay, J.


    A landslide complex in the Whitby Mudstone Formation at Hollin Hill, North Yorkshire, UK is periodically re-activated in response to rainfall-induced pore-water pressure fluctuations. This paper compares long-term measurements (i.e., 2009-2014) obtained from a combination of monitoring techniques that have been employed together for the first time on an active landslide. The results highlight the relative performance of the different techniques, and can provide guidance for researchers and practitioners for selecting and installing appropriate monitoring techniques to assess unstable slopes. Particular attention is given to the spatial and temporal resolutions offered by the different approaches that include: Real Time Kinematic-GPS (RTK-GPS) monitoring of a ground surface marker array, conventional inclinometers, Shape Acceleration Arrays (SAA), tilt meters, active waveguides with Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring, and piezometers. High spatial resolution information has allowed locating areas of stability and instability across a large slope. This has enabled identification of areas where further monitoring efforts should be focused. High temporal resolution information allowed the capture of 'S'-shaped slope displacement-time behaviour (i.e. phases of slope acceleration, deceleration and stability) in response to elevations in pore-water pressures. This study shows that a well-balanced suite of monitoring techniques that provides high temporal and spatial resolutions on both measurement and slope scale is necessary to fully understand failure and movement mechanisms of slopes. In the case of the Hollin Hill landslide it enabled detailed interpretation of the geomorphological processes governing landslide activity. It highlights the benefit of regularly surveying a network of GPS markers to determine areas for installation of movement monitoring techniques that offer higher resolution both temporally and spatially. The small sensitivity of tilt meter measurements

  12. Stability of Slopes Reinforced with Truncated Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wei Sun


    Full Text Available Piles are extensively used as a means of slope stabilization. A novel engineering technique of truncated piles that are unlike traditional piles is introduced in this paper. A simplified numerical method is proposed to analyze the stability of slopes stabilized with truncated piles based on the shear strength reduction method. The influential factors, which include pile diameter, pile spacing, depth of truncation, and existence of a weak layer, are systematically investigated from a practical point of view. The results show that an optimum ratio exists between the depth of truncation and the pile length above a slip surface, below which truncating behavior has no influence on the piled slope stability. This optimum ratio is bigger for slopes stabilized with more flexible piles and piles with larger spacing. Besides, truncated piles are more suitable for slopes with a thin weak layer than homogenous slopes. In practical engineering, the piles could be truncated reasonably while ensuring the reinforcement effect. The truncated part of piles can be filled with the surrounding soil and compacted to reduce costs by using fewer materials.

  13. Numerical computation of homogeneous slope stability. (United States)

    Xiao, Shuangshuang; Li, Kemin; Ding, Xiaohua; Liu, Tong


    To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS) to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759) were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS).

  14. Numerical Computation of Homogeneous Slope Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Xiao


    Full Text Available To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759 were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS.

  15. Slope Estimation in Noisy Piecewise Linear Functions. (United States)

    Ingle, Atul; Bucklew, James; Sethares, William; Varghese, Tomy


    This paper discusses the development of a slope estimation algorithm called MAPSlope for piecewise linear data that is corrupted by Gaussian noise. The number and locations of slope change points (also known as breakpoints) are assumed to be unknown a priori though it is assumed that the possible range of slope values lies within known bounds. A stochastic hidden Markov model that is general enough to encompass real world sources of piecewise linear data is used to model the transitions between slope values and the problem of slope estimation is addressed using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori approach. The set of possible slope values is discretized, enabling the design of a dynamic programming algorithm for posterior density maximization. Numerical simulations are used to justify choice of a reasonable number of quantization levels and also to analyze mean squared error performance of the proposed algorithm. An alternating maximization algorithm is proposed for estimation of unknown model parameters and a convergence result for the method is provided. Finally, results using data from political science, finance and medical imaging applications are presented to demonstrate the practical utility of this procedure.

  16. Automatic approach to deriving fuzzy slope positions (United States)

    Zhu, Liang-Jun; Zhu, A.-Xing; Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Jun-Zhi


    Fuzzy characterization of slope positions is important for geographic modeling. Most of the existing fuzzy classification-based methods for fuzzy characterization require extensive user intervention in data preparation and parameter setting, which is tedious and time-consuming. This paper presents an automatic approach to overcoming these limitations in the prototype-based inference method for deriving fuzzy membership value (or similarity) to slope positions. The key contribution is a procedure for finding the typical locations and setting the fuzzy inference parameters for each slope position type. Instead of being determined totally by users in the prototype-based inference method, in the proposed approach the typical locations and fuzzy inference parameters for each slope position type are automatically determined by a rule set based on prior domain knowledge and the frequency distributions of topographic attributes. Furthermore, the preparation of topographic attributes (e.g., slope gradient, curvature, and relative position index) is automated, so the proposed automatic approach has only one necessary input, i.e., the gridded digital elevation model of the study area. All compute-intensive algorithms in the proposed approach were speeded up by parallel computing. Two study cases were provided to demonstrate that this approach can properly, conveniently and quickly derive the fuzzy slope positions.

  17. Analysis of slope slip surface case study landslide road segment Purwantoro-Nawangan/Bts Jatim Km 89+400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnomo, Joko Sidik; Purwana, Yusep Muslih; Surjandari, Niken Silmi


    Wonogiri is a region of south eastern part of Central Java province which borders with East Java and Yogyakarta Province. In Physiographic its mostly undulating hills so that the frequent occurrence of landslides, especially during the rainy season. Landslide disaster that just happened that on the road segment Purwantoro-Nawangan / Bts Jatim Km 89 + 400 were included in the authority of the Highways Department of Central Java Province. During this time, Error analysis of slope stability is not caused by a lot of presumption shape of slip surface, but by an error in determining the location of the critical slip surface. This study aims to find the shape and location slip surface landslide on segment Purwantoro - Nawangan Km 89 + 400 with the interpretation of soil test results. This research method is with the interpretation of CPT test and Bore Hole as well as modeling use limit equilibrium method and finite element method. Processing contours of the slopes in the landslide area resulted in three cross section that slopes A-A, B-B and C-C which will be modeling the slopes. Modeling slopes with dry and wet conditions at the third cross section slope. It was found that the form of the slope slip surface are known to be composite depth 1.5-2 m with safety factor values more than 1.2 (stable) when conditions are dry slopes. But its became failure with factor of safety < 0.44 when conditions are wet slopes. (paper)

  18. Combined rock slope stability and shallow landslide susceptibility assessment of the Jasmund cliff area (Rügen Island, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Günther


    Full Text Available In this contribution we evaluated both the structurally-controlled failure susceptibility of the fractured Cretaceous chalk rocks and the topographically-controlled shallow landslide susceptibility of the overlying glacial sediments for the Jasmund cliff area on Rügen Island, Germany. We employed a combined methodology involving spatially distributed kinematical rock slope failure testing with tectonic fabric data, and both physically- and inventory-based shallow landslide susceptibility analysis. The rock slope failure susceptibility model identifies areas of recent cliff collapses, confirming its value in predicting the locations of future failures. The model reveals that toppling is the most important failure type in the Cretaceous chalk rocks of the area. The shallow landslide susceptibility analysis involves a physically-based slope stability evaluation which utilizes material strength and hydraulic conductivity data, and a bivariate landslide susceptibility analysis exploiting landslide inventory data and thematic information on ground conditioning factors. Both models show reasonable success rates when evaluated with the available inventory data, and an attempt was made to combine the individual models to prepare a map displaying both terrain instability and landslide susceptibility. This combination highlights unstable cliff portions lacking discrete landslide areas as well as cliff sections highly affected by past landslide events. Through a spatial integration of the rock slope failure susceptibility model with the combined shallow landslide assessment we produced a comprehensive landslide susceptibility map for the Jasmund cliff area.

  19. Effects of tibial slope changes in the stability of fixed bearing medial unicompartmental arthroplasty in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees. (United States)

    Suero, Eduardo M; Citak, Musa; Cross, Michael B; Bosscher, Marianne R F; Ranawat, Anil S; Pearle, Andrew D


    Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency may have increased failure rates with UKA as a result of abnormal contact stresses and altered knee kinematics. Variations in the slope of the tibial component in UKA may alter tibiofemoral translation, and affect outcomes. This cadaveric study evaluated tibiofemoral translation during the Lachman and pivot shift tests after changing the slope of a fixed bearing unicondylar tibial component. Sectioning the ACL increased tibiofemoral translation in both the Lachman and pivot shift tests (Pslope leveling (decreasing the posterior slope) of the polyethylene insert in a UKA decreases anteroposterior tibiofemoral translation in the sagittal plane to a magnitude similar to that of the intact knee. With 8° of tibial slope leveling, anterior tibial translation during the Lachman test decreased by approximately 5mm. However, no variation in slope altered the pivot shift kinematics in the ACL deficient knees. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Slippery Slope Argument in the Ethical Debate on Genetic Engineering of Humans. (United States)

    Walton, Douglas


    This article applies tools from argumentation theory to slippery slope arguments used in current ethical debates on genetic engineering. Among the tools used are argumentation schemes, value-based argumentation, critical questions, and burden of proof. It is argued that so-called drivers such as social acceptance and rapid technological development are also important factors that need to be taken into account alongside the argumentation scheme. It is shown that the slippery slope argument is basically a reasonable (but defeasible) form of argument, but is often flawed when used in ethical debates because of failures to meet the requirements of its scheme.

  1. Effects of Rainfall Characteristics on the Stability of Tropical Residual Soil Slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahardjo Harianto


    Full Text Available Global climate change has a significant impact on rainfall characteristics, sea water level and groundwater table. Changes in rainfall characteristics may affect stability of slopes and have severe impacts on sustainable urban living. Information on the intensity, frequency and duration of rainfall is often required by geotechnical engineers for performing slope stability analyses. Many seepage analyses are commonly performed using the most extreme rainfall possible which is uneconomical in designing a slope repair or slope failure preventive measure. In this study, the historical rainfall data were analyzed and investigated to understand the characteristics of rainfall in Singapore. The frequency distribution method was used to estimate future rainfall characteristics in Singapore. New intensity-duration-frequency (IDF curves for rainfall in Singapore were developed for six different durations (10, 20, 30 min and 1, 2 and 24 h and six frequencies (2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years. The new IDF curves were used in the seepage and slope stability analyses to determine the variation of factor of safety of residual soil slopes under different rainfall intensities in Singapore.

  2. Saturated and unsaturated stability analysis of slope subjected to rainfall infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gofar Nurly


    Full Text Available This paper presents results of saturated and unsaturated stability analysis of typical residual slopes subjected to rainfall infiltration corresponds to 50 years rainfall return period. The slope angles considered were 45° and 70°. The saturated stability analyses were carried out for original and critical ground water level commonly considered by practicing engineer. The analyses were conducted using limit equilibrium method. Unsaturated stability analyses used combination of coupled stress–pore-water pressure analysis to evaluate the effect of rainfall infiltration on the deformation and transient pore-water pressure on slope stability. Slope stability analyses were performed at some times during and after rainfall infiltration. Results show that the critical condition for slope made by sandy material was at the end of rainfall while for clayey material was at some specified times after the rainfall ceased. Unsaturated stability analysis on sandy soil gives higher factor of safety because the soil never reached saturation. Transient analysis using unsaturated soil concept could predict more critical condition of delayed failure of slopes made up of clayey soil.

  3. Nutrition in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reci Meseri


    Full Text Available Heart failure is defined as decreased ability of heart due to various reasons. It%u2019s seen 2-3% but the prevalence increases sharply after the age of seventy. The objectives of nutrition therapy in heart failure are to prevent from water retention and edema, to avoid from hard digestion and to offer a balanced diet. In order to avoid fluid retention and edema, daily sodium and fluid intake must be monitored carefully. Main dilemma of the heart failure patients is the obesity-cachexia dilemma. Since one of the main reasons of heart failure is cardiovascular diseases, in first phase, the patient may be obese. In the later phases, cachexia may show up. It was shown that cachexia is associated with mortality. Within this period, patients should not be over-fed and the patient should pass from catabolic state to anabolic state slowly. If the gastrointestinal track is functional oral/enteral feeding must be preferred. Multi vitamin and mineral supportsmay be beneficial, which may replace the increased loss, increase anti-inflammatory response and be anti-oxidants. Large, controlled and well-designed studies must be conducted in order to evaluate the benefits of nutritional practices such as nutritional assessment, enteral feeding and nutrient supports in heart failure patients.

  4. Rock Mass Classification of Karstic Terrain in the Reservoir Slopes of Tekeze Hydropower Project (United States)

    Hailemariam Gugsa, Trufat; Schneider, Jean Friedrich


    Hydropower reservoirs in deep gorges usually experience slope failures and mass movements. History also showed that some of these projects suffered severe landslides, which left lots of victims and enormous economic loss. Thus, it became vital to make substantial slope stability studies in such reservoirs to ensure safe project development. This study also presents a regional scale instability assessment of the Tekeze Hydropower reservoir slopes. Tekeze hydropower project is a newly constructed double arch dam that completed in August 2009. It is developed on Tekeze River, tributary of Blue Nile River that runs across the northern highlands of Ethiopia. It cuts a savage gorge 2000m deep, the deepest canyon in Africa. The dam is the highest dam in Ethiopia at 188m, 10 m higher than China's Three Gorges Dam. It is being developed by Chinese company at a cost of US350M. The reservoir is designed at 1140 m elevation, as retention level to store more than 9000 million m3 volume of water that covers an area of 150 km2, mainly in channel filling form. In this study, generation of digital elevation model from ASTER satellite imagery and surface field investigation is initially considered for further image processing and terrain parameters' analyses. Digitally processed multi spectral ASTER ortho-images drape over the DEM are used to have different three dimensional perspective views in interpreting lithological, structural and geomorphological features, which are later verified by field mapping. Terrain slopes are also delineated from the relief scene. A GIS database is ultimately developed to facilitate the delineation of geotechnical units for slope rock mass classification. Accordingly, 83 geotechnical units are delineated and, within them, 240 measurement points are established to quantify in-situ geotechnical parameters. Due to geotechnical uncertainties, four classification systems; namely geomorphic rock mass strength classification (RMS), slope mass rating (SMR

  5. Computation and Analysis of High Rocky Slope Safety in a Water Conservancy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yang


    Full Text Available An integrated method, covering the actual monitoring analysis, practical geological model, and theoretical mathematical simulation model, is systematically proposed and successfully applied. Deformation characteristic of a unique high rocky slope was firstly analyzed from multiple angles and multiple layers by changeable elevations and distances. Arrangements of monitoring points were listed and monitoring equipment was designed to comprise a complete monitoring system. Present larger displacement was concluded for bottom larger displacement caused by water erosion and middle larger displacement formed by seepage. Temporal and spatial displacements rule study of multiple-points linkage effects with water factor proved this conclusion. To better excavate useful message and analyze the deep rule from the practical monitoring data, the slope geological model was conducted and rock mechanic parameters were researched. Finally, a unique three-dimensional finite element model was applied to approach the structure character using numerical simulations. The corresponding strength criterion was used to determine the safety coefficient by selecting a typical section. Subsequently, an integrated three-dimensional finite element model of the slope and dam was developed and more detailed deformation evolution mechanism was revealed. This study is expected to provide a powerful and systematic method to analyze very high, important, and dangerous slopes.

  6. Role of slope on infiltration: A review (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Govindaraju, Rao S.


    Partitioning of rainfall at the soil-atmosphere interface is important for both surface and subsurface hydrology, and influences many events of major hydrologic interest such as runoff generation, aquifer recharge, and transport of pollutants in surface waters as well as the vadose zone. This partitioning is achieved through the process of infiltration that has been widely investigated at the local scale, and more recently also at the field scale, by models that were designed for horizontal surfaces. However, infiltration, overland flows, and deep flows in most real situations are generated by rainfall over sloping surfaces that bring in additional effects. Therefore, existing models for local infiltration into homogeneous and layered soils and those as for field-scale infiltration, have to be adapted to account for the effects of surface slope. Various studies have investigated the role of surface slope on infiltration based on a theoretical formulations for the dynamics of infiltration, extensions of the Green-Ampt approach, and from laboratory and field experiments. However, conflicting results have been reported in the scientific literature on the role of surface slope on infiltration. We summarize the salient points from previous studies and provide plausible reasons for discrepancies in conclusions of previous authors, thus leading to a critical assessment of the current state of our understanding on this subject. We offer suggestions for future efforts to advance our knowledge of infiltration over sloping surfaces.

  7. Decision Guide for Roof Slope Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, T.R.


    This decision guide has been written for personnel who are responsible for the design, construction, and replacement of Air Force roofs. It provides the necessary information and analytical tools for making prudent and cost-effective decisions regarding the amount of slope to provide in various roofing situations. Because the expertise and experience of the decision makers will vary, the guide contains both basic slope-related concepts as well as more sophisticated technical data. This breadth of information enables the less experienced user to develop an understanding of roof slope issues before applying the more sophisticated analytical tools, while the experienced user can proceed directly to the technical sections. Although much of this guide is devoted to the analysis of costs, it is not a cost-estimating document. It does, however, provide the reader with the relative costs of a variety of roof slope options; and it shows how to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of different options. The selection of the proper roof slope coupled with good roof design, a quality installation, periodic inspection, and appropriate maintenance and repair will achieve the Air Force's objective of obtaining the best possible roofing value for its buildings.

  8. Long-Term Drainage from the Riprap Side Slope of a Surface Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang


    Surface barriers designed to isolate underground nuclear waste in place are expected to function for at least 1000 years. To achieve this long design life, such barriers need to be protected with side slopes against wind- and water-induced erosion and damage by natural or human activities. However, the side slopes are usually constructed with materials coarser than the barrier. Their hydrological characteristics must be understood so that any drainage from them is considered in the barrier design and will not compromise the barrier function. The Prototype Hanford Barrier, an evapotranspiration-capillary (ETC) barrier, was constructed in 1994 at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state, with a gravel side slope and a riprap side slope. The soil water content in the gravel side slope and drainage from both side slopes have been monitored since the completion of construction. The monitoring results show that under natural precipitation the annual drainage rates from the two types of side slopes were very similar and about 5 times the typical recharge from local soil with natural vegetation and 40 times the barrier design criterion. The higher recharge from the side slopes results in some of the drainage migrating laterally to the region beneath the ETC barrier. This edge effect of the enhanced drainage was evaluated for a period of 1000 years by numerical simulation. The edge effect was quantified by the amount of water across the barrier edges and the affecting distance of the barrier edges. These results indicate that design features can be adjusted to reduce the edge effect when necessary.

  9. Bioengineering case studies sustainable stream bank and slope stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Wendi; McCullah, John


    This unique volume describes and evaluates 30 projects from across the United States where bio-stabilization was employed to address a detrimental naturally occurring process or byproduct of the built environment. Bio-stabilization (or soil bioengineering) refers to the use of plant materials, primarily live cuttings, arranged in the ground in different arrays to reinforce soils and protect upland slopes and/or stream banks against surficial erosion and shallow slope failures. Examples included in the collection represent different regions of the country and their specific conditions and challenges. Each project is illustrated with a number of distinctive photographs to support the reader's understanding and showcase the wide scope of projects and techniques presented. This book also: ·         Presents a range of well-documented case studies on key techniques and best practices for bio-stabilization projects ·         Emphasizes evaluation and comparison of different techniques and challeng...

  10. Soil slips and debris flows on terraced slopes (United States)

    Crosta, G. B.; Dal Negro, P.; Frattini, P.

    Terraces cover large areas along the flanks of many alpine and prealpine valleys. Soil slips and soil slips-debris flows are recurrent phenomena along terraced slopes. These landslides cause damages to people, settlements and cultivations. This study investigates the processes related to the triggering of soil slip-debris flows in these settings, analysing those occurred in Valtellina (Central Alps, Italy) on November 2000 after heavy prolonged rainfalls. 260 landslides have been recognised, mostly along the northern valley flank. About 200 soil slips and slumps occurred in terraced areas and a third of them evolved into debris flows. Field work allowed to recognise the settings at soil slip-debris flow source areas. Landslides affected up to 2.5 m of glacial, fluvioglacial and anthropically reworked deposits overlying metamorphic basement. Laboratory and in situ tests allowed to characterise the geotechnical and hydraulic properties of the terrains involved in the initial failure. Several stratigraphic and hydrogeologic factors have been individuated as significant in determining instabilities on terraced slopes. They are the vertical changes of physical soil properties, the presence of buried hollows where groundwater convergence occurs, the rising up of perched groundwater tables, the overflow and lateral infiltration from superficial drainage network, the runoff concentration by means of pathways and the insufficient drainage of retaining walls.

  11. Soil-root Shear Strength Properties of Some Slope Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normaniza Osman; Mohamad Nordin Abdullah; Faisal Haji Ali


    Rapid development in hilly areas in Malaysia has become a trend that put a stress to the sloping area. It reduces the factor of safety by reducing the resistant force and therefore leads to slope failure. Vegetation plays a big role in reinforcement functions via anchoring the soils and forms a binding network within the soil layer that tied the soil masses together. In this research, three plant species namely Acacia mangium, Dillenia suffruticosa and Leucaena leucocaphala were assessed in term of their soil-root shear strength properties. Our results showed that Acacia mangium had the highest shear strength values, 30.4 kPa and 50.2 kPa at loads 13.3 kPa and 24.3 kPa, respectively. Leucaena leucocaphala showed the highest in cohesion factor, which was almost double the value in those of Dillenia suffruticosa and Acacia mangium. The root profile analysis indicated Dillenia suffruticosa exhibited the highest values in both root length density and root volume, whilst Leucaena leucocaphala had the highest average of root diameter. (author)

  12. The great slippery-slope argument. (United States)

    Burgess, J A


    Whenever some form of beneficent killing--for example, voluntary euthanasia--is advocated, the proposal is greeted with a flood of slippery-slope arguments warning of the dangers of a Nazi-style slide into genocide. This paper is an attempt systematically to evaluate arguments of this kind. Although there are slippery-slope arguments that are sound and convincing, typical formulations of the Nazi-invoking argument are found to be seriously deficient both in logical rigour and in the social history and psychology required as a scholarly underpinning. As an antidote, an attempt is made both to identify some of the likely causes of genocide and to isolate some of the more modest but legitimate fears that lie behind slippery-slope arguments of this kind.

  13. On Front Slope Stability of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.


    The short communication presents application of the conventional Van der Meer stability formula for low-crested breakwaters for the prediction of front slope erosion of statically stable berm breakwaters with relatively high berms. The method is verified (Burcharth, 2008) by comparison...... with the reshaping of a large Norwegian breakwater exposed to the North Sea waves. As a motivation for applying the Van der Meer formula a discussion of design parameters related to berm breakwater stability formulae is given. Comparisons of front erosion predicted by the use of the Van der Meer formula with model...... test results including tests presented in Sigurdarson and Van der Meer (2011) are discussed. A proposal is presented for performance of new model tests with the purpose of developing more accurate formulae for the prediction of front slope erosion as a function of front slope, relative berm height...

  14. The logarithmic slope in diffractive DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay Ducati, M.B.; Goncalves, V.P.; Machado, M.V.T.


    The logarithmic slope of diffractive structure function is a potential observable to separate the hard and soft contributions in diffraction, allowing to disentangle the QCD dynamics at small-x region. In this paper we extend our previous analyzes and calculate the diffractive logarithmic slope for three current approaches in the literature: (i) the Bartels-Wusthoff model, based on perturbative QCD, (ii) the CKMT model, based on Regge theory and (iii) the Golec-Biernat-Wusthoff model which assumes that the saturation phenomena is present in the HERA kinematic region. We analyze the transition region of small to large momentum transfer and verify that future experimental results on the diffractive logarithmic slope could discriminate between these approaches

  15. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  16. Hydrologic response across a snow persistence gradient on the west and east slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado (United States)

    Richard, G. A.; Hammond, J. C.; Kampf, S. K.; Moore, C. D.; Eurich, A.


    Snowpack trend analyses and modeling studies suggest that lower elevation snowpacks in mountain regions are most sensitive to drought and warming temperatures, however, in Colorado, most snow monitoring occurs in the high elevations where snow lasts throughout the winter and most streamflow monitoring occurs at lower elevations. The lack of combined snow and streamflow monitoring in watersheds along the transition from intermittent to persistent snow creates a gap in our understanding of snowmelt and runoff within the intermittent-persistent snow transition. Expanded hydrologic monitoring that spans the gradient of snow conditions in Colorado can help improve streamflow prediction and inform land and water managers. This study established hydrologic monitoring watersheds in intermittent, transitional, and persistent snow zones on the east slope and west slope of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, and uses this monitoring network to improve understanding of how snow accumulation and melt affect soil moisture and streamflow generation under different snow conditions. We monitored six small watersheds (three west slope, three east slope) (0.8 to 3.9 km2) that drain intermittent, transitional, and persistent snow zones. At each site, we measured: streamflow, snow depth, soil moisture, precipitation, air temperature, and snow water equivalent (SWE). In our first season of monitoring, the west slope persistent and transitional sites had more mid-winter melt and infiltration, shorter snowpack duration, and lower peak SWE than the east slope sites. Snow cover remained at the east slope persistent site into June, whereas much of the snow at the persistent site on the west slope had already melted by early June. The difference in soil water input likely has consequences for streamflow response that we will continue to examine in future years. At the west slope intermittent site, the stream did not flow during the entire first year of monitoring, while at the east slope

  17. The great slippery-slope argument.


    Burgess, J A


    Whenever some form of beneficent killing--for example, voluntary euthanasia--is advocated, the proposal is greeted with a flood of slippery-slope arguments warning of the dangers of a Nazi-style slide into genocide. This paper is an attempt systematically to evaluate arguments of this kind. Although there are slippery-slope arguments that are sound and convincing, typical formulations of the Nazi-invoking argument are found to be seriously deficient both in logical rigour and in the social hi...

  18. Reclamation of slopes left after surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmitko, J [Banske Projekty, Teplice (Czech Republic)


    Discusses land reclamation of abandoned slopes from brown coal surface mining in the North Bohemian brown coal basin in the Czech Republic. Problems associated with reclamation of landslide areas in two former coal mines are evaluated: the Otokar mine in Kostany (mining from 1956 to 1966) and the CSM mine in Pozorka (mining from 1955 to 1967). Land reclamation was introduced 25 years after damage occurred. The following aspects are analyzed: hydrogeologic conditions, range of landslides, types of rocks in landslide areas, water conditions, methods for stabilizing slopes, safety aspects.

  19. Slope movements triggered by heavy rainfall, November 3–5, 1985, in Virginia and West Virginia, U.S.A. (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Cron, Elizabeth D.; McGeehin, John P.


    Study of slope movements triggered by the storm of November 3–5, 1985, in the central Appalachian Mountains, U.S.A., has helped to define the meteorologic conditions leading to slope movements and the relative importance of land cover, bedrock, surficial geology, and geomorphology in slope movement location. This long-duration rainfall at moderate intensities triggered more than 1,000 slope movements in a 1,040-km2 study area. Most were shallow slips and slip-flows in thin colluvium and residuum on shale slopes. Locations of these failures were sensitive to land cover and slope aspect but were relatively insensitive to topographic setting. A few shallow slope movements were triggered by the same rainfall on interbedded limestone, shale, and sandstone. Several large debris slide-avalanches were triggered in sandstone regolith high on ridges in areas of the highest measured rainfall. Most of these sites were on slopes that dip 30 to 35° and lie parallel to bedding planes, presumably the sites of least stability.

  20. Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA and Southern Great Plains (SGP Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Barnard


    Full Text Available Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD from Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR measurements, have exhibited excellent performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon and when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported MFRSR and NIMFR data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999–2012 aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

  1. Subsurface Characterization using Geophysical Seismic Refraction Survey for Slope Stabilization Design with Soil Nailing (United States)

    Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Ng, Soon Min; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd; Madun, Aziman


    The application of geophysical seismic refraction for slope stabilization design using soil nailing method was demonstrated in this study. The potential weak layer of the study area is first identify prior to determining the appropriate length and location of the soil nail. A total of 7 seismic refraction survey lines were conducted at the study area with standard procedures. The refraction data were then analyzed by using the Pickwin and Plotrefa computer software package to obtain the seismic velocity profiles distribution. These results were correlated with the complementary borehole data to interpret the subsurface profile of the study area. It has been identified that layer 1 to 3 is the potential weak zone susceptible to slope failure. Hence, soil nails should be installed to transfer the tensile load from the less stable layer 3 to the more stable layer 4. The soil-nail interaction will provide a reinforcing action to the soil mass thereby increasing the stability of the slope.

  2. Monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.


    An improved monitoring apparatus for use with process plants, such as nuclear reactors, is described. System failure in the acquisition of data from the plant, owing to stuck signals, is avoided by arranging input signals from transducers in the plant in a test pattern. (U.K.)

  3. Types of Heart Failure (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  4. Classes of Heart Failure (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and Advanced HF • Tools and Resources • Personal Stories Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (United States)


    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and... connected to the slope or shaft opening with fireproof air ducts; (3) Designed to permit the reversal of the...

  6. Influence of volcanic history on groundwater patterns on the west slope of the Oregon High Cascades. (United States)

    A. Jefferson; G. Grant; T. Rose


    Spring systems on the west slope of the Oregon High Cascades exhibit complex relationships among modern topography, lava flow geometries, and groundwater flow patterns. Seven cold springs were continuously monitored for discharge and temperature in the 2004 water year, and they were periodically sampled for ?18O, ?D, tritium, and dissolved noble gases. Anomalously high...

  7. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations (United States)

    Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Apostolou, Evangelia; Papavgeri, Georgia; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles


    The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions. This paper presents an integrated data management system which was developed over a number of years as well as the advantages through a specific application. The presented case study illustrates how the high production slopes of a mine that exceed depths of 100-120 m were successfully mined with an average displacement rate of 10- 20 mm/day, approaching an almost slow to moderate landslide velocity. Monitoring data of the past four years are included in the database and can be analyzed to produce valuable results. Time-series data correlations of movements, precipitation records, etc. are evaluated and presented in this case study. The results can be used to successfully manage mine operations and ensure the safety of the mine and the workforce.

  8. Reorienting with terrain slope and landmarks. (United States)

    Nardi, Daniele; Newcombe, Nora S; Shipley, Thomas F


    Orientation (or reorientation) is the first step in navigation, because establishing a spatial frame of reference is essential for a sense of location and heading direction. Recent research on nonhuman animals has revealed that the vertical component of an environment provides an important source of spatial information, in both terrestrial and aquatic settings. Nonetheless, humans show large individual and sex differences in the ability to use terrain slope for reorientation. To understand why some participants--mainly women--exhibit a difficulty with slope, we tested reorientation in a richer environment than had been used previously, including both a tilted floor and a set of distinct objects that could be used as landmarks. This environment allowed for the use of two different strategies for solving the task, one based on directional cues (slope gradient) and one based on positional cues (landmarks). Overall, rather than using both cues, participants tended to focus on just one. Although men and women did not differ significantly in their encoding of or reliance on the two strategies, men showed greater confidence in solving the reorientation task. These facts suggest that one possible cause of the female difficulty with slope might be a generally lower spatial confidence during reorientation.

  9. Interrill soil erosion processes on steep slopes (United States)

    To date interrill erosion processes and regimes are not fully understood. The objectives are to 1) identify the erosion regimes and limiting processes between detachment and transport on steep slopes, 2) characterize the interactive effects between rainfall intensity and flow depth on sediment trans...

  10. A Novel Way To Practice Slope. (United States)

    Kennedy, Jane B.


    Presents examples of using a tic-tac-toe format to practice finding the slope and identifying parallel and perpendicular lines from various equation formats. Reports the successful use of this format as a review in both precalculus and calculus classes before students work with applications of analytic geometry. (JRH)

  11. Health-related quality of life in a multicenter randomized controlled comparison of telephonic disease management and automated home monitoring in patients recently hospitalized with heart failure: SPAN-CHF II trial. (United States)

    Konstam, Varda; Gregory, Douglas; Chen, Jie; Weintraub, Andrew; Patel, Ayan; Levine, Daniel; Venesy, David; Perry, Kathleen; Delano, Christine; Konstam, Marvin A


    Although disease management programs have been shown to provide a number of clinical benefits to patients with heart failure (HF), the incremental impact of an automated home monitoring (AHM) system on health-related quality of life (HRQL) is unknown. We performed a prospective randomized investigation, examining the additive value of AHM to a previously described nurse-directed HF disease management program (SPAN-CHF), with attention to HRQL, in patients with a recent history of decompensated HF. A total of 188 patients were randomized to receive the SPAN-CHF intervention for 90 days, either with (AHM group) or without (NAHM, standard-care group) AHM, with a 1:1 randomization ratio after HF-related hospitalization. HRQL, measured by the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) (Physical, Emotional, and Total scores on MLHFQ) was assessed at 3 time points: baseline, 45 days, and 90 days. Although both treatments (AHM and NAHM) improved HRQL at 45 and 90 days compared with baseline with respect to Physical, Emotional, and Total domain scales, no significant difference emerged between AHM and NAHM groups. AHM and NAHM treatments demonstrated improved HRQL scores at 45 and 90 days after baseline assessment. When comparing 2 state-of the-art disease management programs regarding HRQL outcomes, our results did not support the added value of AHM. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Sliding surface searching method for slopes containing a potential weak structural surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Yao


    Full Text Available Weak structural surface is one of the key factors controlling the stability of slopes. The stability of rock slopes is in general concerned with set of discontinuities. However, in soft rocks, failure can occur along surfaces approaching to a circular failure surface. To better understand the position of potential sliding surface, a new method called simplex-finite stochastic tracking method is proposed. This method basically divides sliding surface into two parts: one is described by smooth curve obtained by random searching, the other one is polyline formed by the weak structural surface. Single or multiple sliding surfaces can be considered, and consequently several types of combined sliding surfaces can be simulated. The paper will adopt the arc-polyline to simulate potential sliding surface and analyze the searching process of sliding surface. Accordingly, software for slope stability analysis using this method was developed and applied in real cases. The results show that, using simplex-finite stochastic tracking method, it is possible to locate the position of a potential sliding surface in the slope.

  13. Failure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, A.F.; Crespi, J.C.


    After ten years of operation at the Atucha I Nuclear Power Station a gear belonging to a pressurized heavy water reactor refuelling machine, failed. The gear box was used to operate the inlet-outlet heavy-water valve of the machine. Visual examination of the gear device showed an absence of lubricant and that several gear teeth were broken at the root. Motion was transmitted with a speed-reducing device with controlled adjustable times in order to produce a proper fitness of the valve closure. The aim of this paper is to discuss the results of the gear failure analysis in order to recommend the proper solution to prevent further failures. (Author)

  14. What impact do anxiety, depression, perceived control and technology capability have on whether patients with chronic heart failure take-up or continue to use home tele-monitoring services? Study design of ADaPT-HF. (United States)

    Crundall-Goode, Amanda; Goode, Kevin M; Clark, Andrew L


    Home tele-monitoring (HTM) is used to monitor the clinical signs and symptoms of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) in order to reduce unplanned hospital admissions. However, not all patients who are referred will agree to use HTM, and some patients choose to withdraw early from its use. ADaPT-HF will investigate whether depression, anxiety, low perceived control, reduced technology capability, level of education, age or the severity or complexity of a patient's illness can predict refusal of, or early withdrawal from, HTM in patients with CHF. The study will recruit 288 patients who have been recently admitted to hospital with heart failure who have been referred for HTM. At the time of referral, patients will complete depression (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (seven-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder questionnaire), perceived control (eight-item revised Controlled Attitudes Scale) and technology capability (ten-item Technology Readiness Index 2.0) screening questionnaires. In addition, data on demographics, diagnosis, clinical examination, socio-economic status, history of comorbidities, medication, biochemistry and haematology will be recorded. The primary outcome will be a composite of refusal of or early withdrawal from HTM. The principle analysis will be made using logistic regression. By establishing which factors influence a patient's decision to refuse or withdraw early from HTM, it may be possible to redesign HTM referral processes. It may be that patients with CHF who also have depression, anxiety, low control and poor technology skills should not be referred until they receive appropriate support or that they should be managed differently when they do receive HTM. The results of ADAPT-HF may provide a way of making more efficient and cost-effective use of HTM services.

  15. Infiltration on sloping terrain and its role on runoff generation and slope stability (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.; Johnson, J. Michael


    A modified Green-and-Ampt model is formulated to quantify infiltration on sloping terrain underlain by homogeneous soil wetted by surficial water application. This paper's theory for quantifying infiltration relies on the mathematical statement of the coupled partial differential equations (pdes) governing infiltration and runoff. These pdes are solved by employing an explicit finite-difference numerical method that yields the infiltration, the infiltration rate, the depth to the wetting front, the rate of runoff, and the depth of runoff everywhere on the slope during external wetting. Data inputs consist of a water application rate or the rainfall hyetograph of a storm of arbitrary duration, soil hydraulic characteristics and antecedent moisture, and the slope's hydraulic and geometric characteristics. The presented theory predicts the effect an advancing wetting front has on slope stability with respect to translational sliding. This paper's theory also develops the 1D pde governing suspended sediment transport and slope degradation caused by runoff influenced by infiltration. Three examples illustrate the application of the developed theory to calculate infiltration and runoff on a slope and their role on the stability of cohesive and cohesionless soils forming sloping terrain.

  16. The TrialsTracker: Automated ongoing monitoring of failure to share clinical trial results by all major companies and research institutions. (United States)

    Powell-Smith, Anna; Goldacre, Ben


    Background : Failure to publish trial results is a prevalent ethical breach with a negative impact on patient care. Audit is an important tool for quality improvement. We set out to produce an online resource that automatically identifies the sponsors with the best and worst record for failing to share trial results. Methods: A tool was produced that identifies all completed trials from, searches for results in the registry and on PubMed, and presents summary statistics for each sponsor online. Results : The TrialsTracker tool is now available. Results are consistent with previous publication bias cohort studies using manual searches. The prevalence of missing studies is presented for various classes of sponsor. All code and data is shared. Discussion: We have designed, built, and launched an easily accessible online service, the TrialsTracker, that identifies sponsors who have failed in their duty to make results of clinical trials available, and which can be maintained at low cost. Sponsors who wish to improve their performance metrics in this tool can do so by publishing the results of their trials.

  17. Eros: Shape, topography, and slope processes (United States)

    Thomas, P.C.; Joseph, J.; Carcich, B.; Veverka, J.; Clark, B.E.; Bell, J.F.; Byrd, A.W.; Chomko, R.; Robinson, M.; Murchie, S.; Prockter, L.; Cheng, A.; Izenberg, N.; Malin, M.; Chapman, C.; McFadden, L.A.; Kirk, R.; Gaffey, M.; Lucey, P.G.


    Stereogrammetric measurement of the shape of Eros using images obtained by NEAR's Multispectral Imager provides a survey of the major topographic features and slope processes on this asteroid. This curved asteroid has radii ranging from 3.1 to 17.7 km and a volume of 2535 ?? 20 km3. The center of figure is within 52 m of the center of mass provided by the Navigation team; this minimal difference suggests that there are only modest variations in density or porosity within the asteroid. Three large depressions 10, 8, and 5.3 km across represent different stages of degradation of large impact craters. Slopes on horizontal scales of ???300 m are nearly all less than 35??, although locally scarps are much steeper. The area distribution of slopes is similar to those on Ida, Phobos, and Deimos. Regions that have slopes greater than 25?? have distinct brighter markings and have fewer large ejecta blocks than do flatter areas. The albedo patterns that suggest downslope transport of regolith have sharper boundaries than those on Phobos, Deimos, and Gaspra. The morphology of the albedo patterns, their lack of discrete sources, and their concentration on steeper slopes suggest transport mechanisms different from those on the previously well-observed small bodies, perhaps due to a reduced relative effectiveness of impact gardening on Eros. Regolith is also transported in talus cones and in connected, sinuous paths extending as much as 2 km, with some evident as relatively darker material. Talus material in at least one area is a discrete superposed unit, a feature not resolved on other small bodies. Flat-floored craters that apparently contain ponded material also suggest discrete units that are not well mixed by impacts. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  18. Assessment of slope stability, Kemmerer Coal Company pit 1-U-D, Frontier, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visca, P J; Call, R D


    This paper presents the results of a study to generate probability of failure schedules for use in an economic optimization analysis. The main objectives of the study were assessment of the possible modes of instability, calculation of the attendant degree of instability for each mode, and final compilation of probability of failure schedules for use in the economic optimization programme. The University of Arizona provided the mine plan configurations from which slope geometries for analysis were determined. (Available from Micromedia Ltd., 144 Front Street West, Toronto, Ontario M5J 1G2, Canada. Quote Contract No. OSQ77-00036)

  19. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope


    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo


    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering t...

  20. Inversion kinematics at deep-seated gravity slope deformations revealed by trenching techniques


    Pasquaré Mariotto, Federico; Tibaldi, Alessandro


    We compare data from three deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) where palaeoseismological techniques were applied in artificial trenches. At all trenches, located in metamorphic rocks of the Italian Alps, there is evidence of extensional deformation given by normal movements along slip planes dipping downhill or uphill, and/or fissures, as expected in gravitational failure. However, we document and illustrate – with the aid of trenching – evidenc...

  1. Instrumental record of debris flow initiation during natural rainfall: Implications for modeling slope stability (United States)

    Montgomery, D.R.; Schmidt, K.M.; Dietrich, W.E.; McKean, J.


    The middle of a hillslope hollow in the Oregon Coast Range failed and mobilized as a debris flow during heavy rainfall in November 1996. Automated pressure transducers recorded high spatial variability of pore water pressure within the area that mobilized as a debris flow, which initiated where local upward flow from bedrock developed into overlying colluvium. Postfailure observations of the bedrock surface exposed in the debris flow scar reveal a strong spatial correspondence between elevated piezometric response and water discharging from bedrock fractures. Measurements of apparent root cohesion on the basal (Cb) and lateral (Cl) scarp demonstrate substantial local variability, with areally weighted values of Cb = 0.1 and Cl = 4.6 kPa. Using measured soil properties and basal root strength, the widely used infinite slope model, employed assuming slope parallel groundwater flow, provides a poor prediction of hydrologie conditions at failure. In contrast, a model including lateral root strength (but neglecting lateral frictional strength) gave a predicted critical value of relative soil saturation that fell within the range defined by the arithmetic and geometric mean values at the time of failure. The 3-D slope stability model CLARA-W, used with locally observed pore water pressure, predicted small areas with lower factors of safety within the overall slide mass at sites consistent with field observations of where the failure initiated. This highly variable and localized nature of small areas of high pore pressure that can trigger slope failure means, however, that substantial uncertainty appears inevitable for estimating hydrologie conditions within incipient debris flows under natural conditions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Effect of changing slope of grain on ash, maple, and yellow birch in bending strength (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; James J. Bridwell; Timothy C. Nelson


    The presence of slope of grain (SoG) in wood can severely reduce the bending strength in wood. Failure to recognize the degree to which SoG can reduce strength can be catastrophic if wood is in single member use. In the United States, a growing concern in the sport of baseball relates to the high frequency of multi-piece broken wood bats. It was observed that hard...

  3. Geotechnical characteristics and stability analysis of rock-soil aggregate slope at the Gushui Hydropower Station, southwest China. (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-wen; Shi, Chong; Xu, Fu-gang


    Two important features of the high slopes at Gushui Hydropower Station are layered accumulations (rock-soil aggregate) and multilevel toppling failures of plate rock masses; the Gendakan slope is selected for case study in this paper. Geological processes of the layered accumulation of rock and soil particles are carried out by the movement of water flow; the main reasons for the toppling failure of plate rock masses are the increasing weight of the upper rock-soil aggregate and mountain erosion by river water. Indoor triaxial compression test results show that, the cohesion and friction angle of the rock-soil aggregate decreased with the increasing water content; the cohesion and the friction angle for natural rock-soil aggregate are 57.7 kPa and 31.3° and 26.1 kPa and 29.1° for saturated rock-soil aggregate, respectively. The deformation and failure mechanism of the rock-soil aggregate slope is a progressive process, and local landslides will occur step by step. Three-dimensional limit equilibrium analysis results show that the minimum safety factor of Gendakan slope is 0.953 when the rock-soil aggregate is saturated, and small scale of landslide will happen at the lower slope.

  4. Seismic stability analysis of rock slopes by yield design theory using the generalized Hoek-Brown criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belghali Mounir


    Full Text Available The stability of rock slope is studied using the kinematic approach of yield design theory, under the condition of plane strain and by considering the last version of the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. This criterion, which is suitable to intact rock or rock mass highly fractured regarded as isotropic and homogeneous, is widely accepted by the rock mechanics community and has been applied in numerous projects around the world. The failure mechanism used to implement the kinematic approach is a log-spiral rotational mechanism. The stability analysis is carried out under the effects of gravity forces and a surcharge applied along the upper plateau of the slope. To take account of the effects of forces developed in the rock mass during the passage of a seismic wave, the conventional pseudo-static method is adopted. This method is often used in slope stability study for its simplicity and efficiency to simulate the seismic forces. The results found are compared with published numerical solutions obtained from other approaches. The comparison showed that the results are almost equal. The maximum error found is less than 1%, indicating that this approach is effective for analyzing the stability of rock slopes. The relevance of the approach demonstrated, investigations are undertaken to study the influence of some parameters on the stability of the slope. These parameters relate to the mechanical strength of the rock, slope geometry and loading.

  5. Tracking snowmelt in the subsurface: time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging on an alpine hill slope. (United States)

    Thayer, D.; Parsekian, A.; Hyde, K.; Beverly, D.; Speckman, H. N.; Ewers, B. E.


    In the mountain West region the winter snowpack provides more than 70% of our annual water supply. Modeling and predicting the timing and magnitude of snowmelt-driven water yield is difficult due to the complexities of hydrologic systems that move meltwater from snow to rivers. Particular challenges are understanding the temporal and spatial domain of subsurface hydraulic processes at relevant scales, which range from points to catchments. Subsurface characterization often requires borehole instrumentation, which is expensive and extremely difficult to install in remote, rugged terrain. Advancements in non-invasive geophysical methods allow us to monitor changes in geophysical parameters over time and infer changes in hydraulic processes. In the No-Name experimental catchment in the Medicine Bow National Forest in Wyoming, we are conducting a multi-season, time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging survey on a sub-alpine hill slope. This south-facing, partially forested slope ranges from 5 degrees to 35 degrees in steepness and consists of a soil mantle covering buried glacial talus deposits of unknown depth. A permanent grid of down-slope and cross-slope electrode arrays is monitored up to four times a day. The arrays span the entire vertical distance of the slope, from an exposed bedrock ridge to a seasonal drainage below, and cover treed and non-treed areas. Geophysical measurements are augmented by temperature and moisture time-series instrumented below the surface in a contiguous 3 meter borehole. A time-series of multiple resistivity models each day from May to July shows the changing distribution of subsurface moisture during a seasonal drying sequence punctuated by isolated rain events. Spatial patterns of changing moisture indicate that soil and gravel in the top two meters drain into a saturated layer parallel to the slope which overlies less saturated material. These results suggest that water from snowmelt and rain events tends to move down-slope beneath

  6. The Effect of Saturation on the Slope Sliding in the San Juan de Grijalva Comunity, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora-Ortiz R.S.


    Full Text Available A number of slopes that have been stable during many years may fail when an extraordinary rain period occurs. This phenomenon involves not only the lithology, the geometric and the mechanical characteristics of the slope but also the rain-evaporation-infiltration regime of the site. In this paper, the stability of a slope in the comunity of San Juan de Grijalva, Ostuacán, Chiapas (Mexico that failed during an intense raining period is analyzed. The volume of this slide was over 5 millions of cubics meters of soil and it produced the obstruction of the Grijalva river. The stratigraphic and geometric properties of the slope were determined and undisturbed samples were obtained in the site to determine the mechanical properties of the material. The stability analysis considered the variation of the cohesion of the soil caused by wetting and it was possible to observe the evolution of the safety factor with the water content of the material. Through the analysis of the rain infiltration and the stability of the slope, it has been possible to reproduce the failure process.

  7. Effect of variations in rainfall intensity on slope stability in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofer Kristo


    Full Text Available Numerous scientific evidence has given credence to the true existence and deleterious impacts of climate change. One aspect of climate change is the variations in rainfall patterns, which affect the flux boundary condition across ground surface. A possible disastrous consequence of this change is the occurrence of rainfall-induced slope failures. This paper aims to investigate the variations in rainfall patterns in Singapore and its effect on slope stability. Singapore's historical rainfall data from Seletar and Paya Lebar weather stations for the period of 1985–2009 were obtained and analysed by duration using linear regression. A general increasing trend was observed in both weather stations, with a possible shift to longer duration rainfall events, despite being statistically insignificant according to the Mann-Kendall test. Using the derived trends, projected rainfall intensities in 2050 and 2100 were used in the seepage and slope stability analyses performed on a typical residual soil slope in Singapore. A significant reduction in factor of safety was observed in the next 50 years, with only a marginal decrease in factor of safety in the subsequent 50 years. This indicates a possible detrimental effect of variations in rainfall patterns on slope stability in Singapore, especially in the next 50 years. The statistical analyses on rainfall data from Seletar and Paya Lebar weather stations for the period of 1985–2009 indicated that rainfall intensity tend to increase over the years, with a possible shift to longer duration rainfall events in the future. The stability analyses showed a significant decrease in factor of safety from 2003 to 2050 due to increase in rainfall intensity, suggesting that a climate change might have existed beyond 2009 with possibly detrimental effects to slope stability. Keywords: Climate change, Rainfall, Seepage, Slope stability

  8. The role of Soil Water Retention Curve in slope stability analysis in unsaturated and heterogeneous soils. (United States)

    Antinoro, Chiara; Arnone, Elisa; Noto, Leonardo V.


    The mechanisms of rainwater infiltration causing slope instability had been analyzed and reviewed in many scientific works. Rainwater infiltration into unsaturated soil increases the degree of saturation, hence affecting the shear strength properties and thus the probability of slope failure. It has been widely proved that the shear strength properties change with the soil water suction in unsaturated soils; therefore, the accuracy to predict the relationship between soil water content and soil water suction, parameterized by the soil-water characteristic curve, has significant effects on the slope stability analysis. The aim of this study is to investigate how the characterization of SWRC of differently structured unsaturated soils affects the slope stability on a simple infinite slope. In particular, the unimodal and bimodal distributions of the soil pore size were compared. Samples of 40 soils, highly different in terms of structure and texture, were collected and used to calibrate two bimodal SWRCs, i.e. Ross and Smettem (1993) and Dexter et al., (2008). The traditional unimodal van Genuchten (1980) model was also applied for comparison. Slope stability analysis was conducted in terms of Factor of Safety (FS) by applying the infinite slope model for unsaturated soils. In the used formulation, the contribution of the suction effect is tuned by a parameter 'chi' in a rate proportional to the saturation conditions. Different parameterizations of this term were also compared and analyzed. Results indicated that all three SWRC models showed good overall performance in fitting the sperimental SWRCs. Both the RS and DE models described adequately the water retention data for soils with a bimodal behavior confirmed from the analysis of pore size distribution, but the best performance was obtained by DE model confirmed. In terms of FS, the tree models showed very similar results as soil moisture approached to the saturated condition; however, within the residual zone

  9. Restitution slope is principally determined by steady-state action potential duration. (United States)

    Shattock, Michael J; Park, Kyung Chan; Yang, Hsiang-Yu; Lee, Angela W C; Niederer, Steven; MacLeod, Kenneth T; Winter, James


    steady-state APD may contribute to the failure of restitution slope to predict sudden cardiac death. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology

  10. Application of underground microseismic monitoring for ground failure and secure longwall coal mining operation: A case study in an Indian mine (United States)

    Ghosh, G. K.; Sivakumar, C.


    Longwall mining technique has been widely used around the globe due to its safe mining process. However, mining operations are suspended when various problems arise like collapse of roof falls, cracks and fractures propagation in the roof and complexity in roof strata behaviors. To overcome these colossal problems, an underground real time microseismic monitoring technique has been implemented in the working panel-P2 in the Rajendra longwall underground coal mine at South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL), India. The target coal seams appears at the panel P-2 within a depth of 70 m to 76 m. In this process, 10 to 15 uniaxial geophones were placed inside a borehole at depth range of 40 m to 60 m located over the working panel-P2 with high rock quality designation value for better seismic signal. Various microseismic events were recorded with magnitude ranging from -5 to 2 in the Richter scale. The time-series processing was carried out to get various seismic parameters like activity rate, potential energy, viscosity rate, seismic moment, energy index, apparent volume and potential energy with respect to time. The used of these parameters helped tracing the events, understanding crack and fractures propagation and locating both high and low stress distribution zones prior to roof fall occurrence. In most of the cases, the events were divided into three stage processes: initial or preliminary, middle or building, and final or falling. The results of this study reveal that underground microseismic monitoring provides sufficient prior information of underground weighting events. The information gathered during the study was conveyed to the mining personnel in advance prior to roof fall event. This permits to take appropriate action for safer mining operations and risk reduction during longwall operation.

  11. Tibial slope correction combined with second revision ACL produces good knee stability and prevents graft rupture. (United States)

    Dejour, David; Saffarini, Mo; Demey, Guillaume; Baverel, Laurent


    Revision ACL reconstruction requires careful analysis of failure causes particularly in cases of two previous graft ruptures. Intrinsic factors as excessive tibial slope or narrow femoral notch increase failure risks but are rarely addressed in revision surgery. The authors report outcomes, at minimum follow-up of 2 years, for second revision ACL reconstructions combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy for correction of excessive slope (>12°). Nine patients that underwent second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy were retrospectively studied. The mean age was 30.3 ± 4.4 years (median 28; range 26-37), and mean follow-up was 4.0 ± 2.0 years (median 3.6; range 2.0-7.6). Autografts were harvested from the quadriceps tendon (n = 8) or hamstrings (n = 1), and tibial osteotomy was done by anterior closing wedge, without detachment of the patellar tendon, to obtain a slope of 3° to 5°. All patients had fused osteotomies, stable knees, and there were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The mean posterior tibial slope decreased from 13.2° ± 2.6° (median 13°; range 12°-18°) preoperatively to 4.4° ± 2.3° (median 4°; range 2°-8°) postoperatively. The mean Lysholm score was 73.8 ± 5.8 (median 74; range 65-82), and the IKDC-SKF was 71.6 ± 6.1 (median 72.8; range 62.2-78.5). The satisfactory results of second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy at minimum follow-up of 2 years suggest that tibia slope correction protects reconstructed ACL from fatigue failure in this study. The authors stress the importance of careful analysis failure causes prior to revision ACL reconstruction, and recommend correction of tibial slope if it exceeds 12°, to reduce the risks of graft retear. III.

  12. Wildlife response on the Alaska North Slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanzo, D.; McKenzie, B.


    Recognizing the need for a comprehensive plan to deal with potentially oiled wildlife on the Alaskan North Slope, a multifaceted wildlife protection strategy was developed and implemented during 1991. The strategy incorporated all aspects of wildlife response including protection of critical habitat, hazing, capture and stabilization, long term rehabilitation, and release. The primary wildlife response strategy emphasizes controlling of the release and spreading of spilled oil at the source to prevent or reduce contamination of potentially affected species and/or their habitat. A secondary response strategy concentrates on keeping potentially affected wildlife away from an oiled area through the use of deterrent techniques. Tertiary response involves the capture and treatment of oiled wildlife. Implementation of the strategy included the development of specialized training, the procurement of equipment, and the construction of a bird stabilization center. The result of this initiative is a comprehensive wildlife response capability on the Alaskan North Slope. 1 ref., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Pipeline modeling and assessment in unstable slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Carlos Nieves [Oleoducto Central S.A., Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia); Ordonez, Mauricio Pereira [SOLSIN S.A.S, Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia)


    The OCENSA pipeline system is vulnerable to geotechnical problems such as faults, landslides or creeping slopes, which are well-known in the Andes Mountains and tropical countries like Colombia. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pipe behaviour during the soil displacements of slow landslides. Three different cases of analysis are examined, according to site characteristics. The process starts with a simplified analytical model and develops into 3D finite element numerical simulations applied to the on-site geometry of soil and pipe. Case 1 should be used when the unstable site is subject to landslides impacting significant lengths of pipeline, pipeline is straight, and landslide is simple from the geotechnical perspective. Case 2 should be used when pipeline is straight and landslide is complex (creeping slopes and non-conventional stabilization solutions). Case 3 should be used if the pipeline presents vertical or horizontal bends.

  14. Evaluation of Surface Slope Irregularity in Linear Parabolic Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Francini


    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology, very simple in its application, for measuring surface irregularities of linear parabolic collectors. This technique was principally developed to be applied in cases where it is difficult to use cumbersome instruments and to facilitate logistic management. The instruments to be employed are a digital camera and a grating. If the reflector surface is defective, the image of the grating, reflected on the solar collector, appears distorted. Analyzing the reflected image, we can obtain the local slope of the defective surface. These profilometric tests are useful to identify and monitor the mirror portions under mechanical stress and to estimate the losses caused by the light rays deflected outside the absorber.

  15. Slope parameters of ππ-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, P.S.; Osipov, A.A.


    The slope parameters of the ππ-system are calculated in the framework of the superconductor-tupe quark model. The analogous calculations are made for πK-system. The amplitudes are obtained by using the box quark diagrams and tree diagrams with the intermediate scalar epsilon(700), Ssup(x)(975), K tilde (1350) mesons and vector rho(770), K* (892) mesons

  16. Slope Hazard and Risk Assessment in the Tropics: Malaysia' Experience (United States)

    Mohamad, Zakaria; Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Ahmad, Ferdaus; Manap, Mohamad Abdul; Ramli, Zamri; Ahmad, Azhari; Mohamed, Zainab


    The increasing number of geological hazards in Malaysia has often resulted in casualties and extensive devastation with high mitigation cost. Given the destructive capacity and high frequency of disaster, Malaysia has taken a step forward to address the multi-scale landslide risk reduction emphasizing pre-disaster action rather than post-disaster reaction. Slope hazard and risk assessment in a quantitative manner at regional and national scales remains challenging in Malaysia. This paper presents the comprehensive methodology framework and operational needs driven by modern and advanced geospatial technology to address the aforementioned issues in the tropics. The Slope Hazard and Risk Mapping, the first national project in Malaysia utilizing the multi-sensor LIDAR has been critically implemented with the support of multi- and trans-disciplinary partners. The methodological model has been formulated and evaluated given the complexity of risk scenarios in this knowledge driven project. Instability slope problems in the urban, mountainous and tectonic landscape are amongst them, and their spatial information is of crucial for regional landslide assessment. We develop standard procedures with optimal parameterization for susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment in the selected regions. Remarkably, we are aiming at producing an utmost complete landslide inventory in both space and time. With the updated reliable terrain and landscape models, the landslide conditioning factor maps can be accurately derived depending on the landslide types and failure mechanisms which crucial for hazard and risk assessment. We also aim to improve the generation of elements at risk for landslide and promote integrated approaches for a better disaster risk analysis. As a result, a new tool, notably multi-sensor LIDAR technology is a very promising tool for an old geological problem and its derivative data for hazard and risk analysis is an effective preventive measure in Malaysia

  17. Stability of sulfur slopes on Io (United States)

    Clow, G. D.; Carr, M. H.


    The mechanical properties of elemental sulfur are such that the upper crust of Io cannot be primarily sulfur. For heat flows in the range 100-1000 ergs/sq cm sec sulfur becomes ductile within several hundred meters of the surface and would prevent the formation of calderas with depths greater than this. However, the one caldera for which precise depth data are available is 2 km deep, and this value may be typical. A study of the mechanical equilibrium of simple slopes shows that the depth to the zone of rapid ductile flow strongly controls the maximum heights for sulfur slopes. Sulfur scarps with heights greater than 1 km will fail for all heat flows greater than 180 ergs/sq cm sec and slope angles greater than 22.5 deg. The observed relief on Io is inconsistent with that anticipated for a predominantly sulfur crust. However, a silicate crust with several percent sulfur included satisfies both the mechanical constraints and the observed presence of sulfur on Io.

  18. Stability of nuclear crater slopes in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Robert W.; Frandsen, Alton D.; LaFrenz, Robert L.


    The United States Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group was established in 1962 to participate with the Atomic Energy Commission in a joint research and development program to develop nuclear engineering and construction technology. A major part of this research effort has been devoted to studies of the engineering properties of craters. The program to date has included field investigations of crater properties in various media over a broad range of chemical and nuclear explosive yields, studies of man-made and natural slopes, and studies directed toward the development of analytical and empirical methods of crater stability analysis. From this background, a general understanding has been developed of the effects of a cratering explosion on the surrounding medium and of physical nature of the various crater zones which are produced. The stability of nuclear crater slopes has been a subject of prime interest in the feasibility study being conducted for an Atlantic-Pacific sea-level canal. Based on experimental evidence assembled to date, nuclear crater slopes in dry dock and dry alluvium have an initially stable configuration. There have been five nuclear craters produced to date with yields of 0.4 kt or more on which observations are based and the initial configurations of these craters have remained stable for over seven years. The medium, yield, crater dimensions, and date of event for these craters are summarized. It is interesting to note that the Sedan Crater has been subjected to strong seismic motions from nearby detonations without adverse effects

  19. Geosynthetic clay liners - slope stability field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, D.A.; Daniel, D.E.; Koerner, R.M.; Bonaparte, R.


    A field research project was developed to examine the internal shear performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). Several combinations of cross sections were assembled using GCL materials that were available at the time of project initiation. The cross sections utilized were intended to simulate landfill cover applications. Thirteen (13) resulting test plots were constructed on two different slope angles, and each plot is instrumented for physical displacement and soil moisture characteristics. Test plots were constructed in a manner that dictated the shear plane in the clay portion of the GCL product. The project purpose is to assess field performance and to verify design parameters associated with the application of GCLs in waste containment applications. Interim research data shows that test slopes on 2H:1V show global deformation, but little internal shear evidence, and the 3H:1V slopes show little deformation at approximately 650 days. The research is ongoing, and this paper presents the most recent information available from the project

  20. Stability of nuclear crater slopes in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Robert W; Frandsen, Alton D; LaFrenz, Robert L [U.S. Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The United States Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group was established in 1962 to participate with the Atomic Energy Commission in a joint research and development program to develop nuclear engineering and construction technology. A major part of this research effort has been devoted to studies of the engineering properties of craters. The program to date has included field investigations of crater properties in various media over a broad range of chemical and nuclear explosive yields, studies of man-made and natural slopes, and studies directed toward the development of analytical and empirical methods of crater stability analysis. From this background, a general understanding has been developed of the effects of a cratering explosion on the surrounding medium and of physical nature of the various crater zones which are produced. The stability of nuclear crater slopes has been a subject of prime interest in the feasibility study being conducted for an Atlantic-Pacific sea-level canal. Based on experimental evidence assembled to date, nuclear crater slopes in dry dock and dry alluvium have an initially stable configuration. There have been five nuclear craters produced to date with yields of 0.4 kt or more on which observations are based and the initial configurations of these craters have remained stable for over seven years. The medium, yield, crater dimensions, and date of event for these craters are summarized. It is interesting to note that the Sedan Crater has been subjected to strong seismic motions from nearby detonations without adverse effects.

  1. High slope waste dumps – a proven possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Svrkota


    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of dumping operations on High Slope Waste Dump at Veliki Krivelj open pit copper mine, RTB Bor, Serbia. The High Slope Waste Dump in Bor is the highest single slope waste dump in the world with the slope height of 405 m. The paper gives the basics and limitations of the designed dumping technology, the redesigned technology, gives an overview of the 13 year long operation and gathered experiences and addresses the main issues of dumping operations in high slope conditions as well as the present condition of the High Slope Waste Dump.

  2. Macroscopic fluorescence imaging: a novel technique to monitor retention and distribution of injected microspheres in an experimental model of ischemic heart failure. (United States)

    Martens, Andreas; Rojas, Sebastian V; Baraki, Hassina; Rathert, Christian; Schecker, Natalie; Hernandez, Sara Rojas; Schwanke, Kristin; Zweigerdt, Robert; Martin, Ulrich; Saito, Shunsuke; Haverich, Axel; Kutschka, Ingo


    The limited effectiveness of cardiac cell therapy has generated concern regarding its clinical relevance. Experimental studies show that cell retention and engraftment are low after injection into ischemic myocardium, which may restrict therapy effectiveness significantly. Surgical aspects and mechanical loss are suspected to be the main culprits behind this phenomenon. As current techniques of monitoring intramyocardial injections are complex and time-consuming, the aim of the study was to develop a fast and simple model to study cardiac retention and distribution following intramyocardial injections. For this purpose, our main hypothesis was that macroscopic fluorescence imaging could adequately serve as a detection method for intramyocardial injections. A total of 20 mice underwent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for myocardial infarction. Fluorescent microspheres with cellular dimensions were used as cell surrogates. Particles (5 × 10(5)) were injected into the infarcted area of explanted resting hearts (Ex vivo myocardial injetions EVMI, n = 10) and in vivo into beating hearts (In vivo myocardial injections IVMI, n = 10). Microsphere quantification was performed by fluorescence imaging of explanted organs. Measurements were repeated after a reduction to homogenate dilutions. Cardiac microsphere retention was 2.78 × 10(5) ± 0.31 × 10(5) in the EVMI group. In the IVMI group, cardiac retention of microspheres was significantly lower (0.74 × 10(5) ± 0.18 × 10(5); pfluorescence imaging revealed venous drainage through the coronary sinus, resulting in a microsphere accumulation in the left (0.90 × 10(5) ± 0.20 × 10(5)) and the right (1.07 × 10(5) ± 0.17 × 10(5)) lung. Processing to homogenates involved further particle loss (pfluorescence imaging method for biodistribution analysis which enabled the quantification of fluorescent microspheres after intramyocardial delivery using macroscopic fluorescence imaging. This new technique

  3. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of serum B-type natriuretic peptide testing and monitoring in patients with heart failure in primary and secondary care: an evidence synthesis, cohort study and cost-effectiveness model. (United States)

    Pufulete, Maria; Maishman, Rachel; Dabner, Lucy; Mohiuddin, Syed; Hollingworth, William; Rogers, Chris A; Higgins, Julian; Dayer, Mark; Macleod, John; Purdy, Sarah; McDonagh, Theresa; Nightingale, Angus; Williams, Rachael; Reeves, Barnaby C


    Heart failure (HF) affects around 500,000 people in the UK. HF medications are frequently underprescribed and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)-guided therapy may help to optimise treatment. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of BNP-guided therapy compared with symptom-guided therapy in HF patients. Systematic review, cohort study and cost-effectiveness model. A literature review and usual care in the NHS. (a) HF patients in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of BNP-guided therapy; and (b) patients having usual care for HF in the NHS. Systematic review : BNP-guided therapy or symptom-guided therapy in primary or secondary care. Cohort study : BNP monitored (≥ 6 months' follow-up and three or more BNP tests and two or more tests per year), BNP tested (≥ 1 tests but not BNP monitored) or never tested. Cost-effectiveness model : BNP-guided therapy in specialist clinics. Mortality, hospital admission (all cause and HF related) and adverse events; and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for the cost-effectiveness model. Systematic review : Individual participant or aggregate data from eligible RCTs. Cohort study : The Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Hospital Episode Statistics and National Heart Failure Audit (NHFA). A systematic literature search (five databases, trial registries, grey literature and reference lists of publications) for published and unpublished RCTs. Five RCTs contributed individual participant data (IPD) and eight RCTs contributed aggregate data (1536 participants were randomised to BNP-guided therapy and 1538 participants were randomised to symptom-guided therapy). For all-cause mortality, the hazard ratio (HR) for BNP-guided therapy was 0.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 1.04]. Patients who were aged Chris A Rogers' and Maria Pufulete's time contributing to the study. Syed Mohiuddin's time is supported by the NIHR Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care West at University

  4. Slope stabilization guide for Minnesota local government engineers. (United States)


    This user guide provides simple, costeffective methods for stabilizing locally maintained slopes along roadways in Minnesota. Eight slope stabilization techniques are presented that local government engineers can undertake using locally available ...

  5. Stability of the slopes around nuclear power plants in earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi


    The evaluation of the stability of the slopes around the buildings of nuclear power plants is important especially with respect to earthquakes. In this connection, the behavior of a slope up to its destruction and the phenomena of the destruction have been examined in the case of an earthquake by both experiment and numerical analysis. The purpose is to obtain the data for the establishment of a method for evaluating the seismic stability of a slope and of the slope design standards. The following results are described: the behavior of a slope and its destruction characteristics in the slope destruction experiment simulating the seismic coefficient method; the vibration of a slope and its destruction characteristics in vibration destruction experiment; the validity of the method of numerical simulation analysis and of stability evaluation for the slope destruction and the vibration destruction experiments, and quantitative destruction mechanism; the comparison of the various stability evaluation methods and the evaluation of seismic forces. (Mori, K.)

  6. VT Lidar Slope (1.6 meter) - 2012 - Addison County (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Addison County 2012 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  7. VT Lidar Slope (2 meter) - 2012 - Bennington County (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Bennington County 2012 2.0m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  8. VT Lidar Slope (1.6 meter) - 2010 - Missisquoi Upper (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This metadata applies to the following collection area(s): Missisquoi Upper 2010 1.6m and related SLOPE datasets. Created using ArcGIS "SLOPE"...

  9. Time-Lapse Monitoring of an Engineering Scaled Excavation at Federal District, Brazil by Passive Ambient NoiseInterferometry (United States)

    Cárdenas-Soto, M., Sr.; Hussain, Y.; Martinez-Carvajal, H., Sr.; Martino, S., Sr.; Rocha, M., Sr.


    Understanding the dynamics of stress relief mechanisms that lead to complete material collapse of unstable slopes is challenging. This research is focused on the novel use of Passive Ambient Noise Interferometry (PANI), a new technique that has revolutionized the seismology. In this technique the impulse response or Green function between two sensors is calculated by cross-correlation of the noise rescored at these stations. We applied PANI to monitor the deformational behavior of a prototype field experiment under semi controlled conditions for their use in landsliding early warning systems.The experimental setup consists of a 2 m engineering-scaled excavation,where induced failure was monitored by ambient vibrations propagating in tropical clayey deposits. The experimental setup consisted of dense network of 20 three components short period seismometers (Sercel L4C-3D) installed in three circular arrays with their distances from face of normal slope as 10, 20 and 30 meters, respectively.The frequency response of these seismometers is in range of 2-100 Hz. Recording was done in continuous mode at sampling rate of 1000 Hz with datalogger (RefTek DAS-130/3). Sensors were time synchronized by twenty 130 GPS/01. In this stage, the stress was applied on the one flank of this normal slope dug in the experimental field of University of Brasilia, by a hydraulic jack through a metallic plate. This incremental loading was kept on rising until the slope failure took place. This loading mechanism provided an opportunity to monitoring the changes in Rayleigh wave velocity before, during and after the complete failure. After initial processing, the green function (GF) or impulse response was calculated between each pair of sensors by cross correlation at time step of 4 second. All individual GFs, for entire monitoring period (30 minutes) were stacked to obtained a single reference GF. Stretching (dt/t) in waveform is calculated by subtracting individual GF from average GF, that

  10. Research of geotechnical properties of slope covers from Jamne and Jaszcze stream valleys in Gorce Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoteusz Adam Zydroń


    Full Text Available The test results pertaining to geotechnical parameters of slope covers from valleys of two mountainous streams from Gorce Mts. are presented in the paper. The tests were carried out in the context of slope stability estimation of the analyzed watersheds. The field studies included determination of basic physical properties of soil at several sites within the studied area, laboratory tests involved determination of particle size distribution, consistency limits, permeability coefficients and shear strengths, which were carried out at direct shear box and CIU tests in triaxial apparatus. The test results revealed that the tested slope covers can be described as coarse-grained soils with low content of clay fraction, characterized by low plasticity. The values of the internal friction angle of the average bad land were high and ranged from 28 to 38 degrees, whereas cohesion varied from 0 to 7 kPa. Generally, the higher values of angle of internal friction and lower cohesion were obtained from triaxial tests. The values of permeability coefficients determined using the infiltration method allow to characterize tested soils as a semi-permeable medium. The stability calculations using the SINMAP model have shown that a significant part of the analyzed area is prone to mass movements, giving a more conservative assessment of landslide vulnerability than the results of the SOPO report. The probabilistic slope stability calculation results indicate that the likelihood of slope failure increases significantly on the slopes with the inclination exceeding 20 degrees, and the results of the calculations providing a more detailed information of the mass movements susceptibility of the area than were obtained using the SINMAP model.

  11. Detecting virological failure in HIVinfected Tanzanian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The performance of clinical and immunological criteria to predict virological failure in HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not well documented. Objective. To determine the validity of clinical and immunological monitoring in detecting virological failure in children on ART. Methods.

  12. The failure diagnoses of nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Huanxing.


    The earlier period failure diagnoses can raise the safety and efficiency of nuclear reactors. This paper first describes the process abnormality monitoring of core barrel vibration in PWR, inherent noise sources in BWR, sodium boiling in LMFBR and nuclear reactor stability. And then, describes the plant failure diagnoses of primary coolant pumps, loose parts in nuclear reactors, coolant leakage and relief valve location

  13. How hydrological factors initiate instability in a model sandy slope


    Terajima, Tomomi; Miyahira, Ei-ichiro; Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Hattori, Katsumi


    Knowledge of the mechanisms of rain-induced shallow landslides can improve the prediction of their occurrence and mitigate subsequent sediment disasters. Here, we examine an artificial slope's subsurface hydrology and propose a new